Sample records for well logging equipment

  1. Well Logs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kevin Brewer

    This activity provides students with three fundamental borehole geophysics experiences using real data -- correlating, mapping, and logging. Students are asked to correlate well logs and construct maps and cross-sections based on that information. Students are also asked to construct a "mud log" from actual drill cuttings and compare their interpretation to that from a borehole geophysics log. This activity as minimal/no quantitative component.

  2. Tests pits for calibrating well logging equipment in fractured hard-rock environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.H.; LaDelfe, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration facility consists of three pits containing fine-grained granite, coarse-grained granite, and medium-grained metamorphosed granodiorite. Each pit contains large quarried blocks of rock that are 8 ft octagons and form a 20 ft stack. The blocks are saturated with water and sealed in watertight fiberglass containers that are recessed so that the top of the upper block is approximately level with the ground. The blocks contain simulated fractures that are formed by the joints between the blocks and by saw cuts at several locations. Cored boreholes through the blocks are 7 7/8 in. in diameter, with a fiberglass-cased ''rat hole'' extending 30 ft below the bottom block. Laboratory and well logging studies (United States Geological Society, Schlumberger, and Dresser Atlas logs) have been made to determine the physical properties of rocks in the three pits, and preliminary results are reported. Porosities of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 1 ft intervals in the three pits range from 0.00 to 0.90%, densities from 2.64 to 2.79 g/cm/sup 3/, and sonic velocities from 18,700 to 22,500 ft/sec. Radio-element of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 5 ft intervals from these test pits range from 0.62 to 4.08% K (potassium) content, from 0.34 to 5.01 ppM RaeU (uranium) content and from 0.46 to 19.6 ppM Th (thorium) content. Access to the pits for calibrating well logging equipment can be arranged by contacting the United States Geological Survey (phone number 303-236-5913) in Denver, Colorado. 4 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Well-logging activities in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Savostyanov, N.A. (Neftegazgeofizika, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1993-09-01

    The report is a brief survey of the current state of well-logging service in Russia (number and types of crews, structure of well-logging jobs, types of techniques used, well-logging equipment, auxiliary downhole jobs, etc.). Types and peculiarities of well data acquisition and processing hardware and software are discussed (petrophysics included). New well-logging technologies used in Russia (new methods of electric logging data processing, electromagnetic logging, pulse neutron logging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, acoustic tomography, logging-testing-logging technique, etc.) are surveyed. Comparison of the Tengiz field (Kazakhstan) well data obtained by Schlumberger and Neftegazgeofizika Association crews is given. Several problems and drawbacks in equipment and technology used by well-logging crews in Russia are discussed.

  4. Well logging for physical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Hearst, J.R.; Nelson, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of well logging techniques for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered include the wellbore environment, logging practice; temperature, electrical and magnetic methods; nuclear radiation logging; acoustic logging; borehole gravimetry; ethology; porosity; saturation; permeability; fluid movement; fractures; elemental analysis; cement; directional surveying; dipmeter logging, and some other interesting applications.

  5. Injection Well Logging Using Viscous EOR Fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Knight; Mohammad Davarzani

    1986-01-01

    A new tool has been developed that overcomes problems associated with logging injection wells in the presence of viscous fluids. The tool was evaluated in the laboratory and the field in water and polymer injection wells. Results indicate that the tool provides better information than conventional equipment. Special attention to log interpretation is required in zones where the flow pattern

  6. Well logging II - Electric and acoustic logging

    SciTech Connect

    Jorden, J.R.; Campbell, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book covers electric logging, log interpretation and electromagnetic principles. The book also discuss principles of acoustic logging and details of acoustic log interpretation, including effects of amplitude attenuation devices and investigation of interval transit times.

  7. Well Logging with Californium-252

    SciTech Connect

    Boulogne, A.R.

    2003-01-06

    Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

  8. Logging Equipment and Loren Kellogg

    E-print Network

    of thinning systems · Matching technologies to timber conditions · Minimizing stand damage and soil compaction capacity $50,000 - $450,000 equipment cost Yarding crew size from 2 ­ 6 people #12;Purpose-Built Small Wood and Miller Timber Services #12;Equipment & Carriage Options Mechanical Slackpulling Manual Slackpulling #12

  9. Using Well Logs in the Petroleum Industry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walter Borowski

    This exercise shows how well logs are used in the petroleum industry. It is designed as a first exposure to well logs for undergraduate geology majors and introduces not only well logs and their interpretation as proxies for stratigraphic sections, but also investigates concepts of porosity and permeability, oil reservoirs, and structural traps.

  10. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...cleaning and use log. A written record of major equipment cleaning, maintenance (except routine maintenance such as lubrication and adjustments), and use shall be included in individual equipment logs that show the date, time,...

  11. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  12. Well logging for the nontechnical person

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Pile, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction to logging; Reading logs; Formation parameters; Mud logging; Resistivity measurements; Porosity measurements; Putting it all together; detailed interpretations; Computer-generated logs; Specialty logs.

  13. Calibrator for radioactivity well logging tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waggoner

    1978-01-01

    A radioactivity well logging tool including a gamma radiation detector is field calibrated with the help of a flexible sheet with a radioactive substance dispersed therein, is wrapped about the tool so as to completely surround the detector. The sheet is made of an elastomer such as polyurethane, and the radioactive substance is carnotite. This sheet is placed within a

  14. Derive capillary pressure from well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ibrahim; R. Desbrandes; Z. Bassiouni

    1994-01-01

    A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical

  15. Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

    2002-04-01

    Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation surveying. Nineteen (19) of the 44 wells without magnetic deviation data were selected for the planned gyroscopic logging based on their location relative to facilities, site boundaries, and contaminant transport concerns. In total, 44 aquifer wells (25 with magnetic deviation data and 19 without) are recommended for planned gyroscopic logging.

  16. 21 CFR 211.182 - Equipment cleaning and use log.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Records and Reports § 211.182 Equipment cleaning and use log. A written record of major...

  17. Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    M. Royhan Gani

    Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

  18. Derive capillary pressure from well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, A. (Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Desbrandes, R.; Bassiouni, Z. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

    1994-07-01

    A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical data where core data is absent or not representative of in-situ conditions. It is based on using log data to derive a water saturation vs. depth profile in the transition zone of the formation of interest. The log-derived water saturation distribution is then correlated to generalized capillary pressure curves typical of the formation studied. The capillary pressure type curves are generated from available core data and other petrophysical information. Relative permeability curves are then generated using correlations based on Purcell's model. The technique can be used in multi-layered and homogeneous reservoirs provided that one homogeneous layer is at least 20 ft thick.

  19. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  20. Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Collett, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

  1. Comprehensive study of LASL Well C/T-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah, and applications to geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, W.E.; Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    Utah State Geothermal Well 9-1 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Beaver County, Utah, has been donated by Phillips Petroleum Company for calibration and testing of well-logging equipment in the hot, corrosive, geothermal environment. It is the second Calibration/Test Well (C/T-2) in the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. A study of cuttings and well logs from Well C/T-2 was completed. This synthesis and data presentation contains most of the subsurface geologic information needed to effect the total evaluation of geophysical logs acquired in this geothermal calibration/test well, C/T-2.

  2. Automatic well log correlation using neural networks

    E-print Network

    Habiballah, Walid Abdulrahim

    1991-01-01

    of string manipulation operations (addition, deletion, and insertion). The method requires the use of porosity, gamma ray, and resistivity logs. It was tested on 17 logs from the Athabasca area in northern Alberta, Canada. Wu and Nyland estimated... horsepowez per square inch. Success of the network was not clear. Derek et al. applied neural networks to the problem of identification of sandstone lithofacies using the response of gamma ray, neutron and density logs. Network learning was based on error...

  3. Effects of borehole stability on well log data

    E-print Network

    Grandi Karam, Samantha, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we analyze the effects of borehole irregularities on well logs and develop methods to obtain reliable formation properties from such logs. Data from a well in eastern Venezuela are analysed. Borehole ...

  4. Alpana Bhatt Reservoir properties from well logs

    E-print Network

    Ursin, Bjørn

    Summary In this dissertation we have developed multiple networks systems (multi nets or committee machines and for identifying lithofacies from wireline and measurement while drilling (MWD) logs. The method is much more of a committee machine is a multilayer perceptron network (MLP) whose optimum architecture and size of training

  5. High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Giles; K. J. Dooley

    1997-01-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as

  6. Acoustic well logging system having multiplexed filter digitizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zimmer

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a downhole well logging system including a fluid tight sonde sized and adapted for passage through a well bore for use in acoustic well logging for acoustic travel time measurement and full waveform acoustic signal processing comprising: means housed in the sonde for generating a high frequency content acoustic signal having several propagation modes in a well

  7. Raster images offer low-cost well log preservation

    SciTech Connect

    Cisco, S.L. [Cisco and Associates, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-16

    Well log data saved as depth-calibrated raster images provide an economic alternative to digital formats for preserving this valuable information into the future. Although often thrown away after vectorization, raster imaged well logs may be the key for a global computer-readable format for legacy hardcopy data. Over the past several decades, oil and gas companies have acquired an enormous volume of well logs, maps, and seismic and core data. Preservation of, and access to, valuable data such as well logs is critical to the petroleum industry. These legacy data are stored on multiple media and contain information for a variety of applications in addition to resource exploration and development, such as environmental protection, water management, global change studies, and basic and applied research. The paper discusses well logs, acquisition cost, storage requirements, ease of use, costs and benefits.

  8. Well-log interpretation of carbonate reservoirs with bimodal porosity

    E-print Network

    Tandircioglu, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    log interpretation are also shown in the figure. Water-free oil production comes from the perforations in the zones with bimodal porosity. 22 Gamma-ray (GR), caliper (CAL), density porosity (Pp), and neutron porosity (0N) logs through.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 LIST OF FIGURES (continued) Figure Page 14 Gamma-ray (GR), caliper (CAL), density porosity (QD), and neutron porosity (8N) logs through the Smackover in the Tabor 1B well, Bayou Middle Fork field, Claiborne Parish, Louisiana. Perforated...

  9. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  10. April 27, 2010 Well Logging I

    E-print Network

    Ito, Garrett

    down into the well. Different properties are measured by the probe and plotted as a function of depth - Natural gamma ray - Density - Neutron · Sonic · Electrical/magnetic · Imaging · Vertical seismic profile a seismic source at the top is recorded by the sensors in the hole, providing excellent estimates

  11. Estimating thermal conductivity from core and well log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G?sior, Irena; Przelaskowska, Anna

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the presented work was to introduce a method of estimating thermal conductivity using well log data. Many petrophysical properties of rocks can be determined both by laboratory measurements and well-logs. It is thus possible to apply geophysical data to empirical models based on relationships between laboratory measured parameters and derive continuous thermal conductivity values in well profiles. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 62 core samples of Meso-Paleozoic rocks from the Carpathian Foredeep. Mathematical models were derived using multiple regression and neural network methods. Geophysical data from a set of seven well logs: density, sonic, neutron, gamma ray, spectral gamma ray, caliper and resistivity were applied to the obtained models. Continuous thermal conductivity values were derived in three well profiles. Analysis of the obtained results shows good consistence between laboratory data and values predicted from well log data.

  12. Geophysical logs of selected wells in Eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S.

    1983-12-01

    This report consists of geophysical well logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The geophysical logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Results of the geohydrologic study are discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  13. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S. (comps.)

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  14. Logging while drilling keeps horizontal well on small target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Leake; F. Shray

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurement to two resistivities of different characteristics had led to a new interpretation method for the analysis of horizontal wells. By logging deep and shallow resistivity in real-time, marker beds were identified to help maintain well bore trajectory. The resistivity measurements were split into vertical and horizontal components to provide additional information of

  15. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  16. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  17. User's manual for geophysical well-logging software programs

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G.M.; Gibson, D.; Blair, S.C.

    1983-02-01

    Since 1958 the Ground-Water Surveillance Program for the Hanford Site has made geophysical logging measurements in most of the 800 wells and deep boreholes that have been drilled on the Hanford Site. In 1980 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which conducts the Ground-Water Surveillance Program, began forming a computerized data base for storing and retrieving geophysical well log data and developing software for quantitative analysis of the well log data. This report, designed to serve as a user's guide, documents the data base system that handles the well log data. Two programs, DIGLOG1 and LOGIT, are used to manipulate the data. The program DIGLOG1 translates analog paper strip charts into digital format; the program LOGIT is a general utility program that edits, displays, checks, stores, writes, and deletes sets of well log data. These two programs do not provide sophisticated display and analytical capabilities; rather, they provide programs that give the user easy access to powerful standard analytical software.

  18. Heuristic search method for optimal zonation of well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.C.; Fang, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    Optimal zonation of well-log data, that is, determining an optimal number of major segments such as waveforms in a log, may be achieved by employing a criterion of minimum variance (within a segment) and a heuristic search of potential boundary (link) points of digitized log data. This new method is based on an algorithm originally devised by D.M. Hawkins and D.F. Merriam in 1973. Their method can be improved by introducing a heuristic search procedure, thereby decreasing computer time by 7- to 50-fold, depending on the number of data points and configuration of the logs. Time saving is proportional to the size of the data set. Three examples - one hypothetical and two real-are used to illustrate the modification of the Hawkins and Merriam algorithm.

  19. Application of the spread-spectrum technique in well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Dadakarides, Simos D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the novel concept of employing the noise insensitive spread-spectrum technique in well logging. The proposed design of a spread-spectrum device improves the performance of well logging tools, particularly within highly noisy environments. The heart of the device is a shift register which generates a pseudorandom binary code sequence. A coder is connected to the transmitter and codes the probing signal by utilizing the pseudorandom sequence. A decoder is connected to the receiver and correlates the return signal to the same sequence, which is used as a sliding reference. Shifts as small as a fraction of a bit are unambiguously resolvable, and distance resolution of the order of micrometers is achievable. Spread-spectrum well logging tools can operate even with coded signal-to-noise ratio below zero-dB. The spread-spectrum device can be interfaced with any available wave transmitting logging tool. However, tools employing acoustic waves are favorable because the acoustic wave propagation velocity is low and allows the use of inexpensive electronics. The problems associated with high temperatures which are commonly encountered In geothermal reservoirs are bypassed, since the spread-spectrum device can be located either inside the well logging tool or together with the supporting electronics on the surface.

  20. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

    2012-08-01

    The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  1. An expert system advisor for well log quality control

    E-print Network

    Warnken, Dean Kennedy

    1988-01-01

    , in identical formats for quality control of the sonic, gamma ray and dual induction well logs. A ~ial system program shell served as the fork for building the ~ system. The system has been written as a prototype model. With minimal alterations... PORTION OF THE WELL IOG QUALZIY CONTROL ~ SYSZEM ADVISOR APPENDIX C ? ~TION OF TAXONCMIES 59 59 62 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont. ) DUAL INDUCTION IOG Page 64 APPENDIX D ? ~CE TREES FOR THE GAK% RAY, DUAL INDUCTION AND SONIC IOGS 68 GAMMA RAY LOG...

  2. Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

  3. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  4. Acoustic well logging system having multiplexed filter digitizing

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmer, M.D.

    1989-01-10

    This patent describes a downhole well logging system including a fluid tight sonde sized and adapted for passage through a well bore for use in acoustic well logging for acoustic travel time measurement and full waveform acoustic signal processing comprising: means housed in the sonde for generating a high frequency content acoustic signal having several propagation modes in a well borehole; means for detecting arriving acoustic energy signals propagated through a well borehole and for generating analog electrical signal waveforms representative thereof; selectable analog high pass filter means housed in the sonde for supplying, in response to a control signal, selectably filtered representations of the representative analog waveform electrical signals as input to an analog to digital converter for conversion to digital form; and means housed in the sonde and responsive to signals output from the analog to digital converter, for generating the control signal to the selectable filter.

  5. Application of Nuclear Well Logging Techniques to Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albats, P.; Groves, J.; Schweitzer, J.; Tombrello, T.

    1992-01-01

    The use of neutron and gamma ray measurements for the analysis of material composition has become well established in the last 40 years. Schlumberger has pioneered the use of this technology for logging wells drilled to produce oil and gas, and for this purpose has developed neutron generators that allow measurements to be made in deep (5000 m) boreholes under adverse conditions. We also make ruggedized neutron and gamma ray detector packages that can be used to make reliable measurements on the drill collar of a rotating drill string while the well is being drilled, where the conditions are severe. Modern nuclear methods used in logging measure rock formation parameters like bulk density and porosity, fluid composition, and element abundances by weight including hydrogen concentration. The measurements are made with high precision and accuracy. These devices (well logging sondes) share many of the design criteria required for remote sensing in space; they must be small, light, rugged, and able to perform reliably under adverse conditions. We see a role for the adaptation of this technology to lunar or planetary resource assessment missions.

  6. Instant well-log inversion with a parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Kimminau, S.J.; Trivedi, H.

    1993-08-01

    Well-log analysis requires several vectors of input data to be inverted with a physical model that produces more vectors of output data. The problem is inherently suited to either vectorization or parallelization. PLATO (parallel log analysis, timely output) is a research prototype system that uses a parallel architecture computer with memory-mapped graphics to invert vector data and display the result rapidly. By combining this high-performance computing and display system with a graphical user interface, the analyst can interact with the system in real time'' and can visualize the result of changing parameters on up to 1,000 levels of computed volumes and reconstructed logs. It is expected that such instant'' inversion will remove the main disadvantages frequently cited for simultaneous analysis methods, namely difficulty in assessing sensitivity to different parameters and slow output response. Although the prototype system uses highly specific features of a parallel processor, a subsequent version has been implemented on a conventional (Serial) workstation with less performance but adequate functionality to preserve the apparently instant response. PLATO demonstrates the feasibility of petroleum computing applications combining an intuitive graphical interface, high-performance computing of physical models, and real-time output graphics.

  7. Evaluation of neutron dosimetry techniques for well-logging operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, F.M.; Haggard, D.L.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1985-07-01

    Neutron dose and energy spectral measurements from /sup 241/AmBe and a 14 MeV neutron generator were performed at a well-logging laboratory. The measurement technique included the tissue equivalent proportional counter, multisphere, two types of remmeters and five types of personnel neutron dosimeters. Several source configurations were used to attempt to relate data to field situations. The results of the measurements indicated that the thermoluminescent albedo dosimeter was the most appropriate personnel neutron dosimeter, and that the most appropriate calibration source would be the source normally employed in the field with the calibration source being used in the unmoderated configuration. 7 refs., 35 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. High voltage supply for neutron tubes in well logging applications

    DOEpatents

    Humphreys, D. Russell (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The "biased pulse" supply of the invention combines DC and "full pulse" techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

  9. Interpretation of well log response in the Austin chalk

    E-print Network

    Hinds, Gregory Scott

    1990-01-01

    -m The intermediate resistivities are the re ult of water re-entering the pores following hydrocarbon migration. Fractures were identified from standard logs by comparing porosity log responses with the gamma-ray, caliper and resistivity logs. An increase... in density and neutron porosities relative to sonic transit time indicate the presence of secondary porosity due to fracturing. Comparison with the gamma-ray log helps to distinguish secondary porosity from an increase in total porosity due to increased...

  10. Interpretation of Array Production Logging Measurements in Horizontal Wells for Flow Profile

    E-print Network

    Liao, Lulu

    2013-12-12

    Interpretation of production logging in multi-phase flow wells is challenging, especially for highly deviated wells or horizontal wells. Flow regime-dependent flow conditions strongly affect the measurements of production logging tools. Segregation...

  11. Prediction of thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks from well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    The calculation of heat-flow density in boreholes requires reliable values for the change of temperature and rock thermal conductivity with depth. As rock samples for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity (TC) are usually rare geophysical well logs are used alternatively to determine TC. A common procedure in the latter approach is the use of empirical relations between TC and different petrophysical properties. Although numerous prediction equations were developed in the past five decades, none of these seem to be universally applicable for all major types of sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evaporites). In addition, these relations mostly are suitable only for regions and lithotypes for which they were originally developed. A new set of predictive equations is presented which overcomes these limitations and which allows the prediction of the rock matrix TC based on different combinations of standard geophysical well-logs. In combination with a feasible mixing-model (i.e. geometric mean model) bulk TC is computed along borehole profiles. The underlying approach was proposed by Fuchs & Förster (2014) and rests upon the detailed analysis of the interrelations between major physical parameters (i.e. thermal conductivity, density, hydrogen index, sonic interval transit time, gamma-ray response, photoelectric factor) of artificial mineral assemblages consisting 15 rock-forming minerals that are used in different combinations to typify sedimentary rocks. The predictive capacity of the new equations is evaluated on subsurface data from four boreholes drilled into the Mesozoic sequence of the North German Basin, including more than 1700 laboratory-measured thermal-conductivity values. Results are compared with those from other approaches published in the past. The new approach predicts TC with a mean error between 10 and 15 % compared to earlier approaches of much higher error of 15-35 % (and sometimes higher).

  12. Hydraulic parameters estimation from well logging resistivity and geoelectrical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdomo, S.; Ainchil, J. E.; Kruse, E.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, a methodology is suggested for deriving hydraulic parameters, such as hydraulic conductivity or transmissivity combining classical hydrogeological data with geophysical measurements. Estimates values of transmissivity and conductivity, with this approach, can reduce uncertainties in numerical model calibration and improve data coverage, reducing time and cost of a hydrogeological investigation at a regional scale. The conventional estimation of hydrogeological parameters needs to be done by analyzing wells data or laboratory measurements. Furthermore, to make a regional survey many wells should be considered, and the location of each one plays an important role in the interpretation stage. For this reason, the use of geoelectrical methods arises as an effective complementary technique, especially in developing countries where it is necessary to optimize resources. By combining hydraulic parameters from pumping tests and electrical resistivity from well logging profiles, it was possible to adjust three empirical laws in a semi-confined alluvial aquifer in the northeast of the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina). These relations were also tested to be used with surficial geoelectrical data. The hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity estimated in porous material were according to expected values for the region (20 m/day; 457 m2/day), and are very consistent with previous results from other authors (25 m/day and 500 m2/day). The methodology described could be used with similar data sets and applied to other areas with similar hydrogeological conditions.

  13. Course An Introduction to Geothermal Resources - Well Completion Production Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Ascuaga, John; Garrett, B.D. (Slim)

    1987-10-01

    A course to introduce geothermal energy held in Sparks, Nevada on October 1987. Topics included well draining and well computation production equipment. There is much technical detail and some cost detail. [DJE-2005

  14. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  15. An index of geophysical well logging in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulheren, M. Patrick; Larson, J.D.; Hopkins, Herbert T.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical logs have been obtained in more than 170 wells in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1968. These logs include natural gamma, electric, caliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, and fluid velocity. Most of the logs are for wells in the Coastal Plain Province of eastern Virginia. Geophysical logs aid in the interpretation of properties of earth materials, including the capacity to store and transmit water in the immediate vicinity of the well bore.

  16. Well Logging and Logging Analysis of UHP metamorphic Rocks in CCSD Main Hole (0-2000m)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, H.; Niu, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhu, L.; Xu, D.; Wu, H.; Li, S.; Luo, M.

    2004-12-01

    CCSD logging engineering gather many modern high technologies and employs various advanced logging tools to survey the sidewall continuously. This can obtain various physical, chemical, geometrical, etc in-situ information of the borehole's profile. So well logging is one of the most important parts and pivotal technologies in the project of CCSD. The main logging methods in CCSD-MH(0-2000m) are laterolog (Rd,Rs), gamma ray(GR), nature gamma spectrometry(U, TH, K), density(DEN), photo electric section exponent (Pe), compensated neutron(CNL), multipole array acoustic (Vp, Vs, Vst), Simultaneous Acoustic-Resistivity-image(Star-II), temperature(T),magnetic susceptibility(MS), three component borehole magnetic and redox potential log,etc. The various metamorphic rocks can be classified by logging curves,and their physical parameters can be acquired by analyzing the response characters of various metamorphic rocks and by statistics. According to the logging cross plot, We can research the clustering of metamorphite's physical property. Five lithologic segments can be obtainend by logging curves. The GR, Th, U, K logging values of segment 1 is lower than the third, fourth and fiveth segment, higher than segment 2; The DEN, Pe values of segment 1 higher than the third, fourth and fiveth segments. The main rocks in segment 1,2,3,4,5 are eclogites, serpentinites, paragneiss, orthogneiss, and eclogites(containing silicon and muscovite ) respectively. Generally, eclogite contain rutile, silicon, muscovite, etc. minerals. These minerals have response obviously on log curves.There are rutile,ilmenite, pyrite mineralized, etc. Making use of DEN, Pe, susceptibility log values, these mineralized layers can be goodly demarcation. For example, on the rutile mineralzed layer, the logging curve response characters are of high density and Pe obviously. The key data of the synthetical seismic record is wave impedance. In this paper, Utilize the data of AC, DEN curves to calculate the wave impedance and compare with the VSP profile, finally analyze the reflectors of the CCSD-MH. Imaging log has a positioning system and very good vertical resolution, and can describe the geological features in detail. Various structure parameters (the size and occurrences of foliation, fracture, fault & vein) have been given by image logging. The main work of logging interpretation of CCSD have done as follows: 1) Character analysis of logging response and restoring the lithologic profile;2) Depth correction and Restoring orientation of cores; 3) Interpretation of imaging geological feature; 4) Research of rock's mechanics character, sonic anisotropy and formation stress; 5) Comparison wave impedance with the VSP profile,analyzing the reflectors; 6)The interpretation of magnetic susceptibility and temperature log. The logging analysis results of UHP metamorphic rocks in CCSD-MH(0-2000m) show that responses of logs curve are abundant, the physical properties of various metamorphic rocks are visibly different;image logging has a positioning system and very good vertical resolution, and can describe the geological features in detail;lithologic segments and mineralized layers can be goodly demarcation by log curves;the log curves can be used for standardizing the geophysical survey, for example, mark out the reflected interface of seismic wave;comparing the results of log curves value with core laboratory analysis,they have good consistency;and so on.

  17. Some Measured Levels of Noise Produced by Logging Equipment in 1998 Cornelis F. de Hoop and Neil J. Lalonde

    E-print Network

    Wu, Qinglin

    informal sound level readings made of the logging industry. Most of the readings were taken in 1998 to perform the investigation. The instrument was taken to logging jobs, and sound levels were recorded in d Produced by Logging Equipment in 1998 Many studies and investigations have focused on industrial noise

  18. Downhole well log and core montages from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Winters, W.J.; Lee, M.W.; Rose, K.K.; Boswell, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was an integral part of an ongoing project to determine the future energy resource potential of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. As part of this effort, the Mount Elbert well included an advanced downhole geophysical logging program. Because gas hydrate is unstable at ground surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole-logging program to determine the occurrence of gas hydrates and the in-situ physical properties of the sediments. In support of this effort, well-log and core data montages have been compiled which include downhole log and core-data obtained from the gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in the Mount Elbert well. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces calculated from available downhole well log and core data. ?? 2010.

  19. Determination of true static formation temperature from well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Fertl, W.H.; Chilingarian, G.V.; Yen, T.F.

    1986-01-01

    Several concepts that attempt to determine static (true) formation temperature from log-derived BHT measurements with and without knowledge of drilling fluid circulation time have been reviewed. Whereas several refined models are available, the simple Horner-type technique provides quick and reliable static (true) formation temperature estimates.

  20. GEOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF WELL LOGS: AN INTRODUCTORY BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SURVEY OF THE WELL LOGGING LITERATURE THROUGH SEPTEMBER 1986 ARRANGED BY SUBJECT.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prensky, Stephen E.

    1987-01-01

    This report includes over 1,350 individual citations as well as a first-author index. The purpose of this bibliography is twofold, 1) to provide a basic, first-stop resource on well logging which the non-specialist, i. e. , geoscientist, can consult and, 2) to provide a reference on geologic applications for the non-geoscientist, i. e. , log analyst or petroleum engineer, as well as for the geoscientist.

  1. Automated interpretation of nuclear and electrical well loggings for basalt characterization (case study from southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, J; Abdul Ghani, B

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Four kinds of basalt have been identified: hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay, based on a statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept. The statistical conditions for such basalt characterization have been programmed in the present research to automatically interpret the well logging data for establishing and predicting the lithological cross-section of the studied well. A specific computer program has been written in Delphi for such purposes. The program is flexible and it can be used for other well logging applications by changing the statistical conditions and the well logging parameters. The program has been successfully tested on the Kodanah well logging data in southern Syria. PMID:22885392

  2. Borehole logging for radium-226: recommended procedures and equipment. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Olsen; V. W. Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations and a literature review were conducted to determine whether existing well-logging techniques are suitable for measuring ²²Ra at remedial action sites. These methods include passive gamma-ray measurement techniques using NaI(Tl) and, occasionally, intrinsic germanium detectors. Parameters that must be considered when logging boreholes at remedial action sites include: (1) casing material and thickness, (2) water in the borehole,

  3. Handbook of well log analysis for oil and gas formation evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pirson

    1963-01-01

    A handbook on the interpretation of well log data for evaluating the productive capacities and the reserves of prospective, as well as existing, oil and gas fields is presented. Chapter titles include clastic reservoir rocks; carbonate reservoir rocks; petrophysics; reservoir fluid properties and formation productivity evaluation; the well log interpretation problem; spontaneous polarization (SP) curve; normal curves; lateral curves; limestone

  4. Drilling, construction, and caliper-log data for wells 3-3204-01, Kaheaka exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Kaheaka exploratory well (State well number 3-3204-01) was drilled about 3.3 miles southeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The well penetrates about 67 feet into a basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  5. Annual Logging Symposium, June 22-26, 2013 JOINT STOCHASTIC INTERPRETATION OF CONVENTIONAL WELL

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    -Verdín, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright 2013, held jointly by the Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log explicitly corrects for shoulder-bed effects on well logs across thin beds, thereby providing enhanced layer to developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. It is extremely important to estimate

  6. GEOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF WELL LOGS. AN INTRODUCTORY BIBLIOGRAPHY AND SURVEY OF THE WELL LOGGING LITERATURE, ARRANGED BY SUBJECT, UPDATE, OCTOBER 1986 THROUGH OCTOBER 1987.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prensky, Stephen E.

    1987-01-01

    This update includes new publications for the period October 1986-October 1987 as well as earlier publications of interest that were omitted from the original due either to oversight or because they had not been received in sufficient time for inclusion. Part A covers basic well logging. Part B covers geological applications.

  7. 40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...testing prior to new well operation. (a) During the drilling and construction of a new Class I hazardous waste injection well, appropriate logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity,...

  8. 40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...testing prior to new well operation. (a) During the drilling and construction of a new Class I hazardous waste injection well, appropriate logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity,...

  9. 40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...testing prior to new well operation. (a) During the drilling and construction of a new Class I hazardous waste injection well, appropriate logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity,...

  10. 40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...testing prior to new well operation. (a) During the drilling and construction of a new Class I hazardous waste injection well, appropriate logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity,...

  11. TEMPERATURE, RADIOACTIVE TRACER, AND NOISE LOGGING FOR INJECTION WELL INTEGRITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

  12. The Development and Use of a High Temperature Downhole Flowmeter for Geothermal Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Solbau, R.D.; Goranson, C.B.; Benson, S.M.

    1983-12-15

    This paper discusses the development and use of a high temperature (300{degrees}C) downhole flowmeter for geothermal well logging. The availability of the instrument gives the reservoir engineer a powerful tool for formation evaluation and studying wellbore dynamics. The instrument components, their function, and temperature limitations are discussed in detail. Several field examples of spinner log interpretation are also presented.

  13. Development and use of a high temperature downhole flowmeter for geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Solbau, R.D.; Goranson, C.B.; Benson, S.M.

    1983-12-01

    The development and use of a high temperature (300/sup 0/C) downhole flowmeter for geothermal well logging are discussed. The availability of the instrument gives the reservoir engineer a powerful tool for formation evaluation and studying wellbore dynamics. The instrument components, their function, and temperature limitations are discussed in detail. Several field examples of spinner log interpretation are also presented.

  14. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-07-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Study of well logs from Cove Fort-Sulphurdale KGRA, Millard and Beaver Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, W.E.; Ross, H.P.

    1982-07-01

    Union Oil Company drilled four geothermal test wells in the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale KGRA between 1975 and 1979. A fairly complete suite of well logs were recorded for the three deeper holes, and these data are presented as composite well log plots in this report. The composite well log plots have facilitated the interpretation of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartz-monzonite, serpentine, and volcanic lithologies and the identification of numerous fractures. This has been especially helpful because of the extensive lost circulaton zones and poor cuttings recovery. Intraformational flow was identified by a fluid migration-temperature tracer log at depth in CFSU 31-33. Well log crossplots were computed to assist in lithologic identification and the determination of physical properties for specific depth intervals in a given hole. The presence of hydrous minerals sometimes results in neutron porosity somewhat higher than the true nonfracture porosity, which is generally less than 4%. Permeability is clearly controlled by fractures. A maximum well temperature of 178.9/sup 0/C, low flow rates and low probable percent flash indicate these wells are subeconomic for electric generation at present. The well log study has substantially improved our understanding of the reservoir as presently drilled.

  16. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. 250...Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. The...tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...

  17. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. 250...Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. The...tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...

  18. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. 250...Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. The...tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...

  19. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. 250...Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. The...tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...

  20. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. 250...Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. The...tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...

  1. High-energy photon transport modeling for oil-well logging

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Erik D., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oil well logging tools utilizing radioisotope sources of photons are used ubiquitously in oilfields throughout the world. Because of safety and security concerns, there is renewed interest in shifting to ...

  2. Modular artificial neural network for prediction of petrophysical properties from well log data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Che Fung; Kok Wai Wong; H. Eren

    1997-01-01

    An application of Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM), learning-vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms, and commonly used backpropagation neural network (BPNN) to predict petrophysical properties obtained from well-log data are presented. A modular, artificial neural network (ANN) comprising a complex network made up from a number of subnetworks is introduced. In this approach, the SOM algorithm is applied first to classify the well-log

  3. Characterization of the L-1 sand using well logs and amplitude attribute analysis

    E-print Network

    Ratliff, Thomas Lee

    1989-01-01

    CHARACTERIZATION OF THE L-1 SAND USING WELL LOGS AND AMPLITUDE ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS A Thesis by THOMAS LEE RATLIFF Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree ol...' KIASTER OF SCIENCE lvlay 1989 XIajor Subject: Geophysics CHARACTERIZATION OF THE L-1 SAND USING WELL LOGS AND AMPLITUDE ATTRIBUTE ANALYSIS A Thesis by THOMAS LEE RATLIFF Approved as to style and content by: Joel S. Watkins (Chairman of Committee...

  4. Lithology determination from digitized well logs - examples from Ore-Ida No. 1 geothermal well, Ontario, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K. (GeothermEx, Inc., Berkeley, CA); Glenn, W.E.

    1981-10-01

    Some of the advantages and pitfalls of lithology determination from digitized well logs are presented. Examples are provided from the Ore-Ida No. 1 geothermal well in Ontario, Oregon, drilled through a sequence of siltstone, clay, tuff and basalt/andesite. The use of histograms and crossplots to differentiate various lithological units and to identify alteration is illustrated.

  5. Results of well logging operations at the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Jermance, R.; Lawton, R.; Quintinilla, A.; Berganza, J.

    1988-01-01

    Well logging operations were performed in eight of the geothermal wells at Ahucachapan. A series of high temperature instruments, including temperature/rabbit, caliper, fluid velocity/temperature/pressure (STP) and fluid sampler were deployed in each well. The caliper tool was used primarily to determine the possible chemical desposit buildup in the casing or liner, and in one well to investigate a suspected break in the casing. STP logs were obtained from six of the eight wells at various flow rates ranging from 30 to 70 kg/s. A static STP log was also run with the wells shut in to provide data to be used in the thermodynamic analysis of several production wells. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Drilling, construction, and caliper-log data for well 3-3503-01, North Upper Anahulu exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The North Upper Anahulu exploratory well (Hawaii State well number 3-3503-01) was drilled about 3.1 miles east of the town of Haleiwa. The well is located on agricultural land in the Kawailoa ground-water area. The well was drilled to an elevation of about -103 feet below mean sea level and penetrates about 110 feet into a basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  7. Use of well logs to characterize fluid flow in the Maljamar CO/sub 2/ Pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.C.

    1984-09-01

    The Maljamar CO/sub 2/ Pilot in Lea County, New Mexico, is a 5-acre inverted five spot. Two zones are being flooded. They are a Grayburg dolomitic sand at 3,700 feet and a San Andres dolomite at 4,050 feet. Two logging observation wells, completed with fiberglass casing through the section of interest, are located in line with the center injector and one of the corner producers. Nine months of freshwater injection in the center well was followed by nine months of brine. A series of induction logs monitored the passing of the fresh water/brine interface providing data for a preliminary characterization of flow in the zones. The brine also established a uniform salinity at the observation wells for saturation determination. Gamma emitting tracers were injected into each zone of the center well as part of a well-to-well tracer study. Frequent gamma ray logs were run in the observation wells to see whether the movement of the tracers could be detected and used to characterize water movement. The results were very encouraging and provided better vertical and time resolution than the induction logs. The numerous responding layers in each zone could be classified by tracer arrival times into only a few basic types. Injection of CO/sub 2/ and follow-up brine has been monitored with a series of induction and neutron logs to follow the changes in water and CO/sub 2/ saturation as the flood progressed.

  8. Comparison of VSP and sonic-log data in nonvertical wells in a heterogeneous structure

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    informa- tion about the seismic velocity in the structure surrounding a particu- lar wellComparison of VSP and sonic-log data in nonvertical wells in a heterogeneous structure Petr Bulant1 velocity in the structure, together with the effects of the well trajectory deviating from strictly

  9. Compilation of 29 sonic and density logs from 23 oil test wells in western Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Ruebel, April L.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional velocity models for Puget Sound provide a means for better understanding the lateral variations in strong ground motions recorded during local earthquakes in Puget Lowland. We have compiled 29 sonic and density logs from 23 oil test wells to help us determine the geometry and physical properties of the Cenozoic basins in western Washington. The maximum depths sampled by the test wells are between 0.47 and 4.04 km. These well logs sample Quaternary to Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. This report presents the locations, elevations, depths, stratigraphic and other information about the test wells, and provides plots showing the density and sonic velocities as a function of depth for each well log. We also present two-way travel times calculated from the sonic velocities.

  10. A DFA approach in well-logs for the identification of facies associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Martinez, Eliseo; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge X.; Perez-Muñoz, Teresa; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose

    2013-12-01

    Well-log analysis is a useful tool for the lithological description of wells. Its adequate interpretation allows determining different rock properties such as permeability, density, resistivity and porosity among others. However, given the complexity inherent in the signals, the identification of lithological properties from well-log analysis is not an easy task. In this work, an alternative methodology for sedimentary facies identification based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is presented. Our methodology has been calibrated using information from a reference well located at the Chicontepec formation of the Tampico-Misantla basin in Mexico. Its characterization includes the interpretation of different well-logs and cores. Our results indicate that well-log signals present fractal characteristics exhibiting long-range memory. For the gamma ray, resistive and sonic logs a direct relationship between the scaling exponent as a function of the depth and rock types is observed. In this way, the fractal scaling exponents estimated with DFA can be used to identify different sedimentary facies.

  11. Applications of geothermal well log data for evaluation of reservoir potential

    SciTech Connect

    Rigby, F.A.

    1981-03-01

    A great many geothermal reservoirs are naturally fractured stems with porosity supplied by both the macroscopic fracture system and by dispersed intergranular or vuggy porosity. Flow properties, the use of log data for well test interpretation in such systems, and the log derivable parameters that may be of most value for evaluation are discussed here. Parameters for describing behavior of two-phase geothermal systems are also mentioned. Determination of reservoir dimensions is another important problem aggravated in geothermal resource evaluation by our limited knowledge of the geophysics of geothermal systems. The use of resistivity log data to deduce constraints on the inversion of surface resistivity data is examined. Potentially valuable applications of resistivity log data in deducing reservoir dimensions and reaching decisions on exploratory drilling are indicated.

  12. DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND POROSITY LOGS IN WELLS WITH A DISTURBED ANNULUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is developed to determine the Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of the formation surrounding a well as a function of depth. n electrically anomalous fluid is injected into a fully screened well and the radius of invasion is determined by induction logging. he radius of...

  13. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Adams; B. Dennis; E. Van Eeckhout; F. Goff; R. Lawton; P. E. Trujillo; D. Counce; J. Archuleta; V. Medina

    1991-01-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements

  14. Well-logging probe for measuring tritium: construction and operating manual

    SciTech Connect

    Menninga, C.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1983-04-01

    This document describes the as-built construction and operating procedures for a well-logging instrument capable of measuring tritium in situ in a well or borehole as small as 3-inch schedule 40 pipe. A companion document, A Design Manual for a Well-Logging Probe Capable of Measuring Tritium, PNL-4069, should be referred to for all design information and drawings. This document contains sections describing changes made between the design and construction phases, the general configuration of the instrument, and step-by-step operating procedures. The instrument can sample air or water and can purify the sample from other radionuclides or chemical contaminants. The instrument will operate satisfactorily in the presence of a moderate gamma-ray background and can measure tritium concentrations as low as 50 pCi/ml of water in normal logging operations.

  15. Use of well logs to characterize fluid flow in the Maljamar CO/sub 2/ pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, J.C.

    1986-08-01

    The Maljamar CO/sub 2/ pilot in Lea County, NM is a 5-acre (2 x 10/sup 4/ -m/sup 2/) inverted five-spot pattern. Two zones are being flooded: a Grayburg dolomitic sand at 3,7000 ft (1130 m) and a San Andres dolomite at 4,050 ft (1230 m). Two logging observation wells, completed with fiberglass casing through the section of interest, are located in line with the center injector and one of the corner producers. Nine months of freshwater injection in the center well was followed by 9 months of brine injection. A series of induction logs monitored the passing of the freshwater/brine interface, providing data for a preliminary characterization of flow in the zones. The brine also established a uniform salinity at the observation wells for saturation determination. Gamma-emitting tracers were injected into each zone of the center well as part of a well-to-well tracer study. Frequent gamma ray logs were run in the observation wells to see whether the movement of the tracers could be detected and used to characterize water movement. The results were very encouraging and provided better vertical and time resolution than the induction logs. The numerous responding layers in each zone could be classified by tracer arrival times into only few basic types, injection of CO/sub 2/ and follow changes in water and CO/sub 2/ saturation as the flood progressed.

  16. The answer: The definitive Formation evaluation log through well-site information management

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.M.P.; Sindiku, I. (Elf Nigeria Limited, Port Harcourt (Nigeria)); Dalton, M.; Doyle, A. (Exlog, Windsor (United Kingdom))

    1993-09-01

    Formation evaluation data are currently available at the well site from many different service sources, such as drilling and geological surveillance, formation evaluation measurement while drilling (FE-MWD), and wireline logging. Additional critical data are available from the mud engineer and drilling supervisors. Traditionally, their outputs have been presented inconsistently in a variety of formats, at different scales and data intervals, and during and after drilling the well. The well-site use of an information management system permits a continuous process of integrating and presenting all data as the data become available. The FE-MWD service provides continuous measurements of formation properties, which are confirmed by geological logging of the cuttings. Formation fluids interpretation from FE-MWD are qualified by mud gas analysis and hydrocarbon show evaluation. Uncertainties associated with the individual data sets, i.e., surface vs. downhole, are dispelled when the data are presented together. Drilling data allows the driller to optimize rig, BHA, and bit performance. Daily reporting is simplified through the rapid production of composite logs in specialized formats and scales. This permits the geologist and petroleum engineer to see at a glance all information necessary for decision making. Futhermore, the ability to combine offset well data with current well data allows for better anticipation of reservoirs, hole problems, etc. The subsequent addition of wireline data allows for a verification of the while-drilling data quality and finalizes the data set. Subsequent workstation data manipulation can proceed with final depth matching and merging to standardized or customized log formats. Because data have been accumulated and verified on an ongoing basis by the well-site team, the final well report is rapid. Furthermore, the main advantage is the speedy production of the definitive end of the well [open quotes]composite log.[close quotes

  17. 36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...computers, scanners, tape recorders, cameras, and other equipment into our facilities...libraries, we may tag your equipment after inspection and approval. (b) Not all NARA...equipment cases, tape recorders, cameras, personal computers, and other...

  18. 36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...computers, scanners, tape recorders, cameras, and other equipment into our facilities...libraries, we may tag your equipment after inspection and approval. (b) Not all NARA...equipment cases, tape recorders, cameras, personal computers, and other...

  19. 36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...computers, scanners, tape recorders, cameras, and other equipment into our facilities...libraries, we may tag your equipment after inspection and approval. (b) Not all NARA...equipment cases, tape recorders, cameras, personal computers, and other...

  20. 36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...computers, scanners, tape recorders, cameras, and other equipment into our facilities...libraries, we may tag your equipment after inspection and approval. (b) Not all NARA...equipment cases, tape recorders, cameras, personal computers, and other...

  1. 36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...computers, scanners, tape recorders, cameras, and other equipment into our facilities...libraries, we may tag your equipment after inspection and approval. (b) Not all NARA...equipment cases, tape recorders, cameras, personal computers, and other...

  2. Hydrogeochemical investigations in support of well logging operations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Adams; F. Golf; P. E. Jr. Trujillo; D. Counce; J. Archuleta; B. Dennis; V. Medina

    1990-01-01

    A suite of 41 thermal and nonthermal waters in the Zunil-Quetzaltenango region, Guatemala, were collected as part of a well logging operation conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE) and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both in situ and weirbox samples were collected in the Zunil geothermal field. The various data suggest that the reservoir at Zunil is geochemically inhomogeneous.

  3. Relevant aspects of radiation protection in oil and gas well logging.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R S; Lopes Gomes, J D R; Costa, M L L; Miranda, M V F E S

    2013-12-01

    Radiation sources have being widely used in industrial applications, but their inappropriate use presents a large potential for hazards to human health and the environment. These hazards can be minimised by development of specific radiation protection rules and adequate procedures for the handling, use and storage of radiation sources, which should be established in a national normative framework. Recently, due to discovery of new oil and gas reservoirs on the Brazilian continental shelf, especially in deep water and the pre-salt layer, there has been a large and rapid increase in the use of radiation sources for well logging. Generic radiation protection regulations have been used for licensing the use of radiation sources for well logging, but these are not comprehensive or technically suitable for this purpose. Therefore it is necessary to establish specific Brazilian safety regulations for this purpose. In this work, an assessment is presented of the relevant radiation protection aspects of nuclear well logging not covered by generic regulations, with the aim of contributing to the future development of specific safety regulations for the licensing of radioactive facilities for oil and gas well logging in Brazil. The conclusions of this work relate to four areas, which include the specific requirements to control (1) radiation sources, (2) radiation survey meters and (3) access to radiation workplaces and (4) to control and identify the workers who are occupationally exposed. PMID:24080901

  4. Method and apparatus for combined cement bond and acoustic well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring acoustic signals having amplitudes of widely varying magnitude during one traversal of the borehole corresponding to indications of cement bonding along a casing as well as acoustic travel time through an increment of the formation. Variable attenuators are provided associated with acoustic receivers disposed within the logging sonde wherein attenuation may be automatically

  5. Inversion of well logs into facies -using a convolved hidden Markov model

    E-print Network

    Eidsvik, Jo

    Inversion of well logs into facies - using a convolved hidden Markov model David Lindberg into facies - using a convolved hidden Markov model #12;About -- Name: David Lindberg -- Supervisor: Professor a convolved hidden Markov model #12;Presentation -- Field data -- Model variables -- Model · Prior model

  6. Method and apparatus for combined cement bond and acoustic well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. R. E.

    1985-01-22

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring acoustic signals having amplitudes of widely varying magnitude during one traversal of the borehole corresponding to indications of cement bonding along a casing as well as acoustic travel time through an increment of the formation. Variable attenuators are provided associated with acoustic receivers disposed within the logging sonde wherein attenuation may be automatically adjusted as a function of acoustic transmitter-receiver trigger pulses transmitted downhole, depending upon whether a cement bond or other log of acoustic signal information having a substantially different magnitude is desired.

  7. Simulation of Electromagnetic Wave Logging Response in Deviated Wells Based on Vector Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Wei-Guo; Chu, Zhao-Tan; Zhao, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Yu-Xiu; Song, Ruo-Long; Han, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The vector finite element method of tetrahedral elements is used to model 3D electromagnetic wave logging response. The tangential component of the vector field at the mesh edges is used as a degree of freedom to overcome the shortcomings of node-based finite element methods. The algorithm can simulate inhomogeneous media with arbitrary distribution of conductivity and magnetic permeability. The electromagnetic response of well logging tools are studied in dipping bed layers with the borehole and invasion included. In order to simulate realistic logging tools, we take the transmitter antennas consisting of circular wire loops instead of magnetic dipoles. We also investigate the apparent resistivity of inhomogeneous formation for different dip angles.

  8. Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2014-02-01

    Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted. PMID:24296157

  9. Analysis of well logging methods in volcanic and volcano sedimentary rocks from Pina petroleum field

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriquez, N. [Empresa Geofisica, Havana (Cuba)

    1996-09-01

    Petrophysical, petrological and geophysical methods have been applied to prospecting and well logging for several petroleum fields in Cuba. The most common reservoir in these fields are carbonate rocks. However, the Pina field, in the Central region of the island, distinguishes itself by the good quality of the oil and the volcano sedimentary and volcanic character of the reservoirs. These rocks have peculiar geophysical responses, which is why the study of these methods and the development of the interpretation methods is very important. Integrated geological and geophysical information was necessary during the drilling of wells in the Pina field in order to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential. GEONUC code permits us to use different ways to solve questions about interpretation of well logging in the volcanic sedimentary rocks. This code gives us the opportunity to analyze complex methods.

  10. Determination from well logs of porosity and permeability in a heterogeneous reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.L.; Salisch, H.A. [Univ. of New South Wales, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    A technique has been developed for the petrophysical evaluation of well logs from lithologically complex sandstone reservoirs located in the Barrow Sub-basin in Western Australia. The reservoirs are sands of fairly high porosity and low permeability with a significant amount of clay minerals, among them glauconite. Principal component and cluster analysis were applied to classify the electric facies associated with lithofacies. Bayes discriminant analysis was used to identify several lithofacies in the reservoirs. The different lithofacies are characterized by distinct relationships between porosity and acoustic interval transit times as well as between porosity and permeability. This paper presents mathematical models for each lithofacies for the determination of porosity and permeability from well logs.

  11. Investigation of Waikele well no 2401-01, Oahu, Hawaii; pumping test, well logs and water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyre, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Field tests indicate that an abandoned well (No. 2401-01) near the confluence of Waikele and Kipapa Streams, Oahu, Hawaii, can be reactivated to produce potable water at a rate of 400-500 gallons per minute. Previous tests in 1946 and 1954 indicated that the well tapped the brackish transition zone which inderlies the Ghyben-Herzberg lens of the Pearl Harbor aquifer. Results of this study, based on geologic and geophysical logs of the wall, as well as on pumping test and water-quality data, indicate that the slightly brackish water produced by the well results from brackish irrigation return water. It does not appear that pumping from this well will cause seawater upconing or intrusion. (USGS)

  12. Reservoir characterization of marine and permafrost associated gas hydrate accumulations with downhole well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Lee, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation depend on a number of reservoir parameters, one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well-logging devices. This study demonstrates that electrical resistivity and acoustic transit-time downhole log data can be used to quantify the amount of gas hydrate in a sedimentary section. Two unique forms of the Archie relation (standard and quick look relations) have been used in this study to calculate water saturations (S(w)) [gas-hydrate saturation (S(h)) is equal to (1.0 - S(w))] from the electrical resistivity log data in four gas hydrate accumulations. These accumulations are located on (1) the Blake Ridge along the Southeastern continental margin of the United States, (2) the Cascadia continental margin off the pacific coast of Canada, (3) the North Slope of Alaska, and (4) the Mackenzie River Delta of Canada. Compressional wave acoustic log data have also been used in conjunction with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate gas-hydrate saturations in all four areas assessed.

  13. An application of hidden Markov model for lithological characterization based on well-logging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, J.; Ahn, J.; Lee, S.; Park, E.

    2013-12-01

    We have applied hidden Markov model (HMM) for the prediction of lithology based on the emitted signal to test the feasibility of lithological estimations based on indirect well-logging data. For the purpose, synthetic borehole data is assumed and the forward-backward algorithm of HMM is adopted which requires lithological transition probability, lithology-signal emission probabilities, and initial distribution probability as input variables. The transition probabilities used are assumed to be directly acquirable from the adjacent boreholes in two directions (i.e. upward and downward) as one-step transition probability matrices. To make simple exercise case, the geophysical logging data is assumed and, from the data, the emission probability is acquired in a form of probability distributions by applying Bayesian classifier for the corresponding lithology. The advantageous aspect of lithology prediction with hidden Markov model with Bayesian classifier is tested by composing two benchmark cases: only Bayesian classifier is considered with one-logging data (Case I-(a)) and two-logging data (Case I-(b)) are available; Bayesian updating is considered to make the emission probability based on hidden Markov mole(Case II). On the other hand, the prediction is made by considering Bayesian classifier and hidden Markov model (Case III). All in all, the predictions of Case III is superior to Case I-(a-b) and Case II by resulting in stable and better estimation.

  14. Geothermal-well completions: a survey and technical evaluation of existing equipment and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, J.E.; Snyder, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    The geothermal environment and associated well completion problems are reviewed. Existing well completion equipment is surveyed and limitations are identified. A technical evaluation of selected completion equipment is presented. The technical evaluation concentrates on well cementing equipment and identifies potential failure mechanisms which limit the effectiveness of these tools. Equipment employed in sand control, perforating, and corrosion control are identified as potential subjects for future technical evaluation.

  15. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field based on well log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-10-01

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine he direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  16. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Harris, R. V.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Moran, Traci L.

    2011-08-01

    The focus of this study is the understanding of the technical obstacles that hinder the replacement of and the disadvantages from the loss of extensive interpretation experience based on data accumulated with AmBe. Enhanced acoustic and electromagnetic sensing methods in combination with non-isotope-based well logging techniques have the potential to complement and/or replace existing isotope-based techniques, providing the opportunity to reduce oil industry dependence on isotopic sources such as AmBe.

  17. Geophysical logging of bedrock wells for geothermal gradient characterization in New Hampshire, 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Barker, Gregory; Olson, Neil; Wilder, Leland

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Hampshire Geological Survey, measured the fluid temperature of groundwater and other geophysical properties in 10 bedrock wells in the State of New Hampshire in order to characterize geothermal gradients in bedrock. The wells selected for the study were deep (five ranging from 375 to 900 feet and five deeper than 900 feet) and 6 had low water yields, which correspond to low groundwater flow from fractures. This combination of depth and low water yield reduced the potential for flow-induced temperature changes that would mask the natural geothermal gradient in the bedrock. All the wells included in this study are privately owned, and permission to use the wells was obtained from landowners before geophysical logs were acquired for this study. National Institute of Standards and Technology thermistor readings were used to adjust the factory calibrated geophysical log data. A geometric correction to the gradient measurements was also necessary due to borehole deviation from vertical. Maximum groundwater temperatures at the bottom of the logs ranged from 11.2 to 15.4 degrees Celsius. Geothermal gradients were generally higher than those typically reported for other water wells in the United States. Some of the high gradients were associated with high natural gamma emissions. Groundwater flow was discernible in 4 of the 10 wells studied but only obscured the part of the geothermal gradient signal where groundwater actually flowed into, out of, or through the well. Temperature gradients varied by mapped bedrock type but can also vary by localized differences in mineralogy or rock type within the wells.

  18. Temperature logging of groundwater in bedrock wells for geothermal gradient characterization in New Hampshire, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James; Barker, Gregory; Olson, Neil; Wilder, Leland

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Hampshire Geological Survey, measured the fluid temperature of groundwater in deep bedrock wells in the State of New Hampshire in order to characterize geothermal gradients in bedrock. All wells selected for the study had low water yields, which correspond to low groundwater flow from fractures. This reduced the potential for flow-induced temperature changes that would mask the natural geothermal gradient in the bedrock. All the wells included in this study were privately owned, and permission to use the wells was obtained from homeowners before logging. Maximum groundwater temperatures at the bottom of the logs were between 11.7 and 17.3 degrees Celsius. Geothermal gradients were generally higher than typically reported for other water wells in the United States. Some of the high gradients were associated with high natural gamma emissions. Groundwater flow was discernible in 5 of the 10 wells studied but only obscured the portion of the geothermal gradient signal where groundwater actually flowed through the well. Temperature gradients varied by mapped bedrock type but can also vary by differences in mineralogy or rock type within the wells.

  19. Geophysical well logs for eleven drill holes at the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine Site, Idaho Springs, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, J.J.; Scott, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    The following geophysical well log measurements were made in eleven drill holes above the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado: (1) acoustic velocity (2) resistivity, (3) caliper, (4) gamma-gamma density, (5) neutron-thermal neutron, (6) gamma ray, (7) induced polarization (IP), (8) self potential (SP), and magnetic susceptibility. The density and acoustic velocity logs indicate extensive fracturing in each of the drill holes. Variations in the relative amount of felsic or mafic mineral components in the rocks can be inferred from the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray well log responses. Zones containing metallic sulfide mineralization are interpreted from the IP well log response.

  20. Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

  1. Lithology evaluation of a Bazhenov formation reservoir using seismic and well log analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomakina, N. Y.; Belozerov, V. B.; Bukhanov, N. V.

    2015-02-01

    The Bazhenov formation is the analog of the Bakken formation; these formations are source rocks and contain tight reservoirs of a tectonic-hydrothermal model. The interpretation of well logs begins with the identification of the Bazhenov marker and tracing a carbonate layer within the Bazhenov formation by GR, neutron and DT logs. The thickness of this layer varies from 1 to 2 m. The next step is seismic interpretation. The creation of 2D seismic forward models is presented in this paper. In these models, the behavior of the amplitude with and without a carbonate layer was studied. These models allow tracing the sign of a carbonate layer (negative amplitude peak). The analysis of 3D seismic cube slices was performed. An amplitude map was created. The distribution of carbonate rock was detected according to this map. Thus, using this approach a thin layer was determined within the Bazhenov formation.

  2. Self-optimizing Monte Carlo method for nuclear well logging simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lianyan

    1997-09-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulation for nuclear well logging problems, a new method has been developed for variance reduction. With this method, an importance map is generated in the regular Monte Carlo calculation as a by-product, and the importance map is later used to conduct the splitting and Russian roulette for particle population control. By adopting a spatial mesh system, which is independent of physical geometrical configuration, the method allows superior user-friendliness. This new method is incorporated into the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP4A through a patch file. Two nuclear well logging problems, a neutron porosity tool and a gamma-ray lithology density tool are used to test the performance of this new method. The calculations are sped up over analog simulation by 120 and 2600 times, for the neutron porosity tool and for the gamma-ray lithology density log, respectively. The new method enjoys better performance by a factor of 4~6 times than that of MCNP's cell-based weight window, as per the converged figure-of-merits. An indirect comparison indicates that the new method also outperforms the AVATAR process for gamma-ray density tool problems. Even though it takes quite some time to generate a reasonable importance map from an analog run, a good initial map can create significant CPU time savings. This makes the method especially suitable for nuclear well logging problems, since one or several reference importance maps are usually available for a given tool. Study shows that the spatial mesh sizes should be chosen according to the mean-free-path. The overhead of the importance map generator is 6% and 14% for neutron and gamma-ray cases. The learning ability towards a correct importance map is also demonstrated. Although false-learning may happen, physical judgement can help diagnose with contributon maps. Calibration and analysis are performed for the neutron tool and the gamma-ray tool. Due to the fact that a very good initial importance map is always available after the first point has been calculated, high computing efficiency is maintained. The availability of contributon maps provides an easy way of understanding the logging measurement and analyzing for the depth of investigation.

  3. Petrophysical characterisation lithology identification of Beda Formation, Sirt basin, Libya using well logging records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eljadi, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The petrophysical characterisations are one of the most useful and important tools available to petroleum geologist. The petrophysical characterisation have been evaluated to Beda Formation though the analysis of open hole well logging records of four exploratory and development wells, distributed in the Beda Formation of Sirt basin, Libya. These available well logging records have been analyzed though utilizing the petrophysics software (for determining the petrophysical parameters). This is to identify the lithological constituents and saturation parameters. The litho saturation analysis of Beda Formation of the studied wells indicates that it is mainly. The analytical Formation evaluations of some cross plot (e.g. interval transient time & neutron porosity) reveal lithological facies change with different deposition environment. It consists mainly of mixture of limestone and dolomite with subtidal fossiliferous as indicated from true resistivity and neutron porosity crossplot. The true resistivity and sonic porosity crossplot illustrates the disseminated shale is mainly of dispersed type and some of laminated habitat. It also point to the dominance of the intergrnular porosity. The isoparametric maps (weighed values) of petrophysical parameters show that vertical distribution of Beda Formation.

  4. Hydrogeochemical investigations in support of well logging operations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.; Golf, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J.; Dennis, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1990-01-01

    A suite of 41 thermal and nonthermal waters in the Zunil-Quetzaltenango region, Guatemala, were collected as part of a well logging operation conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE) and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both in situ and weirbox samples were collected in the Zunil geothermal field. The various data suggest that the reservoir at Zunil is geochemically inhomogeneous. Stable isotope data suggest recharge to the field comes primarily from the north and east whereas tritium data indicate that the reservoir waters may be 500 to 7500 years old. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. High-voltage supply for neutron tubes in well-logging applications

    DOEpatents

    Humphreys, D.R.

    1982-09-15

    A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The biased pulse supply of the invention combines DC and full pulse techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

  6. Induction conductivity and natural gamma logs collected in 15 wells at Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Camp Stanley Storage Activity conducted electromagnetic induction conductivity and natural gamma logging of 15 selected wells on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity, located in northern Bexar County, Texas, during March 28-30, 2005. In late 2004, a helicopter electromagnetic survey was flown of the Camp Stanley Storage Activity as part of a U.S. Geological Survey project to better define subsurface geologic units, the structure, and the catchment area of the Trinity aquifer. The electromagnetic induction conductivity and natural gamma log data in this report were collected to constrain the calculation of resistivity depth sections and to provide subsurface controls for interpretation of the helicopter electromagnetic data collected for the Camp Stanley Storage Activity. Logs were recorded digitally while moving the probe in an upward direction to maintain proper depth control. Logging speed was no greater than 30 feet per minute. During logging, a repeat section of at least 100 feet was recorded to check repeatability of log responses. Several of the wells logged were completed with polyvinyl chloride casing that can be penetrated by electromagnetic induction fields and allows conductivity measurement. However, some wells were constructed with steel centralizers and stainless steel screen that caused spikes on both conductivity and resulting resistivity log curves. These responses are easily recognizable and appear at regular intervals on several logs.

  7. Unzen Volcano Scientific Drilling: Well Logging Data of the USDP-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, T.; Ikeda, R.; Nakada, S.; Uto, K.; Nishi, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Unzen Volcano Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) has been conducted to target the magma conduit shortly after the 1990-1995 eruption. After two drillings of 752 m and 1463 m deep at the flank site, the conduit surveying well (USDP-4) was drilled to the depth of 1995.75 m in the mountainside to clarify the ascending and degassing mechanisms of magma. We have conducted physical logging in the USDP-4 well to elucidate the structure and material properties in and around the conduit. The logging items are as follows: Gamma Ray (167 to 1780 m), Resistivity (167 to 1795 m), Self-Potential (167 to 1775 m), Density (392 to 1782 m), Neutron Porosity (770 to 1777 m), Sonic velocity (392 to 1787 m), Full-bore Formation Micro Imager (FMI : 167 to 1540 m), Formation Micro Scanner (FMS : 1550 to 1791.5 m) and VSP (237 to 737m). Because of the high inclination of this well (Sakuma et al., this meeting), we used the Tough Logging Condition System (TLCS) below the depth of 800 m where the well inclination is up to 70 degrees. We had some concern because of a possible well collapse and high temperatures at the conduit zone before drilling. However, a good well condition and low temperature enabled us to obtain good logging data from this well. Comparing the logging data and lithology, determined mainly from drilled cores and cuttings (Nakada et al., this meeting), we can make clear the features of its formation and material properties found within the well. Gamma Ray varies between 40 API to 100 API, with the high (90 to 100 API) value coinciding with a lava dike. Resistivity structure can be classified into 5 layers. The value of resistivity above 240 m, 240 to 550 m, 550 to 1100 m, 1100 to 1760 m and below 1760 m are a few hundred ohm-m, 500 to 1000 ohm-m, about 100 ohm-m, about 10 ohm-m, about 100 ohm-m, respectively. The lava dike indicates a characteristic feature of about 100 ohm-m even though it is distributed in the 10 ohm-m layer. P-wave velocity varies 3 to 5 km/s through all depths. The velocity of Pyroclastic rocks, lava flow, volcanic breccia and lava dike is 3 km/s, about 4.5 km/s, 4 km/s and 5 km/s, respectively. The density of Pyroclastic rocks, lava flow, volcanic breccia and lava dike is 2.3 to 2.4 g/cm3, about 2.5 g/cm3, about 2.5 g/cm3 and 2.6 g/cm3 respectively. The porosity of the lava flow and lava dike is low (0.1), and high porosity (0.4) coincides with low resistivity (10 ohm-m), low velocity and low density zones. Furthermore, the high porosity zone around 1700 m coincides with the zone where a high NaCl concentration in the drilling mud was observed during the drilling. The anomaly of Self-Potential recognized around the lava dike seems to be related to the fluid flow. FMI and FMS images show not only the boundaries of lava dikes but also vertical pyroclastic veins in the conduit zone. Some conductive layers are recognized in the lava dikes. Drilling induced tensile fractures and borehole breakouts were also partly recognized. According to the FMS analysis, the main dips and strikes of the boundary of lava dikes and pyroclastic veins are a high dip and in an east-west direction. These measurements are indispensable to better understand the dynamics of magma emplacement, tectonic settings, and mechanical controls on the orientation of fractures.

  8. Logs and completion data for water and mass balance wells in Mortandad and Ten Site Canyons

    SciTech Connect

    McLin, S.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Water Quality and Hydrology Group; Purtymun, W.D.; Swanton, A.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, NM (United States); Koch, R.J. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-four monitoring wells were drilled and completed in December 1994 as part of a water and mass balance study for the shallow perched aquifer in the Mortandad Canyon alluvium and in the lower part of Ten-Site Canyon. The wells penetrated the alluvium containing the aquifer and were completed into the top of the weathered tuff. Twelve of these wells encountered the Tshirege Member (Cooing Unit 1 g) of the Bandelier Tuff below the canyon alluvium, while ten wells made contact with the Cerro Toledo interval, which lies between the Tshirege and Otowi Members of the Bandelier Tuff. The remaining two wells were completed into the alluvium above the weathered tuff contact. These wells provide access for continuous water level measurement and water sampling. Data from these new wells will be used to determine changes in alluvial aquifer water storage, water quality sampling, and estimation of seepage into the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff below the alluvium. This report documents drilling activities and well completion logs for the water and mass balance study. These wells also provide critical new data for fourteen north-south vertical cross-sections constructed for the canyon alluvium.

  9. Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

  10. ACE stimulated neural network for shear wave velocity determination from well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa

    2014-08-01

    Shear wave velocity provides invaluable information for geomechanical, geophysical, and reservoir characterization studies. However, measurement of shear wave velocity is time, cost and labor intensive. This study proposes a swift and exact methodology, called ACE stimulated neural network, for prediction of shear wave velocity from available well logs such that it will be able to surpass previous models. The proposed method is composed of two major parts: 1) transforming input/output data space to a higher correlated space using alternative condition expectation (ACE), and 2) making a neural network formulation in transformed data space. Transforming in the first step makes it easier for neural network to find the complicated underlying dependency of input/output data. Therefore, neural network will be able to develop an accurate and strong formulation between conventional well logs and shear wave velocity. The Propounded approach was successfully applied in one of the carbonate gas fields of Iran. A comparison between proposed model and previous models showed superiority of ACE stimulated neural network.

  11. MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon) capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, R.A.; Little, R.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. The general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well suited for borehole-tool models. SABRINA, another component of the LARTCS, is a graphics code that can be used to interactively create a complex MCNP geometry. Users can define many source and tally characteristics with standard MCNP features. The time-dependent capability of the code is essential when modeling pulsed sources. Problems with neutrons, photons, and electrons as either single particle or coupled particles can be calculated with MCNP. The physics of neutron and photon transport and interactions is modeled in detail using the latest available cross-section data. A rich collections of variance reduction features can greatly increase the efficiency of a calculation. MCNP is written in FORTRAN 77 and has been run on variety of computer systems from scientific workstations to supercomputers. The next production version of MCNP will include features such as continuous-energy electron transport and a multitasking option. Areas of ongoing research of interest to the well logging community include angle biasing, adaptive Monte Carlo, improved discrete ordinates capabilities, and discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo hybrid development. Los Alamos has requested approval by the Department of Energy to create a Radiation Transport Computational Facility under their User Facility Program to increase external interactions with industry, universities, and other government organizations. 21 refs.

  12. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Oden, C P; Schweitzer, J S; McDowell, G M

    2006-09-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. PMID:16737819

  13. Temperature Dependence of Scintillation Properties of Bright Oxide Scintillators for Well-Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Nikl, Martin; Chani, Valery

    2013-07-01

    Scintillation characteristics such as the pulse height, energy resolution, and decay time of single crystals of Tl-doped NaI (Tl:NaI), Ce-doped Lu2SiO5 (Ce:LSO), Ce-doped YAlO3 (Ce:YAP), Ce-doped Gd3(Al,Ga)5O12 (Ce:GAGG), Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG), undoped LuAG, and Ce-doped Y3Al5O12 (Ce:YAG) transparent ceramics were compared at 25-150 °C to simulate well logging conditions. For increasing temperature, the light output of the scintillators decreased, mostly because of thermal quenching. Among these samples, Pr:LuAG demonstrated the highest scintillation performance at 150 °C.

  14. The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Measuring System for Well Logging Attitude and a Method of Sensor Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yangdong; Wang, Mijian; Wu, Sheng; Wei, Biao

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°. PMID:24859028

  16. A measuring system for well logging attitude and a method of sensor calibration.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yangdong; Wang, Mijian; Wu, Sheng; Wei, Biao

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°. PMID:24859028

  17. Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact age, cratering, target-impactite stratigraphy, ejecta, impact dynamics, hydrothermal alterations and post-impact processes are presented. The challenges and perspectives of drilling studies of impact craters are discussed.

  18. Flow-Log Analysis for Hydraulic Characterization of Selected Test Wells at the Indian Point Energy Center, Buchanan, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Flow logs from 24 test wells were analyzed as part of the hydraulic characterization of the metamorphosed and fractured carbonate bedrock at the Indian Point Energy Center in Buchanan, New York. The flow logs were analyzed along with caliper, optical- and acoustic-televiewer, and fluid-resistivity and temperature logs to determine the character and distribution of fracture-flow zones and estimate their transmissivities and hydraulic heads. Many flow zones were associated with subhorizontal to shallow-dipping fractured zones, southeast-dipping bedding fractures, northwest-dipping conjugate fractures, or combinations of bedding and conjugate fractures. Flow-log analysis generally provided reasonable first-order estimates of flow-zone transmissivity and head differences compared with the results of conventional hydraulic-test analysis and measurements. Selected results of an aquifer test and a tracer test provided corroborating information in support of the flow-log analysis.

  19. Pore pressure prediction from well logs: Methods, modifications, and new approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jincai

    2011-09-01

    Pore pressures in most deep sedimentary formations are not hydrostatic; instead they are overpressured and elevated even to more than double of the hydrostatic pressure. If the abnormal pressures are not accurately predicted prior to drilling, catastrophic incidents, such as well blowouts and mud volcanoes, may take place. Pore pressure calculation in a hydraulically-connected formation is introduced. Fracture gradient prediction methods are reviewed, and the minimum and maximum fracture pressures are proposed. The commonly used empirical methods for abnormal pore pressure prediction from well logs are then reviewed in this paper. Eaton's resistivity and sonic methods are then adapted using depth-dependent normal compaction equations for pore pressure prediction in subsurface formations. The adapted methods provide a much easier way to handle normal compaction trendlines. In addition to the empirical methods, the theoretical pore pressure modeling is the fundamental to understand the mechanism of the abnormal pressure generation. A theoretical pore pressure-porosity model is proposed based on the primary overpressure generation mechanism — compaction disequilibrium and effective stress-porosity-compaction theory. Accordingly, pore pressure predictions from compressional velocity and sonic transit time are obtained using the new theoretical model. Case studies in deepwater oil wells illustrate how to improve pore pressure prediction in sedimentary formations.

  20. Improving the analysis of well-logs by wavelet cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, M. V. C.; Leite, F. E. A.; Andrade, R. F. S.; Andrade, J. S.; Lucena, L. S.; Neto, M. Lucena

    2015-01-01

    The concept of wavelet cross-correlation is used to provide a new approach to identify similar patterns in related data sets, which largely improves the confidence of the results. The method amounts to decompose the data sets in the wavelet space so that correlations between wavelet coefficients can be analyzed in every scale. Besides the identification of the scales in which two independent measures are correlated, the method makes it possible to find patches of data sets where correlations exist simultaneously in all scales. This allows to extend the information of a small number of spots to larger regions. Well-log data sets from two neighboring oil wells are used. We compare similar measures at different probe sites, and also measurements of different physical quantities taken on the same place. Although this is a typical scenario for the application of classical geostatistical methods, it is well known that such methods erase out local differences in favor of smoother variability. In contraposition, this wavelet cross-correlation takes advantage of the fluctuations to give information about the continuity of the geological structures in space. It works even better if no filtering procedure has been applied to the original raw data.

  1. High-resolution well-log derived dielectric properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Collett, T.; Hunter, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric logging tool, electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT), was deployed in 2007 in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert Well), North Slope, Alaska. The measured dielectric properties in the Mount Elbert well, combined with density log measurements, result in a vertical high-resolution (cm-scale) estimate of gas hydrate saturation. Two hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs about 20 m thick were identified using the EPT log and exhibited gas-hydrate saturation estimates ranging from 45% to 85%. In hydrate-bearing zones where variation of hole size and oil-based mud invasion are minimal, EPT-based gas hydrate saturation estimates on average agree well with lower vertical resolution estimates from the nuclear magnetic resonance logs; however, saturation and porosity estimates based on EPT logs are not reliable in intervals with substantial variations in borehole diameter and oil-based invasion.EPT log interpretation reveals many thin-bedded layers at various depths, both above and below the thick continuous hydrate occurrences, which range from 30-cm to about 1-m thick. Such thin layers are not indicated in other well logs, or from the visual observation of core, with the exception of the image log recorded by the oil-base microimager. We also observe that EPT dielectric measurements can be used to accurately detect fine-scale changes in lithology and pore fluid properties of hydrate-bearing sediments where variation of hole size is minimal. EPT measurements may thus provide high-resolution in-situ hydrate saturation estimates for comparison and calibration with laboratory analysis. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. State-Of-The-Art in Permeability Determination From Well Log Data: Part 2-Verifiable, Accurate Permeability Predictions, the Touch-Stone of All Models

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    SPE 30979 State-Of-The-Art in Permeability Determination From Well Log Data: Part 2- Verifiable prediction from well log data, is accurate and verifiable prediction of permeability for wells from which only the well log data is available. So far all the available models and techniques have been tried

  3. Results of well-bore flow logging for six water-production wells completed in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Conde R.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last several years, an improved conceptual understanding of the aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, New Mexico, has lead to better knowledge about the location and extent of the aquifer system. This information will aid with the refinement of ground-water simulation and with the location of sites for future water-production wells. With an impeller-type flowmeter, well-bore flow was logged under pumping conditions along the screened interval of the well bore in six City of Albuquerque water-production wells: the Ponderosa 3, Love 6, Volcano Cliffs 1, Gonzales 2, Zamora 2, and Gonzales 3 wells. From each of these six wells, a well-bore flow log was collected that represents the cumulative upward well-bore flow. Evaluation of the well-bore flow log for each well allowed delineation of the more productive zones supplying water to the well along the logged interval. Yields from the more productive zones in the six wells ranged from about 70 to 880 gallons per minute. The lithology of these zones is predominantly gravel and sand with varying amounts of sandy clay.

  4. Preliminary Analysis of the Downhole Well Logs from the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate JIP Cruise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Collett; A. Conte; L. L. Loh; H. F. Hoong; D. S. Goldberg

    2005-01-01

    The downhole logging while drilling (LWD) and conventional wireline (CWL) logging operations on the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate JIP Cruise were designed in part to obtain data needed to assess the occurrence and concentration of gas hydrates at several key sites within the Gulf of Mexico. LWD and CWL operations were conducted in two different offshore lease areas, Atwater

  5. Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

  6. Integrated reservoir characterization for unconventional reservoirs using seismic, microseismic and well log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Debotyam

    This study is aimed at an improved understanding of unconventional reservoirs which include tight reservoirs (such as shale oil and gas plays), geothermal developments, etc. We provide a framework for improved fracture zone identification and mapping of the subsurface for a geothermal system by integrating data from different sources. The proposed ideas and methods were tested primarily on data obtained from North Brawley geothermal field and the Geysers geothermal field apart from synthetic datasets which were used to test new algorithms before actual application on the real datasets. The study has resulted in novel or improved algorithms for use at specific stages of data acquisition and analysis including improved phase detection technique for passive seismic (and teleseismic) data as well as optimization of passive seismic surveys for best possible processing results. The proposed workflow makes use of novel integration methods as a means of making best use of the available geophysical data for fracture characterization. The methodology incorporates soft computing tools such as hybrid neural networks (neuro-evolutionary algorithms) as well as geostatistical simulation techniques to improve the property estimates as well as overall characterization efficacy. The basic elements of the proposed characterization workflow involves using seismic and microseismic data to characterize structural and geomechanical features within the subsurface. We use passive seismic data to model geomechanical properties which are combined with other properties evaluated from seismic and well logs to derive both qualitative and quantitative fracture zone identifiers. The study has resulted in a broad framework highlighting a new technique for utilizing geophysical data (seismic and microseismic) for unconventional reservoir characterization. It provides an opportunity to optimally develop the resources in question by incorporating data from different sources and using their temporal and spatial variability as a means to better understand the reservoir behavior. As part of this study, we have developed the following elements which are discussed in the subsequent chapters: 1. An integrated characterization framework for unconventional settings with adaptable workflows for all stages of data processing, interpretation and analysis. 2. A novel autopicking workflow for noisy passive seismic data used for improved accuracy in event picking as well as for improved velocity model building. 3. Improved passive seismic survey design optimization framework for better data collection and improved property estimation. 4. Extensive post-stack seismic attribute studies incorporating robust schemes applicable in complex reservoir settings. 5. Uncertainty quantification and analysis to better quantify property estimates over and above the qualitative interpretations made and to validate observations independently with quantified uncertainties to prevent erroneous interpretations. 6. Property mapping from microseismic data including stress and anisotropic weakness estimates for integrated reservoir characterization and analysis. 7. Integration of results (seismic, microseismic and well logs) from analysis of individual data sets for integrated interpretation using predefined integration framework and soft computing tools.

  7. Predicting brittle zones in the Bakken Formation using well logs and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beecher, Michael E.

    The oil-in-place estimate for the Bakken Formation has varied from 10 billion barrels in 1974 to 503 billion barrels in 1999. However, only a small fraction of this estimate is recoverable due to the formation having very low porosity and permeability. Implementation of hydraulic fracture stages along horizontal wells in the Bakken has been productive. Recently, identification of zones where the formation is brittle has been used to improve hydraulic fracture stimulation efficiency in an effort to improve production. The first goal for this thesis is to identify a correlation between brittleness and production data by using elastic moduli and normalized production values. The hypothesis for this study is that rock with a low Poisson's ratio and high Young's modulus will be more brittle and will ultimately produce a higher amount of oil than more ductile rock. The next goal was to create and test a method to identify brittle zones with high normalized production in a 3D seismic data set without well control using producing wells from outside the survey with dipole sonic logs from the Bakken Formation. Correlations between normalized production values and elastic moduli were subsequently identified. Cumulative first-four-months' production was found to have the best correlation to the elastic moduli. Correlations of normalized production values and Poisson's ratio showed that sections of the middle Bakken with low Poisson's ratio yield higher normalized production values. Correlations of Young's modulus and normalized production showed that middle Bakken zones with low Young's modulus have higher normalized production values. However, when using additional wells that were not used for well-to-3D seismic correlations, the correlation shows that higher Young's modulus yield higher normalized production. The correlation with additional wells best represented the data and agrees with the initial hypothesis. Brittle zones were mapped in a 3D seismic data set by correlating well synthetics to the seismic traces and importing the data created from the correlation into a self-organizing map (SOM). SOM analysis identified small brittle zones with high production in the northwestern part of the survey.

  8. Uncertainty Analysis in Upscaling Well Log data By Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Kyubum

    2010-01-16

    -scale properties in subsurface layers, one ongoing challenge is accurately upscaling fine-scale (high frequency) logging measurements to coarse-scale data, such as surface seismic images. In addition, numerically efficient modeling cannot use models defined...

  9. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3604-01, Kawailoa deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Kawailoa deep monitor well (State well number 3-3604-01) was drilled about 1.9 miles east- northeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land in the Kawailoa ground-water area. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone to an elevation of -392 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, specific-conductance and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  10. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3406-12, Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well (State well number 3-3406-12) was drilled about 2,000 feet northeast of Weed Circle in the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone of the Waialua ground-water area to an elevation of -596 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north- central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  11. Geophysical well-log analysis of fractured crystalline rocks at East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Hess, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Various conventional geophysical borehole measurements were made in conjunction with measurements using a recently designed, low-frequency, acoustic-waveform probe and slow velocity flowmeter for characterization of a fractured mafic intrusion in southern Ontario, Canada. Conventional geophysical measurements included temperature, caliper, gamma, acoustic, single-point resistance, and acoustic televiewer logs. Hole stability problems prevented the use of neutron and gamma-gamma logs, because these logs require that a radioactive source be lowered into the borehole. Measurements were made in three boreholes as much as 850 m deep and penetrating a few tens of meters into granitic basement. All rocks within the mafic intrusion were characterized by minimal gamma radiation and acoustic velocities of about 6.9 km/sec. The uniformity of the acoustic velocities and the character of acoustic-waveform logs made with a conventional high-frequency logging source correlated with the density of fractures evident on televiewer logs. Sample intervals of high-frequency waveform logs were transformed into interpretations of effective fracture opening using a recent model for acoustic attenuation in fractured rocks. The new low-frequency sparker source did not perform as expected at depths below 250 m because of previously unsuspected problems with source firing under large hydrostatic heads. A new heat-pulse, slow velocity flowmeter was used to delineate in detail the flow regime indicated in a general way by temperature logs. The flowmeter measurements indicated that water was entering 2 of the boreholes at numerous fractures above a depth of 200 m, with flow in at least 2 of the boreholes exiting through large isolated fractures below a depth of 400 m. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Brookian sequence well log correlation sections and occurrence of gas hydrates, north-central North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Kristen A.; Collett, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Gas hydrates are naturally occurring crystalline, ice-like substances that consist of natural gas molecules trapped in a solid-water lattice. Because of the compact nature of their structure, hydrates can effectively store large volumes of gas and, consequently, have been identified as a potential unconventional energy source. First recognized to exist geologically in the 1960s, significant accumulations of gas hydrate have been found throughout the world. Gas hydrate occurrence is limited to environments such as permafrost regions and subsea sediments because of the pressure and temperature conditions required for their formation and stability. Permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulations have been discovered in many regions of the Arctic, including Russia, Canada, and the North Slope of Alaska. Gas hydrate research has a long history in northern Alaska. This research includes the drilling, coring, and well log evaluation of two gas hydrate stratigraphic test wells and two resource assessments of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. Building upon these previous investigations, this report provides a summary of the pertinent well log, gas hydrate, and stratigraphic data for key wells related to gas hydrate occurrence in the north-central North Slope. The data are presented in nine well log correlation sections with 122 selected wells to provide a regional context for gas hydrate accumulations and the relation of the accumulations to key stratigraphic horizons and to the base of the ice-bearing permafrost. Also included is a well log database that lists the location, available well logs, depths, and other pertinent information for each of the wells on the correlation section.

  13. Possible New Well-Logging Tool Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy to Detect TOC in Source Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Casey; Quarles, C. A.; Breyer, J. A.

    2001-10-01

    Possible New Well-Logging Tool Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy to Detect Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Source Rocks PATTERSON, C., Department of Geology, Department of Physics, Texas Christian University, QUARLES, C.A., Department of Physics, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas, BREYER, J.A., Department of Geology, Texas Christian University, Fort, Worth, Texas. The positron produces two gamma rays upon annihilation with an electron. Depending on the momentum of the electron, the two resulting photons are shifted from the initial electron rest mass energy by the Doppler effect. We measure the distribution of gamma ray energies produced by annihilation on a petroleum source rock core. Core from the Mitchell Energy well T.P. Sims 2 of the Barnett Shale located in Wise County, Texas, is under study. Apparatus for the experiment consists of an Ortec Ge detector. The source used for the experiment is Ge68, which undergoes beta decay and produces the positrons that penetrate the core. It is placed on the middle of the core and covered with a small, annealed NiCu plate to prevent unnecessary background from the positrons annihilating with electrons other than in the core. Distance between the source and the detector is fixed at 6.75 inches. Measurements were made in specific locations at 2 inch increments for approximately an hour and a half where the predetermined Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values were made. Future studies involve an overall correlation of the core between experimental readings and TOC, including corrections for changes in grain size and lithology. Additional research has shown no distinct correlation between grain size and distribution of energies across the targeted spectrum. Additional corrections should be made for the decay in activity of the source. Future research also includes the determination for optimum time and distance for the source from the core. A long-term goal for the experiment is to develop an effective down-hole tool to determine TOC in potential source rocks, thereby minimizing time coring and geochemical analysis.

  14. In-situ gas hydrate hydrate saturation estimated from various well logs at the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed detailed analysis and interpretation of available 2-D and 3-D seismic data and proposed a viable method for identifying sub-permafrost gas hydrate prospects within the gas hydrate stability zone in the Milne Point area of northern Alaska. To validate the predictions of the USGS and to acquire critical reservoir data needed to develop a long-term production testing program, a well was drilled at the Mount Elbert prospect in February, 2007. Numerous well log data and cores were acquired to estimate in-situ gas hydrate saturations and reservoir properties.Gas hydrate saturations were estimated from various well logs such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), P- and S-wave velocity, and electrical resistivity logs along with pore-water salinity. Gas hydrate saturations from the NMR log agree well with those estimated from P- and S-wave velocity data. Because of the low salinity of the connate water and the low formation temperature, the resistivity of connate water is comparable to that of shale. Therefore, the effect of clay should be accounted for to accurately estimate gas hydrate saturations from the resistivity data. Two highly gas hydrate-saturated intervals are identified - an upper ???43 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 54% and a lower ???53 ft zone with an average gas hydrate saturation of 50%; both zones reach a maximum of about 75% saturation. ?? 2009.

  15. Calculation of Monte Carlo importance functions for use in nuclear-well logging calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Soran, P.D.; McKeon, D.C.; Booth, T.E. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA); Schlumberger Well Services, Houston, TX (USA); Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1989-07-01

    Importance sampling is essential to the timely solution of Monte Carlo nuclear-logging computer simulations. Achieving minimum variance (maximum precision) of a response in minimum computation time is one criteria for the choice of an importance function. Various methods for calculating importance functions will be presented, new methods investigated, and comparisons with porosity and density tools will be shown. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Reservoir parameters estimation from well log and core data: a case study from the North Sea

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    is based on matching core and log data, and the linear and non-linear regressions are then used to build propose an alternative approach that provides a satisfactory prediction for reservoir parameters. Second, linear and non- linear regression are employed to derive porosity, shale vol- umes, clay contents

  17. Well log analysis to assist the interpretation of 3-D seismic data at Milne Point, north slope of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.

    2005-01-01

    In order to assess the resource potential of gas hydrate deposits in the North Slope of Alaska, 3-D seismic and well data at Milne Point were obtained from BP Exploration (Alaska), Inc. The well-log analysis has three primary purposes: (1) Estimate gas hydrate or gas saturations from the well logs; (2) predict P-wave velocity where there is no measured P-wave velocity in order to generate synthetic seismograms; and (3) edit P-wave velocities where degraded borehole conditions, such as washouts, affected the P-wave measurement significantly. Edited/predicted P-wave velocities were needed to map the gas-hydrate-bearing horizons in the complexly faulted upper part of 3-D seismic volume. The estimated gas-hydrate/gas saturations from the well logs were used to relate to seismic attributes in order to map regional distribution of gas hydrate inside the 3-D seismic grid. The P-wave velocities were predicted using the modified Biot-Gassmann theory, herein referred to as BGTL, with gas-hydrate saturations estimated from the resistivity logs, porosity, and clay volume content. The effect of gas on velocities was modeled using the classical Biot-Gassman theory (BGT) with parameters estimated from BGTL.

  18. Neural network prediction of carbonate lithofacies from well logs, Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields, Southwest Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.

    2006-01-01

    In the Hugoton Embayment of southwestern Kansas, St. Louis Limestone reservoirs have relatively low recovery efficiencies, attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the oolitic deposits. This study establishes quantitative relationships between digital well logs and core description data, and applies these relationships in a probabilistic sense to predict lithofacies in 90 uncored wells across the Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. In 10 wells, a single hidden-layer neural network based on digital well logs and core described lithofacies of the limestone depositional texture was used to train and establish a non-linear relationship between lithofacies assignments from detailed core descriptions and selected log curves. Neural network models were optimized by selecting six predictor variables and automated cross-validation with neural network parameters and then used to predict lithofacies on the whole data set of the 2023 half-foot intervals from the 10 cored wells with the selected network size of 35 and a damping parameter of 0.01. Predicted lithofacies results compared to actual lithofacies displays absolute accuracies of 70.37-90.82%. Incorporating adjoining lithofacies, within-one lithofacies improves accuracy slightly (93.72%). Digital logs from uncored wells were batch processed to predict lithofacies and probabilities related to each lithofacies at half-foot resolution corresponding to log units. The results were used to construct interpolated cross-sections and useful depositional patterns of St. Louis lithofacies were illustrated, e.g., the concentration of oolitic deposits (including lithofacies 5 and 6) along local highs and the relative dominance of quartz-rich carbonate grainstone (lithofacies 1) in the zones A and B of the St. Louis Limestone. Neural network techniques are applicable to other complex reservoirs, in which facies geometry and distribution are the key factors controlling heterogeneity and distribution of rock properties. Future work involves extension of the neural network to predict reservoir properties, and construction of three-dimensional geo-models. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Geophysical log analysis of selected test and residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site, East Fishkill, Dutchess County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The geophysical logs and their analyses are available for display and download from the U.S. Geological Survey, New York Water Science Center, online geophysical log archive (http://ny.water.usgs.gov/maps/geologs/) in LAS (Log ASCII Standard), PDF, and WellCad formats.

  20. Pore structure effect on reservoir electrical properties and well logging evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Huan-Lin; Guan, Ju; Mao, Zhi-Qiang; Ju, Xiao-Dong; Han, Gui-Qing

    2014-12-01

    The reservoir pore structure controls the reservoir quality and resistivity response of hydrocarbon-bearing zones and thus, critically affects logging interpretation. We use petrophysical data in three types of reservoir with different pore structure characteristics to show that the complexity of pore structure had a significant effect on the effective porosity and permeability regardless of geological factors responsible for the formation of pore structure. Moreover,, the distribution and content of conductive fluids in the reservoir varies dramatically owing to pore structure differences, which also induces resistivity variations in reservoir rocks. Hence, the origin of low-resistivity hydrocarbon-bearing zones, except for those with conductive matrix and mud filtrate invasion, is attributed to the complexity of the pore structures. Consequently, reservoir-specific evaluation models, parameters, and criteria should be chosen for resistivity log interpretation to make a reliable evaluation of reservoir quality and fluids.

  1. A computer program for borehole compensation of dual-detector density well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James Henry

    1978-01-01

    The computer program described in this report was developed for applying a borehole-rugosity and mudcake compensation algorithm to dual-density logs using the following information: the water level in the drill hole, hole diameter (from a caliper log if available, or the nominal drill diameter if not), and the two gamma-ray count rate logs from the near and far detectors of the density probe. The equations that represent the compensation algorithm and the calibration of the two detectors (for converting countrate or density) were derived specifically for a probe manufactured by Comprobe Inc. (5.4 cm O.D. dual-density-caliper); they are not applicable to other probes. However, equivalent calibration and compensation equations can be empirically determined for any other similar two-detector density probes and substituted in the computer program listed in this report. * Use of brand names in this report does not necessarily constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  2. MS-BWME: a wireless real-time monitoring system for brine well mining equipment.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications. PMID:25340455

  3. MS-BWME: A Wireless Real-Time Monitoring System for Brine Well Mining Equipment

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications. PMID:25340455

  4. Borehole Geophysical Logging of Water-Supply Wells in the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    Crystalline and carbonate-rock aquifers in northern Georgia provide water to an ever-increasing number of private and public wells in the region. Understanding the depth and yield of water-bearing zones in such wells is crucial for the development and long-term sustainability of ground-water resources and for keeping wells in good operating condition. Portable geophysical logging units are now widely available and have greatly increased the ability of geoscientists to obtain subsurface information from water wells.

  5. A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Crowder, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not possible with the given data set. Additional statistical criteria such as the statistical significance of regressions are used to guide the subsequent calibration of geophysical data in terms of hydraulic variables in those situations where quantitative data inversion is considered appropriate.

  6. Sequence stratigraphy of the Jurassic: New data from the Paris-London basin compiled on well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Ponsot, C.M.; Vail, P.R. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    A sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Jurassic sedimentary succession in Paris basin is derived from an integration of subsurface log correlations, field observations, and reinterpretations of field descriptions. The analysis is presented on two log sections, one crossing the basin from northeast to southwest and the other from northwest to southeast (approximately 80 logs). A vast quantity of field data, collected all around the Parsi basin (English Dorset, French Normandy, Manche, Ardennes, Lorraine, Bourgogne) allowed the sequences and system tracts boundaries to be traced and dated at the same time or prior to being recognized on well log data. In comparison with the Haq et al. 1987 cycle chart, 16 new sequences have been added: three for the Lias, seven for the Dogger, and six for the Malm. Occasionally, ages of some of the already recognized sequences boundaries have been slightly modified to fit new biostratal data. These biostratal data were usually at the scale of the ammonite sub-zone and the actual give ages all tie with the 1987 Haq et al. chart time scale.

  7. Review of surface-equipment requirements for geothermal-well stimulation. Geothermal-reservoir well-stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    A summary of stimulation equipment available to geothermal industry is presented and some modifications from which it could benefit are discussed. Equipment requirements for hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, acidizing, and other chemical treatments are included. Designs for the following are reviewed: equipment for premixing and storing treatment fluids, proppant handling equipment, pump trucks, special equipment for foam fracturing, intensifier pumps, manifolding, and monitoring and control devices.

  8. Characterizing Hydrologic Properties of Coal Beds From the Powder River Basin, Southeastern Montana, by Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, R. H.

    2003-12-01

    As part of a study designed to evaluate the potential for coal-bed methane development in the Powder River Basin of southeastern Montana, six wells were drilled through Paleocene coal beds of the Fort Union Formation along a 31-km transect within the Tongue River drainage basin. Sets of geophysical logs were recorded in these wells, cores were collected, and a complementary aquifer test was conducted at one site across an isolated 4.6-m thick coal seam. Natural gamma and electrical resistivity logs were highly effective in distinguishing individual coal beds. Sonic velocities computed from full-waveform logs were combined with rock densities determined from cores to estimate aquifer storage and results are in reasonable agreement with the value derived from the aquifer test. Televiewer logs, both acoustic and optical, provided magnetically oriented images of the borehole walls. Inspection of these digital projections and comparison with coal cores infer a face cleat orientation of approximately N33° E, in close alignment with regional lineament patterns and the northeast trend of the nearby Tongue River. Further analysis of these televiewer data reveals two primary sets of shallow-dipping features, presumably bedding planes, that are interspersed throughout the rocks and that strike east-west and north-south. These orthogonal directions are aligned with the principal axes of the contemporary stress field in this physiographic province as inferred from a nearby 1984 earthquake. The aquifer test consisted of pumping one of these wells for nine hours and monitoring water levels in three nearby observation wells. The drawdown ellipse generated during this test delineates a horizontal anisotropy ratio of 2.1, with the principal transmissivity tensor aligned N88° E and oblique to cleat orientation. Thus, interpretation of this aquifer test within the context of local structural and tectonic conditions indicates that transmissivity anisotropy in coals at this site is controlled by bedding configuration and perhaps a mechanical response to contemporary stresses rather than solely by cleat geometry.

  9. A new intense neutron generator and high-resolution detector for well logging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.M.; Amman, M.; Donahue, R. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Advances in both ion source and gamma-ray detector technology at LBNL are being used to develop a new high-sensitivity neutron logging instrument. Up to 37 mA of current per 10 - 20 {mu}s pulse, 80-95% D{sup +}, has been produced by a 2 inch diameter pulsed multicusp ion source. A D-T neutron flux of 10{sup 9} - 10{sup 10} n/s is projected from this data. CdZnTe is being developed as a possible gamma-ray detector because of its potential for good energy resolution and efficiency, and ability to operate at room temperature. 3-D time-dependent Monte Carlo calculations show the utility of this system for locating contaminants, especially chlorine-containing solvents, at remediation sites.

  10. A new intense neutron generator and high-resolution detector for well logging applications

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.M.; Amman, M.; Donahue, R. [and others

    1996-10-01

    Advances in both ion source and gamma-ray detector technology at LBNL are being used to develop a new high-sensitivity neutron logging instrument. Up to 37 mA of current per 10-20 {mu}s pulse, 80-95% D{sup +}, has been produced by a 2 inch diameter pulsed multicusp ion source. A D-T neutron flux of 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} n/s is projected from this data. CdZnTe is being developed as a possible gamma-ray detector because of its potential for good energy resolution and efficiency, and ability to operate at room temperature. 3-D time-dependent Monte Carlo calculations show the utility of this system for locating contaminants, especially chlorine-containing solvents, at remediation sites.

  11. 40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. 146.87 Section...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. (a) During the...and construction of a Class VI injection well, the owner or operator...

  12. 40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. 146.87 Section...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. (a) During the...and construction of a Class VI injection well, the owner or operator...

  13. 40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. 146.87 Section...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. (a) During the...and construction of a Class VI injection well, the owner or operator...

  14. 40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. 146.87 Section...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. (a) During the...and construction of a Class VI injection well, the owner or operator...

  15. Well-log seismic sequence stratigraphy of Aruba and its application to the hydrocarbon exploration in the Caribbean Area

    SciTech Connect

    Wornardt, W.W. (Micro-Strat Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Vail, P.R. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Several wells have recently been drilled in offshore Aruba approximately 12 degrees NOrth Latitude and 70 degrees West Longitude, just north of the Westernpart of Venezuela, South Central Caribbean. One of the wells, the Oxy Chuchubi No. 1 well penetrated a largely carbonate section that ranged in age from early Pliocene to early Oligocene to late Eocene at its total depth of 9,210 feet. High resolution biostratigraphy of benthic and planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannofossils provided the abundance and diversity histograms necessary to recognized a series of maximum flooding surface condensed sections (MSF). Fourteen maximum flooding surfaces within the MFS condensed sections were identified on the well log and dated using the planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannofossils. These maximum flooding surfaces range in age from 4.0 Ma or possibly 36.5 Ma. The paleobathymetry varies from middle to outer neritic in the upper portion of the well to lower bathyal to abyssal in the lower portion of the well. Fourteen third order sequences and their systems tracts were identified and annotated on a well log. These sequences were correlated with the Global Cycle Chart of Hag, 1987. The sequence stratigraphy provides a means of chronostratigraphic correlation to Venezuela and provides a direct tie to the geological history and hydrocarbon potential of the area.

  16. Prediction of Compressional, Shear, and Stoneley Wave Velocities from Conventional Well Log Data Using a Committee Machine with Intelligent Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of compressional, shear, and Stoneley wave velocities, carried out by dipole sonic imager (DSI) logs, provides invaluable data in geophysical interpretation, geomechanical studies and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. The presented study proposes an improved methodology for making a quantitative formulation between conventional well logs and sonic wave velocities. First, sonic wave velocities were predicted from conventional well logs using artificial neural network, fuzzy logic, and neuro-fuzzy algorithms. Subsequently, a committee machine with intelligent systems was constructed by virtue of hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search technique while outputs of artificial neural network, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy models were used as inputs of the committee machine. It is capable of improving the accuracy of final prediction through integrating the outputs of aforementioned intelligent systems. The hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search tool, embodied in the structure of committee machine, assigns a weight factor to each individual intelligent system, indicating its involvement in overall prediction of DSI parameters. This methodology was implemented in Asmari formation, which is the major carbonate reservoir rock of Iranian oil field. A group of 1,640 data points was used to construct the intelligent model, and a group of 800 data points was employed to assess the reliability of the proposed model. The results showed that the committee machine with intelligent systems performed more effectively compared with individual intelligent systems performing alone.

  17. Characterization of injection wells in a fractured reservoir using PTS logs, Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Colin; Combs, Jim

    1995-01-26

    The Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field in northwestern Nevada, about 15 km south of Reno, is a shallow (150m to 825m) moderate temperature (155 C to 168 C) liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir situated in highly-fractured granodiorite. Three injection wells were drilled and completed in granodiorite to dispose of spent geothermal fluids from the Steamboat II and III power plants (a 30 MW air-cooled binary-type facility). Injection wells were targeted to depths below 300m to inject spent fluids below producing fractures. First, quasi-static downhole pressure-temperature-spinner (PTS) logs were obtained. Then, the three wells were injection-tested using fluids between 80 C and 106 C at rates from 70 kg/s to 200 kg/s. PTS logs were run both up and down the wells during these injection tests. These PTS surveys have delineated the subsurface fracture zones which will accept fluid. The relative injectivity of the wells was also established. Shut-in interzonal flow within the wells was identified and characterized.

  18. Comprehensive glacial sediment characterization and correlation with natural gamma log response to identify hydrostratigraphic units in a rotosonic well core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, A. L.; Lemke, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Common borehole geophysical methods use electrical, acoustic, and nuclear measurements to determine physical and chemical characteristics of soils and rocks encountered while drilling. In texturally and mineralogically mature detrital sediments, natural gamma logs are frequently used to differentiate coarse and fine textures that exert primary control on fluid flow in reservoir and aquifer units. Interpretation of natural gamma log response in immature sediments can be complicated by the presence of clays in the fine fraction of poorly sorted units and further confounded in heterogeneous glacial sediments which characteristically display a high degree of vertical and lateral lithologic variability. This study examined natural gamma log response to textural and mineralogical variability in a continuous 70m (230ft) rotosonic borehole drilled through Pleistocene glacial sediments west of Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. The objective of the investigation is to establish a statistical linkage between natural gamma radiation and glacial sediment texture that can be extrapolated to a set of more than 120 monitoring wells and used as soft conditioning information for stochastic simulations of aquifer characteristics across a 10 km2 area impacted by groundwater contamination. The core was sampled at 0.3m (1ft) intervals and sieved to quantify sediment texture at 225 points. 150 grain mount thin sections from samples selected to correspond to a distribution of low, moderate, and high natural gamma log readings.were point counted to quantify mineralogy of the sand size fraction. 30 samples of clay-sized particles taken from the decanted fine fraction of the sieved material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction for clay component analysis. Weak correlations of gamma response to measured characteristics were observed over the entire dataset. As expected, positive relationships with gamma response were observed in samples with higher K-feldspar content and greater proportions of fine particles. Conversely, negative correlations were observed for samples with higher quartz content and greater proportions of coarse particle sizes. Separation of data corresponding to higher confidence gamma readings (i.e., excluding samples corresponding to gamma log inflection points) improved correlations, especially for K-feldspar content and in samples bearing a greater proportion of decanted fine materials. X-ray diffraction results indicate a relationship between gamma response and chlorite and illite, the dominant clays detected in the decanted fine clay fraction. Comparison to sorting metrics (i.e., inclusive graphic standard deviation, uniformity index, and effective size) confirms that higher gamma responses are associated with more poorly sorted sediments. Results demonstrate that gamma ray log response in these glacial sediments is controlled by a combination of texture and mineralogy. Consequently, a stochastic simulation will be required to accommodate uncertainty when linking texture to gamma response.

  19. Gamma well-logging in the Old Burial Ground of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, W.G.; Hofstetter, K.J.; MacMurdo, K.W. [and others

    1995-01-01

    Results are given sequentially by well in the appendix; total is 44 wells. Overall, the 1994 results do not suggest that any significant changes in activity or location have occurred since the 1980 measurements. Depths and magnitudes of plume activities for 1980 and 1994 are compared.

  20. Tangafric: a software for the estimation of textural and hydraulic properties in shallow aquifers from well logs in Senegal and Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fussi, Fabio; Bonomi, Tullia; Fava, Francesco; Hamidou, Barry; Hamidou Khane, Cheikh; Faye, Gayane; Wade, Souleye; Colombo, Roberto

    2014-05-01

    Background In order to increase access to drinking water in Africa there is more and more interest in the promotion of manual drilling techniques, without need of expensive drilling equipment, but they can be applied only in those areas with suitable hydrogeological conditions: thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and shallow groundwater level. Mapping of suitable zones for manual drilling at national level in Africa is a crucial activity and local institutions and UNICEF are implementing specific programs for its promotion, but the limitation in available data concerning shallow hydrogeological aquifers are limited. The research has been developed in the project "Use of remote sensing and terrain modeling to identify suitable zones for manual drilling in Africa and support low cost water supply", within the scientific cooperation between the University of Milano-Bicocca, Universite' Cheick Anta Diop (Dakar Senegal) , SNAPE - Service Nationale de Points d'Eau (Conakry Guinea), UNICEF Senegal and UNICEF Guinea. The project is funded by NERC (National Environmental Research Council, UK). Objective of the research: The presented work is only the starting point of the project aiming to elaborate an automatic procedures to manage and improve the existing database of borehole logs in Senegal and Guinea for the interpretation of shallow hydrogeological conditions and identification of suitable zones for manual drilling, in two pilot areas: Louga (Northwestern Senegal) and Faranah/Kankan (Eastern Guinea). Within the objective of the project is also considered the integration of Remote Sensing to support hydrogeological interpretation, especially where borehole logs are not present. Methodology Focus is to create a hydrogeological database, TANGAFRIC, to organize, codify and elaborate hydrogeological data. The metodology derives from the software TANGRAM (www.tangram.samit.unimib.it) produced by the University of Milano Bicocca, with innovative aspect of stratigraphic data codification, quantification and processing, connected to a hydraulic conductivity value associated to each primary lithology. Results Starting from the database of borehole logs available at national level in Senegal and Guinea (about 1400 borehole logs in Senegal and 800 in Guinea, with 20000 definitions), their structure and information have been compared and a new common database has been set up; it has a consistent structure with the structure of existing national database and data can be easily imported and exported. From this joint, the new software TANGAFRIC has been created with different purposes: -to organize in the same way wells data, since the two countries have different administrative divisions (ID code, name of village, district, regions, coordinates); -to add new wells data, not existing in the previous databases; -to codify the stratigraphic layer of each well logs with a 5-digit alphanumeric codes, using a list of categories describing texture, status and color or each layers, identified from the most recurrent lithological classes and attributes; -to attribute a specific value of hydraulic conductivity to each texture, from well data, field pumping test, bibliographic review. TANGAFRIC includes one module for data input and a second module to process the data, and extract specific parameters concerning mean texture, hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity in selected depth ranges. This is made possible by attributing a weight to the digits of the code for textures. The program calculates the percentage of the chosen lithology, as related to each individual layer, and also a weighted average of hydraulic conductivity. It has been possible to produce maps showing the distribution of main texture classes, thickness of saturated unconsolidated sediments and expected transmissivity. Furthermore, these parameters have been used to estimate the suitability for manual drilling under the hydrogeological coniditions described in each borehole logs.

  1. Well-log based prediction of temperature models in the exploration of sedimentary settings: Examples from the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Wonik, Thomas; Förster, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Temperature-depth distributions are pivotal in subsurface studies in academia as well as in georesources applications. In this regard, high-resolution temperature profiles, logged under equilibrium thermal borehole conditions, are the ultimate measure. However there are circumstances in which these measurements are not available or only measured to a certain depth so that a temperature model needs to developed. A prerequisite for such a model is the knowledge of the regional heat flow and the geological conditions translated into lithology and thermal rock properties. For the determination of the rock thermal conductivity (TC) we propose a two-step procedure: (1) the use of standard petrophysical well log and (2) the inversion of predicted TC to temperature gradients by applying Fourier's law of heat conduction. The prediction of TC is solved by using set of equations (Fuchs & Förster, 2014) developed for matrix TC of sedimentary rocks. The equations resulted from a statistical analysis of an artificial set of mineral assemblages (consisting of 15 rock-forming minerals) typical for the different types of sedimentary rocks. The matrix TC was transformed into bulk TC by using a well-log derived porosity. TC vs. depth profiles corrected for in situ (p, T) conditions finally were used in conjunction with a published site-specific heat-flow value to model a temperature profile. The methodology is shown on the example of a 4-km deep borehole at Hannover in the North German Basin. This borehole, drilled for geothermal use, penetrates thick Mesozoic sediments and terminates in the Triassic Middle-Buntsandstein formation. The temperature computation was performed, inter alia, for a borehole section in a depth range between approx. 2,320 and 3,750 m. The applied approach is able to match both predicted and measured equilibrium borehole temperature profiles with a resulting uncertainty of less than 5 %. Interval temperature gradients vary on average by < 3 °C/km.

  2. Closed-loop flow test Miravalles Geothermal Field well log results

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Eden, G.; Lawton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) conducted a closed-loop flow test in the Miravalles Geothermal Field. The closed-loop test was started in May and ran through August of 1990. The effluent from the production well PG-11 was carried by a pipeline through a monitor station to the injection well PG-2. Before starting the long-term flow test in May, cold-water injection experiments were performed in each well to determine the pressure and temperature response. A series of downhole measurements were made in each well to obtain background information. The downhole measurements were repeated in August just before terminating the flow test to evaluate the results.

  3. Design and implementation of PDA-based mobile inquiring system for oil well logging information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Dejun; Gong Dali; Ma Zhonghua; Liu Yue

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the PDA-based mobile inquiring system of oil well information and show the design of the systems. PDA-based mobile monitoring system for oil wells using the TCP\\/IP communication mechanism, the client PDA terminal through the WIFI and GPRS switch-in the data center. As the Web-Service provides the data service, one can carry on the dynamic monitor to the

  4. Movement of geothermal fluid in the Cerro Prieto field as determined from well log and reservoir engineering data

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwer, R.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrogeologic model of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in its undisturbed state, developed on the basis of well log and reservoir engineering data, is discussed. According to this model, geothermal fluid enters the field from the east through a deep (>10,000 ft) sandstone aquifer which is overlain by a thick shale unit which locally prevents the upward migration of the fluid. As it flows westward, the fluid gradually rises through faults and sandy gaps in the shale unit. Eventually, some of the fluid leaks to the surface in the western part of the field, while the rest mixes with surrounding colder waters.

  5. Fuzzy Logic Determination of Lithologies from Well Log Data: Application to the KTB Project Data set (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, David; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar

    2013-07-01

    Fuzzy logic has been used for lithology prediction with remarkable success. Several techniques such as fuzzy clustering or linguistic reasoning have proven to be useful for lithofacies determination. In this paper, a fuzzy inference methodology has been implemented as a MATLAB routine and applied for the first time to well log data from the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). The training of the fuzzy inference system is based on the analysis of the multi-class Matthews correlation coefficient computed for the classification matrix. For this particular data set, we have found that the best suited membership function type is the piecewise linear interpolation of the normalized histograms; that the best combination operator for obtaining the final lithology degrees of membership is the fuzzy gamma operator; and that all the available properties are relevant in the classification process. Results show that this fuzzy logic-based method is suited for rapidly and reasonably suggesting a lithology column from well log data, neatly identifying the main units and in some cases refining the classification, which can lead to a better interpretation. We have tested the trained system with synthetic data generated from property value distributions of the training data set to find that the differences in data distributions between both wells are significant enough to misdirect the inference process. However, a cross-validation analysis has revealed that, even with differences between data distributions and missing lithologies in the training data set, this fuzzy logic inference system is able to output a coherent classification.

  6. Neural network modelling and classification of lithofacies using well log data: a case study from KTB borehole site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Saumen; Krishna Tiwari, Ram; Kümpel, Hans-Joachim

    2007-05-01

    A novel approach based on the concept of super self-adapting back propagation (SSABP) neural network has been developed for classifying lithofacies boundaries from well log data. The SSABP learning paradigm has been applied to constrain the lithofacies boundaries by parameterzing three sets of well log data, that is, density, neutron porosity and gamma ray obtained from the German Continental Deep Drilling Project (KTB). A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks model was generated in a supervised feed-forward mode for training the published core sample data. A total of 351 pairs of input and output examples were used for self-adaptive network learning and weight and bias values were appropriately updated during each epoch according to the gradient-descent momentum scheme. The actual data analysis suggests that the SSABP network is able to emulate the pattern of all three sets of KTB data and identify lithofacies boundaries correctly. The comparisons of the maximum likelihood geological sections with the available geological information and the existing geophysical findings over the KTB area suggest that, in addition to the known main lithofacies boundaries units, namely paragneisses, metabasites and heterogeneous series containing partly calc-silicate bearing paragneisses-metabasites and alternations of former volcano-sedimentary sequences, the SSABP neural network technique resolves more detailed finer structures embedded in bigger units at certain depths over the KTB region which seems to be of some geological significance. The efficacy of the method and stability of results was also tested in presence of different levels of coloured noise. The test results suggest that the designed network topology is considerably unwavering for up to 20 per cent correlated noise; however, adding more noise (~50 per cent or more) degrades the results. Our analyses demonstrate that the SSABP based approach renders a robust means for the classification of complex lithofacies successions from the KTB borehole log data and thus may provide useful guide/information for understanding the crustal inhomogeneity and structural discontinuity in many other regions.

  7. Development and demonstration of an enhanced spreadsheet-based well log analysis software. Final report, May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Watney, W.L.; Doveton, J.H.; Guy, W.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Advanced Class Work Program is a field-based research and demonstration program for demonstration of advanced or improved technologies identified in the Department of Energy`s Class Field Demonstration Projects. The objective of the Advanced Class Work program is to conduct field demonstrations of technologies for which a small, incremental amount of work will produce or improve a transferable, useful technology for oil recovery. The goal of the program is to enhance the products of near-term Class projects and maximize the applicability and effectiveness of project results. PfEFFER (Petrofacies Evaluation of Formations For Engineering Reservoirs) is a well log analysis computer package. The software was tested and successfully applied in Schaben Field, a DOE Class 2 Field Demonstration Project to assist in improving reservoir characterization and assessing reservoir performance. PfEFFER v.1 was released in January, 1996 as a commercial spreadsheet-based well-log analysis program developed and distributed through the Kansas Geological Survey. The objectives of this project were: Task 1 -- Enhance the PfEFFER software package; Task 2 -- Develop major new modules to significantly augment PfEFFER capabilities; Task 3 -- Conduct field demonstration of software application using the necessary reservoir data acquired from oil operators and construct a database; and Task 4 -- Perform technology transfer activities that include workshops, reports, presentations, or other methods to communicate results to interested parties.

  8. Joint Stochastic Inversion of Pre-Stack 3D Seismic Data and Well Logs for High Resolution Hydrocarbon Reservoir Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Verdin, C.

    2007-05-01

    This paper describes the successful implementation of a new 3D AVA stochastic inversion algorithm to quantitatively integrate pre-stack seismic amplitude data and well logs. The stochastic inversion algorithm is used to characterize flow units of a deepwater reservoir located in the central Gulf of Mexico. Conventional fluid/lithology sensitivity analysis indicates that the shale/sand interface represented by the top of the hydrocarbon-bearing turbidite deposits generates typical Class III AVA responses. On the other hand, layer- dependent Biot-Gassmann analysis shows significant sensitivity of the P-wave velocity and density to fluid substitution. Accordingly, AVA stochastic inversion, which combines the advantages of AVA analysis with those of geostatistical inversion, provided quantitative information about the lateral continuity of the turbidite reservoirs based on the interpretation of inverted acoustic properties (P-velocity, S-velocity, density), and lithotype (sand- shale) distributions. The quantitative use of rock/fluid information through AVA seismic amplitude data, coupled with the implementation of co-simulation via lithotype-dependent multidimensional joint probability distributions of acoustic/petrophysical properties, yields accurate 3D models of petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability. Finally, by fully integrating pre-stack seismic amplitude data and well logs, the vertical resolution of inverted products is higher than that of deterministic inversions methods.

  9. Washburne anticline delta structure: model based on integration of thematic mapper, seismic, and well-log data

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.L.; Keeling, M.L.; Cassiani, D.H.

    1989-03-01

    The Washburne anticline located in western Arkansas is a prominent, thrust-related structure at the leading edge of the Ouachita orogenic belt. Previously interpreted as a complexly thrust-faulted anticline, the feature has been reinterpreted as a delta or triangle structure based on integration of surface mapping from thematic mapper (TM) data with subsurface interpretation of seismic and well-log cross sections. The northern limb of the Washburne anticline consists of a relatively unfaulted, steeply north-dipping sheet above a major north-dipping backthrust. The southern limb consists of several steeply south-dipping imbricate thrust sheets that form a duplex zone in the center of the delta structure. Seismic and well-log interpretations indicate the presence of the imbrication in the duplex zone, but poor seismic resolution within the structure made interpretation of the back thrust difficult. Surface mapping from TM imagery indicates the presence of the back thrust and the extent and geometry of the delta structure. Imbricate thrust sheets and horses also crop out, and their geometry is a guide to interpretation of subsurface data sets. The new model of the Washburne anticline as a delta structure has aided in subsurface-data analysis and has resulted in a better understanding of trap geometry and distribution. This study also demonstrates the application of detailed surface mapping from satellite remote-sensing data to prospect-scale analysis.

  10. Physical rock properties in and around a conduit zone by well-logging in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikeda, R.; Kajiwara, T.; Omura, K.; Hickman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) is not only to reveal the structure and eruption history of the Unzen volcano but also to clarify the ascent and degassing mechanisms of the magma conduit. Conduit drilling (USDP-4) was conducted in 2004, which targeted the magma conduit for the 1990-95 eruption. The total drilled length of USDP-4 was 1995.75??m. Geophysical well logging, including resistivity, gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, sonic-wave velocity, density, neutron porosity, and Fullbore Formation MicroImager (FMI), was conducted at each drilling stage. Variations in the physical properties of the rocks were revealed by the well-log data, which correlated with not only large-scale formation boundaries but also small-scale changes in lithology. Such variations were evident in the lava dike, pyroclastic rocks, and breccias over depth intervals ranging from 1 to 40??m. These data support previous models for structure of the lava conduit, in that they indicate the existence of alternating layers of high-resistivity and high P-wave velocity rocks corresponding to the lava dikes, in proximity to narrower zones exhibiting high porosity, low resistivity, and low P-wave velocity. These narrow, low-porosity zones are presumably higher in permeability than the adjacent rocks and may form preferential conduits for degassing during magma ascent. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Synchronization of Well Log Data and Geophysical Data with Remote Sensing Technique to Develop the Hydrocarbon System of Bengal Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesh, S.; Samadder, P. K.

    2012-12-01

    Remote sensing along with more conventional exploration techniques such as geophysics and reconnaissance field mapping can help to establish regional geologic relationships, to extract major structural features and to pinpoint anomalous patterns. Many well have been drilled in Bengal basin still no commercially viable reserves have been discovered. Geophysical well logging is used in virtually every oil well. It is the primary means by which we characterize the subsurface in search of hydrocarbons. Oil and gas exploration activities for large areas require ground gravity surveys to facilitate detailed geological interpretations for subsurface features integrating geological cross-sections with the sub-surface structural trends leads to the identification of prospect areas. Remote sensing, geological and geophysical data integration provide accurate geometric shapes of the basins. Bengal basin has a sedimentary fill of 10-15 km, is the northernmost of the east coast basins of India In the first phase Remote sensing satellite sensors help in identifying surface anomaly which indicates the presence of hydrocarbon reservoirs providing regional geological settings of petroleferous basins. It provides accurate and visual data for directly determining geometric shapes of basin. It assists in the selection of exploration regions by defining the existence of sedimentary basin. Remote sensing methods can generate a wealth of information useful in determining the value of exploratory prospecting. In the second phase Well Log data provide relative subsurface information for oil and gas exploration. Remote sensing data are merged with other available information such as Aeromagnetic, gravity, geochemical surveys and 2D seismic surveys. The result of this phase is to estimate the outcome of oil discovery probabilities for locating oil prospects

  12. New technological developments in oil well fire fighting equipment and methods

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, B.; Matthews, R.T.

    1995-12-31

    Since Drake`s first oil well in 1859, well fires have been frequent and disastrous. Hardly a year has passed in over a century without a well fire somewhere in the world. In the 1920`s the classic method of fire fighting using explosives to starve the fire of oxygen was developed and it has been used extensively ever since. While explosives are still one of the most frequently used methods today, several other methods are used to supplement it where special conditions exist. Tunneling at an angle from a safe distance is used in some cases, especially where the fire is too hot for a close approach on the ground surface. Pumping drilling muds into a well to plug it is another method that has been used successfully for some time. Diverter wells are occasionally used, and sometimes simply pumping enough water on a well fire is sufficient to extinguish it. Of course, prevention is always the best solution. Many advances in blow-out prevention devices have been developed in the last 50 years and the number of fires has been substantially reduced compared to the number of wells drilled. However, very little in new technology has been applied to oil well fire fighting in the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s. Overall technological progress has accelerated tremendously in this period, of course, but new materials and equipment were not applied to this field for some reason. Saddam Hussein`s environmental holocaust in Kuwait changed that by causing many people throughout the world to focus their creative energy on more efficient oil well fire fighting methods.

  13. Analysis of Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using 2D seismic data and well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouaghi, Taher; Ferhi, Issam; Bédir, Mourad; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Gasmi, Mohamed; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a structural and depositional model of lower Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using detailed facies relations in outcrops, seismic reflection data, and wells. The study interval (called the "Aptian supersequence") is subdivided into four seismic sequences containing third-order sequences. Sequence architecture was strongly affected by syndepositional tectonic movements, which controlled sequence position and distribution. Specifically, the seismic sections show irregular distribution of different zones of subsidence and uplift. The observed structures identified through the detailed mapping suggest that lower Cretaceous rifting created depressions and grabens that filled with strata characterized by divergent reflectors striking against dipping growth faults. The Aptian-Albian unconformity ("crisis") marked a change of the extensional stress field from NNW-SSE to NE-SW induced rotation of blocks and an evolution of sedimentary basin filling related to the regional tectonic deformation. Local salt tectonic movement accentuated the formation of asymmetric depocenters. The salt ascended at the junction of master faults, resulting in cross-cutting of the strata and local reworking of Triassic evaporites in Aptian strata. Basinward to landward variations of the thickness and facies associated with strata pinch-outs and unconformities are related to the main synsedimentary tectonic events that were synchronous with salt tectonic movements. Triassic salt domes and salt intrusions along faults accentuated the border elevations between basin depocenters and uplifts. These sedimentary phenomena in central Tunisia are interpreted as causally related aspects of a local and global tectonic event during the Aptian.

  14. Recent and pre-instrumental climatic conditions as reconstructed from temperature logs in wells in western and northern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Majorowicz, J.A. [Northern Geothermal, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Skinner, W.R. [Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-11-01

    This study reports a subregional analysis of ground surface temperature (GST) and surface air temperature (SAT) in Canada. Temperature logs made to depths of up to 300 m in 80 wells in the Canadian Prairie Provinces were compared with SAT in this area. A statistically significant spatial correlation was found between identical grid samples extracted from the 1950-1990 warming maps for SAT and GST warming. The results of modelling of precise temperature logs show evidence of annual warming of GST over the past half century of 2.1 C with a standard deviation of 0.9C. Annual SAT warming in this region for the same period, as derived from historical climatological records, has been 1.5C with a standard deviation of 0.4C. The difference between GST and SAT warming has been close to 40% in the boreal forest ecozone of northern Alberta and less than 10% in the prairie grassland ecozone of southern Alberta. It is hypothesized that a large portion of GST warming is a result of accelerating natural and anthropogenic land clearing through deforestation and farming. If the rate of climatic warming and anthropogenic change to the land surface continues, the southern boundary of the discontinuous permafrost will move northward at a faster rate than predicted from instrumental SAT warming data alone. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  15. Evaluating hydrocarbon source rock for unconventional shale oil play from seismic and well log data; Kingak Shale, North Slope, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedberg, Sarah Elisabeth

    It has been proposed that Acoustic impedance (AI) responses can be used to estimate total organic carbon (TOC) within thick, clay rich shale. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the AI inversion technique, and establish a methodology that can be applied to other basins. The Kingak Formation (lower Jurassic to early Cretaceous), located on the North Slope of Alaska, has been extensively evaluated for its unconventional potential. The Kingak is shale and is known to have greater than 30 percent clay. Because clay has ductile properties it makes it difficult to stimulate a well through hydraulic fracturing. This AI inversion technique was tested by utilizing synthetic seismograms to create an AI curve generated using The KINGDOM Software©. The synthetic seismograms were used to ensure a well log to seismic match. The synthetic seismograms also created an AI curve along the well. From these synthetic seismograms the AI value was compared to TOC values. It was from this comparison that a trend was observed that did not match the predicted trend. I believe the discrepancy observed was due to the sampling method. Based on this observation, I conclude that the method of tracking TOC with AI responses requires extremely controlled sampling methods; therefore it is not a beneficial method of revisiting old data sets in hopes of identifying new prospects.

  16. Inference of S-wave velocities from well logs using a Neuro-Fuzzy Logic (NFL) approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, Milagrosa; Coronado, Ronal; Hurtado, Nuri

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of S-wave velocity values is important for a complete characterization and understanding of reservoir rock properties. It could help in determining fracture propagation and also to improve porosity prediction (Cuddy and Glover, 2002). Nevertheless the acquisition of S-wave velocity data is rather expensive; hence, for most reservoirs usually this information is not available. In the present work we applied a hybrid system, that combines Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, in order to infer S-wave velocities from porosity (?), water saturation (Sw) and shale content (Vsh) logs. The Neuro-Fuzzy Logic (NFL) technique was tested in two wells from the Guafita oil field, Apure Basin, Venezuela. We have trained the system using 50% of the data randomly taken from one of the wells, in order to obtain the inference equations (Takani-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model). Equations using just one of the parameters as input (i.e. ??, Sw or Vsh), combined by pairs and all together were obtained. These equations were tested in the whole well. The results indicate that the best inference (correlation between inferred and experimental data close to 80%) is obtained when all the parameters are considered as input data. An increase of the equation number of the TSK model, when one or just two parameters are used, does not improve the performance of the NFL. The best set of equations was tested in a nearby well. The results suggest that the large difference in the petrophysical and lithological characteristics between these two wells, avoid a good inference of S-wave velocities in the tested well and allowed us to analyze the limitations of the method.

  17. Geophysical-log and hydraulic-test analyses of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community, Menominee County, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bayless, E. Randall; Anderson, J. Alton; Lampe, David C.; Williams, John H.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Hannahville Indian Community, evaluated the geohydrology of the bedrock formations and hydraulic properties of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community in Menominee County, Michigan. Geophysical logs were collected from five wells at two sites during September 2012. The logs were analyzed to characterize the lithostratigraphy, bedding and fractures, and hydraulic properties of the geologic formations and aquifers beneath the Hannahville Indian Community. The geophysical logs collected included natural gamma radiation, electromagnetic conductivity, wellbore image, caliper, ambient and stressed flowmeter, fluid resistivity, temperature, and wellbore deviation. The geophysical logs were analyzed with results from short-term hydraulic tests to estimate the transmissivity and water-level altitudes of flow zones penetrated by the wells. The geophysical log analysis indicated the wells penetrated four distinct lithostratigraphic units—shale and carbonate rock, upper carbonate rock, carbonate rock and glauconitic sandstone, and lower carbonate rock. Most of the fractures penetrated by the wellbores appeared to be related bedding partings. The lower carbonate rock unit contained solution features. Analysis of the geophysical logs and hydraulic tests indicated that each of the five wells penetrated from one to four flow zones. The Casino 5 well penetrated a flow zone that was associated with solution features and had an estimated total transmissivity of 4,280 feet squared per day (ft2/d), the highest estimate for all the wells. The Casino 3 well penetrated four flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 3,570 ft2/d. The flow zones penetrated in the lower carbonate rock unit by the Casino 3 and 5 wells were hydraulically connected. The Golf Shack well penetrated two flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 40 ft2/d, the lowest estimate for all the wells. The Community 1 and Community 2 wells penetrated three and four flow zones, respectively, and had estimated total transmissivity values of 185 and 280 ft2/d, respectively.

  18. Sweet spots discrimination in shale gas reservoirs using seismic and well-logs data. A case study from the Worth basin in the Barnett shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Boudella, Amar

    2014-05-01

    Here, we present a case study of sweet spots discrimination in shale gas reservoirs located in the Worth basin of the Barnett shale using seismic and well-logs data. Seismic attributes such the Chaos and the ANT-Tracking are used for natural fractures system identification from seismic data, the maps of the stress and the Poisson ratio obtained from the upscaling of well-logs data of a horizontal well are able to provide an information about the drilling direction which is usually in the minimum horizontal stress profile, the map of the Poisson ratio can provide an information hardness of the source rock. The set of well logs data is used for geo-mechanical and petrophysical discrimination of the sweet spots, after discrimination the identified zones are useful for reserves estimation from unconventional shale gas reservoir.

  19. Artificial Neural Networks applied to estimate permeability, porosity and intrinsic attenuation using seismic attributes and well-log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iturrarán-Viveros, Ursula; Parra, Jorge O.

    2014-08-01

    Permeability and porosity are two fundamental reservoir properties which relate to the amount of fluid contained in a reservoir and its ability to flow. The intrinsic attenuation is another important parameter since it is related to porosity, permeability, oil and gas saturation and these parameters significantly affect the seismic signature of a reservoir. We apply Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models to predict permeability (k) and porosity (?) for a carbonate aquifer in southeastern Florida and to predict intrinsic attenuation (1/Q) for a sand-shale oil reservoir in northeast Texas. In this study, the Gamma test (a revolutionary estimator of the noise in a data set) has been used as a mathematically non-parametric nonlinear smooth modeling tool to choose the best input combination of seismic attributes to estimate k and ?, and the best combination of well-logs to estimate 1/Q. This saves time during the construction and training of ANN models and also sets a lower bound for the mean squared error to prevent over-training. The Neural Network method successfully delineates a highly permeable zone that corresponds to a high water production in the aquifer. The Gamma test found nonlinear relations that were not visible to linear regression allowing us to generalize the ANN estimations of k, ? and 1/Q for their respective sets of patterns that were not used during the learning phase.

  20. Electrofacies in gas shale from well log data via cluster analysis: A case study of the Perth Basin, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torghabeh, Amir Karimian; Rezaee, Reza; Moussavi-Harami, Reza; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kamali, Mohammad Reza; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2014-09-01

    Identifying reservoir electrofacies has an important role in determining hydrocarbon bearing intervals. In this study, electrofacies of the Kockatea Formation in the Perth Basin were determined via cluster analysis. In this method, distance data were initially calculated and then connected spatially by using a linkage function. The dendrogram function was used to extract the cluster tree for formations over the study area. Input logs were sonic log (DT), gamma ray log (GR), resistivity log (IND), and spontaneous potential (SP). A total of 30 reservoir electrofacies were identified within this formation. Integrated geochemical and petrophysics data showed that zones with electrofacies 3, 4, 9, and 10 have potential for shale gas production. In addition, the results showed that cluster analysis is a precise, rapid, and cost-effective method for zoning reservoirs and determining electrofacies in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  1. Inference of strata separation and gas emission paths in longwall overburden using continuous wavelet transform of well logs and geostatistical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2014-06-01

    Prediction of potential methane emission pathways from various sources into active mine workings or sealed gobs from longwall overburden is important for controlling methane and for improving mining safety. The aim of this paper is to infer strata separation intervals and thus gas emission pathways from standard well log data. The proposed technique was applied to well logs acquired through the Mary Lee/Blue Creek coal seam of the Upper Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, using well logs from a series of boreholes aligned along a nearly linear profile. For this purpose, continuous wavelet transform (CWT) of digitized gamma well logs was performed by using Mexican hat and Morlet, as the mother wavelets, to identify potential discontinuities in the signal. Pointwise Hölder exponents (PHE) of gamma logs were also computed using the generalized quadratic variations (GQV) method to identify the location and strength of singularities of well log signals as a complementary analysis. PHEs and wavelet coefficients were analyzed to find the locations of singularities along the logs. Using the well logs in this study, locations of predicted singularities were used as indicators in single normal equation simulation (SNESIM) to generate equi-probable realizations of potential strata separation intervals. Horizontal and vertical variograms of realizations were then analyzed and compared with those of indicator data and training image (TI) data using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A sum of squared differences was employed to select the most probable realization representing the locations of potential strata separations and methane flow paths. Results indicated that singularities located in well log signals reliably correlated with strata transitions or discontinuities within the strata. Geostatistical simulation of these discontinuities provided information about the location and extents of the continuous channels that may form during mining. If there is a gas source within their zone of influence, paths may develop and allow methane movement towards sealed or active gobs under pressure differentials. Knowledge gained from this research will better prepare mine operations for potential methane inflows, thus improving mine safety.

  2. Rock physics template (RPT) analysis of well logs and seismic data for lithology and fluid classification in Cambay Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta Gupta, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Rima; Farooqui, M. Y.

    2012-07-01

    The Cambay Basin is 450-km-long north-south-trending graben with an average width of 50 km, having maximum depth of about 7 km. The origin of the Cambay and other Basins on the western margin of India are related to the break up of the Gondwana super-continent in the Late-Triassic to Early-Jurassic (215 ma). The structural disposition of the Pre-Cambrian basement—a complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks exposed in the vicinity of the Cambay Basin—controls its architecture. The principal lineaments in the Basin are aligned towards NE-SE, ENE-WSW and NNW-SSE, respectively. Rock physics templates (RPTs) are charts and graphs generated by using rock physics models, constrained by local geology, that serve as tools for lithology and fluid differentiation. RPT can act as a powerful tool in validating hydrocarbon anomalies in undrilled areas and assist in seismic interpretation and prospect evaluation. However, the success of RPT analysis depends on the availability of the local geological information and the use of the proper model. RPT analysis has been performed on well logs and seismic data of a particular study area in mid Cambay Basin. Rock physics diagnostic approach is adopted in the study area placed at mid Cambay Basin to estimate the volume in the reservoir sands from 6 wells (namely; A, B, C, D, E and F) where oil was already encountered in one well, D. In the study area, hydrocarbon prospective zone has been marked through compressional (P wave) and shear wave (S wave) impedance only. In the RPT analysis, we have plotted different kinds of graphical responses of Lame's parameters, which are the function of P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. The discrete thin sand reservoirs have been delineated through the RPT analysis. The reservoir pay sand thickness map of the study area has also been derived from RPT analysis and fluid characterization. Through this fluid characterization, oil-bearing thin sand layers have been found in well E including well D. The sand distribution results prove that this methodology has able to perform reservoir characterization and seismic data interpretation more quantitatively and efficiently.

  3. Geophysical-well-log data for study of water flow in fractures near Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four closely spaced boreholes were drilled through approximately 20 meters of till into schist bedrock near Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire. The site was selected for borehole geophysical research because it is included in a detailed groundwater study where the effects of flow in fractures on flow in overlying drift deposits is being studied. Three of the boreholes are approximately 100 meters in depth, and the fourth is approximately 230 meters in depth. All four boreholes were logged with caliper, acoustic, gamma, single-point-resistivity, and acoustic televiewer logs. Fracture sets dipping approximately 45 degrees to the east were detected in all four boreholes. Two sets of deeper fractures were detected near the bottom of the deepest borehole. Acoustic waveform logs were obtained in all boreholes using three different source frequencies, 34, 15, and 5 kilohertz, for future comparison with surface to borehole seismic data. (USGS)

  4. WATER DRIVEN DOWN-THE-HOLE WELL DRILLING EQUIPMENT FOR HARD ROCK

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Nordell; Kent Fjällström; Lars Öderyd

    A water driven down-the-hole drilling equipment (Wassara) was developed some years ago at the Kiruna mine, Sweden, which is the largest underground mine in the world. This new drilling technology has been used in their mining production for a few years. It has several advantages to pneumatic drilling methods. This water driven hammer has now for the first time been

  5. Integrating seismic attribute maps and well logs for porosity modeling in a west Texas carbonate reservoir: addressing the scale and precision problem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tingting Yao; Andre G. Journel

    2000-01-01

    A 3-D porosity field in a west Texas carbonate reservoir is modeled conditional to both “hard” porosity data sampled by wells and 2-D seismic attribute map with less vertical resolution than the well log data. The difference-of-scales between the two sources of data is resolved by a prior 2-D estimation of vertically averaged porosity using well and seismic data. These

  6. Synthetic Temperature-Depth Transients Based On Solar Forcing vs. Observed From Repeated Well Temperature Logs in the Canadian Prairies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, W.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Safanda, J.

    2009-12-01

    Temperature-logs in boreholes made initially two decades ago, and repeated a single decade ago, were recently repeated in 2006 and 2007. Modelling of the synthetic temperature-depth transients shows that repeated logs in the Canadian Prairies follow surface air temperature change forcing for the time interval between logs with surface temperature changes 0.2°C, and 0.4°C, for time spans of one and two decades, respectively. Composite top of the atmosphere (TOA) solar irradiance recorded by satellite since 1978 was scaled to the regional latitude/longitude position of the repeated logging experiment to provide a forcing signal to model subsurface temperatures, as previously done with SAT data. The feedback parameter used is assumed a priori as 3.0*COS(latitude in degrees) - 0.42) Wm-2/°C, which yields 0.71 - 0.59 for latitudes 49-52° and mean sensitivity 1.41 - 1.69 °C/Wm-2. While these sensitivity values correspond to equilibrium models in the transient times before the climate system reaches the equilibrium, the temperature change is smaller and likely closer to 1°C/Wm-2. Even for this higher mean sensitivity, the temperature response is not large enough to explain the ground surface temperature change. As surface air temperature forcing explains the observed sub-surface transients, factors other than solar forcing must be responsible for the observed large recent warming, likely anthropogenic changes related to the greenhouse effect.

  7. Fractured-bedrock aquifer studies based on a descriptive statistics of well-logging data: A case study from the Dajia River basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Po-Yi; Hsu, Shih-Meng; Chen, Po-Jui; Lin, Jung-Jun; Lo, Hung-Chieh

    2014-06-01

    A simple descriptive-statistical approach is proposed for evaluating the transmissivity of fractured-bedrock under field conditions. Based on standard well logging and identification of structural discontinuities from borehole televiewer, the approach consists of four steps: (1) determination of discontinuity properties, namely the frequency of discontinuities and the ratio of open fractures along the borehole; (2) ranking the three well logs and the discontinuity properties into tertiles (high-to-low); (3) performing statistical analysis ( F-test) for the three well logs to assess the significance of open fractures on the water-transmitting potential and then assigned a weighting factor; and (4) a semi-quantitative indicator, RGVFO, is obtained by multiplying all predictive indexes and weighting factors. It is a multi-criteria evaluation procedure that elucidates the quantitative and qualitative importance of all selected geophysical indexes. A high cross-correlation between transmissivity to RGVFO value is found, which indicates that by a combined consideration of well logging and structural discontinuities, an appropriate estimate of bedrock water-transmitting potential can be derived.

  8. Comparison of Petrophysical Rock Types from Core and Well-logs using Post-stack 3D Seismic Data: Field Example from Maracaibo-Venezuela

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    Comparison of Petrophysical Rock Types from Core and Well-logs using Post-stack 3D Seismic Data with post stack 3D seismic data analysis was used to assess the petrophysical rock type distribution in an area located on the West side of Lake Maracaibo-Venezuela. The calculated petrophysical rock types were

  9. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin (Arizona and Sonora) using Well Logs, Geologic Mapping, Gravity, Magnetics, and Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegary, J. B.; Page, W. R.; Megdal, S.; Gray, F.; Scott, C. A.; Berry, M.; Rangel, M.; Oroz Ramos, L.; Menges, C. M.; Jones, A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Congress passed the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act which provides a framework for study of aquifers shared by the United States and Mexico. The aquifer of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin was chosen as one of four priority aquifers for several reasons, including water scarcity, a population greater than 300,000, groundwater as the sole source of water for human use, and a riparian corridor that is of regional significance for migratory birds and other animals. Several new mines are also being proposed for this area which may affect water quality and availability. To date, a number of studies have been carried out by a binational team composed of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mexican National Water Commission, and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora. Construction of a cross-border hydrogeologic framework model of the basin between Amado, Arizona and its southern boundary in Sonora is currently a high priority. The relatively narrow Santa Cruz valley is a structural basin that did not experience the same degree of late Cenozoic lateral extension and consequent deepening as found in other basin-and-range alluvial basins, such as the Tucson basin, where basin depth exceeds 3000 meters. This implies that storage may be much less than that found in other basin-and-range aquifers. To investigate the geometry of the basin and facies changes within the alluvium, a database of over one thousand well logs has been developed, geologic mapping and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys have been carried out, and information from previous electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravity studies is being incorporated into the hydrogeologic framework. Initial geophysical surveys and analyses have focused on the portion of the basin west of Nogales, Arizona, because it supplies approximately 50% of that city's water. Previous gravity and magnetic modeling indicate that this area is a narrow, fault-controlled half graben. Preliminary modeling of airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic surveys corroborates earlier conclusions from the gravity modeling that depth to bedrock is greater than 500 meters in some locations. Results from other portions of the study area including Mexico are still being evaluated and incorporated into the three-dimensional hydrologic framework which will ultimately be used to construct a groundwater flow model.

  10. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...maintained, and/or tested as necessary to control the well in foreseeable conditions and circumstances, including subfreezing conditions. The well shall be continuously monitored during well-completion operations and shall not be left...

  11. Application of well log analysis for source rock evaluation in the Duwi Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sharawy, Mohamed S.; Gaafar, Gamal R.

    2012-05-01

    Several models were developed to use the conventional wireline logs for evaluating the thermal maturity of the source rock and calculating the total organic carbon (TOC) content. Application of these models for the Duwi Formation, southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt, is the main purpose of this paper. Gamma ray, density, sonic, resistivity and neutron are the commonly used wireline logs to identify and quantify source rock. The results, which compared with the results obtained from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis show that cautions must be taken into consideration when applied these models because most of the models are empirical and their validation takes place under certain conditions. It can be concluded that the Duwi Formation represents very good source rock capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbon of oil-prone type II. The kerogen is waxy sapropel related to marine plankton deposited under reduced condition.

  12. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...fluid before the change in such fluid level decreases the hydrostatic...the equivalent well-control fluid volume shall be calculated...the operator's station. A mechanical, volumetric, or electronic...the amount of well-control fluid required to fill the hole...

  13. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...fluid before the change in such fluid level decreases the hydrostatic...the equivalent well-control fluid volume shall be calculated...the operator's station. A mechanical, volumetric, or electronic...the amount of well-control fluid required to fill the hole...

  14. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...fluid before the change in such fluid level decreases the hydrostatic...the equivalent well-control fluid volume shall be calculated...the operator's station. A mechanical, volumetric, or electronic...the amount of well-control fluid required to fill the hole...

  15. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...fluid before the change in such fluid level decreases the hydrostatic...the equivalent well-control fluid volume shall be calculated...the operator's station. A mechanical, volumetric, or electronic...the amount of well-control fluid required to fill the hole...

  16. Estimating the Amount of Eroded Section in a Partially Exhumed Basin from Geophysical Well Logs: An Example from the North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, W. Matthew; Hayba, Daniel O.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The reconstruction of burial and thermal histories of partially exhumed basins requires an estimation of the amount of erosion that has occurred since the time of maximum burial. We have developed a method for estimating eroded thickness by using porosity-depth trends derived from borehole sonic logs of wells in the Colville Basin of northern Alaska. Porosity-depth functions defined from sonic-porosity logs in wells drilled in minimally eroded parts of the basin provide a baseline for comparison with the porosity-depth trends observed in other wells across the basin. Calculated porosities, based on porosity-depth functions, were fitted to the observed data in each well by varying the amount of section assumed to have been eroded from the top of the sedimentary column. The result is an estimate of denudation at the wellsite since the time of maximum sediment accumulation. Alternative methods of estimating exhumation include fission-track analysis and projection of trendlines through vitrinite-reflectance profiles. In the Colville Basin, the methodology described here provides results generally similar to those from fission-track analysis and vitrinite-reflectance profiles, but with greatly improved spatial resolution relative to the published fission-track data and with improved reliability relative to the vitrinite-reflectance data. In addition, the exhumation estimates derived from sonic-porosity logs are independent of the thermal evolution of the basin, allowing these estimates to be used as independent variables in thermal-history modeling.

  17. Ultrasonic technology for enhanced oil recovery from failing oil wells and the equipment for its implemention.

    PubMed

    Abramov, Vladimir O; Mullakaev, Marat S; Abramova, Anna V; Esipov, Igor B; Mason, Timothy J

    2013-09-01

    A new method for the ultrasonic enhancement of oil recovery from failing wells is described. The technology involves lowering a source of power ultrasound to the bottom of the well either for a short treatment before removal or as a permanent placement for intermittent use. In wells where the permeability is above 20 mD and the porosity is greater than 15% ultrasonic treatment can increase oil production by up to 50% and in some cases even more. For wells of lower permeability and porosity ultrasonic treatment alone is less successful but high production rates can be achieved when ultrasound is applied in conjunction with chemicals. An average productivity increase of nearly 3 fold can be achieved for this type of production well using the combined ultrasound with chemical treatment technology. PMID:23587727

  18. Automatic lithofacies segmentation from well-logs data. A comparative study between the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Walsh transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Rabhi, Abdessalem; Rouina, Fouzi; Benaissa, Zahia; Boudella, Amar

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to realize a comparison between two lithofacies segmentation techniques of reservoir interval. The first one is based on the Kohonen's Self-Organizing Map neural network machine. The second technique is based on the Walsh transform decomposition. Application to real well-logs data of two boreholes located in the Algerian Sahara shows that the Self-organizing map is able to provide more lithological details that the obtained lithofacies model given by the Walsh decomposition. Keywords: Comparison, Lithofacies, SOM, Walsh References: 1)Aliouane, L., Ouadfeul, S., Boudella, A., 2011, Fractal analysis based on the continuous wavelet transform and lithofacies classification from well-logs data using the self-organizing map neural network, Arabian Journal of geosciences, doi: 10.1007/s12517-011-0459-4 2) Aliouane, L., Ouadfeul, S., Djarfour, N., Boudella, A., 2012, Petrophysical Parameters Estimation from Well-Logs Data Using Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7667, 2012, pp 730-736, doi : 10.1007/978-3-642-34500-5_86 3)Ouadfeul, S. and Aliouane., L., 2011, Multifractal analysis revisited by the continuous wavelet transform applied in lithofacies segmentation from well-logs data, International journal of applied physics and mathematics, Vol01 N01. 4) Ouadfeul, S., Aliouane, L., 2012, Lithofacies Classification Using the Multilayer Perceptron and the Self-organizing Neural Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7667, 2012, pp 737-744, doi : 10.1007/978-3-642-34500-5_87 5) Weisstein, Eric W. "Fast Walsh Transform." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/FastWalshTransform.html

  19. A simple well-logging tool using boron-lined sodium iodide scintillators and an 241Am-Be neutron source.

    PubMed

    Rasoulinejad, M; Izadi Najafabadi, R; Ghal-Eh, N

    2012-09-01

    A couple of 2-inch by 2-inch right cylinder sodium iodide scintillators and an Am-Be radioisotope neutron source have been used in a neutron porosity well-logging tool to explore the variation of hydrogen contents in a prototype formation. Both Monte Carlo N-particle transport code simulation and experimental results of the near- to far-detector responses confirm the reliable sensitivity of proposed tool to the formation porosity. PMID:22434921

  20. Preliminary design of a special casing joint for a well equipped twin horizontal drainholes in the Oxnard field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Oxnard field is presently under production,with a typical average monthly oil production of about 70,000 B, of which the Vaca Tar sand represents more than half.It is Unitized and operated under cyclic steam injection.The hot Tar and produced water are lifted to the surface with rod pumps equipped for injection of a diluent. The produced WOR is about 2.5 and the GOR is about 150 scf/B. The Vaca Tar sand originally contained about 400 million STB. The estimated recoverable reserve under full-scale cyclic steam injection is 100 to 120 Million STB. Under steamflood, it might reach 240 million STB. The objectives of this field test are: (1) increase well productivity by using a vertical well equipped with twin horizontal drainholes, each of about 1,000 ft. reach; (2) maximize the well draw-down by locating the horizontal wells near the base of the sand layer; (3) reduce capital cost by using twin drainholes connected to the same vertical cased well; (4) reduce operating expenses by eliminating the need for a service rig to pull-out the rods and pump before each steam injection cycle; and (5) be adaptable to other operating modes.

  1. Float equipment including float collars and modular plugs for well operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Langer

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a float collar for use in well operations. It comprises an elongated hollow tubular body, a seal plate disposed across the hollow tubular body, the seal plate having an integral outwardly extending arm member sealingly contacting an inner surface of the hollow tubular body, the seal plate having a bore for fluid flow therethrough, an amount of

  2. Detection of overpressure zones and a statistical model for pore pressure estimation from well logs in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, Dip Kumar; Chatterjee, Rima

    2014-04-01

    high pressures, measured by repeat formation tester (RFT) and detected by well log data from 10 wells in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin, occur in the Vadaparru Shale of Miocene and Raghavapuram Shale of Early Cretaceous age. Overpressures generated by disequilibrium compaction, and pore pressures have been estimated using the conventional Eaton sonic equation with an exponent of 3.0. The observed abnormal pore pressure gradient ranges from 11.85 to 13.10 MPa/km, whereas fracture pressure gradient varies from 17.40 to 19.78 MPa/km. The magnitude of vertical stress (Sv) has a gradient from 21.00 to 23.10 MPa/km. The minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh) magnitude is found to vary from 64 to 77% of the Sv in normally pressured to overpressured sediments. A multiple linear regression model with a squared multiple correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.94 is proposed for pore pressure prediction from gamma ray, density and sonic logs to focus on efficient drilling operations and to prevent borehole instability. The statistical model has been calibrated with the RFT data from five wells covering about 3400 sq. km area of the onshore K-G Basin. The model predicted pore pressure values are in close agreement with the actual RFT data for another four wells including a well in the offshore K-G Basin. Hence, the proposed regression model may be useful for predicting pore pressure from other well logs in the K-G Basin.

  3. The efficiency calibration and development of environmental correction factors for an in situ high-resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. Absolute efficiency calibration of the GSLS was performed using simple cylindrical borehole geometry. The calibration source incorporated naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) that emitted photons ranging from 186-keV to 2,614-keV. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software. A linear relationship was found between increasing source thickness and relative photon fluence rates at the detector. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, relative photon fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Attenuation effects due to iron, water, PVC, and concrete cylindrical shields were found to agree with previous studies. Regression analyses produced energy-dependent equations for efficiency corrections applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs collected under non-standard borehole conditions.

  4. Core, well log, and seismic integrated stratigraphic study of humid and arid climate lacustrine oil shales, Green River Formation: Washakie Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, K.S.; Miskell-Gerhardt, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    An integrated sequence-stratigraphic framework has been constructed for three lacustrine oil shale intervals in the Green River Formation of southwestern Wyoming. The framework was developed by integrating parasequences and parasequence stacking patterns identified in core and outcrop, with well logs, seismic geometries and seismic facies. Because base level in lacustrine environments is directly related to rainfall rather than eustasy, the development of facies assemblages within each systems tract of lacustrine depositional sequences, as well as the geometrices of stratal units, differ from the traditional marine model. Recognition of these differences resulted in the development of two idealized depositional sequence models, one each for arid and humid climates.

  5. The specific purpose Monte Carlo code McENL for simulating the response of epithermal neutron lifetime well logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Gardner, R.P.; Verghese, K. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Center for Engineering Applications and Radioisotopes)

    1993-08-01

    A new specific purpose Monte Carlo code called McENL for modeling the time response of epithermal neutron lifetime tools is described. The code was developed so that the Monte Carlo neophyte can easily use it. A minimum amount of input preparation is required and specified fixed values of the parameters used to control the code operation can be used. The weight windows technique, employing splitting and Russian Roulette, is used with an automated importance function based on the solution of an adjoint diffusion model to improve the code efficiency. Complete composition and density correlated sampling is also included in the code and can be used to study the effect on tool response of small variations in the formation, borehole, or logging tool composition and density. An illustration of the latter application is given here for the density of a thermal neutron filter. McENL was benchmarked against test-pit data for the Mobil pulsed neutron porosity (PNP) tool and found to be very accurate. Results of the experimental validation and details of code performance are presented.

  6. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall each...

  7. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  8. Study effects of geopressured-geothermal subsurface environment on elastic properties of Texas Gulf Coast sandstones and shales using well logs, core data, and velocity surveys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, A.R.

    1980-05-01

    Relations between porosity and permeability for the Pleasant Bayou wells were determined from conventional core data. Porosities from the time average equations required compaction correction factors of 1.9 in hydropressured sandstones and 1.0 in geopressured sandstones. Best average prmeabilities in the geopressured zone were found in the primary production interval 14,687 to 14,716 ft (4477 to 4485 m). Average density gradients were 2.106 x 10/sup -3/ and 2.688 x 10/sup -3/ (gm/cm/sup 3/)/100 ft in sandstones and shales respectively. Compressional (P-wave) and shear (S-wave) velocities from the long-spaced sonic log and bulk densities from the formation density log were used to compute in-situ elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, V/sub p//V/sub s/, and bulk compressibility in two intervals of deep geopressured sandstone and shale in No. 2 Pleasant Bayou. Most computed values of these parameters seem reasonable. Improved accuracy of travel times from the long-spaced sonic log should permit more accurate depth-to-time correlation with seismic data.

  9. Characteristics of Virginia's Logging Operations

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Harvesting in Virginia Characteristics of Virginia's Logging Operations Scott M. Barrett Joshua L. Chandler M. There are an estimated 900 logging businesses in Virginia that harvest and transport timber to wood processing facilities. Understanding logging systems, and the equipment utilized, can help everyone involved in the wood supply chain

  10. October 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING

    E-print Network

    , and networking equipment, and the applications on the systems. Guide to Computer Security Log Management GuideOctober 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY Shirley Radack, Editor

  11. Logs of wells and boreholes drilled during hydrogeologic studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, January 1, 1982--June 30, 1988: January 1, 1982 through June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, K.C.; Crow, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    We present the hydrogeologic well logs for monitor wells and exploratory boreholes drilled at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 between the beginning of environmental investigations in June 1982 and the end of June 1988. These wells and boreholes were drilled as part of studies made to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), high explosive (HE) compounds, and tritium in soil, rock, and ground water at Site 300. The well logs for 293 installations comprise the bulk of this report. We have prepared summaries of Site 300 geology and project history that provide a context for the well logs. Many of the logs in this report have also been published in previous topical reports, but they are nevertheless included in order to make this report a complete record of the wells and boreholes drilled prior to July 1988. A commercially available computer program, LOGGER has been used since late 1985 to generate these logs. This report presents details of the software programs and the hardware used. We are presently completing a project to devise a computer-aided design (CAD) system to produce hydrogeologic cross sections and fence diagrams, utilizing the digitized form of these logs. We find that our system produces publication-quality well and exploratory borehole logs at a lower cost than that of logs drafted by traditional methods.

  12. Elemental concentration logging with a germanium spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.A.; Schweitzer, J.S. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States)); Draxler, J.K.

    1991-11-01

    The German deep-well project is currently drilling a scientific well in northeastern Bavaria at the intersection of the African and Northern European tectonic plates. This well is scheduled to be drilled to a depth of {approximately}10 km to study the geochemical processes involved in the alteration of minerals under high temperature and pressure. As an initial stage in this project, a well was drilled to a depth of 4 km within 200 m of the site selected for the deep well. This well was fully cored and extensively logged with both commercial and experimental logging systems. Cores, as well as cuttings and fluids, were extensively analyzed in a well-site laboratory established specifically for that purpose. One of the experimental logging systems run in the 4-km well was a gamma-ray spectrometer that used a {sup 252}Cf source for delayed activation measurements and a neutron generator that produces 14-MeV neutrons for thermal neutron-capture gamma-ray measurements. There were two primary goals of this project. The first was to confirm the validity of elemental concentration determinations from commercial logging equipment, based on NaI(Tl) detectors, in this crystalline rock environment. The commercial equipment determines the elements: aluminum, silicon, sulfur, calcium, titanium, iron, gadolinium, potassium, thorium, and uranium. The second was to determine additional elemental concentrations that can be used to enhance the geo-chemical studies of the crystalline rock mineralogy.

  13. Mesozoic Karoo and post-Karoo formations in the Kilwa area, southeastern Tanzania - a stratigraphic study based on palynology, micropaleontology and well log data from the Kizimbani Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balduzzi, A.; Msaky, E.; Trincianti, E.; Manum, S. B.

    1992-11-01

    The Kizimbani exploration well, drilled by Agip (Africa) Ltd. in the Kilwa area of southeastern Tanzania in 1979, has provided new information on the Karoo basin in the coastal region of Tanzania and its post-Karoo geohistory. The sediments can be divided into four major lithostratigraphic units which have been dated on palynological and micropalaeontological evidence: The Ngerengere(?) Beds, of Early Jurassic age, are resting on metamorphic basement (reached at 2612 m depth) and consist of approximately 700 m of continental conglomerates, sandstones and clays representing the youngest Karoo. Succeeding these beds are three post-Karoo units which are correlatable with lithostratigraphic units previously described from outcrops. These start with the Middle Jurassic Matumbi Series (600 m of clays and limestones) followed by the Middle(?) to Late Jurassic Pindiro Shales and Evaporites (1100 m) and terminate with the mid-Cretaceous Kingongo and Kihuluhulu marls (250 m). The evaporites are assigned a Late Jurassic age in contrast to earlier interpretation of another well (Mandawa No. 7) which had placed them in the upper part of the Karoo sequence (Triassic - ?Early Jurassic). A geohistory diagram has been constructed for the Kizimbani Well and a reinterpretation is offered for the Mandawa No. 7 Well.

  14. INTERPRETATION OF POROSITY AND FLUID CONSTITUENTS FROM WELL-LOGS USING AN INTERACTIVE NEUTRON-DENSITY MATRIX SCALE

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    neutron and density measurements is still the most reliable estimate of reservoir porous space from well porosity, t, in gas-bearing formations is approximated with the formula (Gaymard and Poupon, 1968) 2 2 2 2 and Poupon's (1968) formulations for calculation of hydrocarbon density, hc, and detection of oil- and gas-bearing

  15. Geophysical logs and water-quality data collected for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B, and a Kimama water supply well near Kimama, southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, a research consortium led by scientists from Utah State University began drilling the first of three continuously cored boreholes on the Snake River Plain in southern Idaho. The goals of this effort, the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, are to study the interaction between the Earth's crust and mantle, to identify potential geothermal energy sources, and to track the evolution of the Yellowstone hotspot on the Snake River Plain. The first borehole, located near Kimama, Idaho, is about 50 miles southwest of the U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho National Laboratory. Because geohydrologic data are scarce for that area of the central Snake River Plain, the Kimama borehole, completed in January 2011, provided a unique opportunity to collect geophysical and water-chemistry data from the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer system, downgradient of the laboratory. Therefore, in conjunction with the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey's Idaho National Laboratory Project Office conducted geophysical logging and collected water samples at the Kimama site. Wireline geophysical logs were collected for the diverging borehole, Kimama-1A and -1B, from land surface to 976 and 2,498 feet below land surface (BLS), respectively. Water samples were collected from Kimama-1A at depths near 460 and 830 feet BLS, and from the Kimama Water Supply (KWS) well located about 75 feet away. Geophysical log data included a composite of natural gamma, neutron, gamma-gamma dual density, and gyroscopic analysis for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B. Geophysical logs depicted eight sediment layers (excluding surficial sediment) ranging from 4 to 60 feet in thickness. About 155 individual basalt flows were identified, ranging from less than 3 feet to more than 175 feet in thickness (averaging 15 feet) for borehole Kimama-1B (0 to 2,498 feet BLS). Sediment and basalt contacts were selected based on geophysical traces and were confirmed with visual inspection of core photographs. Temperature logs from the water table surface (about 260 feet BLS) to the bottom of borehole Kimama-1B (2,498 feet BLS) were nearly isothermal, ranging from about 62 to 64 degrees Fahrenheit. Gyroscopic data revealed that borehole Kimama-1B begins to separate from borehole Kimama-1A near a depth of 676 feet BLS. Drillhole azimuth and horizontal deviation at total logged depth for boreholes Kimama-1A and -1B were 172.6 and 188.3 degrees and 25.9 and 82.0 feet, respectively. Water samples were collected and analyzed for common ions; selected trace elements; nutrients; isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon; and selected radionuclides. One set of water samples was collected from the KWS well and the two other sample sets were collected from borehole Kimama-1A near 460 and 830 feet BLS. With one exception, data for all three zones sampled near Kimama generally indicated that the water chemistry was similar. The exception was found in the deepest zone in borehole Kimama-1A (830 feet BLS) where concentrations probably were affected by the drilling mud. A comparison of the inorganic, organic, and stable chemistry data between the KWS well and the 460-foot zone in borehole Kimama-1A indicated similar chemistry of the aquifer water, except for some variability with nitrate plus nitrite, orthophosphate, iron, zinc, and carbon-14. Radionuclide concentrations were either less than reporting levels or at background levels for the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer.

  16. Analysis and Summary Report of Historical Dry Well Gamma Logs for the 241-B Tank Farm 200 East

    SciTech Connect

    SYDNOR, H.A.

    2000-06-05

    This report provides a summary of the gross gamma ray data for the 241-B Tank Farm and is intended to identify changes in the gamma activity of gamma-emitting radionuclide contaminants around each accessible borehole, and is not intended to provide interpretation of the data relative to vadose zone mechanics. Trends in data, as well as areas where additional information would be helpful in evaluating the unusual nature of some of the data, are discussed.

  17. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Kumar, R.M.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    Field operations, which were conducted as a cooperative effort between Conoco and Gruy Federal, began on January 16, 1980 when the well was spudded. The well was drilled to 3692 feet, and 18 cores recovered in 18 core-barrel runs (144 feet). Upon completion of the coring phase, the hole was drilled to a total depth of 4150 feet and a complete suite of geophysical logs was run. Logging was then followed by completion and testing by Concoco. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations. Residual oil saturation were 259 STB/acre-ft for the 4035 - 4055 feet interval, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the 3692 - 3718 feet interval. Nine BOPD was produced from the 4035 - 4055 feet interval and no oil was produced from 3692 to 3718 feet interval, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. 68 figures, 11 tables.

  18. Method for interpreting well log records to yield indications of gas/oil in an earth formation such as a sandstone, limestone, or dolostone

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.D.; Brown, R.J.S.; Runge, R.J.

    1983-08-16

    The present invention indicates that acoustic characteristics associated with a first well penetration a gas/oil-containing strata such as a sandstone, limestone or dolostone, can be normalized (and favorably compared) with similar characteristics of a second, contiguous well of known hydrocarbon potential, such characteristics being calculated and displayed by means of a machine-implemented data processing method in which well logging and geologic data are fed thereto to calculate such characteristics without the need for shear-wave velocities. In more detail, in accordance with the invention brine-saturated bulk and shear moduli, (i.e., Kw and Gw) of a sandstone, limestone or dolostone penetrated by the second well can be predicted as a funtions of, say, brine-saturated P-wave modulus (PW *) alone (independent of shear-wave velocity). In that way, resulting acoustic values including distinct velocity and amplitude values as a function of a saturation operator can ultimately be provided. Such values, when compared to actual, in-well, field-generated characteristics of the first well, are surprisingly accurate predictors of the amount of gas/oil maturation in and around the first well. The method has particular accuracy in designating gas zones within formations of interest due to use of the complete Benedict-Webb-Rubin non-ideal gas law in pseudo-reduced form.

  19. Depositional Model for the Middle Eocene Oberlin Sand in Northwest Oberlin Field and Adjacent Areas, Allen Parish, Louisiana: A Well-log and Seismic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVey, Timothy Keith

    The depositional environment of the middle to late Eocene Oberlin sand of Northwest Oberlin Field and Pilgrim Church Field in central Allen Parish, Louisiana, was investigated. The depositional environment of the Oberlin sand has been interpreted from observations of spontaneous potential log signatures, conventional core reports, paleontological reports, shape of isochore maps, coherency extraction attribute, amplitude extraction attribute, and multiple seismic and subsurface cross sections. Focus is centered on the juxtaposition of component sand bodies and their proximity to the interdistributary and prodelta environments. Sand bodies include distributary channels, distributary mouth bars, crevasse subdeltas and shelfal bars and are interpreted to be the products of lower deltaic and shelf processes. The results of this study are based on seismic analysis, display techniques and subsurface maps calibrated to well logs, models, and recognition criteria of modern and ancient depositional environments previously described in the regional literature. The integration of all available data provides an objective and systematic approach detailing the origin, lateral extent, geometry and architecture of the Oberlin sand in the lower deltaic plain and shelf environments. The results of this study may be applicable to similar age sands on trend with the study area. Understanding of sand component types of the lower deltaic and shelf environments is vital to exploration success and development optimization of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs.

  20. Method for interpreting well log records to yield indications of gas/oil in an earth formation such as a sandstone, limestone, or dolostone

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.D.; Brown, R.J.S.; Runge, R.J.

    1983-07-12

    The present invention indicates that acoustic characteristics associated with a first well penetrating a gas/oilcontaining strata such as a sandstone, limestone or dolostone, can be normalized (and favorably compared) with similar characteristics of a second, contiguous well of known hydrocarbon potential, such characteristics being calculated and displayed by means of a machineimplemented data processing method in which well logging and geologic data are fed thereto to calculate such characteristics without the need for shear-wave velocities. In more detail, in accordance with the invention brinesaturated bulk and shear moduli, (i.e., Kw and Gw) of a sandstone, limestone or dolostone penetrated by the second well can be predicted as a function of, say, brinesaturated P-wave modulus (Pw) alone (independent of shear-wave velocity). In that way, resulting acoustic values including distinct velocity and amplitude values as a function of a saturation operator can ultimately be provided. Such values, when compared to actual, inwell, field-generated characteristics of the first well, are surprisingly accurate predictors of the amount of gas/oil saturation in and around the first well. The method has particular accuracy in designating gas zones within formations of interest due to use of the complete Benedict-Webb-Rubin non-ideal gas law in psuedo-reduced form.

  1. The thermal regime in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera, California: Inferences from precision temperature logs in deep wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Farrar, Christopher D.; Williams, Colin F.

    2010-12-01

    Long Valley Caldera in eastern California formed 0.76 Ma ago in a cataclysmic eruption that resulted in the deposition of 600 km 3 of Bishop Tuff. The total current heat flow from the caldera floor is estimated to be ~ 290 MW, and a geothermal power plant in Casa Diablo on the flanks of the resurgent dome (RD) generates ~40 MWe. The RD in the center of the caldera was uplifted by ~ 80 cm between 1980 and 1999 and was explained by most models as a response to magma intrusion into the shallow crust. This unrest has led to extensive research on geothermal resources and volcanic hazards in the caldera. Here we present results from precise, high-resolution, temperature-depth profiles in five deep boreholes (327-1,158 m) on the RD to assess its thermal state, and more specifically 1) to provide bounds on the advective heat transport as a guide for future geothermal exploration, 2) to provide constraints on the occurrence of magma at shallow crustal depths, and 3) to provide a baseline for future transient thermal phenomena in response to large earthquakes, volcanic activity, or geothermal production. The temperature profiles display substantial non-linearity within each profile and variability between the different profiles. All profiles display significant temperature reversals with depth and temperature gradients <50 °C/km at their bottom. The maximum temperature in the individual boreholes ranges between 124.7 °C and 129.5 °C and bottom hole temperatures range between 99.4 °C and 129.5 °C. The high-temperature units in the three Fumarole Valley boreholes are at the approximate same elevation as the high-temperature unit in borehole M-1 in Casa Diablo indicating lateral or sub-lateral hydrothermal flow through the resurgent dome. Small differences in temperature between measurements in consecutive years in three of the wells suggest slow cooling of the shallow hydrothermal flow system. By matching theoretical curves to segments of the measured temperature profiles, we calculate horizontal groundwater velocities in the hydrothermal flow unit under the RD that range from 1.9 to 2.8 m/yr, which corresponds to a maximum power flowing through the RD of 3-4 MW. The relatively low temperatures and large isothermal segments at the bottom of the temperature profiles are inconsistent with the presence of magma at shallow crustal levels.

  2. Yucatan Subsurface Stratigraphy from Geophysical Data, Well Logs and Core Analyses in the Chicxulub Impact Crater and Implications for Target Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, I.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Camargo, A. Z.; Perez-Cruz, G.

    2011-12-01

    Asymmetries in the geophysical signature of Chicxulub crater are being evaluated to investigate on effects of impact angle and trajectory and pre-existing target structural controls for final crater form. Early studies interpreted asymmetries in the gravity anomaly in the offshore sector to propose oblique either northwest- and northeast-directed trajectories. An oblique impact was correlated to the global ejecta distribution and enhanced environmental disturbance. In contrast, recent studies using marine seismic data and computer modeling have shown that crater asymmetries correlate with pre-existing undulations of the Cretaceous continental shelf, suggesting a structural control of target heterogeneities. Documentation of Yucatan subsurface stratigraphy has been limited by lack of outcrops of pre-Paleogene rocks. The extensive cover of platform carbonate rocks has not been affected by faulting or deformation and with no rivers cutting the carbonates, information comes mainly from the drilling programs and geophysical surveys. Here we revisit the subsurface stratigraphy in the crater area from the well log data and cores retrieved in the drilling projects and marine seismic reflection profiles. Other source of information being exploited comes from the impact breccias, which contain a sampling of disrupted target sequences, including crystalline basement and Mesozoic sediments. We analyze gravity and seismic data from the various exploration surveys, including multiple Pemex profiles in the platform and the Chicxulub experiments. Analyses of well log data and seismic profiles identify contacts for Lower Cretaceous, Cretaceous/Jurassic and K/Pg boundaries. Results show that the Cretaceous continental shelf was shallower on the south and southwest than on the east, with emerged areas in Quintana Roo and Belize. Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sediments show variable thickness, possibly reflecting the crystalline basement regional structure. Paleozoic and Precambrian basement outcrops are located farther to the southeast in Belize and northern Guatemala. Inferred shelf paleo-bathymetry supports existence of a sedimentary basin extending to the northeast, where crater rim and terrace zones are subdued in the seismic images.

  3. Sandstone and shale compaction curves derived from sonic and gamma ray logs in offshore wells, North Slope, Alaska; parameters for basin modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hayba, Daniel O.; Nelson, Philip H.; Burns, W. Matthew; Houseknecht, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Representative compaction curves for the principle lithologies are essential input for reliable models of basin history. Compaction curves influence estimates of maximum burial and erosion. Different compaction curves may produce significantly different thermal histories. Default compaction curves provided by basin modeling packages may or may not be a good proxy for the compaction properties in a given area. Compaction curves in the published literature span a wide range, even within one lithology, e.g., sandstone (see Panel 3). An abundance of geophysical well data for the North Slope, from both government and private sources, provides us with an unusually good opportunity to develop compaction curves for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian sandstones, siltstones, and shales. We examined the sonic and gamma ray logs from 19 offshore wells (see map), where significant erosion is least likely to have occurred. Our data are primarily from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian sequence and are less complete for older sequences. For each well, the fraction of shale (Vsh) at a given depth was estimated from the gamma ray log, and porosity was computed from sonic travel time. By compositing porosities for the near-pure sand (Vsh99%)from many individual wells we obtained data over sufficient depth intervals to define sandstone and shale 'master' compaction curves. A siltstone curve was defined using the sonic-derived porosities for Vsh values of 50%. These compaction curves generally match most of the sonic porosities with an error of 5% or less. Onshore, the curves are used to estimate the depth of maximum burial at the end of Brookian sedimentation. The depth of sonic-derived porosity profiles is adjusted to give the best match with the 'master' compaction curves. The amount of the depth adjustment is the erosion estimate. Using our compaction curves, erosion estimates on the North Slope range from zero in much of the offshore, to as much as 1500 ft along the coast, and to more than 10,000 ft in the foothills (Panel 3). Compaction curves provide an alternative to vitrinite reflectance for estimating erosion. Vitrinite reflectance data are often very sparse in contrast to well log data and are subject to inconsistencies when measurements are made by different labs. The phenomenon of 'recycling' can also make the reflectance values of dispersed vitrinite problematic for quantifying erosion. Recycling is suspected in dispersed vitrinite in North Slope rocks, particularly in the younger, Cretaceous-Tertiary section. The compaction curves defined here are being integrated into our burial history and thermal models to determine the timing of source rock maturation. An example on Panel 3 shows the results of calculating the maturity of the Shublik Fm. at the Tulaga well using two different sets of shale and siltstone compaction curves. Finally, accurate compaction curves improve a model's ability to realistically simulate the pressure regime during burial, including overpressures.

  4. Applying multiwell normalization in open hole log analysis

    E-print Network

    Sinanan, Haydn Brent

    1997-01-01

    A major problem when analyzing open hole well logging data in large fields is the fact that the logs were run using different logging service companies, using different logging tools over a long time span. To obtain correct log interpretations...

  5. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-02-12

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative to volcanic-rock units is exemplified by the large difference in their estimated maximum hydraulic conductivity; 4,000 and 400 feet per day, respectively. Simulated minimum estimates of hydraulic conductivity are inexact and represent the lower detection limit of the method. Minimum thicknesses of lithologic intervals also were defined for comparing AnalyzeHOLE results to hydraulic properties in regional ground-water flow models.

  6. Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in well MG-1693 at North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bird, Philip H.

    2006-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in well MG-1693 (NP-87) at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pa. Objectives of the study were to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of vertical borehole flow, and effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wells. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and borehole-video logs were collected. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and select depths to set packers. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of water-bearing zones and effects of pumping individual zones on water levels in two nearby monitor wells. Specific capacities of isolated zones during aquifer-isolation tests ranged from 0.03 to 3.09 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. Water enters the borehole primarily through high-angle fractures at 416 to 435 ft bls (feet below land surface) and 129 to 136 ft bls. Water exits the borehole through a high-angle fracture at 104 to 107 ft bls, a broken casing joint at 82 ft bls, and sometimes as artesian flow through the top of the well. Thirteen intervals were selected for aquifer-isolation testing, using a straddle-packer assembly. The specific capacity of interval 1 was 2.09 (gal/min)/ft. The specific capacities of intervals 2, 3, and 4 were similar: 0.27, 0.30, and 0.29 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. The specific capacities of intervals 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 were similar: 0.03, 0.04, 0.09, 0.09, and 0.04 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. Intervals 9, 11, and 12 each showed a strong hydraulic connection outside the borehole with intervals above and below the isolated interval. The specific capacities of intervals 9, 11, 12, and 13 were similar: 2.12, 2.17, 3.09, and 3.08 (gal/min)/ft, respectively. The aquifer-isolation tests indicate that wells MG-1693 (NP-87) and MG-924 (NP-21) are connected primarily through the high-angle fracture from 416 to 435 ft bls. Pumping in either of these wells directly impacts the other well, allowing the pumped well to draw from water-bearing zones in the non-pumped well that are not present in or are not connected directly to the pumped well. The two boreholes act as a single, U-shaped well. The aquifer-isolation tests also show that the lower zones in well MG-1693 (NP-87) are a major source of hydraulic head in well MG-1661 (W-13) through the broken casing joint at 82 ft bls. Water moving upward from the lower intervals in well MG-1693 (NP-87) exits the borehole through the broken casing joint, moves upward outside the borehole, possibly around and (or) through a poor or damaged casing seal, and through the weathered zone above bedrock to well MG-1661 (W-13). Samples for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in nine isolated intervals. Six compounds were detected (1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethene (TCE)), and TCE was found in all nine isolated intervals. Intervals 4 (124-149 ft bls) and 6 (277-302 ft bls) had the highest total concentration of VOCs (6.66 and 6.2 micrograms per liter, respectively). Intervals 1 (68-93 ft bls) and 4 each had five compounds detected, which was the highest number of compounds detected. Interval 5 (252-277 ft bls) had the lowest total concentration of VOCs (0.08 microgram per liter) and the least number of VOCs detected (one). Detected compounds were not evenly distributed throughout the intervals. Contaminants were found in shallow, intermediate, and deep intervals and were associated with

  7. Wells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wells: From the Groundwater Foundation's web site this page explains what a well is, the three basic types, how they are constructed, how they may become contaminated, etc. There are also links to GWF programs and events and to the Kid's Corner.

  8. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

  9. Dielectric well logging system with at least three transmitter coils and at least two receiver coils for determining resistivity and dielectric constant of a subsurface formation adjacent a fluid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. T. Cox; R. A. Meador; R. G. Jr. Riedesel; K. D. Savage

    1986-01-01

    A dielectric well logging apparatus is described for obtaining amplitude ratios and phase differences between electromagnetic wave energy signals which have passed different distances through a subsurface formation adjacent a well borehole, so that an analyst may determine resistivity and dielectric constants for the different distances of travel through the formation. The apparatus consists of: (a) sonde means for moving

  10. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

  11. Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

  12. How Well Does Brazil's Environmental Law Work in Practice? Environmental Impact Assessment and the Case of the Itapiranga Private Sustainable Logging Plan.

    PubMed

    Eve; Arguelles; Fearnside

    2000-09-01

    / The Itapiranga Sustainable Logging Plan provides an example of how Brazil's licensing system functions for logging companies in the state of Amazonas. Two questions need to be dealt with: "How sustainable can logging in the Amazon be?" and "What and how effective are existing legal mechanisms to deal with logging projects?" The environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental impact statement (EIS, known as the RIMA in Brazil), present relatively detailed accounts of biodiversity and the need to adopt conservation strategies to protect it. However, social and health impacts are only superficially addressed. The economic sustainability of the operation over multiple cycles is not demonstrated. The multidisciplinary teams responsible for the EIA and EIS (RIMA) reports are hired by the project proponent, an arrangement inherently carrying the risk of biasing the result. Logging reduces biodiversity, releases greenhouse gases and inflicts social and health costs. These impacts reduce the ability of Amazonian forests to provide environmental services and to supply food and livelihood security to local populations. The reports inflate positive effects such as employment: the estimated number of jobs was cut by more than half in a revision made after the EIA and EIS (RIMA) had been approved. Not only do the reports need to be more realistic in assessing both positive and negative consequences of proposed projects, but better means are needed to ensure that promised mitigatory measures are enforced in practice. Many of the lessons that can be drawn from the Itapiranga Plan are not unique to logging projects and apply to licensing of development activites generally in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:10977880

  13. Reviews Book: Enjoyable Physics Equipment: SEP Colorimeter Box Book: Pursuing Power and Light Equipment: SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher Equipment: Sciencescope GLE Datalogger Equipment: EDU Logger Book: Physics of Sailing Book: The Lightness of Being Software: Logotron Insight iLog Studio iPhone Apps Lecture: 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Enjoyable Physics Mechanics book makes learning more fun SEP Colorimeter Box A useful and inexpensive colorimeter for the classroom Pursuing Power and Light Account of the development of science in the 19th centuary SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher An excellent resource for teaching about projectiles GLE Datalogger GPS software is combined with a datalogger EDU Logger Remote datalogger has greater sensing abilities Logotron Insight iLog Studio Software enables datlogging, data analysis and modelling iPhone Apps Mobile phone games aid study of gravity WORTH A LOOK Physics of Sailing Book journeys through the importance of physics in sailing The Lightness of Being Study of what the world is made from LECTURE The 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture presents the physics of fusion WEB WATCH Planet Scicast pushes boundaries of pupil creativity

  14. Overpressure prediction by mean total stress estimate using well logs for compressional environments with strike-slip or reverse faulting stress state

    E-print Network

    Ozkale, Aslihan

    2007-04-25

    by modifying Eaton�s pore-pressure equations, which require either resistivity or sonic log data. The method was tested in the Snorre Field in the Norwegian North Sea, where the field changes from strike-slip to reverse stress state. Eaton...

  15. Estimating permeability in the Wilcox G' sandstone in the Lake Creek Gas unit well No. 48 using data from logging measurements. The evaluation of formation permeability using time lapse measurements during and after drilling. Topical report, September 1991August 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Holditch; C. Y. Yao

    1993-01-01

    In this research, the authors have developed technology that allows an engineer to better understand mud filtration in low to medium permeability gas reservoirs. They use this knowledge to analyze log data to improve our estimates of formation permeability by layer. By developing accurate permeability profiles of the reservoir layers, they can optimize well completions in layered complex gas reservoirs.

  16. Estimating permeability in the Wilcox G' sandstone in the Lake Creek Gas unit well No. 48 using data from logging measurements. The evaluation of formation permeability using time lapse measurements during and after drilling. Topical report, September 1991-August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Holditch, S.A.; Yao, C.Y.

    1993-08-01

    In this research, the authors have developed technology that allows an engineer to better understand mud filtration in low to medium permeability gas reservoirs. They use this knowledge to analyze log data to improve our estimates of formation permeability by layer. By developing accurate permeability profiles of the reservoir layers, they can optimize well completions in layered complex gas reservoirs.

  17. The superdeep well of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlovsky, Y.A.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents papers on the exploration and production of petroleum in the USSR. Topics considered include geological surveys, metamorphism, geochemistry, mineralization, hydrology, geophysical surveys, well logging, rock electrical properties, natural radioactivity, drilling parameters, choosing drilling equipment, the stability of borehole walls, drill cores, drilling fuels, and a technical and economic evaluation of well drilling.

  18. Log Tape

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    In this activity students construct Log Tapes calibrated in base-ten exponents, then use them to derive relationships between base-ten logs (exponents) and antilogs (ordinary numbers).  This is activity B1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

  19. Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production test. The XPT measurement results showed approximately 0.1 to several mD of water permeability in both the hydrate-bearing formation and seal formation, although there are some variations in measured values. However, the comparison of these results with permeability estimated by NMR log showed significant discrepancy (more than one order of difference), which suggests that it is necessary to have further investigation considering the difference in scale, measurement direction (Kh or Kv), and calibration methodology by pressure core data. In order to obtain basic reservoir/seal properties for the well log calibration within and above production test interval, pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System (Hybrid PCS) and also non-destructive core analysis onboard using Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System (PCATS) were conducted for 60 m interval in AT1-C, which located about 10 m northeast of AT1-MC. Finally, integrated reservoir characterization based on well-log and pressure core data was conducted to predict and optimize the flow rate of upcoming production test.

  20. Digital-log management system

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, A.A.; Potts, J.K.

    1995-08-01

    Digital-log data is essential to any petrophysical and log-correlation software package. Gathering of such data, however, is often painstaking and laborious. A significant portion of the interpreter`s valuable time is spent in data compilation and verification. In response to this data management need in Conoco, the digital-log management system (called LMS) was developed. The LMS uses existing data-storage standards and stable technology to implement a common digital-log management solution throughout the company. To achieve system portability, LMS is delivered with a stable well-data model and a comprehensive log catalogue maintained in a relational database.

  1. Using Flow Logging Experiments to Bridge the Scale Gap in Borehole Geophysics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Paillet

    2001-01-01

    Until the recent development of high-resolution borehole flow logging equipment, geophysical well logs were indirectly related to aquifer parameters such as porosity and permeability through various interpretation equations. Heat-pulse and electro-magnetic flowmeters allow the direct measurement of aquifer permeability in situ during borehole flow experiments. An important limitation on the interpretation such flow experiments is the scale of investigation, because

  2. CSimMDMV: A parallel program for stochastic characterization of multi-dimensional, multi-variant, and multi-scale distribution of heterogeneous reservoir rock properties from well log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun-Wei; Bellefleur, Gilles; Milkereit, Bernd

    2011-11-01

    We present CSimMDMV, a software package to simulate two- and three-dimensional, multi-variant heterogeneous reservoir models from well logs at different characteristic scales. Based on multi-variant conditional stochastic simulation, this software is able to parameterize multi-dimensional heterogeneities and to construct heterogeneous reservoir models with multiple rock properties. The models match the well logs at borehole locations, simulate heterogeneities at the level of detail provided by well logging data elsewhere in the model space, and simultaneously honor the correlations present in various rock properties. It provides a versatile environment in which a variety of geophysical experiments can be performed. This includes the estimation of petrophysical properties and the study of geophysical response to the heterogeneities. This paper describes the theoretical basis of the approach and provides the details of the parallel implementation on a Linux cluster. A case study on the assessment of natural gas hydrate amount in Northwest Territories, Canada is provided. We show that the combination of rock physics theory with multiple realizations of three-dimensional and three-variant (3D-3V) gas hydrate reservoir petrophysical models enable us to estimate the average amount of gas hydrate and associated uncertainties using Monte Carlo method.

  3. SCHOOL WEEKLY MILEAGE LOG Team _____________________________ Mileage Log

    E-print Network

    SCHOOL WEEKLY MILEAGE LOG Team _____________________________ Mileage Log (team name) Directions for you on the website. Week number Estimated number of children walking Number of days walked this week

  4. Relation between the fractal distribution of elastic parameters in the earth crust and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value of earthquakes: A method to estimate b-values from sonic well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Sonic well logs provide in situ measurements of physical properties and their fluctuations in the earth crust. The analysis of log data from various sites suggests that elastic parameters exhibit a heterogeneous distribution characterized by broad band fractal scaling. However, the significance of this finding for the distribution of stress inside the earth crust has not yet been analyzed. Independently from the works above, it was shown that power law scaling of the number of earthquake with magnitude, expressed in the Gutenberg-Richter relation, can be explained by fractal distributed stress. However, a direct reason for the fractal distribution of stress is still lacking. In this paper we establish relations between the fractal distribution of elastic parameters, stress field variations and the Gutenberg-Richter b-value of earthquakes. We extract information about elastic parameter distribution from sonic logs to create an elastically heterogeneous 3D random medium with a fractal spatial correlation function. Using the finite element program Abaqus we apply an externally homogeneous stress field and compute the resulting stress distribution inside the elastically heterogeneous medium. We use geomechanical considerations to determine the distribution of Coulomb Failure Stress (CFS) as a measure of the vicinity to failure. The resulting CFS distribution is highly heterogeneous, of fractal nature and strongly related to the initially assigned elastic parameters. We assume that rupturing, once it is initiated (e.g. by an increase of stress or pore pressure), takes place along isovolumes of CFS. We determine the number size distribution of isovolumes and compute their characteristic area. The distribution of characteristic fault planes and correspondingly magnitudes exhibits power law scaling according to the Gutenberg Richter law. We find that elastic heterogeneity leads to b-values in the range of 1well logs. The application of our method to well log data measured along the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB, Germany) main hole results in a realistic b-value of b=1.4.

  5. 2010 Daily Fire Log Date & Time

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    2010 Daily Fire Log Fire Log Date & Time Occurred General Location Nature of the Fire Comment 2/24/10 1930 Dorm- Commonwealth Hall Unintentional ­Heating equipment Small fire caused by books being placed materials Report of a trash can on fire in front of AS&T; fire extinguished; fire department responded

  6. Processing, Analysis, and General Evaluation of Well-Driller Logs for Estimating Hydrogeologic Parameters of the Glacial Sediments in a Ground-Water Flow Model of the Lake Michigan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, Leslie D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot study for the National Assessment of Water Availability and Use Program to assess the availability of water and water use in the Great Lakes Basin. Part of the study involves constructing a ground-water flow model for the Lake Michigan part of the Basin. Most ground-water flow occurs in the glacial sediments above the bedrock formations; therefore, adequate representation by the model of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments is important to the accuracy of model simulations. This work processed and analyzed well records to provide the hydrogeologic parameters of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity and ground-water levels for the model layers used to simulated ground-water flow in the glacial sediments. The methods used to convert (1) lithology descriptions into assumed values of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity for entire model layers, (2) aquifer-test data into point values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and (3) static water levels into water-level calibration data are presented. A large data set of about 458,000 well driller well logs for monitoring, observation, and water wells was available from three statewide electronic data bases to characterize hydrogeologic parameters. More than 1.8 million records of lithology from the well logs were used to create a lithologic-based representation of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments. Specific-capacity data from about 292,000 well logs were converted into horizontal hydraulic conductivity values to determine specific values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and its aerial variation. About 396,000 well logs contained data on ground-water levels that were assembled into a water-level calibration data set. A lithology-based distribution of hydraulic conductivity was created by use of a computer program to convert well-log lithology descriptions into aquifer or nonaquifer categories and to calculate equivalent horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities (K and KZ, respectively) for each of the glacial layers of the model. The K was based on an assumed value of 100 ft/d (feet per day) for aquifer materials and 1 ft/d for nonaquifer materials, whereas the equivalent KZ was based on an assumed value of 10 ft/d for aquifer materials and 0.001 ft/d for nonaquifer materials. These values were assumed for convenience to determine a relative contrast between aquifer and nonaquifer materials. The point values of K and KZ from wells that penetrate at least 50 percent of a model layer were interpolated into a grid of values. The K distribution was based on an inverse distance weighting equation that used an exponent of 2. The KZ distribution used inverse distance weighting with an exponent of 4 to represent the abrupt change in KZ that commonly occurs between aquifer and nonaquifer materials. The values of equivalent hydraulic conductivity for aquifer sediments needed to be adjusted to actual values in the study area for the ground-water flow modeling. The specific-capacity data (discharge, drawdown, and time data) from the well logs were input to a modified version of the Theis equation to calculate specific capacity based horizontal hydraulic conductivity values (KSC). The KSC values were used as a guide for adjusting the assumed value of 100 ft/d for aquifer deposits to actual values used in the model. Water levels from well logs were processed to improve reliability of water levels for comparison to simulated water levels in a model layer during model calibration. Water levels were interpolated by kriging to determine a composite water-level surface. The difference between the kriged surface and individual water levels was used to identify outlier water levels. Examination of the well-log lithology data in map form revealed that the data were not only useful for model input, but also were useful for understanding th

  7. Interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, aquifer-isolation tests, and water quality, supply wells 1 and 2, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Frasch, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water pumped from supply wells 1 and 2 on the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) provides water for use at the base, including potable water for drinking. The supply wells have been contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), particularly trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the water is treated to remove the VOC?s. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Triassic-age Stockton Formation, which form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer. The ground-water-flow system for the supply wells was characterized by use of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed upward and downward borehole flow under nonpumping conditions in both wells. The hydraulic and chemical properties of discrete water-bearing fractures in the supply wells were characterized by isolating each water-bearing fracture with straddle packers. Eight fractures in supply well 1 and five fractures in supply well 2 were selected for testing on the basis of the borehole geophysical logs and borehole television surveys. Water samples were collected from each isolated fracture and analyzed for VOC?s and inorganic constituents. Fractures at 50?59, 79?80, 196, 124?152, 182, 241, 256, and 350?354 ft btoc (feet below top of casing) were isolated in supply well 1. Specific capacities ranged from 0.26 to 5.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 179.8?188 ft btoc. Specific capacity and depth of fracture were not related in either supply well. The highest concentrations of PCE were in water samples collected from fractures isolated at 236.8?245 and 249.8?258 ft btoc, which are hydraulically connected. The concentration of PCE generally increased with depth to a maximum of 39 mg/L (micrograms per liter) at a depth of 249.8? 258 ft btoc and then decreased to 21 mg/L at a depth of 345.3?389 ft btoc. Fractures at 68?74, 115, 162, 182, 205, and 314 ft btoc were isolated in supply well 2. Specific capacities ranged from 0.08 to less than 2.9 (gal/ min)/ft. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 157?165.2 ft btoc. Concentrations of detected VOC?s in water samples were 3.6 mg/L or less. Lithologic units penetrated by both supply wells were determined by correlating naturalgamma and single-point-resistance borehole geophysical logs. All lithologic units are not continuous water-bearing units because water-bearing fractures are not necessarily present in the same lithologic units in each well. Although the wells penetrate the same lithologic units, the lithologic location of only three water-bearing fractures are common to both wells. The same lithologic unit may have different hydraulic properties in each well. A regional ground-water divide is southeast of the supply wells. From this divide, ground water flows northwest toward Park Creek, a tributary to Little Neshaminy Creek. Potentiometric-surface maps were prepared from water levels measured in shallow and deep wells. For both depth intervals, the direction of ground-water flow is toward the northwest. For most well clusters, the vertical head gradient is downward from the shallow to the deeper part of the aquifer. Pumping of the supply wells at times can cause the vertical flow direction to reverse.

  8. GEOPHYSICAL WELL LOG/CORE DESCRIPTIONS, CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray

    2003-12-01

    Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

  9. Petrographic image logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, C.J.; Ulrich, M.R.; Maxwell, G.B. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Adams, J.P. (Advanced Logging Technologies, Beaumont, TX (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The Petrographic Image Logging System (PILS) is a logging system data base for Macintosh computers that allows the merging of traditional wire-line, core, and mud log data with petrographic images. The system is flexible; it allows the user to record, manipulate, and display almost any type of character, graphic, and image information. Character and graphic data are linked and entry in either mode automatically generates the alternate mode. Character/graphic data may include such items as ROP, wire-line log data, interpreted lithologies, ditch cutting lith-percentages, porosity grade and type, grain size, core/DST information, and sample descriptions. Image data may include petrographic and SEM images of cuttings, core, and thin sections. All data are tied to depth. Data are entered quickly and easily in an interactive manner with a mouse, keyboard, and digitizing tablet or may be imported and immediately autoplotted from a variety of environments via modem, network, or removable disk. Color log displays, including petrographic images, are easily available on CRT or as hardcopy. The system consists of a petrographic microscope, video camera, Macintosh computer, video framegrabber and digitizing tablet. Hardcopy is scaleable and can be generated by a variety of color printing devices. The software is written in Supertalk, a color superset of the standard Apple Hypercard programming language, hypertalk. This system is being tested by Mobil in the lab and at the well site. Implementation has provided near 'real-time' core and cuttings images from drilling wells to the geologist back at the office.

  10. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  11. Sample descriptions and geophysical logs for cored well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V. J. S.; Skipp, Gary L.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Davis, Joshua K.; Benson, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    BP-3-USGS was sited to test hypotheses developed from geophysical studies and to answer questions about the history and evolution of Pliocene and Pleistocene Lake Alamosa, which is represented by lacustrine deposits sampled by the well. The findings reported here represent a basis from which future studies can answer these questions and address other important scientific questions in the San Luis Valley regarding geologic history and climate change, groundwater hydrology, and geophysical interpretation.

  12. Logs help approximate reservoir temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fertl, W.H.

    1985-04-29

    Parameters have been studied to better understand and analytically describe temperature distribution in well bores. Some of these parameters include: fluid temperature behavior in the borehole during well tripping; BHT while drilling; temperature profile over the entire borehole; and determination of true formation temperature from geophysical wire line logging devices. The technique presented in this article corrects open hole log temperatures to true formation temperature.

  13. Digital archive of drilling mud weight pressures and wellbore temperatures from 49 regional cross sections of 967 well logs in Louisiana and Texas, onshore Gulf of Mexico basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.

  14. Integrated Analysis of Flow, Temperature, and Specific-Conductance Logs and Depth-Dependent Water-Quality Samples from Three Deep Wells in a Fractured-Sandstone Aquifer, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Knutson, Kevin D.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of flow, temperature, and specific-conductance logs and depth-dependent water-quality samples collected under ambient and pumped conditions provided a preliminary delineation of flow zones and water quality in three deep abandoned water-supply wells. The integrated analysis was completed as part of the characterization of a fractured-sandstone aquifer in the mountainous setting of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory in southern Ventura County, California. In the deepest well, which was 1,768 feet deep and had the highest specific capacity (120 gallons per minute per foot), flow zones were detected at 380 feet (base of casing) and at 440, 595, and 770 feet in the open hole. Under ambient conditions, measured flow was downward from the 380- and 440-foot zones to the 595- and 770-foot zones. Under pumped conditions, most of flow was contributed by the 595-foot zone. Flow from the 380- and 440-foot zones appeared to have lower specific conductance and higher trichloroethylene concentrations than that from the 595-foot zone. In the shallowest well, which was reportedly 940 feet deep but only logged to 915 feet due to blockage, flow zones were detected behind the perforated casing and at 867 feet in the open hole. Under ambient conditions, downward and upward flows appeared to exit at a zone behind the perforated casing at 708 feet. Most of the pumped flow was contributed from zones behind the perforated casing between 565 and 708 feet. Pumped flow also was contributed by zones at 867 feet and below the logged depth. Volatile organic compounds were not detected in the ambient and pumped flows. In the third well, which was 1,272 feet deep and had the lowest specific capacity (3.6 gallons per minute per foot), flow zones were detected in the open hole above and just below the water level near 337 feet and at 615, 785, 995, and 1,070 feet. Under ambient conditions, measured flow in well was downward from the shallowmost zones to the 995-foot zone. Fracture zones at 615, 785, and 995 feet each contributed about one-third of the pumped flow measured below the pump. Volatile organic compounds were not detected in the ambient and pumped flows.

  15. Log Truck-Weighing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    ELDEC Corp., Lynwood, Wash., built a weight-recording system for logging trucks based on electronic technology the company acquired as a subcontractor on space programs such as Apollo and the Saturn launch vehicle. ELDEC employed its space-derived expertise to develop a computerized weight-and-balance system for Lockheed's TriStar jetliner. ELDEC then adapted the airliner system to a similar product for logging trucks. Electronic equipment computes tractor weight, trailer weight and overall gross weight, and this information is presented to the driver by an instrument in the cab. The system costs $2,000 but it pays for itself in a single year. It allows operators to use a truck's hauling capacity more efficiently since the load can be maximized without exceeding legal weight limits for highway travel. Approximately 2,000 logging trucks now use the system.

  16. The application of well logging and seismic modeling to assess the degree of gas saturation in Miocene strata (Carpathian Foredeep, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzec, Pawe?; Niepsuj, Magdalena; Ba?a, Maria; Pietsch, Kaja

    2014-02-01

    The presence of natural gas in the pore space of reservoir rocks results in a significant decrease in P-wave velocity. Even low gas saturation can generate seismic anomalies (DHI) and false image of gas accumulation of economic importance. This article presents an attempt to evaluate gas saturation from 2D seismic section in the Miocene sandstone strata in the south-eastern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. The ESTYMACJA program and the Biot-Gassmann model were used to study the dependence between elastic parameters and saturating fluids (water and gas) recorded in wells. Series of calculations was carried out using a method of fluid substitution for various gas saturation. The applicability of seismic data for evaluating gas saturation of reservoir beds was assessed with the use of 1D modelling (synthetic seismograms) and 2D modelling (theoretical seismic section) calculated for different gas saturation. The proposed methodology can be used to identify low and high gas-saturated zones and contour the reservoir.

  17. Impeller flow-meter logging of vertical cross flow between basalt aquifers through wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. Progress report, June 22, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Bennecke, W.M.; Wood, S.H.

    1992-12-31

    An impeller flowmeter was used with a COLOG digital acquisition system to determine existing borehole flows, to compare with previous logging results, and to acquire flow measurements of vertical cross-flow of water in the wells between permeable zones in the open-hole intervals. The direction of flow found was predominantly downward with velocities ranging from 0-30 ft/min. Some flow reversals were noted and attributed to nearby pumping wells. USGS wells 44 and 46 were studied in September, 1991 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The results showed a usual overall flow direction downward with flow entering the wells at around 510 to 600 ft. below the land surface. Water exited these wells at lower levels around 550 to 580 ft. Flow velocities ranged up to 24 ft/min. Using published aquifer parameters, the rate of propagation of a pressure change in an aquifer was calculated for the well CPP-2 turning on and off, at 3100 gpm.

  18. Method and apparatus for acoustic well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Y. Chung; S. T. Chen; J. C. Wainerdi; M. A. Miller

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of establishing multipole acoustic waves in a subsurface earth formation traversed by a borehole with a sonde, having a central longitudinal axis, comprising the steps of: simultaneously generating 2N acoustic pressure waves, where N is an integer not less than one, originating from a corresponding number of discrete locations spaced radially outward from the central longitudinal

  19. Dielectric well logging system with at least three transmitter coils and at least two receiver coils for determining resistivity and dielectric constant of a subsurface formation adjacent a fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, P.T.; Meador, R.A.; Riedesel, R.G. Jr.; Savage, K.D.

    1986-09-02

    A dielectric well logging apparatus is described for obtaining amplitude ratios and phase differences between electromagnetic wave energy signals which have passed different distances through a subsurface formation adjacent a well borehole, so that an analyst may determine resistivity and dielectric constants for the different distances of travel through the formation. The apparatus consists of: (a) sonde means for moving through the well borehole; (b) at least three transmitter coils for emitting radio frequency energy into the formation at different depths in the borehole, the coils being spaced from each other in the sonde means for disposition at different depths in the borehole; (c) control means for controlling the activation of the transmitter coils; (d) receiver coils for receiving energy from the transmitter coils after passage through the formation and borehole, the receiver coils being spaced from each other and from the transmitter coils in the sonde for disposition at different depths in the borehole; (e) the receiver coils forming in groups of two different transmitter-receiver pairs, differently spaced from the other receiver pairs, with each of the transmitter coils; (f) receiver circuit means for forming signals representing the electromagnetic wave energy received in the receiver coils; and (g) processing circuit means for forming output signals representative of the phase difference and amplitude ratio for each of the different transmitter-receiver pairs so that the analyst may determine the resistivity and dielectric constants for the different distances of travel to determine if fluid invasion is present in the formation.

  20. Testing the controls on the seismic sequence stratigraphy of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in Southern Iran with a Wheeler diagram derived from outcrops, seismic and well logs data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chehri, Amin; Kendall, Christopher; Ghadimvand, Nader Kohansal; Samadi, Latif

    2014-12-01

    In this study of Southern Iran the timing of the boundary between the Eocene to Oligo-Miocene sections was determined along with a better understanding of the accumulation of the Paleocene to Eocene sediments. This was established by generating Wheeler diagrams from local seismic, well log data and surface data. This boundary was found to be mainly erosional and the time gap between Eocene to Oligo-Miocene displayed by the Wheeler diagram suggests a "degradational vacuity" formed. Relative sea level changes were found to be responsible for the seaward progradational character of the Jahrum Formation sediments. Red sediments and an intraformational conglomerate overlie this erosional boundary between the Paleocene to the Eocene Jahrum Formation and the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation. Long-term lower frequency trends in both regional tectonic and global sea-level curves determined from the Paleocene-Eocene sediments of south Iran, when compared to the coastal plain sediments of US New Jersey and the global coastal onlap chart, suggest that contemporaneous eustastic signals in lower Eocene time produced matching sedimentary patterns. The results of the study recorded in this paper are intended to be used as the foundation of the study of petroleum related facies and petroleum system components (source, reservoir and seal rocks) in the Tertiary portion of sedimentary section.

  1. Logs to Soil

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lawrence Hall of Science

    1982-01-01

    In this outdoor activity, learners cut through and investigate rotten logs and then make log-profile puzzles for each other. Learners cut through the limb to expose a vertical profile, study the pattern of decay, and find evidence for the tree’s life history. This activity calls for learners to saw logs, but for younger groups, adults can do the sawing.

  2. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  3. INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE PETROPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF POST- AND PRE-STACK 3-D SEISMIC DATA, WELL-LOG DATA, CORE DATA, GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND RESERVOIR PRODUCTION DATA VIA BAYESIAN STOCHASTIC INVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; Mrinal K. Sen

    2004-03-01

    The present report summarizes the work carried out between September 30, 2002 and August 30, 2003 under DOE research contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15305. During the third year of work for this project we focused primarily on improving the efficiency of inversion algorithms and on developing algorithms for direct estimation of petrophysical parameters. The full waveform inversion algorithm for elastic property estimation was tested rigorously on a personal computer cluster. For sixteen nodes on the cluster the parallel algorithm was found to be scalable with a near linear speedup. This enabled us to invert a 2D seismic line in less than five hours of CPU time. We were invited to write a paper on our results that was subsequently accepted for publication. We also carried out a rigorous study to examine the sensitivity and resolution of seismic data to petrophysical parameters. In other words, we developed a full waveform inversion algorithm that estimates petrophysical parameters such as porosity and saturation from pre-stack seismic waveform data. First we used a modified Biot-Gassmann equation to relate petrophysical parameters to elastic parameters. The transformation was validated with a suite of well logs acquired in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. As a part of this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis and found that the porosity is very well resolved while the fluid saturation remains insensitive to seismic wave amplitudes. Finally we conducted a joint inversion of pre-stack seismic waveform and production history data. To overcome the computational difficulties we used a simpler waveform modeling algorithm together with an efficient subspace approach. The algorithm was tested on a realistic synthetic data set. We observed that the use of pre-stack seismic data helps tremendously to improve horizontal resolution of porosity maps. Finally, we submitted four publications to refereed technical journals, two refereed extended abstracts to technical conferences, and delivered two oral presentation at a technical forum. All of these publications and presentations stemmed from work directly related to the goals of our DOE project.

  4. Teff log g nHe Teff log g A

    E-print Network

    #12;#12;B Teff log g nHe Teff log g nHe Teff + #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;2 #12;+ #12;#12;Teff #12;+ °A + + #12;+ Teff log g °A log g - Teff log g - Teff #12;- + + + + log g - Teff #12;#12;Teff #12; 10 #12; 8 #12; 6 -2 4 3 8 9 � 10 #12;#12;Teff log g nHe n

  5. Spatial delineation, fluid-lithology characterization, and petrophysical modeling of deepwater Gulf of Mexico reservoirs though joint AVA deterministic and stochastic inversion of three-dimensional partially-stacked seismic amplitude data and well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Arturo Javier

    This dissertation describes a novel Amplitude-versus-Angle (AVA) inversion methodology to quantitatively integrate pre-stack seismic data, well logs, geologic data, and geostatistical information. Deterministic and stochastic inversion algorithms are used to characterize flow units of deepwater reservoirs located in the central Gulf of Mexico. A detailed fluid/lithology sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess the nature of AVA effects in the study area. Standard AVA analysis indicates that the shale/sand interface represented by the top of the hydrocarbon-bearing turbidite deposits generate typical Class III AVA responses. Layer-dependent Biot-Gassmann analysis shows significant sensitivity of the P-wave velocity and density to fluid substitution, indicating that presence of light saturating fluids clearly affects the elastic response of sands. Accordingly, AVA deterministic and stochastic inversions, which combine the advantages of AVA analysis with those of inversion, have provided quantitative information about the lateral continuity of the turbidite reservoirs based on the interpretation of inverted acoustic properties and fluid-sensitive modulus attributes (P-Impedance, S-Impedance, density, and LambdaRho, in the case of deterministic inversion; and P-velocity, S-velocity, density, and lithotype (sand-shale) distributions, in the case of stochastic inversion). The quantitative use of rock/fluid information through AVA seismic data, coupled with the implementation of co-simulation via lithotype-dependent multidimensional joint probability distributions of acoustic/petrophysical properties, provides accurate 3D models of petrophysical properties such as porosity, permeability, and water saturation. Pre-stack stochastic inversion provides more realistic and higher-resolution results than those obtained from analogous deterministic techniques. Furthermore, 3D petrophysical models can be more accurately co-simulated from AVA stochastic inversion results. By combining AVA sensitivity analysis techniques with pre-stack stochastic inversion, geologic data, and awareness of inversion pitfalls, it is possible to substantially reduce the risk in exploration and development of conventional and non-conventional reservoirs. From the final integration of deterministic and stochastic inversion results with depositional models and analogous examples, the M-series reservoirs have been interpreted as stacked terminal turbidite lobes within an overall fan complex (the Miocene MCAVLU Submarine Fan System); this interpretation is consistent with previous core data interpretations and regional stratigraphic/depositional studies.

  6. 6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

  7. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  8. University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM Please return form to Financial Services Attn: Debt, including the return of proceeds to the Federal government. Estimated proceeds: $ Purchase Order: Sale: Any of proceeds to the Federal government. Estimated proceeds: $ FAS Account: Stolen: University Police Department

  9. Hanford wells

    SciTech Connect

    McGhan, V.L.

    1989-06-01

    The Site Characterization and Assessment Section of the Geosciences Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has compiled a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The list of wells will be used by DOE contractors who need condensed, tabular information on well location, construction, and completion dates. This report does not include data on lithologic logs and ground-water contamination. Moreover, the completeness of this list is limited because of new well construction and existing well modifications, which are continually under way. Despite these limitations, this list represents the most complete description possible of data pertaining to wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Evaluating and logging tight rocks of south Texas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fett

    1980-01-01

    Drilling and production experience in the tight-rock oil- and gas-producing sands in south Texas have taught operators the importance of comprehensive logging programs for evaluating the formations, notes Schlumberger Well Services. Sample logs from throughout the play show that porosity and shaliness are often the deciding factors in determining whether a zone will produce commercially. The minimum logging program needed

  11. Engineered Log Jam

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Engineered Log Jam on the lower river opposite the new Lower Klallam Tribe Fish Hatchery. The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe project creates salmon habitat on the lower Elwha River in preparation for dam removal and habitat restoration....

  12. Blood Glucose Log

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cut here ¢ cut here ¢ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... plan, physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  13. Transfer Log.xls

    Cancer.gov

    ANIMAL TRANSFER LOG Date of Move: ________________ Cage Type C = Auto Water NOTES: B = Water Bottle S = SMZ M = Microisolator ASP # PI GROUP NAME # CAGES [+] ROOM TO DOB COMMENTS STRAIN CODE NEW GROUP NAME NEW ROOM CAGE TYPE PEDIGREE # EAR

  14. Interactive Reflective Logs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Benjamin E. Deaton

    2010-11-01

    The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates pr

  15. Using Flow Logging Experiments to Bridge the Scale Gap in Borehole Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillet, F. L.

    2001-12-01

    Until the recent development of high-resolution borehole flow logging equipment, geophysical well logs were indirectly related to aquifer parameters such as porosity and permeability through various interpretation equations. Heat-pulse and electro-magnetic flowmeters allow the direct measurement of aquifer permeability in situ during borehole flow experiments. An important limitation on the interpretation such flow experiments is the scale of investigation, because permeability profiles derived from flow logs apply to the immediate vicinity of the borehole. A few local samples of the permeability of heterogeneous aquifers are unlikely to apply to large-scale flow within the aquifer. The aquifer scale limitation of geophysical logging is addressed by: 1) using a borehole flow model to interpret the large scale boundary conditions driving local borehole flow; and 2) using pulsed cross-borehole flow experiments to define hydraulic connections between boreholes. Conventional geophysical logs are used to identify generalized aquifer structure, including individual bedding planes or fractures conducting flow into or out of the borehole. A flow log model is used to quantify the local-scale hydraulic conductivity of the conduits intersecting the borehole, and to estimate the hydraulic head of the large-scale aquifer or aquifers to which those conduits are connected. These estimations can be interpreted in terms of large-scale aquifer structure. In a more direct and straightforward sampling of large-scale permeability, cross-borehole flow tests consist of experiments where one borehole is stressed for a short period, and the transient flow field induced by that stress is monitored in adjacent boreholes. These experiments are used to define the flow paths between boreholes, and to identify possible hidden connections short-circuiting those flow paths. Specific examples of local flow-log data used to define large-scale aquifer properties are given for study sites in Minnesota, Massachusetts, Maine, and New York.

  16. Hanford wells

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details.

  17. Evaluating Equipment Performance Using SCADA/PMS Data for Thermal Utility Plants - Case Studies

    E-print Network

    Deng, X.; Chen, Q.; Xu, C.

    2007-01-01

    Acquisition Plant Monitoring Systems (SCADA/PMS) or Energy Management and Control Systems (EMCS) to monitor sensors, display data, control equipment, activate alarms and log information. However, the utilization and interpretation of the logged data are often...

  18. NMR logging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

    2014-05-27

    Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

  19. Logging on to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    A classroom lecture at Capistrano Connections Academy in Southern California involves booting up the home computer, logging on to a Web site, and observing a teacher conducting a PowerPoint presentation of that day's lesson entirely online. Through microphone headsets, students can watch on their home computers, respond to the teacher's questions,…

  20. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  1. Borehole Geophysical Logging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

  2. University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log Specimen Refrigerator Log

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log ­ Specimen Refrigerator Log Month / Year Clinical ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: 31 ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: If the refrigerator temperature falls out refrigerator. This record must be kept for one year and then destroyed per State requirement

  3. Final Report, Testing and Sampling Procedures for Geothermal - Geopressed Wells

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, W.E.; Dorfman, M.H.; Podio, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    Test wells to tap and sample geothermal-geopressured formations at 15,000-20,000 feet in the Gulf Coast area can be drilled routinely utilizing available equipment and methods. Electrical logs, surveys and fluid samplers can be used to obtain accurate and reliable information as to depths, temperatures, pressures, and fluid content of the geopressured formations before the well is completed. But it will be necessary to set casing and flow the well, at least temporarily, to secure fluid production volume and pressure data to evaluate the producibility of the geopressured resource. Electric logging and wireline survey methods are fully developed techniques for measuring the parameters needed to assess a geopressured zone before setting casing. Formation subsidence, though it may be slow to develop can be measured using radioactivity tracer surveys. The reports states three conclusions. (1) Existing well logging and surveying methods and equipment are generally satisfactory for testing and sampling and sampling a geothermal-geopressured resource. (2) No significant areas of research are needed to predict, detect, and evaluate geopressured formations for their potential as geothermal resources. (3) Static and dynamic testing procedures using existing technology are satisfactory to test, sample and analyze a geopressured reservoir. [DJE 2005

  4. 12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Upstream view showing thelower log pond log chute in the main channel of the Hudson River. The log chute in the dam can be seen in the background. Facing southwest. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  5. Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, D B; Noss, R F

    2006-08-01

    We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging--a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil properties and nutrient levels, increase erosion, modify hydrological regimes and aquatic ecosystems, and alter patterns of landscape heterogeneity These impacts can be assigned to three broad and interrelated effects: (1) altered stand structural complexity; (2) altered ecosystem processes and functions; and (3) altered populations of species and community composition. Some impacts may be different from or additional to the effects of traditional logging that is not preceded by a large natural disturbance because the conditions before, during, and after salvage logging may differ from those that characterize traditional timber harvesting. The potential impacts of salvage logging often have been overlooked, partly because the processes of ecosystem recovery after natural disturbance are still poorly understood and partly because potential cumulative effects of natural and human disturbance have not been well documented. Ecologically informed policies regarding salvage logging are needed prior to major natural disturbances so that when they occur ad hoc and crisis-mode decision making can be avoided. These policies should lead to salvage-exemption zones and limits on the amounts of disturbance-derived biological legacies (e.g., burned trees, logs) that are removed where salvage logging takes place. Finally, we believe new terminology is needed. The word salvage implies that something is being saved or recovered, whereas from an ecological perspective this is rarely the case. PMID:16922212

  6. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  7. Deposition Equipment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

  8. Rescue Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Lifeshear cutter, a rescue tool for freeing accident victims from wreckage, was developed under the Clinton Administration's Technology Reinvestment Program. Prior cutting equipment was cumbersome and expensive; the new cutter is 50 percent lighter and 70 percent cheaper. The cutter is pyrotechnically-actuated, using a miniature version of the power cartridges used for separation devices on the Space Shuttle and other NASA spacecraft. Hi-Shear Technology Corporation developed the cutter with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and input from the City of Torrance (California) Fire Department.

  9. Newly developed technology for array resistivity logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhiqiang

    Resistivity logging tools are run in boreholes to locate and quantify the presence of hydrocarbons (oil and gas) in porous rocks. In order to get better reservoir description, three key formation parameters need to be obtained from resistivity logging: (1) formation resistivity Rt; (2) invaded zone resistivity Rxo; (3) invaded length Lxo. None of the conventional resistivity logging tools, normal, lateral, and dual laterolog (DLL), can provide all three parameters with a single run. The newly developed array resistivity logging tool or High-Definition Lateral Log (HDLL, a product developed by Baker Atlas) resistivity tool addresses limitations of existing dual laterolog systems and provides all three parameters with a single run. The key developments in this dissertation are: (1) deep (up to 50 inches from borehole wall) Synthetic Focused Resistivity (SFR) logs from HDLL measurements; (2) shallow (close to 10 inches from borehole wall) SFR logs from HDLL measurements; (3) robust computation of SFR via array processing; (4) inverse vertical resolution matching (IRM) method for SFR; (5) inversion of HDLL array data in both vertical and highly deviated wells. The wellsite interpretation for array resistivity logging is developed by synthesizing focused resistivity logs from the raw HDLL data. The developed SFRs provide a better resolution of the resistivity distribution in both vertical and radial directions than DLL logs. The array processing method is developed to detect and correct errors in the raw measurements, and to evaluate the quality of the data. With the newly developed inverse vertical resolution matching method, we succeed in the resolution matching for the HDLL SFR logs. The HDLL inversion process developed in this study has three major steps: (1) estimating shallow resistivity structure; (2) estimating deep resistivity structure; and, (3) combining the results of the previous steps to produce the entire true resistivity structure. The results in a final model have a constant Rxo, Lxo, and Rt values in each layer. In the presented cases, HDLL-based interpretations show not only improved delineation of the known reservoirs but also extra pay intervals overlooked by DLL-based interpretations.

  10. Wellhead equipment support

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, R.P.

    1987-03-24

    A wellhead assembly is described for supporting equipment in a well, comprising: a suspension nut having a threaded outer surface; a wellhead member having an inner threaded surface adapted to mesh with the threaded outer surface of the suspension nut; the suspension nut having a projection extending axially from its threaded outer surface and having an inner surface adapted to support equipment in the well; at least a portion of the inner surface for supporting the equipment facing both inwardly and upwardly such that force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface is transformed at least in part to a radially outwardly directed force; the projecting having an outer surface sized such that the outer surface is spaced from an inner surface of the wellhead member in the absence of force exerted against the inner surface of the projection such that the projection is deflected outwardly by the force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface.

  11. Forward Modeling of the Induction Log Response of a Fractured Geologic Formation

    E-print Network

    Bray, Steven Hunter

    2013-05-02

    Induction logging is a well-developed geophysical method with multiple applications. It has been used extensively in academic research as well as in industry. Induction logging is a controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) exploration method...

  12. Annual Logging Symposium, June 26-29, 2005 JOINT STOCHASTIC INVERSION OF PETROPHYSICAL LOGS AND 3D

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    SPWLA 46th Annual Logging Symposium, June 26-29, 2005 JOINT STOCHASTIC INVERSION OF PETROPHYSICAL of litho- facies and petrophysical properties. The proposed approach is based on a stochastic global-facies, and petrophysical parameters between wells that exhibit a vertical resolution intermediate between that of well logs

  13. Securing Shareable Life-logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Rawassizadeh; A Min Tjoa

    2010-01-01

    Sharing life-log information in a social community has many advantages, both for the user and society. But sharing any type of personal information is a threat to privacy. In particular, life-log information requires higher security considerations since it may contains very sensitive information about the user such as biological information, location, communication logs, etc. In this paper, first we discuss

  14. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  15. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  16. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    SciTech Connect

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  17. Log evaluation of oil-bearing igneous rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Khatchikian, A.

    1983-12-01

    The evaluation of porosity, water saturation and clay content of oilbearing igneous rocks with well logs is difficult due to the mineralogical complexity of this type of rocks. The log responses to rhyolite and rhyolite tuff; andesite, dacite and zeolite tuff; diabase and basalt have been studied from examples in western Argentina and compared with values observed in other countries. Several field examples show how these log responses can be used in a complex lithology program to make a complete evaluation.

  18. Transactions of the SPWLA twenty-eighth annual logging symposium. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings collect papers on well logging. Topics include: borehole geophysics, calibration and correction of nuclear logging tools with transputers, reservoir petrophysics, permeability indication, methods for mapping hydraulic fractures, well-to-well log correlation using knowledge-based systems, and tomographic imaging of oil reservoirs.

  19. Wind Monitoring Equipment and Measurement Programs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Elliott, Dennis

    The Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides this in-depth presentation on wind monitoring equipment and measurement programs. The material also explains how the data collected is analyzed and how wind statistics are used. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

  20. Swept energy source acoustic logging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mailett

    1984-01-01

    An acoustic energy mode propagation speed or travel time measurement system for use in well logging is disclosed. A downhole sonde is provided with an acoustic transmitter and at least one acoustic receiver. The transmitter is repetitively driven with a unique or characteristic swept frequency signal. Propagated acoustic energy detected at the receiver is cross-correlated with the characteristic transmitter swept

  1. Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bessa, V.; Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE 60455-760 (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)] and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schroedinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m=m{sub 0}t/t{sub 0} and {omega}={omega}{sub 0}t{sub 0}/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and {omega} constant.

  2. Swept energy source acoustic logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Mailett, A.J.

    1984-05-22

    An acoustic energy mode propagation speed or travel time measurement system for use in well logging is disclosed. A downhole sonde is provided with an acoustic transmitter and at least one acoustic receiver. The transmitter is repetitively driven with a unique or characteristic swept frequency signal. Propagated acoustic energy detected at the receiver is cross-correlated with the characteristic transmitter swept frequency signal to provide indications of the arrival of various modes of acoustic energy propagation at the receiver. Logs as a function of borehole depth of the speed of propagation of the various modes of propagation may be derived.

  3. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of 235U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  4. Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessa, V.; Guedes, I.

    2011-06-01

    We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)], 10.1063/1.1664991 and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schrödinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m = m0t/t0 and ? = ?0t0/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and ? constant.

  5. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  6. The Lincoln Log

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What exactly was Abraham Lincoln doing on June 11, 1850? As it turns out, he was writing a letter to one Nathaniel Hay, describing the details of a potential home-improvement project. If you're looking for more details on Lincoln's daily doings, click on over to The Lincoln Log. The information on the site was compiled by the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, and in 2003, the materials were redesigned by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Visitors to the site can find out what Lincoln was doing on a particular day by using the drop-down menus on the homepage, and they can also browse by year or click on the "Today's Date in Lincoln's Life" section. Also, visitors can use the "Browse New Entries" to look over newly added materials.

  7. Terminology Extraction from Log Files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saneifar, Hassan; Bonniol, Stéphane; Laurent, Anne; Poncelet, Pascal; Roche, Mathieu

    The log files generated by digital systems can be used in management information systems as the source of important information on the condition of systems. However, log files are not exhaustively exploited in order to extract information. The classical methods of information extraction such as terminology extraction methods are irrelevant to this context because of the specific characteristics of log files like their heterogeneous structure, the special vocabulary and the fact that they do not respect a natural language grammar. In this paper, we introduce our approach Exterlog to extract the terminology from log files. We detail how it deals with the particularity of such textual data.

  8. A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, E.L.

    1985-07-01

    The cement bond log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than 20 years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation with cement bond logs. Cement bond logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed on the log measurements is needed to evaluate the log properly. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of cement bond logs that fall into this category are be presented.

  9. A practical approach to the interpretation of cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Bigelow, E.L.

    1985-03-01

    The Cement Bond Log has been controversial since its inception. Despite its potential, it is possibly the most maligned logging service available to the industry. Effective zone isolation between permeable intervals in a well requires a cement sheath over an appreciable vertical interval. It is necessary for the annular cement sheath to provide an effective hydraulic seal in order to withstand subsequent completion and production operations. The oil industry has used wireline well logs to detect the presence or absence of cement behind pipe for more than twenty years. Users have attempted, not always successfully, to evaluate the effectiveness of cement bond to both pipe and formation, ostensibly, with Cement Bond Logs. Cement Bond Logs do not mislead. Poor interpretation habits mislead. Knowledge of the well completion and the inherent physical restraints placed upon the log measurements is needed in order to properly evaluate the log. The purpose here is to dispel some of the myths created by misguided interpretation practices. Examples of Cement Bond Logs which fall into this category are presented.

  10. A UNIX security log analyzer based on from/to access matrix

    E-print Network

    El-Haj Mahmoud, Samer Ahmad

    2002-01-01

    System log files are valuable assets in detecting security violations and malicious attacks as well as in holding users responsible for their actions. However, the huge size of these logs makes it impractical for system administrators to examine...

  11. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  12. Illegal Logging and Related Trade

    E-print Network

    .1.2 Measuring the response 2 1.2 Methodology 3 1.2.1 Geographical coverage 3 1.2.2 Indicators and meansIllegal Logging and Related Trade Indicators of the Global Response Sam Lawson and Larry MacFaul July 2010 #12;Illegal Logging and Related Trade Indicators of the Global Response Sam Lawson and Larry

  13. Coal log abrasion in pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.; Cheng, C.C. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Coal log pipeline (CLP) is an emerging technology for long-distance transportation of coal that has many potential advantages over conventional modes of coal transportation including truck, unit train, and slurry pipelines. For CLP to be technically and economically feasible, the coal logs must be water-resistant and wear-resistant. No more than 3% of weight loss due to wear can be tolerated during pipeline transport. This paper gives data that suggest that such logs can be produced by compaction in a mold. Various factors that affect coal-log wear resistance are described, and methods to produce high-quality logs are discussed. Both laboratory and field tests data are used.

  14. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Peeters; Brad Blair

    2000-01-01

    Growing interest in extraterrestrial subsurface exploration has prompted an examination of advanced technologies for drilling slim holes and obtaining geophysical data in these holes. The borehole surveys with geophysical measurements called \\

  15. Calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a neutron well logging tool

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chien-Hsiang

    1993-01-01

    solve the Boltzmann transport equation, an equation basically governing a neutron's behavior (Lamarsh, 1966; Dud- erstadt et al. , 1976), by using Siv discrete ordinates, finite differences, and multigroup approximation methods (Bell et al. , 1970... in the neutron transport equation is approximated using the finite difference method on a spatial mesh, snd the energy dependent flux is replaced by group fluxes through the use of the multigroup method. (Duderstadt et al. , 1976; Bell et sl. , 1970) 11. 4...

  16. Apparatus and method for logging wells while drilling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mac Leod

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a measurement while drilling apparatus for detecting and communicating information relative to down-hole parameters and\\/or characteristics of the earth strata via an electrically conductive drill string. The drill string is composed of lengths of metallic pipe connected end-to-end in series and a drilling fluid is caused to flow through it and return to the surface through the

  17. Air pollution control equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Theodore; A. J. Buonicore

    1988-01-01

    These volumes provide the fundamentals of air pollution control equipment with appropriate practical applications and an introduction to design principles. Divided into two parts, this book addresses air pollution control equipment for particulate pollutants and control equipment for gaseous pollutants. Each of the control equipment chapters in Parts I and II contain sections dealing with introductory material description of equipment,

  18. Numerical simulation of responses for cased-hole density logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wensheng; Fu, Yaping; Niu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Stabilizing or stimulating oil production in old oil fields requires density logging in cased holes where open-hole logging data are either missing or of bad quality. However, measured values from cased-hole density logging are more severely influenced by factors such as fluid, casing, cement sheath and the outer diameter of the open-hole well compared with those from open-hole logging. To correctly apply the cased-hole formation density logging data, one must eliminate these influences on the measured values and study the characteristics of how the cased-hole density logging instrument responds to these factors. In this paper, a Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique was used to calculate the responses of the far detector of a cased-hole density logging instrument to in-hole fluid, casing wall thickness, cement sheath density and the formation and thus to obtain influence rules and response coefficients. The obtained response of the detector is a function of in-hole liquid, casing wall thickness, the casing's outer diameter, cement sheath density, open-hole well diameter and formation density. The ratio of the counting rate of the detector in the calibration well to that in the measurement well was used to get a fairly simple detector response equation and the coefficients in the equation are easy to acquire. These provide a new way of calculating cased-hole density through forward modelling methods.

  19. Your Equipment Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

    This booklet on household equipment, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook offers information to help buyers purchase household equipment that is within their budget. Section 1 discusses managing equipment

  20. SedMob: A mobile application for creating sedimentary logs in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolniewicz, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    SedMob is an open-source, mobile software package for creating sedimentary logs, targeted for use in tablets and smartphones. The user can create an unlimited number of logs, save data from each bed in the log as well as export and synchronize the data with a remote server. SedMob is designed as a mobile interface to SedLog: a free multiplatform package for drawing graphic logs that runs on PC computers. Data entered into SedMob are saved in the CSV file format, fully compatible with SedLog.

  1. Maintaining ecosystem function and services in logged tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David P; Tobias, Joseph A; Sheil, Douglas; Meijaard, Erik; Laurance, William F

    2014-09-01

    Vast expanses of tropical forests worldwide are being impacted by selective logging. We evaluate the environmental impacts of such logging and conclude that natural timber-production forests typically retain most of their biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions, as well as their carbon, climatic, and soil-hydrological ecosystem services. Unfortunately, the value of production forests is often overlooked, leaving them vulnerable to further degradation including post-logging clearing, fires, and hunting. Because logged tropical forests are extensive, functionally diverse, and provide many ecosystem services, efforts to expand their role in conservation strategies are urgently needed. Key priorities include improving harvest practices to reduce negative impacts on ecosystem functions and services, and preventing the rapid conversion and loss of logged forests. PMID:25092495

  2. Determining Earthquake Recurrence Intervals from Trench Logs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patricia Cashman

    Trench logs of the San Andreas Fault at Pallett Creek, CA are the data base for a lab or homework assignment that teaches about relative dating, radiometric dating, fault recurrence intervals and the reasons for uncertainty in predicting geologic phenomena. Students are given a trench log that includes several fault strands and dated stratigraphic horizons. They estimate the times of faulting based on bracketing ages of faulted and unfaulted strata. They compile a table with the faulting events from the trench log and additional events recognized in nearby trenches, then calculate maximum, minimum and average earthquake recurrence intervals for the San Andreas Fault in this area. They conclude by making their own prediction for the timing of the next earthquake. While basically an exercise in determining relative ages of geologic horizons and events, this assignment includes radiometric dates, recurrence intervals, and an obvious societal significance that has been well received by students. With minor modifications, this exercise has been used successfully with elementary school students through university undergraduate geology majors. Less experienced students can work in groups, with each group determining the age of a single fault strand; combining the results from different groups and calculating recurrence intervals can then be done as a class activity. University students in an introductory geology course for non-majors can add their data from the trench log to an existing table with other faulting events already provided. The exercise can be made more challenging for advanced students by using logs from several different trenches, requiring students to design the table themselves, and giving students the uncertainties for the radiometric dates rather than simple ages for the strata. Most studentsâat all levelsâare initially frustrated by their inability to determine an exact date of faulting from the available data. They gain a new appreciation for the task of the geoscientist who attempts to relate geologic phenomena to the human, rather than geologic, time scale.

  3. Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    We will present concepts for downhole instrumentation that could be used in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). We envision optical borehole-logging instruments that could monitor bacterial concentration, mineralogy, aromatic organics, temperature and oxygen concentration, allowing for the in situ monitoring of time-dependent microbial and short-scale geologic processes and provide valuable in situ data on stratigraphy to supplement core analyses, especially where instances of missing or damaged core sections make such studies difficult. Incorporated into these instruments will be a sampling/inoculation tool to allow for the recovery and/or manipulation of particularly interesting sections of the borehole wall for further study, enabling a series of microbiological studies. The borehole tools we will develop revolve around key emerging technologies and methods, some of which are briefly described below: 1) Autofluorescence Spectroscopy: Building on past instruments, we will develop a new borehole logger that searches for microbial life and organics using fluorescence spectroscopy. Many important organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) and biomolecules (e.g. aromatic amino acids, proteins, methanogenic coenzymes) fluoresce when excited with ultraviolet and visible light. Through the careful selection of excitation wavelength(s) and temporal gating parameters, a borehole logging instrument can detect and differentiate between these different compounds and the mineral matrix in which they exist. 2) Raman Spectroscopy: Though less sensitive than fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is more definitive: it can provide important mineral phase distribution/proportions and other chemical data enabling studies of mineralogy and microbe-mineral interactions (when combined with fluorescence). 3) Borehole Camera: Imaging of the borehole wall with extended information in the UV, visible, and NIR for a more informative view can provide a lot of insight to in situ processes. 4) Temperature and Oxygen Sensors: The ambient temperature will be recorded as well as the presence of oxygen. Oxygen presence can be measured using a fluorescence quenching fiber optic probe to avoid interference from other gases. We forsee that this technology will enable experiments including studies of gene transfer, microbial habitat, in situ stratigraphy and hydrological processes. In addition, though designed to scan borehole walls, GOLD could be used to scan core samples as they are recovered for rapid quantification and analysis in order to discover samples of particular interest that could then be prioritized for more in-depth, traditional analysis.

  4. Animal Room Log.xls

    Cancer.gov

    ANIMAL ROOM LOG Room Number: __________ Cage Type Death Cause C = Auto Water EU = Euthanized NOTES: B = Water Bottle FD = Found Dead S = SMZ DR = Drowned M = Microisolator MI = Missing TO = Transfer Out DEATH CAUSE STRAIN CODE GROUP NAME # ? # ? COMMENTS

  5. Drilling a water well

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Information and guidelines for prospective well owners is available from the Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (DGGS), which records well logs in Alaska. The information includes average yields and well depths in designated areas to help well owners develop adequate water supplies. This booklet advises a reputable contractor, and suggests questions to ask in making the selection. It also advises on well development, drawdown tests, and the interpretation and application of test results. A directory lists 66 registered water well contractors by region. 5 references.

  6. Logging damage during planned and unplanned logging operations in the eastern Amazon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer S. Johns; Paulo Barreto; Christopher Uhl

    1996-01-01

    In the Paragominas region of eastern Amazonia, we compared the damage in unplanned and planned logging operations associated with each of five logging phases: (1) tree felling, (2) machine maneuvering to attach felled boles to chokers, (3) skidding boles to log landings, (4) constructing log landings and (5) constructing logging roads. Planned logging was conducted with a rubber-wheeled skidder or

  7. INSPIRE and SPIRES Log File Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Cole; /Wheaton Coll. /SLAC

    2012-08-31

    SPIRES, an aging high-energy physics publication data base, is in the process of being replaced by INSPIRE. In order to ease the transition from SPIRES to INSPIRE it is important to understand user behavior and the drivers for adoption. The goal of this project was to address some questions in regards to the presumed two-thirds of the users still using SPIRES. These questions are answered through analysis of the log files from both websites. A series of scripts were developed to collect and interpret the data contained in the log files. The common search patterns and usage comparisons are made between INSPIRE and SPIRES, and a method for detecting user frustration is presented. The analysis reveals a more even split than originally thought as well as the expected trend of user transition to INSPIRE.

  8. APS logDaemon and client library

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, C.; Kowalkowski, J.

    1995-12-13

    This document serves as a User`s Manual and Reference for the logDaemon and client library. This package provides a general distributed message logging system. A logDaemon may be started anywhere on a subnet. A client which has linked in the client library is provided functions to open a connection to the logDaemon, log messages, and close the connection. The logDaemon maintains one or more log files (in simple ASCII or SDDS format) and an e-mail list based on specifications in a configuration file. Incoming messages are logged to the appropriate file and/or result in e-mail being sent.

  9. Integration of Geology, Rock-Physics, Logs, and Pre-stack Seismic for Reservoir Porosity Estimation

    E-print Network

    Al Muhaidib, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to obtain reservoir properties, such as porosity, both at the well locations and in the inter-well regions from seismic data and well logs. The seismic and well-log datasets are from an ...

  10. Electrical equipment maintenance 101

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rick Mendler; Gary D. Osborne; Trey Thevenet; Monty Janak; Marty Janak

    2011-01-01

    This paper will explore the maintenance of electrical equipment. Specifically it will look at: 1) Why maintenance is performed on electrical equipment? 2) What, legal or other, drivers are behind performing electrical equipment maintenance? 3) Electrical equipment maintenance is performed on an interval, but what is the purpose of this interval and how is it determined? 4) What is the

  11. Project to transcribe old ship logs provides important weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-11-01

    Kathy Wendolkowski is a citizen scientist. It's a term that Wendolkowski considers far too lofty for what she claims is simply a happy addiction that she and others have for transcribing old logs from naval ship and other vessels. They perform this task to glean the regularly recorded weather data from those logs for the benefit of science. For Wendolkowski, though, greater satisfaction comes from reading what the logs also reveal about the daily lives of the sailors as well as any accompanying historical drama.

  12. 2D Log-Gabor Wavelet Based Action Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Xu, De

    The frequency response of log-Gabor function matches well the frequency response of primate visual neurons. In this letter, motion-salient regions are extracted based on the 2D log-Gabor wavelet transform of the spatio-temporal form of actions. A supervised classification technique is then used to classify the actions. The proposed method is robust to the irregular segmentation of actors. Moreover, the 2D log-Gabor wavelet permits more compact representation of actions than the recent neurobiological models using Gabor wavelet.

  13. Logging while fishing technique results in substantial savings

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefsen, E.; Everett, M.

    1996-12-01

    During wireline logging operations, tools occasionally become stuck in the borehole and require fishing. A typical fishing job can take anywhere from 1{1/2}--4 days. In the Gulf of Mexico, a fishing job can easily cost between $100,000 and $500,000. These costs result from nonproductive time during the fishing trip, associated wiper trip and relogging the well. Logging while fishing (LWF) technology is a patented system capable of retrieving a stuck fish and completing the logging run during the same pipe descent. Completing logging operations using LWF method saves time and money. The technique also provides well information where data may not otherwise have been obtained. Other benefits include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety.

  14. The G+\\/GraphLog Visual Query System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariano P. Consens; Alberto O. Mendelzon

    1990-01-01

    The video presentation “The G+\\/GraphLog Visual Query System” gives an overview of the capabilities of the ongoing implementation of the G+ Visual Query System for visualizing both data and queries as graphs. The system provides an environment for expressing queries in GraphLog [Con89, CM89, CM90], as well as for browsing, displaying and editing graphs. The visual query system also supports

  15. Apollo experience report: Ground-support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The experience gained in management of the ground-support-equipment and site-readiness activity for the Apollo Program is summarized. The design of equipment and facilities are examined as well as some operational aspects. The organization for ensuring site readiness and the maintenance of ground-support equipment are discussed. Recommendations for use in future programs are given in the areas of design considerations, cleanliness requirements, periodic evaluation of changing requirements, maintenance and overhaul, special test equipment, site-activation schedule coordination, and schematics for ground-support equipment.

  16. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. At present, lithology logs are produced at the well site by mud loggers. They provide basic description and relative amounts of lithologies. Major difficulties are encountered in relating the cuttings to their original formations due to mixing in the drilling mud while transporting to the surface, sloughing shales, flawed sampling, etc. This results in a poor control on the stratigraphic sequence and on the depth of formation boundaries. A composite log can be produced after drilling this additional inputs such as wireline, petrography, and paleontology. This process is labor intensive and expensive. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution to bed boundaries, (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input results in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries.

  17. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-02-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution of bed boundaries. (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input will result in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries. The log will serve the geologist as well as the driller, petrophysicist, and reservoir engineer. It will form the basis for more comprehensive formation evaluation while drilling by adding hydrocarbon and MWD log data.

  18. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  19. Logging with coiled tubing less effective than with drill pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Van Den Bosch, R. (Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel, Celle (Germany))

    1994-01-31

    Coiled tubing offered neither economic nor operational advantages over drill pipe for conveying logging tools in open hole shallow horizontal wells in Germany. In the past 2 years, Mobil Erdgas-Erdoel GMbH (MEEG) participated in completing eight shallow horizontal wells. These were medium-to-short radius wells at measured depths of between 850 and 2,000 m. The average horizontal section was 350 m. The logging tools were conveyed by coiled tubing or drill pipe. MEEG attempted to log five wells with coiled tubing-conveyed tools, four with 1 1/2-in. tubing. Total depth was reached reliably in only one well, the shallowest and with the shortest horizontal section. Simulation programs were unreliable for calculating the downhole forces of the coil/tool combination or predicting possible helical lockups. In wells with drill pipe-conveyed logs, the tool combination could always be pushed to total depth, and the operations were generally faster and cost less than logging with coiled tubing. Also, drill pipe allowed longer and heavier tool strings. For reliable operations, coiled tubing needs to be more rigid, rig-up/rig-down times need to be improved, and the simulation programs must be more reliable for predicting downhole lock-up.

  20. Core-log integration: importance of depth control

    SciTech Connect

    Knode, T.L.; Vickers, K.V.

    1989-03-01

    A fundamental basis for correlation between geology, petrophysics (cores), and geophysics (wireline and seismic) is the proper depth match of the information. Depth correlation of cores has evolved since its inception. The potentially least accurate method of correcting the depth of a core is marking the cores with driller's depths at the time of coring, then later correcting the depths by the difference between bottom depths of the drilling company and the logging company. This method is sometimes accurate and will work only if the driller is on or off depth consistently. Laboratory gamma-ray logging of the core to correlate with the open-hole logs is another way of correlation. If the laboratory logging is done well, then theoretically the core can be put on depth and missing intervals can be identified. The problem in this method lies in the vertical resolution of the open-hole logging tool, which is approximately 2 ft. Therefore, the core can be placed with confidence within 2 ft of its open-hole log depth. For further refining of the depth correlation, it can be shown that tools with increasingly smaller vertical resolutions (such as dipmeters and borehole televiewers) will be of great value. The small vertical resolution of these tools should allow depth correlation based upon visible natural markers within the core that correspond to geophysical responses on the logs.

  1. Postfire logging in riparian areas.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

    2006-08-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious. PMID:16922216

  2. Teff and log g Determinations

    E-print Network

    Barry Smalley

    2005-09-19

    A discussion on the determination of effective temperature (Teff) and surface gravity (log g) is presented. The observational requirements for model-independent fundamental parameters are summarized, including an assessment of the accuracy of these values for the Sun and Vega. The use of various model-dependent techniques for determining Teff and log g are outlined, including photometry, flux fitting, and spectral line ratios. A combination of several of these techniques allows for the assessment of the quality of our parameter determinations. While some techniques can give precise parameter determinations, the overall accuracy of the values is significantly less and sometimes difficult to quantify.

  3. A comparison of new ultrasonic cement and casing evaluation logs with standard cement bond logs

    SciTech Connect

    Sheives, T.C.; Tello, L.N.; Maki, V.E. Jr.; Standley, T.E.; Blankinship, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    New ultrasonic inspection techniques have been implemented to evaluate cement bond and casing conditions. These techniques, relying on state of the art downhole, high-speed waveform digitization, can successfully determine cement voids and channels and also provide accurate bond information in the presence of a microannulus. The downhole microprocessor controlled electronics transmits the digitized waveforms to the surface for computations and display. The downhole waveforms are then viewed by the operator in real time to insure proper log quality. Numerous log examples showing comparisons with the standard Cement Bond Log (CBL) demonstrate that the accuracy and resolution of the new approach provide much more information. Casing conditions are determined using both acoustic caliper measurements and a new casing thickness measurement technique. The acoustic caliper measurement not only determines accurately the casing inside diameter, but also detects the pipe gap at casing collars. The new measurement determines actual casing thickness variations due to internal or external pipe wear or corrosion. Experimental results along with log examples show the effectiveness and accuracy of measuring the actual casing thickness at the well site in real time.

  4. Case history of Cotton Valley sand log interpretation for a north Louisiana field

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    This study addresses the porosity analysis, using log measurements, of Cotton Valley sands in 19 wells of the Terryville field operated by Union Texas Petroleum Corp. The objectives of the study were to recognize logging tool miscalibration and make correction, determine petrophysical parameters for the Cotton Valley sands, reinterpret the field using new petrophysical parameters, and determine productive limits for log derived porosity and water saturation. Digitized log data was crossplotted to determine the correspondence between log and mineral responses and verify good calibration of each logging instrument. Predominant minerals were identified by the crossplots core analysis and mud log record. A lithologic model was then constructed on an in-house computer and used to reinterpret each of the 19 wells.

  5. Energy Audit Equipment

    E-print Network

    Phillips, J.

    2012-01-01

    ENERGY AUDIT EQUIPMENT Jim Phillips, P.E., CEM, CEA, GBE Independent Energy Alternatives, Inc. VP - Engineering Dallas, TX 75234 ABSTRACT The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include include those items which assist...

  6. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on any object the patient touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  7. Nonlinear filters with log-homotopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2007-09-01

    We derive and test a new nonlinear filter that implements Bayes' rule using an ODE rather than with a pointwise multiplication of two functions. This avoids one of the fundamental and well known problems in particle filters, namely "particle collapse" as a result of Bayes' rule. We use a log-homotopy to construct this ODE. Our new algorithm is vastly superior to the classic particle filter, and we do not use any proposal density supplied by an EKF or UKF or other outside source. This paper was written for normal engineers, who do not have homotopy for breakfast.

  8. VAFLE: visual analytics of firewall log events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoniem, Mohammad; Shurkhovetskyy, Georgiy; Bahey, Ahmed; Otjacques, Benoît.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we present VAFLE, an interactive network security visualization prototype for the analysis of firewall log events. Keeping it simple yet effective for analysts, we provide multiple coordinated interactive visualizations augmented with clustering capabilities customized to support anomaly detection and cyber situation awareness. We evaluate the usefulness of the prototype in a use case with network traffic datasets from previous VAST Challenges, illustrating its effectiveness at promoting fast and well-informed decisions. We explain how a security analyst may spot suspicious traffic using VAFLE. We further assess its usefulness through a qualitative evaluation involving network security experts, whose feedback is reported and discussed.

  9. Internet Data logging and Display

    E-print Network

    Sweeney, J., Jr.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    . The solution presented here is to accomplish these goals is to include a miniature web server in a remote-logging module, which we designed as part of our device. Thus allowing data to be accessed more frequently, via the Internet. As it currently stands...

  10. Postfire Logging in Riparian Areas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GORDON H. REEVES; PETER A. BISSON; BRUCE E. RIEMAN; LEE E. BENDA

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually

  11. Outdoor Education Student Log Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

    A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

  12. Message Logging in Mobile Computing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Yao; Kuo-feng Ssu; W. Kent Fuchs

    1999-01-01

    Dependable mobile computing is enhanced by indepen- dent recovery, low power consumption and no dependence on stable storage at the mobile host. Existing recovery pro- tocols proposed for mobile environments typically create consistent global checkpoints that do not guarantee inde- pendent recovery and low power consumption. This paper demonstrates the advantages of message logging by de- scribing a receiver based

  13. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  14. Extensible Log VISualization Christopher Humphries

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , Visualization Keywords Intrusion Detection, Forensics, Logs Management 1. INTRODUCTION As computer systems) are now com- monplace. Although intrusion detection systems are now quite efficient, they often fail in bringing the human back in the loop. Visualization tools have been proposed to help users un- derstand what

  15. Australian Government on ILLEGAL logging

    E-print Network

    Australian Government the AXE on ILLEGAL logging Bringing down a practical approach AN AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DISCUSSION PAPER WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS ON THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DISCUSSION PAPER ARE INVITED also acting as good stewards of the world's environment. While the Australian Government has

  16. The Impact of the Russian Log Export Tariff on the Global Market for Logs and Lumber

    E-print Network

    announced its plan to implement a series of log export tariffs designed to reduce the export of raw logsThe Impact of the Russian Log Export Tariff on the Global Market for Logs and Lumber CINTRAFOR News moved to restrict the export of unprocessed logs. On February 5th, 2007, the Russian government

  17. Equipment management system (EMS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yurtsever; M. Comerford

    1995-01-01

    Equipment Management System (EMS) is a software tool used to monitor and track equipment states, restrictions and PM schedules in real time. EMS has been designed and customized to support the MOS-2 die production facility. The system provides graphical representation of the entire factory. Color coded icons represent equipment's current state (i.e. qualification, production, unscheduled maintenance, etc.). Preventative maintenance schedules

  18. Precise inversion of logged slownesses for elastic parameters in a gas shale formation

    E-print Network

    Miller, Douglas E.

    Dipole sonic log data recorded in a vertical pilot well and the associated production well are analyzed over a 200×1100-ft section of a North American gas shale formation. The combination of these two wells enables angular ...

  19. Heavy equipment management practices and problems in Thai highway contractors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanapun Prasertrungruang; B. H. W. Hadikusumo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This study is intended to investigate the current practices and problems in heavy equipment management as well as to identify practices capable of alleviating equipment management problems for highway contractors in Thailand. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Equipment management practices were identified and analysed by SPSS using a questionnaire survey. ANOVA test was used to reveal significant differences in equipment management

  20. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

  1. Borehole Logging from Sample Collection to Borehole Geophysics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard Laton

    In January of 2003, CSUF drilled and completed a deep multiport-monitoring well on the north side of campus. This was done in order to gain a better understanding of the local subsurface geology and groundwater conditions in and around CSUF. Samples were collected from the drill hole (boring) every 5-feet. The total depth of the well is 870 feet below ground surface (grade). Borehole geophysical data (E-log) information was collected from the boring prior to the installation of the well pipe. As you describe the soil samples, compare and contrast your findings to those of the geophysical signature (gamma-ray log) found in the accompanying "E-log" for the boring.

  2. Tracking log displacement during floods in the Tagliamento River using RFID and GPS tracker devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzolo, D.; Mao, L.; Picco, L.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Large pieces of in-channel wood can exert an important role on the ecological and morphological properties of gravel-bed rivers. On the other side, when transported during flood events, large wood can become a source of risk for sensitive structures such as bridges. However, wood displacement and velocity in river systems are still poorly understood, especially in large gravel-bed rivers. This study focuses on log transport in a valley reach of Tagliamento River (Italy). Log displacement during flood events of different magnitudes recorded from June 2010 to October 2011 has been analysed thanks to the installation of 113 radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and 42 GPS tracker devices in logs of different dimensions. Recovery rates of logs equipped with RFID and GPS trackers were about 43% and 42%, respectively. The GPS devices allowed us to analyse in details the log displacement and transport overtime, indicating a higher log entrainment during rising limb of hydrographs. The threshold for the entrainment of logs from low bars is around 40% of bankfull water stage. No clear relationship was found between the peak of flood and log displacement length and velocity. However, log displacement length and velocity appear significantly correlated to the ratio between the peak of flow and the water stage exceeding the flow duration curve for 25% of time (i.e. the ratio hmax/h25 ratio). Log deposition was observed to occur at the peak flow, and logs transported during ordinary events are preferably deposited on low bars. This study reveals the potentials of GPS tracker devices to monitor the entrainment and movements of logs in large gravel-bed rivers during floods. These observations could be useful for better planning of river management practices and strategies involving the use of large wood pieces and could help for calibrating wood budgets at the reach scale.

  3. Density estimation from the sonic log: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    DiSiena, J.P.; Hilterman, F.J. [Geophysical Development Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In this case study, the authors estimate the bulk densities which would be measured by the density log in a well. They base this estimate on the sonic log, a derived lithology log and velocity-density trend curves. Two published methods based on Gardner et al.`s (1974) relationship and an alternate approach that utilizes an areal trend analysis are evaluated. In comparison with the observed density, the Gardner`s relationship underpredicts the shale density and overpredicts the sand density. A modification of Gardner`s equation (Castagna et al., 1993), which utilizes different coefficients for each lithology, produces a better estimate. However, the results vary from well to well. A local data base within their study area provides an empirical calibration to improve upon the Gardner-type relationships for this area. Approximately 1,000 square miles with 50 wells make up their study area in offshore Louisiana, centered on South Marsh island Block 106. These logs constitute a local data base for determining trends in velocity and density for a two component lithology of sand and shale. The authors identify a linear relationship between the density and logarithm of velocity for both sand and shale. Mixing the sand and shale relationships based on their volume lithologic fractions, they arrive at their density estimate. In comparison to the modified Gardner`s method, a comparable to better estimate of the densities is obtained. Furthermore, the linear relationship allows for easy fine-tuning of the local density prediction. If a portion of the well has a density log, they can calibrate the relationships for the remainder of the well. These results show a remarkable fit to the density curve, with errors of less than 2%. When discrepancies are evident, the predicted curve can be used to edit other logs or to indicate the presence of gas.

  4. Log data extraction and correlation miner for lithography management system: LMS-LEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Eiichi; Tsuda, Hidetaka; Shirai, Hidehiro; Oishi, Satoru; Ina, Hideki

    2005-05-01

    To attain quick turn-around time (TAT) and high yield, it is very important to remove all the problems affecting the semiconductor volume production line. For this purpose, we have used a lithography management system (LMS) as an advanced process control system. The LMS stores the critical dimension and overlay inspection results as well as the log data of the exposure tool in a relational database. This enables a quick and efficient grasp of the productivity under the present conditions and helps to identify the causes of errors. Furthermore, we developed a mining tool, called a log data extraction and correlation miner (LMS-LEC), for factor analysis on the LMS. Despite low correlation between all data, a high correlation may exist between parameters in a certain data domain. The LMS-LEC can mine such correlations easily. With this tool, we can discover previously unknown error sources that have been buried in the vast quantity of data handled by the LMS and thereby increase of the effectiveness of the exposure and inspection tool. The LMS-LEC is an extremely useful software mining tool for "equipment health" monitoring, advanced fault detection, and sophisticated data analysis.

  5. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

    2013-03-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. PMID:23306160

  6. Latent log-linear models for handwritten digit classification.

    PubMed

    Deselaers, Thomas; Gass, Tobias; Heigold, Georg; Ney, Hermann

    2012-06-01

    We present latent log-linear models, an extension of log-linear models incorporating latent variables, and we propose two applications thereof: log-linear mixture models and image deformation-aware log-linear models. The resulting models are fully discriminative, can be trained efficiently, and the model complexity can be controlled. Log-linear mixture models offer additional flexibility within the log-linear modeling framework. Unlike previous approaches, the image deformation-aware model directly considers image deformations and allows for a discriminative training of the deformation parameters. Both are trained using alternating optimization. For certain variants, convergence to a stationary point is guaranteed and, in practice, even variants without this guarantee converge and find models that perform well. We tune the methods on the USPS data set and evaluate on the MNIST data set, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of our proposed models. Our models, although using significantly fewer parameters, are able to obtain competitive results with models proposed in the literature. PMID:22064798

  7. Audit Log for Forensic Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Timothy; Sorell, Matthew

    We propose an architecture for an audit log system for forensic photography, which ensures that the chain of evidence of a photograph taken by a photographer at a crime scene is maintained from the point of image capture to its end application at trial. The requirements for such a system are specified and the results of experiments are presented which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  8. Keep a "SLOG" (Sleep Log)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-09-19

    In this activity (1st on the page), learners keep a "SLOG" or Sleep Log to study their sleep patterns. Learners keep track of their sleep behavior and the dreams that they have each night on the "Dream Journal Worksheet" and "Sleep Journal Worksheet" included in this activity guide. This guide also includes twenty questions for learners to consider when recording and analyzing their dreams.

  9. Correlation of log response to production in the Austin Chalk

    E-print Network

    Behseresht, Cyrus Douglas

    1992-01-01

    . Logs for each well were digitized, and average resistivity and gamma values were calculated for the producing interval, and for the lower 70 to 100 ft (21. 5 to 30. 5 m) of the Atco chalk. Deep induction resistivity was then compared to both initial... equation. 21 Table 1. core analyses and average well log values for the Proco Gise ?I, Dimmit County, Texas Depth interval (ft) Porosity (Avg) Water Saturation Gamma (API) Resistivity (ohm-m) 6795 - 6870 0. 025 0. 71 6870 - 7028 0. 036 0. 82...

  10. Investigations of the ?N total cross sections at high energies using a new finite-energy sum rule: log ? or (log ?)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igi, Keiji; Ishida, Muneyuki

    2002-08-01

    We propose to use rich information on ?p total cross sections below N(~10 GeV) in addition to high-energy data in order to discern whether these cross sections increase like log ? or (log ?)2 at high energies, since it is difficult to discriminate between asymptotic log ? and (log ?)2 fits from high-energy data alone. A finite-energy sum rule (FESR) which is derived in the spirit of the P' sum rule as well as the n=1 moment FESR is required to constrain the high-energy parameters. We then search for the best fit of ?(+)tot above 70 GeV in terms of high-energy parameters constrained by these two FESR's. We can show from this analysis that the (log ?)2 behavior is preferred to the log ? behavior.

  11. What to expect when logging the Cotton Valley trend

    SciTech Connect

    Nangle, P.; Fertl, W.H.; Frost, E. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    Exploration within the low-porosity, low-permeability sections of the Cotton Valley sands and limestones of E. Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas has proven economic only within the last 5 to 8 yr due to improved gas prices and advanced reservoir analyzation and stimulation techniques. This work details those logging suites necessary to properly assess these less than optimum reservoirs, and illustrates, through specific well cases, how deliverability from well to well can vary due to delicate differences in reservoir properties. It is evident from the case wells illustrated that not all tight Cotton Valley sand or limestone wells result in high-rate flows. That being the case, it is important that detailed logging analysis be utilized so optimum stimulation procedures can be designed at each well site. Improperly place perforations or poorly designed and operated stimulation procedures can result in a bad well, where a successful one was possible.

  12. Geophysical logging for mineral and engineering applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenburg, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The book contains nonpetroleum logging methods and the more exotic techniques. Contents: History; Formation types; Borehole effects and mud; Electric logging systems; Radioactivity methods; Magnetic methods; Mechanical methods and sampling methods; Analog and digital systems; Interpretation methods.

  13. Velocity determination from multireceiver full-waveform acoustic-logging data

    E-print Network

    Ramanlal, Kirti Kumar

    1987-01-01

    . 32. Open hole (M S-P2) sonic log along with the Vr j V, ratio, the density, neutron porosity, photoelectric, SP, gamma-ray and caliper logs. 33. tz/V, vs V& from a compilation of field data. . 34 Vp / 1 vs Vz crossplot for the RVerner Sawmill well.... 35. Cased hole (GEC-P3) sonic log along with the Vz, 'V, ratio, the density, neutron porosity, photoelectric, SP, gamma-ray and caliper logs. 36. Vz/V, vs Vz crossplot 1' or the G. E. Cargill well. . Page 78 82 83 8i 90 91 CHAPTER I...

  14. Probabilistic Inductive Querying Using ProbLog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Raedt, Luc; Kimmig, Angelika; Gutmann, Bernd; Kersting, Kristian; Costa, Vítor Santos; Toivonen, Hannu

    We study how probabilistic reasoning and inductive querying can be combined within ProbLog, a recent probabilistic extension of Prolog. ProbLog can be regarded as a database system that supports both probabilistic and inductive reasoning through a variety of querying mechanisms. After a short introduction to ProbLog, we provide a survey of the different types of inductive queries that ProbLog supports, and show how it can be applied to the mining of large biological networks.

  15. University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log Information below must be compared to the monthly of the last page of the usage log. Employee's Name:Business Device - Cell Phone Number: Printed Name Cell Phone Usage Logs attached? Certification and Signature: The information listed on the Cell Phone

  16. Secure audit logs to support computer forensics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce Schneier; John Kelsey

    1999-01-01

    In many real-world applications, sensitive information must be kept it log files on an untrusted machine. In the event that an attacker captures this machine, we would like to guarantee that he will gain little or no information from the log files and to limit his ability to corrupt the log files. We describe a computationally cheap method for making

  17. Infinite log-concavity: developments and conjectures

    E-print Network

    McNamara, Peter

    [4] conjectured that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave. Using a computer of infinite log-concavity. We investigate related questions about the columns of Pascal's triangle, q this to be a conjecture that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave, although we will later discuss

  18. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    SciTech Connect

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  19. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  20. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  1. Tracking the Inside Intruder Using Net Log on Debug Logging in Microsoft Windows Server Operating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, CS

    2004-01-20

    In today's well-connected environments of the Internet, intranets, and extranets, protecting the Microsoft Windows network can be a daunting task for the security engineer. Intrusion Detection Systems are a must-have for most companies, but few have either the financial resources or the people resources to implement and maintain full-scale intrusion detection systems for their networks and hosts. Many will at least invest in intrusion detection for their Internet presence, but others have not yet stepped up to the plate with regard to internal intrusion detection. Unfortunately, most attacks will come from within. Microsoft Windows server operating systems are widely used across both large and small enterprises. Unfortunately, there is no intrusion detection built-in to the Windows server operating system. The security logs are valuable but can be difficult to manage even in a small to medium sized environment. So the question arises, can one effectively detect and identify an in side intruder using the native tools that come with Microsoft Windows Server operating systems? One such method is to use Net Logon Service debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity. This paper discusses how to use Net Logon debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity both in real-time and for forensic analysis.

  2. Data Mining of Network Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  3. Selecting WP Equipment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casady, Mona J.

    1981-01-01

    Suggestions for schools considering the purchase of word processing equipment are presented. Procedures for selecting equipment include getting information on prices, servicing, warranties, training, speed of printing, and quality of output. Choices to make include brand vs. service, price vs. service, and variety vs. limitations of brands. (CT)

  4. Technology Equipment Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, C. William

    2001-01-01

    Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

  5. Equip a Biotechnology Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology labs need specialized equipment for different types of processes and activities. The list on this site contains links to photos, SOPs, and information about different pieces of equipment. The content is divided by type of laboratory: Core Facilities, Media/Buffer/Reagent/Solution Preparation, Molecular Biology, and Downstream Processing.

  6. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)

  7. Laboratory Equipment Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Univ. Construction Fund, Albany, NY.

    Requirements for planning, designing, constructing and installing laboratory furniture are given in conjunction with establishing facility criteria for housing laboratory equipment. Furniture and equipment described include--(1) center tables, (2) reagent racks, (3) laboratory benches and their mechanical fixtures, (4) sink and work counters, (5)…

  8. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  9. Deep Space Network equipment performance, reliability, and operations management information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T.; Lin, J.; Chatillon, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office and the DeepSpace Network (DSN) facilities utilize the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) to collect, process, communicate and manage data discrepancies, equipment resets, physical equipment status, and to maintain an internal Station Log. A collaborative effort development between JPL and the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex delivered a system to support DSN Operations.

  10. Approximate Effects of Off-Center Acoustic Sondes and Elliptic Boreholes Upon Full Waveform Logs

    E-print Network

    Willis, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Full waveform acoustic well logging has become instrumental to hydrocarbon exploration because of its ability to determine in situ velocity information for P and S waves as well as the attenuation (or absorption) of seismic ...

  11. Weekly Security Incident Log Period of May 14 -May 20, 2012

    E-print Network

    York Security responded to a report of an unknown male causing a disturbance in the food courtWeekly Security Incident Log Period of May 14 - May 20, 2012 Incident No. Reported Date Building Property Complainant reported the theft of computer equipment from a secure office area

  12. Towards sharing life-log information with society

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reza Rawassizadeh

    2012-01-01

    We are living in an era of social media such as online communities and social networking sites. Exposing or sharing personal information with these communities has risks as well as benefits and there is always a trade off between the risks versus the benefits of using these technologies. Life-logs are pervasive tools or systems which sense and capture contextual information

  13. Calculation of porosity from nuclear magnetic resonance and conventional logs in gas-bearing reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang; Mao, Zhi-qiang; Li, Gao-ren; Jin, Yan

    2012-08-01

    The porosity may be overestimated or underestimated when calculated from conventional logs and also underestimated when derived from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs due to the effect of the lower hydrogen index of natural gas in gas-bearing sandstones. Proceeding from the basic principle of NMR log and the results obtained from a physical rock volume model constructed on the basis of interval transit time logs, a technique of calculating porosity by combining the NMR log with the conventional interval transit time log is proposed. For wells with the NMR log acquired from the MRIL-C tool, this technique is reliable for evaluating the effect of natural gas and obtaining accurate porosity in any borehole. In wells with NMR log acquired from the CMR-Plus tool and with collapsed borehole, the NMR porosity should be first corrected by using the deep lateral resistivity log. Two field examples of tight gas sandstones in the Xujiahe Formation, central Sichuan basin, Southwest China, illustrate that the porosity calculated by using this technique matches the core analyzed results very well. Another field example of conventional gas-bearing reservoir in the Ziniquanzi Formation, southern Junggar basin, Northwest China, verifies that this technique is usable not only in tight gas sandstones, but also in any gas-bearing reservoirs.

  14. A fast algorithm for three-dimensional interpretations ofsingle-well electromagnetic data

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha

    2004-09-17

    An efficient inversion algorithm has been developed forthree-dimensional (3D) interpretations for single-hole electromagnetic(EM) logging data based on a modified extended Born approximation (MEBA)scheme. The single-hole data was collected at an oil field undergoing CO2injection in southern California using a tool, Geo-BILT, developed byElectromagnetic Instruments, Inc (EMI). The tool is equipped with amulti-component source, and an array of multi-component receivers atdifferent separations. The inversion result provides a reasonableelectrical conductivity image to a distance of 10 m from the well, andillustrates several zones with lateral conductivity variations that couldnot be resolved with traditional induction logging tools. The computercost of the inversion processes can be further reduced using a trivialmulti-grid methodology.

  15. NADIR: Monitoring, Error Handling, and Logging with Tango

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.

    2014-05-01

    The ingest and transport of a large amount of astronomical data, in geographically distributed archives, imply some challenging issues, like remote control and configuration, monitoring and logging anomalous conditions, fault tolerance and error handling. Based on this considerations and on our experience in data management, we started development of a New Archiving Distributed InfrastructuRe (NADIR), using Tango (Team 2013; S. Gara 2012), a well known distributed control system (DCSs) within scientific environments, taking advantage of its key features, like reliability, scalability, logging and alarm system, consolidated pattern and template, to solve this complexity. In this paper we discuss about design choices and technical aspects around this project.

  16. Towards a Stochastic Cellular Automata Model of Log Wood Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenegger, Klaus; Schappacher, Wilhelm; Hebenstreit, Babette; Schmidl, Christoph; Höftberger, Ernst

    2014-03-01

    Describing the combustion of log wood and others solid fuels with complex geometry, considerable water content and often heterogenous struture is a nontrivial task. Stochastic Cellular Automata models offer a promising approach for modelling such processes. Combustion models of this type exhibit several similarities to the well-known forest fire models, but there are also significant differences between those two types of models. These differences call for a detailed analysis and the development of supplementary modeling approaches. In this article we define a qualitative two-dimensional model of burning log wood, discuss the most important differences to classical forest fire models and present some preliminary results.

  17. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL] [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Maxwell, Don E [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL] [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.

  18. 32 CFR 700.845 - Maintenance of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...a) A deck log and an engineering log shall be maintained...An engineer's bell book shall be maintained as an adjunct to the engineering log. (c) The Chief...preparation of the deck and engineering logs and adjunct...

  19. Well servicing rig market report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Killalea

    1989-01-01

    This article profiles the well servicing industry, focusing on the problems facing the industry under currently depressed market conditions. The problems of rising operating costs, oil price uncertainty, and aging equipment are addressed specifically.

  20. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  1. COMPARISON OF ACOUSTIC AND ELECTRICAL IMAGE LOGS FROM THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD, CA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NICHOLAS C. DAVATZES; STEVE HICKMAN

    Electrical and acoustic image logs collected from well 58A-10 in crystalline rock on the eastern margin of the Coso Geothermal Field, CA, reveal different populations of planar structures intersecting the borehole. Electrical image logs appear to be sensitive to variations in mineralogy, porosity, and fluid content that highlight both natural fractures and rock fabrics. These fabric elements account for about

  2. Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels

    E-print Network

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels Fabian-log-map (MLM) detector has well-known appli- cations to the intersymbol interefence (ISI) channel [1, · · · , is trans- mitted across the ISI channel. Let the following random This work was performed when F. Lim

  3. Cost-effective conservation: calculating biodiversity and logging trade-offs in Southeast Asia

    E-print Network

    Vermont, University of

    with extensive logging and forest conversion to oil palm. The large financial returns to these activities have (Fisher et al. 2011), as well as agricultural expansion for lucrative crops, especially oil palm (Sodhi et al. 2004; Koh & Wilcove 2008). The large financial returns to logging and oil palm create a sizable

  4. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...grade, and setting depth of casing; all well logs and surveys...protection. (b) When drilling operations are suspended...reported include spud dates, casing setting depths, cement quantities, casing characteristics, mud...

  5. System Safety Analysis of Well-Control Equipment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Fowler; J. R. Roche

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of recent disasters in the oil and gas E and P and petrochemical industries, the importance of system safety analysis is becoming recognized. Reliability assessment techniques, which were developed in the nuclear-power-generation and defense industries, are potentially valuable tools for engineers in the offshore oil and gas business. BOP's and their control systems used on offshore rigs

  6. Synergistic interpretation of formation characteristics of a low temperature geothermal well in Susanville, California

    SciTech Connect

    McNitt, J.R.; Sanyal, S.K.; Petersen, C.A.

    1981-10-01

    A synergistic interpretation of drilling logs, formation logs, production logs and pump test data, from a low temperature geothermal well is presented to yield the stratigraphic sequence and the nature and thickness of the permeable zones. The well penetrated fluvial and lake bed sediments (ash/clay/sand) with occasional basalt/andesite. An unconventional application of repeat temperature logging in a nearby well during the drilling of the subject well proved invaluable in locating permeable zones and in casing and completion.

  7. Well apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Akkerman, N. H.

    1985-06-11

    There are disclosed two embodiments of well apparatus each including a well tool adapted to be lowered into and locked within a landing nipple of a well string, together with a running tool adapted to be connected to the well tool for lowering it into locking position and then causing it to be so locked within the nipple, following which the running tool is released from the well tool for retrieval from the well string.

  8. Well tractors for highly deviated and horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hallundbaek, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces the oil industry to a new type of downhole tools--the Well Tractors with modular power source designed for running in open hole and inside the completions of horizontal and highly deviated wells. The Well Tractors are used for cleaning, setting and pulling of plugs, operating sliding sleeves, open hole logging, running of production logs, drilling, perforation guns, cement bond logs, etc. Horizontally the Well Tractors pull coiled tubing and/or wireline beyond 10,000 ft. The Well Tractors are capable of pulling more than 25,000 ft of coiled tubing and/or wireline into a highly deviated well. Furthermore the tools are designed for pushing other tools into the hole, e.g., logging tools, video cameras, etc. The Well Tractors with modular power source are designed in two versions: A fluid driven version for coiled tubing operations, powered by brine, water, mud, etc., which is pumped down through standard coiled tubing. The tool is controlled from the surface via a wireline running inside the tubing. Through the wireline measurements can be transmitted to the surface. Alternatively the tool can also operate without the wireline which enables it to run with a smaller size of coiled tubing or have a higher flow rate for cleaning jobs. An electric driven version of the Well Tractor for wireline operations, powered and controlled through the wireline. The Well Tractors are designed in 3 different sizes. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 3 1/8 in. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 4 3/4 in. and a Tractor with an outside diameter of 2 1/8 in.

  9. Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

    1993-01-01

    Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

  10. Wean-Tail Log.xls

    Cancer.gov

    A SP #: ________________ _ Investigator: _________________ WEAN / TAIL CLIP LOG Strain: ___________________ Room Number: ___________________ STRAIN CODE WEAN DATE # ? # ? COMMENTS WATER A OR B # CAGES DOB TAILCLIP DATE CAGE / LITTER

  11. Advertise Subscribe Log in Register Advanced search

    E-print Network

    Advertise Subscribe Log in Register Advanced search Home News Comment Special reports People's opposition to nuclear power. Advertisement Advertisement Friday, 20 April 2012 Economics Business Information

  12. Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

    2014-08-01

    The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. PMID:24628366

  13. Decision support in construction equipment management using a nonparametric outlier mining algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongqin Fan; Hyoungkwan Kim; Simaan M. Abourizk; Seung Heon Han

    2008-01-01

    Innovations in construction equipment using cognitive and automation techniques, as well as computerized equipment Information Management System (IMS) have greatly simplified the equipment operations and management process. Though the data collection, storage and reporting for equipment management are no longer pressing issues for the company equipment manager, data analysis becomes increasingly difficult with large amounts of data, especially for identifying

  14. Ness horizontal-well case study

    SciTech Connect

    Koonsman, T.L. (Mobil Exploration Norway Inc. (Norway)); Purpich, A.J. (Mobil North Sea Ltd. (United Kingdom))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reviews the reservoir management work that led to the recommendation to drill the Ness field horizontal well. It also discusses the poor well performance seen almost immediately after production began and the reasons for that well performance revealed by a postdrill reservoir simulation. Finally, the atypical logging responses observed in the well are discussed.

  15. Chemical treating system for oil wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    A chemical treating system for oil wells is described in the form of a chemical injector and well manifold for protecting downhole oil well equipment from corrosion by injecting a predetermined quantity of chemical additive into a circulating fluid. The equipment includes a supply tank or reservoir supported in elevated position above a calibrated measuring container which discharges into a

  16. Public service user terminus study compendium of terminus equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    General descriptions and specifications are given for equipments which facilitate satellite and terrestrial communications delivery by acting as interfaces between a human, mechanical, or electrical information generator (or source) and the communication system. Manufactures and suppliers are given as well as the purchase, service, or lease costs of various products listed under the following cateories: voice/telephony/facsimile equipment; data/graphics terminals; full motion and processes video equipment; and multiple access equipment.

  17. Assessment of HYGAS mechanical equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, P.R.; Kramberger, F.E.; Recupero, R.M.; Verden, M.L.; Rees, K.

    1980-10-01

    The HYGAS process, which converts coal to substitute natural gas, is being developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) using an 80 ton per day pilot plant located in Chicago, Illinois. Plant design started in 1967 and testing began in October 1971. Since then, 18,000 tons of both Eastern and Western coal have been gasified. Assessment of the mechanical equipment was made by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) in collaboration with a DOE on-site representative and a representative from IGT, the operating contractor. Data for the assessment were obtained by reviewing all available maintenance records, by interviewing key personnel from maintenance and operations, and by observing repairs and maintenance procedures where possible. While operating the plant, a variety of equipment problems were addressed, many of which are generic to HYGAS as well as other coal conversion processes. Some problems were solved completely while others were solved to suit the limited needs of the pilot plant. Accordingly, the emphasis of this study is on the degree of success in dealing with equipment failures, the unresolved problems and the implication to future coal conversion plants.

  18. Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Burdick, A.

    2012-02-01

    The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

  19. Flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G. (Inventor); Walthall, Harry G. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

  20. Live Well

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Against AIDS Act Against AIDS Campaigns Share Compartir Live Well Being aware of your overall health beyond ... things you can do to stay healthy and live well. Mental Health - Good mental health will help ...

  1. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  2. 2009 Daily Fire Log Date & Time

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    2009 Daily Fire Log Fire Log Date & Time Occurred Occurred General Location Nature of the Fire Comment 03/16/09 1432 Outside of Corbett Theater Unintentional-Other Abstract art project caught on fire 03/31/09 1833 Lot T Unintentional- Machinery/Industrial Motor vehicle caught on fire; fire department

  3. Food Log by snapping and processing images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyoharu Aizawa; Gamhewage C. de Silva; Makoto Ogawa; Yohei Sato

    2010-01-01

    We present the current status of FoodLog, a multimedia Internet application that enables easy capture and archival of information regarding our daily meals. The primary purpose of FoodLog is to facilitate dietary management support with minimum manual recording of information. It analyzes image archives that belong to a user to identify images of meals. Further image analysis determines the nutritional

  4. Securing Shareable Life-logs Reza Rawassizadeh

    E-print Network

    Securing Shareable Life-logs Reza Rawassizadeh Institute of Software Technology and Interactive-log information requires higher security consid- erations since it may contains very sensitive information about time. Furthermore, general security approaches which might decrease security related risks for life

  5. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...log entries as follows: (1) The date and time of each occurrence or incident required to be...log must be shown opposite the entry and the time must be expressed in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). (2) “ON WATCH” must be...

  6. Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

  7. Monthly Tank Inspection Log Name of Campus

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    Monthly Tank Inspection Log Name of Campus Street Address of Campus City, State, and Zip Code standing water Drip pans are not overflowing (or have standing water) Containment curbing is in good supplies #12;Monthly Tank Inspection Log Name of Campus Street Address of Campus City, State, and Zip Code

  8. Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Results Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Conclusions Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models. PMID:24330636

  9. Salvage Logging, Ecosystem Processes, and Biodiversity Conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. B. LINDENMAYER; R. F. NOSS

    2006-01-01

    We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging—a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil prop- erties and nutrient levels, increase

  10. JAS log volume estimates of New Zealand radiata pine and Douglas-fir logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Ellis; D. H. Sanders; D. Pont

    Sectionally measured radiata pine and Douglas$r sawlog data has been analysed to study the relationship between true volume and that derived using the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS). Although JAS volume estimates on logs of average dimensions are close to true cubic, large errors are introduced with increase in log taper and decrease in small-end diameter. Introduction Softwood logs exported from

  11. Illegal timber logging in Vietnam: Who profits from forest privatization connected with a logging ban?

    E-print Network

    1 Illegal timber logging in Vietnam: Who profits from forest privatization connected with a logging the distribution of income from illegal timber logging in northern Vietnam. The Vietnamese government implemented actors' control over markets and power derived from state positions. I. Introduction Vietnam's forest

  12. Equipment Management Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

  13. Photographic Equipment Test System (PETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Photographic Equipment Test System is presented. The device is a mobile optical system designed for evaluating performance of various sensors in a laboratory, in a vacuum chamber or on a flight line. The carriage is designed to allow elevation as well as azimuth control of the direction of the light from the collimator. The pneumatic tires provide an effective vibration isolation system. A target/illumination system is mounted on a motor driven linear slide, and focusing and exposure control can be operated remotely from the small electronics control console.

  14. Hydrogeology of the observation well site at the United States Geological Survey National Center, Reston, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's National Center is on a 105-acre tract straddling rocks of two distinct types. These are pelitic schists of late Precambrian or early Paleozoic age; and sandstone, shale, siltstone, conglomerate, and diabase of Triassic age. Two observation wells and two core holes were drilled on the part of the property underlain by Triassic sedimentary rocks. The wells were drilled to monitor water levels, for equipment testing and to determine the hydraulic properties of the Triassic rocks. Geophysical logs were run and lithologic logs prepared from drill cuttings and cores. An aquifer test was conducted and indicated that the transmissivity is about 40 sq ft/day. Flowmeter surveys showed that the water comes from two thin zones, presumably bedding plane partings. The flowmeter surveys, core samples, and geophysical logs suggest that the Triassic sandstone is a fractured-rock aquifer. A water sample taken at the close of the aquifer test was low in dissolved solids, soft, and of excellent quality. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. Engineer Equipment Operator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

  16. Dairy Equipment Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

  17. Early Equipment Management

    E-print Network

    Schlie, Michelle

    2007-05-18

    . The continuous improvement program was implemented in twelve steps because of its complexity. Early Equipment Management (EEM) is one of the eight pillars of TPM and is the eighth step in the implementation program. EEM is a structured process that evaluates...

  18. Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

  19. Formation evaluation using wavelet analysis on logs of the Chinji and Nagri Formations, northern Pakistan

    E-print Network

    Tanyel, Emre Doruk

    2006-10-30

    The relatively new method of using wavelets in well log analysis is a powerful tool for defining multiple superimposed scales of lithic trends and contacts. Interpreting depositional processes associated with different scales of vertical variation...

  20. Log-amplitude statistics for Beck-Cohen superstatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiyono, Ken; Konno, Hidetoshi

    2013-05-01

    As a possible generalization of Beck-Cohen superstatistical processes, we study non-Gaussian processes with temporal heterogeneity of local variance. To characterize the variance heterogeneity, we define log-amplitude cumulants and log-amplitude autocovariance and derive closed-form expressions of the log-amplitude cumulants for ?2, inverse ?2, and log-normal superstatistical distributions. Furthermore, we show that ?2 and inverse ?2 superstatistics with degree 2 are closely related to an extreme value distribution, called the Gumbel distribution. In these cases, the corresponding superstatistical distributions result in the q-Gaussian distribution with q=5/3 and the bilateral exponential distribution, respectively. Thus, our finding provides a hypothesis that the asymptotic appearance of these two special distributions may be explained by a link with the asymptotic limit distributions involving extreme values. In addition, as an application of our approach, we demonstrated that non-Gaussian fluctuations observed in a stock index futures market can be well approximated by the ?2 superstatistical distribution with degree 2.

  1. First Riser Logging in Scientific Ocean Drilling: Operational Planning and results/reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Yoshinori; Kyaw Thu, Moe; Kido, Yukari; Kawamura, Yoshihisa; Hino, Ryota; Eguchi, Nabuhisa; Toczko, Sean; Takahashi, Kyoma; 319 Science Party, Iodp

    2010-05-01

    The first wireline logging, downhole stress measurement, and two-ship walkaway VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) were conducted in the riser drilled hole during IODP Expedition 319 in 2009. The hole C0009 is first riser drilling hole in ODP/IODP history by JAMSTEC D/V Chikyu. The expedition 319 is one of series of NanTroSEIZE Project, which goal is to reveal earthquake mechanism in Nankai trough seismogenic zone in Japan. The hole C0009 is drilled at TD 1603.7mbsf under 2054m sea water. Sampling cores, cutting analysis, gas monitoring, wireline logging, downhole stress measurement, and two-ship walkaway VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) were conducted. This presentation report the operational planning, results and reality. IODP standard wireline logging items: natural gamma-ray, resistivity, density, porosity, sonic velocity, resistivity image were measured. The advantages of riser dilled hole against riserless drilled hole for wireline logging are 1) stable hole condition, 2) accurate environmental correction by controlled drilling mud, and 3) large variation of tool selection because of regular hole size instead of slimhole by conventional IODP riser drilling. A couple of new tools were used for new measurement and improvement of the data quality. The SonicScanner (trademark of Schulumberger) successfully measured compressional and share velocity in very low velocities at the soft sediment, where it has been difficult to measure them with conventional DSI tool. The stress and pore pressure in the borehole were measured with the wireline logging tool, (Schlumberger MDT). The single probe tool enable to measure temporal formation fluid pressure. The double packer tool enable to fracture test by sealing and pumping in the borehole. These in-situ measurement and stress experiment data are very important to understand physical properties and mechanism of fault zone. Super long offset walkaway VSP was conducted to reveal detail subsurface structure and velocity distribution. The 16 sets of the no planned 3-C geophone are clumped with 15m spacing at ~1300-1600mbsf in the cased C0009 hole by Chikyu. Eight OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer)s deployed at the seafloor. JAMSTEC R/V Kairei shot along 53km line (maximum offset from the hole is ~30km) and round 3.5km circle with 16-array tuned air-gun. Zero-offset VSP was conducted to measure velocity and create seismogram along the well as well. Using high resolution data obtained from the equipment, detailed structural interpretation, anisotropy analysis, and shear velocity analysis are being carried out. Riser drilling takes not only operational advantages such as deeper and safety hole, but also scientific advantage such as increasing measurement items which has never done in riserless drilling and improving data quality. It enlarge the options to approach new discovery and Science.

  2. Use of internet search logs to evaluate potential drug adverse events.

    PubMed

    Sarntivijai, S; Abernethy, D R

    2014-08-01

    Internet search logs provide an abundant source of data that can be explored for purposes such as identifying drug exposure-adverse event relationships. The methodology to rigorously conduct such evaluations is not well characterized, and the utility of such analyses is not well defined. In this issue, White and colleagues propose an approach using Internet search logs for this purpose and compare it to parallel analyses conducted using the US Food and Drug Administration's spontaneous reporting database. PMID:25056395

  3. Public Wells

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Example of wellhead plumbing typical of public wells sampled in a USGS study of 932 public wells nationwide. About 105 million people?or more than one-third of the Nation's population?receive their drinking water from one of the 140,000 public water systems across the United States that re...

  4. Interpreting Horizontal Well Flow Profiles and Optimizing Well Performance by Downhole Temperature and Pressure Data

    E-print Network

    Li, Zhuoyi

    2011-02-22

    Horizontal well temperature and pressure distributions can be measured by production logging or downhole permanent sensors, such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensors (DTS). Correct interpretation of temperature and pressure data can...

  5. 40 CFR 147.2104 - Requirements for all wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...A pipe analysis log; or (2) A caliper log. (b) The owner or operator of a new injection well cased with plastic (PVC, ABS, or others) casings shall: (1) Not construct a well deeper than 500 feet; (2) Use cement and additives...

  6. 40 CFR 147.305 - Requirements for all wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...A Pipe analysis log; or (2) A Caliper log. (b) The owner or operator of a new injection well cased with plastic (PVC, ABS, and others) casings shall: (1) Not construct a well deeper than 500 feet; (2) Use cement and additives...

  7. 40 CFR 147.2104 - Requirements for all wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...A pipe analysis log; or (2) A caliper log. (b) The owner or operator of a new injection well cased with plastic (PVC, ABS, or others) casings shall: (1) Not construct a well deeper than 500 feet; (2) Use cement and additives...

  8. 40 CFR 147.305 - Requirements for all wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...A Pipe analysis log; or (2) A Caliper log. (b) The owner or operator of a new injection well cased with plastic (PVC, ABS, and others) casings shall: (1) Not construct a well deeper than 500 feet; (2) Use cement and additives...

  9. 40 CFR 147.305 - Requirements for all wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...A Pipe analysis log; or (2) A Caliper log. (b) The owner or operator of a new injection well cased with plastic (PVC, ABS, and others) casings shall: (1) Not construct a well deeper than 500 feet; (2) Use cement and additives...

  10. 40 CFR 147.2104 - Requirements for all wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...A pipe analysis log; or (2) A caliper log. (b) The owner or operator of a new injection well cased with plastic (PVC, ABS, or others) casings shall: (1) Not construct a well deeper than 500 feet; (2) Use cement and additives...

  11. 40 CFR 147.305 - Requirements for all wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...A Pipe analysis log; or (2) A Caliper log. (b) The owner or operator of a new injection well cased with plastic (PVC, ABS, and others) casings shall: (1) Not construct a well deeper than 500 feet; (2) Use cement and additives...

  12. 40 CFR 147.305 - Requirements for all wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...A Pipe analysis log; or (2) A Caliper log. (b) The owner or operator of a new injection well cased with plastic (PVC, ABS, and others) casings shall: (1) Not construct a well deeper than 500 feet; (2) Use cement and additives...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2104 - Requirements for all wells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...A pipe analysis log; or (2) A caliper log. (b) The owner or operator of a new injection well cased with plastic (PVC, ABS, or others) casings shall: (1) Not construct a well deeper than 500 feet; (2) Use cement and additives...

  14. Field surveys of office equipment operating patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Webber, Carrie A.; Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Payne, Christopher T.; Nordman, Bruce; Koomey, Jonathan G.

    2001-09-05

    This paper presents the results of 11 after-hours walk-throughs of offices in the San Francisco CA and Washington D.C. areas. The primary purpose of these walk-throughs was to collect data on turn-off rates for various types of office equipment (computers, monitors, printers, fax machines, copiers, and multifunction products). Each piece of equipment observed was recorded and its power status noted (e.g. on, off, low power). Whenever possible, we also recorded whether power management was enabled on the equipment. The floor area audited was recorded as well, which allowed us to calculate equipment densities. We found that only 44 percent of computers, 32 percent of monitors, and 25 percent of printers were turned off at night. Based on our observations we estimate success rates of 56 percent for monitor power management and 96 percent for enabling of power management on printers.

  15. Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiman, Carl F. R.

    1992-01-01

    Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

  16. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  17. A sampling approach to estimate the log determinant used in spatial likelihood problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, R. Kelley; Lesage, James P.

    2009-09-01

    Likelihood-based methods for modeling multivariate Gaussian spatial data have desirable statistical characteristics, but the practicality of these methods for massive georeferenced data sets is often questioned. A sampling algorithm is proposed that exploits a relationship involving log-pivots arising from matrix decompositions used to compute the log determinant term that appears in the model likelihood. We demonstrate that the method can be used to successfully estimate log-determinants for large numbers of observations. Specifically, we produce an log-determinant estimate for a 3,954,400 by 3,954,400 matrix in less than two minutes on a desktop computer. The proposed method involves computations that are independent, making it amenable to out-of-core computation as well as to coarse-grained parallel or distributed processing. The proposed technique yields an estimated log-determinant and associated confidence interval.

  18. A case study of the evaluation, completion, and testing of a Devonian shale gas well

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Lancaster; F. K. Guldry; R. L. Graham; J. B. Curtis; J. S. Shaw

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes the operational procedures, geochemical analyses, well-log-interpretation techniques, perforation selection methodology, production-log interpretation, well-test analysis, and stimulation evaluation for a Devonian shale gas well in Pike County, KY. Contractors collected well-log, core, geochemical, and well-test data in addition to those which the operator would have routinely collected on this well. The purpose of this paper is to discuss

  19. Log interpretation of shaly sandstones

    E-print Network

    Baker, Joel Foster

    1987-01-01

    dispersed clays with the gamma-ray readings from 50 to 90 zv API units, measured water saturations from 60 to 90%, and the resistivities fzom 2. 0 to 3. 6 ohm m. The sandstones from the other well contained dominantly laminated clays with gamma... Intracoastal Land ()2 well, Bayou Cholpe field. Relationship between thin ? section fraction of shale and the calculated volume of shale from the gamma ray using the Dresser Atlas consolidated rock formula, The dashed curve represents the predicted gamma...

  20. Liver Wellness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing Public Awareness of Liver Health Liver Wellness • The liver is the second ...

  1. Staying Well

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and Wellness Acupuncture and MS: The Basic Facts (.pdf) An exploration of what is known and not ... 2004) Download Brochure Clear Thinking About Alternative Therapies (.pdf) Facts and common misconceptions, plus practical ways to ...

  2. Field Demonstration of Slim-hole Borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logging Tool for Groundwater Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, D.; Turner, P.; Frid, I.; Shelby, R.; Grunewald, E. D.; Magnuson, E.; Butler, J. J.; Johnson, C. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Woodward, D. A.; Williams, K. H.; Lane, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide estimates of free and bound water content and hydraulic conductivity, which are critically important for groundwater investigations. Borehole NMR tools have been available and widely used in the oil industry for decades, but only recently have been designed for small diameter boreholes typical of groundwater investigations. Field tests of an 89-mm-diameter borehole NMR logging tool are presented. This borehole NMR logging tool was developed for economical NMR logging of 100- to 200-mm-diameter boreholes, and specifically for characterizing hydraulic properties in the top 200 m of the subsurface. The tool has a vertical resolution of 0.5 m, a minimum echo spacing of 2.0 ms, and a radial depth of investigation of 178 to 203 mm, which typically is beyond the annulus of observation wells. It takes about 15 minutes to collect a data sample for each 0.5-m interval. The borehole NMR logging tool was field tested during spring 2010, in PVC-cased wells at sites in East Haddam and Storrs, Connecticut; Cape Cod, Massachusetts; Lexington, Nebraska; Lawrence, Kansas; and Rifle, Colorado. NMR logging yielded estimates of bound water, free water, and total-water content, as well as continuous distributions of water content versus transverse relaxation time (T2) at all depth levels. The derived water-content data were compared to the available ground-truth hydrogeologic data from each well, including drilling logs, neutron and other geophysical logs, and direct measurements of hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate that the borehole NMR logging tool provides information on porosity, pore-size distribution, and estimated hydraulic conductivity that cannot be duplicated by any other single geophysical logging tool.

  3. Model Well

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

    2008-01-01

    In this quick activity about pollutants and groundwater (page 2 of PDF), learners build a model well with a toilet paper tube. Learners use food coloring to simulate pollutants and observe how they can be carried by groundwater and eventually enter water sources such as wells, rivers, and streams. This activity is associated with nanotechnology and relates to linked video, DragonflyTV Nano: Water Clean-up.

  4. Everything about Construction Equipment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Children can learn about bulldozers, hydraulic excavators, and other construction equipment at this fun Web site. Cartoon animations show the operation of the main systems in these vehicles. The interactive applications give the user an operator's view of the machines and even show the location and function of several controls. While keeping a fairly simplistic perspective, the material explains some more advanced concepts such as hydraulic cylinders. Three methods used in construction to transform unwanted materials into something useful are also highlighted.

  5. Ultrahigh vacuum equipment described

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuzhi; Jing, Shiqun; Peng, Xianhui

    1985-10-01

    Ultrahigh vacuum equipment for filming with a blockade value and a substrate at the temperature of liquid nitrogen. The equipment has the following characteristics: (1) the vacuum chamber is exposed to the atmosphere, the lockade valve can maintain a vacuum of 1 to 10 to the -9 power torr for a long period of time; (2) it greatly reduces the working cycle compared to before the blockade valve was installed; and (3) the temperature of the sample substrate in the vacuum chamber can be adjusted continuously between 77 K and room temperature. The ultrahigh vacuum filming equipment China now produces does not have an ultrahigh vacuum valve, when inserting and removing samples, the pump casing is exposed to the atmosphere so that even after the pump has operated for a time, its limited vacuum is 10 to the -8 power torr. A bakeable metallic blockade valve is installed between the vacuum pump intake and the vacuum chamber to form a fliming device. The device is simple, the vacuum is increased several levels, and it can make samples at different substrate temperatures.

  6. Secure authenticated video equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Doren, N.E.

    1993-07-01

    In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

  7. Logging while fishing: An alternate method to cut and thread fishing

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefsen, E.; Crary, S.; Flores, B. [and others

    1996-12-31

    New technology has been introduced to allow completion of the wireline logging program after the tool string has become lodged in the wellbore. Charges associated with extracting a stuck tool are substantial. These charges result from the nonproductive time during the fishing trip, an associated wiper trip, and re-logging the well. The ability to continue the logging program while retrieving the logging string from the wellbore is needed. Logging While Fishing (LWF) is a hybrid of existing technologies combined with a new sub capable of severing a cable remotely. This new method is comprised of cut and thread fishing, drillpipe conveyed logging, and bridled tool techniques. Utilizing these techniques it is possible to complete wireline logging operations while removing a stuck tool from the wellbore. Completing logging operations using this hybrid method will save operating companies time and money. Other benefits, depending on the situation, include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety. This application has been demonstrated on jobs in the Gulf of Mexico, North Sea, Venezuela, and Southeast Asia.

  8. Decompression illness associated with underwater logging: 6 case reports from Kenyir Lake, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Loke, Y K; Tee, M H; Tan, M H

    1998-03-01

    The formation of Kenyir Lake as part of a hydroelectric project in the 1980s caused much forest area to be submerged. From 1991, underwater divers were employed to log these sunken trees at depths of up to 100 meters. At least 6 mishaps involving underwater logging personnel were recorded from March 1994 to August 1996. We retrospectively reviewed 5 cases who were managed in Hospital Kuala Terengganu. The patients presented with marked cardiorespiratory and neurological disturbances. One diver died in the Hospital while another died at the recompression chamber. Three divers were treated with recompression and improved. Average delay before the start of recompression was 14 hours. Underwater logging has definite dangers and steps must be taken to ensure that both the divers and the equipment are appropriate for the task. Availability of a nearby recompression facility would greatly enhance the management of diving accidents, not only for commercial divers but also for recreational divers who frequent the islands nearby. PMID:10968146

  9. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States). Control Software Group

    1997-12-01

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

  10. Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

    1994-01-01

    Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

  11. Formation mechanical properties and the sonic log

    SciTech Connect

    Elphick, R.Y.

    1988-11-01

    A program is presented that calculates the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks from sonic logs. The program was written in Microsoft BASIC and the source code for MS-DOS, Apple Macintosh, and Amiga personal computers is given.

  12. 2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00262

    E-print Network

    Boyce, Richard L.

    Activity on 06/22/10 #12;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00258 Reported: 06/21/10 1400 Occurred: 06 Location: 28 Faren Drive (Rental Property) Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Basement flooded by heavy

  13. Applications of Finite Difference Synthetic Acoustic Logs

    E-print Network

    Stephen, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Finite difference synthetic acoustic logs are suitable for studying wave propagation in vertically varying boreholes and in boreholes with continuously varying properties. Snapshots for the traditional smooth bore in a ...

  14. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S. (New York, NY); Myers, Gregory J. (Cornwall, NY)

    2007-11-13

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  15. Infinite log-concavity: developments and conjectures

    E-print Network

    McNamara, Peter R W

    2008-01-01

    Given a sequence (a_k) = a_0, a_1, a_2,... of real numbers, define a new sequence L(a_k) = (b_k) where b_k = a_k^2 - a_{k-1} a_{k+1}. So (a_k) is log-concave if and only if (b_k) is a nonnegative sequence. Call (a_k) "infinitely log-concave" if L^i(a_k) is nonnegative for all i >= 1. Boros and Moll conjectured that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave. Using a computer and a stronger version of log-concavity, we prove their conjecture for the nth row for all n Pascal's triangle, q-analogues, symmetric functions, real-rooted polynomials, and Toeplitz matrices. In addition, we offer several conjectures.

  16. Logging-while-coring method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Goldberg, David S.; Myers, Gregory J.

    2007-01-30

    A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

  17. Calibration of density logs at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Hearst, J.R.

    1995-04-01

    During the evaluation of a proposed site for an underground nuclear test at the Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site (NTS) it was important to measure the bulk density of the geological formation in which the test was to be executed. The most satisfactory method for this measurement is the density log. This is a measurement system in which a gamma-ray source and detector are mounted in an instrument (a sonde) which is lowered into a borehole by a multi-conductor cable, and the number of gamma rays detected is used to infer the bulk density. At NTS many of the boreholes of interest are air-filled, with diameters as large as 3.65 m, drilled in partially-saturated media. Consequently the commercial equipment and calibration procedures are not suitable for NTS conditions. The count rate from a density sonde is strongly affected by any gap between the sonde and the borehole wall, especially if the gap is filled with air rather than water. Modern commercial density logs employ two detectors, and use one of the detectors to compensate for borehole conditions such as mudcake and gap. The commercial compensation algorithms assume that the sonde is parallel to the borehole wall; a reasonable assumption for oilfield conditions but not for NTS conditions. Moreover, in an air-filled borehole, borehole diameter affects both the calibration and the compensation. Therefore we could not use commercial algorithms to deal with NTS conditions. For many years, no appropriate two-detector algorithm was available for the NTS situation. Consequently we developed special algorithms for a single-detector sonde, which was equipped to measure the gap directly. Recently a two-detector algorithm was developed, which appears to be satisfactory if the sonde is calibrated in the appropriate-diameter borehole. In this report we describe the calibration procedures and the algorithms for both methods.

  18. DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Emilia, D.A.; Allen, J.W.; Chessmore, R.B.; Wilson, R.B.

    1981-03-01

    A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 ..mu..CGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 ..mu..CGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists.

  19. Toxic species evolution from guayule fireplace logs

    E-print Network

    Soderman, Kristi Lee

    1988-01-01

    Bennett (H ad of Department) August 1988 ABSTRACT Toxic Species Evolution from Guayule Fireplace Logs. (August 19SS) Kristi Lee Soderman, B. S. , Texas A&M University; Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. John P. Wagner A study of smoke produced during... burning of guayule fireplace logs was conducted to determine if any unusually toxic species were present. An ASTM D-4100 Arapahoe smoke chamber was used to generate smoke for smoke mass determinations, chemical analyses, and particle size distribution...

  20. RoboLog Koblenz 2002 - Team Description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Murray; Oliver Obst; Frieder Stolzenburg

    2002-01-01

    The RoboLog Team. The RoboLog team participated in the simulator competitions in 1999 (Stockholm), 2000 (Melbourne), and 2001 (Seattle). 3 people, Jan Murray, Oliver Obst and Frieder Stolzenburg (team leader), form the core of the team. There are cur-rently 7 additional members, namely Heni Ben Amor, Joschka B?odecker, Marion Lev-elink, Jana Lind, Christoph Ringelstein, Markus Rollmann, and Karsten Sturm. As