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1

Tests pits for calibrating well logging equipment in fractured hard-rock environment  

SciTech Connect

The calibration facility consists of three pits containing fine-grained granite, coarse-grained granite, and medium-grained metamorphosed granodiorite. Each pit contains large quarried blocks of rock that are 8 ft octagons and form a 20 ft stack. The blocks are saturated with water and sealed in watertight fiberglass containers that are recessed so that the top of the upper block is approximately level with the ground. The blocks contain simulated fractures that are formed by the joints between the blocks and by saw cuts at several locations. Cored boreholes through the blocks are 7 7/8 in. in diameter, with a fiberglass-cased ''rat hole'' extending 30 ft below the bottom block. Laboratory and well logging studies (United States Geological Society, Schlumberger, and Dresser Atlas logs) have been made to determine the physical properties of rocks in the three pits, and preliminary results are reported. Porosities of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 1 ft intervals in the three pits range from 0.00 to 0.90%, densities from 2.64 to 2.79 g/cm/sup 3/, and sonic velocities from 18,700 to 22,500 ft/sec. Radio-element of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 5 ft intervals from these test pits range from 0.62 to 4.08% K (potassium) content, from 0.34 to 5.01 ppM RaeU (uranium) content and from 0.46 to 19.6 ppM Th (thorium) content. Access to the pits for calibrating well logging equipment can be arranged by contacting the United States Geological Survey (phone number 303-236-5913) in Denver, Colorado. 4 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.H.; LaDelfe, C.M.

1985-01-01

2

Well log formation evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of well logging tools, techniques, and well logging analysis principles is presented. Because no single well logging tool has been developed to measure all the physical properties of rock needed for detailed analysis, tool combinations that will measure porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbons in place, etc. have been developed for various geologic targets. Recently, computers have played an increasingly

Merkel

1979-01-01

3

Well-logging activities in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The report is a brief survey of the current state of well-logging service in Russia (number and types of crews, structure of well-logging jobs, types of techniques used, well-logging equipment, auxiliary downhole jobs, etc.). Types and peculiarities of well data acquisition and processing hardware and software are discussed (petrophysics included). New well-logging technologies used in Russia (new methods of electric logging data processing, electromagnetic logging, pulse neutron logging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, acoustic tomography, logging-testing-logging technique, etc.) are surveyed. Comparison of the Tengiz field (Kazakhstan) well data obtained by Schlumberger and Neftegazgeofizika Association crews is given. Several problems and drawbacks in equipment and technology used by well-logging crews in Russia are discussed.

Savostyanov, N.A. (Neftegazgeofizika, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

4

Well logging II - Electric and acoustic logging  

SciTech Connect

This book covers electric logging, log interpretation and electromagnetic principles. The book also discuss principles of acoustic logging and details of acoustic log interpretation, including effects of amplitude attenuation devices and investigation of interval transit times.

Jorden, J.R.; Campbell, F.L.

1986-01-01

5

New technology applied to well logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote locations and increasingly complex geology require a higher level of sophistication in well-logging equipment and services. Applying technological advancements, well-logging contractors have developed a variety of new products and services designed to provide better quality data at reasonable prices. One of the most significant technological breakthroughs has been in satellite communications. Denver-based Western Tele-Communications Inc. is one of the

Stremel

1984-01-01

6

Well logging data transmission system  

SciTech Connect

A telemetering system provides improved cable utilization and bi-directional digital communication between a logging sonde and surface electronics over a single balanced transmission line of a multi-conductor logging cable, with significant signal crosstalk reductions. Receiver circuitry downhole decodes pulses delivered on the line from a surface logic generator which fire transmitter-receiver pairs of an acoustic logging tool in an order defined by the pulses. A PCM transmitter in the sonde thereafter samples data generated by other logging instruments, encodes this information into digital data frames, and transmits the data on the same line to a surface PCM receiver. Circuitry limits surface and downhole receiver response to PCM transmitter and logic generator pulses, respectively. A center tap of the same transmission line also provides for simultaneous noise-free transmission of sensitive low level signals such as remote surface potential and the like to the sonde.

Flagg, J.J.

1983-11-15

7

Chemical logging of geothermal wells  

DOEpatents

The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01

8

Intelligent Technology for Well Logging Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well logging analysis plays an essential role in petroleum exploration and exploitation. It is used to identify the pay zones\\u000a of gas or oil in the reservoir formations. This paper applies intelligent technology for well logging analysis, particular\\u000a combining data mining and expert system together, and proposes an intelligent system for well log analysis called IntWeL Analyzer\\u000a in terms of

Zhongzhi Shil; Ping Luol; Yalei Hao; Guohe Li; Markus Stumptner; Qing He; Gerald Quirchmayr

2004-01-01

9

Water production logging in horizontal wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technology has enabled operators to drill an increasing number of extended reach, lateral, and horizontal wells. In these highly deviated or horizontal wells, conventional production logging sensors can be ambiguous in resolving multiphase flows. The successful diagnosis and treatment of water or gas production problems requires the identification of these specific influx zones. Providing reliable production logging solutions in

C. W Morris; C. P Lenn; I. J Albertin

1999-01-01

10

Mineralogy from Geochemical Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate statistical analyses of geochemical, mineralogical, and cation-exchange capacity (CEC) data from a Venezuelan oil well were used to construct a model which relates elemental concen- trations to mineral abundances. An r-mode factor analysis showed that most of the variance could be accounted for by four independent factors and that these factors were related to individual mineral components: kaolinite, illite,

Michael M. Herron

1986-01-01

11

Well logging device and method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of measuring the movement of fluid in a wall borehole, comprising the steps of: positioning a downhole device into the borehole by suspending the device from a cable at the well surface. The device is being provided with a signal emitter and two longitudinally spaced signal detectors. Each signal detector is operable to output a readout proportional to the proximity of a signal emitted from the signal emitter; and emitting a signal from the signal emitter and simultaneously sensing the signal with each of the signal detectors.

Hawthorne, M.M.

1987-05-05

12

Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs  

SciTech Connect

The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

Izotova, T.S. (Ukrainian State Geological Research Institute, Kiev (Ukraine))

1993-09-01

13

Well logging for the nontechnical person  

SciTech Connect

The contents of this book are: Introduction to logging; Reading logs; Formation parameters; Mud logging; Resistivity measurements; Porosity measurements; Putting it all together; detailed interpretations; Computer-generated logs; Specialty logs.

Johnson, D.E.; Pile, K.E.

1988-01-01

14

Dual spectra well logging system and method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well logging system and method are described in which a transmitter in a borehole has at least two radiation detectors sensing either the same condition or two different conditions relating to the earth's formation traversed by the borehole and providing data pulses corresponding in number and peak amplitude to the sensed condition. The transmitter also includes a reference pulse

R. W. Jr. Pitts; H. A. Jr. Whatley

1976-01-01

15

Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation surveying. Nineteen (19) of the 44 wells without magnetic deviation data were selected for the planned gyroscopic logging based on their location relative to facilities, site boundaries, and contaminant transport concerns. In total, 44 aquifer wells (25 with magnetic deviation data and 19 without) are recommended for planned gyroscopic logging.

Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

2002-04-01

16

Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

Gani, M. R.

17

High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system  

SciTech Connect

A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions.

Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

1997-05-01

18

Derive capillary pressure from well logs  

SciTech Connect

A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical data where core data is absent or not representative of in-situ conditions. It is based on using log data to derive a water saturation vs. depth profile in the transition zone of the formation of interest. The log-derived water saturation distribution is then correlated to generalized capillary pressure curves typical of the formation studied. The capillary pressure type curves are generated from available core data and other petrophysical information. Relative permeability curves are then generated using correlations based on Purcell's model. The technique can be used in multi-layered and homogeneous reservoirs provided that one homogeneous layer is at least 20 ft thick.

Ibrahim, A. (Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Desbrandes, R.; Bassiouni, Z. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1994-07-01

19

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence? Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

20

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

SciTech Connect

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common in nature. The amount of methane sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are speculative and range over three orders of magnitude from about 100,000 to 270,000,000 trillion cubic feet. The amount of gas in the hydrate reservoirs of the world greedy exceeds the volume of known conventional gas reserves. Gas hydrates also represent a significant drilling and production hazard. A fundamental question linking gas hydrate resource and hazard issues is: What is the volume of gas hydrates and included gas within a given gas hydrate occurrence Most published gas hydrate resource estimates have, of necessity, been made by broad extrapolation of only general knowledge of local geologic conditions. Gas volumes that may be attributed to gas hydrates are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters, including the areal extent ofthe gas-hydrate occurrence, reservoir thickness, hydrate number, reservoir porosity, and the degree of gas-hydrate saturation. Two of the most difficult reservoir parameters to determine are porosity and degreeof gas hydrate saturation. Well logs often serve as a source of porosity and hydrocarbon saturation data; however, well-log calculations within gas-hydrate-bearing intervals are subject to error. The primary reason for this difficulty is the lack of quantitative laboratory and field studies. The primary purpose of this paper is to review the response of well logs to the presence of gas hydrates.

Collett, T.S.

1992-10-01

21

Armored instrumentation cable for geothermal well logging  

SciTech Connect

Multiconductor armored well-logging cable is used extensively by the oil and natural gas industry to lower various instruments used to measure the geological and geophysical parameters into deep wellbores. Advanced technology in oil-well drilling makes it possible to achieve borehole depths of 9 km (30,000 ft). The higher temperatures in these deeper boreholes demand advancements in the design and manufacturing of wireline cable and in the electrical insulating and armoring materials used as integral components. If geothermal energy is proved an abundant economic resource, drilling temperatures approaching and exceeding 300/sup 0/C will become commonplace. The adaptation of teflons as electrical insulating material permitted use of armored cable in geothermal wellbores where temperatures are slightly in excess of 200/sup 0/C, and where the concentrations of corrosive minerals and gases are high. Teflon materials presently used in wireline cables, however, are not capable of continuous operation at the anticipated higher temperatures.

Dennis, B.R.; Johnson, J.; Todd, B.

1981-01-01

22

Integrating MDT, NMR log and conventional logs for one-well evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a case study for one-well evaluation integrating MDT, NMR logs and conventional logs. MDT, NMR logs and conventional logs provide formation permeability in different ways though the parameter can be derived in the three kinds of data. Integrating the three kinds of data and comparing the change trends among the data, the heterogeneity of reservoir and tiger

Liu Tangyan; Ma Zaitian; Wang Junxiao; Lv Hongzhi

2005-01-01

23

Well-Logging Techniques for Mineral Deposit Evaluation: A Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Well-logging techniques that have been used to evaluate various types of mineral deposits are discussed briefly, and many pertinent references are cited. Information is categorized by mineral commodity to make it easy to determine what logging techniques ...

J. H. Scott B. L. Tibbetts

1974-01-01

24

Requirements for downhole equipment used for geothermal-well stimulation. Geothermal-reservoir well-stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

The needs for new and improved down-hole stimulation equipment for geothermal wells are identified. The following kinds of equipment are discussed: mechanical downhole recording instruments, electric line logging tools, and downhole tools used for zone isolation.

Not Available

1982-08-01

25

ProcintLog: A GUI Academic Software For Open Hole Well-Logging Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ProcintLog is a GUI academic software that runs under MATLAB and is useful for simplified conventional oil and gas well logs analysis. It works through two distinct modes: (1) direct petrophysical parameters inclusion from both field copies and digital files and (2) by reading and filling data from visual log zoning. The software load ASCII and LAS format files and identifies the logs available, supplying both a header file with additional information about the well and a matrix that depicts the depth in the first column and the logs in the remain ones. The last can be loaded by ProcintLog and checked out for unusual highly noisy and spurious data, which allows a complete data control. Furthermore, each one of the proposed processing modes fits well to any chosen processing sequence, allowing the log interpreter to direct your own necessities into log analysis. To provide a little of perspective, fundamental well-logging principles are stressed by informative icons that can be searched at any time the interpreter need. Calculations such as invasion-corrected resistivity, shale volume, Archie and Simandoux methods for water saturation computations and three types of water resistivity computations are viable. One complete example is performed on both synthetic and real data and results are checked against visual analysis to show the usefulness, rapidness and accuracy of ProcintLog in performing accurate logs analysis.

Silva, J. C.

2005-05-01

26

A time-driven transmission method for well logging networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long delays and poor real-time transmission are disadvantageous to well logging networks consisting of multiple subnets. In\\u000a this paper, we proposed a time-driven transmission method (TDTM) to improve the efficiency and precision of logging networks.\\u000a Using TDTM, we obtained well logging curves by fusing the depth acquired on the surface, and the data acquired in downhole\\u000a instruments based on the

Ruiqing Wu; Wei Chen; Tianqi Chen; Qun Li

2009-01-01

27

A borehole corrected pulsed neutron well logging system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved well logging method has been developed for more accurately measuring the neutron capture cross section (Sigma) of earth formations. A measurement of Sigma with depth (well log) is useful in estimating hydrocarbon saturation of saline reservoirs. Gamma rays are detected following each burst of neutrons emitted by a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator. An iterative procedure was developed

W. E. Schultz; H. D. Smith; J. L. Verbout; J. R. Bridges; G. H. Garcia

1985-01-01

28

Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

1980-01-01

29

Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington  

SciTech Connect

This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S. (comps.)

1983-12-01

30

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well logging. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice Univers...

G. J. Hirasaki K. K. Mohanty

2002-01-01

31

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

2003-02-10

32

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

2003-02-10

33

Evaluation of a geothermal well logging, DST and Pit test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly discusses logging and testing operations and certain related physical aspects in geothermal well evaluations. A good understanding of thermal and hydrological characteristics of geothermal reservoirs are essential in geothermal well evaluations. Within geothermal reservoirs, in evaluating the wells, the two most important parameters that first could be estimated, then measured or calculated, are temperature and productivity. Well

Tansev; Erdal O

1978-01-01

34

Well logging and completion technology for horizontal wellbores  

SciTech Connect

In highly deviated and, particularly, horizontal wellbores, special hardware systems guide, push, and/or pump the logging instrument assembly toward the bottom, i.e., the end of the wellbore, and to log the interval of interest. The present paper discusses basic pipe-conveyed logging (PCL) systems and the coiled-tubing-conveyed (CTC) system for completion and perforating applications in horizontal well bores, which already have proven successful in Europe, the US, and Canada. Open- and cased-hole field applications, with special emphasis on the Cretaceous Austin Chalk in Texas and the Bakken Shale in Wyoming, will illustrate today's technology and review advantages and possible constraints of these well logging and completion techniques.

Fertl, W.H. (Atlas Wireline Services, Houston, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

35

Heuristic search method for optimal zonation of well logs  

SciTech Connect

Optimal zonation of well-log data, that is, determining an optimal number of major segments such as waveforms in a log, may be achieved by employing a criterion of minimum variance (within a segment) and a heuristic search of potential boundary (link) points of digitized log data. This new method is based on an algorithm originally devised by D.M. Hawkins and D.F. Merriam in 1973. Their method can be improved by introducing a heuristic search procedure, thereby decreasing computer time by 7- to 50-fold, depending on the number of data points and configuration of the logs. Time saving is proportional to the size of the data set. Three examples - one hypothetical and two real-are used to illustrate the modification of the Hawkins and Merriam algorithm.

Chen, H.C.; Fang, J.H.

1986-07-01

36

User's manual for geophysical well-logging software programs  

SciTech Connect

Since 1958 the Ground-Water Surveillance Program for the Hanford Site has made geophysical logging measurements in most of the 800 wells and deep boreholes that have been drilled on the Hanford Site. In 1980 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which conducts the Ground-Water Surveillance Program, began forming a computerized data base for storing and retrieving geophysical well log data and developing software for quantitative analysis of the well log data. This report, designed to serve as a user's guide, documents the data base system that handles the well log data. Two programs, DIGLOG1 and LOGIT, are used to manipulate the data. The program DIGLOG1 translates analog paper strip charts into digital format; the program LOGIT is a general utility program that edits, displays, checks, stores, writes, and deletes sets of well log data. These two programs do not provide sophisticated display and analytical capabilities; rather, they provide programs that give the user easy access to powerful standard analytical software.

Petrie, G.M.; Gibson, D.; Blair, S.C.

1983-02-01

37

Application of Nuclear Well Logging Techniques to Lunar Resource Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of neutron and gamma ray measurements for the analysis of material composition has become well established in the last 40 years. Schlumberger has pioneered the use of this technology for logging wells drilled to produce oil and gas, and for this p...

P. Albats J. Groves J. Schweitzer T. Tombrello

1992-01-01

38

Store well-logging data with ObjectStore ODBMS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to store well-logging data in a database is a problem encountered by developers of exploration software. A method to store these data with an ODBMS is presented; C+ + is the programming language and ObjectStore the database system. This method is applied to the development of GRIstation—a joint project between GRI China and STS USA.

Li, Haifei

1995-12-01

39

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-09-05

40

Analysis of geophysical logs from the Hawaii geothermal project well  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 6445-foot test well was completed on April 27, 1976 in the Puna Area of Hawaii as part of an extensive project to investigate a geothermal reservoir for energy production. Because bottom hole temperatures exceeded 300°C, it was possible to run geophysical logs in the upper 3500 feet only. Study of conventional and induction resistivity, self potential, neutron, gamma ray,

Rudman

1978-01-01

41

Tests show production logging problems in horizontal gas wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study has concluded that production logging tools employed to evaluate multiphase horizontal well production behavior should be carefully screened as to their response characteristics in fully-segregated, two-phase flow. The study, performed at Marathon Oil Co.'s petroleum technology center in Littleton, Colo., indicated that gas in highly deviated well bores segregates rapidly in the presence of water, creating a downhole

P. Branagan; B. L. Knight; J. Aslakson; M. L. Middlebrook

1994-01-01

42

Drilling, logging and preliminary well testing of geothermal well Susan 1, Susanville, Lassen County, California  

SciTech Connect

Susan 1, a hot water production well, was drilled late in 1980 for the City of Susanville, California, as part of its geothermal space-heating project. A history of drilling, logging, completion and pump testing of this well is presented. Susan 1 was drilled to 930 feet using local river water with a 17-1/2-inch bit from 50 to 540 feet and a 12-1/2-inch bit from 540 to 927 feet. A 12-3/4-inch solid casing was set from surface to 350 feet, a slotted casing from 350 to 538 feet, and a 8-5/8-inch slotted casing from 520 to 925 feet. Interpretations of the following logs and test data from this well are presented: drilling logs (penetration rate, water loss and gain, return temperatures); formation logs (description of well cuttings, caliper, spontaneous potential, electrical resistivity, gamma ray, neutron); production logs (temperature, spinner); and pump test data.

McNitt, J.R.; Petersen, C.A.; Sanyal, S.K.

1981-03-01

43

Lithology and hydrothermal alteration determination from well logs for the Cerro Prieto Wells, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of geophysical well logs are compared against the sand-shale series of the sedimentary column of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. It is shown that the changes in mineralogy of the rocks because of hydrothermal alteration are not easily detectable on the existing logs. However, if the behavior of clay minerals alone is monitored, the onset of the

I. Ershaghi; S. Ghaemian; D. Abdassah

1981-01-01

44

New logging instruments for polymer and water injection wells  

SciTech Connect

Conventional nuclear flowmeters do not function satisfactorily in polymer injection wells or in water injection wells at low flow rates. In polymer wells, accurate injection profiles depend on the variable shot duration of the radioactive tracer material. The conventional nuclear flowmeter ejects tracer material perpendicular to the logging instrument which may cause it to stick to the well-bore wall or fail to reach the maximum flow region. In water injection wells, sidewall mixing of radioactive tracer material is apt to cause inaccurate injection profiles. These problems have led to the development of a new generation of nuclear flowmeters: the Swing-Arm Tracer instrument and the Basket Nuclear Flowmeter instrument. The Swing-Arm Tracer instrument uses a motor-driven arm to inject radioactive tracer material into the fluid flow column. The Basket Nuclear Flowmeter uses a motor-operated basket or funnel device channels and accelerates the well-bore injection fluid through the center of the logging instrument. The presentation of flow loop studies and field examples demonstrate the improvement of these new instruments over the conventional nuclear flowmeter.

Roesner, R.E.; Sloan, M.L.; Turney, R.A.

1983-01-01

45

An Effective Hash-Based Method for Generating Synthetic Well Log  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well log analysis is one of the costliest parts of petroleum fields. It has been realized that developing synthetic well logs can help analyze the reservoir properties in areas where some necessary logs are absent or incomplete, and then reduce costs of companies. During generating synthetic logs, logging time should be used sufficiently for predicting trends and filling some incomplete

Yi Du; Detang Lu; Daolun Li

2008-01-01

46

Sequence stratigraphic correlation of well-log cross sections  

SciTech Connect

Correlation of well-log cross sections using the principles of sequence stratigraphy is not as straight forward as it might at first appear. It is a very subjective process, being an interpretation of limited data based on the geologist's knowledge and experience, and consequently, the results can be as varied as the interpreters who do the work. Many decisions are required at each step of the correlation process, and they may be made subjectively (to fit a preconceived understanding of the stratigraphy) or as objectively as possible. Experience has yielded a number of guidelines and [open quotes]rules of thumb[close quotes] that make the process easier and, if not more objective, at least provide a clearer understanding of what assumptions are being made and how they affect the correlation decisions underlying the finished product. This paper provides some of those guidelines. 9 refs., 4 figs.

Mulholland, J.W.

1994-07-01

47

Lithology and Hydrothermal Alteration Determination from Well Logs for the Cerro Prieto Wells, Mexico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of geophysical well logs against the sand-shale series of the sedimentary column of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Mexico. The study shows that the changes in mineralogy of the rocks because ...

I. Ershaghi S. Ghaemian D. Abdassah

1981-01-01

48

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice University and Professor Kishore Mohanty at University of Houston. In addition to the DOE, this project is supported by a consortium of oil companies and service companies. The fluid properties characterization has emphasized the departure of live oils from correlations based on dead oils. Also, asphaltic components can result in a difference between the T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions as well as reduce the hydrogen index. The fluid rock characterizations that are reported here are the effects of wettability and internal magnetic field gradients. A pore reconstruction method ha s been developed to recreate three-dimensional porous media from two-dimensional images that reproduce some of their key statistical properties. A Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed to calculate the magnetization decay in fluid saturated porous media given their pore structure.

Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore, K.

2001-07-13

49

Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation  

SciTech Connect

The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

1986-06-01

50

Method and apparatus for recovery of subsea well equipment  

SciTech Connect

Method and apparatus are disclosed for recovering submerged equipment, such as a guide base and wellhead used in offshore well operations. A recovery tool, which includes an elongated member capable of extending from above the equipment into a well pipe and means for latching the recovery tool to the equipment and explosive means attached to the elongated member for severing the well pipe, is lowered from the water's surface to the equipment and then latched thereto. The explosive is then detonated to sever the well pipe. The recovery tool, together with the equipment and severed portion of the well pipe, is raised to the water's surface.

Darby, L.B.; Holley, J.A.

1980-01-01

51

Well Logging and Logging Analysis of UHP metamorphic Rocks in CCSD Main Hole (0-2000m)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCSD logging engineering gather many modern high technologies and employs various advanced logging tools to survey the sidewall continuously. This can obtain various physical, chemical, geometrical, etc in-situ information of the borehole's profile. So well logging is one of the most important parts and pivotal technologies in the project of CCSD. The main logging methods in CCSD-MH(0-2000m) are laterolog (Rd,Rs), gamma ray(GR), nature gamma spectrometry(U, TH, K), density(DEN), photo electric section exponent (Pe), compensated neutron(CNL), multipole array acoustic (Vp, Vs, Vst), Simultaneous Acoustic-Resistivity-image(Star-II), temperature(T),magnetic susceptibility(MS), three component borehole magnetic and redox potential log,etc. The various metamorphic rocks can be classified by logging curves,and their physical parameters can be acquired by analyzing the response characters of various metamorphic rocks and by statistics. According to the logging cross plot, We can research the clustering of metamorphite's physical property. Five lithologic segments can be obtainend by logging curves. The GR, Th, U, K logging values of segment 1 is lower than the third, fourth and fiveth segment, higher than segment 2; The DEN, Pe values of segment 1 higher than the third, fourth and fiveth segments. The main rocks in segment 1,2,3,4,5 are eclogites, serpentinites, paragneiss, orthogneiss, and eclogites(containing silicon and muscovite ) respectively. Generally, eclogite contain rutile, silicon, muscovite, etc. minerals. These minerals have response obviously on log curves.There are rutile,ilmenite, pyrite mineralized, etc. Making use of DEN, Pe, susceptibility log values, these mineralized layers can be goodly demarcation. For example, on the rutile mineralzed layer, the logging curve response characters are of high density and Pe obviously. The key data of the synthetical seismic record is wave impedance. In this paper, Utilize the data of AC, DEN curves to calculate the wave impedance and compare with the VSP profile, finally analyze the reflectors of the CCSD-MH. Imaging log has a positioning system and very good vertical resolution, and can describe the geological features in detail. Various structure parameters (the size and occurrences of foliation, fracture, fault & vein) have been given by image logging. The main work of logging interpretation of CCSD have done as follows: 1) Character analysis of logging response and restoring the lithologic profile;2) Depth correction and Restoring orientation of cores; 3) Interpretation of imaging geological feature; 4) Research of rock's mechanics character, sonic anisotropy and formation stress; 5) Comparison wave impedance with the VSP profile,analyzing the reflectors; 6)The interpretation of magnetic susceptibility and temperature log. The logging analysis results of UHP metamorphic rocks in CCSD-MH(0-2000m) show that responses of logs curve are abundant, the physical properties of various metamorphic rocks are visibly different;image logging has a positioning system and very good vertical resolution, and can describe the geological features in detail;lithologic segments and mineralized layers can be goodly demarcation by log curves;the log curves can be used for standardizing the geophysical survey, for example, mark out the reflected interface of seismic wave;comparing the results of log curves value with core laboratory analysis,they have good consistency;and so on.

Pan, H.; Niu, Y.; Wang, W.; Zhu, L.; Xu, D.; Wu, H.; Li, S.; Luo, M.

2004-12-01

52

Modeling and interpretation of Q logs in carbonate rock using a double porosity model and well logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuation data extracted from full waveform sonic logs is sensitive to vuggy and matrix porosities in a carbonate aquifer. This is consistent with the synthetic attenuation (1\\/Q) as a function of depth at the borehole-sonic source-peak frequency of 10 kHz. We use velocity and densities versus porosity relationships based on core and well log data to determine the matrix, secondary,

Jorge O. Parra; Chris L. Hackert

2006-01-01

53

Modeling and interpretation of Q logs in carbonate rock using a double porosity model and well logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attenuation data extracted from full waveform sonic logs is sensitive to vuggy and matrix porosities in a carbonate aquifer. This is consistent with the synthetic attenuation (1 \\/ Q) as a function of depth at the borehole-sonic source-peak frequency of 10 kHz. We use velocity and densities versus porosity relationships based on core and well log data to determine the

Jorge O. Parra; Chris L. Hackert

2006-01-01

54

Porosity and Pore Structure from Acoustic Well Logging DATA1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wyllie's time-average equation and subsequent refinements have been used for over 20 years to estimate the porosity of reservoir rocks from compressional (P)-wave velocity (or its reciprocal, transit time) recorded on a sonic log. This model, while simple, needs to be more convincingly explained in theory and improved in practice, particularly by making use of shear, (S)-wave velocity. One of

G. Tao; M. S. King

1993-01-01

55

Lacunarity of geophysical well logs in the Cantarell oil field, Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lacunarity and fractal variations in geophysical well logs are associated with stratigraphic and petrophysical properties of the naturally fractured Cantarell field in the Gulf of Mexico. Neutron porosity (NPHI), density (RHOB, DRHO, PEF), resistivity (LLD, LLS, MSFL), natural radioactivity (GR, CGR, URAN, POTA, THOR) and caliper (CALI) logs are studied. The resistivity logs yielded remarkably high lacunarity values, especially in

Rubén Darío Arizabalo; Klavdia Oleschko; Gabor Korvin; Manuel Lozada; Ricardo Castrejón; Gerardo Ronquillo

2006-01-01

56

Course An Introduction to Geothermal Resources - Well Completion Production Equipment  

SciTech Connect

A course to introduce geothermal energy held in Sparks, Nevada on October 1987. Topics included well draining and well computation production equipment. There is much technical detail and some cost detail. [DJE-2005

Ascuaga, John; Garrett, B.D. (Slim)

1987-10-01

57

Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin  

SciTech Connect

Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs.

Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

1985-09-01

58

The use of well logs to monitor a surfactant flood pilot test  

SciTech Connect

A logging program has been developed and used successfully to monitor the performance of a surfactant-flood pilot test in the Loudon Field, Fayette County, Illinois. This program consisted of induction and carbon-oxygen (C/O) log measurements which were made repeatedly in five observation wells, producing time-lapse records of oil saturation changes. To enable induction logs to be used, the observation wells were completed with fiberglass casing. Special efforts were made to maximize the accuracy of the oil saturations calculated from logs. These efforts included the use of pressure core measurements of residual oil saturation for calibrating log responses, laboratory measurements of the electrical properties of cores, and special wellsite calibration and quality control procedures. The log responses in each observation well provided essential data for evaluating pilot performance. The logs measured pre-flood and post-flood oil saturations, as well as the arrival time, oil saturation, and duration of the bank of mobilized oil. Vertical stratification effects were also observed. The combination of induction and C/O logs proved to be an effective means of monitoring a surfactant flood. Saturation measurements from the C/O log complemented the induction log results very well, providing better vertical resolution and a response independent of salinity and formation electrical properties.

Felder, R.D.; Hoyer, W.A.

1982-09-01

59

Handbook of well log analysis for oil and gas formation evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A handbook on the interpretation of well log data for evaluating the productive capacities and the reserves of prospective, as well as existing, oil and gas fields is presented. Chapter titles include clastic reservoir rocks; carbonate reservoir rocks; petrophysics; reservoir fluid properties and formation productivity evaluation; the well log interpretation problem; spontaneous polarization (SP) curve; normal curves; lateral curves; limestone

Pirson

1963-01-01

60

Well Inventory and Geophysical Logging of Selected Wells in Troup County, Georgia, 2007-2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - in cooperation with the Troup County Board of Commissioners - conducted a well inventory to provide information to help evaluate ground-water resources for Troup County, Georgia. In addition, borehole geophysical logs were collected in selected wells to provide a better understanding of the subsurface geologic and water-bearing characteristics in specific areas of interest. This investigation provides information to help guide future ground-water development and water-management decisions for Troup County while enhancing understanding of the hydrogeology of fractured rocks in the Piedmont physiographic province. This report presents well data compiled from USGS files and from site visits to wells during November and December 2007. Data were entered into the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and made available on the Web at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/ga/nwis/inventory. Previous studies of ground-water resources have been conducted in the vicinity, but did not include Troup County. The ground-water resources of Heard and Coweta Counties, located north and northeast, respectively, of Troup County were part of a larger study by Cressler and others (1983) that encompassed the Greater Atlanta Region. That study evaluated the quantity and quality of ground water in the Atlanta region and described the methods that could be used for locating high-yielding wells in the Piedmont Province. The geology underlying the Atlanta area is similar to that underlying Troup County. Clarke and Peck (1990) conducted a similar investigation that included Meriwether and Coweta Counties, located to the east and northeast of Troup County.

Peck, Michael F.; Leeth, David C.; Hamrick, Michael D.

2008-01-01

61

Case history on geothermal-well-log interpretation: Surprise Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well logs from a 1972 geothermal well drilled in California's Surprise Valley are discussed. The well is in an igneous formation, primarily basalt in the logged interval, and had a bottom-hole temperature of about 170°C at a total depth exceeding 1400 m. It produced good flow rates from what is presumably a formation with predominately fracture-related permeability. The well has

F. A. Rigby; G. P. Zebal

1981-01-01

62

Modeling of Sonic Logs in Oil Wells with Neural Networks Ensembles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an exploratory use of neural network ensembles in the modeling o f oil well logs. These records are frequently used to determine the mineralogy and physical properties of potential reservoir rocks, and the nature of the fluids they contain. In p articular, we consider the possibility of developing nonlinear local models relating Sonic logs (transit time of compressional

P. M. Granitto; P. F. Verdes; H. D. Navone; H. A. Ceccatto; C. Larriestra

2001-01-01

63

Application of Nodal S/sub N/ Methods to Radiation Transport in Nuclear Well Logging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of testing a three-dimensional nodal discrete method on problems of interest in well logging are presented. Tests on an (x-y-z) benchmark logging problem show that the linear surface nodal method performs significantly better than the conventional...

A. Badruzzaman J. Chiaramonte

1987-01-01

64

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

This semi-annual report briefly summarizes the progress since the 1st Annual Report issued September, 2000 and the next annual report. More detailed results will be in the annual reports. The main emphasis on fluid properties was on measurements of the relaxation time and self-diffusion coefficient of ethane and propane. Ethane is similar to methane while propane is more similar to the higher alkanes. The ratio of T1 and T2 is demonstrated to be a function of both viscosity and the NMR frequency. The diffusion-induced T2 in a uniform magnetic gradient was simulated in one dimension to seek improved understanding NMR diffusion in restricted geometry. Analytical solutions can be found for this system if the correct region of validity is used. Estimation of permeability of vuggy carbonates has been problematic because the pore body size does not correlate well with pore throat size. CT scans and CPMG NMR measurements were made on a set of vuggy carbonate rocks.

Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

2001-07-13

65

Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

2009-01-01

66

U. S. Gulf Coast field experiences with thin-bed well log analysis  

SciTech Connect

Thinly bedded reservoir sand sequences are encountered throughout the world, and particularly as low-resistivity intervals in the US Gulf Coast area. Despite apparent water saturation values ranging from 55 to 85% based on conventional log interpretation techniques, such intervals can be important producers. However, recent technological advances in novel, high-resolution logging instrumentation, increased high-sample data acquisition advances in high-resolution signal-processing (i.e., deconvolution techniques, and newly developed thin-bed interpretation methods.) An improved reservoir description, such as reliable net pay count enhanced well-to-well correlation, better thin-bed correlation of well log, core, and test data, and thus a more accurate location of oil and gas-bearing stringers and their quantitative evaluation. Several Gulf Coast field examples illustrate these concepts based on well logging, coring, and well test information.

Fertl, W.H. (Atlas Wireline Services, Houston, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

67

40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...spontaneous potential, porosity, caliper, gamma ray, and fracture finder logs before the casing is installed; and (B) A...calculated for Class I hazardous waste injection wells: (1) Fracture pressure; (2) Other physical and chemical...

2012-07-01

68

40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...logs, surveys and tests to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity, permeability, and lithology of, and the salinity of any formation fluids in all relevant geologic formations to ensure conformance with the injection well...

2013-07-01

69

Use of well logs to provide formation design values for hydraulic fracture treatments  

SciTech Connect

This study presnts wireline tool usage in providing proper design parameter values for hydraulic fracture treatments and in evaluating the success of such a treatment. Examples of logging suites are provided and methods are presented for converting log measurements into design values. Techniques are discussed and a matrix chart has been developed for relating tool capabilities with design requirements. It is shown how the formation design parameter values provided by well logging can be used for computer-based numerical simulations aimed at analyzing fracture treatment and post-fracture performance of oil wells. Refs.

Ameri, S.; Rieke, H.H. III

1981-01-01

70

Well-log seismic sequence biostratigraphic analysis in the subsalt trend  

SciTech Connect

Sediments in offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, were analyzed in non-subsalt wells away from the subsalt and non subsalt sediment interface using high resolution biostratigraphy, well-logs and seismic profiles. The Maximum Flooding Surfaces and Sequence Boundaries, lowstand prograding, slope fan and basin floor fan complexes were identified using first downhole occurrence of important tops, paleobathymetry, abundance and diversity histograms well-log signatures and seismic profiles. The reservoir sands identified in the non-subsalt wells, the bottom-set turbidites, slope fan and basin floor fan complexes, could be present in the subsalt well. The paleobathymetry, stratigraphic position within the lowstand systems tract, slope fan condensed sections (sf cs) and basin floor fan condensed sections (bf cs), fauna and flora abundances were used to help identify these reservoir sands in the subsalt and non-subsalt wells. Well-Log Sequence Biostratigraphy, the identification of the Maximum Flooding Surfaces and Sequence Boundaries, lowstand prograding, slope fan and basin floor fan complexes, first occurrence downhole of important tops, sample by paleowater depth, species abundance and diversity while the well was being drilled. After logging, the systems tract surfaces were further refined on the well-log, and seismic profile and correlated with the seismic profile in non-subsalt wells previously analyzed. This methodology combined with 3-D seismic will result in a substantial reduction in risk in the subsalt trend.

Worndardt, W.W. (MICRO-START Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

71

Probability function for fracture prediction from well log and other data  

SciTech Connect

The program presented uses well-log data to compute fracture probability. As many as 200 different log curves may be input, and 100 fracture-detection indexes can be computed from the input curves. A single probability function is used to produce a single output curve, which represents the important information computed from each fracture-detection index. This program is being tested for use in the California Monterey Shale. However, it can be applied in any area in California where fractures can be detected by one or more log curves. The quality of results ranges from poor to excellent. Results are best where logs respond characteristically and uniquely to fractured rock compared to surrounding rock. For example, a fractured chert bed in the Monterey Shale exhibits unique sonic, density, and neutron characteristics compared to surrounding nonfractured rock. Results are poor where wireline and other log measurements show minimal response to fractures, or where logs react to fractures ambiguously. For example, a fractured section of Monterey Shale drilled with salty mud may show decreased resistivity curves because fractures or clayey laminations are present. This program is flexible and versatile. It allows the user to input as many log curves as desired and to use as many fracture-detection indexes as needed. Also, input parameters may be set so the more significant fracture-detection indexes or the logs that are more responsible to fractures are used preferentially. Log analysts may translate their observations about how wireline and other log data relate to fractures in California reservoirs into a computerized environment for automatic computation and presentation.

Baldwin, J.L.; Morrow, M.O.

1986-04-01

72

Monte Carlo differential neutron sensitivity calculations for nuclear well-logging  

SciTech Connect

The spatial response of neutron porosity measurements, particularly their depth of investigation and their vertical resolution, is of considerable interest for understanding the physics of neutron logging tools. A generalized numerical technique using Monte Carlo simulation has been developed which now permits one to compute sensitivity functions for essentially any type of nuclear well-logging measurement, including various neutron tools. Calculation of the sensitivity functions are implemented through modification of the MCNP Monte Carlo transport code. The authors present here the analyses of the spatial responses of an epithermal logging tool using sensitivity function calculations. The results are found to be in good agreement with the empirical data. It is anticipated that this new ability to compute spatially distributed sensitivity functions for neutron interactions will be an important aid in well-logging tool design.

Coueet, B.; Watson, C. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States))

1993-08-01

73

Probability function for fracture prediction from well log and other data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The program presented uses well-log data to compute fracture probability. As many as 200 different log curves may be input, and 100 fracture-detection indexes can be computed from the input curves. A single probability function is used to produce a single output curve, which represents the important information computed from each fracture-detection index. This program is being tested for use

J. L. Baldwin; M. O. Morrow

1986-01-01

74

Equipment for the performance of operations in wells under pressure  

SciTech Connect

The current state of the petroleum and gas industry, and the decrease in crude oil production, in spite of a significant increase in the exploitation funds, forces us to look at promising methods for the servicing of the wells by maintaining the pressure on the formation (oil-bearing stratum). These methods, called {open_quotes}operation under pressure,{close_quotes} are based on the principle of maximum utilization of the formation energy. Attempts to create special equipment for work at an excessive pressure in the walls have been made already in the early 1930s. However, only the modern level of technology and the introduction of more strict requirements with respect to hazard-free operations and protection of the environment have led during the last 20 years to significant steps in the development of equipment for work under pressure. The technology of working under excess pressure in wells can be divided into two groups: cable operations with the wellhead equipment for the performance of operations in the well with the use of wire, cord, or cable, and operations with pipe columns which employ installations for the lowering and lifting of pipe columns. The main distinguishing characteristic of these groups of operations is the need to overcome the ejecting forces of the wells. In the first instance this is achieved by a set of appropriate weights, in the second by the forced pushing of the column into the well by a special hydraulic lift. The main advantage of the methods for the overhaul of wells under pressure is the absence of a negative effect of the weighted solutions on the productive formation and the reduction of expenses for the plugging of the well and its starting after the overhaul.

Kurbanov, N.G.; Gasanbekov, A.R.

1995-05-01

75

30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...Well-Completion Operations § 250.514 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

2010-07-01

76

30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...Well-Completion Operations § 250.514 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

2009-07-01

77

75 FR 75995 - Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...volumes and uses of Helium-3 by the oil and gas well logging industry. DATES...research, national security and oil and gas well logging. The US helium-3...of Helium-3 by members of the oil and gas well logging industry. DOE...

2010-12-07

78

DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND POROSITY LOGS IN WELLS WITH A DISTURBED ANNULUS  

EPA Science Inventory

A method is developed to determine the Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of the formation surrounding a well as a function of depth. n electrically anomalous fluid is injected into a fully screened well and the radius of invasion is determined by induction logging. he radius of...

79

Geochemical well logging in basalts: The Palisades Sill and the oceanic crust of hole 504B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical well logging provides a continuous record of the variations in elemental abundances of the major rock-forming oxides of Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, and K, as well as S, Gd, U, Th, and the H and Cl in the formation and pore fluid. Through the additional measurement of the photoelectric capture cross section of the rock, the sum of

Roger N. Anderson; Jeffrey C. Alt; John Malpas; Micheal A. Lovell; Peter K. Harvey; E. Lewis Pratson

1990-01-01

80

Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate–bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave velocity data from the Mallik 5L-38 permafrost gas hydrate research well in Canada and applied to well log data from hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaskan permafrost, Gulf of Mexico, and northern Cascadia margin. Velocity-based gas hydrate saturation estimates are in good agreement with Nuclear Magneto Resonance and resistivity log estimates over the complete range of observed gas hydrate saturations.

Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

2008-01-01

81

2-D acoustic wave equation inversion combining plane-wave seismograms with well logs  

SciTech Connect

Seismic waves can be described approximately by an acoustic wave equation. An inversion procedure for obtaining velocities using well logs and plane-wave reflection seismograms is described. The forward problem is based on the 2-D acoustic wave equation. The inversion is performed by minimizing the difference between the calculated data and the observed data using the least-squares regularization method. The numerical example shows that the stability and the robustness of the algorithm to noisy data is improved by introducing well logs into the inversion process.

Wang, S.; Liu, J. [Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China). Dept. of Mathematics; Xie, G. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Earth Science Div.

1996-05-01

82

30 CFR 250.1623 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...Sulphur Operations § 250.1623 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

2009-07-01

83

30 CFR 250.1623 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...Sulphur Operations § 250.1623 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations. (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

2010-07-01

84

Modeling Sonic Logs in Oil Wells: A Comparison of Neural Networks Ensembles and Kernel Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oil well logs are frequently used to determine the mineralogy and physical properties of potential reservoir rocks, and the nature of the fluids they contain. Recently we reported an exploratory use of neural network ensembles for modeling these records. We showed that ensembles are clearly superior to linear multivariate regression as modeling technique, revealing an underlying nonlinear functional dependency between

P. M. Granitto; H. D. Navone; P. F. Verdes; H. A. Ceccatto

2001-01-01

85

Prediction of Abnormal Pressures in Wyoming Sedimentary Basins Using Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abnormal formation pressures are present in lower tertiary - upper cretaceous formations of Wyoming sedimentary basins. Calibration curves for predicting pore pressures were established for these formations using conductivity and acoustic log responses from existing wells in these basins. Comparison was made between the predicted pore pressures using the calibration curves and some actual measured pressures. It was found that

J. F. Evers; Richard Ezeanyim

1983-01-01

86

Directional Drilling and Equipment for Hot Granite Wells  

SciTech Connect

Directional drilling technology was extended and modified to drill the first well of a subsurface geothermal energy extraction system at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, hot dry rock (HDR) experimental site. Borehole geometries, extremely hard and abrasive granite rock, and high formation temperatures combined to provide a challenging environment for directional drilling tools and instrumentation. Completing the first of the two-wellbore HDR system resulted in the definition of operation limitations of -many conventional directional drilling tools, instrumentation, and techniques. The successful completion of the first wellbore, Energy Extraction Well No. 2 (EE-21), to a measured depth of 4.7 km (15,300 ft) in granite reservoir rock with a bottomhole temperature of 320 C (610 F) required the development of a new high-temperature downhole motor and modification of existing wireline-conveyed steering tool systems. Conventional rotary-driven directional assemblies were successfully modified to accommodate the very hard and abrasive rock encountered while drilling nearly 2.6 km (8,500 ft) of directional hole to a final inclination of 35{sup o} from the vertical at the controlled azimuthal orientation. Data were collected to optimize the drilling procedures far the programmed directional drilling of well EE-3 parallel to, and 370 metres (1,200 ft) above, Drilling equipment and techniques used in drilling wellbores for extraction of geothermal energy from hot granite were generally similar to those that are standard and common to hydrocarbon drilling practices. However, it was necessary to design some new equipment for this program: some equipment was modified especially for this program and some was operated beyond normal ratings. These tools and procedures met with various degrees of success. Two types of shock subs were developed and tested during this project. However, downhole time was limited, and formations were so varied that analysis of the capabilities of these items is not conclusive. Temperature limits of the tools were exceeded. EE-2. Commercial drilling and fishing jars were improved during the drilling program. Three-cone, tungsten-carbide insert bit performance with downhole motors was limited by rapid gauge wear. Rotary drilling was optimized for wells EE-2 and EE-3 using softer (IADS 635 code) bits and provided a balance between gauge,. cutting structure, and bearing life. Problems of extreme drill string drag, drill string twist-off, and corrosion control are discussed.

Williams, R. E.; Neudecker, J. W.; Rowley, J.C.; Brittenham, T. L.

1981-01-01

87

Analysis of well logging methods in volcanic and volcano sedimentary rocks from Pina petroleum field  

SciTech Connect

Petrophysical, petrological and geophysical methods have been applied to prospecting and well logging for several petroleum fields in Cuba. The most common reservoir in these fields are carbonate rocks. However, the Pina field, in the Central region of the island, distinguishes itself by the good quality of the oil and the volcano sedimentary and volcanic character of the reservoirs. These rocks have peculiar geophysical responses, which is why the study of these methods and the development of the interpretation methods is very important. Integrated geological and geophysical information was necessary during the drilling of wells in the Pina field in order to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential. GEONUC code permits us to use different ways to solve questions about interpretation of well logging in the volcanic sedimentary rocks. This code gives us the opportunity to analyze complex methods.

Rodriquez, N. [Empresa Geofisica, Havana (Cuba)

1996-09-01

88

ANDRILL Borehole AND-1B: Well Log Analysis of Lithofacies and Glacimarine Cycles.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 2006-2007 austral summer, the Antarctic geological drilling program ANDRILL recovered cores of sedimentary rock from a 1285-m-deep borehole below the McMurdo Ice Shelf. Well logging instruments were deployed to a depth of 1017 mbsf after core recovery. This study focuses on two intervals of the AND-1B borehole: upper HQ (238-343 mbsf; Pliocene) and NQ (698-1017 mbsf; upper Miocene), which were logged with natural gamma ray, induction resistivity and magnetic susceptibility tools. To understand how the well logs fit into a more complete physical properties data set, we performed factor and cluster analyses on a suite of well logs and core logs in the upper HQ and NQ intervals. In both intervals, factor analysis groups resistivity and core P-velocity into a factor that we interpret as being inversely proportional to porosity. It also groups natural gamma and potassium (from the XRF core scanner) into a factor that we interpret as a particle-size or lithology index. An additional factor in the NQ interval, influenced by clast number and magnetic susceptibility, distinguishes subglacial diamictites from other lithofacies. The factors in each interval (2 in HQ, 3 in NQ) are used as input to cluster analysis. The results are log data objectively organized into clusters, or electrofacies. We compare these electrofacies to the lithofacies, well logs and unconformity-bounded glacimarine cycles of AND-1B. Patterns in the glacimarine cycles are observed in the well logs and electrofacies. In the NQ glacimarine sediments, an electrofacies pattern is produced between subglacial diamictites at the bottom of each sequence and the glacial retreat facies above. Subglacial diamictites have higher values for the additional NQ factor, corresponding to clast number and magnetic susceptibility, than the muds and sands that form the retreat facies. Differences in the porosity factor are not observed in any electrofacies pattern in the NQ interval, but subtle patterns in the resistivity well log are observed. Subglacial diamictites have greater resistivities than most retreat facies. In the HQ interval, there is only one glacimarine cycle that resembles those in the NQ interval, and most of the interval is subglacial or ice-proximal diamictite. There are only two and a half cycles in the HQ interval, but they contain an incipient electrofacies pattern. In the lower two cycles, the potassium/gamma factor is low at the bottom and high toward the top, and porosity, as indicated by the porosity factor, is low at the bottom and high toward the top. Throughout most of the HQ interval, potassium and natural gamma correlate with porosity. Two exceptions are the lower half of the top cycle, in which resistivity increases toward the top, and the two diatomite beds at the top of the two lower cycles, in which potassium/gamma is low and porosity is very high.

Jackolski, C. L.; Williams, T.; Powell, R. D.; Jarrard, R.; Morin, R. H.; Talarico, F. M.; Niessen, F.; Kuhn, G.

2008-12-01

89

Nonparametric and Semiparametric Bivariate Modeling of Petrophysical Porosity-Permeability Dependence from Well Log Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Assessment of rock formation permeability is a complicated and challenging problem that plays a key role in oil reservoir\\u000a modeling, production forecast, and the optimal exploitation management. Generally, permeability evaluation is performed using\\u000a porosity-permeability relationships obtained by integrated analysis of various petrophysical measurements taken from cores\\u000a and wireline well logs. Dependence relationships between pairs of petrophysical variables, such as permeability

Arturo Erdely; Martin Diaz-Viera

90

Wavelet estimation by matching well-log, VSP, and surface-seismic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a method of wavelet estimation by matching well-log, VSP, and surface-seismic data. It’s based on\\u000a a statistical model in which both input and output are contaminated with additive random noise. A coherency matching technique\\u000a is used to estimate the wavelet. Measurements of goodness-of-fit and accuracy provide tools for quality control. A practical\\u000a example suggests that

Hong-Da Ma; Roy E. White; Tian-Yue Hu

2010-01-01

91

Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this study is the understanding of the technical obstacles that hinder the replacement of and the disadvantages from the loss of extensive interpretation experience based on data accumulated with AmBe. Enhanced acoustic and electromagnetic sensing methods in combination with non-isotope-based well logging techniques have the potential to complement and/or replace existing isotope-based techniques, providing the opportunity to reduce oil industry dependence on isotopic sources such as AmBe.

Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Harris, R. V.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Moran, Traci L.

2011-08-01

92

Estimating organic maturity from well logs, Upper Cretaceous Austin Chalk, Texas Gulf coast  

SciTech Connect

The Austin Chalk is both a source rock for oil and a fractured reservoir, and the evaluation of its organic maturity from well logs could be an aid to exploration and production. Geochemical measurements have shown three zones of organic maturity for source materials: (1) an immature zone to depths of 6,000 ft, (2) a peak-generation and accumulation zone from 6,000 to 6,500 ft, and (3) a mature, expulsion and migration zone below 6,500 ft. The response of common well logs identifies these zones. True resistivity (R{sub t}) is low in the immature zone, increases to a maximum in the peak-generation zone, and decreases to intermediate values in the expulsion zone. Density and neutron porosities are different in the immature zone but are nearly equal in the peak generation and expulsion zones. Correlations with conventional core analyses indicate that R{sub t} values between 9 and 40 ohm-m in the expulsion zone reflect a moveable oil saturation of 10 to 20% in the rock matrix. The moveable saturation provides oil from the matrix to fractures and is essential for sustained oil production. Therefore, the evaluation of moveable oil from well logs could be important in exploration.

Hines, G.A.; Berg, R.R. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-09-01

93

Integrated analysis of well logs and seismic data to estimate gas hydrate concentrations at Keathley Canyon, Gulf of Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accurately detecting and quantifying gas hydrate or free gas in sediments from seismic data require downhole well-log data to calibrate the physical properties of the gas hydrate-/free gas-bearing sediments. As part of the Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Program, a series of wells were either cored or drilled in the Gulf of Mexico to characterize the physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to calibrate geophysical estimates, and to evaluate source and transport mechanisms for gas within the gas hydrates. Downhole acoustic logs were used sparingly in this study because of degraded log quality due to adverse wellbore conditions. However, reliable logging while drilling (LWD) electrical resistivity and porosity logs were obtained. To tie the well-log information to the available 3-D seismic data in this area, a velocity log was calculated from the available resistivity log at the Keathley Canyon 151-2 well, because the acoustic log or vertical seismic data acquired at the nearby Keathley Canyon 151-3 well were either of poor quality or had limited depth coverage. Based on the gas hydrate saturations estimated from the LWD resistivity log, the modified Biot-Gassmann theory was used to generate synthetic acoustic log and a synthetic seismogram was generated with a fairly good agreement with a seismic profile crossing the well site. Based on the well-log information, a faintly defined bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) in this area is interpreted as a reflection representing gas hydrate-bearing sediments with about 15% saturation overlying partially gas-saturated sediments with 3% saturation. Gas hydrate saturations over 30-40% are estimated from the resistivity log in two distinct intervals at 220-230 and 264-300 m below the sea floor, but gas hydrate was not physically recovered in cores. It is speculated that the poor recovery of cores and gas hydrate morphology are responsible for the lack of physical gas hydrate recovery.

Lee, M. W.; Collett, T. S.

2008-01-01

94

Method and apparatus for treating down hole equipment from corrosion in production well  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a corrosion inhibiting chemical applying apparatus for subsurface equipment including rods, tubing, pump and other equipment, either as such equipment is being pulled from a well or when such equipment is being run in the well. The apparatus includes an upright tubular nipple for downward threaded mounting from the upper end of a well pumping tee. The

1986-01-01

95

Geophysical well logs for eleven drill holes at the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine Site, Idaho Springs, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The following geophysical well log measurements were made in eleven drill holes above the Colorado School of Mines Experimental Mine at Idaho Springs, Colorado: (1) acoustic velocity (2) resistivity, (3) caliper, (4) gamma-gamma density, (5) neutron-thermal neutron, (6) gamma ray, (7) induced polarization (IP), (8) self potential (SP), and magnetic susceptibility. The density and acoustic velocity logs indicate extensive fracturing in each of the drill holes. Variations in the relative amount of felsic or mafic mineral components in the rocks can be inferred from the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray well log responses. Zones containing metallic sulfide mineralization are interpreted from the IP well log response.

Daniels, J. J.; Scott, J. H.

1984-01-01

96

Recognition of hydrocarbon expulsion using well logs: Bakken Formation, Williston Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Mississippian-Lower Devonian Bakken Formation forms a source/carrier/reservoir system in the Williston basin. Hydrocarbon expulsion within the Bakken has been identified by overlaying sonic and resistivity logs. Typically, these curves track in organically lean, water-saturated mudrocks because both respond mainly to porosity; however, in thermally mature organic-rich rocks and hydrocarbon reservoirs or carrier beds, the curves separate due to the anomalously high resistivity associated with replacement of pore water by hydrocarbons. Sonic/resistivity-log overlays for wells throughout the Montana and North Dakota parts of the Williston basin reveal significant increases and maximum in-curve separation within the middle siltstone member of the Bakken at subsurface temperatures of about 170 and 200{degree}F, respectively. Sequence-stratigraphic characteristics of the Bakken define the framework within which the expulsion process operates. The organic-rich upper and lower shale members represent the transgressive and early highstand systems tracts of two adjacent depositional sequences. A sequence boundary within the intervening middle siltstone member separates nearshore siltstone and sandstone of the late highstand systems tract in the lower sequence from cross-bedded subtidal to intertidal sandstones of the lowstand systems tract in the upper sequence. Reservoir properties vary across this sequence boundary. The authors attribute the log separation in the siltstone member to hydrocarbons expelled from the adjacent shales. Abrupt shifts in several geochemical properties of the shale members, indicative of hydrocarbon generation occur over the same subsurface temperature range as the rapid increase in log separation in the middle siltstone, thus indicating the contemporaneity of generation and expulsion.

Cunningham, R.; Zelt, F.B.; Morgan, S.R.; Passey, Q.R. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (USA)); Snavely, P.D. III; Webster, R.L. (Exxon Co., U.S.A., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

97

Space age telemetry for geothermal well logging: the wireline transmission link  

SciTech Connect

The development of aerospace telemetry has opened new communication data links for making measurements in deep boreholes in the earth's crust. However, now a transmission line must be used since high-frequency signals will not propagate through this medium. Further restrictions are imposed upon well-logging transmission lines in high-temperature boreholes. It is possible to extend the bandwidth and number of data channels to enhance measurements in geothermal boreholes by combining aerospace telemetry techniques with thermal protection systems and careful selection of wireline data transmission configurations. 5 refs., 2 figs.

Kolar, J.D.; Dennis, B.R.; Stephani, E.L.; Gutierrez, P.

1985-01-01

98

Hydrogeochemical investigations in support of well logging operations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala  

SciTech Connect

A suite of 41 thermal and nonthermal waters in the Zunil-Quetzaltenango region, Guatemala, were collected as part of a well logging operation conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE) and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both in situ and weirbox samples were collected in the Zunil geothermal field. The various data suggest that the reservoir at Zunil is geochemically inhomogeneous. Stable isotope data suggest recharge to the field comes primarily from the north and east whereas tritium data indicate that the reservoir waters may be 500 to 7500 years old. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Adams, A.; Golf, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J.; Dennis, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

1990-01-01

99

30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...Well-Workover Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...with the tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

2010-07-01

100

30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...Well-Workover Operations § 250.614 Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...with the tree removed: (a) Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

2009-07-01

101

Exhumation Estimates Derived from Sonic Well Log Data in the Colorado Plateau - Southern Rocky Mountain Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interval transit time, which is the reciprocal of sonic velocity, can be determined from sonic geophysical well logs and used to estimate exhumation. Interval transit time decreases with increasing burial depth according to a compaction curve calibrated for each rock unit examined. Because rock compaction is an irreversible process, rock units that are at a depth shallower than their maximum burial depth will have a lower-than-expected ? interval travel time relative to the calibrated compaction curve. This technique is very useful because the sonic logs are ubiquitous and a large amount of data can be acquired and analyzed in a relatively short time, so that exhumation trends over a large area can be examined. Interval transit time on sonic logs generally decreases exponentially as a function of depth in Cretaceous shales in two Laramide basins, the Raton Basin and the San Juan Basin, in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. The average interval transit time for the Mancos Shale in the San Juan Basin at depths shallower than 3000 feet (914 m) ranges from 75 to 105 ?s/ft and shows a pronounced decrease with depth. In contrast, interval travel time averages about 70 to 80 ?s/ft at depths greater than about 3000 feet and the average is insensitive to depth. The interval transit time of the Mancos Shale north of Township 30 N in New Mexico actually increases with increasing depth, suggesting that some mechanism other than simple compaction (over pressuring or a previously unrecognized facies change) controls the velocity in this area. The average interval transit time for the Pierre Shale in the Raton Basin ranges from 65 to 110 ?s/ft and is generally correlated with depth. The calibrated compaction curve for the Late Cretaceous Pierre Shale in the Raton Basin, based on data from ten wells, is similar to the compaction curve for the Late Cretaceous Mancos Shale in the San Juan Basin, which is determined from approximately one hundred well logs. The amount of exhumation recorded by the shale sonic data in the Raton Basin is slightly higher (maximum exhumation of 1.5 km; typically less than 1.2 km) than that in the San Juan Basin (maximum exhumation 1.2 km, typically less than 1 km). Maximum exhumation is near the southern end of the basin in both areas.

Kelley, S. A.

2005-12-01

102

Directional drilling and equipment for hot granite wells  

SciTech Connect

The following drilling equipment and experience gained in drilling to date are discussed: positive displacement motors, turbodrills, motor performance experience, rotary-build and rotary-hold results, steering devices and surveying tools, shock absorbers, drilling and fishing jars, drilling bits, control of drill string drag, and control of drill string degradation. (MHR)

Williams, R.E.; Neudecker, J.W.; Rowley, J.C.; Brittenham, T.L.

1981-01-01

103

Logs and completion data for water and mass balance wells in Mortandad and Ten Site Canyons  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-four monitoring wells were drilled and completed in December 1994 as part of a water and mass balance study for the shallow perched aquifer in the Mortandad Canyon alluvium and in the lower part of Ten-Site Canyon. The wells penetrated the alluvium containing the aquifer and were completed into the top of the weathered tuff. Twelve of these wells encountered the Tshirege Member (Cooing Unit 1 g) of the Bandelier Tuff below the canyon alluvium, while ten wells made contact with the Cerro Toledo interval, which lies between the Tshirege and Otowi Members of the Bandelier Tuff. The remaining two wells were completed into the alluvium above the weathered tuff contact. These wells provide access for continuous water level measurement and water sampling. Data from these new wells will be used to determine changes in alluvial aquifer water storage, water quality sampling, and estimation of seepage into the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff below the alluvium. This report documents drilling activities and well completion logs for the water and mass balance study. These wells also provide critical new data for fourteen north-south vertical cross-sections constructed for the canyon alluvium.

McLin, S.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Water Quality and Hydrology Group; Purtymun, W.D.; Swanton, A.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, NM (United States); Koch, R.J. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

1997-10-01

104

Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

2010-11-01

105

40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...spontaneous potential, porosity, caliper, gamma ray, fracture finder logs, and any other logs the Director requires for...concerning the injection and confining zone(s): (1) Fracture pressure; (2) Other physical and chemical...

2012-07-01

106

Computer system for digitizing, analyzing and plotting well log data (a user's guide to WELLOG. Rev. 1)  

SciTech Connect

WELLOG is a system of programs developed at the Earth Science Laboratory to be used to digitize well logs and perform some analysis and plotting of the data. Multiple logs can be plotted side by side for correlation analysis and up to three logs can be plotted in a cross plot. Data entry and editing functions are also provided by the programs. This system of well log interpretation programs is presently operating on the University of Utah UNIVAC 1108 computer. Digitizing of well logs is accomplished by an old model CALMA (off-line) digitizer. Those parts of WELLOG that handle the digitized data tapes are extremely machine dependent. The parts of WELLOG that produce the plots and handle the data beyond the digitized data tape are more portable.

Atwood, J.W.; Killpack, T.J.; Glenn, W.E.

1980-03-01

107

Evolution Of Wireline Well-Logging Techniuqe (The Eye Of Oil Industry) In India And Advances Beyond 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-logging plays a very important role in the petroleum industry. It is an eye of oil industry as it provides detailed geological information of drilled holes which is very cost effective. It enables quantitative estimation of hydrocarbon reserves through its openhole services. The cased hole and production logging services are of immense help during exploitation and development stages of oil\\/gas

A. C. Paul

108

36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a) If you bring personal computers...facilities permit you to take your personal notes into the research room. In research rooms that permit taking in your notes, a NARA or contractor employee may...

2010-07-01

109

36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a) If you bring personal computers...facilities permit you to take your personal notes into the research room. In research rooms that permit taking in your notes, a NARA or contractor employee may...

2009-07-01

110

Geothermal-well completions: a survey and technical evaluation of existing equipment and needs  

SciTech Connect

The geothermal environment and associated well completion problems are reviewed. Existing well completion equipment is surveyed and limitations are identified. A technical evaluation of selected completion equipment is presented. The technical evaluation concentrates on well cementing equipment and identifies potential failure mechanisms which limit the effectiveness of these tools. Equipment employed in sand control, perforating, and corrosion control are identified as potential subjects for future technical evaluation.

Nicholson, J.E.; Snyder, R.E.

1982-07-01

111

Log evaluation in wells drilled with inverted oil emulsion mud. [GLOBAL program  

SciTech Connect

As greater use is made of inverted oil emulsion, muds in the development of North Sea oil fields, the need for more precise log evaluation in this environment becomes apparent. This paper demonstrates an approach using the Dual Induction Log, taking into account invasion and boundary effects. Lithology and porosity are derived from the Formation Density or Litho-Density Log, Compensated Neutron Log, Sonic Log and the Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry log. The effect of invasion by the oil component of the mud filtrate is treated in the evaluation, and a measurement of Moved Water is made Computations of petrophysical properties are implemented by means of the GLOBAL interpretation program, taking advantage of its capability of adaption to any combination of logging sensors. 8 refs.

Edwards, D.P.; Lacour-Gayet, P.J.; Suau, J.

1981-01-01

112

MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon) capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. The general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well suited for borehole-tool models. SABRINA, another component of the LARTCS, is a graphics code that can be used to interactively create a complex MCNP geometry. Users can define many source and tally characteristics with standard MCNP features. The time-dependent capability of the code is essential when modeling pulsed sources. Problems with neutrons, photons, and electrons as either single particle or coupled particles can be calculated with MCNP. The physics of neutron and photon transport and interactions is modeled in detail using the latest available cross-section data. A rich collections of variance reduction features can greatly increase the efficiency of a calculation. MCNP is written in FORTRAN 77 and has been run on variety of computer systems from scientific workstations to supercomputers. The next production version of MCNP will include features such as continuous-energy electron transport and a multitasking option. Areas of ongoing research of interest to the well logging community include angle biasing, adaptive Monte Carlo, improved discrete ordinates capabilities, and discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo hybrid development. Los Alamos has requested approval by the Department of Energy to create a Radiation Transport Computational Facility under their User Facility Program to increase external interactions with industry, universities, and other government organizations. 21 refs.

Forster, R.A.; Little, R.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.

1989-01-01

113

Temperature Dependence of Scintillation Properties of Bright Oxide Scintillators for Well-Logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scintillation characteristics such as the pulse height, energy resolution, and decay time of single crystals of Tl-doped NaI (Tl:NaI), Ce-doped Lu2SiO5 (Ce:LSO), Ce-doped YAlO3 (Ce:YAP), Ce-doped Gd3(Al,Ga)5O12 (Ce:GAGG), Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG), undoped LuAG, and Ce-doped Y3Al5O12 (Ce:YAG) transparent ceramics were compared at 25--150 °C to simulate well logging conditions. For increasing temperature, the light output of the scintillators decreased, mostly because of thermal quenching. Among these samples, Pr:LuAG demonstrated the highest scintillation performance at 150 °C.

Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Kamada, Kei; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Nikl, Martin; Chani, Valery

2013-07-01

114

Well log and seismic application in delineating CBM sweet spot in Berau Basin, East Kalimantan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is situated in the northern part of Berau Basin Northeast of Kalimantan. In the area Sajau Formation is the main coal bearing formation. The Sajau Coal were range from Lignite to sub bituminous, low ash content, and low to high cleated coal. Different with the conventional reservoir, coalbed methane reservoirs have sweet spot that are a function of structural/cleat and stratigraphy of the coal seam. The seismic data provides excellent image of faults and stratigraphy of coal seams are very much essential in CBM exploration as delineating the CBM sweet spot. Well log and acoustic impedance inversion can be applied in such a way to provide added insight to the coal distribution and cleat directions in coalbed-methane reservoirs. In this technique the property of acoustic impedance is of much importance in identifying different rock formations, which are associated with coal, and it has been successfully implemented.

Hamdani, Ahmad Helman; Hamdiana, Diana Putri; Ramadhan, Welly Ahmad

2013-09-01

115

Tool development and application: pressure, temperature, spectral gamma ray logging of the SB-15 well  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s involvement with downhole instrumentation dates from the mid 1970s when work was centered on the development of a high-temperature acoustic borehole televiewer, and the establishment of a list of high- temperature component parts such as resistors, integrated circuits, and sensors. This work evolved into the development of memory logging devices for the US Continental Scientific Drilling Program. These tools were of low cost and very easy to use. Their deployment resulted in scientific advancement in understanding geothermal formations, and a thrust of the current program is to move memory tools from the scientific realm to the commercial environment. The tools developed and utilized in the SB-15 well among other field tests are completely self- contained in that power is obtained from batteries and data are stored in an electronic memory system. Three memory tools form the backbone of the initial Sandia tool suite. Pressure/temperature measurements are necessary for the evaluation of geothermal reservoirs, and they are relatively simple to make. Thus, the initial Sandia program concentrated on such a tool, and it has been successfully used in SB-15. This tool will form the basis for future tools since many engineering principles were proven in its evolution. This pressure/temperature tool combination is very useful in characterizing the geothermal reservoir. Another tool in the Sandia suite measures the natural gamma rays from the formation. This spectral gamma ray tool is useful in defining lithology, paleoflows, and certain clays. SB-15 well logging history and a preliminary interpretation of the data is presented in this report.

Sattler, A.R.; Norman, R.; Henfling, J.A.

1996-12-01

116

Correlation and complexity analysis of well logs via Lyapunov, Hurst, Lempel-Ziv and neural network algorithms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well logs produce a wealth of data that can be used to evaluate the production capacity of oil and gas fields. These data are usually concerned with depth series of petrophysical quantities such as the sonic transient time, gamma emission, deep induction resistivity, neutron porosity and bulk density. Here, we perform a correlation and complexity analysis of well log data from the Namorado’s school field using Lyapunov, Hurst, Lempel-Ziv and neural network algorithms. After identifying the most correlated and complex series, we demonstrate that well log data estimates can be confidently performed by neural network algorithms either to complete missing data or to infer complete well logs of a specific quantity.

Ferreira, R. B.; Vieira, V. M.; Gleria, Iram; Lyra, M. L.

2009-03-01

117

Integrated well-log, seismic, and biostratigraphic approach to sequence stratigraphy in Late Cenozoic expanded sections, Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased emphasis on well-log signatures and recognition criteria for stratigraphic sequence boundaries, systems tracts, and condensed sections in a sequence-stratigraphic context has enhanced facies interpretation and reservoir prediction capabilities. Integration of well logs with high-resolution biostratigraphy and paleobathymetry, high-quality seismic configuration data, and the latest eustatic cycle chart provides the best data base for sequence-stratigraphic analysis. This approach is particularly

R. M. Jr. Mitchum; J. B. Sangree; P. R. Vail; W. W. Wornar

1991-01-01

118

Method and apparatus for running and retrieving logging instruments in highly deviated well bores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system consists of means for running a logging instrument and a long semi-rigid extension on a logging cable through open-ended drill pipe. A head on the upper end of the extension conforms sufficiently close to the inside diameter of the drill pipe that pump pressure down the drill pipe develops thrust across the head to push the extension and

Marquis

1978-01-01

119

Workover well control. Part 5. BOP equipment controls downhole pressure. [Blow-out preventers  

Microsoft Academic Search

To control kicks and prevent blowouts, many factors of workover well control must be mastered. One of the more important parts is the proper selection and use of the equipment for pressure control. This equipment encompasses not only the production trees and surface blowout preventers but other items such as the mud monitoring equipment, degassers, and the mud mixing systems.

1981-01-01

120

High-resolution well-log derived dielectric properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A dielectric logging tool, electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT), was deployed in 2007 in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert Well), North Slope, Alaska. The measured dielectric properties in the Mount Elbert well, combined with density log measurements, result in a vertical high-resolution (cm-scale) estimate of gas hydrate saturation. Two hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs about 20 m thick were identified using the EPT log and exhibited gas-hydrate saturation estimates ranging from 45% to 85%. In hydrate-bearing zones where variation of hole size and oil-based mud invasion are minimal, EPT-based gas hydrate saturation estimates on average agree well with lower vertical resolution estimates from the nuclear magnetic resonance logs; however, saturation and porosity estimates based on EPT logs are not reliable in intervals with substantial variations in borehole diameter and oil-based invasion.EPT log interpretation reveals many thin-bedded layers at various depths, both above and below the thick continuous hydrate occurrences, which range from 30-cm to about 1-m thick. Such thin layers are not indicated in other well logs, or from the visual observation of core, with the exception of the image log recorded by the oil-base microimager. We also observe that EPT dielectric measurements can be used to accurately detect fine-scale changes in lithology and pore fluid properties of hydrate-bearing sediments where variation of hole size is minimal. EPT measurements may thus provide high-resolution in-situ hydrate saturation estimates for comparison and calibration with laboratory analysis. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sun, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Collett, T.; Hunter, R.

2011-01-01

121

Clay and framework mineralogy, cation exchange capacity, matrix density, and porosity from geochemical well logging in Kern County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elemental concentrations of several inorganic elements were determined in a continuous basis with depth using the Schlumberger gamma-ray spectrometry (GST) and natural gamma-ray spectrometry (NGS) logs in a Santa Fe Energy Company well in the Kern Front field in Bakersfield, California. Logs of Al, Si, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, and non-pore H were processed by a matrix multiplication procedure, used

M. M. Herron; J. A. Grau

1987-01-01

122

Directional drilling equipment and techniques for deep hot granite wells  

SciTech Connect

Conventional directional drilling technology has been extended and modified to drill the first well of a subsurface geothermal energy extraction system at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot dry Rock (HDR) experimental site. Completing the first of a two-wellbore HDR system has resulted in the definition of operational limitations of many conventional directional drilling tools, instrumentation and techniques. The successful completion of the first wellbore, Energy Extraction Well No. 2 (EE-2), to a measured depth of 15,300 ft (4.7 km) in granite reservoir rock with a bottomhole temperature of 530/sup 0/F (275/sup 0/C) required the development of a new high temperature downhole motor and modification of existing wireline-conveyed steering tool systems. Conventional rotary-driven directional assemblies were successfully modified to accommodate the very hard and abrasive rock encountered while drilling nearly 8500 ft (2.6 km) of directional hole to a final inclination of 35/sup 0/ from the vertical at a controlled azimuthal orientation.

Brittenham, T.L.; Sursen, G.; Neudecker, J.W.; Rowley, J.C.; Williams, R.E.

1980-01-01

123

Processing map and well log data for geological and soil surveys  

SciTech Connect

Design of a system which accepts geological maps or soil maps, together with corresponding well logs and produces interpretation maps, is described. The major aim was to get a processing program that would be useful at an operational scale that avoids the use of special purpose graphics hardware. This was achieved by using segment encoding of lines and by treatment of mapped units as basic graphical units (atoms). The system operation was split into an input phase and a processed phase. Input- and file-building require some technical experience, but are a one-time affair, whereas subsequent processing requires less (graphical) resources and experience, but is of a repetitive nature. When writing processing programs, emphasis was placed on ease of adding options. Clever improvements of efficiency (e.g., disk traffic) were not deemed worthwhile or even wise. Two driving forces behind the project required the programs reported here. First was the observation that digital data can be used only if appropriate programs are readily available to produce required results without need for large investments in hardware. Second was the idea that digital tools could be most effective if they allow the end-user (customer) to interact directly with the full base of data without recourse to technical experts. The resulting system is operational and running on a VAX 11/750, coded in FORTRAN.

van Kuilenburg, J.

1986-01-01

124

Method and apparatus for dielectric well logging of subsurface earth formations with a lumped constant antenna  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a well logging tool for use in obtaining an indicator of the dielectric constant of subsurface earth formations traversed by a borehole, comprising: an antenna housing means defining an X axis extending longitudinally along the housing means for contacting the wall of the borehole; a first and a second transmitter antenna means carried by the housing means and spatially distributed along a line parallel to the X axis and adjacent respective ends of the housing means for transmitting electromagnetic energy of a preselected frequency into the formation; and a first and a second receiver antenna means carried by the housing means and spatially distributed adjacent each other along the line and intermediate of the first and second transmitter antenna means for receiving electromagnetic energy from the formation each antenna means comprising: an outer aperture defined by the housing; a feed-through terminal having an electrical contact extending in the outer aperture; a filler plug within the aperture; an antenna slot element disposed on the housing and defining with the outer aperture an electrically resonant cavity element defines an elongated lot extending in a direction perpendicular to the axis; an antenna insulator plug sealingly and slidably disposed within the slot; an elongate inductor carried on the filler plug adjacent the slot in the antenna slot element and in electrical contact with the housing at one end of the inductor; and a lumped constant resonating means interconnected between the terminal contact and the other end of the inductor forming an electrically resonating circuit.

Janes, T.A.

1987-07-07

125

40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity, permeability, and rock type of, and the salinity of any entrained fluids in, all relevant geologic units to assure conformance with performance standards in §...

2013-07-01

126

Lithology and Well-LOG Study of Campbell E-2, Geothermal Test Well, Humboldt House Geothermal Prospect, Pershing County, Nevada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In light of the cuttings and geophysical logs from the Campbell E-2 hole, it seems unlikely that a geothermal reservoir exists in the horst block of the Humboldt House area. All known sinter deposits occur in the graben block in the valley, northwest and ...

B. S. Sibbett W. E. Glenn

1981-01-01

127

Lithology and well-log study of Campbell E-2, geothermal test well, Humboldt House geothermal prospect, Pershing County, Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

In light of the cuttings and geophysical logs from the Campbell E-2 hole, it seems unlikely that a geothermal reservoir exists in the horst block of the Humboldt House area. All known sinter deposits occur in the graben block in the valley, northwest and southwest of Campbell E-2. The range front fault, which may serve as a conduit for deeply

B. S. Sibbett; W. E. Glenn

1981-01-01

128

Geophysical, stratigraphic, and flow-zone logs of selected wells in Cayuga County, New York, 2001–2011  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geophysical logs were collected and analyzed along with bedrock core samples and bedrock outcrops to define the bedrock stratigraphy and flow zones penetrated by 93 monitor and water-supply wells in Cayuga County, New York. The work was completed from 2001 through 2011 as part of an investigation of volatile-organic compound contamination in the carbonate-bedrock aquifer system between Auburn and Union Springs. The borehole logs included gamma, caliper, wellbore image, fluid property, and flow logs. The log information was used with bedrock core samples to define the regional stratigraphy, evaluate flow zones within the bedrock aquifers, and develop and implement a multilevel monitoring design for groundwater levels and water quality within the study area.

Eckhardt, David A. V.; Williams, John H.; Anderson, J. Alton

2011-01-01

129

Application of Multi-rate Flowing Fluid Electric ConductivityLogging Method to Well DH-2, Tono Site, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The flowing fluid electric conductivity (FEC) logging method, wellbore fluid is replaced with de-ionized water, following which FEC profiles in the wellbore are measured at a series of times while the well is pumped at a constant rate. Locations were fluid enters the wellbore show peaks in the FEC logs, which may be analyzed to infer inflow strengths and salinities of permeable features intersected by the wellbore. In multi-rate flowing FEC logging, the flowing FEC logging method is repeated using two or more pumping rates, which enables the transmissivities and inherent pressure heads of these features to be estimated as well. We perform multi-rate FEC logging on a deep borehole in fractured granitic rock, using three different pumping rates. Results identify 19 hydraulically conducting fractures and indicate that transmissivity, pressure head, and salinity vary significantly among them. By using three pumping rates rather than the minimum number of two, we obtain an internal consistency check on the analysis that provides a measure of the uncertainty of the results. Good comparisons against static FEC profiles and against independent chemical, geological, and hydrogeological data have further enhanced confidence in the results of the multi-rate flowing FEC logging method.

Doughty, Christine; Takeuchi, Shinji; Amano, Kenji; Shimo, Michito; Tsang, Chin-Fu

2004-10-04

130

Characterizing Hydrologic Properties of Coal Beds From the Powder River Basin, Southeastern Montana, by Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a study designed to evaluate the potential for coal-bed methane development in the Powder River Basin of southeastern Montana, six wells were drilled through Paleocene coal beds of the Fort Union Formation along a 31-km transect within the Tongue River drainage basin. Sets of geophysical logs were recorded in these wells, cores were collected, and a complementary

R. H. Morin

2003-01-01

131

Neural network prediction of carbonate lithofacies from well logs, Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields, Southwest Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Hugoton Embayment of southwestern Kansas, St. Louis Limestone reservoirs have relatively low recovery efficiencies, attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the oolitic deposits. This study establishes quantitative relationships between digital well logs and core description data, and applies these relationships in a probabilistic sense to predict lithofacies in 90 uncored wells across the Big Bow and Sand Arroyo

Lianshuang Qi; Timothy R. Carr

2006-01-01

132

Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry. Central American Energy and Resources Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geo...

A. Adams B. Dennis E. Van Eeckhout F. Goff R. Lawton

1991-01-01

133

Critical evaluation of the mechanical properties log (MPL) on a basal quartz well in the Caroline area  

SciTech Connect

There is a need to quantify the in situ properties of barriers and pay zones in order to assess the potential for fracture containment and to optimize stimulation treatment design. A major testing program has been conducted jointly by Dome Petroleum Ltd., Dowell, and Schlumberger to compare laboratory-measured mechanical properties with those determined by well logging. The testing program was confined to the Basal Quartz Formation at a depth of ca 3,000 m, as it occurs in a Dome well in the Caroline area of Alberta. Laboratory testing included the determination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio at in situ temperature and stress conditions. The mechanical properties log was derived from the open-hole sonic log, and the in situ stresses were measured in the field. An attempt is made to explain the discrepancies on the basis of other known well data.

McLennan, J.D.; Elbel, J.; Mattheis, E.; Lindstrom, L.

1982-01-01

134

A generalized approach for the interpretation of geophysical well logs in ground-water studies -- Theory and application  

SciTech Connect

Implementation of models for the simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in aquifers requires subsurface characterization of the boundaries and hydraulic properties of the geological formations through which ground water flows. Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. The authors propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The procedures given in the generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters.

Paillet, F.L. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center; Crowder, R.E. [Colog, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

1996-09-01

135

Possible New Well-Logging Tool Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy to Detect TOC in Source Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Possible New Well-Logging Tool Using Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy to Detect Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in Source Rocks PATTERSON, C., Department of Geology, Department of Physics, Texas Christian University, QUARLES, C.A., Department of Physics, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth, Texas, BREYER, J.A., Department of Geology, Texas Christian University, Fort, Worth, Texas. The positron produces two gamma rays upon annihilation with an electron. Depending on the momentum of the electron, the two resulting photons are shifted from the initial electron rest mass energy by the Doppler effect. We measure the distribution of gamma ray energies produced by annihilation on a petroleum source rock core. Core from the Mitchell Energy well T.P. Sims 2 of the Barnett Shale located in Wise County, Texas, is under study. Apparatus for the experiment consists of an Ortec Ge detector. The source used for the experiment is Ge68, which undergoes beta decay and produces the positrons that penetrate the core. It is placed on the middle of the core and covered with a small, annealed NiCu plate to prevent unnecessary background from the positrons annihilating with electrons other than in the core. Distance between the source and the detector is fixed at 6.75 inches. Measurements were made in specific locations at 2 inch increments for approximately an hour and a half where the predetermined Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values were made. Future studies involve an overall correlation of the core between experimental readings and TOC, including corrections for changes in grain size and lithology. Additional research has shown no distinct correlation between grain size and distribution of energies across the targeted spectrum. Additional corrections should be made for the decay in activity of the source. Future research also includes the determination for optimum time and distance for the source from the core. A long-term goal for the experiment is to develop an effective down-hole tool to determine TOC in potential source rocks, thereby minimizing time coring and geochemical analysis.

Patterson, Casey; Quarles, C. A.; Breyer, J. A.

2001-10-01

136

2D/3D Electromagnetic sounding and well log integration on Santos Basin, Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetotellurics (MT) is a naturally induced electromagnetic technique used to map resistivity contrasts in the subsurface of the earth. The method uses the time-varying natural electric and magnetic fields incident on the earth's surface as signal source. The method has been successfully used to achieve marine exploration objectives such as imaging sub-basalts, carbonates and subsalts in situations where seismic imaging is poor. A marine magnetotelluric survey on Santos basin in the southeast of Brazil has generated high quality data in 96 sites split in three parallel profiles in NW-SE direction along a 160 km central line and two other lines, east and west, with approximately 54 km long each one. All sites were submitted to some stages of processing to avoid noise amount and reach quality improvement. Firstly, we start applying 2D inversion to MT data and we obtained two-dimensional models with very good resolution for the three profiles and they are consistent each other. We have used well log data to provide priori resistivity information for magnetotelluric models and make correlation from different data sets. The study points out that the profiles can be imaged by two-dimensional except by small parts in the models with low misfits. These parts are associated with some interesting geological structures of highlighted importance as salt domes and diapirs. The halokinetic structures have special geometries hence they are better explained by three-dimensional approach. However, it is more appropriate utilize a 3D imaging in order to reach the best model with minor uncertainties. Recently, the number of publications regarding 3D magnetotelluric inversion has increased and it is due to the fact of the effort in performing a better characterization of the research area. It is because the magnetotelluric method has been increasingly accepted as powerful technique capable to predict valuable information. Currently we are performing a 3D inversion using all profiles with a grid of approximately 160 x 6 km2 and the first results will be shown at the meeting.

Pinto, V. R.; Fontes, S. L.

2011-12-01

137

Anhydrite Cementation In A Geothermal Research Well and Permeability Prediction From Porosity Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few sandstone formations are suitable for direct use of geothermal heat in northern Germany, one of them is the Upper Keuper Rhaetian sandstone. In one particular borehole (Allermoehe 1, south of Hamburg) the Rhaetian aquifer was drilled at 3250 m. Unfortunately, the porespace was cemented by anhydrite resulting in porosities as low as 2%. A classification of the rock type with respect to free fluid porosity, capillary bound porosity and clay bound porosity was based on a NMR log (CMR measured by Schlumberger). While porosity can easily be determined, it is difficult to evaluate permeability. One way to predict permeability is based on an existing permeability-porosity relationship, which depends in a complicated way on the pore structure. A theory was developed using a fractal pore space model. A fundamental expression for the permeability is given by the Kozeny-Carman equation which de- scribes permeability as a function of the porosity, the tortuosity T and the effective hydraulic pore radius reff . In this model theory, T and reff themselves are functions of f and the so-called fractal dimension D, which is the fundamental structure parame-ter. The result is a general equation for permeability as a function of porosity, which was calibrated for several types of clean and shaly sandstones. This calibrated per-meability-porosity relationship can be used for calculating permeability from stan-dard industry porosity logs. For a lithological sequence with a strong variation of rock type, the quality of per - meability prediction can be improved by the additional information of a NMR log which discriminates between free fluid, capillary bound and clay bound porosity. We studied 18 samples of the Rhaetian sandstone for several petrophysical properties. The comparison of the NMR porosity-log with the anhydrite volume content shows that the section of sandstone with the lowest porosities, due to intense anhydrite cementation, originally started with an initial porosity of up to 27 % and is supposed to have been the most permeable part when cementation began. The diagenetic evo-lution of a sandstone formation is reflected by the permeability- porosity (k-f) data in a log-log plot. The paths of diagenetic cementation and the paths resulting from dissolution experiments are presented in the permeability- porosity diagram. For strongly cemented samples these paths are the same for cementation and dissolution, but in the opposite direction. They have a characteristc form which differs from the porosity-permeability relationship of avarage sandstones with mainly mechanical compaction.

Pape, H.; Clauser, C.; Wagner, R.

138

Interpretation of Core and Well Log Physical Property Data From Drill Hole UPH-3, Stephenson County, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and well log physical property measurements show variations in the mineralogy with depth in UPH-3. Gamma ray values generally decrease with depth in the drill hole, corresponding to a decrease in the felsic mineral components of the granite. Correspondingly, an increase with depth in mafic minerals in the granite is indicated by the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray measurements.

Jeffrey J. Daniels; Gary R. Olhoeft; James H. Scott

1983-01-01

139

Induction Conductivity and Natural Gamma Logs Collected in 15 Wells at Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Bexar County, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to document electromagnetic (EM) induction conductivity and natural gamma log data collected in wells (table 1) during March 28-30, 2005, at various depths below land surface to calibrate the recently surveyed HEM data. CSSA ...

G. P. Stanton

2005-01-01

140

Interpretation of core and well log physical property data from drill hole UPH-3, Stephenson County, Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory and well log physical property measurements show variations in the mineralogy with depth in UPH-3. Gamma ray values generally decrease with depth in the drill hole, corresponding to a decrease in the felsic mineral components of the granite. Correspondingly, an increase with depth in mafic minerals in the granite is indicated by the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray measurements.

Jeffrey J. Daniels; Gary R. Olhoeft; James H. Scott

1983-01-01

141

Neural network prediction of carbonate lithofacies from well logs, Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields, Southwest Kansas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Hugoton Embayment of southwestern Kansas, St. Louis Limestone reservoirs have relatively low recovery efficiencies, attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the oolitic deposits. This study establishes quantitative relationships between digital well logs and core description data, and applies these relationships in a probabilistic sense to predict lithofacies in 90 uncored wells across the Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. In 10 wells, a single hidden-layer neural network based on digital well logs and core described lithofacies of the limestone depositional texture was used to train and establish a non-linear relationship between lithofacies assignments from detailed core descriptions and selected log curves. Neural network models were optimized by selecting six predictor variables and automated cross-validation with neural network parameters and then used to predict lithofacies on the whole data set of the 2023 half-foot intervals from the 10 cored wells with the selected network size of 35 and a damping parameter of 0.01. Predicted lithofacies results compared to actual lithofacies displays absolute accuracies of 70.37 90.82%. Incorporating adjoining lithofacies, within-one lithofacies improves accuracy slightly (93.72%). Digital logs from uncored wells were batch processed to predict lithofacies and probabilities related to each lithofacies at half-foot resolution corresponding to log units. The results were used to construct interpolated cross-sections and useful depositional patterns of St. Louis lithofacies were illustrated, e.g., the concentration of oolitic deposits (including lithofacies 5 and 6) along local highs and the relative dominance of quartz-rich carbonate grainstone (lithofacies 1) in the zones A and B of the St. Louis Limestone. Neural network techniques are applicable to other complex reservoirs, in which facies geometry and distribution are the key factors controlling heterogeneity and distribution of rock properties. Future work involves extension of the neural network to predict reservoir properties, and construction of three-dimensional geo-models.

Qi, Lianshuang; Carr, Timothy R.

2006-08-01

142

Review of well-logging techniques. [For use in remedial action programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature review has been conducted to determine whether suitable borehole-logging techniques exist for the measurement of gamma-ray-emitting elements using downhole detectors. Most of the methods that have been used for the last 30 years by the uranium-exploration industry involve passive gamma-ray measurement techniques utilizing NaI(Tl) and, occasionally, intrinsic germanium detectors. Parameters the industry has had to consider in calibrating

K. B. Olsen; J. A. Young; V. W. Thomas

1983-01-01

143

Wellmaster (Trade Name): User's Guide and Reliability Data Collection Guidelines for Well Completion Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document contains full documentation of the Wellmaster software and database created through the project 'Reliability of Well Completion Equipment - Phase II'. The document describes functionality of the software and also includes details on the reli...

H. Langseth E. Molnes R. Sveen

1995-01-01

144

Choosing the averaging interval when calculating primary reflection coefficients from well logs  

SciTech Connect

Most seismic data is processed using a sample interval of 4 ms two-way time (twt). The study of the statistical properties of primary reflection coefficients showed that the power spectrum of primaries can change noticeably when the logs are averaged over blocks of 0.5, 1 and 2 ms twt (block-averaging). What is a suitable block-averaging interval for producing broadband synthetics, and in particular how should the power spectrum of primaries be constructed when it is to be used to correct 4 ms sampled deconvolved seismic data for the effects of coloured primary reflectivity. In this paper the authors show that for a typical sonic log, a block-averaging interval of 1 ms twt should satisfy some important requirements. Firstly, it is demonstrated that if the reflection coefficients in an interval are not too large the effect of all the reflection impulses can be represented by another much sparser set at intervals of ..delta..t twt. The coefficient amplitudes are given by the differences in the logarithmic acoustic impedances, thus justifying block-averaging. However, a condition for this to hold up to the aliasing (Nyquist) frequency is that ..delta..t takes a maximum value of about 1 ms twt. Secondly, an event on a log should be represented in the seismic data. For this the acoustic impedance contrast must have sufficient lateral extent or continuity. By making some tentative suggestions on the relation between continuity and bed-thickness, a bed-thickness requirement of 0.15 m or more is obtained. Combining this requirement with the maximum number of beds allowable in an interval in order that multiple reflections do not contribute significantly to the reflections in the interval, again suggests a value of about 1 ms for the block-averaging interval.

Walden, A.T.; Hosken, J.W.J.

1988-11-01

145

Geophysical logs and hydrologic data for eight wells in the Coyote Spring Valley area, Clark and Lincoln counties, Nevada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geophysical logs, drilling operations, pump-test data, and water quality determinations are presented for eight wells in the Coyote Spring Valley area of southeastern Nevada. The wells are in an area where thick units of Paleozoic carbonate rock are overlain by Tertiary semiconsolidated basin-fill deposits and Quaternary alluvial deposits. Data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey were augmented with data from previous investigations; however, complete sets of logs and other data are not available for all eight wells. Geophysical data presented included natural-gamma, neutron, gamma-gamma density, caliper, temperature, acoustic, single-point resistance, long- and short-natural resistivity, and spontaneous-potential logs. Drilling penetration rates, lithologic columns, and well construction are also summarized and presented. Measurements of drawdown and recovery during and after constant-discharge pumping periods are also included. Also presented are results of chemical and physical analyses for major-ion chemistry, trace constituents, stable and radioactive isotopes, temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. (USGS)

Berger, D. L.; Kilroy, K. C.; Schaefer, D. H.

1988-01-01

146

A new intense neutron generator and high-resolution detector for well logging applications  

SciTech Connect

Advances in both ion source and gamma-ray detector technology at LBNL are being used to develop a new high-sensitivity neutron logging instrument. Up to 37 mA of current per 10-20 {mu}s pulse, 80-95% D{sup +}, has been produced by a 2 inch diameter pulsed multicusp ion source. A D-T neutron flux of 10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} n/s is projected from this data. CdZnTe is being developed as a possible gamma-ray detector because of its potential for good energy resolution and efficiency, and ability to operate at room temperature. 3-D time-dependent Monte Carlo calculations show the utility of this system for locating contaminants, especially chlorine-containing solvents, at remediation sites.

Celata, C.M.; Amman, M.; Donahue, R. [and others

1996-10-01

147

Characterizing Hydrologic Properties of Coal Beds From the Powder River Basin, Southeastern Montana, by Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a study designed to evaluate the potential for coal-bed methane development in the Powder River Basin of southeastern Montana, six wells were drilled through Paleocene coal beds of the Fort Union Formation along a 31-km transect within the Tongue River drainage basin. Sets of geophysical logs were recorded in these wells, cores were collected, and a complementary aquifer test was conducted at one site across an isolated 4.6-m thick coal seam. Natural gamma and electrical resistivity logs were highly effective in distinguishing individual coal beds. Sonic velocities computed from full-waveform logs were combined with rock densities determined from cores to estimate aquifer storage and results are in reasonable agreement with the value derived from the aquifer test. Televiewer logs, both acoustic and optical, provided magnetically oriented images of the borehole walls. Inspection of these digital projections and comparison with coal cores infer a face cleat orientation of approximately N33° E, in close alignment with regional lineament patterns and the northeast trend of the nearby Tongue River. Further analysis of these televiewer data reveals two primary sets of shallow-dipping features, presumably bedding planes, that are interspersed throughout the rocks and that strike east-west and north-south. These orthogonal directions are aligned with the principal axes of the contemporary stress field in this physiographic province as inferred from a nearby 1984 earthquake. The aquifer test consisted of pumping one of these wells for nine hours and monitoring water levels in three nearby observation wells. The drawdown ellipse generated during this test delineates a horizontal anisotropy ratio of 2.1, with the principal transmissivity tensor aligned N88° E and oblique to cleat orientation. Thus, interpretation of this aquifer test within the context of local structural and tectonic conditions indicates that transmissivity anisotropy in coals at this site is controlled by bedding configuration and perhaps a mechanical response to contemporary stresses rather than solely by cleat geometry.

Morin, R. H.

2003-12-01

148

Integrated well-log, seismic, and biostratigraphic approach to sequence stratigraphy in Late Cenozoic expanded sections, Gulf of Mexico  

SciTech Connect

Increased emphasis on well-log signatures and recognition criteria for stratigraphic sequence boundaries, systems tracts, and condensed sections in a sequence-stratigraphic context has enhanced facies interpretation and reservoir prediction capabilities. Integration of well logs with high-resolution biostratigraphy and paleobathymetry, high-quality seismic configuration data, and the latest eustatic cycle chart provides the best data base for sequence-stratigraphic analysis. This approach is particularly effective for thick, rapidly deposited slope and basin sediments, such as in the Plio-Pleistocene of the Gulf of Mexico basin. The general sequence-stratigraphic model consists of a depositional sequence with lowstand basin floor fan, slope fan, and prograding complex, transgressive systems tract, and highstand systems tract. Each systems tract is deposited at a predictable position in an interpreted eustatic cycle and has recognizable signatures in well logs and seismic data. Any given basin to which this model is applied is strongly controlled by its own tectonic subsidence and accommodation history, and by the type and rate of sediment supply, but the higher frequency eustatic cyclicity is superposed on the other basinal controls. A typical depositional model for the Plio-Pleistocene of the Gulf of Mexico basin is a diapir-controlled subbasin associated with a large contemporaneous expansion fault. The environment of deposition is closely related to the history of fault development. Reservoir sand distribution is characteristic and predictable for each systems tract. Carefully planned evaluation and completion techniques are based on these characteristics.

Mitchum, R.M. Jr. (R M Mitchum Exploration Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Sangree, J.B. (Sangree Exploration Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Vail, P.R. (Rice Univ. Houston, TX (United States)); Wornar, W.W. (Microstrat Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

149

Reviews Equipment: Data logger Book: Imagined Worlds Equipment: Mini data loggers Equipment: PICAXE-18M2 data logger Books: Engineering: A Very Short Introduction and To Engineer Is Human Book: Soap, Science, & Flat-Screen TVs Equipment: uLog and SensorLab Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND Data logger Fourier NOVA LINK: data logging and analysis To Engineer is Human Engineering: essays and insights Soap, Science, & Flat-Screen TVs People, politics, business and science overlap uLog sensors and sensor adapter A new addition to the LogIT range offers simplicity and ease of use WORTH A LOOK Imagined Worlds Socio-scientific predictions for the future Mini light data logger and mini temperature data logger Small-scale equipment for schools SensorLab Plus LogIT's supporting software, with extra features HANDLE WITH CARE CAXE110P PICAXE-18M2 data logger Data logger 'on view' but disappoints Engineering: A Very Short Introduction A broad-brush treatment fails to satisfy WEB WATCH Two very different websites for students: advanced physics questions answered and a more general BBC science resource

2012-07-01

150

Well-log seismic sequence stratigraphy of Aruba and its application to the hydrocarbon exploration in the Caribbean Area  

SciTech Connect

Several wells have recently been drilled in offshore Aruba approximately 12 degrees NOrth Latitude and 70 degrees West Longitude, just north of the Westernpart of Venezuela, South Central Caribbean. One of the wells, the Oxy Chuchubi No. 1 well penetrated a largely carbonate section that ranged in age from early Pliocene to early Oligocene to late Eocene at its total depth of 9,210 feet. High resolution biostratigraphy of benthic and planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannofossils provided the abundance and diversity histograms necessary to recognized a series of maximum flooding surface condensed sections (MSF). Fourteen maximum flooding surfaces within the MFS condensed sections were identified on the well log and dated using the planktonic foraminifers and calcareous nannofossils. These maximum flooding surfaces range in age from 4.0 Ma or possibly 36.5 Ma. The paleobathymetry varies from middle to outer neritic in the upper portion of the well to lower bathyal to abyssal in the lower portion of the well. Fourteen third order sequences and their systems tracts were identified and annotated on a well log. These sequences were correlated with the Global Cycle Chart of Hag, 1987. The sequence stratigraphy provides a means of chronostratigraphic correlation to Venezuela and provides a direct tie to the geological history and hydrocarbon potential of the area.

Wornardt, W.W. (Micro-Strat Inc., Houston, TX (United States)); Vail, P.R. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States))

1993-02-01

151

Review of well-logging techniques. [For use in remedial action programs  

SciTech Connect

A literature review has been conducted to determine whether suitable borehole-logging techniques exist for the measurement of gamma-ray-emitting elements using downhole detectors. Most of the methods that have been used for the last 30 years by the uranium-exploration industry involve passive gamma-ray measurement techniques utilizing NaI(Tl) and, occasionally, intrinsic germanium detectors. Parameters the industry has had to consider in calibrating these detectors are variations in (1) casing material and thickness, (2) water in the borehole, (3) hole diameter, (4) disequilibrium between uranium and its daughters in the ore zone, (5) spatial distribution of the radioactive material, and (6) dead time of the analyzer. The methods they have used to address these variable parameters appear to be applicable to remedial action programs. The techniques that have been used for the measurement of subsurface radium concentration by DOE during the engineering assessment of UMTRAP/FUSRAP sites and by NRC at one remedial action site will be described in this report.

Olsen, K.B.; Young, J.A.; Thomas, V.W.

1983-04-01

152

Directional Survey and Proximity Log Analysis of a Downhole Well Intersection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A relief well was drilled to intersect the casing of a blown-out well at 13,500 ft TVD (true vertical depth). During the drilling, numerous directional surveys were run on the relief well. These surveys have been analyzed to determine the error associated with each particular survey. It was found that both systematic and random errors were evident in the surveys.

Tommy Warren

1981-01-01

153

Characterization of injection wells in a fractured reservoir using PTS logs, Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field, Nevada, USA  

SciTech Connect

The Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field in northwestern Nevada, about 15 km south of Reno, is a shallow (150m to 825m) moderate temperature (155 C to 168 C) liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir situated in highly-fractured granodiorite. Three injection wells were drilled and completed in granodiorite to dispose of spent geothermal fluids from the Steamboat II and III power plants (a 30 MW air-cooled binary-type facility). Injection wells were targeted to depths below 300m to inject spent fluids below producing fractures. First, quasi-static downhole pressure-temperature-spinner (PTS) logs were obtained. Then, the three wells were injection-tested using fluids between 80 C and 106 C at rates from 70 kg/s to 200 kg/s. PTS logs were run both up and down the wells during these injection tests. These PTS surveys have delineated the subsurface fracture zones which will accept fluid. The relative injectivity of the wells was also established. Shut-in interzonal flow within the wells was identified and characterized.

Goranson, Colin; Combs, Jim

1995-01-26

154

Possible new well-logging tool using positron Doppler broadening to detect total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrocarbon source rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of well-logging tools has proven to be a cheap, effective method of formation evaluation in potential petroleum basins. One of the few remaining unanswered questions of economic importance is the amount of organic matter available to produce oil and gas in source rocks. Using Doppler broadening spectroscopy, we measured the /S-parameter along the length of a shaly source rock with known TOC values. The /S-parameter was observed to correlate well with the geochemically derived organic carbon weight percent values.

Patterson, C. D.; Quarles, C. A.; Breyer, J. A.

2003-10-01

155

WELLOG: computer software system for analyzing and plotting well log data (a user's guide to WELLOG. REV2)  

SciTech Connect

WELLOG is a software system that has been developed to plot digitized well log data in a manner suitable for analysis. Multiple logs can be plotted side by side for correlation analysis, and up to three logs can be plotted on a cross plot. Data entry, editing, and modification functions are also provided by the program. Digitizing is accomplished by a TEKTRONIX 4954 (on-line) digitizing tablet, and plotting is done on a TEKTRONIX 4014 graphics terminal, a STATOS 42 electrostatic plotter, or a CALCOMP pen plotter using a device independent plotting system. This program (WELLOG.REV2) is not as system-dependent as the former version (WELLOG.REV1). The user must supply a program to digitize the data and supply subroutines to interface the program with file manipulation and plotting routines of their system. One major improvement is the use of an on-line digitizing system whereby the program accesses disk files rather than reading the data from tape. In REV2 the merge file has been automated such that the file is initialized automatically upon creation and also delete protected. The randomly spaced data capabilities have been greatly improved allowing the averaging and cross plotting of the data. Routines have been added which allow all of the cross plots excepting the Z-plot to be printed on a line printer. Dresser Atlas' A-K plot has also been added. The program is almost completely self-contained needing only a few interfacing and system subroutines.

Atwood, J.W.; Killpack, T.J.; Glenn, W.E.; Nutter, C.

1980-11-01

156

Statistical model for source rock maturity and organic richness using well-log data, Bakken Formation, Williston basin, United States  

SciTech Connect

A study of the Bakken Formation, the proposed source rock for much of the hydrocarbons generated in the Williston basin, was done using bulk density, neutron porosity, and resistivity logs, and formation temperatures. Principal components, cluster, and discriminant analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of organic matter controls much of the variability in the log values. Present-day total organic carbon values are high in the central part of the basin near northeastern Montana and along the east edge of the basin, and low in the area of the Nesson anticline and along the southwest edge of the basin. Using a regression of density on temperature and the analysis of residuals from this regression, hydrocarbon maturity effects were partially separated from depositional effects. These analyses suggest that original concentrations of organic matter were low near the limits of the Bakken and increased to a high in northeastern Montana. The pre-maturation distribution of total organic carbon and the present-day total organic carbon distribution, as determined by statistical analyses of well-log data, agree with the results of geochemical analyses. The distributions can be explained by a relatively simple depositional pattern and thermal history for the Bakken. 6 figures, 3 tables.

Krystinik, K.B.; Charpentier, R.R.

1987-01-01

157

Gamma well-logging in the Old Burial Ground of the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Results are given sequentially by well in the appendix; total is 44 wells. Overall, the 1994 results do not suggest that any significant changes in activity or location have occurred since the 1980 measurements. Depths and magnitudes of plume activities for 1980 and 1994 are compared.

Winn, W.G.; Hofstetter, K.J.; MacMurdo, K.W. [and others

1995-01-01

158

Closed-loop flow test Miravalles Geothermal Field well log results  

SciTech Connect

The Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) conducted a closed-loop flow test in the Miravalles Geothermal Field. The closed-loop test was started in May and ran through August of 1990. The effluent from the production well PG-11 was carried by a pipeline through a monitor station to the injection well PG-2. Before starting the long-term flow test in May, cold-water injection experiments were performed in each well to determine the pressure and temperature response. A series of downhole measurements were made in each well to obtain background information. The downhole measurements were repeated in August just before terminating the flow test to evaluate the results.

Dennis, B.; Eden, G.; Lawton, R.

1992-01-01

159

Closed-loop flow test Miravalles Geothermal Field well log results  

SciTech Connect

The Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) conducted a closed-loop flow test in the Miravalles Geothermal Field. The closed-loop test was started in May and ran through August of 1990. The effluent from the production well PG-11 was carried by a pipeline through a monitor station to the injection well PG-2. Before starting the long-term flow test in May, cold-water injection experiments were performed in each well to determine the pressure and temperature response. A series of downhole measurements were made in each well to obtain background information. The downhole measurements were repeated in August just before terminating the flow test to evaluate the results.

Dennis, B.; Eden, G.; Lawton, R.

1992-10-01

160

Analysis of sonic well logs applied to erosion estimates in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect

An improved exponential model of sonic transit time data as a function of depth takes into account the physical range of rock sonic velocities. In this way, the model is more geologically realistic for predicting compaction trends when compared to linear or simple exponential functions that fail at large depth intervals. The improved model is applied to the Bighorn basin of northwestern Wyoming for calculation of erosion amounts. This basin was chosen because of extensive geomorphic research that constrains erosion models and because of the importance of quantifying erosion amounts for basin analysis and hydrocarbon maturation prediction. Thirty-six wells were analyzed using the improved exponential model. Seven of these wells, due to limited data from the Tertiary section, were excluded from the basin erosion analysis. Erosion amounts from the remaining 29 wells ranged from 0 to 5600 ft (1700 m), with an average of 2500 ft (800 m).

Heasler, H.P. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Kharitonova, N.A. [Samson International, Tulsa, OK (United States)

1996-05-01

161

Pressure falloff response time considerations in subsea wells equipped for through-flowline maintenance  

SciTech Connect

Applying subsea wells many miles from a production receiving location is feasible. In some instances, equipping wells for through-flowline (TFL) maintenance is economically attractive, particularly if well vertical reentry to perform simple downhole tasks using wireline methods is costly. As the subsea well distance increases, the effect of pressure falloff response time for some types of TFL tool-string operations becomes more important. This paper describes an analytical method that can be used to predict the pressure changes with time at the remote TFL tool string for a typical subsea well system. Also, analytical methods for selecting the active tool-string components, including accelerators and jars, are described.

Kleinhans, J.W.; McAdams, J.P.

1985-06-01

162

Estimation of Groundwater Aquifer Formation-strength Parameters from Geophysical Well Logs: The Southwestern Coastal Area of Yun-Lin, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to estimate groundwater aquifer formation-strength parameters including shear modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio, and Young's modulus by using geophysical well logs. A new dispersed-shale index equation was developed by using the natural gamma-ray log and the compensated formation density log to solve a confusing problem of the compaction factor setting in the calculation of

B. Z. Hsieh; G. V. Chilingar; M. T. Lu; Z. S. Lin

2007-01-01

163

Alternative electronic logging technique locates fractures in Austin chalk horizontal well  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the search for a technique to locate fractures in a horizontal well. The author focuses on the utilization of a formation microscanner (FMS). The FMS is described and the results and problems associated with its utilization are presented.

Stang, C.W. (Oryx Energy Co., Houston, TX (USA))

1989-11-01

164

Pore pressure prediction from well logs: Methods, modifications, and new approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pore pressures in most deep sedimentary formations are not hydrostatic; instead they are overpressured and elevated even to more than double of the hydrostatic pressure. If the abnormal pressures are not accurately predicted prior to drilling, catastrophic incidents, such as well blowouts and mud volcanoes, may take place. Pore pressure calculation in a hydraulically-connected formation is introduced. Fracture gradient prediction

Jincai Zhang

2011-01-01

165

Monte Carlo simulations of neutron well-logging in granite and sand to detect water and trichloroethane (TCA)  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo code MCNP is used in simulations of neutron well logging in granite to detect water and TCA (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}), a common ground contaminant, in fractures of 1 cm and 1 mm thickness at various distances and orientations. Also simulated is neutron well logging in wet sand to detect TCA and lead (Pb) at various uniform concentrations. The {sup 3}H(d,n) (DT) and{sup 2}H(d,n) (DD) neutron producing reactions are used in the simulations to assess the relative performance of each. Simulations are also performed to determine the efficiency of several detector materials such as CdZnTe, Ge and NaI as a function of photon energy. Results indicate that, by examining the signal from the 6.11 MeV gamma from the thermal neutron capture of Cl in TCA, trace amounts (few ppm) are detectable in saline free media. Water and TCA filled fractures are also detectable. These results are summarized in Tables 7--21. Motivation for this work is based on the need for detection of trace environmental pollutants as well as possible fracture characterization of geologic media.

Hua, D.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Donahue, R.J.; Celata, C.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Greenspan, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1998-01-01

166

Integration of ANFIS, NN and GA to determine core porosity and permeability from conventional well log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routine core analysis provides useful information for petrophysical study of the hydrocarbon reservoirs. Effective porosity and fluid conductivity (permeability) could be obtained from core analysis in laboratory. Coring hydrocarbon bearing intervals and analysis of obtained cores in laboratory is expensive and time consuming. In this study an improved method to make a quantitative correlation between porosity and permeability obtained from core and conventional well log data by integration of different artificial intelligent systems is proposed. The proposed method combines the results of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and neural network (NN) algorithms for overall estimation of core data from conventional well log data. These methods multiply the output of each algorithm with a weight factor. Simple averaging and weighted averaging were used for determining the weight factors. In the weighted averaging method the genetic algorithm (GA) is used to determine the weight factors. The overall algorithm was applied in one of SW Iran’s oil fields with two cored wells. One-third of all data were used as the test dataset and the rest of them were used for training the networks. Results show that the output of the GA averaging method provided the best mean square error and also the best correlation coefficient with real core data.

Ja'fari, Ahmad; Hamidzadeh Moghadam, Rasoul

2012-10-01

167

Applying Backus averaging for deriving seismic anisotropy of a long-wavelength equivalent medium from well-log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Backus averaging is often applied to well logs in order to estimate the elastic properties of a stack of thin layers at a longer wavelength to be used in seismic data analysis. Schoenberg and Muir extended Backus's method to layers with arbitrary anisotropy, but simple analytical equations are available for isotropic and transversely isotropic layers only. There is growing exploration interest in shale reservoirs, which exhibit lower symmetry seismic anisotropy if the reservoir is fractured. Here, simple analytical equations for Backus averaging are presented for symmetries up to monoclinic, of which averaging equations for orthorhombic and monoclinic layers are new. After Backus averaging, a stack of isotropic layers results in a vertical transverse isotropy (VTI), a stack of VTI layers results in a VTI, a stack of horizontal transverse isotropy layers results in an orthorhombic, a stack of orthorhombic layers results in an orthorhombic and a stack of monoclinic layers results in a monoclinic. Workflows for Backus averaging are presented along with numerical examples using well-log data from the Haynesville shale play in East Texas, USA.

Kumar, Dhananjay

2013-10-01

168

Review of surface-equipment requirements for geothermal-well stimulation. Geothermal-reservoir well-stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

A summary of stimulation equipment available to geothermal industry is presented and some modifications from which it could benefit are discussed. Equipment requirements for hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, acidizing, and other chemical treatments are included. Designs for the following are reviewed: equipment for premixing and storing treatment fluids, proppant handling equipment, pump trucks, special equipment for foam fracturing, intensifier pumps, manifolding, and monitoring and control devices.

Not Available

1982-02-01

169

Geophysical, stratigraphic, and flow-zone logs of selected test, monitor, and water-supply wells in Cayuga County, New York  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Volatile-organic compounds have been detected in water sampled from more than 50 supply wells between the City of Auburn and Village of Union Springs in Cayuga County, New York, and the area was declared a Superfund site in 2002. In 2001-04, geophysical logs were collected from 37 test, monitor, and water-supply wells as a preliminary part of the investigation of volatile-organic compound contamination in the carbonate-bedrock aquifer system. The geophysical logs included gamma, induction, caliper, wellbore image, deviation, fluid resistivity and temperature, and flowmeter. The geophysical logs were analyzed along with core samples and outcrops of the bedrock to define the stratigraphic units and flow zones penetrated by the wells. This report describes the logging methods used in the study and presents the geophysical, stratigraphic, and flow-zone logs.

Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.; Eckhardt, David A. V.; Miller, Todd S.

2003-01-01

170

Geologically and well-log constrained quality factor (Q) analysis for seismic reservoir characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal objective of this work is to answer the problems following questions: (1) Can one extract Q directly from 2D reflection seismic in a way? (2) Can the attenuation of a plane wave propagating through a medium be accurately quantified? (3) What are the factors that complicate the measurement of attenuation from a propagating plane seismic wave? (4) How does quality factor (Q) affect the near and far offset trace attenuation? (5) Can one design a forward model that can effectively resolve effects of the complicating factors? (6)What is the significance of measuring attenuation due to anelastic rock properties? A forward model using 2D reflection seismic is used to observe effects of different values of Q and of offset on the seismic wavelet, both in the time domain and frequency domain. The result indicates Q inversely affects amplitude decay (i.e. the higher value of Q, the smaller the amplitude decay), while offset directly affects amplitude decay. In addition, preferential attenuation of the higher frequency content is prevalent, but phase distortion is not observed. Measurements of P- and S-wave velocities are conducted on alternating layers of acrylic and aluminum. In this experiment, both thickness of the layers, and frequency of the propagating wave are varied. Based on these observations, for wavelength/thickness (lambda/d) >> 1, the medium behaves as a transversely isotropic medium, and for (lambda/d) << 1 the medium; is represented by individual homogeneous pieces. Velocity dispersion is minimal in both cases. However, when (lambda/d) is between the two extreme cases there is a significant velocity dispersion due to interbed multiple scattering. P- and S-wave velocities, Qp and Qs were measured on 46 core samples collected from Well C-276, La Concepcion Field, Lake Maracaibo Venezuela. Measured Vp/Vs and Qp/Qs are correlated with petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability of the core samples. QpQs has shown a very good relationship with porosity and permeability. Finally, Q is estimated from a CMP-gather extracted 3D survey from La Concepcion Field, Venezuela. The computed Q values are correlated with Q values from the well, and there is a very good relationship between the two. Furthermore, all Q measurements show correlation with the porous and permeable layers. Therefore, properly measured Q can be used together with other geophysical methods in reservoir characterization.

Gebretsadik, Eshetu

171

35. GEOCHEMICAL WELL LOGS FROM THE ARGO ABYSSAL PLAIN AND EXMOUTH PLATEAU, NORTHEAST INDIAN OCEAN, SITES 765 AND 766 OF LEG 1231  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical well logs were obtained in sediments at Site 765 and in both sediments and basalts at Site 766 of Leg 123. Corrections have been applied to the logs to account for variations in hole size, drilling fluid interference, and casing or drill pipe attenuation. Weight fractions of the major oxides and of calcium carbonate have been calculated from the

Elizabeth Lewis Pratson; Cristina Broglia; David Castillo

172

Analysis of Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using 2D seismic data and well logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a structural and depositional model of lower Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using detailed facies relations in outcrops, seismic reflection data, and wells. The study interval (called the "Aptian supersequence") is subdivided into four seismic sequences containing third-order sequences. Sequence architecture was strongly affected by syndepositional tectonic movements, which controlled sequence position and distribution. Specifically, the seismic sections show irregular distribution of different zones of subsidence and uplift. The observed structures identified through the detailed mapping suggest that lower Cretaceous rifting created depressions and grabens that filled with strata characterized by divergent reflectors striking against dipping growth faults. The Aptian-Albian unconformity ("crisis") marked a change of the extensional stress field from NNW-SSE to NE-SW induced rotation of blocks and an evolution of sedimentary basin filling related to the regional tectonic deformation. Local salt tectonic movement accentuated the formation of asymmetric depocenters. The salt ascended at the junction of master faults, resulting in cross-cutting of the strata and local reworking of Triassic evaporites in Aptian strata. Basinward to landward variations of the thickness and facies associated with strata pinch-outs and unconformities are related to the main synsedimentary tectonic events that were synchronous with salt tectonic movements. Triassic salt domes and salt intrusions along faults accentuated the border elevations between basin depocenters and uplifts. These sedimentary phenomena in central Tunisia are interpreted as causally related aspects of a local and global tectonic event during the Aptian.

Zouaghi, Taher; Ferhi, Issam; Bédir, Mourad; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Gasmi, Mohamed; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi

2011-08-01

173

Use of well logs and core data to assess the sequence stratigraphic distribution of organic-rich rocks  

SciTech Connect

Application of a well log technique for routine profiling of total organic carbon (TOC) in source rocks has revealed that patterns in the vertical distribution of TOC commonly occur. Marine source rocks frequently are composed of one or more units with the highest TOC values near the base. These units coalesce in a seaward direction and form a relatively smooth TOC profile with increasing TOC upward to a central maximum or series of maxima with a gradual decrease in TOC above this maximum. A model for marine source rock accumulation is presented that invokes shelfal accommodation of sediment as the primary control on the magnitude of TOC. In the presence of an anoxic sediment/water interface, deposited organic carbon will be preserved. The amount of organic matter will vary inversely as the influx of terrigenous clastics varies. If the amount of shelfal accommodation is high, the influx of clastics is greatly reduced in basinward locations, and the resulting weight % TOC in the sediment is increased. The maximum TOC in a vertical profile through a single marine sequence probably correlates to the time of maximum flooding. In an idealized lowstand to transgressive through highstand prograding cycle, the trend in organic matter type would be predominantly type 3/4 to type 2, back to type 3/4 kerogen as controlled by the interplay of sedimentation rate and the presence or absence of anoxia. Lacustrine oil-prone TOC vertical profiles show strong similarities to marine source rocks, suggesting that sedimentation rate may be a controlling mechanism in this environment also. Coals and organic-rich muds within delta plan/coastal environments are readily identified using well logs.

Creaney, S.; Allan, J. (Esso Resources Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada)); Passey, Q.R. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-03-01

174

Results concerning the use of seismic and well log data for defining the geological model of the productive structures on the Romanian Continental Shelf of the Black Sea  

SciTech Connect

The contribution of the 3D seismics on the East-Lebada Structure of the Romanian Continental Shelf of the Black Sea, together with the complex well logging have led to the improvement of the reservoir geological model. The interpretation has been performed on 3d seismic profiles. Time migrated profiles were interpreted, by means of the program system OASIIS. The acoustic logging data were used for calibration, in order to identify the reflections corresponding to the geological boundary. By means of these reflections on the seismic profiles, the adequate geological model has been defined. A system of tectonic accidents which were not known till now were rendered evident. The interpretation of the complex well loggings, through the Well Log Analysis Program System - Express - allowed to determine the petrophysical-petrographical parameters necessary for reservoir evaluation, in correlation with core analysis. Thus, four horizons corresponding to the Albian age with favorable collector properties were rendered evident, in alternance with unfavorable collector properties zones. The well logs, performed at different time periods and with different tools were corrected and standardized for the well environment conditions and, depending on the logging program, different program modules were used to obtain the most adequate results. The parameter averaging performed by zones, for each well, together with the image furnished by the seismic data, allowed us to build the final geometrical and isoparametric model of the reservoir, used for further reservoir simulation. Based on the results obtained, the analysis was extended to West-Lebada Structure.

Babskow, A.; Baleanu, I.; Popa, D. [Institute for Research and Technology, Prahova (Romania)] [and others

1995-08-01

175

Miravalles Geothermal Project: Portable Well Flow Test Equipment and Procedures Manual  

SciTech Connect

The well flow test program has been designed to facilitate the gathering of information, with portable test equipment, from various wells with regard to their capability of flow, the quality of steam produced at various back pressures, the composition and quantity of noncondensable gases flashed from the wells and the composition and quantity of solids in the well's liquid streams (brine). The test program includes procedures for obtaining the following basic flow data pertinent to the plant power cycle design: (1) Effluent steam and brine flows, pressures and temperatures; (2) Noncondensable and dissolved gas contents in steam and brine; (3) H{sub s}S content in gases formed; and (4) Solids content and chemical analysis of steam and brine.

None

1980-05-01

176

Evaluating hydrocarbon source rock for unconventional shale oil play from seismic and well log data; Kingak Shale, North Slope, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that Acoustic impedance (AI) responses can be used to estimate total organic carbon (TOC) within thick, clay rich shale. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the AI inversion technique, and establish a methodology that can be applied to other basins. The Kingak Formation (lower Jurassic to early Cretaceous), located on the North Slope of Alaska, has been extensively evaluated for its unconventional potential. The Kingak is shale and is known to have greater than 30 percent clay. Because clay has ductile properties it makes it difficult to stimulate a well through hydraulic fracturing. This AI inversion technique was tested by utilizing synthetic seismograms to create an AI curve generated using The KINGDOM Software©. The synthetic seismograms were used to ensure a well log to seismic match. The synthetic seismograms also created an AI curve along the well. From these synthetic seismograms the AI value was compared to TOC values. It was from this comparison that a trend was observed that did not match the predicted trend. I believe the discrepancy observed was due to the sampling method. Based on this observation, I conclude that the method of tracking TOC with AI responses requires extremely controlled sampling methods; therefore it is not a beneficial method of revisiting old data sets in hopes of identifying new prospects.

Leedberg, Sarah Elisabeth

177

Inference of S-wave velocities from well logs using a Neuro-Fuzzy Logic (NFL) approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge of S-wave velocity values is important for a complete characterization and understanding of reservoir rock properties. It could help in determining fracture propagation and also to improve porosity prediction (Cuddy and Glover, 2002). Nevertheless the acquisition of S-wave velocity data is rather expensive; hence, for most reservoirs usually this information is not available. In the present work we applied a hybrid system, that combines Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic, in order to infer S-wave velocities from porosity (?), water saturation (Sw) and shale content (Vsh) logs. The Neuro-Fuzzy Logic (NFL) technique was tested in two wells from the Guafita oil field, Apure Basin, Venezuela. We have trained the system using 50% of the data randomly taken from one of the wells, in order to obtain the inference equations (Takani-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy model). Equations using just one of the parameters as input (i.e. ??, Sw or Vsh), combined by pairs and all together were obtained. These equations were tested in the whole well. The results indicate that the best inference (correlation between inferred and experimental data close to 80%) is obtained when all the parameters are considered as input data. An increase of the equation number of the TSK model, when one or just two parameters are used, does not improve the performance of the NFL. The best set of equations was tested in a nearby well. The results suggest that the large difference in the petrophysical and lithological characteristics between these two wells, avoid a good inference of S-wave velocities in the tested well and allowed us to analyze the limitations of the method.

Aldana, Milagrosa; Coronado, Ronal; Hurtado, Nuri

2010-05-01

178

Comprehensive glacial sediment characterization and correlation with natural gamma log response to identify hydrostratigraphic units in a rotosonic well core  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common borehole geophysical methods use electrical, acoustic, and nuclear measurements to determine physical and chemical characteristics of soils and rocks encountered while drilling. In texturally and mineralogically mature detrital sediments, natural gamma logs are frequently used to differentiate coarse and fine textures that exert primary control on fluid flow in reservoir and aquifer units. Interpretation of natural gamma log response

A. L. Frahm; L. D. Lemke

2010-01-01

179

Thin-walled liner equipment cuts costs on well deepening project  

SciTech Connect

Thin-walled, slim hole liner equipment can save $3--4 million per well in deep reentry applications by allowing existing wells to be deepened or sidetracked rather than drilling new wells from surface. The design makes it possible to reenter existing wells, successfully isolate depleted zones, and deepen the well into virgin-pressured reservoirs. The design includes thin-walled, close-tolerance liner hangers, liner top packers, tieback seal assemblies, and liner setting sleeves that provide reasonable burst and collapse resistance while maintaining an inside diameter to facilitate drilling a deep, deviated 4 3/4 in. hole with a tapered 2 7/8 in. x 3 1/2 in. drillstring. In Shell Canada`s Waterton field, gas-producing wells originally drilled in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s to depths of 14,760 ft were completed with perforations in 7 in. casing and open hole. These wells are now being reentered to tap new reserves. The reentries encounter particularly challenging sour gas, low temperature, diverse formation pressure conditions. The objective of the reentry program is to seal off the depleted bottom zones of the wells and tap into the same fault-repeated formations ar virgin pressure, at a deeper level.

Sutherland, J. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Weaver, C. [Baker Oil Tools, Houston, TX (United States); Aiello, P. [Import Tool Corp. Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-08-26

180

Rock physics template (RPT) analysis of well logs and seismic data for lithology and fluid classification in Cambay Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cambay Basin is 450-km-long north-south-trending graben with an average width of 50 km, having maximum depth of about 7 km. The origin of the Cambay and other Basins on the western margin of India are related to the break up of the Gondwana super-continent in the Late-Triassic to Early-Jurassic (215 ma). The structural disposition of the Pre-Cambrian basement—a complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks exposed in the vicinity of the Cambay Basin—controls its architecture. The principal lineaments in the Basin are aligned towards NE-SE, ENE-WSW and NNW-SSE, respectively. Rock physics templates (RPTs) are charts and graphs generated by using rock physics models, constrained by local geology, that serve as tools for lithology and fluid differentiation. RPT can act as a powerful tool in validating hydrocarbon anomalies in undrilled areas and assist in seismic interpretation and prospect evaluation. However, the success of RPT analysis depends on the availability of the local geological information and the use of the proper model. RPT analysis has been performed on well logs and seismic data of a particular study area in mid Cambay Basin. Rock physics diagnostic approach is adopted in the study area placed at mid Cambay Basin to estimate the volume in the reservoir sands from 6 wells (namely; A, B, C, D, E and F) where oil was already encountered in one well, D. In the study area, hydrocarbon prospective zone has been marked through compressional (P wave) and shear wave (S wave) impedance only. In the RPT analysis, we have plotted different kinds of graphical responses of Lame's parameters, which are the function of P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity and density. The discrete thin sand reservoirs have been delineated through the RPT analysis. The reservoir pay sand thickness map of the study area has also been derived from RPT analysis and fluid characterization. Through this fluid characterization, oil-bearing thin sand layers have been found in well E including well D. The sand distribution results prove that this methodology has able to perform reservoir characterization and seismic data interpretation more quantitatively and efficiently.

Datta Gupta, Saurabh; Chatterjee, Rima; Farooqui, M. Y.

2012-07-01

181

Geothermal logging. Part 1: An introduction to techniques and interpretation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of geophysical logging in geothermal investigation is described, and objectives, operations and interpretations in petroleum and geothermal logging are compared. Logging parameters in geothermal investigations are listed and the principles and functions of logging equipment are described. Practical application of well logging in a geothermal drilling operation is emphasized and examples are shown of this application. Various temperature profiles are described, and their interpretation discussed. The information gained by pressure logs is examined and examples of pressure measurement are shown. Lithological logs which incude geological natural gamma ray, gamma-gamma density, neutron-neutron porosity, and resistivity logs are presented. The combined interpretation of lithological logs is igneous rock is discussed.

Stefansson, V.; Steingrimsson, B.

1980-05-01

182

Geophysical-well-log data for study of water flow in fractures near Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four closely spaced boreholes were drilled through approximately 20 meters of till into schist bedrock near Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire. The site was selected for borehole geophysical research because it is included in a detailed groundwater study where the effects of flow in fractures on flow in overlying drift deposits is being studied. Three of the boreholes are approximately 100 meters in depth, and the fourth is approximately 230 meters in depth. All four boreholes were logged with caliper, acoustic, gamma, single-point-resistivity, and acoustic televiewer logs. Fracture sets dipping approximately 45 degrees to the east were detected in all four boreholes. Two sets of deeper fractures were detected near the bottom of the deepest borehole. Acoustic waveform logs were obtained in all boreholes using three different source frequencies, 34, 15, and 5 kilohertz, for future comparison with surface to borehole seismic data. (USGS)

Paillet, F. L.

1985-01-01

183

Seismic Interpretation and Well Logging Results of a Deep Borehole into the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing awareness of the need for the reduction of carbon emissions globally, geothermal energy, which offers a potential for cleaner energy generation, is one potential new source. In Alberta, these geothermal resources are likely to be found in the sedimentary basin, or in the deeper crystalline basement rocks. Alberta exhibits a very low geothermal gradient compared to other existing geothermal fields located in areas of volcanic and tectonic activity. To mitigate this effect, the focus in Alberta will involve the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in the target resource. This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner energy production. The first goal for EGS research and development is to develop a detailed geological-geophysical characterization of selected sites to delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in Northern Alberta. One of the selected sites is in the Fort McMurray area. Using an existing deep borehole that reaches a depth of 2.3 km into the crystalline basement, our aim is to identify geological features such as zones of fractures in the basin and/or basement that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The earlier stage of our research involves re-processing of surface seismic data. This helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for the geological interpretation of the subsurface, such as the locations of saline aquifers and faults that allow heat flow in the rocks, and zones of fractures that may indicate elevated porosity. Current re-processing of the seismic data displays sets of dipping reflectors which may intersect the borehole. Zero offset and walkaway vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were conducted at the borehole for direct comparison with the surface seismic sections. They are also useful in obtaining information about the reflectivity and the velocity structure of the subsurface. The full integration of surface seismic data, VSP data, and well logs are expected to provide a detailed characterization of the sedimentary basin and crystalline basement rocks of the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta. In particular, the unusually low fluid pressures in the well may be related to states of stress that are likely still influenced by post-glacial rebound.

Chan, J.; Schmitt, D.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; van der Baan, M.; Sahay, P. N.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

2011-12-01

184

Identification and Characterization of Basalt and Sediment Units Based On Wireline Logs From The Lopra Deep Well, Faroe Islands, Ne-atlantic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1980-81 two deep wells were drilled into the basalt covering the Faroe Islands which is an island group consisting of 18 islands in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean. The basalt is subaerial extruded in relation to the opening of the Northeast Atlantic and is on the Faroe Islands divided into three series. In order to drill the subbasalt geology one of the wells, Lopra-1, was drilled in the lower series at the stratigraphic lowest level. The well was abandoned in a depth of 2185 m and only sparsely logged. In 1996 16 oil companies formed the Lopra-consortium and the well was deepened. The plateaubasalt was penetrated and as part of the investigation an extensive logging suite was carried out. Based on the data obtained from the log suite and interpreted on a SGI workstation using Landmark software (Stratwork and Petrowork) it is possible to iden- tify individual sediment layers and lava flows, and to divide lava flows into crust and core. On the poster the full profile of the 86 individual flow-units, 18 compound flows and 2 dolerite dikes and 52 sedimentary/tuffaceous layers are shown together with 5 logtypes reflecting physical properties and 4 logs representing chemical properties. Based on this separation into units a statistical treatment is carried out and physical properties values of the lower basalt series on the Faroe Islands are obtained and com- pared to values obtained from other basalt covered regions of the world. Cross-plots are shown which confirm the subdivision. The logs representing the physical proper- ties show a cyclic behaviour reflecting the flow-units although pronounced variations are found comparing the individual lava flows. The geochemical logs do not reflect this cyclic behaviour but shows that high and low radioactive flow-units exist.

Boldreel, L. O.

185

Hydrologic characteristics of the Madison Limestone, the Minnelusa Formation, and equivalent rocks as determined by well-logging formation evaluation, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical logs from wells distributed throughout the Powder River Basin were digitized, processed, and interpreted to get a regional understanding of the lithologic and ground-water characteristics of aquifers in the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation. The percentage of sand, porosity, and apparent ground-water resistivity of the Minnelusa closely follow structural trends in the basis. Values increase from the structural axis

W. J. Head; R. H. Merkel

1977-01-01

186

Method of transmission ultrasonic amplitude and time travel information over a logging cable  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of transmitting data over a cable connecting an ultrasonic logging apparatus and surface equipment. The data derived from an acoustic return from the ultrasonic logging apparatus operating in a well borehole. The ultrasonic logging apparatus generating an acoustic waveform and receiving the acoustic return from the generated acoustic waveform.

Kyle, D.G.

1990-02-06

187

Well-log signatures of alluvial-lacustrine reservoirs and source rocks, Lagoa-Feia Formations, Lower Cretaceous, Campos Basin, offshore Brazil  

SciTech Connect

The Campos basin is situated in offshore southeastern Brazil. The Lagoa Feia is the basal formation in the stratigraphic sequence of the basin, and was deposited during rifting in an evolving complex of lakes of different sizes and chemical characteristics, overlying and closely associated with rift volcanism. The stratigraphic sequence is dominated by lacustrine limestones and shales (some of them organic-rich), and volcaniclastic conglomerates deposited on alluvial fans. The sequence is capped by marine evaporites. In the Lagoa Feia Formation, complex lithologies make reservoirs and source rocks unsuitable for conventional well-log interpretation. To solve this problem, cores were studied and the observed characteristics related to log responses. The results have been extended through the entire basin for other wells where those facies were not cored. The reservoir facies in the Lagoa Feia Formation are restricted to levels of pure pelecypod shells (''coquinas''). Resistivity, sonic, neutron, density, and gamma-ray logs were used in this work to show how petrophysical properties are derived for the unconventional reservoirs existing in this formation. The same suite of logs was used to develop methods to define geochemical characteristics where source rock data are sparse in the organic-rich lacustrine shales of the Lagoa Feia Formation. These shales are the main source rocks for all the oil discovered to date in the Campos basin.

Abrahao, D.; Warme, J.E.

1988-01-01

188

Lithologic properties of carbonate-rock aquifers at five test wells in the Coyote Spring Valley Area, southern Nevada, as determined from geophysical logs. Water resources investigation report  

SciTech Connect

Regional ground-water flow systems in the carbonate-rock aquifers in southern Nevada were evaluated as potential sources for water supply as part of the Nevada Carbonate Aquifers Program. Geophysical log analyses indicated that the test wells penetrate carbonate rocks, which vary in composition from limestone to dolomite and include mixtures of both. Calcite was found to be the predominant matrix mineral and shales made up of only a small percentage of the overall rock. Bulk-density measurements averaged 2.65 grams per cubic centimeter and the matrix density estimates averaged 2.76 grams per cubic centimeter. Increased amounts of silica in the matrix mineralogy were associated with greater total porosity values. The log analyses indicated an average of 4.7 percent porosity for 43 zones in the test wells.

Berger, D.L.

1992-01-01

189

Using principal component analysis to enhance the generalized multifractal analysis approach to textural segmentation: Theory and application to microresistivity well logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new method to perform textural segmentation by mean of generalized multifractal analysis. This method can be applied to any signal or measure, self-similar or not. The main idea is to expand the log-generating function ?q(x) on a collection of basis functions denoted by ?q,n(x). These functions are chosen to be the principal components of the collection of functions ?q(x) which is obtained from a sliding window analysis of a 1D-signal. This approach allows to represent texture with a minimal number of uncorrelated textural parameters. Significant improvements are obtained for the textural segmentation of dipmeter microresistivity well logs.

Saucier, Antoine; Muller, Jiri

2002-06-01

190

FCC Logging and Operator Rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Communications Commission has adopted new rules concerning the qualifications of operators of broadcast stations. The transmitting equipment of each station will be subject to periodic inspections and a maintenance log pertaining thereto will be kept. Clarifications are listed concerning present entries in the operating log of a station. In case the station contemplates the use of automatic logging

Harold Kassens

1964-01-01

191

IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

2002-02-25

192

Study effects of geopressured-geothermal subsurface environment on elastic properties of Texas Gulf Coast sandstones and shales using well logs, core data, and velocity surveys. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Relations between porosity and permeability for the Pleasant Bayou wells were determined from conventional core data. Porosities from the time average equations required compaction correction factors of 1.9 in hydropressured sandstones and 1.0 in geopressured sandstones. Best average prmeabilities in the geopressured zone were found in the primary production interval 14,687 to 14,716 ft (4477 to 4485 m). Average density gradients were 2.106 x 10/sup -3/ and 2.688 x 10/sup -3/ (gm/cm/sup 3/)/100 ft in sandstones and shales respectively. Compressional (P-wave) and shear (S-wave) velocities from the long-spaced sonic log and bulk densities from the formation density log were used to compute in-situ elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, V/sub p//V/sub s/, and bulk compressibility in two intervals of deep geopressured sandstone and shale in No. 2 Pleasant Bayou. Most computed values of these parameters seem reasonable. Improved accuracy of travel times from the long-spaced sonic log should permit more accurate depth-to-time correlation with seismic data.

Gregory, A.R.

1980-05-01

193

Logs of wells and boreholes drilled during hydrogeologic studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, January 1, 1982--June 30, 1988: January 1, 1982 through June 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect

We present the hydrogeologic well logs for monitor wells and exploratory boreholes drilled at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 between the beginning of environmental investigations in June 1982 and the end of June 1988. These wells and boreholes were drilled as part of studies made to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), high explosive (HE) compounds, and tritium in soil, rock, and ground water at Site 300. The well logs for 293 installations comprise the bulk of this report. We have prepared summaries of Site 300 geology and project history that provide a context for the well logs. Many of the logs in this report have also been published in previous topical reports, but they are nevertheless included in order to make this report a complete record of the wells and boreholes drilled prior to July 1988. A commercially available computer program, LOGGER has been used since late 1985 to generate these logs. This report presents details of the software programs and the hardware used. We are presently completing a project to devise a computer-aided design (CAD) system to produce hydrogeologic cross sections and fence diagrams, utilizing the digitized form of these logs. We find that our system produces publication-quality well and exploratory borehole logs at a lower cost than that of logs drafted by traditional methods.

Toney, K.C.; Crow, N.B.

1988-01-01

194

Ultrasonic technology for enhanced oil recovery from failing oil wells and the equipment for its implemention.  

PubMed

A new method for the ultrasonic enhancement of oil recovery from failing wells is described. The technology involves lowering a source of power ultrasound to the bottom of the well either for a short treatment before removal or as a permanent placement for intermittent use. In wells where the permeability is above 20 mD and the porosity is greater than 15% ultrasonic treatment can increase oil production by up to 50% and in some cases even more. For wells of lower permeability and porosity ultrasonic treatment alone is less successful but high production rates can be achieved when ultrasound is applied in conjunction with chemicals. An average productivity increase of nearly 3 fold can be achieved for this type of production well using the combined ultrasound with chemical treatment technology. PMID:23587727

Abramov, Vladimir O; Mullakaev, Marat S; Abramova, Anna V; Esipov, Igor B; Mason, Timothy J

2013-03-28

195

Preliminary design of a special casing joint for a well equipped twin horizontal drainholes in the Oxnard field  

SciTech Connect

The Oxnard field is presently under production,with a typical average monthly oil production of about 70,000 B, of which the Vaca Tar sand represents more than half.It is Unitized and operated under cyclic steam injection.The hot Tar and produced water are lifted to the surface with rod pumps equipped for injection of a diluent. The produced WOR is about 2.5 and the GOR is about 150 scf/B. The Vaca Tar sand originally contained about 400 million STB. The estimated recoverable reserve under full-scale cyclic steam injection is 100 to 120 Million STB. Under steamflood, it might reach 240 million STB. The objectives of this field test are: (1) increase well productivity by using a vertical well equipped with twin horizontal drainholes, each of about 1,000 ft. reach; (2) maximize the well draw-down by locating the horizontal wells near the base of the sand layer; (3) reduce capital cost by using twin drainholes connected to the same vertical cased well; (4) reduce operating expenses by eliminating the need for a service rig to pull-out the rods and pump before each steam injection cycle; and (5) be adaptable to other operating modes.

Not Available

1993-12-31

196

Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Field operations, which were conducted as a cooperative effort between Conoco and Gruy Federal, began on January 16, 1980 when the well was spudded. The well was drilled to 3692 feet, and 18 cores recovered in 18 core-barrel runs (144 feet). Upon completion of the coring phase, the hole was drilled to a total depth of 4150 feet and a complete suite of geophysical logs was run. Logging was then followed by completion and testing by Concoco. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations. Residual oil saturation were 259 STB/acre-ft for the 4035 - 4055 feet interval, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the 3692 - 3718 feet interval. Nine BOPD was produced from the 4035 - 4055 feet interval and no oil was produced from 3692 to 3718 feet interval, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. 68 figures, 11 tables.

Swift, T.E.; Kumar, R.M.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.

1982-08-01

197

Preliminary Fracture Description from Core, Lithological Logs, and Borehole Geophysical Data in Slimhole Wells Drilled for Project Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project (Project Hotspot) seeks to assess the potential for geothermal energy development in the Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho. Three deep slimhole wells are drilled at the Kimama, Kimberly, and Mountain Home sites in the central SRP. The Kimama and Kimberly wells are complete and the Mountain Home well is in progress. Total depth at Kimama is 1,912 m while total depth at Kimberly is 1,958 m. Mountain Home is expected to reach around 1,900 m. Full core is recovered and complete suites of wireline borehole geophysical data have been collected at both Kimama and Kimberly sites along with vertical seismic profiles. Part of the geothermal assessment includes evaluating the changes in the nature of fractures with depth through the study of physical core samples and analysis of the wireline geophysical data to better understand how fractures affect permeability in the zones that have the potential for geothermal fluid migration. The fracture inventory is complete for the Kimama borehole and preliminary analyses indicate that fracture zones are related to basaltic flow boundaries. The average fracture density is 17 fractures/3 m. The maximum fracture density is 110 fractures/3 m. Fracture density varies with depth and increases considerably in the bottom 200 m of the well. Initial indications are that the majority of fractures are oriented subhorizontally but a considerable number are oriented subvertically as well. We expect to statistically evaluate the distribution of fracture length and orientation as well as analyze local alteration and secondary mineralization that might indicate fluid pathways that we can use to better understand permeability at depth in the borehole. Near real-time temperature data from the Kimama borehole indicate a temperature gradient of 82°C/km below the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at a depth of 960 m bgs. The measured temperature at around 1,400 m depth is 55°C and the projected temperature at 2,000 m depth is 102°C. The rock types at Kimama and Kimberly are primarily basalt and rhyolite, respectively, with interbedded thin sedimentary layers. We identify anomalies in the physical properties of igneous rocks using porosity logs (neutron and acoustic), lithology logs (gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility) and fracture/saturation logs (televiewer and electrical resistivity). The core will be used to constrain the geophysical data and confirm the ability to identify permeability in fracture zones and saturated zones through analysis of the wireline log data. The matrix porosity of these igneous lithologies is near zero aside from porosity from vugs and vesicles. However, open and sealed fractures indicate that mineralizing fluids form connected pathways in the rock. Core samples show a series of alteration phases, including amygdaloidal fine-grained calcite and secondary clays. The geophysical data will be used to predict anomalies in lithology and identify open fractures and saturated zones with high permeability.

Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D.

2011-12-01

198

Transaction Logging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management…

Jones, S.; And Others

1997-01-01

199

Transaction Logging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management…

Jones, S.; And Others

1997-01-01

200

Inverse Porosity-Hydraulic Conductivity Relationship in Sand-and-Gravel Aquifers Determined From Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs: Implications for Transport Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is intuitive to think of hydraulic conductivity K as varying directly and monotonically with porosity P in porous media. However, laboratory studies and field observations have documented a possible inverse relationship between these two parameters in unconsolidated deposits under certain grain-size distributions and packing arrangements. This was confirmed at two sites in sand-and-gravel aquifers on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where sets of geophysical well logs were used to examine the interdependence of several aquifer properties. Along with K and P, the resistivity R and the natural-gamma activity G of the surrounding sediments were measured as a function of depth. Qualitative examination of field results from the first site was useful in locating a contaminant plume and inferred an inverse relation between K and P; this was substantiated by a rigorous multivariate analysis of log data collected from the second site where K and P were determined to respond in a bipolar manner among the four independent variables. Along with this result come some implications regarding our conceptual understanding of contaminant transport processes in the shallow subsurface. According to Darcy's law, the interstitial fluid velocity V is proportional to the ratio K/P and, consequently, a general inverse K-P relationship implies that values of V can extend over a much wider range than conventionally assumed. This situation introduces a pronounced flow stratification within these granular deposits that can result in large values of longitudinal dispersivity; faster velocities occur in already fast zones and slower velocities in already slow zones. An inverse K-P relationship presents a new perspective on the physical processes associated with groundwater flow and transport. Although the results of this study apply strictly to the Cape Cod aquifers, they may merit a re-evaluation of modeling approaches undertaken at other locations having similar geologic environments.

Morin, R. H.

2004-05-01

201

Real-time formation evaluation using a well-site data management system to integrate MWD, surface measurements, and enhanced mud logging data  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of measurement while drilling (MWD), a new source of quantitative data became available during the drilling process. The availability of wireline log-type data while drilling has led to a need that traditional mud-logging methods be augmented and enhanced to provide more quantitative correlative data sources and benchmark standards for the lithologic normalization of MWD data. Together these

A. Whittaker; A. Brooks; R. Dowsett; J. MacPherson; E. Nigh

1986-01-01

202

Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests  

SciTech Connect

Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative to volcanic-rock units is exemplified by the large difference in their estimated maximum hydraulic conductivity; 4,000 and 400 feet per day, respectively. Simulated minimum estimates of hydraulic conductivity are inexact and represent the lower detection limit of the method. Minimum thicknesses of lithologic intervals also were defined for comparing AnalyzeHOLE results to hydraulic properties in regional ground-water flow models.

Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

2010-02-12

203

Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

1981-11-01

204

Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas  

SciTech Connect

The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

1982-01-01

205

How Well Does Brazil's Environmental Law Work in Practice? Environmental Impact Assessment and the Case of the Itapiranga Private Sustainable Logging Plan.  

PubMed

/ The Itapiranga Sustainable Logging Plan provides an example of how Brazil's licensing system functions for logging companies in the state of Amazonas. Two questions need to be dealt with: "How sustainable can logging in the Amazon be?" and "What and how effective are existing legal mechanisms to deal with logging projects?" The environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental impact statement (EIS, known as the RIMA in Brazil), present relatively detailed accounts of biodiversity and the need to adopt conservation strategies to protect it. However, social and health impacts are only superficially addressed. The economic sustainability of the operation over multiple cycles is not demonstrated. The multidisciplinary teams responsible for the EIA and EIS (RIMA) reports are hired by the project proponent, an arrangement inherently carrying the risk of biasing the result. Logging reduces biodiversity, releases greenhouse gases and inflicts social and health costs. These impacts reduce the ability of Amazonian forests to provide environmental services and to supply food and livelihood security to local populations. The reports inflate positive effects such as employment: the estimated number of jobs was cut by more than half in a revision made after the EIA and EIS (RIMA) had been approved. Not only do the reports need to be more realistic in assessing both positive and negative consequences of proposed projects, but better means are needed to ensure that promised mitigatory measures are enforced in practice. Many of the lessons that can be drawn from the Itapiranga Plan are not unique to logging projects and apply to licensing of development activites generally in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:10977880

Eve; Arguelles; Fearnside

2000-09-01

206

Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

2012-08-01

207

Reviews Book: Enjoyable Physics Equipment: SEP Colorimeter Box Book: Pursuing Power and Light Equipment: SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher Equipment: Sciencescope GLE Datalogger Equipment: EDU Logger Book: Physics of Sailing Book: The Lightness of Being Software: Logotron Insight iLog Studio iPhone Apps Lecture: 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture Web Watch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WE RECOMMEND Enjoyable Physics Mechanics book makes learning more fun SEP Colorimeter Box A useful and inexpensive colorimeter for the classroom Pursuing Power and Light Account of the development of science in the 19th centuary SEP Bottle Rocket Launcher An excellent resource for teaching about projectiles GLE Datalogger GPS software is combined with a datalogger EDU Logger Remote datalogger has greater sensing abilities Logotron Insight iLog Studio Software enables datlogging, data analysis and modelling iPhone Apps Mobile phone games aid study of gravity WORTH A LOOK Physics of Sailing Book journeys through the importance of physics in sailing The Lightness of Being Study of what the world is made from LECTURE The 2010 IOP Schools and Colleges Lecture presents the physics of fusion WEB WATCH Planet Scicast pushes boundaries of pupil creativity

2010-09-01

208

Estimating permeability in the Wilcox G' sandstone in the Lake Creek Gas unit well No. 48 using data from logging measurements. The evaluation of formation permeability using time lapse measurements during and after drilling. Topical report, September 1991-August 1993  

SciTech Connect

In this research, the authors have developed technology that allows an engineer to better understand mud filtration in low to medium permeability gas reservoirs. They use this knowledge to analyze log data to improve our estimates of formation permeability by layer. By developing accurate permeability profiles of the reservoir layers, they can optimize well completions in layered complex gas reservoirs.

Holditch, S.A.; Yao, C.Y.

1993-08-01

209

Logging for carbon tetrachloride contamination  

SciTech Connect

Neutron activation logging systems were used to prospect for residual saturations of carbon tetrachloride contamination at a nuclear weapons production facility. Logging was performed in wells near a former disposal trench, where up to 30,000 l were discharged between 1955 and 1962. The majority of this contamination has not been accounted for. To test for the presence of chlorine, a geochemical logging system was use to record capture gamma-ray spectra.

Grau, J.A.; Ellis, D.V. [Schlumberger-Doll, Ridgefield, CT (United States); Lewis, R.E. [Battelle-Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

210

INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE PETROPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF POST-AND PRE-STACK 3-D SEISMIC DATA, WELL-LOG DATA, CORE DATA, GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND RESERVOIR PRODUCTION DATA VIA BAYESIAN STOCHASTIC INVERSION  

SciTech Connect

The present report summarizes the work carried out between September 30, 2000 and September 30, 2004 under DOE research contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15305. During the three-year project period, we carried out extensive studies on the inversion post-stack and pre-stack data together with well logs, petrophysical information and fluid flow data. We have achieved all the project goals including development of algorithm for joint inversion of pre-stack seismic data, well logs, and time records of fluid production measurements using stochastic inversion algorithms which were demonstrated on realistic synthetic and field data. Our accomplishments are: (1) Joint inversion of post-stack seismic, well log, fluid flow, and petrophysical data: we demonstrated the technique with application to data from the Gulf of Mexico. (2) Development of a robust pre-stack full waveform inversion algorithm: A new approach based on iteration-adaptive regularization that makes use of plane wave transformed seismic data, was developed and applied to OBC dataset from the Gulf of Thailand. The algorithm was also implemented on a cluster of personal computers. (3) Joint inversion of pre-stack seismic and well-log data: A new stochastic optimization algorithm that makes use of the essential features of seismic and well log data was developed and tested on realistic synthetic dataset. (4) Joint inversion of pre-stack seismic and fluid flow data: A novel technique was developed to optimally combine seismic and flow data. The technique makes very realistic estimate of porosity; sensitivity of the flow parameters to two disparate datasets was studied extensively. (5) Direct estimation of petrophysical parameters from seismic data: The pre-stack waveform inversion was modified to invert directly for porosity and saturation using the Biot-Gassmann equation at each iteration step. The final report contains abridged versions of some of our inventions. The works resulted in several peer-reviewed publications. Five papers have been communicated for peer-reviewed publication, and seven papers were presented at conferences. All of these publications and presentations stemmed from work directly related to the goals of our DOE project.

Carlos Torres-Verdin; Mrinal K. Sen

2004-09-01

211

10 CFR 39.51 - Use of a sealed source in a well without a surface casing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...51 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.51...source in a well without a surface casing for protecting fresh water aquifers only if the licensee follows a procedure for...

2013-01-01

212

IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level

R. Whiteside; R. Pawlowicz; L. Whitehead; R. Arnseth

2002-01-01

213

Sonic log prediction in carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is conducted to study the complications associated with the sonic log prediction in carbonate logs and to investigate the possible solutions to accurately predict the sonic logs in Traverse Limestone. Well logs from fifty different wells were analyzed to define the mineralogy of the Traverse Limestone by using conventional 4-mineral and 3-mineral identification approaches. We modified the conventional 3-mineral identification approach (that completely neglects the gamma ray response) to correct the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log before employing the 3-mineral identification. This modification helped to get the meaningful insight of the data when a plot was made between DGA (dry grain density) and UMA (Photoelectric Volumetric Cross-section) with the characteristic ternary diagram of the quartz, calcite and dolomite. The results were then compared with the 4-mineral identification approach. Contour maps of the average mineral fractions present in the Traverse Limestone were prepared to see the basin wide mineralogy of Traverse Limestone. In the second part, sonic response of Traverse Limestone was predicted in fifty randomly distributed wells. We used the modified time average equation that accounts for the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log, and used it to predict the sonic behavior from density porosity and average porosity. To account for the secondary porosity of dolomite, we subtracted the dolomitic fraction of clean porosity from the total porosity. The pseudo-sonic logs were then compared with the measured sonic logs on the root mean square (RMS) basis. Addition of dolomite correction in modified time average equation improved the results of sonic prediction from neutron porosity and average porosity. The results demonstrated that sonic logs could be predicted in carbonate rocks with a root mean square error of about 4isec/ft. We also attempted the use of individual mineral components for sonic log prediction but the ambiguities in mineral fractions and in the sonic properties of the minerals limited the accuracy of the results.

Islam, Nayyer

214

Processing, Analysis, and General Evaluation of Well-Driller Logs for Estimating Hydrogeologic Parameters of the Glacial Sediments in a Ground-Water Flow Model of the Lake Michigan Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot study for the National Assessment of Water Availability and Use Program to assess the availability of water and water use in the Great Lakes Basin. Part of the study involves constructing a ground-water flow model for the Lake Michigan part of the Basin. Most ground-water flow occurs in the glacial sediments above the bedrock formations; therefore, adequate representation by the model of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments is important to the accuracy of model simulations. This work processed and analyzed well records to provide the hydrogeologic parameters of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity and ground-water levels for the model layers used to simulated ground-water flow in the glacial sediments. The methods used to convert (1) lithology descriptions into assumed values of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity for entire model layers, (2) aquifer-test data into point values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and (3) static water levels into water-level calibration data are presented. A large data set of about 458,000 well driller well logs for monitoring, observation, and water wells was available from three statewide electronic data bases to characterize hydrogeologic parameters. More than 1.8 million records of lithology from the well logs were used to create a lithologic-based representation of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments. Specific-capacity data from about 292,000 well logs were converted into horizontal hydraulic conductivity values to determine specific values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and its aerial variation. About 396,000 well logs contained data on ground-water levels that were assembled into a water-level calibration data set. A lithology-based distribution of hydraulic conductivity was created by use of a computer program to convert well-log lithology descriptions into aquifer or nonaquifer categories and to calculate equivalent horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities (K and KZ, respectively) for each of the glacial layers of the model. The K was based on an assumed value of 100 ft/d (feet per day) for aquifer materials and 1 ft/d for nonaquifer materials, whereas the equivalent KZ was based on an assumed value of 10 ft/d for aquifer materials and 0.001 ft/d for nonaquifer materials. These values were assumed for convenience to determine a relative contrast between aquifer and nonaquifer materials. The point values of K and KZ from wells that penetrate at least 50 percent of a model layer were interpolated into a grid of values. The K distribution was based on an inverse distance weighting equation that used an exponent of 2. The KZ distribution used inverse distance weighting with an exponent of 4 to represent the abrupt change in KZ that commonly occurs between aquifer and nonaquifer materials. The values of equivalent hydraulic conductivity for aquifer sediments needed to be adjusted to actual values in the study area for the ground-water flow modeling. The specific-capacity data (discharge, drawdown, and time data) from the well logs were input to a modified version of the Theis equation to calculate specific capacity based horizontal hydraulic conductivity values (KSC). The KSC values were used as a guide for adjusting the assumed value of 100 ft/d for aquifer deposits to actual values used in the model. Water levels from well logs were processed to improve reliability of water levels for comparison to simulated water levels in a model layer during model calibration. Water levels were interpolated by kriging to determine a composite water-level surface. The difference between the kriged surface and individual water levels was used to identify outlier water levels. Examination of the well-log lithology data in map form revealed that the data were not only useful for model input, but also were useful for understanding th

Arihood, Leslie D.

2009-01-01

215

GEOPHYSICAL WELL LOG/CORE DESCRIPTIONS, CHEROKEE AND BUG FIELDS, SAN JUAN COUNTY, UTAH, AND LITTLE UTE AND SLEEPING UTE FIELDS, MONTEZUMA COUNTY, COLORADO  

SciTech Connect

Over 400 million barrels (64 million m{sup 3}) of oil have been produced from the shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation in the Paradox Basin, Utah and Colorado. With the exception of the giant Greater Aneth field, the other 100 plus oil fields in the basin typically contain 2 to 10 million barrels (0.3-1.6 million m{sup 3}) of original oil in place. Most of these fields are characterized by high initial production rates followed by a very short productive life (primary), and hence premature abandonment. Only 15 to 25 percent of the original oil in place is recoverable during primary production from conventional vertical wells. An extensive and successful horizontal drilling program has been conducted in the giant Greater Aneth field. However, to date, only two horizontal wells have been drilled in small Ismay and Desert Creek fields. The results from these wells were disappointing due to poor understanding of the carbonate facies and diagenetic fabrics that create reservoir heterogeneity. These small fields, and similar fields in the basin, are at high risk of premature abandonment. At least 200 million barrels (31.8 million m{sup 3}) of oil will be left behind in these small fields because current development practices leave compartments of the heterogeneous reservoirs undrained. Through proper geological evaluation of the reservoirs, production may be increased by 20 to 50 percent through the drilling of low-cost single or multilateral horizontal legs from existing vertical development wells. In addition, horizontal drilling from existing wells minimizes surface disturbances and costs for field development, particularly in the environmentally sensitive areas of southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado.

Thomas C. Chidsey Jr; David E. Eby; Laura L. Wray

2003-12-01

216

Examining the Role of Topological Factors in Controlling the Hydraulic Conductivity of Granular Deposits Through the Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs: Results From the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term spatial and temporal monitoring of a treated-wastewater plume moving through a sand-and-gravel aquifer has been ongoing at the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for three decades. The site offers access to numerous wells that penetrate the glacial outwash-plain deposits, and a variety of field experiments has been designed and implemented to investigate aquifer heterogeneity and transport processes. As part of this effort, geophysical logging programs have delineated the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, K, by means of a comprehensive series of flowmeter/pumping tests, and correlations among K and other log-derived properties such as porosity, electrical conductivity, and natural gamma activity have been examined statistically to extract information regarding the nature of fluid flow through these materials. Results revealed only a weak or inconclusive dependence of K on porosity from which was inferred that hydraulic conductivity may be influenced more by the topology, or geometric configuration, of the granular mixtures than by the volume of the fluid phase. To investigate the role of pore geometry further, a field experiment was recently conducted in which a sequence of electromagnetic induction logs was recorded in a well to monitor changes in the electrical properties of the surrounding sediments during injection of a saline tracer. The changes resulted from marked contrasts in the specific conductance between the ambient and injected fluids. Analytical mixing models, as well as empirical relations such as Archie's law, have been developed to characterize the electrical properties of saturated rocks and sediments. By applying these relations to the electrical conductivity data combined with the porosity log, topological measures of phase connectivity and surface area along grain boundaries can be derived from downhole measurements. Petrophysical parameters such as formation factor, F, and cementation factor, m, are computed and interpreted with respect to the K distribution. Results show that hydraulic conductivity is controlled by the degree of connectivity of the fluid phase and the grain-size distribution, both of which are established by the particular packing arrangement of the granular deposits. The porosity plays only a minor role in affecting the magnitude of K. These conclusions have spurred the design of future field experiments at this research site that will examine the role of interstitial fluid velocities and tortuosity on ground-water transport and dispersion.

Morin, R. H.; Leblanc, D. R.

2008-12-01

217

Study effects of geopressured-geothermal subsurface environment on elastic properties of Texas Gulf Coast sandstones and shales using well logs, core data, and velocity surveys. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between porosity and permeability for the Pleasant Bayou wells were determined from conventional core data. Porosities from the time average equations required compaction correction factors of 1.9 in hydropressured sandstones and 1.0 in geopressured sandstones. Best average prmeabilities in the geopressured zone were found in the primary production interval 14,687 to 14,716 ft (4477 to 4485 m). Average density

1980-01-01

218

Paleokarst in the Pekisko, west-central Alberta: its origin, recognition from horizontal and vertical well logs and impact on reservoir development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mississippian Pekisko Formation has been exploited extensively in the Gilby-Wilson Creek-Minnehik area (T39-45, R2-5W5; Fig. 1), using a combination of vertical wells in porous, commonly dolomitized lithologies and horizontal drilling in tighter, undolomitized grainstones. The unit is dominated by crinoidal grainstones containing abundant ooids and coated grains, brachiopods and bryozoans, which were deposited as shoals in an inner shelf

S. Henry Williams

219

A new approach for deriving pseudovelocity logs from resistivity logs  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a method of generating pseudovelocity logs using measurements of electrical resistivity. A theoretical relation between electrical resistivity and transit time, which is applicable to a wide range of lithologies, has been developed. The application of this relation using a method which defines lithoresistivity zones as lithological intervals related to the same formation and showing small resistivity variations, has been tested in the Reconcavo sedimentary basin in Bahia, Brazil. A comparison of derived pseudovelocity logs with actual sonic logs for five wells shows the validity of the present approach.

Dos Santos, W.L.B.; Ulrych, T.J.; De Lima, O.A.L.

1988-01-01

220

Interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, aquifer-isolation tests, and water quality, supply wells 1 and 2, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water pumped from supply wells 1 and 2 on the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) provides water for use at the base, including potable water for drinking. The supply wells have been contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), particularly trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the water is treated to remove the VOC?s. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Triassic-age Stockton Formation, which form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer. The ground-water-flow system for the supply wells was characterized by use of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed upward and downward borehole flow under nonpumping conditions in both wells. The hydraulic and chemical properties of discrete water-bearing fractures in the supply wells were characterized by isolating each water-bearing fracture with straddle packers. Eight fractures in supply well 1 and five fractures in supply well 2 were selected for testing on the basis of the borehole geophysical logs and borehole television surveys. Water samples were collected from each isolated fracture and analyzed for VOC?s and inorganic constituents. Fractures at 50?59, 79?80, 196, 124?152, 182, 241, 256, and 350?354 ft btoc (feet below top of casing) were isolated in supply well 1. Specific capacities ranged from 0.26 to 5.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 179.8?188 ft btoc. Specific capacity and depth of fracture were not related in either supply well. The highest concentrations of PCE were in water samples collected from fractures isolated at 236.8?245 and 249.8?258 ft btoc, which are hydraulically connected. The concentration of PCE generally increased with depth to a maximum of 39 mg/L (micrograms per liter) at a depth of 249.8? 258 ft btoc and then decreased to 21 mg/L at a depth of 345.3?389 ft btoc. Fractures at 68?74, 115, 162, 182, 205, and 314 ft btoc were isolated in supply well 2. Specific capacities ranged from 0.08 to less than 2.9 (gal/ min)/ft. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 157?165.2 ft btoc. Concentrations of detected VOC?s in water samples were 3.6 mg/L or less. Lithologic units penetrated by both supply wells were determined by correlating naturalgamma and single-point-resistance borehole geophysical logs. All lithologic units are not continuous water-bearing units because water-bearing fractures are not necessarily present in the same lithologic units in each well. Although the wells penetrate the same lithologic units, the lithologic location of only three water-bearing fractures are common to both wells. The same lithologic unit may have different hydraulic properties in each well. A regional ground-water divide is southeast of the supply wells. From this divide, ground water flows northwest toward Park Creek, a tributary to Little Neshaminy Creek. Potentiometric-surface maps were prepared from water levels measured in shallow and deep wells. For both depth intervals, the direction of ground-water flow is toward the northwest. For most well clusters, the vertical head gradient is downward from the shallow to the deeper part of the aquifer. Pumping of the supply wells at times can cause the vertical flow direction to reverse.

Sloto, Ronald A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Frasch, Steven M.

2002-01-01

221

Integrated Analysis of Flow, Temperature, and Specific-Conductance Logs and Depth-Dependent Water-Quality Samples from Three Deep Wells in a Fractured-Sandstone Aquifer, Ventura County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analysis of flow, temperature, and specific-conductance logs and depth-dependent water-quality samples collected under ambient and pumped conditions provided a preliminary delineation of flow zones and water quality in three deep abandoned water-supply wells. The integrated analysis was completed as part of the characterization of a fractured-sandstone aquifer in the mountainous setting of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory in southern Ventura County, California. In the deepest well, which was 1,768 feet deep and had the highest specific capacity (120 gallons per minute per foot), flow zones were detected at 380 feet (base of casing) and at 440, 595, and 770 feet in the open hole. Under ambient conditions, measured flow was downward from the 380- and 440-foot zones to the 595- and 770-foot zones. Under pumped conditions, most of flow was contributed by the 595-foot zone. Flow from the 380- and 440-foot zones appeared to have lower specific conductance and higher trichloroethylene concentrations than that from the 595-foot zone. In the shallowest well, which was reportedly 940 feet deep but only logged to 915 feet due to blockage, flow zones were detected behind the perforated casing and at 867 feet in the open hole. Under ambient conditions, downward and upward flows appeared to exit at a zone behind the perforated casing at 708 feet. Most of the pumped flow was contributed from zones behind the perforated casing between 565 and 708 feet. Pumped flow also was contributed by zones at 867 feet and below the logged depth. Volatile organic compounds were not detected in the ambient and pumped flows. In the third well, which was 1,272 feet deep and had the lowest specific capacity (3.6 gallons per minute per foot), flow zones were detected in the open hole above and just below the water level near 337 feet and at 615, 785, 995, and 1,070 feet. Under ambient conditions, measured flow in well was downward from the shallowmost zones to the 995-foot zone. Fracture zones at 615, 785, and 995 feet each contributed about one-third of the pumped flow measured below the pump. Volatile organic compounds were not detected in the ambient and pumped flows.

Williams, John H.; Knutson, Kevin D.

2009-01-01

222

Early oil well drilling equipment and production practices. [Information helpful in locating abandoned well sites by identification of discarded parts: such abandoned wells are potential hazards in coal mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed description of early-day cable tool drilling rig construction and drilling practices is presented. Intimate descriptions of various parts of drilling rigs and prime movers are given as to materials of construction as well as to their use. The body of material is broken down into two main categories: well drilling methods, and well completion and production methods. This

Johnston K. H; R. J. Heemstra; F. E. Armstrong

1976-01-01

223

Impeller flow-meter logging of vertical cross flow between basalt aquifers through wells at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. Progress report, June 22, 1992  

SciTech Connect

An impeller flowmeter was used with a COLOG digital acquisition system to determine existing borehole flows, to compare with previous logging results, and to acquire flow measurements of vertical cross-flow of water in the wells between permeable zones in the open-hole intervals. The direction of flow found was predominantly downward with velocities ranging from 0-30 ft/min. Some flow reversals were noted and attributed to nearby pumping wells. USGS wells 44 and 46 were studied in September, 1991 near the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The results showed a usual overall flow direction downward with flow entering the wells at around 510 to 600 ft. below the land surface. Water exited these wells at lower levels around 550 to 580 ft. Flow velocities ranged up to 24 ft/min. Using published aquifer parameters, the rate of propagation of a pressure change in an aquifer was calculated for the well CPP-2 turning on and off, at 3100 gpm.

Bennecke, W.M.; Wood, S.H.

1992-12-31

224

Frac packs complicate PNC log evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Borate-crosslinked fluids and/or ceramic proppants commonly included in frac-pack well completions can compliance pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log evaluation. PNC logs are routinely run in cased holes. Two common applications include identifying formation fluid and calculating the percent water saturation in the rock pore spaces near the well bore. The paper discusses PNC logs, a case history of a West Delta oil well, laboratory work, and results. Recommendations are given.

Bean, C.L.; Ali, S.A. [Chevron U.S.A. Production Co., New Orleans, LA (United States); Salaita, G.N. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Houston, TX (United States)

1996-12-23

225

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common

Collett

1992-01-01

226

Porosity calibration of neutron logs, SACROC unit  

SciTech Connect

A major field study has been initiated at the Scurry Area Canyon Reef Operators Committee (SACROC) unit to provide a detailed geologic description of the reservoir. To supply porosity information to the digital database, a new technique has been developed that transforms neutron deflection logs into accurate neutron porosity logs. The technique uses computer programs to analyze statistically the neutron log to be rescaled as well as nearby modern porosity logs. An equations is derived that transforms neutron log deflection into porosity. Once the porosity response of a particular tool is determined in areas of good porosity control, that response can be applied successfully in areas of little or no control.

Swulius, T.M.

1986-04-01

227

Frac packs complicate PNC log evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borate-crosslinked fluids and\\/or ceramic proppants commonly included in frac-pack well completions can compliance pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log evaluation. PNC logs are routinely run in cased holes. Two common applications include identifying formation fluid and calculating the percent water saturation in the rock pore spaces near the well bore. The paper discusses PNC logs, a case history of a West

C. L. Bean; S. A. Ali; G. N. Salaita

1996-01-01

228

Logs to Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners cut through and investigate rotten logs and then make log-profile puzzles for each other. Learners cut through the limb to expose a vertical profile, study the pattern of decay, and find evidence for the treeâs life history. This activity calls for learners to saw logs, but for younger groups, adults can do the sawing.

Science, Lawrence H.

1982-01-01

229

Log N-log S is inconclusive  

SciTech Connect

The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

Klebesadel, R.W.; Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.

1983-01-01

230

Applications of Mechanical Shock Spectra. Application of Shock Spectra in Shock-Testing and Mechanical Design of Electronic Equipment as Well as Description of Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The relationship between shock environment, shock test specification, and shock design of equipment is treated in terms of shock spectra. Those shock characteristics which are important in causing damage to structures are emphasized. Shock testing by clas...

B. B. Petersen

1981-01-01

231

Low Latency Logging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many database and file systems use a disk log for fast crash recovery. Some of the latency in transaction commit is due to the rotational latency of the disk. The paper shows a design that gives excellent average latency for logging. (Copyright (c) 1991 X...

R. B. Hagmann

1991-01-01

232

Wideband, planar, log-periodic balun  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and performance characteristics of a new planar balun structure. The design is based on the log-periodic antenna theory. The design guidelines, as well as simulated and measured results are presented. It is shown that the new balun has greater than one octave bandwidth. The log-periodic balun will find applications in wireless communication circuits such as

Mahmoud Basraoui; S. N. Prasad

1998-01-01

233

Thermal Conductivity of Soils from the Analysis of Boring Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent interest in "greener" geothermal heating and cooling systems as well as developments in the quality assurance of cast-in-place concrete foundations has heightened the need for properly assessing thermal properties of soils. Therein, the ability of a soil to diffuse or absorb heat is dependent on the surrounding conditions (e.g. mineralogy, saturation, density, and insitu temperature). Prior to this work, the primary thermal properties (conductivity and heat capacity) had no correlation to commonly used soil exploration methods and therefore formed the focus of this thesis. Algorithms were developed in a spreadsheet platform that correlated input boring log information to thermal properties using known relationships between density, saturation, and thermal properties as well as more commonly used strength parameters from boring logs. Limited lab tests were conducted to become better acquainted with ASTM standards with the goal of proposing equipment for future development. Finally, sample thermal integrity profiles from cast-in-place foundations were used to demonstrate the usefulness of the developed algorithms. These examples highlighted both the strengths and weaknesses of present boring log data quality leaving room for and/or necessitating engineering judgment.

Pauly, Nicole M.

234

Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

SciTech Connect

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1988-01-01

235

6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

236

Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of COâ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in

T. E. Swift; R. E. Marlow; M. H. Wilhelm; J. H. Goodrich; R. M. Kumar

1981-01-01

237

Transfer Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

ANIMAL TRANSFER LOG Date of Move: ________________ Cage Type C = Auto Water NOTES: B = Water Bottle S = SMZ M = Microisolator ASP # PI GROUP NAME # CAGES [+] ROOM TO DOB COMMENTS STRAIN CODE NEW GROUP NAME NEW ROOM CAGE TYPE PEDIGREE # EAR

238

Outcrop gamma-ray logging applied to subsurface petroleum geology  

SciTech Connect

Developing a gamma-ray log profile of an outcrop with a hand-held scintillometer has many applications to subsurface petroleum geology. The outcrop gamma-ray log provides a readily understandable bridge between what is observed in outcrop and what is to be interpreted on well logs and seismic records. Several examples are presented in this paper that demonstrate major applications. An outcrop from the Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in Colorado provides an excellent example of the use of outcrop gamma-ray logs to better visualize spatial variability of depositional settings for improved well log correlations. Out crops from the Cretaceous Almond Formation, Niobrara Formation, and Graneros Shale in Colorado serve as examples of outcrop gamma-ray logging used to correlate outcrops with their subsurface equivalents for improved lithologic and stratigraphic interpretation of well logs. Outcrops of the Cretaceous Sharon Springs Member of the Pierre Shale in Colorado and the Eocene Green River Formation in Wyoming provide examples of the application of outcrop-gamma ray logging to identify and characterize organic-rich shales in outcrops and on well logs. Outcrops of the Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation in Arkansas demonstrate the use of outcrop logging to yield improved interpretation of reservoir quality on well logs and for one- and two-dimensional seismic modeling. An outcrop of Precambrian and Cambro-Ordovician rocks from Algeria provides an example of outcrop logging to recognize unconformities and other major surfaces on well logs. An outcrop of the Niobrara Formation in Colorado is used as an example for improved understanding of horizontal gamma-ray log response. The example logs presented are all drived with a hand-held scintillometer. This technique is simple, quick, and relatively inexpensive, so is recommended for any outcrop work that is intended to be applied t;o subsurface well logs or seismic interpretation.

Slatt, R.M.; Borer, J.M.; Horn, B.W. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)] [and others

1995-10-01

239

Optical Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes a method for evaluation of optical equipment operational and functional performance characteristics. It identifies supporting tests, facilities, and equipment required. It provides procedures for safety, visual resolution range, infra...

1972-01-01

240

40 CFR 63.424 - Standards: Equipment leaks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...leak inspection of all equipment in gasoline service. For this inspection, detection methods incorporating sight, sound, and smell are acceptable. Each piece of equipment shall be inspected during the loading of a gasoline cargo tank. (b) A log...

2013-07-01

241

Modes of log gravity  

SciTech Connect

The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional 'critical gravity', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All 'log mode' solutions, which we categorize as 'spin-2' or 'Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin-2 log mode is itself a 'nongauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Townsend, Paul K. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2011-05-15

242

Log-periodic crashes revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the finding that crashes can be deterministic and governed by log-periodic formulas [D. Sornette, A. Johansen, Significance of log-periodic precursors to financial crashes, Quant. Finance 1 (2001) 452 471; D. Sornette, W.X. Zhou, The US 2000 2002 market descent: how much longer and deeper?, Quant. Finance 2 (2002) 468 481]. One- and two-harmonic equations are usually employed to fit daily data during bubble episodes. But a three-harmonics has been shown to fit anti-bubbles [A. Johansen, D. Sornette, Financial “anti-bubbles”: log-periodicity in gold and Nikkei collapses, Int. J. Mod. Phys. C 10 (1999) 563 575]. Here we show that the three-harmonic formula can work for bubble episodes as well as anti-bubbles. This is illustrated with daily data from the Brazilian real-US dollar exchange rate. And we also show that the three-harmonics can fit an intraday data set from that foreign exchange rate.

Matsushita, Raul; da Silva, Sergio; Figueiredo, Annibal; Gleria, Iram

2006-05-01

243

Log of Apollo 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

244

Interactive Reflective Logs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors created an interactive reflective log (IRL) to provide teachers with an opportunity to use a journal approach to record, evaluate, and communicate student understanding of science concepts. Unlike a traditional journal, the IRL incorporates prompts to encourage students to discuss their understanding of science content and science…

Deaton, Cynthia Minchew; Deaton, Benjamin E.; Leland, Katina

2010-01-01

245

Borehole Geophysical Logging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

2009-03-20

246

Using on-board logging devices to study the longer-term impact of an eco-driving course  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the long-term impact of an eco-driving training course is evaluated by monitoring driving behavior and fuel consumption for several months before and after the course. Cars were equipped with an on-board logging device that records the position and speed of the vehicle using GPS tracking as well as real time as electronic engine data extracted from the

Bart Beusen; Steven Broekx; Tobias Denys; Carolien Beckx; Bart Degraeuwe; Maarten Gijsbers; Kristof Scheepers; Leen Govaerts; Rudi Torfs; Luc Int Panis

2009-01-01

247

Interpretation of ES-Logs. Final Report, October 1991-April 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are roughly 500,000 electric logs (ES-logs) for wells in the U.S. Many of these are in cased wells, precluding the possibility of further resistivity logging. Thus, these old ES-logs are an invaluable resource for the possible reentry of older field...

W. W. Whitman

1995-01-01

248

Interpretation of ES-Logs. Annual Report, October 1992-September 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are roughly 500,000 electric logs (ES-logs) for wells in the U.S. Many of these are in cased wells, precluding the possibility of further resistivity logging. Thus, these old ES-logs are an invaluable resoure for the possible reentry of older fields...

W. W. Whitman

1993-01-01

249

Interpretation of ES-Logs. Annual Report, October 1991-September 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are roughly 500,000 electric logs (ES-logs) for wells in the U.S. Many of these are in cased wells, precluding the possibility of further resistivity logging. Thus, these old ES-logs are an invaluable resource for the possible reentry of older field...

W. W. Whitman

1992-01-01

250

Review of Log Sort Yards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report provides a general overview of current log sort yard operations in the United States, including an extensive literature review and information collected during on-site visits to several operations throughout the nation. Log sort yards provide ...

J. R. Dramm G. L. Jackson J. Wong

2002-01-01

251

New hole logging system tested for UK coal exploration  

SciTech Connect

Robertson Research Engineering Services was approached to look into the possibility of logging coal measure deposits for open pit coal exploration. Due to the development of a parallel-sided drill rod, it has now become possible to run geophysical logs through the rod. This, in fact, means that the need to pull the drill stem and to insert casing is avoided and much time, effort, and money may be saved. Thus, the rapid logging of coal boreholes using Robertson Research's gamma gamma density tool is now possible. Initial trials took place in Scotland to establish the principle that the equipment could log density and natural gamma satisfactorily through the drill rod. The short period of trials was successful and analysis of the results is being undertaken before starting a more vigorous program of development and trials to produce equipment to the specifications demanded by the National Coal Board, with particular reference to the operation of the equipment by the drilling company. In addition to gamma and density logging through the drill stem, gamma and laterologging have been carried out in open hole. The laterolog is particularly useful for the resolution of thin coal seams, which have a high electrical resistance. An additional and attractive advantage of the Wellog density logging system used in drill stem is that gamma radioactive sources are very small and are much less likely to be lost down the borehole.

Not Available

1980-09-01

252

Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

2008-04-01

253

Log interpretation of shaly sandstones  

SciTech Connect

The determination of water saturation from electrical resistivity measurements to evaluate the potential of reservoirs is a fundamental tool of the oil industry. Shaly sandstones are difficult to evaluate because clays are conductive and they lower the resistivity of the rock. A review of shaly-sandstone research concerning ''volume-of-shale'' equations reveals three theoretical categories: (1) laminated clay equations, (2) dispersed clay equations, and (3) equations that assume that the effect of the clays on the conductivity measurement is directly related to water saturation. A new model for predicting the relative amounts of laminated and dispersed shales and accounting for their effects according to their abundance can be used for any sandstone, clean or shaly. Equations representing each of the three theoretical categories and the new equation were tested on cored Wilcox sandstones from two wells. Cores were analyzed to determine the volume and distribution of clays and to correlate porosity with the well logs.

Baker, J.F.

1988-01-01

254

Newly developed technology for array resistivity logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resistivity logging tools are run in boreholes to locate and quantify the presence of hydrocarbons (oil and gas) in porous rocks. In order to get better reservoir description, three key formation parameters need to be obtained from resistivity logging: (1) formation resistivity Rt; (2) invaded zone resistivity Rxo; (3) invaded length Lxo. None of the conventional resistivity logging tools, normal, lateral, and dual laterolog (DLL), can provide all three parameters with a single run. The newly developed array resistivity logging tool or High-Definition Lateral Log (HDLL, a product developed by Baker Atlas) resistivity tool addresses limitations of existing dual laterolog systems and provides all three parameters with a single run. The key developments in this dissertation are: (1) deep (up to 50 inches from borehole wall) Synthetic Focused Resistivity (SFR) logs from HDLL measurements; (2) shallow (close to 10 inches from borehole wall) SFR logs from HDLL measurements; (3) robust computation of SFR via array processing; (4) inverse vertical resolution matching (IRM) method for SFR; (5) inversion of HDLL array data in both vertical and highly deviated wells. The wellsite interpretation for array resistivity logging is developed by synthesizing focused resistivity logs from the raw HDLL data. The developed SFRs provide a better resolution of the resistivity distribution in both vertical and radial directions than DLL logs. The array processing method is developed to detect and correct errors in the raw measurements, and to evaluate the quality of the data. With the newly developed inverse vertical resolution matching method, we succeed in the resolution matching for the HDLL SFR logs. The HDLL inversion process developed in this study has three major steps: (1) estimating shallow resistivity structure; (2) estimating deep resistivity structure; and, (3) combining the results of the previous steps to produce the entire true resistivity structure. The results in a final model have a constant Rxo, Lxo, and Rt values in each layer. In the presented cases, HDLL-based interpretations show not only improved delineation of the known reservoirs but also extra pay intervals overlooked by DLL-based interpretations.

Zhou, Zhiqiang

255

Hanford wells  

SciTech Connect

The Site Characterization and Assessment Section of the Geosciences Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has compiled a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The list of wells will be used by DOE contractors who need condensed, tabular information on well location, construction, and completion dates. This report does not include data on lithologic logs and ground-water contamination. Moreover, the completeness of this list is limited because of new well construction and existing well modifications, which are continually under way. Despite these limitations, this list represents the most complete description possible of data pertaining to wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

McGhan, V.L.

1989-06-01

256

User k-anonymity for privacy preserving data mining of query logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anonymization of query logs is an important process that needs to be performed prior to the publication of such sensitive data. This ensures the anonymity of the users in the logs, a problem that has been already found in released logs from well known companies. This paper presents the anonymization of query logs using microaggregation. Our proposal ensures the

Guillermo Navarro-Arribas; Vicenç Torra; Arnau Erola; Jordi Castellà-Roca

257

The Lincoln Log  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What exactly was Abraham Lincoln doing on June 11, 1850? As it turns out, he was writing a letter to one Nathaniel Hay, describing the details of a potential home-improvement project. If you're looking for more details on Lincoln's daily doings, click on over to The Lincoln Log. The information on the site was compiled by the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, and in 2003, the materials were redesigned by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Visitors to the site can find out what Lincoln was doing on a particular day by using the drop-down menus on the homepage, and they can also browse by year or click on the "Today's Date in Lincoln's Life" section. Also, visitors can use the "Browse New Entries" to look over newly added materials.

258

Tracking equipment on hire  

SciTech Connect

The first comprehensive computer-based system for managing large inventories of rental equipment in the North Sea has been commissioned by British oilfield services group Expro. Now, after a year of operations in which the system has proved its worth in improving the efficiency of Expro's well testing and other services, it is being offered for sale to other oil industry companies with problems in controlling movement of capital equipment. The computer-based inventory control system to is described.

Not Available

1985-06-01

259

Outcrop gamma-ray logging applied to subsurface petroleum geology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing a gamma-ray log profile of an outcrop with a hand-held scintillometer has many applications to subsurface petroleum geology. The outcrop gamma-ray log provides a readily understandable bridge between what is observed in outcrop and what is to be interpreted on well logs and seismic records. Several examples are presented in this paper that demonstrate major applications. An outcrop from

R. M. Slatt; J. M. Borer; B. W. Horn

1995-01-01

260

Log evaluation of oil-bearing igneous rocks  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of porosity, water saturation and clay content of oilbearing igneous rocks with well logs is difficult due to the mineralogical complexity of this type of rocks. The log responses to rhyolite and rhyolite tuff; andesite, dacite and zeolite tuff; diabase and basalt have been studied from examples in western Argentina and compared with values observed in other countries. Several field examples show how these log responses can be used in a complex lithology program to make a complete evaluation.

Khatchikian, A.

1983-12-01

261

Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators  

SciTech Connect

We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)] and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schroedinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m=m{sub 0}t/t{sub 0} and {omega}={omega}{sub 0}t{sub 0}/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and {omega} constant.

Bessa, V.; Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE 60455-760 (Brazil)

2011-06-15

262

Evaluation of relationships between cable logging system parameters and damage to residual mixed conifer stands  

SciTech Connect

Cable logging practices were observed on a production logging operation. Using a marked leave tree stand, damage at each phase of the operation was quantified. Log stability, motion and sweep area were also observed for each turn. These variables were evaluated in relation to the system geometry, terrain and logging practices. The results identify variables which influence log stability, motion and sweep area. Logging damage was closely related to operator log control, both for felling and for yarding. Good control could usually be maintained on slopes of less than 35% but special techniques and equipment were required on slopes of more than 35%. Silvicultural prescription, marking quality, planning and layout also affected the level of logging damage.

Miles, J.; Burk, J.

1984-01-01

263

Log-domain wave filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic method for designing log-domain wave filters is presented. Wave filters simulate topologically and functionally passive doubly terminated LC ladder prototype filters of low sensitivity. The design in the log-domain is based on a transposition of the signal flow graph (SFG) that corresponds to the wave equivalent of elementary two-port blocks in the linear domain, to the corresponding log-domain

C. Psychalinos; N. Fragoulis; I. Haritantis

2004-01-01

264

QX(hyq-bar mesons in the leading-log and leading-log-log models  

SciTech Connect

We use a renormalization-group-improved local effective action of QCD to describe mesons that contain one heavy quark (D,F,B,F/sub b/,T,F/sub t/). We find a self-consistent Abelian solution to the classical equations of motion. The wave function of the light quark is obtained from solving the Dirac equation in the Abelian Coulomb-type field of the heavy quark, with the boundary condition psi-barpsiVertical Bar/sub R/ = 0. The radius R is obtained from the minimization of the total energy of the system U(R). The recoil of the heavy quark as well as its color-magnetic moment are treated as small perturbations. The only parameters are the unavoidable: the quark masses and ..lambda../sub MS$/, where MS is the modified minimal subtraction scheme. Our system exhibits linear confinement. For ..lambda../sub MS$/ = 270 MeV, our string tension is sigmaequivalentdU/d(/sup 1/2/)Vertical Bar/sub Rarrow-rightinfinity/ = ( 378 MeV)/sup 2/ in the log-log model. We obtain good agreement with all known spectroscopy using m/sub u/ = m/sub d/ = 0, m/sub s/ = 0.215 GeV, m/sub c/ = 1.60 GeV, and m/sub b/ = 5.00 GeV. Predictions are made for as yet unobserved spectroscopy as well as for the rms radii of the mesons. We estimate the rates for electromagnetic transitions (M(..-->..M+..gamma..), leptonic decays (M..-->..l..nu..), and single-pion emission (M(..-->..M+..pi..). Good agreement is found for the rates that have been measured.

Margolis, B.; Mendel, R.R.; Trottier, H.D.

1986-05-01

265

Three-dimensional structure of the greater Los Angeles basin: Insights from transects and models that integrate industry seismic reflection profiles, well logs, surface geology, and relocated earthquake catalogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the geometry and activity of major, seismogenic fault systems in the Los Angeles basin and adjacent offshore areas using regional seismic reflection transects and three-dimensional structural and velocity models. The seismic transects, which integrates relocated earthquakes, focal mechanisms, and well control, image several active fault systems (Palos Verdes, Newport-Inglewood, Compton, Las Cienegas, Elysian Park, Puente Hills, Whittier, Oceanside,

J. H. Shaw; A. Plesch; M. P. Suess; C. A. Rivero

2001-01-01

266

Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical(former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 200607 collected data in four monitor wells...

L. A. Senior P. H. Bird

2010-01-01

267

Lithologic Logs of Observation Wells and Test Holes Drilled in 1987 in Valley Fill along the North Flank of the Little Rocky Mountains, Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, North-Central Montana.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Observation wells and test holes were drilled in 1987 in valley fill along the north flank of the Little Rocky Mountains as part of a water-resources investigation to determine, in part, the geometry (thickness and lateral distribution) of various valley-...

D. W. Briar P. K. Christensen

1993-01-01

268

Examining the Role of Topological Factors in Controlling the Hydraulic Conductivity of Granular Deposits Through the Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs: Results From the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-term spatial and temporal monitoring of a treated-wastewater plume moving through a sand-and-gravel aquifer has been ongoing at the USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology research site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, for three decades. The site offers access to numerous wells that penetrate the glacial outwash-plain deposits, and a variety of field experiments has been designed and implemented to investigate aquifer heterogeneity

R. H. Morin; D. R. Leblanc

2008-01-01

269

Malware, Viruses and Log Visualisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper will look at the current state of visualization in relation to mainly malware collector logs, network logs and the possibility of visualizing their payloads. We will show that this type of visualization of activity on the network can help us in the forensic investigation of the traffic, which may contain unwanted pieces of cod, and may identify any

Iain Swanson

2008-01-01

270

Mining Web Access Logs of an On-line Newspaper  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the explosive growth of data available on the Internet, personalization of this information space become a necessity. An im- portant component of web personalization is the automatic knowledge extraction from web log files. However, analysis of large web log files is a complex task not fully addressed by existing web access analyzers. Us- ing commercial software, we applied well-known

Paulo Batista; Mario J. Silva

271

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

2012-12-21

272

Mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

Mining equipment for steering the cutting horizon of a mining machine cutter which is mounted on a ranging arm and which in use makes repeated traverses along the working face, comprises a boom urged into contact with the mine roof formed on a previous traverse of the machine. The boom is urged towards the mine roof by a ram hydraulically connected to a piston and cylinder device such that movement of the piston of the device is in accordance with that of the ram. Movement of the piston rod activates a flow control valve controlling operation of a ram controlling ranging of the arm.

Ford, J.A.; Whittaker, R.A.

1985-07-30

273

Medical equipment management strategies.  

PubMed

Clinical engineering professionals need to continually review and improve their management strategies in order to keep up with improvements in equipment technology, as well as with increasing expectations of health care organizations. In the last 20 years, management strategies have evolved from the initial obsession with electrical safety to flexible criteria that fit the individual institution's needs. Few hospitals, however, are taking full advantage of the paradigm shift offered by the evolution of joint Commission standards. The focus should be on risks caused by equipment failure, rather than on equipment with highest maintenance demands. Furthermore, it is not enough to consider risks posed by individual pieces of equipment to individual patients. It is critical to anticipate the impact of an equipment failure on larger groups of patients, especially when dealing with one of a kind, sophisticated pieces of equipment that are required to provide timely and accurate diagnoses for immediate therapeutic decisions or surgical interventions. A strategy for incorporating multiple criteria to formulate appropriate management strategies is provided in this article. PMID:16796335

Wang, Binseng; Furst, Emanuel; Cohen, Ted; Keil, Ode R; Ridgway, Malcolm; Stiefel, Robert

274

Improved grading system for structural logs for log homes  

Treesearch

... diameter than would be required if a more precise grading method were available. ... The logs were tested in bending and in compression parallel to grain . ... to be the best single predictor of static strength and modulus of elasticity (MOE ).

275

West Pembina Nisku reef log-core correlations  

SciTech Connect

A study was initiated to correlate log parameters and core data from West Pembina Nisku (D-2) Pinnacle reefs. The primary objective was to derive basic input data for making volumetric estimates of reserves and for providing initial input data for doing enhanced recovery model studies. A secondary objective was to determine if a set of log analysis parameters could be derived that would work universally in the many pinnacle reefs of the West Pembina area. The results of the study indicate that porosity log response in the West Pembina Nisku reefs deviates a fair amount from the standards used in log analysis chart books. A multilinear regression formula for determining porosity was derived which worked well for 18 wells studied, on which there was both log and core data. A brief description of the Nisku reef geology, a description of the methods used in doing the study, and a graphic presentation of the results are included.

McFadzean, T.B.

1983-01-01

276

Porosity, permeability, and petroleum: Determining the three P's by integrating mud logs with wireline logs and drill-stem tests in central and western Kansas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mud logging has long been a part of the complete formation evaluation picture in most oil and gas producing provinces of the US. In Kansas, however, mud logging has often been omitted from this picture. Typically, a well in central and western Kansas is drill-stem tested and then logged. Although this technique is often successful, there are also times when

Daniel A. Deboer

1989-01-01

277

Final Report, Testing and Sampling Procedures for Geothermal - Geopressed Wells  

SciTech Connect

Test wells to tap and sample geothermal-geopressured formations at 15,000-20,000 feet in the Gulf Coast area can be drilled routinely utilizing available equipment and methods. Electrical logs, surveys and fluid samplers can be used to obtain accurate and reliable information as to depths, temperatures, pressures, and fluid content of the geopressured formations before the well is completed. But it will be necessary to set casing and flow the well, at least temporarily, to secure fluid production volume and pressure data to evaluate the producibility of the geopressured resource. Electric logging and wireline survey methods are fully developed techniques for measuring the parameters needed to assess a geopressured zone before setting casing. Formation subsidence, though it may be slow to develop can be measured using radioactivity tracer surveys. The reports states three conclusions. (1) Existing well logging and surveying methods and equipment are generally satisfactory for testing and sampling and sampling a geothermal-geopressured resource. (2) No significant areas of research are needed to predict, detect, and evaluate geopressured formations for their potential as geothermal resources. (3) Static and dynamic testing procedures using existing technology are satisfactory to test, sample and analyze a geopressured reservoir. [DJE 2005

Boyd, W.E.; Dorfman, M.H.; Podio, A.L.

1980-01-01

278

Technology Transfer via Value-Added Log Processing. Final Report, September 1994-December 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are roughly 500,000 electric logs (ES-logs) for wells in the U.S. Many of these are in cased wells, precluding the possibility of further resistivity logging. Software has been developed to predict an earth model directly for the individual curves i...

W. W. Whitman

1995-01-01

279

National logging program for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of acquiring downhole geophysical log information was to collect quantitative log data that will be used by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) to enhance the assessment of the uranium resource potential of geologic formations of interest. To support this purpose ERTEC Incorporated's objective was to collect quantitative log data by conducting downhole geophysical logging of existing industry drill holes that are drilled for purposes other than uranium exploration. ERTEC acquired downhole geophysical log information in five 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ NTMS quadrangles in Wyoming and fifteen quadrangles in Texas. ERTEC obtained this log information by gaining permission to log oil and gas wells and subcontracting a downhole geophysical logging company to log these oil and gas wells. After logging of each well was completed, ERTEC immediately submitted the log information to BFEC for evaluation. ERTEC was successful in collecting over 1.5 million feet of logging. The location of all wells logged by ERTEC is shown on the attached maps. Detailed information that pertains to each well is provided in the attached computer printout.

Not Available

1981-09-01

280

Animal Room Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

ANIMAL ROOM LOG Room Number: __________ Cage Type Death Cause C = Auto Water EU = Euthanized NOTES: B = Water Bottle FD = Found Dead S = SMZ DR = Drowned M = Microisolator MI = Missing TO = Transfer Out DEATH CAUSE STRAIN CODE GROUP NAME # ? # ? COMMENTS

281

Neutron-Excited Gamma-Ray Spectrometry for Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location and monitoring of oil reserves in cased boreholes is becoming an increasingly important activity in the petroleum industry. Measurement of the macroscopic thermal-neutron capture cross-section of the formation surrounding the bore-hole has been quite successful in differentiating between oil and saline formation water in known lithologies. However, in many instances, the formation water salinity is low, variable, or

R. C. Hertzog; R. E. Plasek

1979-01-01

282

Numerical simulation of responses for cased-hole density logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stabilizing or stimulating oil production in old oil fields requires density logging in cased holes where open-hole logging data are either missing or of bad quality. However, measured values from cased-hole density logging are more severely influenced by factors such as fluid, casing, cement sheath and the outer diameter of the open-hole well compared with those from open-hole logging. To correctly apply the cased-hole formation density logging data, one must eliminate these influences on the measured values and study the characteristics of how the cased-hole density logging instrument responds to these factors. In this paper, a Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique was used to calculate the responses of the far detector of a cased-hole density logging instrument to in-hole fluid, casing wall thickness, cement sheath density and the formation and thus to obtain influence rules and response coefficients. The obtained response of the detector is a function of in-hole liquid, casing wall thickness, the casing's outer diameter, cement sheath density, open-hole well diameter and formation density. The ratio of the counting rate of the detector in the calibration well to that in the measurement well was used to get a fairly simple detector response equation and the coefficients in the equation are easy to acquire. These provide a new way of calculating cased-hole density through forward modelling methods.

Wu, Wensheng; Fu, Yaping; Niu, Wei

2013-10-01

283

Instruments and methods acoustic televiewer logging in glacier boreholes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The acoustic televiewer is a geophysical logging instrument that is deployed in a water-filled borehole and operated while trolling. It generates a digital, magnetically oriented image of the borehole wall that is developed from the amplitudes and transit times of acoustic waves emitted from the tool and reflected at the water-wall interface. The transit-time data are also converted to radial distances, from which cross-sectional views of the borehole shape can be constructed. Because the televiewer is equipped with both a three-component magnetometer and a two-component inclinometer, the borehole's trajectory in space is continuously recorded as well. This instrument is routinely used in mining and hydrogeologic applications, but in this investigation it was deployed in two boreholes drilled into Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A. The acoustic images recorded in this glacial setting are not as clear as those typically obtained in rocks, due to a lower reflection coefficient for water and ice than for water and rock. Results indicate that the depth and orientation of features intersecting the boreholes can be determined, but that interpreting their physical nature is problematic and requires corroborating information from inspection of cores. Nevertheless, these data can provide some insight into englacial structural characteristics. Additional information derived from the cross-sectional geometry of the borehole, as well as from its trajectory, may also be useful in studies concerned with stress patterns and deformation processes.

Morin, R. H.; Descamps, G. E.; Cecil, L. D.

2000-01-01

284

Orienterande undersoekning av effekten av vattenbehandlingsutrustning paa radonhalten i vatten fraan borrade brunnar. (A survey on different types of water treatment equipment and their ability to reduce the radon content in drinking water from private wells).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Different types of water treatment equipment, normally installed for other types of non-wanted elements, were tested for their ability to remove radon. The measurements show that the only types of equipment that reduce radon content in water to a large ex...

C. Boox

1995-01-01

285

47 CFR 87.109 - Station logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.109 Station logs. (a) A station at a fixed location in the international aeronautical mobile service must maintain a log in accordance with Annex 10 of the ICAO Convention. (b) A station log must...

2011-10-01

286

DOE/Simplec Magnetic Susceptibility Logging System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laborator...

D. A. Emilia J. W. Allen R. B. Chessmore R. B. Wilson

1981-01-01

287

German mining equipment  

SciTech Connect

The German mining equipment industry developed to supply machines and services to the local mining industry, i.e., coal, lignite, salt, potash, ore mining, industrial minerals, and quarrying. The sophistication and reliability of its technology also won it worldwide export markets -- which is just as well since former major domestic mining sectors such as coal and potash have declined precipitously, and others such as ore mining have all but disappeared. Today, German mining equipment suppliers focus strongly on export sales, and formerly unique German mining technologies such as continuous mining with bucket wheel excavators and conveyors for open pits, or plowing of underground coal longwalls are widely used abroad. The status of the German mining equipment industry is reviewed.

Not Available

1993-10-01

288

A regularity-based modeling of oil borehole logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multifractional Brownian motions (mBms) are successfully used to describe borehole logs behavior. These local fractal models allow to investigate the depth-evolution of regularity of the logs, quantified by the Hölder exponent (H). In this study, a regularity analysis is carried out on datasets recorded in Algerian oil boreholes located in different geological settings. The obtained regularity profiles show a clear correlation with lithology. Each lithological discontinuity corresponds to a jump in H value. Moreover, for a given borehole, all the regularity logs are significantly correlated and lead to similar lithological segmentations. Therefore, the Hölderian regularity is a robust property which can be used to characterize lithological heterogeneities. However, this study does not draw any relation between the recorded physical property and its estimated regularity degree for all the analyzed logs. Keywords: well logs, regularity, Hölder exponent, multifractional Brownian motion

Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima

2013-04-01

289

APS logDaemon and client library  

SciTech Connect

This document serves as a User`s Manual and Reference for the logDaemon and client library. This package provides a general distributed message logging system. A logDaemon may be started anywhere on a subnet. A client which has linked in the client library is provided functions to open a connection to the logDaemon, log messages, and close the connection. The logDaemon maintains one or more log files (in simple ASCII or SDDS format) and an e-mail list based on specifications in a configuration file. Incoming messages are logged to the appropriate file and/or result in e-mail being sent.

Saunders, C.; Kowalkowski, J.

1995-12-13

290

Logging damage during planned and unplanned logging operations in the eastern Amazon  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Paragominas region of eastern Amazonia, we compared the damage in unplanned and planned logging operations associated with each of five logging phases: (1) tree felling, (2) machine maneuvering to attach felled boles to chokers, (3) skidding boles to log landings, (4) constructing log landings and (5) constructing logging roads. Planned logging was conducted with a rubber-wheeled skidder or

Jennifer S. Johns; Paulo Barreto; Christopher Uhl

1996-01-01

291

Formation evaluation: benefits of downhole logging while drilling  

SciTech Connect

The development of new downhole measurement systems, coupled with mud-pulse telemetry techniques, allows real time surface evaluation of downhole parameters while drilling. Currently available systems, such as Exploration Logging's DLWD tool, combine formation resistivity and natural gamma ray sensors with directional survey and other measurements. These parameters aid formation evaluation, pressure evaluation, well-bore positioning, and drilling efficiency. For real time applications, such as correlation and bed identification, a DLWD log can be treated as a conventional wireline log. For further evaluation, the interpretation of DLWD data requires an understanding of the differences in the design of MWD tools compared to conventional wireline tools, as well as include physical size, logging speed, borehole effects, invasion, etc. The benefits of real time subsurface data enhance other geologic and engineering data acquisition systems in formation evaluation, pressure evaluation, and well planning.

Turvill, J.A.; Troy, G.W.

1983-03-01

292

A proven record in changing attitudes about MWD logs  

SciTech Connect

Measurement while drilling (MWD) logs for quantitative reservoir characterization were evaluated during drilling of Gulf of Mexico flexure trend projects, Kilauea (Green Canyon Blocks 6 and 50) and Tick (Garden Banks Block 189). Comparisons confirmed that MWD can be used as an accurate replacement for wireline logging when borehole size is not a limiting factor. Texaco MWD experience evolved from last resort' to primary formation evaluation logging, which resulted in rigtime and associated cost savings. Difficult wells are now drilled and evaluated with confidence, geopressure is safely monitored, conventional core interval tops are selected, and geologic interpretations and operational decisions are made before wells TD. This paper reviews the performance, accuracy, and limitations of the MWD systems and compares the results to standard geophysical well logging techniques. Four case histories are presented.

Cantrell, L.; Paxson, K.B.; Keyser, W.L.; Ball, S.

1993-07-01

293

Quality assurance for radiotherapy equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The quality assurance of the radiotherapy equipment comprises all organized procedures which are needed to ensure the reliable operation of the equipment on point of view of radiation safety as well as of the required accuracy of dose to the patient. Qual...

1993-01-01

294

Technetium generator log form.  

PubMed

Technetium generators are loaded with molybdenum-99 (99Mo), that has a 66-h half life and decays to technetium-99 m (9mTc). 99Tc with a single 140 keV gamma photon emission and a 6-h half life is an ideal isotope for nuclear medicine imaging. Many nuclear medicine units receive generators and use the 99Tc elution to label a variety of prepared chemical species for the majority of the studies they perform. Other options are receiving bulk 99mTc and doing the same tagging or getting unit doses of already labeled pharmaceuticals. Units using generators must meet requirements spelled out in regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Title 10, CFR, parts 20, 35, and 71 as well as the Department of Transportation, Title 49, CFR, part 173. The form described in this paper was an attempt to get all of the required records for each individual generator on a single sheet of paper. PMID:11480855

Vernig, P G

2001-08-01

295

3D log recognition and pose estimation for robotic forestry machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful recognition and pose estimation of logs and trees as well as workspace modeling in the forest environ- ment is essential for extensive automation of the harvesting and logging tasks of forestry machines. However, the free- form features of logs, few reliable textural features, large edge extraction errors, and segmentation faults caused by the barks on the surface of the

Anton Shiriaev; Simon Westerberg; Sukhan Lee

2011-01-01

296

Aquatic Equipment Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

Sova, Ruth

297

Project to transcribe old ship logs provides important weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kathy Wendolkowski is a citizen scientist. It's a term that Wendolkowski considers far too lofty for what she claims is simply a happy addiction that she and others have for transcribing old logs from naval ship and other vessels. They perform this task to glean the regularly recorded weather data from those logs for the benefit of science. For Wendolkowski, though, greater satisfaction comes from reading what the logs also reveal about the daily lives of the sailors as well as any accompanying historical drama.

Showstack, Randy

2012-11-01

298

Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging logs, openhole logs, and sidewall core analyses to evaluate shaly sands for water-free production  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging using the new C Series Magnetic Resonance Imaging Log (MRIL) system is rapidly enhancing formation evaluation throughout the industry. By measuring irreducible water saturations, permeabilities, and effective porosities, MRIL data can help petrophysicists evaluate low-resistivity pays. In these environments, conventional openhole logs may not define all of the pay intervals. The MRIL system can also reduce the number of unnecessary completions in zones of potentially high water cut. MRIL tool theory and log presentations used with conventional logs and sidewall cores are presented along with field examples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis shows good correlation of varying grain size in sandstones with the T2 distribution and bulk volume irreducible water determined from the MRIL measurements. Analysis of each new well drilled in the study area shows how water-free production zones were defined. Because the MRIL data were not recorded on one of the wells, predictions from the conventional logs and the MRIL data collected on the other two wells were used to estimate productive zones in the first well. Discussion of additional formation characteristics, completion procedures, actual production, and predicted producibility of the shaly sands is presented. Integrated methodologies resulted in the perforation of 3 new wells for a gross initial potential of 690 BOPD and 0 BWPD.

Taylor, D.A.; Morganti, J.K.; White, H.J. (Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, TX (United States)); Noblett, B.R. (Western Atlas Logging Services, Dallas, TX (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

299

Logging while fishing technique results in substantial savings  

SciTech Connect

During wireline logging operations, tools occasionally become stuck in the borehole and require fishing. A typical fishing job can take anywhere from 1{1/2}--4 days. In the Gulf of Mexico, a fishing job can easily cost between $100,000 and $500,000. These costs result from nonproductive time during the fishing trip, associated wiper trip and relogging the well. Logging while fishing (LWF) technology is a patented system capable of retrieving a stuck fish and completing the logging run during the same pipe descent. Completing logging operations using LWF method saves time and money. The technique also provides well information where data may not otherwise have been obtained. Other benefits include reduced fishing time and an increased level of safety.

Tollefsen, E.; Everett, M.

1996-12-01

300

A New Approach to Logging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

Miles, Donna

2001-01-01

301

Continuous shear wave logging apparatus  

SciTech Connect

Apparatus for continuous shear wave logging of a borehole consisting of a sonde instrument having retractable, expandable coupling arms for rigidly engaging the borehole wall to exert repetitive torqueing action while continuously moving uphole. The sonde includes spaced detector coupling arms in continual contact with the borehole wall and polarized for detection of the repetitive propagated shear waves.

Brown, G. L.

1985-10-29

302

Outdoor Education Student Log Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6…

Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

303

Downhole Memory-Logging Tools  

SciTech Connect

Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature onboard computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make ''decisions''. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about one year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400 C (752 F) is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information.

Lysne, Peter

1992-03-24

304

Stable pairs and log flips  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has two parts. In the first part, we review stable pairs and triples on curves, leading up to Thaddeus' diagram of flips and contractions starting from the blow-up of projective space along a curve embedded by a complete linear series of the form K + ample. In the second part, we identify log canonical divisors which exhibit Thaddeus'

Aaron Bertram

1997-01-01

305

A New Approach to Logging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

Miles, Donna

2001-01-01

306

Improving Voting System Event Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal standards require that electronic voting machines log information about the voting system behavior to support post-election audits and investigations. Our study examines what additional voter interaction information should be collected to allow investigation of human factors issues of the voting systems used in an election, while at the same time preserving voter privacy. We have focused on simulating touch

Andrea L. Mascher; Paul T. Cotton; Douglas W. Jones

2009-01-01

307

Statistical log analysis made practical  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the advantages of a statistical approach to log analysis. Statistical techniques use inverse methods to calculate formation parameters. The use of statistical techniques has been limited, however, by the complexity of the mathematics and lengthy computer time required to minimize traditionally used nonlinear equations.

Mitchell, W.K.; Nelson, R.J. (Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, TX (US))

1991-06-01

308

37 ways to improve your well completions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combining practical operation know how with latest technology is providing some imaginative new approaches to petroleum production. Many wells are being economically completed today which would have condemned as dry, or too hazardous to work in, a few years ago. The 37 key development discussed cover open and cased hole logging, production logging, perforating, general production tools, and log interpretation.

Desbrandes

1972-01-01

309

Nonlinear filters with log-homotopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We derive and test a new nonlinear filter that implements Bayes' rule using an ODE rather than with a pointwise multiplication of two functions. This avoids one of the fundamental and well known problems in particle filters, namely "particle collapse" as a result of Bayes' rule. We use a log-homotopy to construct this ODE. Our new algorithm is vastly superior to the classic particle filter, and we do not use any proposal density supplied by an EKF or UKF or other outside source. This paper was written for normal engineers, who do not have homotopy for breakfast.

Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

2007-08-01

310

Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will present concepts for downhole instrumentation that could be used in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). We envision optical borehole-logging instruments that could monitor bacterial concentration, mineralogy, aromatic organics, temperature and oxygen concentration, allowing for the in situ monitoring of time-dependent microbial and short-scale geologic processes and provide valuable in situ data on stratigraphy to supplement

N. E. Bramall; C. R. Stoker; P. B. Price; J. D. Coates; L. J. Allamandola; A. L. Mattioda

2008-01-01

311

Keep a "SLOG" (Sleep Log)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (1st on the page), learners keep a "SLOG" or Sleep Log to study their sleep patterns. Learners keep track of their sleep behavior and the dreams that they have each night on the "Dream Journal Worksheet" and "Sleep Journal Worksheet" included in this activity guide. This guide also includes twenty questions for learners to consider when recording and analyzing their dreams.

Chudler, Eric H.

2009-01-01

312

29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7...Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To facilitate...oversee the operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs ). The logs...

2009-07-01

313

29 CFR 42.7 - Complaint/directed action logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Complaint/directed action logs. 42.7 Section 42.7...Complaint/directed action logs. (a) To facilitate...oversee the operation of a system of coordinated Complaint/Directed Action Logs (logs ). The logs...

2010-07-01

314

Elemental logging with a germanium spectrometer in the Continental Deep Drilling Project  

SciTech Connect

A gamma-ray spectrometer based on a germanium detector has been used to obtain elemental concentration logs in three zones of the German Continental Deep Drilling Project pilot hole, with a primary goal of obtaining logs of elements that could not be obtained by commercial logging measurements. Delayed activation measurements provided elemental logs of Na, Mg, Mn, and V. The accuracy of the elemental concentrations was confirmed through comparison with laboratory XRF elemental analyses of cuttings and core samples from the well. These logging measurements provide reliable elemental concentration that can contribute to the detailed analysis of rock mineral composition.

Schweitzer, J.S.; Peterson, C.A. (Schlumberger-Doll Research, Ridgefield, CT (United States)); Draxler, J.K. (Geological Survey of Lower Saxony, Hannover (Germany). Continental Deep Drilling Project)

1993-08-01

315

The Oz Machine: A Java applet for interactive instruction in geological log interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical well logs represent measure- ments of a variety of properties of the rocks and fl uids encountered by a well bore and are used by petroleum industry analysts to guide decisions regarding further well development and investigation. Nuclear logs of natural gamma rays, neutron moderation, electron density, and photoelectric absorption are extremely common and are sensitive mea- sures of

Geoffrey C. Bohling; John H. Doveton

2006-01-01

316

Your Equipment Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet on household equipment, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook offers information to help buyers purchase household equipment that is within their budget. Section 1 discusses managing equipment

Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

317

Your Equipment Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet on household equipment, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook offers information to help buyers purchase household equipment that is within their budget. Section 1 discusses managing equipment

Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

318

Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations.  

PubMed

Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality-possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer. PMID:22607466

Metzger, Loren F; Izbicki, John A

2012-05-18

319

A note on the applicability of log-Gumbel and log-logistic probability distributions in hydrological analyses: II. Assumed pdf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applicability of log-Gumbel (LG) and log-logistic (LL) probability distributions in hydrological studies is critically examined under real conditions, where the assumed distribution differs from the true one. The set of alternative distributions consists of five two-parameter distributions with zero lower bound, including LG and LL as well as lognormal (LN), linear diffusion analogy (LD) and gamma (Ga) distributions. The log-Gumbel

STANISLAW WEGLARCZYK; WITOLD G. STRUPCZEWSKI; VIJAY P. SINGH

2002-01-01

320

Geophysical Logging of the Harwell Boreholes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estim...

M. A. Brightman

1983-01-01

321

Data transmission system for downhole logging tools  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a data transmission system for use with a multiple conductor logging cable on a cable reel connecting a downhole tool to a logging truck. It comprises cable jacket around the multiple conductor logging cable; means for producing data signals from the logging truck; means for modulating the data signals on a radio frequency carrier wave; means for inductively coupling the modulated data signals to the cable jacket for conduction along the cable; and means for receiving the modulated data signals.

Stiner, T.R.

1992-08-18

322

Geochemical Mud Logging of geothermal drilling  

SciTech Connect

The experience and results described in the present paper were developed over nearly two decades, with a major R&D project around 1980. The expression Geochemical Mud Logging (GML) has ill defined meaning in the geothermal industry, and ought to be specified. We refer here to GML as featuring mud and formation fluid tracer(s) and temperature as the bare essentials and with specified accuracies. Air and water logging are expected to be less demanding with regard to analysis accuracy, but are not discussed in this report. During application of GML to several drill holes with low formation permeabilities and under conditions of high temperature and high mud weight, GML as specified, revealed unexpected influx of formation brine. Such influx was a recurring feature that has been referenced to individual fractures and reflects both fracture size and permeability. As a consequence, continuous or subcontinuous sampling of mud systems appears more cost effective than trying to keep up with cumulative changes of bulk mud composition; although, the latter approach is more sensitive to extremely low rate, steady, inflow of formation fluid into the mud system. It appears, that based on this influx of formation fluid, permeability can be estimated well before mud losses are detected and/or drill strings are stuck. The main advantages of GML are: (1) the capability to assess formation temperature and permeability in nearly real time, resulting in (a) assessments of undisturbed formation and (b) having data in hand for holes lost during drilling operations and (2) being effective under conditions of very high temperatures where electrical logs are very costly and less reliable. Estimated cost for GML is $1500 per day (1982) based on assessments of R&D operations. However, extrapolating to larger scale services and to different operating conditions is indeed difficult. GML cost is probably the only significant point of controversy with regard to GML being a viable evaluation tool.

Tonani, F.B.; Guidi, M.; Johnson, S.D.

1988-01-01

323

Latent log-linear models for handwritten digit classification.  

PubMed

We present latent log-linear models, an extension of log-linear models incorporating latent variables, and we propose two applications thereof: log-linear mixture models and image deformation-aware log-linear models. The resulting models are fully discriminative, can be trained efficiently, and the model complexity can be controlled. Log-linear mixture models offer additional flexibility within the log-linear modeling framework. Unlike previous approaches, the image deformation-aware model directly considers image deformations and allows for a discriminative training of the deformation parameters. Both are trained using alternating optimization. For certain variants, convergence to a stationary point is guaranteed and, in practice, even variants without this guarantee converge and find models that perform well. We tune the methods on the USPS data set and evaluate on the MNIST data set, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of our proposed models. Our models, although using significantly fewer parameters, are able to obtain competitive results with models proposed in the literature. PMID:22064798

Deselaers, Thomas; Gass, Tobias; Heigold, Georg; Ney, Hermann

2012-06-01

324

30. DATA REPORT: GEOCHEMICAL LOGGING RESULTS FROM THE EASTERN EQUATORIAL PACIFIC: HOLE 504B1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical well logs were obtained through sediment and basalt at Site 504 of Leg 140. Corrections have been applied to the logs to account for variations in borehole size, drilling-fluid composition, and drill-pipe attenuation. Concentrations of Th, U, and Gd, as well as oxide weight percentages, have been calculated from the logs and compared with available X-ray-fluorescence (XRF) core measurements.

Elizabeth Lewis Pratson; Cristina Broglia; Philippe Pezard; Peter K. H. Harvey

325

Coal log pipeline pilot plant construction and tests: An update  

SciTech Connect

Coal log pipeline (CLP) is an emerging technology for coal transportation that has many potential values including: (a) it transports twice the amount of coal transported by a coal slurry pipeline of the same diameter; (b) it uses only one-third to one-fourth the water used by a coal slurry pipeline for transporting the same amount of coal; (c) it does not require expensive slurry pumps; (d) dewatering of slurry at the pipeline outlet is much simpler for CLP than slurry pipelines; (e) there is no restart problem; (f) it is adaptable to drag reduction by using polymers and hence is energy efficient; (g) it eliminates air and land polluting problems caused by coal transportation by truck or train; (h) it completely eliminates spontaneous combustion during coal transportation and storage at power plants; (i) it eliminates highway congestion and accidents caused by coal trucks, and eliminates accidents and traffic jam at rail crossings caused by coal trains; (j) it is more economical to use CLP than to use truck and trains to transport coal in many circumstances. Since 1991, extensive research in CLP has been conducted at Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC), University of Missouri-Columbia. The research has been sponsored by the National Science Foundation, U.S. Department of Energy, Missouri Department of Economic Development, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and an industry consortium of two dozen companies. The R and D resulted in rapid advancement of the CLP technology. After a pilot plant testing of a complete CLP system, the CLP technology will be ready for commercial use. The pilot plant consists of: (a) A coal log machine that can mass produce 5.4-inch diameter coal logs; (b) A 6-inch-diameter steel pipe 3,000 ft long, equipped with a special pumping system that allows coal logs to bypass the pump unhindered (Being a closed loop, the pipeline can recirculate coal logs through the system indefinitely, for testing coal log abrasion resistance over any distance.); (c) A coal log injection system that can inject long trains (each consisting of 100 logs) into the pipe for testing; (d) A coal log ejection system that can eject the coal logs from the pipe after testing; and (e) An automatic control system for the pipeline, consisting of sensors and computers (PLCs and a SCADA). At the time of writing this abstract (November, 1998), the pilot plant is more than half completed the coal log machine has been built and the pipeline is under construction. The entire system will be completed in Spring 1999, followed by various tests. This paper, to be submitted in June 1999, will contain details on the CLP pilot plant construction and the results of preliminary tests. The test results will cover coal log manufacturing (compaction), coal log abrasion tests in the 6-inch pipe, and test of drag reduction in the 6-inch pipe.

Liu, H.; Lenau, C.W.; Lin, Y.; Burkett, B.

1999-07-01

326

Shape of a Towed Boom of Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis has been made of the shape of a towed boom of logs in which the logs are treated as a continuum which transmits only normal stresses. If the skin friction between the bottom of the logs and the water is assumed to be constant, the shape of the boom is shown to be one of a single-parameter family

B. G. Newman

1975-01-01

327

BRIDGING THE GREAT DIVIDE - Building Log Books  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Better information leads to better buildings! UK Building Regulations now require building log books in new and refurbished buildings. This paper describes the role of building log books in improving buildings by bringing together the design and facilities management communities. It outlines what a log book should include, as indicated by CIBSE TM31, and how they might be used

P G Jones

328

29 CFR 1917.18 - Log handling.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...avoid sling damage. (b) Two or more binders or equivalently safe means of containment shall remain on logging trucks and railcars to secure logs during movement of the truck or car within the terminal. During unloading, logs shall be prevented from...

2013-07-01

329

Illegal Logging in Common Property Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

Community-based forestry has the potential to improve forest management in the commons. Unfortunately, the ease with which logging interests are able to ignore community decisions and steal timber remains troubling. This article analyzes how illegal logging is highly erosive to community cohesiveness and institutions in the context of community forestry in Mexico. It analyzes the modus operandi of clandestine logging

Jordi Honey-Rosés

2009-01-01

330

Learning Logs: Assessment or Research Method?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Learning logs are an increasingly popular mode assessment. They record learning, experience and reflection. This paper considers learning logs as a research method, where researchers wish to gain a deep understanding of the processes of learning, reflection and experience as they occur in individuals over a period of time. Techniques are offered for implementing logs as a research method, analysing

Tim Friesner; Mike Hart

331

43 CFR 3264.13 - What drilling and operational records must I maintain for each well?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...complete and accurate drilling log, in chronological order; (b) All other logs; (c) Water or steam analyses; (d) Hydrologic or heat flow tests; (e) Directional surveys; (f) A complete log of all subsequent well operations, such as...

2012-10-01

332

Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

2000-08-01

333

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1989-01-01

334

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

SciTech Connect

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

Vail, W.B. III.

1989-02-14

335

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

SciTech Connect

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1989-01-01

336

Identifying subsurface facies from user-directed computer processing of log and other data  

SciTech Connect

Geologists, reservoir engineers, and log analysts can discern lithology types by inspecting curve shapes on logs. Data obtained from cores, outcrops, and other sources can be correlated with wireline logs to classify log response shapes for each observable facies. The semiautomatic program presented here helps experienced log analysts and geologists identify subsurface facies from wireline and other log data. The program called Facies Analysis Log, was written specifically to address the complex problems of evaluating the Monterey Shale and related formations in California. The program can be used by log analysts and geologists to translate what they know about how geophysical and petrophysical data correspond to logs into a visual description of subsurface facies. Algorithms for the various routines are written so the client may interpose desired algorithms in any of several modular slots, if the algorithm chosen by the interpreter is inaccurate or inadequate. The client also can select the interpretation parameter at any of several interactive steps. The modular nature and semiautomatic features of this program were developed as responses to the growing need to use geologic knowledge quantitatively while evaluating the complex Monterey Shale and surrounding formations. The program is also useful where production can be predicted from several different indicators, but where no indicator is always 100% accurate. In addition, the program stores information about log-facies correlations automatically interprets other zones within a well, or other wells within a field, to describe known facies in areas not as well known as the control area.

Baldwin, J.L.; Morrow, M.O.

1986-04-01

337

The Message Logging System for NO?A Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The message logging system provides the infrastructure for all of the distributed processes in the data acquisition (DAQ) to report status messages of various severities in a consistent manner to a central location, as well as providing the tools for displaying and archiving the messages. The message logging system has been developed over a decade, and has been run successfully on CDF and CMS experiments. The most recent work to the message logging system is to build it as a stand-alone package with the name MessageFacility which works for any generic framework or applications, with NO?A as the first driving user. System designs and architectures, as well as the efforts of making it a generic library will be discussed. We also present new features that have been added.

Lu, Qiming; Kowalkowski, J. B.; Biery, K. A.

2011-12-01

338

Multi-rate flowing Wellbore electric conductivity logging method  

SciTech Connect

The flowing wellbore electric conductivity logging method involves the replacement of wellbore water by de-ionized or constant-salinity water, followed by constant pumping with rate Q, during which a series of fluid electric conductivity logs are taken. The logs can be analyzed to identify depth locations of inflow, and evaluate the transmissivity and electric conductivity (salinity) of the fluid at each inflow point. The present paper proposes the use of the method with two or more pumping rates. In particular it is recommended that the method be applied three times with pumping rates Q, Q /2, and 2Q. Then a combined analysis of the multi-rate data allows an efficient means of determining transmissivity and salinity values of all inflow points along a well with a confidence measure, as well as their inherent or far-field pressure heads. The method is illustrated by a practical example.

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine

2003-04-22

339

Calibration of log and core saturation data: case history from San Ardo field  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major problem in reservoir evaluation is determining saturations and monitoring changes during production. Many companies in the San Joaquin Valley use extensive coring to solve this problem. Modern lithologic and well-log analyses offer a means of calibrating log-derived saturations to core saturations, thus reducing the need for expensive coring. Such a study was performed on a well in the

1986-01-01

340

Optimization of Well Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimal placement of oil, gas or water wells is a complex problem that depends on reservoir and fluid properties, well and surface equipment specifications, as well as economic parameters. An optimization approach that enables the evaluation of all these information is presented. A hybrid of the Genetic Algorithm (GA) forms the basis of the optimization technique. GA operators such as

Baris Guyaguler; Roland Horne

2000-01-01

341

Analysis of Web Proxy Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Network forensics involves capturing, recording and analysing network audit trails. A crucial part of network forensics is to gather evidence at the server level, proxy level and from other sources. A web proxy relays URL requests from clients to a server. Analysing web proxy logs can give unobtrusive insights to the browsing behavior of computer users and provide an overview of the Internet usage in an organisation. More importantly, in terms of network forensics, it can aid in detecting anomalous browsing behavior. This paper demonstrates the use of a self-organising map (SOM), a powerful data mining technique, in network forensics. In particular, it focuses on how a SOM can be used to analyse data gathered at the web proxy level.

Fei, Bennie; Eloff, Jan; Olivier, Martin; Venter, Hein

342

Leak checker data logging system  

DOEpatents

A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

Gannon, Jeffrey C. (Arlington, TX); Payne, John J. (Waterman, IL)

1996-01-01

343

Quantitative interpretation of geological and geophysical well data  

SciTech Connect

Geophysical and geological properties of rocks are analyzed using a search for internal consistency between geophysical log measurements, composition estimates from core or cuttings, stratigraphically controlled predictions of properties from adjacent wells, comprehensive interpretation equations, and rigorous solution uncertainty estimates. The analysis technique is tested on a cored interval of the Dakota Sandstone, in the San Juan Basin, New Mexico. Thirty-two core samples were taken, each with 13 log measurements and measurements of 14 geologic properties. A log interpretation with all log and geologic information verifies correctness of interpretation equations and mineral properties. Reanalysis of logs, with core porosity assumed unknown, verifies that log estimates of mineralogy and porosity match well with the core measurements. Uncertainties on compositions estimated from only logs are consistent with errors between core measurements and log estimates. A statistical summary of log analysis results in the cored well is then used to constrain log analyses on various log suites in an adjacent well. Interpretations first compare full log suites with, and without, the stratigraphically controlled predictions, and are found to match closely. A second comparison of the full log suite interpretation with results from interpretation of the spontaneous potential and deep induction resistivity logs show that the stratigraphic information allows some properties to be accurately estimated while others are not resolved. A comparison of the gradient descent solution with the maximum likelihood solution indicates that true solution distributions are probably multimodal and asymmetric.

Baker, M.R.

1988-01-01

344

Method of and apparatus for protecting downhole equipment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes the method of protecting well equipment from abnormal pressures in a downhole location. It comprises securing a volume compensating material to a portion of the well equipment so that the volume compensating material is exposed to well pressures at the down hole location, the well equipment including an annular seal having an upper metal seal lip, a

W. M. Taylor; J. H. Hynes; D. H. Theiss

1991-01-01

345

17. EVALUATION OF THE GEOCHEMICAL LOGGING DATA IN HOLE 959D: CÔTE D'IVOIRE-GHANA TRANSFORM MARGIN 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical well logs were obtained in the sedimentary sequences drilled at Site 959 (Hole 959D) of the Côte D'Ivoire- Ghana Transform Margin. Corrections have been applied to the logs to account for variations in borehole size, borehole fluid composition, downhole temperature, and logging speed and were processed to derive the concentrations of the elements Th, U, and Gd, and the

Carlos A. Gonçalves; Lee Ewert

346

Estimation of mineralogy and lithology from geochemical log measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineralogy, chemistry, and physical properties of core samples from a research well in Grand County, Utah, have been determined to assess the applications of geochemical logging tool measurements to reservoir characterization. The cored interval (over 827 ft or 252 m of continuous core) samples a wide range of lithologies, including subarkose, sublitharenite, litharenite, feldspathic litharenite, quartz wacke, lithic wacke, siltstone,

R. F. Wndlandt; K. Bhuyan

1990-01-01

347

Prediction of fracture gradients from log derived elastic moduli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-five measured fracture gradients in 10 fields are included in this study. The procedure utilizes all plugback operations from open hole, both into surface pipe and production strings or liners. Sonic and density logs have been obtained where possible from wells in the fields with measured breakdown gradients. Unfortunately, offshore logistics, risks, costs, and particularly hole conditions in highly deviated,

L. A. MacPherson; L. N. Berry

1972-01-01

348

A 1-V CMOS log-domain integrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel circuit implementation of a CMOS log-domain integrator is presented. Unlike most other implementations, it does not require placing of MOSFETs in separated wells, and therefore allows very compact filters, which are fully compatible with modern standard CMOS technologies. Besides the saving of chip area, this also helps to reduce parasitic capacitances. The most important advantage of this circuit

Dominique Python; Manfred Punzenberger; Christian C. Enz

1999-01-01

349

An economic reliability test plan: Log-logistic distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sampling plans in which items that are put to test, to collect the life of the items in order to decide upon accepting or rejecting a submitted lot, are called reliability test plans. The basic probability model of the life of the product is specified as the well-known log-logistic distribution with a known shape parameter. For a given producer's risk,

R. R. L. Kantam; G. Srinivasa Rao; B. Sriram

2006-01-01

350

Formation evaluation: benefits of downhole logging while drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new downhole measurement systems, coupled with mud-pulse telemetry techniques, allows real time surface evaluation of downhole parameters while drilling. Currently available systems, such as Exploration Logging's DLWD tool, combine formation resistivity and natural gamma ray sensors with directional survey and other measurements. These parameters aid formation evaluation, pressure evaluation, well-bore positioning, and drilling efficiency. For real time

J. A. Turvill; G. W. Troy

1983-01-01

351

Comprehensive analysis of the carbon/oxygen log  

SciTech Connect

A study is presented on the analysis of induced gamma ray spectroscopy logs. This report reviews the current interpretation methods and presents a cross-plotting technique to compute hydrocarbon saturation. The cross-plotting technique has three unknowns: porosity, volumetric fraction of shale and oil saturation. The only constraint upon this technique is that porosity must be fairly constant in the reservoir. The Dresser Atlas Continuous Carbon/Oxygen Log is being run periodically in the observation wells of a steam-foam pilot in Kern County, California to monitor the recovery process. A comparison is made between the cross-plot method and other methods. 60 figures, 7 tables. (DLC)

O'Brien, W.J.; Sanyal, S.K.; Brown, S.L.

1983-01-01

352

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... period. Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

353

Equipments Aerospatiaux Francais (French Aerospace Equipment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 190 member firms of GIFAS (Association of French Aeronautical and Space Industries) represent the three major branches of the profession: airframes, power plants, and systems and equipment. These firms develop, produce, maintain, and provide product s...

1993-01-01

354

CosmicEmuLog: Cosmological Power Spectra Emulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CosmicEmuLog is a simple Python emulator for cosmological power spectra. In addition to the power spectrum of the conventional overdensity field, it emulates the power spectra of the log-density as well as the Gaussianized density. It models fluctuations in the power spectrum at each k as a linear combination of contributions from fluctuations in each cosmological parameter. The data it uses for emulation consist of ASCII files of the mean power spectrum, together with derivatives of the power spectrum with respect to the five cosmological parameters in the space spanned by the Coyote Universe suite. This data can also be used for Fisher matrix analysis. At present, CosmicEmuLog is restricted to redshift 0.

Neyrinck, Mark

2013-04-01

355

Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)|

McGough, Robert L.; And Others

1978-01-01

356

Flow rate logging seepage meter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An apparatus for remotely measuring and logging the flow rate of groundwater seepage into surface water bodies is described. As groundwater seeps into a cavity created by a bottomless housing, it displaces water through an inlet and into a waterproof sealed upper compartment, at which point, the water is collected by a collection bag, which is contained in a bag chamber. A magnet on the collection bag approaches a proximity switch as the collection bag fills, and eventually enables the proximity switch to activate a control circuit. The control circuit then rotates a three-way valve from the collection path to a discharge path, enables a data logger to record the time, and enables a pump, which discharges the water from the collection bag, through the three-way valve and pump, and into the sea. As the collection bag empties, the magnet leaves the proximity of the proximity switch, and the control circuit turns off the pump, resets the valve to provide a collection path, and restarts the collection cycle.

Reay, William G.; Walthall, Harry G.

1992-12-01

357

Logging technology for high-temperature geothermal boreholes  

SciTech Connect

Research in materials, equipment, and instrument development was required in the Hot Dry Rock Energy Extraction Demonstration at Fenton Hill located in northern New Mexico. Results of this extensive development advanced the logging technology in geothermal boreholes to present state-of-the art. The new Phase II Energy Extraction System at the Fenton Hill Test Site will consist of two wellbores drilled to a depth of about 4570 m (15,000 ft) and then connected by a series of hydraulic-induced fractures. The first borehole (EE-2) was completed in May of 1980 at a depth of 4633 m (15,200 ft) of which approximately 3960 m (13,000 ft) is in Precambrian granitic rock. Starting at a depth of approximately 2930 m (9600 ft), the borehole was inclined up to 35/sup 0/ from vertical. Bottom-hole temperature in EE-2 is 320/sup 0/C. The EE-3 borehole was then drilled to a depth of 4236 m (13,900 ft). Its inclined part is positioned directly over the EE-2 wellbore with a vertical separation of about 450 m (1500 ft) between them. Many of the geophysical measurements needed to develop the hot dry rock concept are unique. Most of the routine instruments used in petroleum drilling fail in the hot and abrasive environment. New equipment developed includes not only the downhole sonde that houses the transducer and associated line driving electronics, but modifications also were needed on the entire data retrieval systems and associated data analysis technology. Successful performance of wellbore surveys in the EE-2 and EE-3 boreholes depended upon the capacity of the sensors, instrument sonde, cablehead, and armored logging cable to work in this severe environment. The major areas of materials development for surveying the boreholes in the high-temperature environment were on elastomeric seals, electrical insulation for logging cables, downhole sensors, and associated downhole electronic and electro-mechanical components.

Dennis, B.R.

1984-05-01

358

Experimental drill hole logging in potash deposits of the Carlsbad district, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Experimental logging of holes drilled through potash deposits in the Carlsbad district, southeastern New Mexico, demonstrate the considerable utility of gamma-ray, neutron, and electrical resistivity logging in the search for and identification of mineable deposits of sylvite and langbeinite. Such deposits are strongly radioactive with both gamma-ray and neutron well logging. Their radlioactivity serves to distinguish them from claystone, sandstone, and polyhalite beds and from potash deposits containing carnallite, leonite, and kainite. These latter strata and deposits are radioactive with gamma-ray logging but yield no radiation with neutron logging. Porous beds, such as sandstone strata, and solution cavities, such as those commonly formed in potash deposits by rotary drilling of evaporites, are less resistive than other materials. Low resistivity provides a means for differentiating between potash deposits and polyhalite beds on electrical resistivity logs of holes drilled with fresh-water and salt-base muds.

Jones, C. L.; Bowles, C. Gilbert; Bell, Kenneth Granville

1960-01-01

359

Inverting fluid conductivity logs for fracture inflow parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid electrical conductivity logging experiments introduced by Tsang et al. [1990] represent a new technology for studying the hydraulic properties of discrete fractures in open boreholes. These experiments consist of replacing water in the well bore with deionized water and then pumping the well to induce formation water to return to the well bore. During and after the fluid exchange the entire well is logged to measure fluid electrical conductivity (FEC). At locations where formation water enters the well there are abrupt increases in the borehole FEC, thereby revealing the location of hydraulically conductive fractures. As pumping continues, high FEC water moves up the well bore at a rate proportional to the total inflow rate below the observation point. Inflow rates and FECs of formation water associated with each fracture can be inferred by modeling the FEC profiles with the one-dimensional advective dispersion equation. In this paper I present an inverse model which estimates the inflow rates and formation FEC values that optimally fit observed FEC logs acquired during fluid exchange experiments described by Tsang et al. [1990]. With this inverse model, inflow rates are constrained by the rate at which the well is pumped during the experiment. The forward model is solved numerically using a control volume finite difference scheme with power law upstream weighting and source term linearization. The inverse problem is solved using the Gauss-Newton iterative method. The rows of the Jacobian matrix, or the sensitivity coefficients, are calculated numerically with the same algorithm that solves the forward problem. Both constrained and unconstrained inverse models are used to interpret fluid logging experiments performed in research wells penetrating Piedmont rocks of North Carolina.

Evans, David G.

360

Interpretation of ES-logs. Annual report, October 1991-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

There are roughly 500,000 electric logs (ES-logs) for wells in the U.S. Many of these are in cased wells, precluding the possibility of further resistivity logging. Thus, these old ES-logs are an invaluable resource for the possible reentry of older fields, but they are very difficult to interpret. Software has been developed to generate ES-logs from an earth model. Also, software has been developed to predict an earth model directly for the individual curves in an ES-log, which typically consists of three curves representing the resistivity of different volumes of rock. The generation of an ES-log from an earth model has been accomplished by numerically approximating the controlling physical relations and solving the complex of equations. The generation of an earth model for each of the curves in an ES-log has been accomplished using an iterative process known as Levenberg-Marquardt inversion. Currently, software is being developed to simultaneously invert the three ES-logs, so that possible invasion can be detected for potential interpretation as hydrocarbon or water.

Whitman, W.W.

1992-10-01

361

Interpretation of ES-logs. Annual report, October 1992-September 1993  

SciTech Connect

There are roughly 500,000 electric logs (ES-logs) for wells in the U.S. Many of these are in cased wells, precluding the possibility of further resistivity logging. Thus, these old ES-logs are an invaluable resoure for the possible reentry of older fields, but they are very difficult to interpret. Software has been developed to generate ES-logs from an earth model. Also, software has been developed to predict an earth model directly for the individual curves in an ES-log, which typically consists of three curves representing the resistivity of different volumes of rock. The generation of an ES-log from an earth model has been accomplished by numerically approximating the controlling physical relations and solving the complex of equations. The generation of an earth model for each of the curves in an ES-log has been accomplished using an iterative process known as Levenberg-Marquardt inversion. Currently, software is being developed to simultaneously invert the three ES-logs, so that possible invasion can be detected for potential interpretation as hydrocarbon or water.

Whitman, W.W.

1993-10-01

362

Interpretation of ES-logs. Final report, October 1991-April 1995  

SciTech Connect

There are roughly 500,000 electric logs (ES-logs) for wells in the U.S. Many of these are in cased wells, precluding the possibility of further resistivity logging. Thus, these old ES-logs are an invaluable resource for the possible reentry of older fields, but they are very difficult to interpret. Software has been developed to generate ES-logs from an earth model. Also, software has been developed to predict an earth model directly for the individual curves in an ES-log, which typically consists of three curves representing the resistivity of different volumes of rock. The generation of an ES-log from an earth model as been accomplished by numerically approximating the controlling physical relations and solving the complex of equations. The generation of an earth model for each of the curves in an ES-log has been accomplished using an iterative process known as Levenberg-Marquardt inversion. Software has also been developed to simultaneously invert the three ES-logs, so that possible invasion can be detected and the zone evaluated for potential interpretation as hydrocarbon or water.

Whitman, W.W.

1995-04-01

363

Neutron capture logging calibration and data analysis for environmental contaminant assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a method to calibrate a neutron capture sonde equipped with a high resolution ?-ray detector, and analyze log data. The method utilizes the 1460.8-keV passive ?-ray of 40K, the 770.3-keV capture ?-ray of 39K, and a capture ?-ray from a target element. An equation containing the spectral line intensities for the two capture ?-rays, nuclear capture data, and the detector efficiency function expresses the concentration of the target element as a multiple of the 39K concentration. The concentration of 39K is easily deduced from the 40K concentration, which is calculated directly from the line intensity for the 1460.8-keV ?-ray in a passive ?-ray spectrum. The calibration automatically adjusts to changes in the neutron transport properties of the logged medium that may result, for example, from variations in the H density and the concentrations of neutron poisons. Fluctuations in the neutron source output are similarly accommodated. The calibration utilizes U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) passive ?-ray calibration standards that contain well established concentrations of K, U, and Th. The passive ?-rays from K, U, and Th (and the U and Th decay progenies) provide data for the detector efficiency function determination. Data for proof-of-principle demonstrations of the method were acquired by logging boreholes penetrating the shallow subsurface at a DOE waste site with a simple, reliable neutron capture logging system. The system had a 252Cf source and a high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. Time gating could not be used to sort signals originating from capture and activation, but the excellent energy resolution permitted capture ?-ray identifications based solely on the ?-ray energies. Cl, H, and other elements were detected and assessed. A conventional calibration and data analysis method was also employed. The method was specific to Cl and was based on measurements in two Cl-impregnated concrete blocks. Cl concentrations inferred with this method were often consistent with the concentrations determined with the new method. When the two methods produced different Cl concentrations, the discrepancies could be explained by variations in formation parameters.

Koizumi, Carl J.

2007-02-01

364

Discover Presidential Log Cabins. Teacher's Discussion Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discover Presidential Log Cabins is a set of materials designed to help educate 6-8 grade students about the significance of three log cabin sites occupied by George Washington, Ulysses Grant, Abraham Lincoln, and Theodore Roosevelt. This teacher's discussion guide is intended for use as part of a larger, comprehensive social studies program, and…

National Park Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

365

Distortion in resistivity logging at shallow depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to the proximity of an insulating ground surface, normal resistivity logging at shallow depths (less than 30 m) can yield an apparent resistivity that exceeds 200% of the formation resistivity for a homogeneous medium. The distortion is more acute for long-normal than for short-normal logging. Three examples from a landfill site in southern California are presented to show such

Tien-Chang Lee; B. N. Damiata

1995-01-01

366

Field tests of cement bond logging tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field test of one company's various Cement Bond Log tools was run to evaluate the effect of varying signal frequencies and tool diameters. Two larger diameter sondes with different frequencies were run and results are presented. One higher frequency, smaller diameter tool was run and results are compared with the other logs. Problems that occurred during the test (and

P. E. Pilkington; W. H. Fertl

1975-01-01

367

29 CFR 1918.88 - Log operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...shall be provided as follows: 11 A âwalking stickâ is two logs bolted or otherwise secured together with two or three planks firmly attached on top that serves as a floating walking and working surface and that is used in the loading of logs onto...

2013-07-01

368

Learning Logs in Introductory Literature Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the beneficial and sometimes unpredictable implications of a daily reflective writing exercise for introductory literature courses: the learning log. Pseudonymous samples of student writing, coupled with instructor commentary, gesture toward ways in which the learning log's continual implementation and modification foster a…

Babcock, Matthew James

2007-01-01

369

People's Query Logs: Personal Information Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this position paper we propose that the challenge for query log analysis goes beyond mapping navigation patterns to provide interaction analysis tools to help people understand their own Web search and information behaviors. The relationship between personal information management and Web logs is also discussed. Further research issues are outlined.

Amanda Spink; Bernard J. Jansen

370

Data logging technology in ambulatory medical instrumentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the advancements made in ambulatory data logging used in the study of human subjects since the inception of the analogue tape based data logger in the 1960s. Research into the area of ambulatory monitoring has been rejuvenated due to the development of novel storage technologies during the 1990s. Data logging systems that were previously impractical due to

R Anderson; G M Lyons

2001-01-01

371

User 4XXXXX9: Anonymizing Query Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent release of the American Online (AOL) Query Logs highlighted the remarkable amount of private and identifying information that users are willing to reveal to a search engine. The release of these types of log files therefore represents a significant liability and compromise of user privacy. However, without such data the academic community greatly suffers in their ability to

Eytan Adar

2007-01-01

372

Protect user anonymity in query log  

Microsoft Academic Search

The query logs provide to the research community a large amount of data which reflect the natural behavior of the user on the web. These data have many values and risks on user privacy. The use of these data has prompted several questions: The query logs owners are concerned by the security of their customers. But, academic, governmental and commercial

Anissa Mimi; Safia Nait Bahloul

2010-01-01

373

Query log analysis: social and technological challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of search engine query logs is an important tool for developers and researchers. However, the potentially personal content of query logs raises a number of questions about the use of that data. Privacy advocates are concerned about potential misuse of personal data; search engine providers are interested in protecting their users while maintaining a competitive edge; and academic researchers

G. Craig Murray; Jaime Teevan

2007-01-01

374

Data logging and inquiry learning in science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the postgraduate training of teachers in data logging and inquiry learning in science. Many of these teachers work at primary level and most have no background in science. Working in groups the teachers are given scientific questions of varying degrees of openness and personal relevance, that they are to investigate with the assistance of data logging. Although

John Gipps

2002-01-01

375

Permanence of the LOG-Normal Distribution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution of the sum of log-normal variates is shown for most cases of interest to be very accurately represented by a log-normal distribution instead of a normal or Rayleigh distribution that might be expected from the central limit theorem. As a ...

R. L. Mitchell

1968-01-01

376

Strong Approximation on LOG Dense Sets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extensions of classical probability limit theorems involving log average and log density are considered. The purpose is to extend Fisher's approximation theorem to i.i.d. sequences the set X(n) with EX (upper bound 2, lower bound 1) + infinity belonging t...

I. Berkes H. Dehling

1991-01-01

377

Statistical Analysis of Wireline Logging Data of the CRP3 Drillhole (Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drillhole CRP-3 in northern McMurdo Sound (Ross Sea, Antarctica) targeted the western margin of the Victoria Land basin to investigate Neogene to Palaeogene climate and tectonic history by obtaining continuous core and downhole logs. Well logging of CRP-3 has provided a complete and comprehensive data set of in situ geophysical measurements down to nearly the bottom of the hole (920

C. J. BÜCKER; R. D. JARRARD; F. NIESSEN; T. WONIK

378

COMPARISON OF ACOUSTIC AND ELECTRICAL IMAGE LOGS FROM THE COSO GEOTHERMAL FIELD, CA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical and acoustic image logs collected from well 58A-10 in crystalline rock on the eastern margin of the Coso Geothermal Field, CA, reveal different populations of planar structures intersecting the borehole. Electrical image logs appear to be sensitive to variations in mineralogy, porosity, and fluid content that highlight both natural fractures and rock fabrics. These fabric elements account for about

NICHOLAS C. DAVATZES; STEVE HICKMAN

379

Application research of the synthetic image segmentation algorithm on the multi-lens video logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current video logging system adopts a method by placing camera on the bottom of well to acquire the clear bottom hole image, but which can not obtain the clear image because the lens is placed along the hole axis direction.The Multi-lens video logging system which presented by the paper authors obtains image by means of placing multi grin lens along

Huiqin Jia; Zhouli Li; Weiguang Zhang

2010-01-01

380

Too quick? Log analysis of Quick Links from an academic library website  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To study the use of “Quick Links”, a common navigational element, in the context of an academic library website. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Transaction log files and web server logs are analyzed over a four-year period to detect patterns in Quick Link usage. Findings – Provides information about what Quick Links have been used over time, as well as the

Jimmy Ghaphery

2005-01-01

381

Changes in logging injury rates associated with use of feller-bunchers in West Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem: It is well documented that logging is one of the most dangerous occupations and industries in which to work, and trees fellers are at greatest risk of injury. The objective of this study was to determine whether West Virginia (WV) logging companies experienced a reduction in injuries after beginning to use feller-bunchers (tree cutting machines, which replace some of

Jennifer L. Bell

2002-01-01

382

Coal-log pipeline system development  

SciTech Connect

Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

Liu, H.

1991-12-01

383

Extended reach and horizontal wells experienced on the Statfjord field  

SciTech Connect

Statfjord field, the largest producing field in Europe, is located 200 km northwest of Bergen, Norway on the United Kingdom/Norwegian boundary. Statfjord field is being developed with three fully integrated platforms of concrete gravity based on Condeep design. The Statfjord field consists of four reservoirs: Upper Brent, Lower Brent, Dunlin, and Statfjord, which are developed separately. The overall objective for the horizontal and extended reach wells on Statfjord is to maximize the field recovery and accelerate production at a minimal cost. This is done by drilling extended reach wells to the far-away flanks of the field and drilling horizontal wells to drain fault blocks and erosion zones in the Brent reservoir and wedge zones in the Statfjord reservoir. To date, a total of 11 horizontal and extended reach wells have been drilled and completed on Statfjord field. The following have been key factors in drilling the horizontal and extended reach wells: well profile, torque and drag, equipment limitations, hole cleaning, hole stability, mud and cement programs, and surveying. To optimize the well profiles, extensive work has been put into simulating torque, drag, and ECDs. The well profiles are optimized with regards to drilling, completion, and workover, in addition to the reservoir targets. The completion is designed to be able to perform all future work through tubing. Factors like zone isolation requirements, well profile, casing program, logging/testing/perforating requirements, and sand production are considered when planning the completion. A 7 in. monobore completion string together with a 7 in. cemented liner is used to meet the completion objective. Several production logging tool, bridge plug, and perforation jobs have been performed on coiled tubing in horizontal wells on Statfjord field. Problems related to hole cleaning, well killing, fishing, and packer setting have been experienced during drilling and completion of the wells.

Kostol, P.; Tjotta, H. (Statoil, Stavanger (Norway))

1993-09-01

384

Rescue Equipment, Aircraft Crash.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Procedures are identified for evaluation of aircraft borne aircraft crash rescue equipment under simulated tactical conditions. Helicopter mounted rescue hoists and accessories are also included. (Author)

1971-01-01

385

Correlation of in vitro dissolution rate and apparent solubility in buffered media using a miniaturized rotating disk equipment: Part I. Comparison with a traditional USP rotating disk apparatus.  

PubMed

A correlation of the logarithmic values of the in vitro dissolution rate, G, and the apparent solubility, S, was evaluated in phosphate and ammonium acetate buffer at an initial pH of 7. The dissolution rates were determined with a newly designed and build miniaturized rotating disk equipment, as well as with a traditional rotating disk apparatus. The two apparatuses gave the same correlation pattern of logG and logS. Thirteen diverse drug substances from all of the classes in the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) were used for the correlation in the phosphate buffer system, with the results from the miniaturized apparatus only. A coefficient of determination, R2, of 0.982 was found if bases formulated as hydrochloride salts were excluded in the correlation. The miniaturized equipment is used for rapid screening of the dissolution rate, approximately 10 min for one run, and consumes small amounts of substance (about 5 mg) and dissolution media. All quantifications were performed by using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD), integrated with the miniaturized rotating disk equipment. PMID:22495538

Persson, A M; Sokolowski, A; Pettersson, C

2009-06-01

386

Evaluation of geophysical logs, Phase I, at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Between April and June 1997, the U.S. Navy contracted Brown and Root Environmental, Inc., to drill 20 monitor wells at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station in Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pa. The wells were installed to monitor water levels and allow collection of water samples from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones. Analysis of the samples will determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of any contaminated ground water migrating from known contaminant sources. Eight wells were drilled near the Fire Training Area (Site 5), five wells near the 9th Street Landfill (Site 3), four wells at the Antenna Field Landfill (Site 2), and three wells near Privet Road Compound (Site 1). Depths range from 73 to 167 feet below land surface. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted borehole-geophysical and borehole-video logging to identify water-bearing zones so that appropriate intervals could be screened in each monitor well. Geophysical logs were run on the 20 monitor wells and 1 existing well. Video logs were run on 16 wells. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluid-resistivity logs were used to locate possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller's notes, all wells were screened such that water-level fluctuations could be monitored and discrete water samples collected from one or more shallow and intermediate water-bearing zones in each borehole.

Conger, R. W.

1997-01-01

387

LEP accelerator logging system using on-line database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance and efficiency of LEP depend on a multitude of factors, including particle beam characteristics, physics parameters, hardware settings, and environmental conditions. Often, these factors interact in unexpected ways and affect the machine performance. In January 1992, a project was started to create a unique logging system using an on-line database. One year's worth of data was to be kept on-line, which was estimated to be a total of 8 GByte. The systems concerned are of different nature (particle beam profile, power converter current, meteorological data, magnet temperature, lep-mode, ...), require sampling at different frequencies (from seconds to several hours) and are of different sample size (from 10 MByte to 1 GByte per year). Major performance criteria included rapid logging of data for useful real-time monitoring of compound measurements, and rapid retrieval and correlation of large amounts of data for efficient off-line analysis. For the database design the NIAM methodology was used as well as some interesting techniques such as tagging the rows with timeslots instead of timestamps and row packing for storage minimisation. A complex structure of servers and clients takes care of data gathering, data logging and management of all real time measurement and logging requests. Several tools have been developed to make the data correlation transparent to non-database experts.

Billen, R.; Bordry, F.; Delamare, C.; Hatziangeli, E.; Roeber, F.

1994-12-01

388

Log-periodic self-similarity: an emerging financial law?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hypothesis that the financial log-periodicity, cascading self-similarly through various time scales, carries signatures of a law is pursued. It is shown that the most significant historical financial events can be classified amazingly well using a single and unique value of the preferred scaling factor /?=2, which indicates that its real value should be close to this number. This applies even to a declining decelerating log-periodic phase. Crucial in this connection is identification of a ``super-bubble'' (bubble on bubble) phenomenon. Identifying a potential ``universal'' preferred scaling factor, as undertaken here, may significantly improve the predictive power of the corresponding methodology. Several more specific related results include evidence that: the real end of the high technology bubble on the stock market started (with a decelerating log-periodic draw down) in the beginning of September 2000; a parallel 2000-2002 decline seen in the Standard & Poor's 500 from the log-periodic perspective is already of the same significance as the one of the early 1930s and of the late 1970s; all this points to a much more serious global crash in around 2025, of course from a level much higher (at least one order of magnitude) than in 2000.

Dro?d?, S.; Grümmer, F.; Ruf, F.; Speth, J.

2003-06-01

389

Log-amplitude statistics for Beck-Cohen superstatistics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a possible generalization of Beck-Cohen superstatistical processes, we study non-Gaussian processes with temporal heterogeneity of local variance. To characterize the variance heterogeneity, we define log-amplitude cumulants and log-amplitude autocovariance and derive closed-form expressions of the log-amplitude cumulants for ?2, inverse ?2, and log-normal superstatistical distributions. Furthermore, we show that ?2 and inverse ?2 superstatistics with degree 2 are closely related to an extreme value distribution, called the Gumbel distribution. In these cases, the corresponding superstatistical distributions result in the q-Gaussian distribution with q=5/3 and the bilateral exponential distribution, respectively. Thus, our finding provides a hypothesis that the asymptotic appearance of these two special distributions may be explained by a link with the asymptotic limit distributions involving extreme values. In addition, as an application of our approach, we demonstrated that non-Gaussian fluctuations observed in a stock index futures market can be well approximated by the ?2 superstatistical distribution with degree 2.

Kiyono, Ken; Konno, Hidetoshi

2013-05-01

390

Log-amplitude statistics for Beck-Cohen superstatistics.  

PubMed

As a possible generalization of Beck-Cohen superstatistical processes, we study non-Gaussian processes with temporal heterogeneity of local variance. To characterize the variance heterogeneity, we define log-amplitude cumulants and log-amplitude autocovariance and derive closed-form expressions of the log-amplitude cumulants for ?(2), inverse ?(2), and log-normal superstatistical distributions. Furthermore, we show that ?(2) and inverse ?(2) superstatistics with degree 2 are closely related to an extreme value distribution, called the Gumbel distribution. In these cases, the corresponding superstatistical distributions result in the q-Gaussian distribution with q=5/3 and the bilateral exponential distribution, respectively. Thus, our finding provides a hypothesis that the asymptotic appearance of these two special distributions may be explained by a link with the asymptotic limit distributions involving extreme values. In addition, as an application of our approach, we demonstrated that non-Gaussian fluctuations observed in a stock index futures market can be well approximated by the ?(2) superstatistical distribution with degree 2. PMID:23767484

Kiyono, Ken; Konno, Hidetoshi

2013-05-06

391

The STAR ESL, electronic shift and handover log  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Keeping a clear and accurate experiment log is important for any scientific experiment. The concept is certainly not new but keeping accurate while useful records for a Nuclear Physics experiment such as the Solenoidal Tracker at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (STAR at RHIC) is not a priori a simple matter - STAR operates 24 hours a day for six months out of the year with more than 24 shift crews operating 16 different subsystems (some located remotely). To meet the challenge of not only logging the information but passing it in a concise manner from one shift to another, the STAR experiment has designed an Electronic Shift-Log (ESL), a flexible application written in Java and interfacing with the Data Acquisition tools, Quality Assurance reporting, Online shift crews or remote personnel and experts as well as including features such as shift change-over (or handover) forms, tailored to the sub-group of interest. We will present an overview of STAR's Electronic Log, a system that is clear, reliable, safe, consistent, easy to use and globally viewable in real time with secure connections.

Hajdu, L.; Lauret, J.

2008-07-01

392

Correlation of wireline log characteristics with hydrothermal alteration and other reservoir properties of the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal fields, Imperial Valley, California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed study of wireline logs from 11 wells in the Salton Sea and Westmorland geothermal systems was undertaken in order to determine the effects of hydrothermal alteration on the response of electrical and gamma-gamma density well logs. For the Salton Sea geothermal field, definite correspondence between log responses and hydrothermal mineralogy is evident, which in turn is related to

F. S. Muramoto; W. A. Elders

1984-01-01

393

Astronomical Equipment for Amateurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telescopes - refractors and reflectors - are the main items of equipment used by almost every amateur astronomer. The purpose of astronomical telescopes is to collect and focus more light than the human eye can, forming an image that can be viewed, photographed, or analysed. Astronomical Equipment for Amateurs makes buying and using both telescopes and their ancillary instruments easy

Martin Mobberley

1999-01-01

394

Selecting WP Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Suggestions for schools considering the purchase of word processing equipment are presented. Procedures for selecting equipment include getting information on prices, servicing, warranties, training, speed of printing, and quality of output. Choices to make include brand vs. service, price vs. service, and variety vs. limitations of brands. (CT)|

Casady, Mona J.

1981-01-01

395

SILEX Beacon Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function ...

P. Crepin P. Leblay R. Haller I. Tremillon J. Sonon

1990-01-01

396

Shipboard Electronic Equipments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

397

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents several new products and equipment for teaching college science courses such as laser optics bench, portable digital thermometer, solar energy furnaces and blackboard optics kit. A description of all equipment or products, cost, and addresses of manufacturers are also included. (HM)|

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1977-01-01

398

AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT STANDARDS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|SEPARATE LISTINGS ARE MADE OF AUDIOVISUAL EQUIPMENT RECOMMENDED FOR USE IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS (KINGERGARTEN THROUGH GRADE 6) AND IN JUNIOR AND SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS. STANDARDS FOR EACH PIECE OF EQUIPMENT ARE RECOMMENDED. TO MAKE STANDARDS MORE LOGICAL AND REASONABLE, THE FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS WERE MADE--THAT EACH SCHOOL HAVE ADEQUATE STORAGE…

PATTERSON, PIERCE E.; AND OTHERS

399

Equipment Operator 1 & C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package to assist Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief in fulfilling the requirements of their rating. (Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in construction, earthmoving, roadbuilding, quarrying, and…

Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

400

Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

2012-11-01

401

The cost of carbon retention by reduced impact logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced impact logging (RIL) is one means of reducing the carbon emissions held responsible for global warming. It may also reduce other adverse logging effects. A study of RIL’s effects in Sabah, Malaysia, found 44% reduction of area logged within a tract, 22% reduction in timber yield per logged hectare, and 18% increase in cost per m3 logged compared with

John R. Healey; Colin Price; John Tay

2000-01-01

402

Logging effects on soil moisture losses  

Treesearch

Title: Logging effects on soil moisture losses ... of soil moisture within the surface 15 feet by an isolated mature sugar pine and an adjacent uncut ... required for the wetting front to progress through the unsaturated zone above the water table.

403

Selective logging and its relation to deforestation  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... Title: Selective logging and its relation to deforestation. Author: Asner ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

404

CMLOG: A common message logging system  

SciTech Connect

The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems.

Chen, J.; Akers, W.; Bickley, M.; Wu, D.; Watson, W. III [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States). Control Software Group

1997-12-01

405

Using Work Sampling to Analyze Logging Operations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various time study methods for determining efficiency and productivity in logging. The work sampling method is compared with the continuous time-study method; gives the feasibility, capability, and ...

E. S. Miyata H. M. Stienhib S. A. Winsauer

1981-01-01

406

Formation mechanical properties and the sonic log  

SciTech Connect

A program is presented that calculates the mechanical properties of reservoir rocks from sonic logs. The program was written in Microsoft BASIC and the source code for MS-DOS, Apple Macintosh, and Amiga personal computers is given.

Elphick, R.Y.

1988-11-01

407

Logging safety in forest management education - Treesearch  

Treesearch

... for careers in forestry by teaching a combination of biological sciences (e.g., silvics ... This paper illustrates the ethical and economic importance of logging safety to ... and advocates incorporating safety issues into existing forestry courses.

408

Logging-while-coring method and apparatus  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for downhole coring while receiving logging-while-drilling tool data. The apparatus includes core collar and a retrievable core barrel. The retrievable core barrel receives core from a borehole which is sent to the surface for analysis via wireline and latching tool The core collar includes logging-while-drilling tools for the simultaneous measurement of formation properties during the core excavation process. Examples of logging-while-drilling tools include nuclear sensors, resistivity sensors, gamma ray sensors, and bit resistivity sensors. The disclosed method allows for precise core-log depth calibration and core orientation within a single borehole, and without at pipe trip, providing both time saving and unique scientific advantages.

Goldberg, David S. (New York, NY); Myers, Gregory J. (Cornwall, NY)

2007-11-13

409

Log-based transactional workflow mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous evolution of business process parameters, constraints and needs, hardly foreseeable initially, requires a continuous\\u000a design from the business process management systems. In this article we are interested in developing a reactive design through\\u000a process log analysis ensuring process re-engineering and execution reliability. We propose to analyse workflow logs to discover\\u000a workflow transactional behaviour and to subsequently improve and

Walid Gaaloul; Khaled Gaaloul; Sami Bhiri; Armin Haller; Manfred Hauswirth

2009-01-01

410

Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemys?aw

411

DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system  

SciTech Connect

A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 ..mu..CGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 ..mu..CGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists.

Emilia, D.A.; Allen, J.W.; Chessmore, R.B.; Wilson, R.B.

1981-03-01

412

Planar channelized log-periodic antenna  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the design, simulation, and measurement of a dual linearly polarized log-periodic antenna matched to a log-periodic channelizing filter through a tapered microstrip balun. The design can be implemented monolithically. A prototype of the channelized antenna, which operates over 1 - 5 GHz, is realized on printed circuit board with a dielectric constant of 4.5. Because we designed the

G. Engargiola; W. Holzapfel; A. Lee; M. J. Myers; R. O'Brient; P. L. Richards; H. Tran; H. Spieler

2005-01-01

413

Three dimensional interpretations of single-well electromagnetic data for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

An efficient 3-D electromagnetic (EM) inversion algorithm has been developed for geothermal applications and tested successfully using a set of single-hole EM logging data. The data was collected at an oil field undergoing CO{sub 2} injection in southern California using a single-hole EM tool, Geo-BILT, developed by Electromagnetic Instruments, Inc (EMI). The tool is equipped with a multi-component source, and multi-component receivers at different separations. The inversion result provides a reasonable electrical conductivity image to a distance of 10 m from the well, and illustrates several zones with lateral conductivity variations that could not be resolved with traditional induction logging tools. The successful case study demonstrates potential applications of the tool and software for characterizing fracture systems in geothermal reservoirs.

Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha

2004-01-09

414

A fast algorithm for three-dimensional interpretations ofsingle-well electromagnetic data  

SciTech Connect

An efficient inversion algorithm has been developed forthree-dimensional (3D) interpretations for single-hole electromagnetic(EM) logging data based on a modified extended Born approximation (MEBA)scheme. The single-hole data was collected at an oil field undergoing CO2injection in southern California using a tool, Geo-BILT, developed byElectromagnetic Instruments, Inc (EMI). The tool is equipped with amulti-component source, and an array of multi-component receivers atdifferent separations. The inversion result provides a reasonableelectrical conductivity image to a distance of 10 m from the well, andillustrates several zones with lateral conductivity variations that couldnot be resolved with traditional induction logging tools. The computercost of the inversion processes can be further reduced using a trivialmulti-grid methodology.

Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha

2004-09-17

415

47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claims. (b) Logs may be retained...data-storage systems subject to the...Reproduction of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size...requirements relating to logs). (ii) After...data-storage system, by...

2009-10-01

416

47 CFR 73.1840 - Retention of logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...claims. (b) Logs may be retained...data-storage systems subject to the...Reproduction of logs, stored on data-storage systems, to full-size...requirements relating to logs). (ii) After...data-storage system, by...

2010-10-01

417

Log sampling methods and software for stand and landscape ...  

Treesearch

Nov 16, 2010 ... Description: We describe methods for efficient, accurate sampling of logs at ... that have low log abundance compared to values in a land management plan. ... Analysis of log data requires SnagPRO, a user-friendly software ...

418

Environmental Effects of Postfire Logging: Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The scientific literature on logging after wildfire is reviewed, with a focus on environmental effects of logging and removal of large woody structure. Rehabilitation, the practice of planting or seeding after logging, is not reviewed here. Several public...

J. D. McIver L. Starr

2000-01-01

419

A sampling approach to estimate the log determinant used in spatial likelihood problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Likelihood-based methods for modeling multivariate Gaussian spatial data have desirable statistical characteristics, but the practicality of these methods for massive georeferenced data sets is often questioned. A sampling algorithm is proposed that exploits a relationship involving log-pivots arising from matrix decompositions used to compute the log determinant term that appears in the model likelihood. We demonstrate that the method can be used to successfully estimate log-determinants for large numbers of observations. Specifically, we produce an log-determinant estimate for a 3,954,400 by 3,954,400 matrix in less than two minutes on a desktop computer. The proposed method involves computations that are independent, making it amenable to out-of-core computation as well as to coarse-grained parallel or distributed processing. The proposed technique yields an estimated log-determinant and associated confidence interval.

Pace, R. Kelley; Lesage, James P.

2009-09-01

420

Electronic Equipment Maintainability Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the first of a series of maintainability data publications at the system/equipment level. Other volumes prepared by the Reliability Analysis Center consider reliability of digital microcircuits, discrete semiconductors (including optoelectronic an...

N. B. Fuqua

1980-01-01

421

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)|

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1979-01-01

422

Cleaning supplies and equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... disinfect means to clean something to destroy germs. Disinfectants are the cleaning solutions that are used to ... solution carefully. You may need to allow the disinfectant to dry on the equipment for a set ...

423

Laboratory Equipment in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The specific objectives of the study were to analyze the potential markets and marketing factors in this country for precision, high-speed laboratory equipment with particular reference to marketing opportunities for American products. The report is the s...

1966-01-01

424

Selecting Home Exercise Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... and a bench rather than a weight resistance machine? Are you buying equipment based on advertising claims? ... strength you will require. Elliptical/cross-trainers. These machines provide a low impact cardiovascular workout. In addition ...

425

Orbital Construction Support Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Approximately 200 separate construction steps were defined for the three solar power satellite (SPS) concepts. Detailed construction scenarios were developed which describe the specific tasks to be accomplished, and identify general equipment requirements...

1977-01-01

426

Commercial Cooking Equipment Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the efforts of a project aimed at improving the thermal efficiency of gas-fired commercial cooking equipment, specifically the development of a commercial open top section employing powered burners and the development of means for ap...

R. L. Himmel

1983-01-01

427

Commercial Cooking Equipment Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the continuing efforts of a project aimed at improving the efficiency of gas-fired commercial cooking equipment. It specifically discusses work on deep fat fryers, range oven sections, range open top sections, range hot top sections,...

R. L. Himmel

1981-01-01

428

Lubricants for sports equipment  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The invention relates to polychlorotrifluoroethylenes (PCTFE) for improving the gliding properties of sports equipment and, in particular, winter sports equipment, to compositions containing the same, and to their use for this purpose. The polychlorotrifluoroethylenes are, in particular, polychlorotrifluoroethylenes which have a molecular weight selected so that they have a pourpoint in the range from -70.degree. C. to 200.degree. C. (-94.degree. F. to 392.degree. F.), and preferably from 0.degree. C. to 100.degree. C. (32 to 212.degree. F.).

Schutz; Markus (Stuttgart, DE); Bender; Holger (Backnang, DE)

2010-02-02

429

In situ mineralogy and permeability logs from downhole measurements: Application to a case study in chlorite-coated sandstones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-logging techniques provide continuous profiles of various in situ physical properties like the bulk density, the photoelectric effect, and the natural gamma radioactivity of geological formations. Our purpose is to use this information to determine a continuous profile of the mineralogy with depth. The well-log derived mineralogy is then combined with a petrophysical model to infer continuous permeability and saturation

A. Rabaute; A. Revil; E. Brosse

2003-01-01

430

Field Demonstration of Slim-hole Borehole Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logging Tool for Groundwater Investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods provide estimates of free and bound water content and hydraulic conductivity, which are critically important for groundwater investigations. Borehole NMR tools have been available and widely used in the oil industry for decades, but only recently have been designed for small diameter boreholes typical of groundwater investigations. Field tests of an 89-mm-diameter borehole NMR logging tool are presented. This borehole NMR logging tool was developed for economical NMR logging of 100- to 200-mm-diameter boreholes, and specifically for characterizing hydraulic properties in the top 200 m of the subsurface. The tool has a vertical resolution of 0.5 m, a minimum echo spacing of 2.0 ms, and a radial depth of investigation of 178 to 203 mm, which typically is beyond the annulus of observation wells. It takes about 15 minutes to collect a data sample for each 0.5-m interval. The borehole NMR logging tool was field tested during spring 2010, in PVC-cased wells at sites in East Haddam and Storrs, Connecticut; Cape Cod, Massachusetts; Lexington, Nebraska; Lawrence, Kansas; and Rifle, Colorado. NMR logging yielded estimates of bound water, free water, and total-water content, as well as continuous distributions of water content versus transverse relaxation time (T2) at all depth levels. The derived water-content data were compared to the available ground-truth hydrogeologic data from each well, including drilling logs, neutron and other geophysical logs, and direct measurements of hydraulic conductivity. The results indicate that the borehole NMR logging tool provides information on porosity, pore-size distribution, and estimated hydraulic conductivity that cannot be duplicated by any other single geophysical logging tool.

Walsh, D.; Turner, P.; Frid, I.; Shelby, R.; Grunewald, E. D.; Magnuson, E.; Butler, J. J.; Johnson, C. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Woodward, D. A.; Williams, K. H.; Lane, J. W.

2010-12-01

431

30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations...on cementing, acidizing, analyses of cores, testing, or other similar services...operations, directional-well surveys, and core analyses. Composite logs of...

2013-07-01

432

Slimhole Drilling, Logging, and Completion Technology - An Update  

SciTech Connect

Using slim holes (diameter < 15 cm) for geothermal exploration and small-scale power production can produce significant cost savings compared to conventional rotary-drilling methods. In addition, data obtained from slim holes can be used to lower the risks and costs associated with the drilling and completion of large-diameter geothermal wells. As a prime contractor to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories has worked with industry since 1992 to develop and promote drilling, testing, and logging technology for slim holes. This paper describes the current status of work done both in-house and contracted to industry. It focuses on drilling technology, case histories of slimhole drilling projects, data collection and rig instrumentation, and high-temperature logging tools.

FINGER,JOHN T.; JACOBSON,RONALD D.

1999-10-07

433

Spatial distribution of reservoir properties using seismic attributes correlated to log properties  

SciTech Connect

Reservoir description maps have traditionally been generated using seismic data in succession with well log data. Integrating well logs with seismic maps in a separate step is not taking advantage of all the information contained within a 3-D data set. This paper describes a technique that statistically correlates seismic and log data to produce integrated maps of reservoir frequencies with increased resolution and confidence. The procedure involves first matching 3-D seismic with borehole seismic data. Then a statistical correlation is attempted between seismic attributes including amplitude, impedance, velocity, etc., and log properties such as porosity, water saturation, net to gross, bulk water volume, etc. at the well intersections. A multivariant function of the correlations is then derived. This function is applied to seismic data to produce reservoir property maps. This technique has been applied to 3-D data from Indonesia. Results and problems in estimating the functional relationship are discussed.

Dickerman, K.; Caamano, E. (Conoco Indonesia Inc., Jakarta (Malaysia)); Gir, R. (P.T. Schlumberger Geophysics Nusantara, Jakarta (Malaysia))

1994-07-01

434

Listing of Food Service Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

435

Post-Wildfire (Salvage) Logging - The Controversy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module is the fifth in the Fire Ecology and Management Series. The question of whether or not to remove trees after a wildfire is among the most contentious issues related to wildfire management. This lecture-based module examines our current state of knowledge on post-fire salvage logging and restoration. A PowerPoint presentation describes the arguments in support of, and those in opposition to, salvage logging. These arguments are then evaluated in the context of findings from recent scientific investigations. This research challenges some long-held beliefs regarding the benefits of salvage logging as a tool of post-fire management. Students are asked to develop their own views on this complex issue.

2010-08-19

436

Spreadsheet log analysis in subsurface geology  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Most of the direct knowledge of the geology of the subsurface is gained from the examination of core and drill-cuttings recovered from boreholes drilled by the petroleum and water industries. Wireline logs run in these same boreholes generally have been restricted to tasks of lithostratigraphic correlation and thee location of hydrocarbon pay zones. However, the range of petrophysical measurements has expanded markedly in recent years, so that log traces now can be transformed to estimates of rock composition. Increasingly, logs are available in a digital format that can be read easily by a desktop computer and processed by simple spreadsheet software methods. Taken together, these developments offer accessible tools for new insights into subsurface geology that complement the traditional, but limited, sources of core and cutting observations.

Doveton, J. H.

2000-01-01

437

LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time…

Honerman, James

1999-01-01

438

LIS is More: Improved Diagnostic Logging in Sensor Networks with Log Instrumentation Specifications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed diagnostic data is a prerequisite for de- bugging problems and understanding runtime performance in distributed embedded wireless systems. Severe bandwidth lim- itations, tight timing constraints, and limited program text space hinder the application of standard diagnostic tools within this domain. Our work introduces the Log Instrumentation Specification (LIS) that drives insertion of low overhead logging calls into a system.

Roy She; Mani Srivastava

439

LogSafe and Smart: Minnesota OSHA's LogSafe Program Takes Root.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Logging is now the most dangerous U.S. occupation. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed specialized safety training for the logging industry but has been challenged to reach small operators. An OSHA-approved state program in Minnesota provides annual safety seminars to about two-thirds of the state's full-time…

Honerman, James

1999-01-01

440

Algorithm 762: LLDRLF, log-likelihood and some derivatives for log-F models  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flexible statistical models incorporating the log-F distribution are little used because of numeric difficulties. We describe a method for calculating the log-likelihood and two derivatives with respect to the data argument. Fortran subroutines incorporating these calculations are provided.

Barry W. Brown; Lawrence B. Levy; James Lovato; Kathy Russell; Floyd M. Spears

1996-01-01

441

About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... I share personal protective equipment with other users? Q. What is personal protective equipment? A. Personal protective ... protect the wearer from serious injuries or illnesses. Q. How does personal protective equipment help prevent the ...

442

Influences of depositional environment and diagenesis on geophysical log response in the South Carolina Coastal Plain: effects of sedimentary fabric and mineralogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretations of depositional environments and hydrologic units are made routinely from the study of geophysical well logs. Spontaneous potential (SP) and resistivity logs can be used as indicators of textural parameters. Gamma-ray logs denote lithologic zones based on the presence of radioactive material, particularly in fine-grained sediments. On the South Carolina Coastal Plain, surficial fluvially derived cobbles, sands and clays

Donald L. Siron; Marylin P. Segall

1997-01-01

443

The scale-up behavior of coal logs for the coal log pipeline technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coal Log Pipeline (CLP) refers to a new technology for the transportation of coal, which has been developing in the USA over the past several years, and is expected to be used on a commercial scale within the next few years. In a CLP system, coal is prepared in the form of circular cylinders, coal logs, so that the coal can be transported through an underground or overland pipeline. One of the major requirements in the CLP technology is to produce strong and durable coal logs, which can endure a long distance trip through water pipelines without breaking and with a minimum amount of weight loss. To reach this goal, research has taken place on several fabrication methods, such as compaction and extrusion, and good-quality coal logs with a diameter range of 1.8-in. to 5.4-in. have been made, using a simple compaction technique. However, for a commercial application, the size (diameter) of coal logs is expected to be much larger than the range studied in this research, therefore, the relationship in terms of quality between small and large coal logs needs to be investigated in both fabrication process and pipeline transportation operation. This dissertation describes the research work conducted on investigating scale-up behavior of coal logs during fabrication and pipeline transportation, based on the experiments from two different size coal log and pipeline loop systems. The research work covers the scaling-up effect on the strength from 1.8-in. to 5.4-in. coal logs, and on the coal log wearability during pipeline transportation from a 2-in. and a 6-in. loop.

Zhao, Bing

2000-11-01

444

Performance and Improved Design of the Log Spiral of Revolution Monochromator  

SciTech Connect

We show that, whereas the present log spiral of revolution monochromator works well for Cr edges of 2.8% Cr2O3 in a V2O3 matrix, the device transmits noticeable V extended structure in the case of 0.365% Cr2O3. We demonstrate that the transmitted V extended structure is due to the V K{beta} line which is unresolved by the monochromator. It is suggested that this limitation may be overcome by designing a log spiral detector for the Cr K{beta} line rather than the Cr K{alpha} line. Aspects of the design of this modified log spiral are discussed.

Pease, D. M.; Shanthakumar, P.; Huang, T.; Budnick, J. I.; Odong, O. [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Frenkel, A. I.; Abitbol, N. [Physics Department, Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Balasubramanian, M.; Brewer, D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2007-02-02

445

Determination of organic-matter content of Appalachian Devonian shales from gamma-ray logs.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The organic-matter content of the Devonian shale of the Appalachian basin is important for assessing natural-gas resources. In most of the western part of the Appalachian basin the organic-matter content of the Devonian shale can be estimated from gamma-ray wire-line logs. Organic-matter contents estimated using these logs are compared with determinations from direct laboratory analyses of organic carbon for 74 intervals of varying thickness from 12 widely separated wells. The cumulative pool of gamma-ray logs for the Devonian shale forms a large and geographically broad data base. The approach may also be applicable to other formations.-from Author

Schmoker, J. W.

1981-01-01

446

Equipment Operational Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

2009-06-11

447

Surface coal mining machinery and equipment. Open file report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface coal mining equipment was studied to determine existing equipment practices and technology and its compatibility with mining techniques and reclamation requirements. In addition, the availability and economics of alternative equipment types were documented as well as the identification of needed research in earth-handling technology to increase coal production and productivity. (GRA)

Habeck

1975-01-01

448

Client-Based Logging for High Performance Distributed Architectures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose logging and recovery algorithmsfor distributed architectures that use local diskspace to provide transactional facilities locally. Eachnode has its own log file where all log records for updatesto locally cached pages are written. Transactionrollback and node crash recovery are handled exclusivelyby each node and log files are not merged atany time. Our algorithms do not require

Euthimios Panagos; Alexandros Biliris; H. V. Jagadish; Rajeev Rastogi

1996-01-01

449

Log analysis of subsurface geology: Concepts and computer methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a text for engineers\\/graduate students studying petroleum engineering. It provides introduction to log analysis and review of logging tools. It describes common graphical methods of multiple log interpretation, basic concepts of matrix algebra, and examples of statistical analysis and signal processing techniques. It reviews remedial methods directed to the suppression of measurement error associated with logs. The mapping

Doveton

1986-01-01

450

Analysis of open hole logs in the Miocene Stevens Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The analysis of open-hole logs in the Stevens Sands is difficult because of the mineralogical composition of the sands and the corresponding effects on the logging tools. Logging parameters presumed in other sandstone reservoirs may not be appropriate to the Stevens and may cause the log analysis to underestimate productive zones. Without the integration of full core data and knowledge

1991-01-01

451

Conserving tigers Panthera tigris in selectively logged Sumatran forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of most large carnivores to selective logging is poorly understood. On the one hand, selective logging may represent loss of important habitat, yet, on the other hand, selective logging may increase browse availability for a terrestrial ungulate prey base, thereby indirectly benefiting large carnivores. Using a camera trap-based sampling method, we estimate tiger density in two primary-selectively logged

Matthew Linkie; Iding Achmad Haidir; Agung Nugroho; Yoan Dinata

2008-01-01

452

Manage equipment failure investigation  

SciTech Connect

Determining the cause of plant equipment failure may be relatively easy or it may involve complex laboratory testing and analysis. Given the variety of situations requiring plant equipment failure investigation, a systematic process for managing failure investigations is desirable. Guidelines and check lists are useful. Systematic execution of the recommendations and guidelines in this article should lead to successful and cost-effective failure investigations. A generic check list for executing the process is provided in Table 1 and a generic work scope for a failure investigation is provided in Table 2.

McHaney, J.H. [Metallurgical Consultants, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Williamson, G.C. [ARCO Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-01-01

453

SILEX Beacon equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function is to provide a continuous wave light beam towards the LEO or GEO1 satellites during the acquisition phases. The design was experimentally validated with a functional breadboard, and test results demonstrated the feasibility of every performance required by the SILEX system.

Crepin, Pierre-Jean; Leblay, Pierrick; Haller, Regine; Tremillon, Isabelle; Sonon, Jean-Pierre

1990-07-01

454

On Efficient Confidence Intervals for the Log-Normal Mean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data obtained in biomedical research is often skewed. Examples include the incubation period of diseases like HIV/AIDS and the survival times of cancer patients. Such data, especially when they are positive and skewed, is often modeled by the log-normal distribution. If this model holds, then the log transformation produces a normal distribution. We consider the problem of constructing confidence intervals for the mean of the log-normal distribution. Several methods for doing this are known, including at least one estimator that performed better than Coxxs method for small sample sizes. We also construct a modified version of Coxxs method. Using simulation, we show that, when the sample size exceeds 30, it leads to confidence intervals that have good overall properties and are better than Coxxs method. More precisely, the actual coverage probability of our method is closer to the nominal coverage probability than is the case with Coxxs method. In addition, the new method is computationally much simpler than other well-known methods.

Chami, Peter; Antoine, Robin; Sahai, Ashok

455

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing  

SciTech Connect

The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

Burdick, A.

2012-02-01

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Chiral logs and the quenched approximation on the lattice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phenomenological success of the quenched approximation has been impressive in obtaining accurate results for the mass spectrum and other aspects of hadron structure. However, an independent theoretical estimate of the systematic error introduced by quenching is still missing. To this end, it can be useful to consider chiral theories which, at the one-loop level, introduced peculiar non analytical terms (the so-called chiral logs). Sharpe showed that when this framework is adapted to the quenched approximation, the dependence of the pion mass squared on the quark mass can be described by an anomalous power ? (the 'hairpin' diagram on the pion mass shell) associated with flavor singlet loops and enhanced chiral logs. Treating the hairpin as a momentum independent mass insertion, he estimated ??0.2. However, numerical calculations in quenched lattice quantum chromodynamics show little or no evidence for chiral logs at such a level. The following work determines the anomalous power numerically by studying the pion mass as a function of the bare quark mass, as well as its volume dependence. Sources of systematic error are carefully examined. Last, the coefficient of the chiral log is calculated from the two quark-loops pion propagator. The results consistently indicate a value for the anomalous power that is approximately one order of magnitude smaller than the earlier theoretical estimate, in particular/delta = 0.013(2)From this one can see that for all pion masses considered, the systematic error introduced by quenching is small and always within the statistical error. Finally, by a direct calculation of the topological susceptibility of the lattice configurations, I conclude that the reason why the anomalous power is so small is a strong momentum dependence giving rise to a suppression of the hairpin at momenta comparable with the pion mass.

Perrucci, Stefania

1997-12-01

457

There's Life in Those Dead Logs!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although it is unspectacular in appearance, dead wood is one of the most ecologically important resources in forests. Fallen logs, dead standing trees, stumps, and even cavities in live trees fulfill a wide range of roles. Prominent among these is that they provide habitat for many organisms, especially insects. Fourth-grade students at Fox…

Biggs, Devin; Miller, Todd; Hall, Dee

2006-01-01

458

Milankovitch climate cycles in ODP wireline logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orbitally induced climatic rhythms can cause cyclical variations in the physical properties or mineralogy of deep-sea sediments. Regional variations in the climatic factors controlling sedimentation (e.g., rainfall, temperature, or current patterns) are likely to cause regional variations in the mineralogic signature of Milankovitch orbital cycles. Downhold geophysical logs, routinely recorded during ODP, continuously sample changes in sediment properties and mineralogy

R. D. Jarrard; X. Golovchenko

1988-01-01

459

Developments in elemental concentration logging and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is noted that the past decade has seen a dramatic growth of gamma-ray spectroscopy logging as a tool for solving geophysical problems. Developments have provided absolute elemental concentrations for a larger set of elements, using elemental analysis (including tracers) for solving many specific oil-field problems and providing a basis, through geochemical research, for developing a wide range of applications