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1

Tests pits for calibrating well logging equipment in fractured hard-rock environment  

SciTech Connect

The calibration facility consists of three pits containing fine-grained granite, coarse-grained granite, and medium-grained metamorphosed granodiorite. Each pit contains large quarried blocks of rock that are 8 ft octagons and form a 20 ft stack. The blocks are saturated with water and sealed in watertight fiberglass containers that are recessed so that the top of the upper block is approximately level with the ground. The blocks contain simulated fractures that are formed by the joints between the blocks and by saw cuts at several locations. Cored boreholes through the blocks are 7 7/8 in. in diameter, with a fiberglass-cased ''rat hole'' extending 30 ft below the bottom block. Laboratory and well logging studies (United States Geological Society, Schlumberger, and Dresser Atlas logs) have been made to determine the physical properties of rocks in the three pits, and preliminary results are reported. Porosities of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 1 ft intervals in the three pits range from 0.00 to 0.90%, densities from 2.64 to 2.79 g/cm/sup 3/, and sonic velocities from 18,700 to 22,500 ft/sec. Radio-element of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 5 ft intervals from these test pits range from 0.62 to 4.08% K (potassium) content, from 0.34 to 5.01 ppM RaeU (uranium) content and from 0.46 to 19.6 ppM Th (thorium) content. Access to the pits for calibrating well logging equipment can be arranged by contacting the United States Geological Survey (phone number 303-236-5913) in Denver, Colorado. 4 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.H.; LaDelfe, C.M.

1985-01-01

2

Well log formation evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of well logging tools, techniques, and well logging analysis principles is presented. Because no single well logging tool has been developed to measure all the physical properties of rock needed for detailed analysis, tool combinations that will measure porosity, water saturation, hydrocarbons in place, etc. have been developed for various geologic targets. Recently, computers have played an increasingly

Merkel

1979-01-01

3

Injection Well Logging Using Viscous EOR Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new tool has been developed that overcomes problems associated with logging injection wells in the presence of viscous fluids. The tool was evaluated in the laboratory and the field in water and polymer injection wells. Results indicate that the tool provides better information than conventional equipment. Special attention to log interpretation is required in zones where the flow pattern

Bruce Knight; Mohammad Davarzani

1986-01-01

4

Advances in Openhole Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Openhole well logging comprises a broad spectrum of measurements that includes mud, measurement-while-drilling (MWD), and conventional wireline logs. These measurements are the primary source of formation evaluation data used in applications ranging from individual drilling-well appraisals to comprehensive reservoir description studies. Openhole well-logging technology continues to evolve to address the needs for improved accuracy in measuring reservoir properties. Numerous technology

R. D. Felder

1994-01-01

5

Well Logging with Californium-252  

SciTech Connect

Californium-252 is an intense neutron emitter that has only recently become available for experimental well logging. The purpose of this research is to investigate the application of well logging to groundwater hydrology; however, most of the techniques and purposes are quite similar to applications in the petroleum industry.

Boulogne, A.R.

2003-01-06

6

Well logging: Rock properties, borehole environment, mud and temperature logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book offers an introduction to principles of formation evaluation by well logging plus details of mud and temperature logs. The monograph provides a state-of-the-art update for practicing logging engineers and standard reference for all petroleum engineers and log analysts. The ultimate objective of well logging is to evaluate subsurface formations, and this text describes data gathering methods and engineering

J. R. Jorden; F. L. Campbell

1985-01-01

7

Tar sand evaluation using geophysical well logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical well logging can provide a record of the lithological variations and oil yield of tar sands. Probes lowered into bore holes at the end of insulated cables yield such records as the spontaneous potential log, the focused resistivity log, the gamma-ray log, the acoustic log and the neutron log. The accuracy of correlations between gamma-ray log response and fines

WALTER H. FERTL; GEORGE V. CHILINGARIAN

1978-01-01

8

Geological well log analysis. Third ed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, well logs have mainly been used for correlation, structural mapping, and quantitive evaluation of hydrocarbon bearing formations. This third edition of Geologic Well Log Analysis, however, describes how well logs can be used for geological studies and mineral exploration. This is done by analyzing well logs for numerous parameters and indices of significant mineral accumulation, primarily in sediments.

Pirson

1983-01-01

9

Using Well Logs in the Petroleum Industry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise shows how well logs are used in the petroleum industry. It is designed as a first exposure to well logs for undergraduate geology majors and introduces not only well logs and their interpretation as proxies for stratigraphic sections, but also investigates concepts of porosity and permeability, oil reservoirs, and structural traps.

Borowski, Walter

10

Chemical logging of geothermal wells  

DOEpatents

The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1981-01-01

11

Theory of equivalent artificial networks simulating the subsurface formations, and their application in electric well logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well logging is the basic source of continuous information, along the borehole axis, in evaluating oil and gas-bearing formations. Thus, the accuracy of well logging equipment is of utmost importance. In this paper an electric network is suggested for the calibration of electric well logging equipment and the examination of their accuracy and reliability. The electric connection between the downhole

Barlai

1979-01-01

12

Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs  

SciTech Connect

The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

Izotova, T.S. (Ukrainian State Geological Research Institute, Kiev (Ukraine))

1993-09-01

13

Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

2013-09-01

14

Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The "standard" and "quick look" Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

Collett, T.S.

1998-01-01

15

Well log evaluation of gas hydrate saturations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The amount of gas sequestered in gas hydrates is probably enormous, but estimates are highly speculative due to the lack of previous quantitative studies. Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation within a given geologic setting are dependent on a number of reservoir parameters; one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well logging devices. The primary objective of this study was to develop quantitative well-log evaluation techniques which will permit the calculation of gas-hydrate saturations in gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary units. The `standard' and `quick look' Archie relations (resistivity log data) yielded accurate gas-hydrate and free-gas saturations within all of the gas hydrate accumulations assessed in the field verification phase of the study. Compressional wave acoustic log data have been used along with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate accurate gas-hydrate saturations in this study. The well log derived gas-hydrate saturations calculated in the field verification phase of this study, which range from as low as 2% to as high as 97%, confirm that gas hydrates represent a potentially important source of natural gas.

Collett, Timothy S.

1998-01-01

16

Automatic Determination of Lithology From Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure combining modern wireline measurements with a lithofacies data base has been developed to produce an automatic lithologic description of the formations crossed by a well. The database lithofacies are defined from petrographic knowledge and translated in terms of log responses. The assignment of depth levels to a lithofacies is done with the data base and with a discriminating

Pierre Delfiner; Olivier Peyret; Oberto Serra

1987-01-01

17

Selecting Aquifer Wells for Planned Gyroscopic Logging  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the configuration of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer's water table is made difficult, in part, due to borehole deviation in aquifer wells. A borehole has deviation if it is not vertical or straight. Deviation impairs the analysis of water table elevation measurements because it results in measurements that are greater than the true distance from the top of the well to the water table. Conceptual models of the water table configuration are important to environmental management decision-making at the INEEL; these models are based on measurements of depth to the water table taken from aquifer wells at or near the INEEL. When accurate data on the amount of deviation in any given borehole is acquired, then measurements of depth-to-water can be adjusted to reflect the true depth so more accurate conceptual models can be developed. Collection of additional borehole deviation data with gyroscopic logging is planned for selected wells to further our confidence in the quality of water level measurements. Selection of wells for the planned logging is based on qualitative and quantitative screening criteria. An existing data set from magnetic deviation logs was useful in establishing these criteria however, are considered less accurate than gyroscopic deviation logs under certain conditions. Population distributions for 128 aquifer wells with magnetic deviation data were used to establish three quantitative screening thresholds. Qualitative criteria consisted of administrative controls, accessibility issues, and drilling methods. Qualitative criteria eliminated all but 116 of the 337 aquifer wells, in the vicinity of the INEEL, that were initially examined in this screening effort. Of these, 72 have associated magnetic deviation data; 44 do not. Twenty-five (25) of the 72 wells with magnetic deviation data have deviation greater than one of the three quantitative screening thresholds. These 25 are recommended for the planned gyroscopic borehole deviation surveying. Nineteen (19) of the 44 wells without magnetic deviation data were selected for the planned gyroscopic logging based on their location relative to facilities, site boundaries, and contaminant transport concerns. In total, 44 aquifer wells (25 with magnetic deviation data and 19 without) are recommended for planned gyroscopic logging.

Rohe, Michael James; Studley, Gregory Wayne

2002-04-01

18

Subsurface sequence stratigraphic correlation using well logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are given hard copies of a subsurface section containing gamma and resistivity logs of nine closely-spaced (well distance varies from 1 to 3 km) wells from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico for an interval of ~ 200 m clastic succession of Morrow sandstone of Pennsylvanian age. Core sedimentology of one of these wells is also provided. Students' task is to correlate the well logs to generate a stratigraphic cross-section of the area using sequence stratigraphic approach. As the data are from Delaware Basin, southeast New Mexico, student should first gather the knowledge of regional setting of the basin, with a particular emphasis to the paleo-eustasy. (Clue: in Delaware Basin, Morrow sandstones deposited in a low accommodation settings with high-amplitude fluctuations of sea-level.) When correlating the well logs students should start with the well which has lithological information. Students should try to correlate the mudstones first. The two most prominent sequence stratigraphic surfaces with comparatively higher correlation-length are 'sequence boundary' produced by pronounced fall of sea-level, and 'maximum flooding surface' generated at the time of highest stand of sea-level. Students should pay particular attention to incised-valley-fill deposits. After completing the correlation, students should check whether their correlation satisfy our prevailing ideas of sequence stratigraphy and stratal packaging. Student should prepare a brief description of overall depositional environments and sea-level history of the area substantiating their subsurface correlation. By doing this exercise, students will learn how to apply sequence stratigraphic principles in interpreting subsurface data, particularly from well logs.

Gani, M. R.

19

High resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system  

SciTech Connect

A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. The absolute counting efficiencies of the GSLS detectors were determined using cylindrical reference sources. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software and correction factors were developed based on relative gamma-ray fluence rates. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, and as the formation saturation ratio decreases, relative gamma-ray fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Correction factors for iron and water cylindrical shields were found to agree well with correction factors determined during previous studies allowing for the development of correction factors for type-304 stainless steel and low-carbon steel casings. Regression analyses of correction factor data produced equations for determining correction factors applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs acquired under non-standard borehole conditions.

Giles, J.R.; Dooley, K.J.

1997-05-01

20

Ultrasonic techniques in oil well logging  

SciTech Connect

Oil well logging is used to provide the oil and gas industry with information essential to discovering and extracting hydrocarbons. This paper addresses two ultrasonic measurements that are presently used in oil well logging. The most widely used is an ultrasonic technique that evaluates the integrity of the cement seal after a steel casing has been lowered and cemented in place. This instrument is also capable of monitoring the effects of corrosion both on the inner and outer surfaces of the casing. The measurement is based on a pulsed resonant technique. Less widely used is the Borehole Televiewer, an ultrasonic scanning device based on a pulse-echo technique. It provides an acoustic image of geologic features such as rock layers and fractures.

Havira, R.M.

1988-01-01

21

Automatic well log correlation using neural networks  

E-print Network

. Importance of Well Log Correlations 1. 2. Neural Networks 1. 3. Research Objective II LITERATURE REVIEW. 2. 1. Point-To-Point Correlation 2. 2. Zone-To-Zone Correlation 2. 3. NN Applications in the Petroleum Industry 2. 4. Other Applications of NN...: Network Learning Time 39 Table 3: Summary of Zones Identified . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Automation of various tasks in the petroleum industry has the advantage of reducing project completion time, and improving productivity of engineers. The falling...

Habiballah, Walid Abdulrahim

1991-01-01

22

Derive capillary pressure from well logs  

SciTech Connect

A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical data where core data is absent or not representative of in-situ conditions. It is based on using log data to derive a water saturation vs. depth profile in the transition zone of the formation of interest. The log-derived water saturation distribution is then correlated to generalized capillary pressure curves typical of the formation studied. The capillary pressure type curves are generated from available core data and other petrophysical information. Relative permeability curves are then generated using correlations based on Purcell's model. The technique can be used in multi-layered and homogeneous reservoirs provided that one homogeneous layer is at least 20 ft thick.

Ibrahim, A. (Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Desbrandes, R.; Bassiouni, Z. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

1994-07-01

23

Application of geophysical well logging to coal mining operations. [Discussion of field experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances in the design of wireline logging equipment (initially designed for the petroleum industry) and improved computerized analyses of these logging measurements provide reliable information for coal evaluation and associated mining operations. Properly applied well log analysis concepts allow a continuous, in-situ evaluation of coal seams including thickness, moisture, and ash content. Formation strength parameters (elastic rock constants such

J. Kowalski; W. H. Fertl

1977-01-01

24

EOR: well logs sharpen focus on residual saturation. Part 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of what the enhanced recovery specialist must know about the reservoir under consideration can be measured, calculated, or deduced from well logging data. Appropriate well logging procedures for this type of formation evaluation would include resistivity, radioactivity, dielectric constant, and acoustic well logs. This work describes the principles and procedures for assessing residual oil saturation of a subsurface formation

1983-01-01

25

36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... true Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? 1254...12 Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a) If you bring personal computers, scanners, tape recorders,...

2013-07-01

26

36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...false Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? 1254...12 Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a) If you bring personal computers, scanners, tape recorders,...

2014-07-01

27

36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and...NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and...If you bring personal computers, scanners, tape recorders...cameras, personal computers, and other...

2010-07-01

28

Well logging and its applications in cased holes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cased-hole well logging concepts are reviewed which are currently used to explore for bypassed hydrocarbons in abandoned or old workover wells; in fresh, brackish, or unknown formation water salinities; evaluate hydrocarbons in new wells in which open-hole logs could not be run; monitor production behavior and depletion in reservoirs under primary driving mechanisms, breakthrough in waterfloods, chemical and micellar projects,

Fertl

1982-01-01

29

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-01-01

30

Automated Variance Reduction Applied to Nuclear Well-Logging Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo method enables detailed, explicit geometric, energy and angular representations, and hence is considered to be the most accurate method available for solving complex radiation transport problems. Because of its associated accuracy, the Monte Carlo method is widely used in the petroleum exploration industry to design, benchmark, and simulate nuclear well-logging tools. Nuclear well-logging tools, which contain neutron

John C. Wagner; Douglas E. Peplow; Thomas M. Evans

2008-01-01

31

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil\\/water contact,

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2003-01-01

32

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-01-01

33

Raster images offer low-cost well log preservation  

SciTech Connect

Well log data saved as depth-calibrated raster images provide an economic alternative to digital formats for preserving this valuable information into the future. Although often thrown away after vectorization, raster imaged well logs may be the key for a global computer-readable format for legacy hardcopy data. Over the past several decades, oil and gas companies have acquired an enormous volume of well logs, maps, and seismic and core data. Preservation of, and access to, valuable data such as well logs is critical to the petroleum industry. These legacy data are stored on multiple media and contain information for a variety of applications in addition to resource exploration and development, such as environmental protection, water management, global change studies, and basic and applied research. The paper discusses well logs, acquisition cost, storage requirements, ease of use, costs and benefits.

Cisco, S.L. [Cisco and Associates, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-12-16

34

Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

1980-01-01

35

Well-log interpretation of carbonate reservoirs with bimodal porosity  

E-print Network

WELL-LOG INTERPRETATION OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS WITH BIMODAL POROSITY A Thesis by AHMET TANDIRCIOGLU Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1990 Major Subject: Geology WELL-LOG INTERPRETATION OF CARBONATE RESERVOIRS WITH BIMODAL POROSITY A Thesis by AHMET TANDIRCIOGLU Approved as to style and content by: Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) ayne . Ahr (Member...

Tandircioglu, Ahmet

2012-06-07

36

Calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a neutron well logging tool  

E-print Network

to the Formation Porosity . IV. 3 Sensitivity Coefficients Due to the Medium Porosity . . IV. 4 Sensitivity Coefficients Due to the Medium Thickness . V CONCLUSIONS 26 26 27 31 33 REFERENCES APPENDIX 34 A s4'AM ? BE NEUTRON SOURCE SPECTRUM . . 35 B... Coefficients Due to the Medium Porosity 30 9 Sensitivity Coefficients Due to the Medium Thickness 10 Am ? Be Neutron Source Spectrum 32 37 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION I. l Background of Neutron Well Logging In oil snd natural gas well logging...

Chen, Chien-Hsiang

1993-01-01

37

Interpretation of well log response in the Austin chalk  

E-print Network

INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOG RESPONSE IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by GREGORY SCOTT HINDS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1990 Major Subject: Geology INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOG RESPONSE IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by GREGORY SCOTT HINDS Approved as to style and content by; Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) Wayne . Ahr (Member) I R. . Brimhall (Member) Joh...

Hinds, Gregory Scott

2012-06-07

38

Total Organic Carbon Content Determined From Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total organic-carbon (TOC) content present in potential source rocks significantly affects the response of various well logs. This paper discusses and illustrates well-log anomalies caused by TOC as observed on various wireline measurements, including resistivity (or conductivity), acoustic, nuclear (density and neutron), gamma ray, natural gamma ray spectra, and pulsed neutron (sigma and carbon\\/oxygen (C\\/O) ratio). Field examples of these

Walter Fertl; George Chilingar

1988-01-01

39

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

2003-02-10

40

What's new in well logging and formation evaluation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A number of significant new developments is emerging in well logging and formation evaluation. Some of the new developments include an ultrasonic wireline imager, an electromagnetic free-point indicator, wired and fiber-optic coiled tubing systems, and extreme-temperature logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools. The continued consolidation of logging and petrophysical service providers in 2010 means that these innovations are increasingly being provided by a few large companies. Weatherford International has launched a slimhole cross-dipole tool as part of the company's line of compact logging tools. The 26-ft-long Compact Cross-Dipole Sonic (CXD) tool can be run as part of a quad-combo compact logging string. Halliburton has introduced a version of its circumferential acoustic scanning tool (CAST) that runs on monoconductor cable (CAST-M) to provide high-resolution images in open hole and in cased hole for casing and cement evaluation.

Prensky, S.

2011-01-01

41

Evaluation of a geothermal well logging, DST and Pit test  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly discusses logging and testing operations and certain related physical aspects in geothermal well evaluations. A good understanding of thermal and hydrological characteristics of geothermal reservoirs are essential in geothermal well evaluations. Within geothermal reservoirs, in evaluating the wells, the two most important parameters that first could be estimated, then measured or calculated, are temperature and productivity. Well

Tansev; Erdal O

1978-01-01

42

Well logging and completion technology for horizontal wellbores  

SciTech Connect

In highly deviated and, particularly, horizontal wellbores, special hardware systems guide, push, and/or pump the logging instrument assembly toward the bottom, i.e., the end of the wellbore, and to log the interval of interest. The present paper discusses basic pipe-conveyed logging (PCL) systems and the coiled-tubing-conveyed (CTC) system for completion and perforating applications in horizontal well bores, which already have proven successful in Europe, the US, and Canada. Open- and cased-hole field applications, with special emphasis on the Cretaceous Austin Chalk in Texas and the Bakken Shale in Wyoming, will illustrate today's technology and review advantages and possible constraints of these well logging and completion techniques.

Fertl, W.H. (Atlas Wireline Services, Houston, TX (USA))

1990-09-01

43

Interlake production established using quantitative hydrocarbon well-log analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production was established in a new pay zone of the basal Interlake Formation adjacent to production in Midway field in Williams County, North Dakota. Hydrocarbon saturation, which was computed using hydrocarbon well-log (mud-log) data, and computed permeability encouraged the operator to run casing and test this zone. By use of drilling rig parameters, drilling mud properties, hydrocarbon-show data from the

J. Lancaster; A. Atkinson

1988-01-01

44

Well Log Data Management (LogDB ) - Its Role and Application in E&P Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Well logging is the process of recording various petro-physical, properties of rock\\/formations penetrated by drilling. Log responses are functions of lithology, porosity, fluid-content and textural variation of formation. This information couple d with characteristics of sedimentary structures derived from high resolution dipmeter surveys provide detailed insight into the sedimentary environment and allows estimation of the reservoir geometry & orientations.

Asim Samanta; Anjani Kumar; Jokhan Ram

45

User's manual for geophysical well-logging software programs  

SciTech Connect

Since 1958 the Ground-Water Surveillance Program for the Hanford Site has made geophysical logging measurements in most of the 800 wells and deep boreholes that have been drilled on the Hanford Site. In 1980 the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), which conducts the Ground-Water Surveillance Program, began forming a computerized data base for storing and retrieving geophysical well log data and developing software for quantitative analysis of the well log data. This report, designed to serve as a user's guide, documents the data base system that handles the well log data. Two programs, DIGLOG1 and LOGIT, are used to manipulate the data. The program DIGLOG1 translates analog paper strip charts into digital format; the program LOGIT is a general utility program that edits, displays, checks, stores, writes, and deletes sets of well log data. These two programs do not provide sophisticated display and analytical capabilities; rather, they provide programs that give the user easy access to powerful standard analytical software.

Petrie, G.M.; Gibson, D.; Blair, S.C.

1983-02-01

46

Formation Evaluation of Oshioka Field Using Geophysical Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation evaluation of Oshioka field was performed to identify hydrocarbon bearing reservoir and study reservoir properties based on data from the two wells. This was carried out with Petrel and Hydrocarbon Data System (HDS) Log analysis Software packages. The two wells contained sufficient data to allow detailed analysis, including porosity, water saturation, permeability and net-to-gross. The consistency of the

I. Aigbedion; S. E. Iyayi

47

Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

2012-08-01

48

An expert system advisor for well log quality control  

E-print Network

, in identical formats for quality control of the sonic, gamma ray and dual induction well logs. A ~ial system program shell served as the fork for building the ~ system. The system has been written as a prototype model. With minimal alterations... PORTION OF THE WELL IOG QUALZIY CONTROL ~ SYSZEM ADVISOR APPENDIX C ? ~TION OF TAXONCMIES 59 59 62 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont. ) DUAL INDUCTION IOG Page 64 APPENDIX D ? ~CE TREES FOR THE GAK% RAY, DUAL INDUCTION AND SONIC IOGS 68 GAMMA RAY LOG...

Warnken, Dean Kennedy

2012-06-07

49

Proposed geologic model based on geophysical well logs  

SciTech Connect

An investigation of the subsurface based on a qualitative interpretation of well logs was carried out at Cerro Prieto to obtain information on the distribution of the different lithofacies that make up a deltaic depositional system. The sedimentological interpretation derived from the resistivity and spontaneous potential are shown in several cross-sections of the field. In addition to the sedimentological interpretation, a map of the structural geology of the region based on well logs and available geophysical information was prepared, including the results of gravity and seismic refraction surveys. The depth to the zone of hydrothermal alteration described by Elders (1980) was found by means of temperature, electrical, and radioactive logs. Two maps showing the configuration of the top of this anomaly show a clear correlation with the gravity anomalies found in the area.

Diaz C, S.; Puente C, I.; de la Pena L, A.

1981-01-01

50

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty; K. Kishore

2001-01-01

51

A Rule-Based System for Well Log Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer-assisted approaches to well log correlation are of interest to engineers and geologists for two reasons. In large field studies, a computer can be used simply to reduce the time required to correlate zones of interest. It is also possible that computer-assisted correlations may suggest zonal matches of interest and originality that might not have been considered. This paper presents

Richard Startzman; Tsai-Bao Kuo

1987-01-01

52

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

2005-09-05

53

QUANTIFICATION OF IN-SITU GAS HYDRATES WITH WELL LOGS.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study evaluates in detail the expected theoretical log responses and the actual log responses within one stratigraphically controlled hydrate horizon in six wells spaced throughout the Kuparuk Oil Field. Detailed examination of the neutron porosity and sonic velocity responses within the horizon is included. In addition, the theoretical effect of the presence of hydrates on the neutron porosity and sonic velocity devices has been examined in order to correct for such an effect on the calculation of formation properties such as porosity and hydrate saturation. Also presented in the paper is a technique which allows the conclusive identification of a potential hydrate occurrence.

Collett, Timothy S.; Godbole, Sanjay P.; Economides, Christine

1984-01-01

54

Drilling, logging and preliminary well testing of geothermal well Susan 1, Susanville, Lassen County, California  

SciTech Connect

Susan 1, a hot water production well, was drilled late in 1980 for the City of Susanville, California, as part of its geothermal space-heating project. A history of drilling, logging, completion and pump testing of this well is presented. Susan 1 was drilled to 930 feet using local river water with a 17-1/2-inch bit from 50 to 540 feet and a 12-1/2-inch bit from 540 to 927 feet. A 12-3/4-inch solid casing was set from surface to 350 feet, a slotted casing from 350 to 538 feet, and a 8-5/8-inch slotted casing from 520 to 925 feet. Interpretations of the following logs and test data from this well are presented: drilling logs (penetration rate, water loss and gain, return temperatures); formation logs (description of well cuttings, caliper, spontaneous potential, electrical resistivity, gamma ray, neutron); production logs (temperature, spinner); and pump test data.

McNitt, J.R.; Petersen, C.A.; Sanyal, S.K.

1981-03-01

55

WAMPANOAG WELLNESS EQUIPMENT LENDING BANK POLICIES & PROCEDURES  

E-print Network

to experience the change in condition and the impact on family health to determine whether to make their own to enable the Health Service to measure the environmental impact of the use of the equipment in the homes with a Healthy Home Assessment. The Health Service currently offers Healthy Home Assessments conducted

56

Instant well-log inversion with a parallel computer  

SciTech Connect

Well-log analysis requires several vectors of input data to be inverted with a physical model that produces more vectors of output data. The problem is inherently suited to either vectorization or parallelization. PLATO (parallel log analysis, timely output) is a research prototype system that uses a parallel architecture computer with memory-mapped graphics to invert vector data and display the result rapidly. By combining this high-performance computing and display system with a graphical user interface, the analyst can interact with the system in real time'' and can visualize the result of changing parameters on up to 1,000 levels of computed volumes and reconstructed logs. It is expected that such instant'' inversion will remove the main disadvantages frequently cited for simultaneous analysis methods, namely difficulty in assessing sensitivity to different parameters and slow output response. Although the prototype system uses highly specific features of a parallel processor, a subsequent version has been implemented on a conventional (Serial) workstation with less performance but adequate functionality to preserve the apparently instant response. PLATO demonstrates the feasibility of petroleum computing applications combining an intuitive graphical interface, high-performance computing of physical models, and real-time output graphics.

Kimminau, S.J.; Trivedi, H.

1993-08-01

57

High voltage supply for neutron tubes in well logging applications  

DOEpatents

A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The "biased pulse" supply of the invention combines DC and "full pulse" techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

Humphreys, D. Russell (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01

58

Chirped CPMG for well-logging NMR applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In NMR well-logging, the measurement apparatus typically consists of a permanent magnet which is inserted into a bore, and the sample is the rock surrounding the borehole. When compared to the conditions of standard NMR experiments, this application is thus challenged by relatively weak and invariably inhomogeneous B0 and B1 fields. Chemical shift information is not generally obtained in these measurements. Instead, diffusivity, porosity and permeability information is collected from multi-echo decay measurements - most often using a Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence to enhance the experiment’s limited sensitivity. In this work, we explore the consequences of replacing the hard square pulses used in a typical CPMG sequence with chirped pulses sweeping a range of frequencies. The greater bandwidths that for a maximum B1 level can be excited by chirped pulses translates into marked expansion of the detection volume, and thus significant signal-to-noise improvements when compared to standard CPMG acquisitions using hard pulses. This improvement, usually amounting to signal enhancements ?3, can be used to reduce the experimental time of NMR well-logging measurements, for measuring T2 even when B0 and B1 inhomogenieties complicate the measurements, and opening new opportunities in the determination of diffusional properties.

Casabianca, Leah B.; Mohr, Daniel; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao; Frydman, Lucio

2014-05-01

59

Advanced interpretation technique integrates well-log and core data for thinly bedded reservoir evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating reservoir parameters derived from log and core data allows previously bypassed, thin productive zones to be identified. Recent advancement in enhanced data acquisition methods and well-log interpretation techniques have reduced problems encountered with conventional well logging and data analyses. Improved data acquisition methods record filter-free data at higher sample rates. Advanced log interpretation techniques utilize enhanced porosity, shaliness, and

A. Sinha; B. Simmons; T. Lawrence

1989-01-01

60

Prediction of thermal conductivity of sedimentary rocks from well logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of heat-flow density in boreholes requires reliable values for the change of temperature and rock thermal conductivity with depth. As rock samples for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity (TC) are usually rare geophysical well logs are used alternatively to determine TC. A common procedure in the latter approach is the use of empirical relations between TC and different petrophysical properties. Although numerous prediction equations were developed in the past five decades, none of these seem to be universally applicable for all major types of sedimentary rocks (clastics, carbonates and evaporites). In addition, these relations mostly are suitable only for regions and lithotypes for which they were originally developed. A new set of predictive equations is presented which overcomes these limitations and which allows the prediction of the rock matrix TC based on different combinations of standard geophysical well-logs. In combination with a feasible mixing-model (i.e. geometric mean model) bulk TC is computed along borehole profiles. The underlying approach was proposed by Fuchs & Förster (2014) and rests upon the detailed analysis of the interrelations between major physical parameters (i.e. thermal conductivity, density, hydrogen index, sonic interval transit time, gamma-ray response, photoelectric factor) of artificial mineral assemblages consisting 15 rock-forming minerals that are used in different combinations to typify sedimentary rocks. The predictive capacity of the new equations is evaluated on subsurface data from four boreholes drilled into the Mesozoic sequence of the North German Basin, including more than 1700 laboratory-measured thermal-conductivity values. Results are compared with those from other approaches published in the past. The new approach predicts TC with a mean error between 10 and 15 % compared to earlier approaches of much higher error of 15-35 % (and sometimes higher).

Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

2014-05-01

61

Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

1986-01-01

62

Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice University and Professor Kishore Mohanty at University of Houston. In addition to the DOE, this project is supported by a consortium of oil companies and service companies. The fluid properties characterization has emphasized the departure of live oils from correlations based on dead oils. Also, asphaltic components can result in a difference between the T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions as well as reduce the hydrogen index. The fluid rock characterizations that are reported here are the effects of wettability and internal magnetic field gradients. A pore reconstruction method ha s been developed to recreate three-dimensional porous media from two-dimensional images that reproduce some of their key statistical properties. A Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed to calculate the magnetization decay in fluid saturated porous media given their pore structure.

Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore, K.

2001-07-13

63

Course An Introduction to Geothermal Resources - Well Completion Production Equipment  

SciTech Connect

A course to introduce geothermal energy held in Sparks, Nevada on October 1987. Topics included well draining and well computation production equipment. There is much technical detail and some cost detail. [DJE-2005

Ascuaga, John; Garrett, B.D. (Slim)

1987-10-01

64

Arrays of synthetic acoustic well logging waveforms: Computation and source design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arrays of synthetic acoustic well logging waveforms are useful in the initial development of signal processing methods, as an aid in understanding actual well logging data, and in an analysis-by-synthesis approach to data inversion. In this paper, we present a fast and accurate method for the numerical evaluation of arrays of synthetic acoustic well logging waveforms associated with a homogeneous

ANDREW L. KURKJIAN; Shu-Kong Chang

1983-01-01

65

10 CFR 39.13 - Specific licenses for well logging.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...procedures. (d) The applicant shall establish and submit to the Commission its program for annual inspections of the job performance of each logging supervisor to ensure that the Commission's regulations, license requirements, and the...

2010-01-01

66

An index of geophysical well logging in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Geophysical logs have been obtained in more than 170 wells in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1968. These logs include natural gamma, electric, caliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, and fluid velocity. Most of the logs are for wells in the Coastal Plain Province of eastern Virginia. Geophysical logs aid in the interpretation of properties of earth materials, including the capacity to store and transmit water in the immediate vicinity of the well bore.

Mulheren, M. Patrick; Larson, J.D.; Hopkins, Herbert T.

1982-01-01

67

Determination of Lithology From Well Logs by Statistical Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method of predicting lithology by statistical analysis of wireline log measurements with calibration to a core lithology standard. Although an example of the technique applied to the Shublik formation of the Prudhoe Bay area, North Slope, AK, is developed and presented, the method can be applied to any field where some core has been taken. The

J. M. Busch; W. G. Fortney; L. N. Berry

1987-01-01

68

Automated interpretation of nuclear and electrical well loggings for basalt characterization (case study from southern Syria).  

PubMed

Nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity techniques are used with electrical well logging of long and short normal techniques in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Four kinds of basalt have been identified: hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay, based on a statistical analysis approach with the threshold concept. The statistical conditions for such basalt characterization have been programmed in the present research to automatically interpret the well logging data for establishing and predicting the lithological cross-section of the studied well. A specific computer program has been written in Delphi for such purposes. The program is flexible and it can be used for other well logging applications by changing the statistical conditions and the well logging parameters. The program has been successfully tested on the Kodanah well logging data in southern Syria. PMID:22885392

Asfahani, J; Abdul Ghani, B

2012-10-01

69

Borehole logging for radium-226: recommended procedures and equipment. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field investigations and a literature review were conducted to determine whether existing well-logging techniques are suitable for measuring ²²Ra at remedial action sites. These methods include passive gamma-ray measurement techniques using NaI(Tl) and, occasionally, intrinsic germanium detectors. Parameters that must be considered when logging boreholes at remedial action sites include: (1) casing material and thickness, (2) water in the borehole,

K. B. Olsen; V. W. Thomas

1984-01-01

70

Handbook of well log analysis for oil and gas formation evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A handbook on the interpretation of well log data for evaluating the productive capacities and the reserves of prospective, as well as existing, oil and gas fields is presented. Chapter titles include clastic reservoir rocks; carbonate reservoir rocks; petrophysics; reservoir fluid properties and formation productivity evaluation; the well log interpretation problem; spontaneous polarization (SP) curve; normal curves; lateral curves; limestone

Pirson

1963-01-01

71

Regional well-log correlation in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin  

SciTech Connect

Although well logs provide the most complete record of stratigraphy and structure in the northern Delaware Basin, regional interpretations of these logs generate problems of ambiguous lithologic signatures and on-hole anomalies. Interpretation must therefore be based on log-to-log correlation rather than on inferences from single logs. In this report, logs from 276 wells were used to make stratigraphic picks of Ochoan horizons (the Rustler, Salado, and Castile Formations) in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin. Current log correlation suggests that: (1) the Castile is characterized by lateral thickening and thinning; (2) some Castile thinnings are of Permian age; (3) irregular topography in the Guadalupian Bell Canyon Formation may produce apparent structures in the overlying Ochoan units; and (4) extensive dissolution of the Salado is not apparent in the area of the Waste Isolation Pilot Project (WIPP) site. 13 refs., 37 figs.

Borns, D.J.; Shaffer, S.E.

1985-09-01

72

Evaluation of electric well logs from Appalachian basin with small microcomputer system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several computer-based packages for interpreting electric well logs are available. These programs serve well for those whose primary duty is to interpret a great variety of logs. However, these are often not cost-effective for the independent geologist who is only occasionally required to interpret logs or for the academic researcher with little funding. A low-cost system to aid in the

Eberhard Werner

1987-01-01

73

Drilling, construction, and caliper-log data for wells 3-3204-01, Kaheaka exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Kaheaka exploratory well (State well number 3-3204-01) was drilled about 3.3 miles southeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land in the Waialua ground-water area. The well penetrates about 67 feet into a basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

1996-01-01

74

Frequency-dependent sites amplifications evaluated from well-logging data in central Taiwan  

E-print Network

Frequency-dependent sites amplifications evaluated from well-logging data in central Taiwan Ming from well-logging data in central Taiwan, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L21302, doi:10.1029/2005GL023527. 1-motion stations in central Taiwan from borehole data are evaluated. Results show that the amplifications increase

Ma, Kuo-Fong

75

Improvement of lithology and saturation determined from well logging using statistical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of selected statistical analyses applied to well-logging data in a typical borehole in the Miocene thin-bedded formation\\u000a are presented. Primary geological data in the form of lithology core descriptions was included as a joining member between\\u000a logs and lithology. Principal component analysis enabled data space to be reduced. It incorporated new variables, PC, in place\\u000a of logs, preserving the

Monika Kazmierczuk; Jadwiga Jarzyna

2006-01-01

76

40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...testing prior to new well operation. (a) During the drilling and construction of a new Class I hazardous waste injection well, appropriate logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity,...

2013-07-01

77

40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...testing prior to new well operation. (a) During the drilling and construction of a new Class I hazardous waste injection well, appropriate logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity,...

2010-07-01

78

40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...testing prior to new well operation. (a) During the drilling and construction of a new Class I hazardous waste injection well, appropriate logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity,...

2011-07-01

79

40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...testing prior to new well operation. (a) During the drilling and construction of a new Class I hazardous waste injection well, appropriate logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity,...

2012-07-01

80

Case history on geothermal-well-log interpretation: Surprise Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well logs from a 1972 geothermal well drilled in California's Surprise Valley are discussed. The well is in an igneous formation, primarily basalt in the logged interval, and had a bottom-hole temperature of about 170°C at a total depth exceeding 1400 m. It produced good flow rates from what is presumably a formation with predominately fracture-related permeability. The well has

F. A. Rigby; G. P. Zebal

1981-01-01

81

Joint inversion of conventional well logs for evaluation of double-porosity carbonate formations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new approach of well log data interpretation for determining lithological and petrophysical characteristics of double-porosity carbonate formations containing shales. This approach is based on the theoretical calculation of rock physical properties and joint simultaneous inversion of the following conventional logs: P- and S-wave transit times, resistivity, density, neutron porosity, and gamma ray. The inversion

Elena Kazatchenko; Mikhail Markov; Aleksandr Mousatov; Evgeny Pervago

2007-01-01

82

Development and use of a high temperature downhole flowmeter for geothermal well logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and use of a high temperature (300°C) downhole flowmeter for geothermal well logging are discussed. The availability of the instrument gives the reservoir engineer a powerful tool for formation evaluation and studying wellbore dynamics. The instrument components, their function, and temperature limitations are discussed in detail. Several field examples of spinner log interpretation are also presented.

R. D. Solbau; C. B. Goranson; S. M. Benson

1983-01-01

83

The Development and Use of a High Temperature Downhole Flowmeter for Geothermal Well Logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the development and use of a high temperature (300°C) downhole flowmeter for geothermal well logging. The availability of the instrument gives the reservoir engineer a powerful tool for formation evaluation and studying wellbore dynamics. The instrument components, their function, and temperature limitations are discussed in detail. Several field examples of spinner log interpretation are also presented.

R. D. Solbau; C. B. Goranson; S. M. Benson

1983-01-01

84

Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry  

SciTech Connect

The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

1991-07-01

85

Uncertainty Analysis in Upscaling Well Log data By Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method  

E-print Network

, densities, and thicknesses of rocks through upscaling well log data, the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is a potentially beneficial tool that uses randomly generated parameters with a Bayesian framework producing the posterior information...

Hwang, Kyubum

2010-01-16

86

Well construction, lithology, and geophysical logs for boreholes in Bear Creek Valley near Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-four wells were constructed at nine sites at Bear Creek Valley to provide geologic and hydrologic information. Lithologic samples and suits of geophysical logs were obtained from the deepest boreholes at six of the sites. Two of these boreholes at the base of Chestnut Ridge were completed in the Maynardville Limestone and two were completed in the Nolichucky Shale. Two boreholes along Pine Ridge were completed in the Rome Formation. Zones of similar lithology within a borehole were delineated from rock cutting refined by examination of geophysical logs. The contact between the Maynardville Limestone and Nolichucky Shale was identified in two of the boreholes. Fractures and cavities were readily identifiable on the acoustic-televiewer and caliper logs. Distinct water-bearing intervals were also identified from the temperature, fluid resistance, and resistivity logs. Depths at which the drilling encounterd a thrust were identified in two boreholes in the Rome Formation from both rock cutting and geophysical logs. (USGS)

Bailey, Z.C.; Hanchar, D.W.

1988-01-01

87

Lithology determination from digitized well logs - examples from Ore-Ida No. 1 geothermal well, Ontario, Oregon  

SciTech Connect

Some of the advantages and pitfalls of lithology determination from digitized well logs are presented. Examples are provided from the Ore-Ida No. 1 geothermal well in Ontario, Oregon, drilled through a sequence of siltstone, clay, tuff and basalt/andesite. The use of histograms and crossplots to differentiate various lithological units and to identify alteration is illustrated.

Sanyal, S.K. (GeothermEx, Inc., Berkeley, CA); Glenn, W.E.

1981-10-01

88

Downhole well log and core montages from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope  

Microsoft Academic Search

The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was an integral part of an ongoing project to determine the future energy resource potential of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. As part of this effort, the Mount Elbert well included an advanced downhole geophysical logging program. Because gas hydrate is unstable at ground surface pressure and temperature conditions,

T. S. Collett; R. E. Lewis; W. J. Winters; M. W. Lee; K. K. Rose; R. M. Boswell

2011-01-01

89

Drilling, construction, and caliper-log data for well 3-3503-01, North Upper Anahulu exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The North Upper Anahulu exploratory well (Hawaii State well number 3-3503-01) was drilled about 3.1 miles east of the town of Haleiwa. The well is located on agricultural land in the Kawailoa ground-water area. The well was drilled to an elevation of about -103 feet below mean sea level and penetrates about 110 feet into a basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

1996-01-01

90

Visualization of nuclear particle trajectories in nuclear oil-well logging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear oil-well logging measures specific properties of subsurface geological formations as a function of depth in the well. The knowledge gained is used to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of the surrounding oil field. The measurements are made by lowering an instrument package into an oil well and slowly extracting it at a constant speed. During the extraction phase, neutrons or

C. R. Case; J. M. Chiaramonte

1991-01-01

91

Compilation of 29 sonic and density logs from 23 oil test wells in western Washington State  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Three-dimensional velocity models for Puget Sound provide a means for better understanding the lateral variations in strong ground motions recorded during local earthquakes in Puget Lowland. We have compiled 29 sonic and density logs from 23 oil test wells to help us determine the geometry and physical properties of the Cenozoic basins in western Washington. The maximum depths sampled by the test wells are between 0.47 and 4.04 km. These well logs sample Quaternary to Eocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. This report presents the locations, elevations, depths, stratigraphic and other information about the test wells, and provides plots showing the density and sonic velocities as a function of depth for each well log. We also present two-way travel times calculated from the sonic velocities.

Brocher, Thomas M.; Ruebel, April L.

1998-01-01

92

Self-affine and ARX-models zonation of well logging data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zonation of time series into models which their parameters are piecewise constant are important and well-studied problems. Geophysical well logging data often show a complex pattern due to their multifractal nature. In a multifractal system, any pieces of it are established by a distinct exponent that can characterize them. This feature has the capability to cluster them. Self-affine zonation by Auto Regressive model with exogenous inputs (ARX) is a new approach which places well logging segments in the clusters which are more self-affine against the other clusters. This approach was performed and compared with a conventional ARX zonation in the well logging data of three different oilfields in southern parts of Iran. The results showed a good accuracy for detecting homogeneous lithological segments and led to a precise interpretation process to update the reservoir architecture.

Shiri, Yousef; Tokhmechi, Behzad; Zarei, Zeinab; Koneshloo, Mohammad

2012-11-01

93

Improved Detection of Bed Boundaries for Petrophysical Evaluation with Well Logs: Applications to Carbonate and Organic-Shale Formations  

E-print Network

SPE 159197 Improved Detection of Bed Boundaries for Petrophysical Evaluation with Well Logs-layer formations from conventional well logs in the presence of thin beds, complex lithology/fluids, and kerogen conventional well-log analysis in organic-shale and carbonate formations by simultaneously correcting shoulder

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

94

Artificial Neural Networks as a Valuable Tool for Well Log Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are rapidly gaining popularity in the area of oil exploration. This article discusses the importance of ANNs to petroleum engineers and geoscientists and its advantages over other conventional methods of computing. ANNs can assist geoscientists in solving some fundamental problems such as formation, permeability prediction, and well data interpretation from geophysical well log responses with a

M. Khandelwal; T. N. Singh

2010-01-01

95

Thermal Conductivity Estimates in the Niger Delta Using Lithological Data and Geophysical Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal rock properties and heat flow were determined from two hundred and sixty wells in the Niger Delta. The new thermal data provides new aspects for the determination of heat flow and for thermal evaluation of basins. A map has been constructed using lithologic data and geophysical well logs. The thermal conductivity for sand and shale, the predominant lithology in

Idara O. Akpabio

96

Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate–bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave velocity data from the Mallik 5L-38 permafrost gas hydrate research well in Canada and applied to well log data from hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaskan permafrost, Gulf of Mexico, and northern Cascadia margin. Velocity-based gas hydrate saturation estimates are in good agreement with Nuclear Magneto Resonance and resistivity log estimates over the complete range of observed gas hydrate saturations.

Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

2008-01-01

97

Performance evaluation of active wireline heave compensation systems in marine well logging environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The basic functionality and performance of a new Schlumberger active wireline heave compensation system on the JOIDES Resolution was evaluated during the sea trial and a 3-year period of the IODP Phase II operations. A suite of software programs was developed to enable real-time monitoring of the dynamics of logging tools, and assess the efficiency of wireline heave compensation during downhole operations. The evaluation of the system effectiveness was performed under normal logging conditions as well as during stationary tests. Logging data were analyzed for their overall quality and repeatability, and to assess the reliability of high-resolution data such as formation microscanner (FMS) electrical images. This revealed that the system reduces 65-80 % of displacement or 88-98 % variance of downhole tool motion in stationary mode under heave conditions of ±0.2-1.5 m and water depths of 300-4,500 m in open holes. Under similar water/heave conditions, the compensator system reduces tool displacement by 50-60 %, or 75-84 % variance in downhole tool motion during normal logging operations. Such compensation efficiency (CE) is comparable to previous compensation systems, but using advanced and upgradeable technologies, and provides 50-85 % heave motion and heave variance attenuation. Moreover, logging down/up at low speeds (300-600 m/h) reduces the system's CE values by 15-20 %, and logging down at higher speeds (1,000-1,200 m/h) eliminates CE values by 55-65 %. Considering the high quality of the logging data collected, it is concluded that the new system can provide an improved level of compensation over previous systems. Also, if practically feasible, future integration of downhole cable dynamics as an input feedback into the current system could further improve its compensation efficiency during logging operations.

Liu, Tanzhuo; Iturrino, Gerardo; Goldberg, David; Meissner, Eric; Swain, Kerry; Furman, Clayton; Fitzgerald, Peter; Frisbee, Nathan; Chlimoun, Joe; Van Hyfte, John; Beyer, Ron

2013-02-01

98

75 FR 75995 - Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...decay of Tritium. Its main use is for neutron detection devices used in scientific research...example, on whether companies manufacture neutron detectors used by the well logging industry...Logging-While-Drilling tools incorporating neutron detectors, and whether companies...

2010-12-07

99

Annual Logging Symposium, June 22-26, 2013 JOINT STOCHASTIC INTERPRETATION OF CONVENTIONAL WELL  

E-print Network

-Verdín, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright 2013, held jointly by the Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log structure, and porous kerogen. This paper introduces a stochastic joint inversion method specifically distribution of formation properties. This procedure optimally contends with the challenges of complex

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

100

Integrated Well Log and Reflection Seismic Analysis of Gas Hydrate Accumulations, Mackenzie River Delta, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presentation, associated with this abstract, will focus on the geologic and geophysical evaluation of gas hydrates in Arctic permafrost environments. Within this presentation, we will assess the distribution and size of several gas hydrate and associated free-gas accumulations in the Mackenzie River Delta of Canada through the analysis and integration of downhole well logs and reflection seismic data. This

Timothy S. Collett; Scott R. Dallimore

101

The answer: The definitive Formation evaluation log through well-site information management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation evaluation data are currently available at the well site from many different service sources, such as drilling and geological surveillance, formation evaluation measurement while drilling (FE-MWD), and wireline logging. Additional critical data are available from the mud engineer and drilling supervisors. Traditionally, their outputs have been presented inconsistently in a variety of formats, at different scales and data intervals,

J. M. P. Bradley; I. Sindiku; M. Dalton; A. Doyle

1993-01-01

102

Formation Evaluation From Conventional Well Logs in the Gulf Coast Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study gathers some existing, but often overlooked, techniques of estimating water saturation, residual fluid saturation, anticipated water-cut and primary hydrocarbon reserve from conventional well logs and sidewall core data. Successful applications of these techniques for Pliocene and Miocene sands of the Louisiana Gulf Coast area are presented. Water saturation is obtained by a resistivity-porosity cross plotting technique. The other

S. K. Sanyal

1973-01-01

103

Comparison of an Expert System to Human Experts in Well-Log Analysis and Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of results produced by an expert system to those produced by log-analysis experts are discussed using case histories from a variety of wells from several countries. The results, in general, exceeded initial expectations, with the expert system showing surprisingly intelligent behavior in some circumstances and actually highlighting mistakes made by the human experts. In other examples, the expert system

Elizabeth Einstein; Ken Edwards

1990-01-01

104

New Unified Method of Integrating Core Capillary Pressure Data With Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new unified method is presented for relating porosity, water saturation, capillary pressure (or height in the reservoir), and permeability through multilinear regression with core and log data. This method, an extension of Heseldin, is well-suited to computer processing. In addition to general use in reservoir description, this new method is also shown to be useful in several specific applications.

R. P. Alger; D. L. Luffel; R. B. Truman

1989-01-01

105

SPE 159255-PP Rock Classification from Conventional Well Logs in Hydrocarbon-Bearing  

E-print Network

SPE 159255-PP Rock Classification from Conventional Well Logs in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale Andrew C typing method for application in hydrocarbon-bearing shale (specifically source rock) reservoirs using are typically neglected in core matching. Rock typing in hydrocarbon-bearing shale provides an alternative

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

106

Geophysical well-log measurements in three drill holes at Salt Valley, Utah  

SciTech Connect

Three exploratory drill holes were drilled at Salt Valley, Utah, to study the geologic, physical, geochemical, and hydrologic properties of the evaporite sequence in the Permian Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation. The results of these studies will be used to help to determine the suitability of salt deposits in the Paradox basin as a storage medium for radioactive waste material. The following geophysical well-log measurements were made in each of the three drill holes: (1) density, (2) neutron, (3) acoustic velocity, (4) normal resistivity, and (5) gamma ray. Widely spaced resistivity and conductivity well-log measurements were made in the deep drill hole. Each of these well-log measurements shows the division of the evaporite sequence into halite and interbed sections. At the present time the most useful well-logging measurements for determining the individual lithologies in an evaporite sequence are gamma ray, neutron, density, and acoustic velocity. The high resistivity contrast between the drilling fluid (0.5 ohm-m) and salt (10,000 ohm-m) makes it difficult to obtain quantitative measurements of electrical properties in an evaporite sequence. Tests of widely spaced electrode configurations show that the effects of the brine on the resistivity measurements can be reduced, and the depth of investigation increased, by increasing the source-receiver electrode spacing. Tests of a single-coil induction probe show good resolution of the contrasting electrical properties of the various interbed lithologies.

Daniels, J.J.; Hite, R.J.; Scott, J.H.

1980-01-01

107

Geophysical well log analysis of fractured granitic rocks at Atikokan, Ontario, Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two boreholes, drilled to approximate depths of 750 and 1,260 m in a granitic intrusion located near Atikokan, Ontario, were studied by obtaining a full suite of conventional borehole geophysical logs. In addition, selected intervals in these boreholes were logged with a borehole acoustic televiewer that produces a high-resolution image of the borehole wall, an acoustic waveform-logging system using 34-kiloHertz magnetostrictive and 5-kiloHertz sparker sources, and a highly sensitive heat-pulse flowmeter. Emphasis was on identifying and characterizing fracture zones that represent groundwater conduits in deeper portions of the granite, and on characterizing the properties of the largest intervals of unfractured granite. Major fracture zones were indicated by correlating geophysical log anomalies detected on the suite of conventional logs (unpublished data from Atomic Energy of Canada). However, several other anomalies, were identified as mafic intrusions of approximately the same thickness as major fracture zones. Geophysical log anomalies were compared for all major fracture zones that could serve as significant groundwater conduits, and fracture zone permeability is estimated on the basis of acoustic tube-wave attenuation in these intervals. Acoustic televiewer logs obtained at depths below 1,000 m in the deeper well indicate that most of the few fractures identified on core at these depths do not remain open enough under in situ conditions to produce detectable anomalies in acoustic refraction. Flowmeter data indicate that some groundwater circulation occurs in the upper portion of both boreholes. Water in the shallower of the two holes was observed to flow at 2.0 L/min; most of this flow entered the borehole at a depth < 25 m, and no flow occurred below a depth of 100 m. Downflow at rates < 0.5 L/min was determined to enter the deeper borehole within 20 m of the surface, and to exist at various fractures down to a depth of 250 m. (Author 's abstract)

Paillet, F.L.; Hess, A.E.

1987-01-01

108

Application of nodal S/sub N/ methods to radiation transport in nuclear well logging  

SciTech Connect

Results of testing a three-dimensional nodal discrete method on problems of interest in well logging are presented. Tests on an (x-y-z) benchmark logging problem show that the linear surface nodal method performs significantly better than the conventional linear diamond scheme. For the problems studied, the nodal method requires ten-fold less mesh and two-fold fewer discrete directions than the linear diamond method. The latter method also exhibits a large sensitivity to the number of discrete directions used. Tests on an actual eccentered, cylindrical geometry logging problem show that the rectangular geometry approximation of the (x-y-z) nodal method can be used to adequately represent the curved bondaries of the problem.

Badruzzaman, A.; Chiaramonte, J.

1987-01-01

109

Identification and evaluation of low resistivity pay zones by well logs and the petrophysical research in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of petrophysical research and exploration achievements of low resistivity pay (LRP) zone by\\u000a well logs in China. It includes geological characteristics and characteristics of well log response of the low resistivity\\u000a pay zones discovered and evaluated in recent years, as well as the problems in recognizing and evaluating low resistivity\\u000a pay zones by well logs.

Mao Zhiqiang; Kuang Lichun; Xiao Chengwen; Li Guoxin; Zhou Cancan; Ouyang Jian

2007-01-01

110

Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria).  

PubMed

Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted. PMID:24296157

Asfahani, Jamal

2014-02-01

111

Addendum 2: Logs of monitor wells drilled May 1988 through December 1992  

SciTech Connect

The logs in this addendum were plotted in a new format by the same software package (LOGGER by Rockware, Denver, CO) that was used in the original publication. The scale remains the same, 1 inch = 15 foot. The header is totally automated with a subheading indexing the well-construction symbols. Geophysical curves are labeled in their respective channels, and percentage core recovery is plotted in a histogram. Lithologic symbols are plotted to scale in a channel similar to previous logs. The lithologic description also has been automated to assure consistency in terminology. Descriptions are more extensive and are referenced by leader lines to the lithologic symbol. Additional figures included for this Addendum are: a plot of all the monitoring well locations at the LLNL Main site and a plot detailing the gasoline spill area well locations in the vicinity of Building 403.

Stout, J. [Ray Raskin Associates Inc., Tempe, AZ (United States); Qualheim, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); McPherrin, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Barber, K. [Allied Signal Technical Services, Livermore, CA (United States); Hedegaard, R. [ICF Kaiser Engineers, San Francisco, CA (United States); McConihe, W.; Miller, T. [Brown and Caldwell, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1993-11-01

112

Investigation of Waikele well no 2401-01, Oahu, Hawaii; pumping test, well logs and water quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field tests indicate that an abandoned well (No. 2401-01) near the confluence of Waikele and Kipapa Streams, Oahu, Hawaii, can be reactivated to produce potable water at a rate of 400-500 gallons per minute. Previous tests in 1946 and 1954 indicated that the well tapped the brackish transition zone which inderlies the Ghyben-Herzberg lens of the Pearl Harbor aquifer. Results of this study, based on geologic and geophysical logs of the wall, as well as on pumping test and water-quality data, indicate that the slightly brackish water produced by the well results from brackish irrigation return water. It does not appear that pumping from this well will cause seawater upconing or intrusion. (USGS)

Eyre, P.R.

1983-01-01

113

An equipment health monitoring and fleet dispatching system for logging trucks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A research project directed at the development of an automatic fleet monitoring system is described. Log truck operating parameters are monitored remotely and automatically and transmitted to a base station for data-logging and near real time display and analysis. The system is being developed for the special needs of the forest industry. It is hoped that

G. G. Young; B. J. Sauder

1989-01-01

114

Emulation of petroleum well-logging D - T2 correlations on a standard benchtop spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental protocol is described that allows two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) correlations of apparent diffusion coefficient Dapp and effective transverse relaxation time T2,eff to be acquired on a bench-top spectrometer using pulsed field gradients (PFG) in such a manner as to emulate Dapp - T2,eff correlations acquired using a well-logging tool with a fixed field gradient (FFG). This technique allows laboratory-scale NMR measurements of liquid-saturated cored rock to be compared directly to logging data obtained from the well by virtue of providing a comparable acquisition protocol and data format, and hence consistent data processing. This direct comparison supports the interpretation of the well-logging data, including a quantitative determination of the oil/brine saturation. The D - T2 pulse sequence described here uses two spin echoes (2SE) with a variable echo time to encode for diffusion. The diffusion and relaxation contributions to the signal decay are then deconvolved using a 2D numerical inversion. This measurement allows shorter relaxation time components to be probed than in conventional diffusion measurements. A brief discussion of the numerical inversion algorithms available for inverting these non-rectangular data is included. The PFG-2SE sequence described is well suited to laboratory-scale studies of porous media and short T2 samples in general.

Mitchell, J.; Fordham, E. J.

2011-10-01

115

Reservoir characterization of marine and permafrost associated gas hydrate accumulations with downhole well logs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation depend on a number of reservoir parameters, one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well-logging devices. This study demonstrates that electrical resistivity and acoustic transit-time downhole log data can be used to quantify the amount of gas hydrate in a sedimentary section. Two unique forms of the Archie relation (standard and quick look relations) have been used in this study to calculate water saturations (S(w)) [gas-hydrate saturation (S(h)) is equal to (1.0 - S(w))] from the electrical resistivity log data in four gas hydrate accumulations. These accumulations are located on (1) the Blake Ridge along the Southeastern continental margin of the United States, (2) the Cascadia continental margin off the pacific coast of Canada, (3) the North Slope of Alaska, and (4) the Mackenzie River Delta of Canada. Compressional wave acoustic log data have also been used in conjunction with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate gas-hydrate saturations in all four areas assessed.

Collett, T.S.; Lee, M.W.

2000-01-01

116

Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate-bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave

Myung W. Lee; William F. Waite

2008-01-01

117

Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate–bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave

Myung W. Lee; William F. Waite

2008-01-01

118

On the Capability of Support Vector Machines to Classify Lithology from Well Logs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing technical demands placed on models with promising generalization performance to identify lithology from well-log\\u000a data points has led to search for more efficient methods than conventional statistical methods. Conventional methods such\\u000a as discriminant analysis recently applied neural networks belong to the general class of Empirical Risk Minimization techniques\\u000a which aim to minimize training error. On the other hand,

A. Al-Anazi; I. D. Gates

2010-01-01

119

Nonparametric and Semiparametric Bivariate Modeling of Petrophysical Porosity-Permeability Dependence from Well Log Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Assessment of rock formation permeability is a complicated and challenging problem that plays a key role in oil reservoir\\u000a modeling, production forecast, and the optimal exploitation management. Generally, permeability evaluation is performed using\\u000a porosity-permeability relationships obtained by integrated analysis of various petrophysical measurements taken from cores\\u000a and wireline well logs. Dependence relationships between pairs of petrophysical variables, such as permeability

Arturo Erdely; Martin Diaz-Viera

120

Records of selected wells and lithologic logs of test holes, Hendry County and adjacent areas, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To provide water-resource information for Hendry County, Florida , geologic test holes were drilled in the surficial aquifer, and an extensive inventory was compiled of wells in the surficial aquifer and deep artesian aquifers. This report provides: (1) records for 788 selected wells and test holes including location , construction, water use, water level, chloride concentration, specific conductance, temperature, yield, hydrogen sulfide, and iron-staining problems; and (2) lithologic logs for 26 test holes ranging in depth from 90 to 650 feet. A few inventoried wells and two test holes are in adjacent parts of Collier or Glades Counties. (USGS)

Fish, John E.; Causaras, Carmen R.; O'Donnell, T. H.

1983-01-01

121

Practical approach to estimate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using Passey's algorithm without sonic log in horizontal well  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shale gas evaluation process can be summarized as the selection of sweep spot intervals in the vertical borehole and determination of hydraulic fracturing zones in horizontal borehole. Brittleness index used in the selection of hydraulic fracturing interval is calculated from dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of wireline logging and MWD/LWD data. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated from the sonic and density log data, and therefore the MWD/LWD in the horizontal borehole should be included sonic log to estimate the dynamic elastic constants. This paper proposes a practical method to estimate the elastic moduli based on Passey's algorithm if we can't use the LWD sonic log in the horizontal borehole. To estimate the TOC (Total Organic Content) using the sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log using Passey's algorithm we use the relationship between Delta log R values and core derived-LOM (Level of Maturity) data. Dynamic elastic constants in the horizontal well, i.e. in case of sweet spot zones, can be estimated using the relationships between P-wave velocity and elastic constants in the vertical well, and similarity between the calculated Delta log R values from sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log, respectively. From two Passey's algorithms such as sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log relationships in the vertical well, we can derive the P-wave velocity equating the two Passey's algorithms based on the similarity. Then we can derive the dynamic elastic constants using the relationships between P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic constants. Finally we can estimate the brittleness index from the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We expect that this practical method can be effectively applied if we can't use the LWD sonic logging data of the horizontal borehole.

Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun

2013-04-01

122

High-resolution processing of acoustic well logs based on anti-aliasing Shannon wavelet packet transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution processing of well logs is one of the important approaches to enhance the explanations to the thin beds, and it is very useful for old logging information evaluation. In this paper, a new method for high-resolution processing of well logs based on anti-aliasing Shannon wavelet packet transform is proposed. Firstly, a frequency domain interpolation method is composed of Shannon

Zang Wei; Shi Yibing; Lu Tao

123

Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance.  

PubMed

In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly. PMID:25085159

Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

2014-07-01

124

Manchester code telemetry system for well logging using quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive resonance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a quasi-parallel inductive-capacitive (LC) resonance method is proposed to improve the recovery of MIL-STD-1553 Manchester code with several frequency components from attenuated, distorted, and drifted signal for data telemetry in well logging, and corresponding telemetry system is developed. Required resonant frequency and quality factor are derived, and the quasi-parallel LC resonant circuit is established at the receiving end of the logging cable to suppress the low-pass filtering effect caused by the distributed capacitance of the cable and provide balanced pass for all the three frequency components of the Manchester code. The performance of the method for various encoding frequencies and cable lengths at different bit energy to noise density ratios (Eb/No) have been evaluated in the simulation. A 5 km single-core cable used in on-site well logging and various encoding frequencies were employed to verify the proposed telemetry system in the experiment. Results obtained demonstrate that the telemetry system is feasible and effective to improve the code recovery in terms of anti-attenuation, anti-distortion, and anti-drift performances, decrease the bit error rate, and increase the reachable transmission rate and distance greatly.

Xu, Lijun; Chen, Jianjun; Cao, Zhang; Liu, Xingbin; Hu, Jinhai

2014-07-01

125

Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous factors that may be relevant to this interpretation also is presented. (Lantz-PTT)

Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

1986-01-01

126

Reservoir Description from Well-log and Reservoir Engineering: An Example from Triassic Reservoirs in Northwest China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated method of formation evaluation from petrophysics based on well-log, core, and reservoir engineering based on drill stem test (DST), pressure, and production data are presented in this article. We demonstrate this application using multiple well-log suites to estimate the varieties of properties based on oil saturation, pressure drops, oil column heights, and reservoir productivity, etc. A detailed explanation

J. Yan; M. Tucker; T. Liu

2006-01-01

127

Comparison of Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates methods in a three-dimensional well-logging problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the authors compare the Monte Carlo and the two discrete ordinates methods (nodal and conventional) in the benchmark well-logging problem. Although the problem is prototypical of well-logging systems, it severely tests the capabilities of transport methods. The Monte Carlo calculations were performed with the Los Alamos code, MCNP. The discrete ordinates calculations were performed using the Schlumberger

A. Badruzzaman; J. Chiaramonte

1985-01-01

128

Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells  

DOEpatents

A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a prober assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

Nachbar, Henry D. (Ballston Lake, NY); DeRossi, Raymond S. (Amsterdam, NY); Mullins, Lawrence E. (Middle Grove, NY)

1993-01-01

129

Recognition of hydrocarbon expulsion using well logs: Bakken Formation, Williston Basin  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Mississippian-Lower Devonian Bakken Formation forms a source/carrier/reservoir system in the Williston basin. Hydrocarbon expulsion within the Bakken has been identified by overlaying sonic and resistivity logs. Typically, these curves track in organically lean, water-saturated mudrocks because both respond mainly to porosity; however, in thermally mature organic-rich rocks and hydrocarbon reservoirs or carrier beds, the curves separate due to the anomalously high resistivity associated with replacement of pore water by hydrocarbons. Sonic/resistivity-log overlays for wells throughout the Montana and North Dakota parts of the Williston basin reveal significant increases and maximum in-curve separation within the middle siltstone member of the Bakken at subsurface temperatures of about 170 and 200{degree}F, respectively. Sequence-stratigraphic characteristics of the Bakken define the framework within which the expulsion process operates. The organic-rich upper and lower shale members represent the transgressive and early highstand systems tracts of two adjacent depositional sequences. A sequence boundary within the intervening middle siltstone member separates nearshore siltstone and sandstone of the late highstand systems tract in the lower sequence from cross-bedded subtidal to intertidal sandstones of the lowstand systems tract in the upper sequence. Reservoir properties vary across this sequence boundary. The authors attribute the log separation in the siltstone member to hydrocarbons expelled from the adjacent shales. Abrupt shifts in several geochemical properties of the shale members, indicative of hydrocarbon generation occur over the same subsurface temperature range as the rapid increase in log separation in the middle siltstone, thus indicating the contemporaneity of generation and expulsion.

Cunningham, R.; Zelt, F.B.; Morgan, S.R.; Passey, Q.R. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (USA)); Snavely, P.D. III; Webster, R.L. (Exxon Co., U.S.A., Houston, TX (USA))

1990-05-01

130

High-voltage supply for neutron tubes in well-logging applications  

DOEpatents

A high voltage supply is provided for a neutron tube used in well logging. The biased pulse supply of the invention combines DC and full pulse techniques and produces a target voltage comprising a substantial negative DC bias component on which is superimposed a pulse whose negative peak provides the desired negative voltage level for the neutron tube. The target voltage is preferably generated using voltage doubling techniques and employing a voltage source which generates bipolar pulse pairs having an amplitude corresponding to the DC bias level.

Humphreys, D.R.

1982-09-15

131

Wavelet estimation by matching well-log, VSP, and surface-seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a method of wavelet estimation by matching well-log, VSP, and surface-seismic data. It's based on a statistical model in which both input and output are contaminated with additive random noise. A coherency matching technique is used to estimate the wavelet. Measurements of goodness-of-fit and accuracy provide tools for quality control. A practical example suggests that our method is robust and stable. The matching and estimation of the wavelet is reliable within the seismic bandwidth. This method needs no assumption on the wavelet amplitude and phase and the main advantage of the method is its ability to determine phase.

Ma, Hong-Da; White, Roy E.; Hu, Tian-Yue

2010-12-01

132

Induction conductivity and natural gamma logs collected in 15 wells at Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Bexar County, Texas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Camp Stanley Storage Activity conducted electromagnetic induction conductivity and natural gamma logging of 15 selected wells on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity, located in northern Bexar County, Texas, during March 28-30, 2005. In late 2004, a helicopter electromagnetic survey was flown of the Camp Stanley Storage Activity as part of a U.S. Geological Survey project to better define subsurface geologic units, the structure, and the catchment area of the Trinity aquifer. The electromagnetic induction conductivity and natural gamma log data in this report were collected to constrain the calculation of resistivity depth sections and to provide subsurface controls for interpretation of the helicopter electromagnetic data collected for the Camp Stanley Storage Activity. Logs were recorded digitally while moving the probe in an upward direction to maintain proper depth control. Logging speed was no greater than 30 feet per minute. During logging, a repeat section of at least 100 feet was recorded to check repeatability of log responses. Several of the wells logged were completed with polyvinyl chloride casing that can be penetrated by electromagnetic induction fields and allows conductivity measurement. However, some wells were constructed with steel centralizers and stainless steel screen that caused spikes on both conductivity and resulting resistivity log curves. These responses are easily recognizable and appear at regular intervals on several logs.

Stanton, Gregory P.

2005-01-01

133

Environmental effects and characterization of the Egyptian radioactive well logging calibration pad facility.  

PubMed

A set of ten radioactive well-logging calibration pads were constructed in one of the premises of the Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA), Egypt, at 6th October city. These pads were built for calibrating geophysical well-logging instruments. This calibration facility was conducted through technical assistance and practical support of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and (ARCN). There are five uranium pads with three different uranium concentrations and borehole diameters. The other five calibration pads include one from each of the following: blank, potassium, thorium, multi layers and mixed. More than 22 t of various selected Egyptian raw materials were gathered for pad construction from different locations in Egypt. Pad's site and the surrounding area were spectrometrically surveyed before excavation for the construction process of pad-basin floor. They yielded negligible radiation values which are very near to the detected general background. After pad's construction, spectrometric measurements were carried out again in the same locations when the exposed bore holes of the pads were closed. No radioactivity leakage was noticed from the pads. Meanwhile, dose rate values were found to range from 0.12 to 1.26 mS/y. They were measured during the opening of bore holes of the pads. These values depend mainly upon the type and concentration of the pads as well as their borehole diameters. The results of radiospectrometric survey illustrate that the specification of top layers of the pads were constructed according to international standards. PMID:24140880

Al Alfy, Ibrahim Mohammad

2013-12-01

134

Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.

Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L.; Sheen, David M.; Schenkel, Thomas

2010-11-01

135

ACE stimulated neural network for shear wave velocity determination from well logs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear wave velocity provides invaluable information for geomechanical, geophysical, and reservoir characterization studies. However, measurement of shear wave velocity is time, cost and labor intensive. This study proposes a swift and exact methodology, called ACE stimulated neural network, for prediction of shear wave velocity from available well logs such that it will be able to surpass previous models. The proposed method is composed of two major parts: 1) transforming input/output data space to a higher correlated space using alternative condition expectation (ACE), and 2) making a neural network formulation in transformed data space. Transforming in the first step makes it easier for neural network to find the complicated underlying dependency of input/output data. Therefore, neural network will be able to develop an accurate and strong formulation between conventional well logs and shear wave velocity. The Propounded approach was successfully applied in one of the carbonate gas fields of Iran. A comparison between proposed model and previous models showed superiority of ACE stimulated neural network.

Asoodeh, Mojtaba; Bagheripour, Parisa

2014-08-01

136

Detailed evaluation of gas hydrate reservoir properties using JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well downhole well-log displays  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well project was designed to investigate the occurrence of in situ natural gas hydrate in the Mallik area of the Mackenzie Delta of Canada. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed in the Mallik 2L-38 well included the Schlumberger Platform Express with a high resolution laterolog, Array Induction Imager Tool, Dipole Shear Sonic Imager, and a Fullbore Formation Microlmager. The downhole log data obtained from the log- and core-inferred gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary interval (897.25-1109.5 m log depth) in the Mallik 2L-38 well is depicted in a series of well displays. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces, calculated from available downhole well-log and core data. The gas hydrate accumulation delineated by the Mallik 2L-38 well has been determined to contain as much as 4.15109 m3 of gas in the 1 km2 area surrounding the drill site.

Collett, T.S.

1999-01-01

137

High-resolution well-log derived dielectric properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dielectric logging tool, electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT), was deployed in 2007 in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert Well), North Slope, Alaska. The measured dielectric properties in the Mount Elbert well, combined with density log measurements, result in a vertical high-resolution (cm-scale) estimate of gas hydrate saturation. Two hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs about 20 m thick

Y. Sun; D. Goldberg; T. Collett; R. Hunter

2011-01-01

138

MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon) capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. The general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well suited for borehole-tool models. SABRINA, another component of the LARTCS, is a graphics code that can be used to interactively create a complex MCNP geometry. Users can define many source and tally characteristics with standard MCNP features. The time-dependent capability of the code is essential when modeling pulsed sources. Problems with neutrons, photons, and electrons as either single particle or coupled particles can be calculated with MCNP. The physics of neutron and photon transport and interactions is modeled in detail using the latest available cross-section data. A rich collections of variance reduction features can greatly increase the efficiency of a calculation. MCNP is written in FORTRAN 77 and has been run on variety of computer systems from scientific workstations to supercomputers. The next production version of MCNP will include features such as continuous-energy electron transport and a multitasking option. Areas of ongoing research of interest to the well logging community include angle biasing, adaptive Monte Carlo, improved discrete ordinates capabilities, and discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo hybrid development. Los Alamos has requested approval by the Department of Energy to create a Radiation Transport Computational Facility under their User Facility Program to increase external interactions with industry, universities, and other government organizations. 21 refs.

Forster, R.A.; Little, R.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.

1989-01-01

139

Lithology identification of aquifers from geophysical well logs and fuzzy logic analysis: Shui-Lin Area, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study is to construct a fuzzy lithology system from well logs to identify formation lithology of a groundwater aquifer system in order to better apply conventional well logging interpretation in hydro-geologic studies because well log responses of aquifers are sometimes different from those of conventional oil and gas reservoirs. The input variables for this system are the gamma-ray log reading, the separation between the spherically focused resistivity and the deep very-enhanced resistivity curves, and the borehole compensated sonic log reading. The output variable is groundwater formation lithology. All linguistic variables are based on five linguistic terms with a trapezoidal membership function. In this study, 50 data sets are clustered into 40 training sets and 10 testing sets for constructing the fuzzy lithology system and validating the ability of system prediction, respectively. The rule-based database containing 12 fuzzy lithology rules is developed from the training data sets, and the rule strength is weighted. A Madani inference system and the bisector of area defuzzification method are used for fuzzy inference and defuzzification. The success of training performance and the prediction ability were both 90%, with the calculated correlation of training and testing equal to 0.925 and 0.928, respectively. Well logs and core data from a clastic aquifer (depths 100-198 m) in the Shui-Lin area of west-central Taiwan are used for testing the system's construction. Comparison of results from core analysis, well logging and the fuzzy lithology system indicates that even though the well logging method can easily define a permeable sand formation, distinguishing between silts and sands and determining grain size variation in sands is more subjective. These shortcomings can be improved by a fuzzy lithology system that is able to yield more objective decisions than some conventional methods of log interpretation.

Hsieh, Bieng-Zih; Lewis, Charles; Lin, Zsay-Shing

2005-04-01

140

The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Oden, C.P.; Schweitzer, J.S.; McDowell, G.M.

2006-01-01

141

The feasibility of well-logging measurements of arsenic levels using neutron-activation analysis.  

PubMed

Arsenic is an extremely toxic metal, which poses a significant problem in many mining environments. Arsenic contamination is also a major problem in ground and surface waters. A feasibility study was conducted to determine if neutron-activation analysis is a practical method of measuring in situ arsenic levels. The response of hypothetical well-logging tools to arsenic was simulated using a readily available Monte Carlo simulation code (MCNP). Simulations were made for probes with both hyperpure germanium (HPGe) and bismuth germanate (BGO) detectors using accelerator and isotopic neutron sources. Both sources produce similar results; however, the BGO detector is much more susceptible to spectral interference than the HPGe detector. Spectral interference from copper can preclude low-level arsenic measurements when using the BGO detector. Results show that a borehole probe could be built that would measure arsenic concentrations of 100 ppm by weight to an uncertainty of 50 ppm in about 15 min. PMID:16737819

Oden, C P; Schweitzer, J S; McDowell, G M

2006-09-01

142

Drilling and geophysical logs of the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site, Central Venango County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Collection and integrated analysis of drilling and geophysical logs provided an efficient and effective means for characterizing the geohydrologic framework and conditions penetrated by the tophole at the selected oil-and-gas well site. The logging methods and lessons learned at this well site could be applied at other oil-and-gas drilling sites to better characterize the shallow subsurface with the overall goal of protecting freshwater aquifers during hydrocarbon development.

Williams, John H.; Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.; Anderson, Alton

2014-01-01

143

Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact age, cratering, target-impactite stratigraphy, ejecta, impact dynamics, hydrothermal alterations and post-impact processes are presented. The challenges and perspectives of drilling studies of impact craters are discussed.

Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.

2013-12-01

144

High-resolution well-log derived dielectric properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A dielectric logging tool, electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT), was deployed in 2007 in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert Well), North Slope, Alaska. The measured dielectric properties in the Mount Elbert well, combined with density log measurements, result in a vertical high-resolution (cm-scale) estimate of gas hydrate saturation. Two hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs about 20 m thick were identified using the EPT log and exhibited gas-hydrate saturation estimates ranging from 45% to 85%. In hydrate-bearing zones where variation of hole size and oil-based mud invasion are minimal, EPT-based gas hydrate saturation estimates on average agree well with lower vertical resolution estimates from the nuclear magnetic resonance logs; however, saturation and porosity estimates based on EPT logs are not reliable in intervals with substantial variations in borehole diameter and oil-based invasion.EPT log interpretation reveals many thin-bedded layers at various depths, both above and below the thick continuous hydrate occurrences, which range from 30-cm to about 1-m thick. Such thin layers are not indicated in other well logs, or from the visual observation of core, with the exception of the image log recorded by the oil-base microimager. We also observe that EPT dielectric measurements can be used to accurately detect fine-scale changes in lithology and pore fluid properties of hydrate-bearing sediments where variation of hole size is minimal. EPT measurements may thus provide high-resolution in-situ hydrate saturation estimates for comparison and calibration with laboratory analysis. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Sun, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Collett, T.; Hunter, R.

2011-01-01

145

Improving the analysis of well-logs by wavelet cross-correlation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of wavelet cross-correlation is used to provide a new approach to identify similar patterns in related data sets, which largely improves the confidence of the results. The method amounts to decompose the data sets in the wavelet space so that correlations between wavelet coefficients can be analyzed in every scale. Besides the identification of the scales in which two independent measures are correlated, the method makes it possible to find patches of data sets where correlations exist simultaneously in all scales. This allows to extend the information of a small number of spots to larger regions. Well-log data sets from two neighboring oil wells are used. We compare similar measures at different probe sites, and also measurements of different physical quantities taken on the same place. Although this is a typical scenario for the application of classical geostatistical methods, it is well known that such methods erase out local differences in favor of smoother variability. In contraposition, this wavelet cross-correlation takes advantage of the fluctuations to give information about the continuity of the geological structures in space. It works even better if no filtering procedure has been applied to the original raw data.

Henriques, M. V. C.; Leite, F. E. A.; Andrade, R. F. S.; Andrade, J. S.; Lucena, L. S.; Neto, M. Lucena

2015-01-01

146

Log data comparison and quantification  

SciTech Connect

Two geothermal wells were logged with similar wireline logs by several logging companies in a period of five years (1974 to 1979). The results of these equivalent logs are quantitatively different and in some cases qualitatively different. This difference also occurs between the same type of logs recorded at different time intervals by the same logging company. These various log data are related and qualified when logging equipment has not been properly calibrated. All depths referred to for either well are from their respective kelly bushing (KB). The first well (Mesa 31-1) is in the Imperial Valley of California and penetrates a sand, shale, and clay sedimentary lithology with a maximum temperature of 165/sup 0/C (330/sup 0/F) and a total depth of 1882 m (6175 ft). The second well (Phillips 9-1) is in the Roosevelt Hot Springs known geothermal resource areas (KGRA) of southwestern Utah and penetrates hydrothermally altered (low-grade metamorphic) and igneous lithology with a maximum temperature of 225/sup 0/C (440/sup 0/F) and a toatl depth of 2098.5 m (6885 ft). During that period (1974 to 1979) calibration of logging equipment in metamorphic and igneous lithologies could not be done. The logging data from this well is not qualitatively comparable in all cases and indicates the need for calibration. The open-hole log data acquired from Mesa 31-1 and Phillips 9-1 wells were compared to core data from these wells and comparison factors were calculated to better quantify the open-hole log data. Then open-hole log data were compared to the cased-hole log data from various companies and additional comparison factors were calculated for the cased-hole log data. These comparison factors allow for some quantification of these uncalibrated log data.

Mathews, M.; LaDelfe, C.

1981-01-01

147

Use of Well Logs to Provide Formation Design Values for Hydraulic Fracture Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presnts wireline tool usage in providing proper design parameter values for hydraulic fracture treatments and in evaluating the success of such a treatment. Examples of logging suites are provided and methods are presented for converting log measurements into design values. Techniques are discussed and a matrix chart has been developed for relating tool capabilities with design requirements. It

S. Ameri; H. H. Rieke

1981-01-01

148

Interval inversion of well-logging data for objective determination of textural parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A joint inversion method for the evaluation of well-logging data is presented, which is applicable to determine textural parameters, i.e., cementation exponent, saturation exponent and tortuosity factor, simultaneously with conventional petrophysical properties. The inversion techniques used today perform local interpretation. Since the number of unknowns is slightly lower than that of the data estimated locally to one depth-point, a set of marginally overdetermined inverse problems has to be solved. For preserving the overdetermination, textural parameters must be kept constant for longer depth intervals ( i.e., 200-300 m), despite the fact that they seem to be varying faster with depth according to field experiences. An inversion method was developed, which inverts data of a greater depth interval jointly in a highly overdetermined inversion procedure and gives a better resolution (10 m or less) estimate for the textural parameters. In the paper, a set of inversion tests on synthetic data as well as a field example prove the feasibility of the method.

Dobróka, Mihály; Szabó, Norbert P.

2011-10-01

149

30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fluids, equipment, and operations. 250.514 Section...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.514...

2010-07-01

150

30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fluids, equipment, and operations. 250.614 Section...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.614...

2010-07-01

151

Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.

1988-01-01

152

Mobile well site test equipment to provide hydrodynamic/kinetic reaction and power plant design data  

SciTech Connect

Mobile well site test equipment was constructed. The equipment simulates geothermal power cycle conditions and provides data for the study of the interactions between the hydrodynamics of a single phase brine and the kinetics of scale formation. Equipment can presently control, monitor, and record all surface conditions a geothermal brine may experience while undergoing a single or double flash energy conversion process. The unit is designed to be operated in parallel with, or independent of, well flow tests and can accommodate flow rates up to 300 gpm.

Nesewich, J.P.; Gracey, C.M.

1981-10-01

153

Integrated reservoir characterization for unconventional reservoirs using seismic, microseismic and well log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study is aimed at an improved understanding of unconventional reservoirs which include tight reservoirs (such as shale oil and gas plays), geothermal developments, etc. We provide a framework for improved fracture zone identification and mapping of the subsurface for a geothermal system by integrating data from different sources. The proposed ideas and methods were tested primarily on data obtained from North Brawley geothermal field and the Geysers geothermal field apart from synthetic datasets which were used to test new algorithms before actual application on the real datasets. The study has resulted in novel or improved algorithms for use at specific stages of data acquisition and analysis including improved phase detection technique for passive seismic (and teleseismic) data as well as optimization of passive seismic surveys for best possible processing results. The proposed workflow makes use of novel integration methods as a means of making best use of the available geophysical data for fracture characterization. The methodology incorporates soft computing tools such as hybrid neural networks (neuro-evolutionary algorithms) as well as geostatistical simulation techniques to improve the property estimates as well as overall characterization efficacy. The basic elements of the proposed characterization workflow involves using seismic and microseismic data to characterize structural and geomechanical features within the subsurface. We use passive seismic data to model geomechanical properties which are combined with other properties evaluated from seismic and well logs to derive both qualitative and quantitative fracture zone identifiers. The study has resulted in a broad framework highlighting a new technique for utilizing geophysical data (seismic and microseismic) for unconventional reservoir characterization. It provides an opportunity to optimally develop the resources in question by incorporating data from different sources and using their temporal and spatial variability as a means to better understand the reservoir behavior. As part of this study, we have developed the following elements which are discussed in the subsequent chapters: 1. An integrated characterization framework for unconventional settings with adaptable workflows for all stages of data processing, interpretation and analysis. 2. A novel autopicking workflow for noisy passive seismic data used for improved accuracy in event picking as well as for improved velocity model building. 3. Improved passive seismic survey design optimization framework for better data collection and improved property estimation. 4. Extensive post-stack seismic attribute studies incorporating robust schemes applicable in complex reservoir settings. 5. Uncertainty quantification and analysis to better quantify property estimates over and above the qualitative interpretations made and to validate observations independently with quantified uncertainties to prevent erroneous interpretations. 6. Property mapping from microseismic data including stress and anisotropic weakness estimates for integrated reservoir characterization and analysis. 7. Integration of results (seismic, microseismic and well logs) from analysis of individual data sets for integrated interpretation using predefined integration framework and soft computing tools.

Maity, Debotyam

154

Predicting brittle zones in the Bakken Formation using well logs and seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The oil-in-place estimate for the Bakken Formation has varied from 10 billion barrels in 1974 to 503 billion barrels in 1999. However, only a small fraction of this estimate is recoverable due to the formation having very low porosity and permeability. Implementation of hydraulic fracture stages along horizontal wells in the Bakken has been productive. Recently, identification of zones where the formation is brittle has been used to improve hydraulic fracture stimulation efficiency in an effort to improve production. The first goal for this thesis is to identify a correlation between brittleness and production data by using elastic moduli and normalized production values. The hypothesis for this study is that rock with a low Poisson's ratio and high Young's modulus will be more brittle and will ultimately produce a higher amount of oil than more ductile rock. The next goal was to create and test a method to identify brittle zones with high normalized production in a 3D seismic data set without well control using producing wells from outside the survey with dipole sonic logs from the Bakken Formation. Correlations between normalized production values and elastic moduli were subsequently identified. Cumulative first-four-months' production was found to have the best correlation to the elastic moduli. Correlations of normalized production values and Poisson's ratio showed that sections of the middle Bakken with low Poisson's ratio yield higher normalized production values. Correlations of Young's modulus and normalized production showed that middle Bakken zones with low Young's modulus have higher normalized production values. However, when using additional wells that were not used for well-to-3D seismic correlations, the correlation shows that higher Young's modulus yield higher normalized production. The correlation with additional wells best represented the data and agrees with the initial hypothesis. Brittle zones were mapped in a 3D seismic data set by correlating well synthetics to the seismic traces and importing the data created from the correlation into a self-organizing map (SOM). SOM analysis identified small brittle zones with high production in the northwestern part of the survey.

Beecher, Michael E.

155

Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46  

SciTech Connect

A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ({sup 40}K). However, {sup 137}Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations.

Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Barrash, W. [Idaho Dept. of Health and Welfare, Boise, ID (United States)

1993-05-01

156

Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3406-12, Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well (State well number 3-3406-12) was drilled about 2,000 feet northeast of Weed Circle in the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone of the Waialua ground-water area to an elevation of -596 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north- central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

1996-01-01

157

Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3604-01, Kawailoa deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Kawailoa deep monitor well (State well number 3-3604-01) was drilled about 1.9 miles east- northeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land in the Kawailoa ground-water area. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone to an elevation of -392 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, specific-conductance and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

1996-01-01

158

Geophysical well-log analysis of fractured crystalline rocks at East Bull Lake, Ontario, Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Various conventional geophysical borehole measurements were made in conjunction with measurements using a recently designed, low-frequency, acoustic-waveform probe and slow velocity flowmeter for characterization of a fractured mafic intrusion in southern Ontario, Canada. Conventional geophysical measurements included temperature, caliper, gamma, acoustic, single-point resistance, and acoustic televiewer logs. Hole stability problems prevented the use of neutron and gamma-gamma logs, because these logs require that a radioactive source be lowered into the borehole. Measurements were made in three boreholes as much as 850 m deep and penetrating a few tens of meters into granitic basement. All rocks within the mafic intrusion were characterized by minimal gamma radiation and acoustic velocities of about 6.9 km/sec. The uniformity of the acoustic velocities and the character of acoustic-waveform logs made with a conventional high-frequency logging source correlated with the density of fractures evident on televiewer logs. Sample intervals of high-frequency waveform logs were transformed into interpretations of effective fracture opening using a recent model for acoustic attenuation in fractured rocks. The new low-frequency sparker source did not perform as expected at depths below 250 m because of previously unsuspected problems with source firing under large hydrostatic heads. A new heat-pulse, slow velocity flowmeter was used to delineate in detail the flow regime indicated in a general way by temperature logs. The flowmeter measurements indicated that water was entering 2 of the boreholes at numerous fractures above a depth of 200 m, with flow in at least 2 of the boreholes exiting through large isolated fractures below a depth of 400 m. (Author 's abstract)

Paillet, F.L.; Hess, A.E.

1986-01-01

159

Identifying Complex Fluvial Sandstone Reservoirs Using Core, Well Log, and 3D Seismic Data: Cretaceous Cedar Mountain and Dakota Formations,  

E-print Network

i Identifying Complex Fluvial Sandstone Reservoirs Using Core, Well Log, and 3D Seismic Data All Rights Reserved #12;ii ABSTRACT Identifying Complex Fluvial Sandstone Reservoirs Using Core, Well the stratigraphic distribution and lateral extent of potential gas-bearing channel sandstone reservoirs

Seamons, Kent E.

160

Brookian sequence well log correlation sections and occurrence of gas hydrates, north-central North Slope, Alaska  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas hydrates are naturally occurring crystalline, ice-like substances that consist of natural gas molecules trapped in a solid-water lattice. Because of the compact nature of their structure, hydrates can effectively store large volumes of gas and, consequently, have been identified as a potential unconventional energy source. First recognized to exist geologically in the 1960s, significant accumulations of gas hydrate have been found throughout the world. Gas hydrate occurrence is limited to environments such as permafrost regions and subsea sediments because of the pressure and temperature conditions required for their formation and stability. Permafrost-associated gas hydrate accumulations have been discovered in many regions of the Arctic, including Russia, Canada, and the North Slope of Alaska. Gas hydrate research has a long history in northern Alaska. This research includes the drilling, coring, and well log evaluation of two gas hydrate stratigraphic test wells and two resource assessments of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. Building upon these previous investigations, this report provides a summary of the pertinent well log, gas hydrate, and stratigraphic data for key wells related to gas hydrate occurrence in the north-central North Slope. The data are presented in nine well log correlation sections with 122 selected wells to provide a regional context for gas hydrate accumulations and the relation of the accumulations to key stratigraphic horizons and to the base of the ice-bearing permafrost. Also included is a well log database that lists the location, available well logs, depths, and other pertinent information for each of the wells on the correlation section.

Lewis, Kristen A.; Collett, Timothy S.

2013-01-01

161

Estimation of Permeability From Well Logs Using Resistivity and Saturation Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental relationship between permeability, water saturation, and rock resistivity has been suggested. This relationship can be used for interpreting any one of these three parameters when the other two are known. For example, the relationship can be used in interpreting permeability from resistivity logs when water saturation is known. This study is based on electrical measurements of core samples

Salih Saner; Mimoun Kissami; Subhi Nufaili

1997-01-01

162

Reservoir parameters estimation from well log and core data: a case study from the North Sea  

E-print Network

is based on matching core and log data, and the linear and non-linear regressions are then used to build propose an alternative approach that provides a satisfactory prediction for reservoir parameters. Second, linear and non- linear regression are employed to derive porosity, shale vol- umes, clay contents

Edinburgh, University of

163

Possible new well-logging tool using positron Doppler broadening to detect total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrocarbon source rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of well-logging tools has proven to be a cheap, effective method of formation evaluation in potential petroleum basins. One of the few remaining unanswered questions of economic importance is the amount of organic matter available to produce oil and gas in source rocks. Using Doppler broadening spectroscopy, we measured the \\/S-parameter along the length of a shaly source

C. D. Patterson; C. A. Quarles; J. A. Breyer

2003-01-01

164

Possible new well-logging tool using positron Doppler broadening to detect total organic carbon (TOC) in hydrocarbon source rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of well-logging tools has proven to be a cheap, effective method of formation evaluation in potential petroleum basins. One of the few remaining unanswered questions of economic importance is the amount of organic matter available to produce oil and gas in source rocks. Using Doppler broadening spectroscopy, we measured the S-parameter along the length of a shaly source

C. D. Patterson; C. A. Quarles; J. A. Breyer

2003-01-01

165

State-Of-The-Art in Permeability Determination From Well Log Data: Part 1-A Comparative Study, Model Development  

E-print Network

are compared with core permeability, which is considered to be the standard. In this first part of the paper we to determine and predict is permeability. A great amount of work was done by several investigators in the1-10 Determination From Well Log Data: Part 1- A Comparative Study, Model Development Balan, B., Mohaghegh, S., Ameri

Mohaghegh, Shahab

166

Neural network prediction of carbonate lithofacies from well logs, Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields, Southwest Kansas  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In the Hugoton Embayment of southwestern Kansas, St. Louis Limestone reservoirs have relatively low recovery efficiencies, attributed to the heterogeneous nature of the oolitic deposits. This study establishes quantitative relationships between digital well logs and core description data, and applies these relationships in a probabilistic sense to predict lithofacies in 90 uncored wells across the Big Bow and Sand Arroyo Creek fields. In 10 wells, a single hidden-layer neural network based on digital well logs and core described lithofacies of the limestone depositional texture was used to train and establish a non-linear relationship between lithofacies assignments from detailed core descriptions and selected log curves. Neural network models were optimized by selecting six predictor variables and automated cross-validation with neural network parameters and then used to predict lithofacies on the whole data set of the 2023 half-foot intervals from the 10 cored wells with the selected network size of 35 and a damping parameter of 0.01. Predicted lithofacies results compared to actual lithofacies displays absolute accuracies of 70.37-90.82%. Incorporating adjoining lithofacies, within-one lithofacies improves accuracy slightly (93.72%). Digital logs from uncored wells were batch processed to predict lithofacies and probabilities related to each lithofacies at half-foot resolution corresponding to log units. The results were used to construct interpolated cross-sections and useful depositional patterns of St. Louis lithofacies were illustrated, e.g., the concentration of oolitic deposits (including lithofacies 5 and 6) along local highs and the relative dominance of quartz-rich carbonate grainstone (lithofacies 1) in the zones A and B of the St. Louis Limestone. Neural network techniques are applicable to other complex reservoirs, in which facies geometry and distribution are the key factors controlling heterogeneity and distribution of rock properties. Future work involves extension of the neural network to predict reservoir properties, and construction of three-dimensional geo-models. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Qi, L.; Carr, T.R.

2006-01-01

167

Pore structure effect on reservoir electrical properties and well logging evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reservoir pore structure controls the reservoir quality and resistivity response of hydrocarbon-bearing zones and thus, critically affects logging interpretation. We use petrophysical data in three types of reservoir with different pore structure characteristics to show that the complexity of pore structure had a significant effect on the effective porosity and permeability regardless of geological factors responsible for the formation of pore structure. Moreover,, the distribution and content of conductive fluids in the reservoir varies dramatically owing to pore structure differences, which also induces resistivity variations in reservoir rocks. Hence, the origin of low-resistivity hydrocarbon-bearing zones, except for those with conductive matrix and mud filtrate invasion, is attributed to the complexity of the pore structures. Consequently, reservoir-specific evaluation models, parameters, and criteria should be chosen for resistivity log interpretation to make a reliable evaluation of reservoir quality and fluids.

Bian, Huan-Lin; Guan, Ju; Mao, Zhi-Qiang; Ju, Xiao-Dong; Han, Gui-Qing

2014-12-01

168

Integrated analysis of well logs and seismic data to estimate gas hydrate concentrations at Keathley Canyon, Gulf of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurately detecting and quantifying gas hydrate or free gas in sediments from seismic data require downhole well-log data to calibrate the physical properties of the gas hydrate-\\/free gas-bearing sediments. As part of the Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Program, a series of wells were either cored or drilled in the Gulf of Mexico to characterize the physical properties of gas

M. W. Lee; T. S. Collett

2008-01-01

169

MS-BWME: a wireless real-time monitoring system for brine well mining equipment.  

PubMed

This paper describes a wireless real-time monitoring system (MS-BWME) to monitor the running state of pumps equipment in brine well mining and prevent potential failures that may produce unexpected interruptions with severe consequences. MS-BWME consists of two units: the ZigBee Wireless Sensors Network (WSN) unit and the real-time remote monitoring unit. MS-BWME was implemented and tested in sampled brine wells mining in Qinghai Province and four kinds of indicators were selected to evaluate the performance of the MS-BWME, i.e., sensor calibration, the system's real-time data reception, Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) and sensor node lifetime. The results show that MS-BWME can accurately judge the running state of the pump equipment by acquiring and transmitting the real-time voltage and electric current data of the equipment from the spot and provide real-time decision support aid to help workers overhaul the equipment in a timely manner and resolve failures that might produce unexpected production down-time. The MS-BWME can also be extended to a wide range of equipment monitoring applications. PMID:25340455

Xiao, Xinqing; Zhu, Tianyu; Qi, Lin; Moga, Liliana Mihaela; Zhang, Xiaoshuan

2014-01-01

170

Borehole Geophysical Logging of Water-Supply Wells in the Piedmont, Blue Ridge, and Valley and Ridge, Georgia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Crystalline and carbonate-rock aquifers in northern Georgia provide water to an ever-increasing number of private and public wells in the region. Understanding the depth and yield of water-bearing zones in such wells is crucial for the development and long-term sustainability of ground-water resources and for keeping wells in good operating condition. Portable geophysical logging units are now widely available and have greatly increased the ability of geoscientists to obtain subsurface information from water wells.

U.S. Geological Survey

2007-01-01

171

A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not possible with the given data set. Additional statistical criteria such as the statistical significance of regressions are used to guide the subsequent calibration of geophysical data in terms of hydraulic variables in those situations where quantitative data inversion is considered appropriate.

Paillet, F.L.; Crowder, R.E.

1996-01-01

172

Review of surface-equipment requirements for geothermal-well stimulation. Geothermal-reservoir well-stimulation program  

SciTech Connect

A summary of stimulation equipment available to geothermal industry is presented and some modifications from which it could benefit are discussed. Equipment requirements for hydraulic fracturing, acid fracturing, acidizing, and other chemical treatments are included. Designs for the following are reviewed: equipment for premixing and storing treatment fluids, proppant handling equipment, pump trucks, special equipment for foam fracturing, intensifier pumps, manifolding, and monitoring and control devices.

Not Available

1982-02-01

173

Comparison of Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates methods in a three-dimensional well-logging problem  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the authors compare the Monte Carlo and the two discrete ordinates methods (nodal and conventional) in the benchmark well-logging problem. Although the problem is prototypical of well-logging systems, it severely tests the capabilities of transport methods. The Monte Carlo calculations were performed with the Los Alamos code, MCNP. The discrete ordinates calculations were performed using the Schlumberger three-dimensional nodal transport code, LENA3D (Linear Expansion Nodal Anisotropic 3D). The three-dimensional discrete nodal transport method developed and coded in LENA3D appears to be significantly faster than the Monte Carlo method in MCNP for this problem. The linear surface flux nodal method yields the accuracy of a Monte Carlo calculation with more than an order of magnitude less computing time for this problem. The method thus offers the potential for performing large-scale three-dimensional transport calculations to complement Monte Carlo methods in well-logging and other radiation transport problems.

Badruzzaman, A.; Chiaramonte, J.

1985-11-01

174

40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. 146.87 Section...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. (a) During the...and construction of a Class VI injection well, the owner or operator...

2011-07-01

175

40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. 146.87 Section...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. (a) During the...and construction of a Class VI injection well, the owner or operator...

2013-07-01

176

40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. 146.87 Section...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. (a) During the...and construction of a Class VI injection well, the owner or operator...

2012-07-01

177

40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. 146.87 Section...sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation. (a) During the...and construction of a Class VI injection well, the owner or operator...

2014-07-01

178

Characterization of injection wells in a fractured reservoir using PTS logs, Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field, Nevada, USA  

SciTech Connect

The Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field in northwestern Nevada, about 15 km south of Reno, is a shallow (150m to 825m) moderate temperature (155 C to 168 C) liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir situated in highly-fractured granodiorite. Three injection wells were drilled and completed in granodiorite to dispose of spent geothermal fluids from the Steamboat II and III power plants (a 30 MW air-cooled binary-type facility). Injection wells were targeted to depths below 300m to inject spent fluids below producing fractures. First, quasi-static downhole pressure-temperature-spinner (PTS) logs were obtained. Then, the three wells were injection-tested using fluids between 80 C and 106 C at rates from 70 kg/s to 200 kg/s. PTS logs were run both up and down the wells during these injection tests. These PTS surveys have delineated the subsurface fracture zones which will accept fluid. The relative injectivity of the wells was also established. Shut-in interzonal flow within the wells was identified and characterized.

Goranson, Colin; Combs, Jim

1995-01-26

179

Reservoir characterization using core, well log, and seismic data and intelligent software  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed intelligent software, Oilfield Intelligence (OI), as an engineering tool to improve the characterization of oil and gas reservoirs. OI integrates neural networks and multivariate statistical analysis. It is composed of five main subsystems: data input, preprocessing, architecture design, graphics design, and inference engine modules. More than 1,200 lines of programming code as M-files using the language MATLAB been written. The degree of success of many oil and gas drilling, completion, and production activities depends upon the accuracy of the models used in a reservoir description. Neural networks have been applied for identification of nonlinear systems in almost all scientific fields of humankind. Solving reservoir characterization problems is no exception. Neural networks have a number of attractive features that can help to extract and recognize underlying patterns, structures, and relationships among data. However, before developing a neural network model, we must solve the problem of dimensionality such as determining dominant and irrelevant variables. We can apply principal components and factor analysis to reduce the dimensionality and help the neural networks formulate more realistic models. We validated OI by obtaining confident models in three different oil field problems: (1) A neural network in-situ stress model using lithology and gamma ray logs for the Travis Peak formation of east Texas, (2) A neural network permeability model using porosity and gamma ray and a neural network pseudo-gamma ray log model using 3D seismic attributes for the reservoir VLE 196 Lamar field located in Block V of south-central Lake Maracaibo (Venezuela), and (3) Neural network primary ultimate oil recovery (PRUR), initial waterflooding ultimate oil recovery (IWUR), and infill drilling ultimate oil recovery (IDUR) models using reservoir parameters for San Andres and Clearfork carbonate formations in west Texas. In all cases, we compared the results from the neural network models with the results from regression statistical and non-parametric approach models. The results show that it is possible to obtain the highest cross-correlation coefficient between predicted and actual target variables, and the lowest average absolute errors using the integrated techniques of multivariate statistical analysis and neural networks in our intelligent software.

Soto Becerra, Rodolfo

180

Comprehensive glacial sediment characterization and correlation with natural gamma log response to identify hydrostratigraphic units in a rotosonic well core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Common borehole geophysical methods use electrical, acoustic, and nuclear measurements to determine physical and chemical characteristics of soils and rocks encountered while drilling. In texturally and mineralogically mature detrital sediments, natural gamma logs are frequently used to differentiate coarse and fine textures that exert primary control on fluid flow in reservoir and aquifer units. Interpretation of natural gamma log response in immature sediments can be complicated by the presence of clays in the fine fraction of poorly sorted units and further confounded in heterogeneous glacial sediments which characteristically display a high degree of vertical and lateral lithologic variability. This study examined natural gamma log response to textural and mineralogical variability in a continuous 70m (230ft) rotosonic borehole drilled through Pleistocene glacial sediments west of Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. The objective of the investigation is to establish a statistical linkage between natural gamma radiation and glacial sediment texture that can be extrapolated to a set of more than 120 monitoring wells and used as soft conditioning information for stochastic simulations of aquifer characteristics across a 10 km2 area impacted by groundwater contamination. The core was sampled at 0.3m (1ft) intervals and sieved to quantify sediment texture at 225 points. 150 grain mount thin sections from samples selected to correspond to a distribution of low, moderate, and high natural gamma log readings.were point counted to quantify mineralogy of the sand size fraction. 30 samples of clay-sized particles taken from the decanted fine fraction of the sieved material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction for clay component analysis. Weak correlations of gamma response to measured characteristics were observed over the entire dataset. As expected, positive relationships with gamma response were observed in samples with higher K-feldspar content and greater proportions of fine particles. Conversely, negative correlations were observed for samples with higher quartz content and greater proportions of coarse particle sizes. Separation of data corresponding to higher confidence gamma readings (i.e., excluding samples corresponding to gamma log inflection points) improved correlations, especially for K-feldspar content and in samples bearing a greater proportion of decanted fine materials. X-ray diffraction results indicate a relationship between gamma response and chlorite and illite, the dominant clays detected in the decanted fine clay fraction. Comparison to sorting metrics (i.e., inclusive graphic standard deviation, uniformity index, and effective size) confirms that higher gamma responses are associated with more poorly sorted sediments. Results demonstrate that gamma ray log response in these glacial sediments is controlled by a combination of texture and mineralogy. Consequently, a stochastic simulation will be required to accommodate uncertainty when linking texture to gamma response.

Frahm, A. L.; Lemke, L. D.

2010-12-01

181

Statistical model for source rock maturity and organic richness using well-log data, Bakken Formation, Williston basin, United States  

SciTech Connect

A study of the Bakken Formation, the proposed source rock for much of the hydrocarbons generated in the Williston basin, was done using bulk density, neutron porosity, and resistivity logs, and formation temperatures. Principal components, cluster, and discriminant analyses indicate that the present-day distribution of organic matter controls much of the variability in the log values. Present-day total organic carbon values are high in the central part of the basin near northeastern Montana and along the east edge of the basin, and low in the area of the Nesson anticline and along the southwest edge of the basin. Using a regression of density on temperature and the analysis of residuals from this regression, hydrocarbon maturity effects were partially separated from depositional effects. These analyses suggest that original concentrations of organic matter were low near the limits of the Bakken and increased to a high in northeastern Montana. The pre-maturation distribution of total organic carbon and the present-day total organic carbon distribution, as determined by statistical analyses of well-log data, agree with the results of geochemical analyses. The distributions can be explained by a relatively simple depositional pattern and thermal history for the Bakken. 6 figures, 3 tables.

Krystinik, K.B.; Charpentier, R.R.

1987-01-01

182

Miravalles Geothermal Project: Portable Well Flow Test Equipment and Procedures Manual  

SciTech Connect

The well flow test program has been designed to facilitate the gathering of information, with portable test equipment, from various wells with regard to their capability of flow, the quality of steam produced at various back pressures, the composition and quantity of noncondensable gases flashed from the wells and the composition and quantity of solids in the well's liquid streams (brine). The test program includes procedures for obtaining the following basic flow data pertinent to the plant power cycle design: (1) Effluent steam and brine flows, pressures and temperatures; (2) Noncondensable and dissolved gas contents in steam and brine; (3) H{sub s}S content in gases formed; and (4) Solids content and chemical analysis of steam and brine.

None

1980-05-01

183

Gamma well-logging in the Old Burial Ground of the Savannah River Site  

SciTech Connect

Results are given sequentially by well in the appendix; total is 44 wells. Overall, the 1994 results do not suggest that any significant changes in activity or location have occurred since the 1980 measurements. Depths and magnitudes of plume activities for 1980 and 1994 are compared.

Winn, W.G.; Hofstetter, K.J.; MacMurdo, K.W. [and others

1995-01-01

184

Tangafric: a software for the estimation of textural and hydraulic properties in shallow aquifers from well logs in Senegal and Guinea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background In order to increase access to drinking water in Africa there is more and more interest in the promotion of manual drilling techniques, without need of expensive drilling equipment, but they can be applied only in those areas with suitable hydrogeological conditions: thick layers of unconsolidated sediments and shallow groundwater level. Mapping of suitable zones for manual drilling at national level in Africa is a crucial activity and local institutions and UNICEF are implementing specific programs for its promotion, but the limitation in available data concerning shallow hydrogeological aquifers are limited. The research has been developed in the project "Use of remote sensing and terrain modeling to identify suitable zones for manual drilling in Africa and support low cost water supply", within the scientific cooperation between the University of Milano-Bicocca, Universite' Cheick Anta Diop (Dakar Senegal) , SNAPE - Service Nationale de Points d'Eau (Conakry Guinea), UNICEF Senegal and UNICEF Guinea. The project is funded by NERC (National Environmental Research Council, UK). Objective of the research: The presented work is only the starting point of the project aiming to elaborate an automatic procedures to manage and improve the existing database of borehole logs in Senegal and Guinea for the interpretation of shallow hydrogeological conditions and identification of suitable zones for manual drilling, in two pilot areas: Louga (Northwestern Senegal) and Faranah/Kankan (Eastern Guinea). Within the objective of the project is also considered the integration of Remote Sensing to support hydrogeological interpretation, especially where borehole logs are not present. Methodology Focus is to create a hydrogeological database, TANGAFRIC, to organize, codify and elaborate hydrogeological data. The metodology derives from the software TANGRAM (www.tangram.samit.unimib.it) produced by the University of Milano Bicocca, with innovative aspect of stratigraphic data codification, quantification and processing, connected to a hydraulic conductivity value associated to each primary lithology. Results Starting from the database of borehole logs available at national level in Senegal and Guinea (about 1400 borehole logs in Senegal and 800 in Guinea, with 20000 definitions), their structure and information have been compared and a new common database has been set up; it has a consistent structure with the structure of existing national database and data can be easily imported and exported. From this joint, the new software TANGAFRIC has been created with different purposes: -to organize in the same way wells data, since the two countries have different administrative divisions (ID code, name of village, district, regions, coordinates); -to add new wells data, not existing in the previous databases; -to codify the stratigraphic layer of each well logs with a 5-digit alphanumeric codes, using a list of categories describing texture, status and color or each layers, identified from the most recurrent lithological classes and attributes; -to attribute a specific value of hydraulic conductivity to each texture, from well data, field pumping test, bibliographic review. TANGAFRIC includes one module for data input and a second module to process the data, and extract specific parameters concerning mean texture, hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity in selected depth ranges. This is made possible by attributing a weight to the digits of the code for textures. The program calculates the percentage of the chosen lithology, as related to each individual layer, and also a weighted average of hydraulic conductivity. It has been possible to produce maps showing the distribution of main texture classes, thickness of saturated unconsolidated sediments and expected transmissivity. Furthermore, these parameters have been used to estimate the suitability for manual drilling under the hydrogeological coniditions described in each borehole logs.

Fussi, Fabio; Bonomi, Tullia; Fava, Francesco; Hamidou, Barry; Hamidou Khane, Cheikh; Faye, Gayane; Wade, Souleye; Colombo, Roberto

2014-05-01

185

Well-log based prediction of temperature models in the exploration of sedimentary settings: Examples from the North German Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-depth distributions are pivotal in subsurface studies in academia as well as in georesources applications. In this regard, high-resolution temperature profiles, logged under equilibrium thermal borehole conditions, are the ultimate measure. However there are circumstances in which these measurements are not available or only measured to a certain depth so that a temperature model needs to developed. A prerequisite for such a model is the knowledge of the regional heat flow and the geological conditions translated into lithology and thermal rock properties. For the determination of the rock thermal conductivity (TC) we propose a two-step procedure: (1) the use of standard petrophysical well log and (2) the inversion of predicted TC to temperature gradients by applying Fourier's law of heat conduction. The prediction of TC is solved by using set of equations (Fuchs & Förster, 2014) developed for matrix TC of sedimentary rocks. The equations resulted from a statistical analysis of an artificial set of mineral assemblages (consisting of 15 rock-forming minerals) typical for the different types of sedimentary rocks. The matrix TC was transformed into bulk TC by using a well-log derived porosity. TC vs. depth profiles corrected for in situ (p, T) conditions finally were used in conjunction with a published site-specific heat-flow value to model a temperature profile. The methodology is shown on the example of a 4-km deep borehole at Hannover in the North German Basin. This borehole, drilled for geothermal use, penetrates thick Mesozoic sediments and terminates in the Triassic Middle-Buntsandstein formation. The temperature computation was performed, inter alia, for a borehole section in a depth range between approx. 2,320 and 3,750 m. The applied approach is able to match both predicted and measured equilibrium borehole temperature profiles with a resulting uncertainty of less than 5 %. Interval temperature gradients vary on average by < 3 °C/km.

Fuchs, Sven; Wonik, Thomas; Förster, Andrea

2014-05-01

186

Monte Carlo simulations of neutron well-logging in granite and sand to detect water and trichloroethane (TCA)  

SciTech Connect

The Monte Carlo code MCNP is used in simulations of neutron well logging in granite to detect water and TCA (C{sub 2}H{sub 3}Cl{sub 3}), a common ground contaminant, in fractures of 1 cm and 1 mm thickness at various distances and orientations. Also simulated is neutron well logging in wet sand to detect TCA and lead (Pb) at various uniform concentrations. The {sup 3}H(d,n) (DT) and{sup 2}H(d,n) (DD) neutron producing reactions are used in the simulations to assess the relative performance of each. Simulations are also performed to determine the efficiency of several detector materials such as CdZnTe, Ge and NaI as a function of photon energy. Results indicate that, by examining the signal from the 6.11 MeV gamma from the thermal neutron capture of Cl in TCA, trace amounts (few ppm) are detectable in saline free media. Water and TCA filled fractures are also detectable. These results are summarized in Tables 7--21. Motivation for this work is based on the need for detection of trace environmental pollutants as well as possible fracture characterization of geologic media.

Hua, D.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Donahue, R.J.; Celata, C.M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Greenspan, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1998-01-01

187

Fuzzy Logic Determination of Lithologies from Well Log Data: Application to the KTB Project Data set (Germany)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fuzzy logic has been used for lithology prediction with remarkable success. Several techniques such as fuzzy clustering or linguistic reasoning have proven to be useful for lithofacies determination. In this paper, a fuzzy inference methodology has been implemented as a MATLAB routine and applied for the first time to well log data from the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). The training of the fuzzy inference system is based on the analysis of the multi-class Matthews correlation coefficient computed for the classification matrix. For this particular data set, we have found that the best suited membership function type is the piecewise linear interpolation of the normalized histograms; that the best combination operator for obtaining the final lithology degrees of membership is the fuzzy gamma operator; and that all the available properties are relevant in the classification process. Results show that this fuzzy logic-based method is suited for rapidly and reasonably suggesting a lithology column from well log data, neatly identifying the main units and in some cases refining the classification, which can lead to a better interpretation. We have tested the trained system with synthetic data generated from property value distributions of the training data set to find that the differences in data distributions between both wells are significant enough to misdirect the inference process. However, a cross-validation analysis has revealed that, even with differences between data distributions and missing lithologies in the training data set, this fuzzy logic inference system is able to output a coherent classification.

Bosch, David; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar

2013-07-01

188

Characterization of the L-1 sand using well logs and amplitude attribute analysis  

E-print Network

-T SAN A' 100' TOP OF SAND BASE OF SANO Fig. 5. Cross section (A-A') through inferred channel. The L-1 sand in Wells J and I are both interpreted to be channel sands. WeHs H and F lie outside the channel. The L-1 sand in Well F is interpreted... OF SAND 12 16 GMUP NUMBER F'ig. 13. Decrease in amplitude (dim spot) resulting from an oii-filled sand. The upper figure is a depositional model. The lower figure is the seismic respiinse 26 GAS SAND BRNE SAND '-::::: SHALE TOP OF SAND 12 16...

Ratliff, Thomas Lee

1989-01-01

189

Assessment of seal quality for potential storage sites in the Norwegian North Sea from well log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fluid migration through caprocks is a crucial process when it comes to evaluate their sealing capacity for underground CO2 storage. Migration mechanisms such as flow through fault systems or along wells are quite easily identified by their relatively large size and because these features can be monitored by the use of reflection seismic data or well logs. However, microcracks in rocks, which can allegedly cause fluid migration through tight rocks, are difficult to detect from large scale observations and can only be deduced from thorough investigation. The objective of this work is to evaluate the likelihood of microfracture networks in potential seals (shales) through the analysis of well log data. This study focuses on the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous shale succession in the Norwegian North Sea. The main target of the study is the Draupne Formation (upper Jurassic) found in the Horda Platform / Viking Graben area. It has been deposited syn-rift during the second episode of the Viking graben formation in the Upper Jurassic, and thus has a burial depth ranging from 914 to 4573 m. This formation is identified in well logs by its sharp decrease in ultrasonic velocity and density, and specifically high resistivity and gamma ray readings. Other studied shale formations include the rest of the Viking Group (Heather Formation), the Tyne Group in the Central Graben (Farsund, Haugesund and Mandal) and the Boknfjord Group in the Norwegian-Danish Basin (Egersund, Flekkefjord, Sauda and Tau). Public well log data from 104 boreholes in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea have been analyzed and among them, 87 had a complete set of logs that are necessary for our analysis: ultrasonic velocities, gamma ray, density and resistivity. This study illustrates that the first-order variation of the ultrasonic velocity for the Draupne Formation in the Norwegian North Sea is of course due to depth. Diagenesis, whether mechanical or chemical, stiffens the rock by strengthening the grain contacts and/or cementing them. This increases the ultrasonic velocity through the rock. The depth at which the transition between mechanical and chemical transition, together with the geothermal gradient study, help us to separate areas where these identified shales have a ductile rheology (softer rock, self healing low-conductivity cracks) from those where stiffening by secondary quartz cementation yields a brittle rheology (stronger rock, high-conductivity cracks). Two other parameters are likely to influence the velocity, namely TOC and the presence of gas in the porous network of the rock. When taking into account the influence of both depth and TOC, around 80 % of the studied wells follow a distinct pattern. When taking into account gas as a pore fluid, around half of the other studied wells follow the same trend.

Angeli, M.; Gabrielsen, R. H.; Faleide, J. I.

2012-04-01

190

Fault zone properties in carbonate rocks: insights for well logs, core and field data  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last few years, numerous works addressed the deformation processes in carbonate rocks. These studies, generally sponsored by the oil industry, aimed to a better understanding of the structural and hydraulic properties of fault zones as well as of the subsurface fluid pathways in deformed carbonate rocks. This effort was mainly driven by the economic significance that carbonate rocks

Maurizio Giorgioni; Antonino Cilona; Emanuele Tondi; Fabrizio Agosta

2010-01-01

191

Application of petroleum geophysical well logging and sampling techniques for evaluating aquifer characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hilton Head Island Test Well {number_sign}1 was drilled to a depth of 3,833 feet to evaluate the upper Cretaceous section as a potential ground-water source for Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The initial plan was to analyze continuous conventional cores. The interval to be analyzed extended from the top of the Eocene to the base of the Cretaceous (approximately

Tom J. Temples; Mike G. Waddell

1996-01-01

192

Some Measured Levels of Noise Produced by Logging Equipment in 1998 Cornelis F. de Hoop and Neil J. Lalonde  

E-print Network

J. Lalonde Associate Professor and former Student, respectively Louisiana Forest Products, but very few of them focused on the logging industry (SIC 2411). This paper reports the results of some. According to an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report prepared by an acoustical consulting firm, more

Wu, Qinglin

193

Development and demonstration of an enhanced spreadsheet-based well log analysis software. Final report, May 1998  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Class Work Program is a field-based research and demonstration program for demonstration of advanced or improved technologies identified in the Department of Energy`s Class Field Demonstration Projects. The objective of the Advanced Class Work program is to conduct field demonstrations of technologies for which a small, incremental amount of work will produce or improve a transferable, useful technology for oil recovery. The goal of the program is to enhance the products of near-term Class projects and maximize the applicability and effectiveness of project results. PfEFFER (Petrofacies Evaluation of Formations For Engineering Reservoirs) is a well log analysis computer package. The software was tested and successfully applied in Schaben Field, a DOE Class 2 Field Demonstration Project to assist in improving reservoir characterization and assessing reservoir performance. PfEFFER v.1 was released in January, 1996 as a commercial spreadsheet-based well-log analysis program developed and distributed through the Kansas Geological Survey. The objectives of this project were: Task 1 -- Enhance the PfEFFER software package; Task 2 -- Develop major new modules to significantly augment PfEFFER capabilities; Task 3 -- Conduct field demonstration of software application using the necessary reservoir data acquired from oil operators and construct a database; and Task 4 -- Perform technology transfer activities that include workshops, reports, presentations, or other methods to communicate results to interested parties.

Watney, W.L.; Doveton, J.H.; Guy, W.J.

1998-10-01

194

Washburne anticline delta structure: model based on integration of thematic mapper, seismic, and well-log data  

SciTech Connect

The Washburne anticline located in western Arkansas is a prominent, thrust-related structure at the leading edge of the Ouachita orogenic belt. Previously interpreted as a complexly thrust-faulted anticline, the feature has been reinterpreted as a delta or triangle structure based on integration of surface mapping from thematic mapper (TM) data with subsurface interpretation of seismic and well-log cross sections. The northern limb of the Washburne anticline consists of a relatively unfaulted, steeply north-dipping sheet above a major north-dipping backthrust. The southern limb consists of several steeply south-dipping imbricate thrust sheets that form a duplex zone in the center of the delta structure. Seismic and well-log interpretations indicate the presence of the imbrication in the duplex zone, but poor seismic resolution within the structure made interpretation of the back thrust difficult. Surface mapping from TM imagery indicates the presence of the back thrust and the extent and geometry of the delta structure. Imbricate thrust sheets and horses also crop out, and their geometry is a guide to interpretation of subsurface data sets. The new model of the Washburne anticline as a delta structure has aided in subsurface-data analysis and has resulted in a better understanding of trap geometry and distribution. This study also demonstrates the application of detailed surface mapping from satellite remote-sensing data to prospect-scale analysis.

Dodge, R.L.; Keeling, M.L.; Cassiani, D.H.

1989-03-01

195

Applying Backus averaging for deriving seismic anisotropy of a long-wavelength equivalent medium from well-log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Backus averaging is often applied to well logs in order to estimate the elastic properties of a stack of thin layers at a longer wavelength to be used in seismic data analysis. Schoenberg and Muir extended Backus's method to layers with arbitrary anisotropy, but simple analytical equations are available for isotropic and transversely isotropic layers only. There is growing exploration interest in shale reservoirs, which exhibit lower symmetry seismic anisotropy if the reservoir is fractured. Here, simple analytical equations for Backus averaging are presented for symmetries up to monoclinic, of which averaging equations for orthorhombic and monoclinic layers are new. After Backus averaging, a stack of isotropic layers results in a vertical transverse isotropy (VTI), a stack of VTI layers results in a VTI, a stack of horizontal transverse isotropy layers results in an orthorhombic, a stack of orthorhombic layers results in an orthorhombic and a stack of monoclinic layers results in a monoclinic. Workflows for Backus averaging are presented along with numerical examples using well-log data from the Haynesville shale play in East Texas, USA.

Kumar, Dhananjay

2013-10-01

196

Evidence of gas hydrate accumulation and its resource estimation in Andaman deep water basin from seismic and well log data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2D and 3D seismic reflection and well log data from Andaman deep water basin are analyzed to investigate geophysical evidence related to gas hydrate accumulation and saturation. Analysis of seismic data reveals the presence of a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) in the area showing all the characteristics of a classical BSR associated with gas hydrate accumulation. Double BSRs are also observed on some seismic sections of area (Area B) that suggest substantial changes in pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions in the past. The manifestation of changes in P-T conditions can also be marked by the varying gas hydrate stability zone thickness (200-650 m) in the area. The 3D seismic data of Area B located in the ponded fill, west of Alcock Rise has been pre-stack depth migrated. A significant velocity inversion across the BSR (1,950-1,650 m/s) has been observed on the velocity model obtained from pre-stack depth migration. The areas with low velocity of the order of 1,450 m/s below the BSR and high amplitudes indicate presence of dissociated or free gas beneath the hydrate layer. The amplitude variation with offset analysis of BSR depicts increase in amplitude with offset, a similar trend as observed for the BSR associated with the gas hydrate accumulations. The presence of gas hydrate shown by logging results from a drilled well for hydrocarbon exploration in Area B, where gas hydrate deposit was predicted from seismic evidence, validate our findings. The base of the hydrate layer derived from the resistivity and acoustic transit-time logs is in agreement with the depth of hydrate layer interpreted from the pre-stack depth migrated seismic section. The resistivity and acoustic transit-time logs indicate 30-m-thick hydrate layer at the depth interval of 1,865-1,895 m with 30 % hydrate saturation. The total hydrate bound gas in Area B is estimated to be 1.8 × 1010 m3, which is comparable (by volume) to the reserves in major conventional gas fields.

Prakash, Anand; Samanta, B. G.; Singh, N. P.

2013-03-01

197

New technological developments in oil well fire fighting equipment and methods  

SciTech Connect

Since Drake`s first oil well in 1859, well fires have been frequent and disastrous. Hardly a year has passed in over a century without a well fire somewhere in the world. In the 1920`s the classic method of fire fighting using explosives to starve the fire of oxygen was developed and it has been used extensively ever since. While explosives are still one of the most frequently used methods today, several other methods are used to supplement it where special conditions exist. Tunneling at an angle from a safe distance is used in some cases, especially where the fire is too hot for a close approach on the ground surface. Pumping drilling muds into a well to plug it is another method that has been used successfully for some time. Diverter wells are occasionally used, and sometimes simply pumping enough water on a well fire is sufficient to extinguish it. Of course, prevention is always the best solution. Many advances in blow-out prevention devices have been developed in the last 50 years and the number of fires has been substantially reduced compared to the number of wells drilled. However, very little in new technology has been applied to oil well fire fighting in the 1960s, 1970s, or 1980s. Overall technological progress has accelerated tremendously in this period, of course, but new materials and equipment were not applied to this field for some reason. Saddam Hussein`s environmental holocaust in Kuwait changed that by causing many people throughout the world to focus their creative energy on more efficient oil well fire fighting methods.

Matthews, B.; Matthews, R.T.

1995-12-31

198

Recent and pre-instrumental climatic conditions as reconstructed from temperature logs in wells in western and northern Canada  

SciTech Connect

This study reports a subregional analysis of ground surface temperature (GST) and surface air temperature (SAT) in Canada. Temperature logs made to depths of up to 300 m in 80 wells in the Canadian Prairie Provinces were compared with SAT in this area. A statistically significant spatial correlation was found between identical grid samples extracted from the 1950-1990 warming maps for SAT and GST warming. The results of modelling of precise temperature logs show evidence of annual warming of GST over the past half century of 2.1 C with a standard deviation of 0.9C. Annual SAT warming in this region for the same period, as derived from historical climatological records, has been 1.5C with a standard deviation of 0.4C. The difference between GST and SAT warming has been close to 40% in the boreal forest ecozone of northern Alberta and less than 10% in the prairie grassland ecozone of southern Alberta. It is hypothesized that a large portion of GST warming is a result of accelerating natural and anthropogenic land clearing through deforestation and farming. If the rate of climatic warming and anthropogenic change to the land surface continues, the southern boundary of the discontinuous permafrost will move northward at a faster rate than predicted from instrumental SAT warming data alone. 21 refs., 7 figs.

Majorowicz, J.A. [Northern Geothermal, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Skinner, W.R. [Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1997-11-01

199

Quantifying the Permeability Heterogeneity of Sandstone Reservoirs in Boonsville Field, Texas by Integrating Core, Well Log and 3D Seismic Data  

E-print Network

the permeability heterogeneity of the target reservoir by integrating core, well log and 3D seismic data. A set of permeability coefficients, variation coefficient, dart coefficient, and contrast coefficient, was defined in this study to quantitatively identify...

Song, Qian

2013-04-29

200

Evaluating hydrocarbon source rock for unconventional shale oil play from seismic and well log data; Kingak Shale, North Slope, Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been proposed that Acoustic impedance (AI) responses can be used to estimate total organic carbon (TOC) within thick, clay rich shale. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of the AI inversion technique, and establish a methodology that can be applied to other basins. The Kingak Formation (lower Jurassic to early Cretaceous), located on the North Slope of Alaska, has been extensively evaluated for its unconventional potential. The Kingak is shale and is known to have greater than 30 percent clay. Because clay has ductile properties it makes it difficult to stimulate a well through hydraulic fracturing. This AI inversion technique was tested by utilizing synthetic seismograms to create an AI curve generated using The KINGDOM Software©. The synthetic seismograms were used to ensure a well log to seismic match. The synthetic seismograms also created an AI curve along the well. From these synthetic seismograms the AI value was compared to TOC values. It was from this comparison that a trend was observed that did not match the predicted trend. I believe the discrepancy observed was due to the sampling method. Based on this observation, I conclude that the method of tracking TOC with AI responses requires extremely controlled sampling methods; therefore it is not a beneficial method of revisiting old data sets in hopes of identifying new prospects.

Leedberg, Sarah Elisabeth

201

Geophysical-log and hydraulic-test analyses of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community, Menominee County, Michigan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Hannahville Indian Community, evaluated the geohydrology of the bedrock formations and hydraulic properties of groundwater-production wells at the Hannahville Indian Community in Menominee County, Michigan. Geophysical logs were collected from five wells at two sites during September 2012. The logs were analyzed to characterize the lithostratigraphy, bedding and fractures, and hydraulic properties of the geologic formations and aquifers beneath the Hannahville Indian Community. The geophysical logs collected included natural gamma radiation, electromagnetic conductivity, wellbore image, caliper, ambient and stressed flowmeter, fluid resistivity, temperature, and wellbore deviation. The geophysical logs were analyzed with results from short-term hydraulic tests to estimate the transmissivity and water-level altitudes of flow zones penetrated by the wells. The geophysical log analysis indicated the wells penetrated four distinct lithostratigraphic units—shale and carbonate rock, upper carbonate rock, carbonate rock and glauconitic sandstone, and lower carbonate rock. Most of the fractures penetrated by the wellbores appeared to be related bedding partings. The lower carbonate rock unit contained solution features. Analysis of the geophysical logs and hydraulic tests indicated that each of the five wells penetrated from one to four flow zones. The Casino 5 well penetrated a flow zone that was associated with solution features and had an estimated total transmissivity of 4,280 feet squared per day (ft2/d), the highest estimate for all the wells. The Casino 3 well penetrated four flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 3,570 ft2/d. The flow zones penetrated in the lower carbonate rock unit by the Casino 3 and 5 wells were hydraulically connected. The Golf Shack well penetrated two flow zones and had an estimated total transmissivity of 40 ft2/d, the lowest estimate for all the wells. The Community 1 and Community 2 wells penetrated three and four flow zones, respectively, and had estimated total transmissivity values of 185 and 280 ft2/d, respectively.

Bayless, E. Randall; Anderson, J. Alton; Lampe, David C.; Williams, John H.

2013-01-01

202

Determination of petrophysical properties of geothermal reservoirs in southern Denmark by integrating information from well logs and reflection seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the efforts to reduce CO2 emission, geothermal energy is an important source for future energy production in Denmark, and several research programs deal with this specific subject e.g. "The geothermal energy potential in Denmark - reservoir properties, temperature distribution and models for utilization", funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council and "GEOPOWER" which is part of an EU INTERREG-program focused on southern Denmark and northernmost Germany. For geothermal energy to be economically sustainable porous and permeable rocks needs to be present at a depth where the temperature is sufficiently high. Utilization of geothermal energy in Denmark and plans for the future are concentrated on low enthalpy basin reservoirs for district heating. Major modeling studies are carried out to establish the temperature distribution in the Danish subsurface. This project deals with the reservoir properties. The geothermal reservoir exploited so far in the southern Danish area is restricted to the lower Jurassic-Triassic Gassum Formation. The Gassum Formation is a shallow marine to fluvial deposit composed of sandy to silty sediments, occasionally with coal layers, i.e. a lateral and stratigraphically heterogeneous rock. This formation is encountered only in deep hydrocarbon exploration wells and in wells of the Sønderborg Geothermal plant. Due to the very low number and low density of wells and the limited rock material recovered during drilling, the knowledge of lateral variations of reservoir properties in terms of porosity, permeability and thickness, is limited and so far unsatisfactorily mapped. The main risks in the utilization of geothermal energy from the subsurface of Denmark are therefore regional, as well as local, variations in the production potential of warm water, whereas the temperature can be assessed fairly precisely due to the thermal models available. Here we use petrophysical wells logs available from hydrocarbon exploration wells for determination of reservoir characteristics in combination with a neural network seismic attribute analysis (courtesy of OpendTect) of seismic reflection data available in the area which are both 2D and 3D industrial seismic data, recently acquired. By this combined data analysis we develop procedures for reducing the risk of drilling tight reservoirs as well as for getting a better understanding of the geological evolution of potential geothermal reservoir units.

Rasmussen, Marie L.; Balling, Niels; Bording, Thue S.; Clausen, Ole R.

2013-04-01

203

Sweet spots discrimination in shale gas reservoirs using seismic and well-logs data. A case study from the Worth basin in the Barnett shale  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we present a case study of sweet spots discrimination in shale gas reservoirs located in the Worth basin of the Barnett shale using seismic and well-logs data. Seismic attributes such the Chaos and the ANT-Tracking are used for natural fractures system identification from seismic data, the maps of the stress and the Poisson ratio obtained from the upscaling of well-logs data of a horizontal well are able to provide an information about the drilling direction which is usually in the minimum horizontal stress profile, the map of the Poisson ratio can provide an information hardness of the source rock. The set of well logs data is used for geo-mechanical and petrophysical discrimination of the sweet spots, after discrimination the identified zones are useful for reserves estimation from unconventional shale gas reservoir.

Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Boudella, Amar

2014-05-01

204

30 CFR 250.1623 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fluids, equipment, and operations. 250.1623 Section...Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1623...

2010-07-01

205

Electrofacies in gas shale from well log data via cluster analysis: A case study of the Perth Basin, Western Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying reservoir electrofacies has an important role in determining hydrocarbon bearing intervals. In this study, electrofacies of the Kockatea Formation in the Perth Basin were determined via cluster analysis. In this method, distance data were initially calculated and then connected spatially by using a linkage function. The dendrogram function was used to extract the cluster tree for formations over the study area. Input logs were sonic log (DT), gamma ray log (GR), resistivity log (IND), and spontaneous potential (SP). A total of 30 reservoir electrofacies were identified within this formation. Integrated geochemical and petrophysics data showed that zones with electrofacies 3, 4, 9, and 10 have potential for shale gas production. In addition, the results showed that cluster analysis is a precise, rapid, and cost-effective method for zoning reservoirs and determining electrofacies in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Torghabeh, Amir Karimian; Rezaee, Reza; Moussavi-Harami, Reza; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Kamali, Mohammad Reza; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

2014-09-01

206

Inference of strata separation and gas emission paths in longwall overburden using continuous wavelet transform of well logs and geostatistical simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Prediction of potential methane emission pathways from various sources into active mine workings or sealed gobs from longwall overburden is important for controlling methane and for improving mining safety. The aim of this paper is to infer strata separation intervals and thus gas emission pathways from standard well log data. The proposed technique was applied to well logs acquired through the Mary Lee/Blue Creek coal seam of the Upper Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, using well logs from a series of boreholes aligned along a nearly linear profile. For this purpose, continuous wavelet transform (CWT) of digitized gamma well logs was performed by using Mexican hat and Morlet, as the mother wavelets, to identify potential discontinuities in the signal. Pointwise Hölder exponents (PHE) of gamma logs were also computed using the generalized quadratic variations (GQV) method to identify the location and strength of singularities of well log signals as a complementary analysis. PHEs and wavelet coefficients were analyzed to find the locations of singularities along the logs. Using the well logs in this study, locations of predicted singularities were used as indicators in single normal equation simulation (SNESIM) to generate equi-probable realizations of potential strata separation intervals. Horizontal and vertical variograms of realizations were then analyzed and compared with those of indicator data and training image (TI) data using the Kruskal-Wallis test. A sum of squared differences was employed to select the most probable realization representing the locations of potential strata separations and methane flow paths. Results indicated that singularities located in well log signals reliably correlated with strata transitions or discontinuities within the strata. Geostatistical simulation of these discontinuities provided information about the location and extents of the continuous channels that may form during mining. If there is a gas source within their zone of influence, paths may develop and allow methane movement towards sealed or active gobs under pressure differentials. Knowledge gained from this research will better prepare mine operations for potential methane inflows, thus improving mine safety.

Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

2014-06-01

207

WATER DRIVEN DOWN-THE-HOLE WELL DRILLING EQUIPMENT FOR HARD ROCK  

Microsoft Academic Search

A water driven down-the-hole drilling equipment (Wassara) was developed some years ago at the Kiruna mine, Sweden, which is the largest underground mine in the world. This new drilling technology has been used in their mining production for a few years. It has several advantages to pneumatic drilling methods. This water driven hammer has now for the first time been

Bo Nordell; Kent Fjällström; Lars Öderyd

208

Geophysical-well-log data for study of water flow in fractures near Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Four closely spaced boreholes were drilled through approximately 20 meters of till into schist bedrock near Mirror Lake, West Thornton, New Hampshire. The site was selected for borehole geophysical research because it is included in a detailed groundwater study where the effects of flow in fractures on flow in overlying drift deposits is being studied. Three of the boreholes are approximately 100 meters in depth, and the fourth is approximately 230 meters in depth. All four boreholes were logged with caliper, acoustic, gamma, single-point-resistivity, and acoustic televiewer logs. Fracture sets dipping approximately 45 degrees to the east were detected in all four boreholes. Two sets of deeper fractures were detected near the bottom of the deepest borehole. Acoustic waveform logs were obtained in all boreholes using three different source frequencies, 34, 15, and 5 kilohertz, for future comparison with surface to borehole seismic data. (USGS)

Paillet, F.L.

1985-01-01

209

Seismic Interpretation and Well Logging Results of a Deep Borehole into the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta: Preliminary Results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing awareness of the need for the reduction of carbon emissions globally, geothermal energy, which offers a potential for cleaner energy generation, is one potential new source. In Alberta, these geothermal resources are likely to be found in the sedimentary basin, or in the deeper crystalline basement rocks. Alberta exhibits a very low geothermal gradient compared to other existing geothermal fields located in areas of volcanic and tectonic activity. To mitigate this effect, the focus in Alberta will involve the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in the target resource. This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner energy production. The first goal for EGS research and development is to develop a detailed geological-geophysical characterization of selected sites to delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in Northern Alberta. One of the selected sites is in the Fort McMurray area. Using an existing deep borehole that reaches a depth of 2.3 km into the crystalline basement, our aim is to identify geological features such as zones of fractures in the basin and/or basement that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The earlier stage of our research involves re-processing of surface seismic data. This helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for the geological interpretation of the subsurface, such as the locations of saline aquifers and faults that allow heat flow in the rocks, and zones of fractures that may indicate elevated porosity. Current re-processing of the seismic data displays sets of dipping reflectors which may intersect the borehole. Zero offset and walkaway vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were conducted at the borehole for direct comparison with the surface seismic sections. They are also useful in obtaining information about the reflectivity and the velocity structure of the subsurface. The full integration of surface seismic data, VSP data, and well logs are expected to provide a detailed characterization of the sedimentary basin and crystalline basement rocks of the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta. In particular, the unusually low fluid pressures in the well may be related to states of stress that are likely still influenced by post-glacial rebound.

Chan, J.; Schmitt, D.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; van der Baan, M.; Sahay, P. N.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

2011-12-01

210

Integrating seismic attribute maps and well logs for porosity modeling in a west Texas carbonate reservoir: addressing the scale and precision problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3-D porosity field in a west Texas carbonate reservoir is modeled conditional to both “hard” porosity data sampled by wells and 2-D seismic attribute map with less vertical resolution than the well log data. The difference-of-scales between the two sources of data is resolved by a prior 2-D estimation of vertically averaged porosity using well and seismic data. These

Tingting Yao; Andre G. Journel

2000-01-01

211

Digital signal processing and interpretation of full waveform sonic log for well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Along the Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve boundary (fig. 1), 10 monitoring wells were drilled by the National Park Service in order to monitor water flow in an unconfined aquifer spanning the park boundary. Adjacent to the National Park Service monitoring well named Boundary Piezometer Well No. 3, or BP-3, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled the BP-3-USGS well. This well was drilled from September 14 through 17, 2009, to a total depth of 99.4 meters (m) in order to acquire additional subsurface information. The BP-3-USGS well is located at lat 37 degrees 43'18.06' and long -105 degrees 43'39.30' at a surface elevation of 2,301 m. Approximately 23 m of core was recovered beginning at a depth of 18 m. Drill cuttings were also recovered. The wireline geophysical logs acquired in the well include natural gamma ray, borehole caliper, temperature, full waveform sonic, density, neutron, resistivity, and induction logs. The BP-3-USGS well is now plugged and abandoned. This report details the full waveform digital signal processing methodology and the formation compressional-wave velocities determined for the BP-3-USGS well. These velocity results are compared to several velocities that are commonly encountered in the subsurface. The density log is also discussed in context of these formation velocities.

Burke, Lauri

2011-01-01

212

Comparison of Petrophysical Rock Types from Core and Well-logs using Post-stack 3D Seismic Data: Field Example from Maracaibo-Venezuela  

E-print Network

Comparison of Petrophysical Rock Types from Core and Well-logs using Post-stack 3D Seismic Data with post stack 3D seismic data analysis was used to assess the petrophysical rock type distribution in an area located on the West side of Lake Maracaibo-Venezuela. The calculated petrophysical rock types were

Ramachandran, Kumar

213

Fractured-bedrock aquifer studies based on a descriptive statistics of well-logging data: A case study from the Dajia River basin, Taiwan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple descriptive-statistical approach is proposed for evaluating the transmissivity of fractured-bedrock under field conditions. Based on standard well logging and identification of structural discontinuities from borehole televiewer, the approach consists of four steps: (1) determination of discontinuity properties, namely the frequency of discontinuities and the ratio of open fractures along the borehole; (2) ranking the three well logs and the discontinuity properties into tertiles (high-to-low); (3) performing statistical analysis ( F-test) for the three well logs to assess the significance of open fractures on the water-transmitting potential and then assigned a weighting factor; and (4) a semi-quantitative indicator, RGVFO, is obtained by multiplying all predictive indexes and weighting factors. It is a multi-criteria evaluation procedure that elucidates the quantitative and qualitative importance of all selected geophysical indexes. A high cross-correlation between transmissivity to RGVFO value is found, which indicates that by a combined consideration of well logging and structural discontinuities, an appropriate estimate of bedrock water-transmitting potential can be derived.

Chou, Po-Yi; Hsu, Shih-Meng; Chen, Po-Jui; Lin, Jung-Jun; Lo, Hung-Chieh

2014-06-01

214

Gas Hydrate Saturations and Their Uncertainties From Chlorinity and Well Log Data at IODP Site U1325 (Exp. 311, Cascadia Margin)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of gas hydrate saturation S_h (percentage of pore volume occupied by gas hydrate) are needed to map gas hydrate accumulations and to quantify the global amount of gas hydrate stored in marine sediments. Two widely used methods to quantify S_h use pore water chlorinity (which decreases when gas hydrate dissociates and releases fresh water) or well log measurements of

A. Malinverno; M. Kastner; M. E. Torres; U. G. Wortmann

2006-01-01

215

Method of radial sounding and elemental analysis of formations during well logging using neutron inelastic scattering gamma time-of-flight spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a well logging method and device designed to determine radial inhomogeneities in the elemental content of the borehole environment with high spatial resolution. The sounding factor that determines the spatial resolution is the time elapsed from the moment of neutron emission from the device to the moment the device records the gamma rays from neutron inelastic scattering

M. A. Fedorin; B. G. Titov

2010-01-01

216

Hydrologic characteristics of the Madison Limestone, the Minnelusa Formation, and equivalent rocks as determined by well-logging formation evaluation, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical logs from wells distributed throughout the Powder River Basin were digitized, processed, and interpreted to get a regional understanding of the lithologic and ground-water characteristics of aquifers in the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation. The percentage of sand, porosity, and apparent ground-water resistivity of the Minnelusa closely follow structural trends in the basis. Values increase from the structural axis

W. J. Head; R. H. Merkel

1977-01-01

217

Hydrogeologic Framework of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin (Arizona and Sonora) using Well Logs, Geologic Mapping, Gravity, Magnetics, and Electromagnetics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, the U.S. Congress passed the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act which provides a framework for study of aquifers shared by the United States and Mexico. The aquifer of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin was chosen as one of four priority aquifers for several reasons, including water scarcity, a population greater than 300,000, groundwater as the sole source of water for human use, and a riparian corridor that is of regional significance for migratory birds and other animals. Several new mines are also being proposed for this area which may affect water quality and availability. To date, a number of studies have been carried out by a binational team composed of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mexican National Water Commission, and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora. Construction of a cross-border hydrogeologic framework model of the basin between Amado, Arizona and its southern boundary in Sonora is currently a high priority. The relatively narrow Santa Cruz valley is a structural basin that did not experience the same degree of late Cenozoic lateral extension and consequent deepening as found in other basin-and-range alluvial basins, such as the Tucson basin, where basin depth exceeds 3000 meters. This implies that storage may be much less than that found in other basin-and-range aquifers. To investigate the geometry of the basin and facies changes within the alluvium, a database of over one thousand well logs has been developed, geologic mapping and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys have been carried out, and information from previous electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravity studies is being incorporated into the hydrogeologic framework. Initial geophysical surveys and analyses have focused on the portion of the basin west of Nogales, Arizona, because it supplies approximately 50% of that city's water. Previous gravity and magnetic modeling indicate that this area is a narrow, fault-controlled half graben. Preliminary modeling of airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic surveys corroborates earlier conclusions from the gravity modeling that depth to bedrock is greater than 500 meters in some locations. Results from other portions of the study area including Mexico are still being evaluated and incorporated into the three-dimensional hydrologic framework which will ultimately be used to construct a groundwater flow model.

Callegary, J. B.; Page, W. R.; Megdal, S.; Gray, F.; Scott, C. A.; Berry, M.; Rangel, M.; Oroz Ramos, L.; Menges, C. M.; Jones, A.

2011-12-01

218

IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY  

SciTech Connect

In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

2002-02-25

219

Application of well log analysis for source rock evaluation in the Duwi Formation, Southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several models were developed to use the conventional wireline logs for evaluating the thermal maturity of the source rock and calculating the total organic carbon (TOC) content. Application of these models for the Duwi Formation, southern Gulf of Suez, Egypt, is the main purpose of this paper. Gamma ray, density, sonic, resistivity and neutron are the commonly used wireline logs to identify and quantify source rock. The results, which compared with the results obtained from the Rock-Eval pyrolysis show that cautions must be taken into consideration when applied these models because most of the models are empirical and their validation takes place under certain conditions. It can be concluded that the Duwi Formation represents very good source rock capable of generating a significant amount of hydrocarbon of oil-prone type II. The kerogen is waxy sapropel related to marine plankton deposited under reduced condition.

El Sharawy, Mohamed S.; Gaafar, Gamal R.

2012-05-01

220

Records of wells, drillers' logs, water-level measurements, and chemical analyses of ground water in Brazoria, Fort Bend, and Waller counties, Texas, 1980-84  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information on major new water wells in Brazoria, Fort Bend, and Waller Counties was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1980 through 1984. This report presents the results of the hydrologic data collection on new large-capacity and other selected wells, including well location and completion data, drillers ' logs of the strata penetrated, water levels, and chemical quality of the produced water. These water-well data are supplementary to similar data on older wells in these counties and descriptive evaluations of the groundwater resources which have been published previously. (USGS)

Williams, J. F., III; Ranzau, C.F., Jr.; Lind, W.B.; Coplin, L.S.

1986-01-01

221

Records of wells, drillers' logs, water-level measurements, and chemical analyses of ground water in Chambers, Liberty, and Montgomery counties, Texas, 1980-84  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Information on major new water wells in Chambers, Liberty, and Montgomery Counties was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1980 through 1984. This report presents the results of the hydrologic data collection on new large-capacity and other selected wells, including well location and completion data, drillers ' logs of the strata penetrated, water levels, and chemical quality of the produced water. These water-well data are supplementary to similar data on older wells in these counties and descriptive evaluations of the groundwater resources which have been published previously. (USGS)

Williams, J. F., III; Coplin, L.S.; Ranzau, C.E., Jr.; Lind, W.B.

1986-01-01

222

Applying NMR spin-echo logging to Shaly Sand Formation evaluation: Case studies of Rocky Mountain region gas wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wireline logs often fail to provide a reliable evaluation of reservoir quality and producibility in shaly mud formations, particularly in the shaly gas sand reservoirs of the Rocky Mountains which are characterized by low porosity (i.e., <15 pu), low permeability (0.1 to 1 md), very fine grain size, and high irreducible water saturations. A new-generation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

R. K. Ladtkow; B. J. Stambaugh; D. Mardon

1995-01-01

223

Clay identification and amount measured by laboratory techniques compared to well log responses: Application to tight gas sands and shales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identification and amount of clay in tight sands and shales calculated by downhole log interpretation techniques have been compared with those measured by a variety of analytical laboratory methods. The US DOE's Multiwell Experiment in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado has provided a wide selection of core and extensive logging data from the Mesaverde Formation. The samples were analyzed for clay content in the laboratory using all of the following methods: optical petrography, X-ray diffraction, bulk chemical, acetate method for cation exchange capacity, sedigraph, pipet, and centrifuge. Potassium, uranium, and thorium (KUT) concentrations were determined utilizing the following techniques: X-ray fluorescence, atomic absorption, neutron activation, gamma spectroscopy and alpha spectrometry. This multiple technique approach was used in order to corroborate laboratory data. The results clearly show that relying on one or two methods can result in significant error. Laboratory data point out that this small sampling of log-defined good sands and shales actually represents a variety of lithologies and compositions.

Heinze, D. M.

1985-03-01

224

Estimating the Amount of Eroded Section in a Partially Exhumed Basin from Geophysical Well Logs: An Example from the North Slope  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The reconstruction of burial and thermal histories of partially exhumed basins requires an estimation of the amount of erosion that has occurred since the time of maximum burial. We have developed a method for estimating eroded thickness by using porosity-depth trends derived from borehole sonic logs of wells in the Colville Basin of northern Alaska. Porosity-depth functions defined from sonic-porosity logs in wells drilled in minimally eroded parts of the basin provide a baseline for comparison with the porosity-depth trends observed in other wells across the basin. Calculated porosities, based on porosity-depth functions, were fitted to the observed data in each well by varying the amount of section assumed to have been eroded from the top of the sedimentary column. The result is an estimate of denudation at the wellsite since the time of maximum sediment accumulation. Alternative methods of estimating exhumation include fission-track analysis and projection of trendlines through vitrinite-reflectance profiles. In the Colville Basin, the methodology described here provides results generally similar to those from fission-track analysis and vitrinite-reflectance profiles, but with greatly improved spatial resolution relative to the published fission-track data and with improved reliability relative to the vitrinite-reflectance data. In addition, the exhumation estimates derived from sonic-porosity logs are independent of the thermal evolution of the basin, allowing these estimates to be used as independent variables in thermal-history modeling.

Burns, W. Matthew; Hayba, Daniel O.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Houseknecht, David W.

2007-01-01

225

Lithofacies recognition from well-logs data using the Self-Organizing Map neural network. A case study from the Berkine basin (Algeria).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we use the self-organizing map (SOM) neural network model proposed by Teuvo Kohonen (1998) for lithofacies classification from well-logs data of two boreholes located in the Berkine basin (Algeria). Firstly a pilot borehole is used to train the SOM neural network machine; the goal is to determine the weights of connection between neurons of the map, the core rock data is used for the SOM indexation. The next step consists to use the self organizing map neural network model to predict the lithofacies for the second borehole, at this step the weights of connection calculated for the first borehole are used. Comparison with core rock data shows that the SOM neural network model can be used for lithofacies prediction for well-logs data. Keywords: SOM, classification, lithofacies.

Ouadfeul, S.; Aliouane, L.; Hamoudi, M.; Boudella, A.

2012-04-01

226

A simple well-logging tool using boron-lined sodium iodide scintillators and an 241Am-Be neutron source.  

PubMed

A couple of 2-inch by 2-inch right cylinder sodium iodide scintillators and an Am-Be radioisotope neutron source have been used in a neutron porosity well-logging tool to explore the variation of hydrogen contents in a prototype formation. Both Monte Carlo N-particle transport code simulation and experimental results of the near- to far-detector responses confirm the reliable sensitivity of proposed tool to the formation porosity. PMID:22434921

Rasoulinejad, M; Izadi Najafabadi, R; Ghal-Eh, N

2012-09-01

227

Geostatistical inference and stochastic inversion of near-surface wide angle seismic data conditioned to well-log and reflection seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chalk Group rocks constitute reservoirs to a large part of the Danish North Sea oil reservoirs. In the North Sea the Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group is buried at relatively large depths, and therefore it is difficult and expensive to investigate high resolution details of the lithological variations of the Chalk Group rocks in the North Sea. At Stevns, Southern Sjælland, Denmark, the Chalk Group section has been investigated with near-surface refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic data in order to study the seismic velocity variation of the Chalk Group. The refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic data have been collected along a 7.5 km long N-S trending profile and a P-wave velocity model of the Chalk Group has been established along this profile. Two boreholes have been drilled and logged near the northern and southern end points of the seismic line. We present a study in which we perform geostatistical analysis of the available borehole and reflection seismic data. From a statistical analysis of two velocity well logs we can identify four distinct chalk sections. For each section we can determine a vertical 1D trend model as well as a 1D vertical covariance model. The same four sections are found in both well logs. From a coincident seismic reflection profile, we infer the horizontal correlation length of the velocity section. The reflection seismic profile indicates a close to horizontal layering in some intervals. Thus, from these data sets we can set up a model of the subsurface velocity structure at Stevns as a four-layer model with each layer having a distinct 2D covariance model and trend model. We make use of the deterministic velocity model obtained by inverting the travel travel time data to parameterize the non-linear inversion of the first arrival refraction data. We parameterize the inverse problem as a four-layer model. For each layer, we assume that the variability can be described by the prior covariance found from the well log and reflection seismic data. The deterministic velocity model is used as a starting model. We then perform nonlinear inversion of the wide angle first arrival time data conditioned to the well log data. This procedure enables us to generate a number of realizations of the posterior probability density function, conditioned to the geostatistical information extracted from the borehole data and the reflection seismic profile. In the future we hope that the geostatistical models inferred from the Stevns data can help identifying similar Chalk Group units in seismic sections from the Danish North Sea.

Hansen, T. M.; Nielsen, L.; Stemmerik, L.; Lykke-Andersen, H.

2009-04-01

228

Detection of overpressure zones and a statistical model for pore pressure estimation from well logs in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

high pressures, measured by repeat formation tester (RFT) and detected by well log data from 10 wells in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin, occur in the Vadaparru Shale of Miocene and Raghavapuram Shale of Early Cretaceous age. Overpressures generated by disequilibrium compaction, and pore pressures have been estimated using the conventional Eaton sonic equation with an exponent of 3.0. The observed abnormal pore pressure gradient ranges from 11.85 to 13.10 MPa/km, whereas fracture pressure gradient varies from 17.40 to 19.78 MPa/km. The magnitude of vertical stress (Sv) has a gradient from 21.00 to 23.10 MPa/km. The minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh) magnitude is found to vary from 64 to 77% of the Sv in normally pressured to overpressured sediments. A multiple linear regression model with a squared multiple correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.94 is proposed for pore pressure prediction from gamma ray, density and sonic logs to focus on efficient drilling operations and to prevent borehole instability. The statistical model has been calibrated with the RFT data from five wells covering about 3400 sq. km area of the onshore K-G Basin. The model predicted pore pressure values are in close agreement with the actual RFT data for another four wells including a well in the offshore K-G Basin. Hence, the proposed regression model may be useful for predicting pore pressure from other well logs in the K-G Basin.

Singha, Dip Kumar; Chatterjee, Rima

2014-04-01

229

Modeling and analysis of stick-slip and bit bounce in oil well drillstrings equipped with drag bits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rotary drilling systems equipped with drag bits or fixed cutter bits (also called PDC), used for drilling deep boreholes for the production and the exploration of oil and natural gas, often suffer from severe vibrations. These vibrations are detrimental to the bit and the drillstring causing different failures of equipment (e.g., twist-off, abrasive wear of tubulars, bit damage), and inefficiencies in the drilling operation (reduction of the rate of penetration (ROP)). Despite extensive research conducted in the last several decades, there is still a need to develop a consistent model that adequately captures all phenomena related to drillstring vibrations such as nonlinear cutting and friction forces at the bit/rock formation interface, drive system characteristics and coupling between various motions. In this work, a physically consistent nonlinear model for the axial and torsional motions of a rotating drillstring equipped with a drag bit is proposed. A more realistic cutting and contact model is used to represent bit/rock formation interaction at the bit. The dynamics of both drive systems for rotary and translational motions of the drillstring, including the hoisting system are also considered. In this model, the rotational and translational motions of the bit are obtained as a result of the overall dynamic behavior rather than prescribed functions or constants. The dynamic behavior predicted by the proposed model qualitatively agree well with field observations and published theoretical results. The effects of various operational parameters on the dynamic behavior are investigated with the objective of achieving a smooth and efficient drilling. The results show that with proper choice of operational parameters, it may be possible to minimize the effects of stick-slip and bit-bounce and increase the ROP. Therefore, it is expected that the results will help reduce the time spent in drilling process and costs incurred due to severe vibrations and consequent damage to equipment.

Kamel, Jasem M.; Yigit, Ahmet S.

2014-12-01

230

Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

2010-01-01

231

Logs of wells and boreholes drilled during hydrogeologic studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, January 1, 1982--June 30, 1988: January 1, 1982 through June 30, 1988  

SciTech Connect

We present the hydrogeologic well logs for monitor wells and exploratory boreholes drilled at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 between the beginning of environmental investigations in June 1982 and the end of June 1988. These wells and boreholes were drilled as part of studies made to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), high explosive (HE) compounds, and tritium in soil, rock, and ground water at Site 300. The well logs for 293 installations comprise the bulk of this report. We have prepared summaries of Site 300 geology and project history that provide a context for the well logs. Many of the logs in this report have also been published in previous topical reports, but they are nevertheless included in order to make this report a complete record of the wells and boreholes drilled prior to July 1988. A commercially available computer program, LOGGER has been used since late 1985 to generate these logs. This report presents details of the software programs and the hardware used. We are presently completing a project to devise a computer-aided design (CAD) system to produce hydrogeologic cross sections and fence diagrams, utilizing the digitized form of these logs. We find that our system produces publication-quality well and exploratory borehole logs at a lower cost than that of logs drafted by traditional methods.

Toney, K.C.; Crow, N.B.

1988-01-01

232

Elemental concentration logging with a germanium spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The German deep-well project is currently drilling a scientific well in northeastern Bavaria at the intersection of the African and Northern European tectonic plates. This well is scheduled to be drilled to a depth of {approximately}10 km to study the geochemical processes involved in the alteration of minerals under high temperature and pressure. As an initial stage in this project, a well was drilled to a depth of 4 km within 200 m of the site selected for the deep well. This well was fully cored and extensively logged with both commercial and experimental logging systems. Cores, as well as cuttings and fluids, were extensively analyzed in a well-site laboratory established specifically for that purpose. One of the experimental logging systems run in the 4-km well was a gamma-ray spectrometer that used a {sup 252}Cf source for delayed activation measurements and a neutron generator that produces 14-MeV neutrons for thermal neutron-capture gamma-ray measurements. There were two primary goals of this project. The first was to confirm the validity of elemental concentration determinations from commercial logging equipment, based on NaI(Tl) detectors, in this crystalline rock environment. The commercial equipment determines the elements: aluminum, silicon, sulfur, calcium, titanium, iron, gadolinium, potassium, thorium, and uranium. The second was to determine additional elemental concentrations that can be used to enhance the geo-chemical studies of the crystalline rock mineralogy.

Peterson, C.A.; Schweitzer, J.S. (Schlumberger-Doll Research Center, Ridgefield, CT (United States)); Draxler, J.K.

1991-11-01

233

Spring 2011 LogLogTheThe  

E-print Network

Spring 2011 LogLogTheThe Claud Brown wins Distinguished Alum · Warnell remembers Reid Parker, along with Rick Holley and his team in Seattle, for such a great event." Sponsors: B & S Air, Inc. Cell Wells Timberland Special Thanks to our Tournament Co-hosts: A `Plum' of a tournament #12;Spring 2011 1

Prestegard, James H.

234

Integration of geology, geostatistics, well logs and pressure data to model a heterogeneous supergiant field in Iran  

SciTech Connect

The geological reservoir study of the supergiant Ahwaz field significantly improved the history matching process in many aspects, particularly the development of a geostatistical model which allowed a sound basis for changes and by delivering much needed accurate estimates of grid block vertical permeabilities. The geostatistical reservoir evaluation was facilitated by using the Heresim package and litho-stratigraphic zonations for the entire field. For each of the geological zones, 3-dimensional electrolithofacies and petrophysical property distributions (realizations) were treated which captured the heterogeneities which significantly affected fluid flow. However, as this level of heterogeneity was at a significantly smaller scale than the flow simulation grid blocks, a scaling up effort was needed to derive the effective flow properties of the blocks (porosity, horizontal and vertical permeability, and water saturation). The properties relating to the static reservoir description were accurately derived by using stream tube techniques developed in-house whereas, the relative permeabilities of the grid block were derived by dynamic pseudo relative permeability techniques. The prediction of vertical and lateral communication and water encroachment was facilitated by a close integration of pressure, saturation data, geostatistical modelling and sedimentological studies of the depositional environments and paleocurrents. The nature of reservoir barriers and baffles varied both vertically and laterally in this heterogeneous reservoir. Maps showing differences in pressure between zones after years of production served as a guide to integrating the static geological studies to the dynamic behaviour of each of the 16 reservoir zones. The use of deep wells being drilled to a deeper reservoir provided data to better understand the sweep efficiency and the continuity of barriers and baffles.

Samimi, B.; Bagherpour, H.; Nioc, A. [and others

1995-08-01

235

Depositional Model for the Middle Eocene Oberlin Sand in Northwest Oberlin Field and Adjacent Areas, Allen Parish, Louisiana: A Well-log and Seismic Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depositional environment of the middle to late Eocene Oberlin sand of Northwest Oberlin Field and Pilgrim Church Field in central Allen Parish, Louisiana, was investigated. The depositional environment of the Oberlin sand has been interpreted from observations of spontaneous potential log signatures, conventional core reports, paleontological reports, shape of isochore maps, coherency extraction attribute, amplitude extraction attribute, and multiple seismic and subsurface cross sections. Focus is centered on the juxtaposition of component sand bodies and their proximity to the interdistributary and prodelta environments. Sand bodies include distributary channels, distributary mouth bars, crevasse subdeltas and shelfal bars and are interpreted to be the products of lower deltaic and shelf processes. The results of this study are based on seismic analysis, display techniques and subsurface maps calibrated to well logs, models, and recognition criteria of modern and ancient depositional environments previously described in the regional literature. The integration of all available data provides an objective and systematic approach detailing the origin, lateral extent, geometry and architecture of the Oberlin sand in the lower deltaic plain and shelf environments. The results of this study may be applicable to similar age sands on trend with the study area. Understanding of sand component types of the lower deltaic and shelf environments is vital to exploration success and development optimization of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs.

McVey, Timothy Keith

236

Preliminary Fracture Description from Core, Lithological Logs, and Borehole Geophysical Data in Slimhole Wells Drilled for Project Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project (Project Hotspot) seeks to assess the potential for geothermal energy development in the Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho. Three deep slimhole wells are drilled at the Kimama, Kimberly, and Mountain Home sites in the central SRP. The Kimama and Kimberly wells are complete and the Mountain Home well is in progress. Total depth at Kimama is 1,912 m while total depth at Kimberly is 1,958 m. Mountain Home is expected to reach around 1,900 m. Full core is recovered and complete suites of wireline borehole geophysical data have been collected at both Kimama and Kimberly sites along with vertical seismic profiles. Part of the geothermal assessment includes evaluating the changes in the nature of fractures with depth through the study of physical core samples and analysis of the wireline geophysical data to better understand how fractures affect permeability in the zones that have the potential for geothermal fluid migration. The fracture inventory is complete for the Kimama borehole and preliminary analyses indicate that fracture zones are related to basaltic flow boundaries. The average fracture density is 17 fractures/3 m. The maximum fracture density is 110 fractures/3 m. Fracture density varies with depth and increases considerably in the bottom 200 m of the well. Initial indications are that the majority of fractures are oriented subhorizontally but a considerable number are oriented subvertically as well. We expect to statistically evaluate the distribution of fracture length and orientation as well as analyze local alteration and secondary mineralization that might indicate fluid pathways that we can use to better understand permeability at depth in the borehole. Near real-time temperature data from the Kimama borehole indicate a temperature gradient of 82°C/km below the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at a depth of 960 m bgs. The measured temperature at around 1,400 m depth is 55°C and the projected temperature at 2,000 m depth is 102°C. The rock types at Kimama and Kimberly are primarily basalt and rhyolite, respectively, with interbedded thin sedimentary layers. We identify anomalies in the physical properties of igneous rocks using porosity logs (neutron and acoustic), lithology logs (gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility) and fracture/saturation logs (televiewer and electrical resistivity). The core will be used to constrain the geophysical data and confirm the ability to identify permeability in fracture zones and saturated zones through analysis of the wireline log data. The matrix porosity of these igneous lithologies is near zero aside from porosity from vugs and vesicles. However, open and sealed fractures indicate that mineralizing fluids form connected pathways in the rock. Core samples show a series of alteration phases, including amygdaloidal fine-grained calcite and secondary clays. The geophysical data will be used to predict anomalies in lithology and identify open fractures and saturated zones with high permeability.

Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D.

2011-12-01

237

Applying multiwell normalization in open hole log analysis  

E-print Network

A major problem when analyzing open hole well logging data in large fields is the fact that the logs were run using different logging service companies, using different logging tools over a long time span. To obtain correct log interpretations...

Sinanan, Haydn Brent

2012-06-07

238

Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative to volcanic-rock units is exemplified by the large difference in their estimated maximum hydraulic conductivity; 4,000 and 400 feet per day, respectively. Simulated minimum estimates of hydraulic conductivity are inexact and represent the lower detection limit of the method. Minimum thicknesses of lithologic intervals also were defined for comparing AnalyzeHOLE results to hydraulic properties in regional ground-water flow models.

Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

2010-01-01

239

Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation tests conducted in well MG-1693 at North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Borehole geophysical logging and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in well MG-1693 (NP-87) at the North Penn Area 5 Superfund Site near Colmar, Montgomery County, Pa. Objectives of the study were to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of vertical borehole flow, and effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wells. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-resistivity, heatpulse-flowmeter, and borehole-video logs were collected. Vertical borehole-fluid movement direction and rate were measured under nonpumping conditions. The suite of logs was used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and select depths to set packers. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted to sample discrete intervals and to determine specific capacities of water-bearing zones and effects of pumping individual zones on water levels in two nearby monitor wells. Specific capacities of isolated zones during aquifer-isolation tests ranged from 0.03 to 3.09 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot). Fractures identified by borehole geophysical methods as water-producing or water-receiving zones produced water when isolated and pumped. Water enters the borehole primarily through high-angle fractures at 416 to 435 ft bls (feet below land surface) and 129 to 136 ft bls. Water exits the borehole through a high-angle fracture at 104 to 107 ft bls, a broken casing joint at 82 ft bls, and sometimes as artesian flow through the top of the well. Thirteen intervals were selected for aquifer-isolation testing, using a straddle-packer assembly. The specific capacity of interval 1 was 2.09 (gal/min)/ft. The specific capacities of intervals 2, 3, and 4 were similar: 0.27, 0.30, and 0.29 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. The specific capacities of intervals 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10 were similar: 0.03, 0.04, 0.09, 0.09, and 0.04 (gal/min)/ft,respectively. Intervals 9, 11, and 12 each showed a strong hydraulic connection outside the borehole with intervals above and below the isolated interval. The specific capacities of intervals 9, 11, 12, and 13 were similar: 2.12, 2.17, 3.09, and 3.08 (gal/min)/ft, respectively. The aquifer-isolation tests indicate that wells MG-1693 (NP-87) and MG-924 (NP-21) are connected primarily through the high-angle fracture from 416 to 435 ft bls. Pumping in either of these wells directly impacts the other well, allowing the pumped well to draw from water-bearing zones in the non-pumped well that are not present in or are not connected directly to the pumped well. The two boreholes act as a single, U-shaped well. The aquifer-isolation tests also show that the lower zones in well MG-1693 (NP-87) are a major source of hydraulic head in well MG-1661 (W-13) through the broken casing joint at 82 ft bls. Water moving upward from the lower intervals in well MG-1693 (NP-87) exits the borehole through the broken casing joint, moves upward outside the borehole, possibly around and (or) through a poor or damaged casing seal, and through the weathered zone above bedrock to well MG-1661 (W-13). Samples for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected in nine isolated intervals. Six compounds were detected (1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and trichloroethene (TCE)), and TCE was found in all nine isolated intervals. Intervals 4 (124-149 ft bls) and 6 (277-302 ft bls) had the highest total concentration of VOCs (6.66 and 6.2 micrograms per liter, respectively). Intervals 1 (68-93 ft bls) and 4 each had five compounds detected, which was the highest number of compounds detected. Interval 5 (252-277 ft bls) had the lowest total concentration of VOCs (0.08 microgram per liter) and the least number of VOCs detected (one). Detected compounds were not evenly distributed throughout the intervals. Contaminants were found in shallow, intermediate, and deep intervals and were associated with

Bird, Philip H.

2006-01-01

240

Real-time formation evaluation using a well-site data management system to integrate MWD, surface measurements, and enhanced mud logging data  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of measurement while drilling (MWD), a new source of quantitative data became available during the drilling process. The availability of wireline log-type data while drilling has led to a need that traditional mud-logging methods be augmented and enhanced to provide more quantitative correlative data sources and benchmark standards for the lithologic normalization of MWD data. Together these

A. Whittaker; A. Brooks; R. Dowsett; J. MacPherson; E. Nigh

1986-01-01

241

Wells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Wells: From the Groundwater Foundation's web site this page explains what a well is, the three basic types, how they are constructed, how they may become contaminated, etc. There are also links to GWF programs and events and to the Kid's Corner.

2008-07-24

242

Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential, Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico  

SciTech Connect

This report describes part of the work done to fulfill a contract awarded to Gruy Federal, Inc., by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Feburary 12, 1979. The work includes pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report details the second such project. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques incorporating the a, m, and n values obtained from Core Laboratories analysis did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations and production data confirmed the validity of oil saturation determinations. Residual oil saturation, for the perforated and tested intervals were 259 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 4035 to 4055 feet, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the interval from 3692 to 3718 feet. Nine BOPD was produced from the interval 4035 to 4055 feet and no oil was produced from interval 3692 to 3718 feet, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations as calculated. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log, and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood.

Swift, T.E.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.

1981-11-01

243

Compressional wave character in gassy, near-surface sediments in southern Louisiana determined from variable frequency cross-well, borehole logging, and surface seismic measurements  

SciTech Connect

Velocity and attenuation data were used to test theoretical equations describing the frequency dependence of compressional wave velocity and attenuation through gas-rich sediments in coastal Louisiana. The cross-well data were augmented with velocities derived from a nearby seismic refraction station using a low-frequency source. Energy at 1 and 3 kHz was successfully transmitted over distances from 3.69 to 30 m; the 5 and 7-kHz data were obtained only at distances up to 20 m. Velocity tomograms were constructed for one borehole pair and covered a depth interval of 10--50 m. Results from the tomographic modeling indicate that gas-induced low velocities are present to depths of greater than 40 m. Analysis of the velocity dispersion suggests that gas-bubble resonance must be greater than 7 kHz, which is above the range of frequencies used in the experiment. Washout of the boreholes at depths above 15 m resulted in a degassed zone containing velocities higher than those indicated in both nearby refraction and reflection surveys. Velocity and attenuation information were obtained for a low-velocity zone centered at a depth of approximately 18 m. Measured attenuations of 1.57, 2.95, and 3.24 dB/m for the 3-, 5-, and 7-kHz signals, respectively, were modeled along with the velocity data using a silt-clay sediment type. Density and porosity data for the model were obtained from the geophysical logs; the bulk and shear moduli were estimated from published relationships. Modeling results indicate that gas bubbles measuring 1 mm in diameter occupy at least 25% to 35% of the pore space.

Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fasnacht, T. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1995-06-01

244

Artificial neural network modeling and cluster analysis for organic facies and burial history estimation using well log data: A case study of the South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.

Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali

2012-08-01

245

How Well Does Brazil's Environmental Law Work in Practice? Environmental Impact Assessment and the Case of the Itapiranga Private Sustainable Logging Plan.  

PubMed

/ The Itapiranga Sustainable Logging Plan provides an example of how Brazil's licensing system functions for logging companies in the state of Amazonas. Two questions need to be dealt with: "How sustainable can logging in the Amazon be?" and "What and how effective are existing legal mechanisms to deal with logging projects?" The environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental impact statement (EIS, known as the RIMA in Brazil), present relatively detailed accounts of biodiversity and the need to adopt conservation strategies to protect it. However, social and health impacts are only superficially addressed. The economic sustainability of the operation over multiple cycles is not demonstrated. The multidisciplinary teams responsible for the EIA and EIS (RIMA) reports are hired by the project proponent, an arrangement inherently carrying the risk of biasing the result. Logging reduces biodiversity, releases greenhouse gases and inflicts social and health costs. These impacts reduce the ability of Amazonian forests to provide environmental services and to supply food and livelihood security to local populations. The reports inflate positive effects such as employment: the estimated number of jobs was cut by more than half in a revision made after the EIA and EIS (RIMA) had been approved. Not only do the reports need to be more realistic in assessing both positive and negative consequences of proposed projects, but better means are needed to ensure that promised mitigatory measures are enforced in practice. Many of the lessons that can be drawn from the Itapiranga Plan are not unique to logging projects and apply to licensing of development activites generally in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:10977880

Eve; Arguelles; Fearnside

2000-09-01

246

The superdeep well of the Kola Peninsula  

SciTech Connect

This book presents papers on the exploration and production of petroleum in the USSR. Topics considered include geological surveys, metamorphism, geochemistry, mineralization, hydrology, geophysical surveys, well logging, rock electrical properties, natural radioactivity, drilling parameters, choosing drilling equipment, the stability of borehole walls, drill cores, drilling fuels, and a technical and economic evaluation of well drilling.

Kozlovsky, Y.A.

1987-01-01

247

Log Tape  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students construct Log Tapes calibrated in base-ten exponents, then use them to derive relationships between base-ten logs (exponents) and antilogs (ordinary numbers).  This is activity B1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

248

Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production test. The XPT measurement results showed approximately 0.1 to several mD of water permeability in both the hydrate-bearing formation and seal formation, although there are some variations in measured values. However, the comparison of these results with permeability estimated by NMR log showed significant discrepancy (more than one order of difference), which suggests that it is necessary to have further investigation considering the difference in scale, measurement direction (Kh or Kv), and calibration methodology by pressure core data. In order to obtain basic reservoir/seal properties for the well log calibration within and above production test interval, pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System (Hybrid PCS) and also non-destructive core analysis onboard using Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System (PCATS) were conducted for 60 m interval in AT1-C, which located about 10 m northeast of AT1-MC. Finally, integrated reservoir characterization based on well-log and pressure core data was conducted to predict and optimize the flow rate of upcoming production test.

Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

2012-12-01

249

Using open hole and cased-hole resistivity logs to monitor gas hydrate dissociation during a thermal test in the mallik 5L-38 research well, Mackenzie Delta, Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas hydrates, which are naturally occurring ice-like combinations of gas and water, have the potential to provide vast amounts of natural gas from the world's oceans and polar regions. However, producing gas economically from hydrates entails major technical challenges. Proposed recovery methods such as dissociating or melting gas hydrates by heating or depressurization are currently being tested. One such test was conducted in northern Canada by the partners in the Mallik 2002 Gas Hydrate Production Research Well Program. This paper describes how resistivity logs were used to determine the size of the annular region of gas hydrate dissociation that occurred around the wellbore during the thermal test in the Mallik 5L-38 well. An open-hole logging suite, run prior to the thermal test, included array induction, array laterolog, nuclear magnetic resonance and 1.1-GHz electromagnetic propagation logs. The reservoir saturation tool was run both before and after the thermal test to monitor formation changes. A cased-hole formation resistivity log was run after the test.Baseline resistivity values in each formation layer (Rt) were established from the deep laterolog data. The resistivity in the region of gas hydrate dissociation near the wellbore (Rxo) was determined from electromagnetic propagation and reservoir saturation tool measurements. The radius of hydrate dissociation as a function of depth was then determined by means of iterative forward modeling of cased-hole formation resistivity tool response. The solution was obtained by varying the modeled dissociation radius until the modeled log overlaid the field log. Pretest gas hydrate production computer simulations had predicted that dissociation would take place at a uniform radius over the 13-ft test interval. However, the post-test resistivity modeling showed that this was not the case. The resistivity-derived dissociation radius was greatest near the outlet of the pipe that circulated hot water in the wellbore, where the highest temperatures were recorded. The radius was smallest near the center of the test interval, where a conglomerate section with low values of porosity and permeability inhibited dissociation. The free gas volume calculated from the resistivity-derived dissociation radii yielded a value within 20 per cent of surface gauge measurements. These results show that the inversion of resistivity measurements holds promise for use in future gas hydrate monitoring. ?? 2008 Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts. All rights reserved.

Anderson, B.I.; Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Dubourg, I.

2008-01-01

250

Log Ruler  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students construct Log Rulers, finely calibrated in base-10 exponents and numbers (logs and antilogs). They practice reading these scales as accurately as possible, listing all certain figures plus one uncertain figure.  This is activity D1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

251

Results of investigation at the Miravalles Geothermal Field, Costa Rica: Part 1, Well logging. Resultados de las investigaciones en el campo geotermico de Miravalles, Costa Rica: Parte 1, Registros de pozos  

SciTech Connect

The well-logging operations performed in the Miravalles Geothermal Field in Costa Rica were conducted during two separate field trips. The Phase I program provided the deployment of a suite of high-temperature borehole instruments, including the temperature/rabbit, fluid sampler, and three-arm caliper in Well PGM-3. These same tools were deployed in Well PGM-10 along with an additional survey run with a combination fluid velocity/temperature/pressure instrument used to measure thermodynamic properties under flowing well conditions. The Phase II program complemented Phase I with the suite of tools deployed in Wells PGM-5, PGM-11, and PGM-12. 4 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

Dennis, B.R.; Lawton, R.G.; Kolar, J.D.; Alvarado, A.

1989-03-01

252

Log Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students solve exponential equations where the unknown is contained in the exponent. Students learn that taking base-10 or base-2 logs pulls down the exponent, allowing the unknown to be isolated and solved.  This activity is activity C3 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure, compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

253

Interpretation of geophysical logs, aquifer tests, and water levels in wells in and near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2000-02  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water in the vicinity of various industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 beginning autumn 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area, and this stream flows southwest to bisect North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 16 wells that ranged in depth from 50 to 623 feet. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 9 of the 16 wells, for a total of 30 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping a 600-ft deep production well in February and March 2002. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in three wells in the area and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on Wissahickon Creek from December 2000 through September 2002. Geophysical logging identified water-bearing zones associated with high-angle fractures and bedding-plane openings throughout the depth of the boreholes. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under nonpumping, ambient conditions indicated that borehole flow, where detected, was in the upward direction in three of the eight wells and in the downward direction in three wells. In two wells, both upward and downward flow were measured. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions were used to identify the most productive intervals in wells. Correlation of natural-gamma-ray and single-point-resistance logs indicated that bedding in the area probably strikes about 40 degrees northeast and dips from 6 to 7 degrees northwest. Aquifer intervals isolated by inflatable packers in wells were pumped to test productivity and to collect samples to determine chemical quality of water produced from the interval. Interval-isolation testing confirmed the presence of vertical hydraulic gradients indicated by heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The specific capacities of isolated intervals ranged over two orders of magnitude, from 0.02 to more than 3.6 gallons per minute per foot. Intervals adjacent to isolated pumped intervals showed little response to pumping the isolated zone. The presence of vertical hydraulic gradients and lack of adjacent-interval response to pumping in isolated intervals indicate a limited degree of vertical hydraulic connection between the aquifer intervals tested. Concentrations of most VOC contaminants generally were highest in well-water samples from the shallowest isolated intervals, with some exceptions. Trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, and toluene were the most frequently detected VOCs, with maximum concentrations of greater than 340, 680, and greater than 590 micrograms per liter, respectively. Results of the aquifer test with multiple observation wells showed that water levels in 4 of the 14 wells declined in response to pumping. The four wells that responded to pumping are either along str

Senior, Lisa A.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.; Pracht, Karl A.

2005-01-01

254

Processing, Analysis, and General Evaluation of Well-Driller Logs for Estimating Hydrogeologic Parameters of the Glacial Sediments in a Ground-Water Flow Model of the Lake Michigan Basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot study for the National Assessment of Water Availability and Use Program to assess the availability of water and water use in the Great Lakes Basin. Part of the study involves constructing a ground-water flow model for the Lake Michigan part of the Basin. Most ground-water flow occurs in the glacial sediments above the bedrock formations; therefore, adequate representation by the model of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments is important to the accuracy of model simulations. This work processed and analyzed well records to provide the hydrogeologic parameters of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity and ground-water levels for the model layers used to simulated ground-water flow in the glacial sediments. The methods used to convert (1) lithology descriptions into assumed values of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity for entire model layers, (2) aquifer-test data into point values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and (3) static water levels into water-level calibration data are presented. A large data set of about 458,000 well driller well logs for monitoring, observation, and water wells was available from three statewide electronic data bases to characterize hydrogeologic parameters. More than 1.8 million records of lithology from the well logs were used to create a lithologic-based representation of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments. Specific-capacity data from about 292,000 well logs were converted into horizontal hydraulic conductivity values to determine specific values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and its aerial variation. About 396,000 well logs contained data on ground-water levels that were assembled into a water-level calibration data set. A lithology-based distribution of hydraulic conductivity was created by use of a computer program to convert well-log lithology descriptions into aquifer or nonaquifer categories and to calculate equivalent horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities (K and KZ, respectively) for each of the glacial layers of the model. The K was based on an assumed value of 100 ft/d (feet per day) for aquifer materials and 1 ft/d for nonaquifer materials, whereas the equivalent KZ was based on an assumed value of 10 ft/d for aquifer materials and 0.001 ft/d for nonaquifer materials. These values were assumed for convenience to determine a relative contrast between aquifer and nonaquifer materials. The point values of K and KZ from wells that penetrate at least 50 percent of a model layer were interpolated into a grid of values. The K distribution was based on an inverse distance weighting equation that used an exponent of 2. The KZ distribution used inverse distance weighting with an exponent of 4 to represent the abrupt change in KZ that commonly occurs between aquifer and nonaquifer materials. The values of equivalent hydraulic conductivity for aquifer sediments needed to be adjusted to actual values in the study area for the ground-water flow modeling. The specific-capacity data (discharge, drawdown, and time data) from the well logs were input to a modified version of the Theis equation to calculate specific capacity based horizontal hydraulic conductivity values (KSC). The KSC values were used as a guide for adjusting the assumed value of 100 ft/d for aquifer deposits to actual values used in the model. Water levels from well logs were processed to improve reliability of water levels for comparison to simulated water levels in a model layer during model calibration. Water levels were interpolated by kriging to determine a composite water-level surface. The difference between the kriged surface and individual water levels was used to identify outlier water levels. Examination of the well-log lithology data in map form revealed that the data were not only useful for model input, but also were useful for understanding th

Arihood, Leslie D.

2009-01-01

255

Investigation of origin for seawater intrusion using geophysical well logs and absolute ages of volcanic cores in the eastern part of Jeju Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jeju located in the southern extremity of Korea is volcanic island, one of best-known tourist attractions in Korea. Jeju Province operates the monitoring boreholes for the evaluation of groundwater resources in coastal area. Major rock types identified from drill cores are trachybasalt, acicular basalt, scoria, hyalocastite, tuff, unconsolidated U formation, and seoguipo formation and so on. Various conventional geophysical well

Seho Hwang; Jehyun Shin

2010-01-01

256

Interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, aquifer-isolation tests, and water quality, supply wells 1 and 2, Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base, Horsham Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ground water pumped from supply wells 1 and 2 on the Willow Grove Naval Air Station/Joint Reserve Base (NAS/JRB) provides water for use at the base, including potable water for drinking. The supply wells have been contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOC?s), particularly trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachloroethylene (PCE), and the water is treated to remove the VOC?s. The Willow Grove NAS/JRB and surrounding area are underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Triassic-age Stockton Formation, which form a complex, heterogeneous aquifer. The ground-water-flow system for the supply wells was characterized by use of borehole geophysical logs and heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The heatpulse-flowmeter measurements showed upward and downward borehole flow under nonpumping conditions in both wells. The hydraulic and chemical properties of discrete water-bearing fractures in the supply wells were characterized by isolating each water-bearing fracture with straddle packers. Eight fractures in supply well 1 and five fractures in supply well 2 were selected for testing on the basis of the borehole geophysical logs and borehole television surveys. Water samples were collected from each isolated fracture and analyzed for VOC?s and inorganic constituents. Fractures at 50?59, 79?80, 196, 124?152, 182, 241, 256, and 350?354 ft btoc (feet below top of casing) were isolated in supply well 1. Specific capacities ranged from 0.26 to 5.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 179.8?188 ft btoc. Specific capacity and depth of fracture were not related in either supply well. The highest concentrations of PCE were in water samples collected from fractures isolated at 236.8?245 and 249.8?258 ft btoc, which are hydraulically connected. The concentration of PCE generally increased with depth to a maximum of 39 mg/L (micrograms per liter) at a depth of 249.8? 258 ft btoc and then decreased to 21 mg/L at a depth of 345.3?389 ft btoc. Fractures at 68?74, 115, 162, 182, 205, and 314 ft btoc were isolated in supply well 2. Specific capacities ranged from 0.08 to less than 2.9 (gal/ min)/ft. The highest specific capacity was for the fracture isolated at 157?165.2 ft btoc. Concentrations of detected VOC?s in water samples were 3.6 mg/L or less. Lithologic units penetrated by both supply wells were determined by correlating naturalgamma and single-point-resistance borehole geophysical logs. All lithologic units are not continuous water-bearing units because water-bearing fractures are not necessarily present in the same lithologic units in each well. Although the wells penetrate the same lithologic units, the lithologic location of only three water-bearing fractures are common to both wells. The same lithologic unit may have different hydraulic properties in each well. A regional ground-water divide is southeast of the supply wells. From this divide, ground water flows northwest toward Park Creek, a tributary to Little Neshaminy Creek. Potentiometric-surface maps were prepared from water levels measured in shallow and deep wells. For both depth intervals, the direction of ground-water flow is toward the northwest. For most well clusters, the vertical head gradient is downward from the shallow to the deeper part of the aquifer. Pumping of the supply wells at times can cause the vertical flow direction to reverse.

Sloto, Ronald A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Frasch, Steven M.

2002-01-01

257

Improve reliability with operator log sheets  

SciTech Connect

Recently, there have been significant improvements in computerized vibration and online performance monitoring systems. However, despite all the developments, the importance of monitoring rotating equipment through operator log sheets must not be overlooked or neglected. Operator log sheets filled out during shifts can be very useful tools in detecting problems early, provided they are diligently completed and evaluated during the operating shift. In most cases, performance deviations can be corrected by measured within the control of the operator. If the operator understands the purpose of log sheets, and knows the cause and effect of deviations in operating parameters, he or she will be motivated to complete the log sheets to increase equipment reliability. Logged data should include any operating data from equipment that reveals its mechanical condition or performance. The most common data logged are pressure, temperature, flow, power and vibration. The purposes of log sheets are to: establish and recognize the normal operating parameters and identify deviations in performance data; perform timely corrective actions on deviations to avoid unplanned shutdowns and catastrophic failures; avoid repetitive failures and increase mean time between failures; and provide base line data for troubleshooting. Two case histories are presented to illustrate the usefulness of logs: a compressor thrust bearing problem and steam turbine blade washing.

Devender, A.V.; Ganesan, S.T. [Refineria ISLA S.A., Curacao (Netherlands Antilles)

1996-01-01

258

Digital archive of drilling mud weight pressures and wellbore temperatures from 49 regional cross sections of 967 well logs in Louisiana and Texas, onshore Gulf of Mexico basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This document provides the digital archive of in-situ temperature and drilling mud weight pressure data that were compiled from several historical sources. The data coverage includes the states of Texas and Louisiana in the Gulf of Mexico basin. Data are also provided graphically, for both Texas and Louisiana, as plots of temperature as a function of depth and pressure as a function of depth. The minimum, arithmetic average, and maximum values are tabulated for each 1,000-foot depth increment for temperature as well as pressure in the Texas and Louisiana data.

Burke, Lauri A.; Kinney, Scott A.; Kola-Kehinde, Temidayo B.

2011-01-01

259

Sonic log prediction in carbonates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is conducted to study the complications associated with the sonic log prediction in carbonate logs and to investigate the possible solutions to accurately predict the sonic logs in Traverse Limestone. Well logs from fifty different wells were analyzed to define the mineralogy of the Traverse Limestone by using conventional 4-mineral and 3-mineral identification approaches. We modified the conventional 3-mineral identification approach (that completely neglects the gamma ray response) to correct the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log before employing the 3-mineral identification. This modification helped to get the meaningful insight of the data when a plot was made between DGA (dry grain density) and UMA (Photoelectric Volumetric Cross-section) with the characteristic ternary diagram of the quartz, calcite and dolomite. The results were then compared with the 4-mineral identification approach. Contour maps of the average mineral fractions present in the Traverse Limestone were prepared to see the basin wide mineralogy of Traverse Limestone. In the second part, sonic response of Traverse Limestone was predicted in fifty randomly distributed wells. We used the modified time average equation that accounts for the shale effects on the basis of gamma ray log, and used it to predict the sonic behavior from density porosity and average porosity. To account for the secondary porosity of dolomite, we subtracted the dolomitic fraction of clean porosity from the total porosity. The pseudo-sonic logs were then compared with the measured sonic logs on the root mean square (RMS) basis. Addition of dolomite correction in modified time average equation improved the results of sonic prediction from neutron porosity and average porosity. The results demonstrated that sonic logs could be predicted in carbonate rocks with a root mean square error of about 4isec/ft. We also attempted the use of individual mineral components for sonic log prediction but the ambiguities in mineral fractions and in the sonic properties of the minerals limited the accuracy of the results.

Islam, Nayyer

260

Log interpretation of shaly sandstones  

E-print Network

-sandstone equations, 1) "practical" equations requiring only well logs, and 2) "theoretical" equations requiring additional examination of coze. This study has focused on the practical equations because of their wider applicability. These equations are based... of the sandstone. To find the CEC of the sandstone, the CEC of the clay was multiplied by the volume of clay as determined from well logs. Shale Volume The fractional volume of clay was found from the gamma 47 zay by using the Dresser Atlas fozmula...

Baker, Joel Foster

2012-06-07

261

The application of well logging and seismic modeling to assess the degree of gas saturation in Miocene strata (Carpathian Foredeep, Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of natural gas in the pore space of reservoir rocks results in a significant decrease in P-wave velocity. Even low gas saturation can generate seismic anomalies (DHI) and false image of gas accumulation of economic importance. This article presents an attempt to evaluate gas saturation from 2D seismic section in the Miocene sandstone strata in the south-eastern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. The ESTYMACJA program and the Biot-Gassmann model were used to study the dependence between elastic parameters and saturating fluids (water and gas) recorded in wells. Series of calculations was carried out using a method of fluid substitution for various gas saturation. The applicability of seismic data for evaluating gas saturation of reservoir beds was assessed with the use of 1D modelling (synthetic seismograms) and 2D modelling (theoretical seismic section) calculated for different gas saturation. The proposed methodology can be used to identify low and high gas-saturated zones and contour the reservoir.

Marzec, Pawe?; Niepsuj, Magdalena; Ba?a, Maria; Pietsch, Kaja

2014-02-01

262

ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA  

E-print Network

ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA THE ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COSTS #12;ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA THE ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL COSTS Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 #12;ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA | 2 Executive Summary Indonesia's rainforests are the third

263

Well log evaluation of natural gas hydrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas hydrates are crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid-water-lattice accommodates gas molecules in a cage-like structure. Gas hydrates are globally widespread in permafrost regions and beneath the sea in sediment of outer continental margins. While methane, propane, and other gases can be included in the clathrate structure, methane hydrates appear to be the most common

Collett

1992-01-01

264

Testing the controls on the seismic sequence stratigraphy of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in Southern Iran with a Wheeler diagram derived from outcrops, seismic and well logs data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study of Southern Iran the timing of the boundary between the Eocene to Oligo-Miocene sections was determined along with a better understanding of the accumulation of the Paleocene to Eocene sediments. This was established by generating Wheeler diagrams from local seismic, well log data and surface data. This boundary was found to be mainly erosional and the time gap between Eocene to Oligo-Miocene displayed by the Wheeler diagram suggests a "degradational vacuity" formed. Relative sea level changes were found to be responsible for the seaward progradational character of the Jahrum Formation sediments. Red sediments and an intraformational conglomerate overlie this erosional boundary between the Paleocene to the Eocene Jahrum Formation and the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation. Long-term lower frequency trends in both regional tectonic and global sea-level curves determined from the Paleocene-Eocene sediments of south Iran, when compared to the coastal plain sediments of US New Jersey and the global coastal onlap chart, suggest that contemporaneous eustastic signals in lower Eocene time produced matching sedimentary patterns. The results of the study recorded in this paper are intended to be used as the foundation of the study of petroleum related facies and petroleum system components (source, reservoir and seal rocks) in the Tertiary portion of sedimentary section.

Chehri, Amin; Kendall, Christopher; Ghadimvand, Nader Kohansal; Samadi, Latif

2014-12-01

265

Logs to Soil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this outdoor activity, learners cut through and investigate rotten logs and then make log-profile puzzles for each other. Learners cut through the limb to expose a vertical profile, study the pattern of decay, and find evidence for the tree’s life history. This activity calls for learners to saw logs, but for younger groups, adults can do the sawing.

Lawrence Hall of Science

1982-01-01

266

Log-burning stove  

SciTech Connect

A log-burning stove having a stove door with an angled plate element secured thereto, the top portion of the plate element deflecting combustion gases inwardly to the combustion chamber, and the lower portion deflecting draft air inwardly and downwardly into the combustion chamber, the plate element also forming a log-support and log-sliding surface.

Choate, J.R.

1982-11-23

267

INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE PETROPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF POST- AND PRE-STACK 3-D SEISMIC DATA, WELL-LOG DATA, CORE DATA, GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND RESERVOIR PRODUCTION DATA VIA BAYESIAN STOCHASTIC INVERSION  

SciTech Connect

The present report summarizes the work carried out between September 30, 2002 and August 30, 2003 under DOE research contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15305. During the third year of work for this project we focused primarily on improving the efficiency of inversion algorithms and on developing algorithms for direct estimation of petrophysical parameters. The full waveform inversion algorithm for elastic property estimation was tested rigorously on a personal computer cluster. For sixteen nodes on the cluster the parallel algorithm was found to be scalable with a near linear speedup. This enabled us to invert a 2D seismic line in less than five hours of CPU time. We were invited to write a paper on our results that was subsequently accepted for publication. We also carried out a rigorous study to examine the sensitivity and resolution of seismic data to petrophysical parameters. In other words, we developed a full waveform inversion algorithm that estimates petrophysical parameters such as porosity and saturation from pre-stack seismic waveform data. First we used a modified Biot-Gassmann equation to relate petrophysical parameters to elastic parameters. The transformation was validated with a suite of well logs acquired in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. As a part of this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis and found that the porosity is very well resolved while the fluid saturation remains insensitive to seismic wave amplitudes. Finally we conducted a joint inversion of pre-stack seismic waveform and production history data. To overcome the computational difficulties we used a simpler waveform modeling algorithm together with an efficient subspace approach. The algorithm was tested on a realistic synthetic data set. We observed that the use of pre-stack seismic data helps tremendously to improve horizontal resolution of porosity maps. Finally, we submitted four publications to refereed technical journals, two refereed extended abstracts to technical conferences, and delivered two oral presentation at a technical forum. All of these publications and presentations stemmed from work directly related to the goals of our DOE project.

Carlos Torres-Verdin; Mrinal K. Sen

2004-03-01

268

Long-term effects of logging in a Neotropical rain forest in Suriname  

Microsoft Academic Search

after logging were analysed in a logging and silvicultural experiment, where 15, 23 and 46 m3\\/ha had been extracted in the late 1970s. It is shown that logging in this tropical rain forest did not lead to substantial changes in biodiversity. Furthermore, areas disturbed by logging recovered well and trees damaged during logging often survived and developed into good quality

W. B. J. Jonkers; K Tjon; J. Wirjosentono

269

6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log postandbeam support ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Log calving barn. Interior view showing log post-and-beam support system and animal stalls. - William & Lucina Bowe Ranch, Log Calving Barn, 230 feet south-southwest of House, Melrose, Silver Bow County, MT

270

Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1988-01-01

271

Improved selective logging detection with Landsat images in tropical regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logging is a major form of forest degradation in the tropical regions like Brazilian Amazon. It alters the tropical habitat environments and results in release of carbons as well. The traditional way of logging is through forest clearing, which converts forest to other land uses such as agriculture or rangeland. Recently a new form of forest degradation is selective logging,

Jiaguo Qi; Cuizhen Wang; Eraldo Matricardi; David Skole

2002-01-01

272

Engineered Log Jam  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Engineered Log Jam on the lower river opposite the new Lower Klallam Tribe Fish Hatchery. The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe project creates salmon habitat on the lower Elwha River in preparation for dam removal and habitat restoration....

273

Transfer Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

ANIMAL TRANSFER LOG Date of Move: ________________ Cage Type C = Auto Water NOTES: B = Water Bottle S = SMZ M = Microisolator ASP # PI GROUP NAME # CAGES [+] ROOM TO DOB COMMENTS STRAIN CODE NEW GROUP NAME NEW ROOM CAGE TYPE PEDIGREE # EAR

274

Hanford wells  

SciTech Connect

Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details.

Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

1993-08-01

275

Tracking equipment on hire  

SciTech Connect

The first comprehensive computer-based system for managing large inventories of rental equipment in the North Sea has been commissioned by British oilfield services group Expro. Now, after a year of operations in which the system has proved its worth in improving the efficiency of Expro's well testing and other services, it is being offered for sale to other oil industry companies with problems in controlling movement of capital equipment. The computer-based inventory control system to is described.

Not Available

1985-06-01

276

Teff log g nHe Teff log g A  

E-print Network

.ac.uk/csj/lines/lte/html/lines.lte.html #12;2 2 2 = (Observation - Model)2 2 , 2 AMOEBA 2 N N 2 Teff log g 2 AMOEBA 2 xi 2 (-1)ii ij = xi - )2 2 , 2 EB-V Teff FFIT Teff EB-V nHe log g EB-V FFIT Teff F = 2 T4 eff, #12;2 AMOEBA SFIT Teff nHe 2 AMOEBA nHe SFIT2 Teff log g 2 nHe Teff log g Teff Teff Teff °A log g Teff log g #12;Teff log g

277

NMR logging apparatus  

DOEpatents

Technologies including NMR logging apparatus and methods are disclosed. Example NMR logging apparatus may include surface instrumentation and one or more downhole probes configured to fit within an earth borehole. The surface instrumentation may comprise a power amplifier, which may be coupled to the downhole probes via one or more transmission lines, and a controller configured to cause the power amplifier to generate a NMR activating pulse or sequence of pulses. Impedance matching means may be configured to match an output impedance of the power amplifier through a transmission line to a load impedance of a downhole probe. Methods may include deploying the various elements of disclosed NMR logging apparatus and using the apparatus to perform NMR measurements.

Walsh, David O; Turner, Peter

2014-05-27

278

Modes of log gravity  

SciTech Connect

The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional 'critical gravity', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All 'log mode' solutions, which we categorize as 'spin-2' or 'Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin-2 log mode is itself a 'nongauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Rosseel, Jan [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Townsend, Paul K. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

2011-05-15

279

Solar Equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

1983-01-01

280

Borehole Geophysical Logging  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

281

Final Report, Testing and Sampling Procedures for Geothermal - Geopressed Wells  

SciTech Connect

Test wells to tap and sample geothermal-geopressured formations at 15,000-20,000 feet in the Gulf Coast area can be drilled routinely utilizing available equipment and methods. Electrical logs, surveys and fluid samplers can be used to obtain accurate and reliable information as to depths, temperatures, pressures, and fluid content of the geopressured formations before the well is completed. But it will be necessary to set casing and flow the well, at least temporarily, to secure fluid production volume and pressure data to evaluate the producibility of the geopressured resource. Electric logging and wireline survey methods are fully developed techniques for measuring the parameters needed to assess a geopressured zone before setting casing. Formation subsidence, though it may be slow to develop can be measured using radioactivity tracer surveys. The reports states three conclusions. (1) Existing well logging and surveying methods and equipment are generally satisfactory for testing and sampling and sampling a geothermal-geopressured resource. (2) No significant areas of research are needed to predict, detect, and evaluate geopressured formations for their potential as geothermal resources. (3) Static and dynamic testing procedures using existing technology are satisfactory to test, sample and analyze a geopressured reservoir. [DJE 2005

Boyd, W.E.; Dorfman, M.H.; Podio, A.L.

1980-01-01

282

Benefit Analysis for Geothermal Log Interpretation  

SciTech Connect

Formation evaluation is of great importance in geothermal development because of the high capital costs and the fact that successful exploration will only pay off through a subsequent decision to construct a power plant or other utilization facility. Since much formation data is available from well logging, development of new techniques of log interpretation for application to geothermal wells is called for. An analysis of potential nearterm benefits from this program and the types of formation data called for is discussed. Much useful information can be developed by adaptation of techniques used in oil and gas reservoirs, but the different demands of geothermal development from hydrocarbon production also open up new data requirements.

Rigby, F.A.

1980-12-16

283

RUSPACElog n DSPACElog 2 n= log log n  

E-print Network

RUSPACElog n #12; DSPACElog 2 n= log log n Eric Allender Department of Computer Science Rutgers We present a deterministic algorithmrunning in space O , log2 n=loglogn solv- ing the connectivity in parity logspace 14 , in SC2 20 , and in DSPACElog4=3 n 2 . None of these upper bounds is known to hold

Allender, Eric

284

Salvage logging, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity conservation.  

PubMed

We summarize the documented and potential impacts of salvage logging--a form of logging that removes trees and other biological material from sites after natural disturbance. Such operations may reduce or eliminate biological legacies, modify rare postdisturbance habitats, influence populations, alter community composition, impair natural vegetation recovery, facilitate the colonization of invasive species, alter soil properties and nutrient levels, increase erosion, modify hydrological regimes and aquatic ecosystems, and alter patterns of landscape heterogeneity These impacts can be assigned to three broad and interrelated effects: (1) altered stand structural complexity; (2) altered ecosystem processes and functions; and (3) altered populations of species and community composition. Some impacts may be different from or additional to the effects of traditional logging that is not preceded by a large natural disturbance because the conditions before, during, and after salvage logging may differ from those that characterize traditional timber harvesting. The potential impacts of salvage logging often have been overlooked, partly because the processes of ecosystem recovery after natural disturbance are still poorly understood and partly because potential cumulative effects of natural and human disturbance have not been well documented. Ecologically informed policies regarding salvage logging are needed prior to major natural disturbances so that when they occur ad hoc and crisis-mode decision making can be avoided. These policies should lead to salvage-exemption zones and limits on the amounts of disturbance-derived biological legacies (e.g., burned trees, logs) that are removed where salvage logging takes place. Finally, we believe new terminology is needed. The word salvage implies that something is being saved or recovered, whereas from an ecological perspective this is rarely the case. PMID:16922212

Lindenmayer, D B; Noss, R F

2006-08-01

285

Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

Houghton, R. A.

1999-01-01

286

Deposition Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

2012-12-21

287

EQUIPping Teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For many years, publications such as the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and The Science Teacher (TST) have encouraged teachers to focus science classes more heavily on inquiry-based instructional practice. One way to improve our teaching practice is to use a benchmark assessment to obtain a solid point of reference that honestly reflects what we do in the classroom, and then to design a developmental plan to raise the level of performance. The Electronic Quality of Inquiry Protocol (EQUIP) is helpful in providing both a benchmark and a guide to improving the quality of inquiry implemented in our classrooms.

White, Chris; Marshall, Jeff; Horton, Robert

2009-04-01

288

Wellhead equipment support  

SciTech Connect

A wellhead assembly is described for supporting equipment in a well, comprising: a suspension nut having a threaded outer surface; a wellhead member having an inner threaded surface adapted to mesh with the threaded outer surface of the suspension nut; the suspension nut having a projection extending axially from its threaded outer surface and having an inner surface adapted to support equipment in the well; at least a portion of the inner surface for supporting the equipment facing both inwardly and upwardly such that force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface is transformed at least in part to a radially outwardly directed force; the projecting having an outer surface sized such that the outer surface is spaced from an inner surface of the wellhead member in the absence of force exerted against the inner surface of the projection such that the projection is deflected outwardly by the force exerted by the weight of the equipment against the inner surface.

Nichols, R.P.

1987-03-24

289

Forward Modeling of the Induction Log Response of a Fractured Geologic Formation  

E-print Network

Induction logging is a well-developed geophysical method with multiple applications. It has been used extensively in academic research as well as in industry. Induction logging is a controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) exploration method...

Bray, Steven Hunter

2013-05-02

290

October 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING  

E-print Network

information related to system security are produced by several sources. Some log entries are created of an organization's systems and information. NIST SP 800-92 begins with basic information about computer securityOctober 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY LOG

291

Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

2008-04-01

292

Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516  

SciTech Connect

Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

2013-07-01

293

Log evaluation of oil-bearing igneous rocks  

SciTech Connect

The evaluation of porosity, water saturation and clay content of oilbearing igneous rocks with well logs is difficult due to the mineralogical complexity of this type of rocks. The log responses to rhyolite and rhyolite tuff; andesite, dacite and zeolite tuff; diabase and basalt have been studied from examples in western Argentina and compared with values observed in other countries. Several field examples show how these log responses can be used in a complex lithology program to make a complete evaluation.

Khatchikian, A.

1983-12-01

294

Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators  

SciTech Connect

We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)] and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schroedinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m=m{sub 0}t/t{sub 0} and {omega}={omega}{sub 0}t{sub 0}/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and {omega} constant.

Bessa, V.; Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE 60455-760 (Brazil)

2011-06-15

295

Accuracy and resolution in continuous temperature logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear Backus-Gilbert theory is used for the deconvolution problem of continuously logged borehole temperatures. The main elements of the theory and some numerical and experimental results are given. The accuracy and resolution of the temperature and temperature gradient records are determined by the logging velocity, the probe time constant, the sampling period, the statistical accuracy of data, and the characteristics of the inverse filter. By applying the inverse approach the interrelation between parameters is studied, and the trade-off between accuracy and resolution is emphasized. The inverse method yields well defined temperatures and temperature gradients with associated standard deviations and averaging functions. It is suitable for the processing of continuously logged temperature data with reference to application in terrestrial heat flow and stratigraphic studies.

Nielsen, Søren B.; Balling, Niels

1984-03-01

296

30 CFR 250.502 - Equipment movement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250...Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion...plug, provided that the surface control has been locked out of...

2010-07-01

297

30 CFR 250.502 - Equipment movement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250...Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion...plug, provided that the surface control has been locked out of...

2011-07-01

298

ForPeerReview Interpretation of hydraulic rock types with resistivity logs in  

E-print Network

hydraulic rock types. Core data and well logs acquired from a deep-drilling exploration well penetratingForPeerReview Interpretation of hydraulic rock types with resistivity logs in Tertiary deepwater://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/interpretation Interpretation #12;ForPeerReview Interpretation of hydraulic rock types with resistivity logs in Tertiary

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

299

Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

2014-04-01

300

Minimal Log Gravity  

E-print Network

Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which w...

Giribet, Gaston

2014-01-01

301

Minimal log gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minimal massive gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional topologically massive gravity that, when formulated about anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes solving the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the nonlinear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called log gravity, and, despite the weakened falling off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which we compute. We also find time-dependent deformations of Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli that obey Brown-Henneaux asymptotic boundary conditions. The existence of such solutions shows that the Birkhoff theorem does not hold in MMG at the chiral point. Other peculiar features of the theory at the chiral point, such as the degeneracy it exhibits in the decoupling limit, are discussed.

Giribet, Gaston; Vásquez, Yerko

2015-01-01

302

Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing interest in extraterrestrial subsurface exploration has prompted an examination of advanced technologies for drilling slim holes and obtaining geophysical data in these holes. The borehole surveys with geophysical measurements called \\

Max Peeters; Brad Blair

2000-01-01

303

Your Equipment Dollar, [Revised.] Money Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet on household equipment, 1 in a series of 12, covers all the basic aspects of personal- and family-money management. Suitable for use by high school and college students as well as adults, this handbook offers information to help buyers purchase household equipment that is within their budget. Section 1 discusses managing equipment

Baran, Nancy H., Ed.; Tarrant, Sharon M., Ed.

304

Duke University Laboratory Equipment  

E-print Network

, incubators, chemical fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, and other items potentially contaminated equipment must be free of hazardous materials (i.e. biological, chemical, radiological) prior to equipment

Wolpert, Robert L

305

Determining Earthquake Recurrence Intervals from Trench Logs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Trench logs of the San Andreas Fault at Pallett Creek, CA are the data base for a lab or homework assignment that teaches about relative dating, radiometric dating, fault recurrence intervals and the reasons for uncertainty in predicting geologic phenomena. Students are given a trench log that includes several fault strands and dated stratigraphic horizons. They estimate the times of faulting based on bracketing ages of faulted and unfaulted strata. They compile a table with the faulting events from the trench log and additional events recognized in nearby trenches, then calculate maximum, minimum and average earthquake recurrence intervals for the San Andreas Fault in this area. They conclude by making their own prediction for the timing of the next earthquake. While basically an exercise in determining relative ages of geologic horizons and events, this assignment includes radiometric dates, recurrence intervals, and an obvious societal significance that has been well received by students. With minor modifications, this exercise has been used successfully with elementary school students through university undergraduate geology majors. Less experienced students can work in groups, with each group determining the age of a single fault strand; combining the results from different groups and calculating recurrence intervals can then be done as a class activity. University students in an introductory geology course for non-majors can add their data from the trench log to an existing table with other faulting events already provided. The exercise can be made more challenging for advanced students by using logs from several different trenches, requiring students to design the table themselves, and giving students the uncertainties for the radiometric dates rather than simple ages for the strata. Most studentsâat all levelsâare initially frustrated by their inability to determine an exact date of faulting from the available data. They gain a new appreciation for the task of the geoscientist who attempts to relate geologic phenomena to the human, rather than geologic, time scale.

Cashman, Patricia

306

Animal Room Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

ANIMAL ROOM LOG Room Number: __________ Cage Type Death Cause C = Auto Water EU = Euthanized NOTES: B = Water Bottle FD = Found Dead S = SMZ DR = Drowned M = Microisolator MI = Missing TO = Transfer Out DEATH CAUSE STRAIN CODE GROUP NAME # ? # ? COMMENTS

307

Integration of Geology, Rock-Physics, Logs, and Pre-stack Seismic for Reservoir Porosity Estimation  

E-print Network

The main objective of this paper is to obtain reservoir properties, such as porosity, both at the well locations and in the inter-well regions from seismic data and well logs. The seismic and well-log datasets are from an ...

Al Muhaidib, Abdulaziz

2011-01-01

308

Project to transcribe old ship logs provides important weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Kathy Wendolkowski is a citizen scientist. It's a term that Wendolkowski considers far too lofty for what she claims is simply a happy addiction that she and others have for transcribing old logs from naval ship and other vessels. They perform this task to glean the regularly recorded weather data from those logs for the benefit of science. For Wendolkowski, though, greater satisfaction comes from reading what the logs also reveal about the daily lives of the sailors as well as any accompanying historical drama.

Showstack, Randy

2012-11-01

309

Postfire logging in riparian areas.  

PubMed

We reviewed the behavior of wildfire in riparian zones, primarily in the western United States, and the potential ecological consequences of postfire logging. Fire behavior in riparian zones is complex, but many aquatic and riparian organisms exhibit a suite of adaptations that allow relatively rapid recovery after fire. Unless constrained by other factors, fish tend to rebound relatively quickly, usually within a decade after a wildfire. Additionally, fire and subsequent erosion events contribute wood and coarse sediment that can create and maintain productive aquatic habitats over time. The potential effects of postfire logging in riparian areas depend on the landscape context and disturbance history of a site; however available evidence suggests two key management implications: (1) fire in riparian areas creates conditions that may not require intervention to sustain the long-term productivity of the aquatic network and (2) protection of burned riparian areas gives priority to what is left rather than what is removed. Research is needed to determine how postfire logging in riparian areas has affected the spread of invasive species and the vulnerability of upland forests to insect and disease outbreaks and how postfire logging will affect the frequency and behavior of future fires. The effectiveness of using postfire logging to restore desired riparian structure and function is therefore unproven, but such projects are gaining interest with the departure of forest conditions from those that existed prior to timber harvest, fire suppression, and climate change. In the absence of reliable information about the potential consequence of postfire timber harvest, we conclude that providing postfire riparian zones with the same environmental protections they received before they burned isjustified ecologically Without a commitment to monitor management experiments, the effects of postfire riparian logging will remain unknown and highly contentious. PMID:16922216

Reeves, Gordon H; Bisson, Peter A; Rieman, Bruce E; Benda, Lee E

2006-08-01

310

Technetium generator log form.  

PubMed

Technetium generators are loaded with molybdenum-99 (99Mo), that has a 66-h half life and decays to technetium-99 m (9mTc). 99Tc with a single 140 keV gamma photon emission and a 6-h half life is an ideal isotope for nuclear medicine imaging. Many nuclear medicine units receive generators and use the 99Tc elution to label a variety of prepared chemical species for the majority of the studies they perform. Other options are receiving bulk 99mTc and doing the same tagging or getting unit doses of already labeled pharmaceuticals. Units using generators must meet requirements spelled out in regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Title 10, CFR, parts 20, 35, and 71 as well as the Department of Transportation, Title 49, CFR, part 173. The form described in this paper was an attempt to get all of the required records for each individual generator on a single sheet of paper. PMID:11480855

Vernig, P G

2001-08-01

311

The Oz Machine: A Java applet for interactive instruction in geological log interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical well logs represent measure- ments of a variety of properties of the rocks and fl uids encountered by a well bore and are used by petroleum industry analysts to guide decisions regarding further well development and investigation. Nuclear logs of natural gamma rays, neutron moderation, electron density, and photoelectric absorption are extremely common and are sensitive mea- sures of

Geoffrey C. Bohling; John H. Doveton

2006-01-01

312

Common NICU Equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... dashboard . Common NICU equipment The NICU contains many machines and other types of equipment used to care for sick babies with many different problems. These machines seem less intimidating when you understand how they ...

313

VAFLE: visual analytics of firewall log events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present VAFLE, an interactive network security visualization prototype for the analysis of firewall log events. Keeping it simple yet effective for analysts, we provide multiple coordinated interactive visualizations augmented with clustering capabilities customized to support anomaly detection and cyber situation awareness. We evaluate the usefulness of the prototype in a use case with network traffic datasets from previous VAST Challenges, illustrating its effectiveness at promoting fast and well-informed decisions. We explain how a security analyst may spot suspicious traffic using VAFLE. We further assess its usefulness through a qualitative evaluation involving network security experts, whose feedback is reported and discussed.

Ghoniem, Mohammad; Shurkhovetskyy, Georgiy; Bahey, Ahmed; Otjacques, Benoît.

2013-12-01

314

Characteristics of Virginia's Logging Operations  

E-print Network

harvested (VDOF 2011). Virginia's forest industry produces a broad array of products to meet the needs and transport timber, and mills that produce the forest products we use. Each link is critical and, without all's forest landowners and the manufacturers who produce forest products. Logging businesses operate

Liskiewicz, Maciej

315

CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

316

Australian Government on ILLEGAL logging  

E-print Network

Australian Government the AXE on ILLEGAL logging Bringing down a practical approach AN AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DISCUSSION PAPER WRITTEN SUBMISSIONS ON THE AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT DISCUSSION PAPER ARE INVITED also acting as good stewards of the world's environment. While the Australian Government has

317

Internet Data logging and Display  

E-print Network

. The solution presented here is to accomplish these goals is to include a miniature web server in a remote-logging module, which we designed as part of our device. Thus allowing data to be accessed more frequently, via the Internet. As it currently stands...

Sweeney, J., Jr.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. S.

2001-01-01

318

2011 Daily Log February 2011  

E-print Network

: 02/28/2011 1349 Incident: Traffic Crash Location: Lot D Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Two: 02/26/2011 Incident: Hit and Skip Location: Lot P Disposition: Report--Closed Comments: Unknown vehicle struck parked vehicle and left the scene. #12;2011 Daily Log Report #: 2011-00110 Reported: 02

Boyce, Richard L.

319

2010 Daily Log January 2010  

E-print Network

off the road and into a ditch; no injuries. #12;2010 Daily Log Report #: 2010-00042 Reported: 01: 01/31/10 1852 Occurred: Same Incident: Traffic Stop Location: Johns Hill Road Disposition: Citation vehicle accident with injuries; vehicle towed. Report #: 2010-00047 Reported: 01/28/10 2113 Occurred: Same

Boyce, Richard L.

320

Precise inversion of logged slownesses for elastic parameters in a gas shale formation  

E-print Network

Dipole sonic log data recorded in a vertical pilot well and the associated production well are analyzed over a 200×1100-ft section of a North American gas shale formation. The combination of these two wells enables angular ...

Miller, Douglas E.

321

Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

2013-01-01

322

Workover well control. Part 7. Special tools aid well control  

SciTech Connect

Workover tools give operators extra options for handling well pressures. Such special tools include automatic shutdown systems (surface and subsurface safety equipment), flow-string components (tubing, mandrels and nipples, flow couplings, blast joints, sliding sleeves, and backpressure valves), perforating systems, pumpdown and wireline equipment, packers, and hot-tap and freeze equipment. Adams and Rountree Technology describes the proper application of these tools in workover jobs.

Adams, N.

1981-10-26

323

Renewal of radiological equipment.  

PubMed

In this century, medical imaging is at the heart of medical practice. Besides providing fast and accurate diagnosis, advances in radiology equipment offer new and previously non-existing options for treatment guidance with quite low morbidity, resulting in the improvement of health outcomes and quality of life for the patients. Although rapid technological development created new medical imaging modalities and methods, the same progress speed resulted in accelerated technical and functional obsolescence of the same medical imaging equipment, consequently creating a need for renewal. Older equipment has a high risk of failures and breakdowns, which might cause delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient, and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff. The European Society of Radiology is promoting the use of up-to-date equipment, especially in the context of the EuroSafe Imaging Campaign, as the use of up-to-date equipment will improve quality and safety in medical imaging. Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or renewal. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updates. Teaching points • Radiological equipment has a definite life cycle span, resulting in unavoidable breakdown and decrease or loss of image quality which renders equipment useless after a certain time period.• Equipment older than 10 years is no longer state-of-the art equipment and replacement is essential. Operating costs of older equipment will be high when compared with new equipment, and sometimes maintenance will be impossible if no spare parts are available.• Older equipment has a high risk of failure and breakdown, causing delays in diagnosis and treatment of the patient and safety problems both for the patient and the medical staff.• Every healthcare institution or authority should have a plan for medical imaging equipment upgrade or replacement. This plan should look forward a minimum of 5 years, with annual updating. PMID:25230589

2014-10-01

324

Tracking log displacement during floods in the Tagliamento River using RFID and GPS tracker devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large pieces of in-channel wood can exert an important role on the ecological and morphological properties of gravel-bed rivers. On the other side, when transported during flood events, large wood can become a source of risk for sensitive structures such as bridges. However, wood displacement and velocity in river systems are still poorly understood, especially in large gravel-bed rivers. This study focuses on log transport in a valley reach of Tagliamento River (Italy). Log displacement during flood events of different magnitudes recorded from June 2010 to October 2011 has been analysed thanks to the installation of 113 radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and 42 GPS tracker devices in logs of different dimensions. Recovery rates of logs equipped with RFID and GPS trackers were about 43% and 42%, respectively. The GPS devices allowed us to analyse in details the log displacement and transport overtime, indicating a higher log entrainment during rising limb of hydrographs. The threshold for the entrainment of logs from low bars is around 40% of bankfull water stage. No clear relationship was found between the peak of flood and log displacement length and velocity. However, log displacement length and velocity appear significantly correlated to the ratio between the peak of flow and the water stage exceeding the flow duration curve for 25% of time (i.e. the ratio hmax/h25 ratio). Log deposition was observed to occur at the peak flow, and logs transported during ordinary events are preferably deposited on low bars. This study reveals the potentials of GPS tracker devices to monitor the entrainment and movements of logs in large gravel-bed rivers during floods. These observations could be useful for better planning of river management practices and strategies involving the use of large wood pieces and could help for calibrating wood budgets at the reach scale.

Ravazzolo, D.; Mao, L.; Picco, L.; Lenzi, M. A.

2015-01-01

325

Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt.  

PubMed

Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. PMID:23306160

Al-Alfy, I M; Nabih, M A; Eysa, E A

2013-03-01

326

A new digital multiscale pulsed neutron logging system  

SciTech Connect

A new multiscale pulsed neutron capture logging system (PDK/sup SM/-100) is discussed. The instrument is a 1 11/16-in. (1.7-cm) -diameter, microprocessor-controlled logging sonde that processes raw data occurring in the short- and long-spaced detectors. The timing spectrum (10 ..mu..sec per channel and 100 channels for the decay component) of the detector events is accumulated downhole and transmitted to the surface computer logging system upon command by a pulse code modulation data transmission system. This configuration makes use of significantly increased count rates to improve log repeatability greatly. Unique data reduction techniques are also possible with the high-resolution data. The gamma rays during the burst of 14-MeV neutrons are also processed. This unique feature allows derivation of the ratio of inelastic to capture count rates, which is a function of porosity. All conventional pulsed neutron capture (PNC) responses can be observed with the new pulsed neutron logging (PNL) system. However, many additional aspects of formation evaluation are possible as well. Several of the more unique features of the system are demonstrated in specific log examples.

Randall, R.R.; Gray, T.P.; Craik, G.C.; Hopkinson, E.C.

1987-12-01

327

Use of multidimensional transport methodology on nuclear logging problems  

SciTech Connect

A review is made of multidimensional radiation transport techniques that are being used to model nuclear oil well logging measurements. Both Monte Carlo and deterministic methods are employed for this work, and it is found that the realism that can be incorporated into these models has led to greater understanding of all kinds of logging measurements. As a result, models are now used as part of the new logging tool design process in much the same way that they are used to support nuclear reactor and shielding designs. Despite the success so far, there is still room to improve both Monte Carlo and especially deterministic methods for logging applications. Monte Carlo codes, impressive as they are, are still expensive computations for many logging problems. Although improvements in basic Monte Carlo can still be made, it seems that the next significant improvement in the efficiency of Monte Carlo will come from computer architecture in the form of multiprocessor machines. On the other hand, the prinicipal limitation of deterministic calculations centers mainly on the lack of accurate, practical, three-dimensional transport capabilities. With this in mind, some recent work to extend a nodal, discrete ordinates method to three dimensions for logging applications is reviewed.

Ullo, J.J.

1986-02-01

328

29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

2013-07-01

329

29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

2010-07-01

330

29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

2014-07-01

331

29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

2011-07-01

332

Multi-rate flowing Wellbore electric conductivity logging method  

SciTech Connect

The flowing wellbore electric conductivity logging method involves the replacement of wellbore water by de-ionized or constant-salinity water, followed by constant pumping with rate Q, during which a series of fluid electric conductivity logs are taken. The logs can be analyzed to identify depth locations of inflow, and evaluate the transmissivity and electric conductivity (salinity) of the fluid at each inflow point. The present paper proposes the use of the method with two or more pumping rates. In particular it is recommended that the method be applied three times with pumping rates Q, Q /2, and 2Q. Then a combined analysis of the multi-rate data allows an efficient means of determining transmissivity and salinity values of all inflow points along a well with a confidence measure, as well as their inherent or far-field pressure heads. The method is illustrated by a practical example.

Tsang, Chin-Fu; Doughty, Christine

2003-04-22

333

Balloon logging with the inverted skyline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is a gap in aerial logging techniques that has to be filled. The need for a simple, safe, sizeable system has to be developed before aerial logging will become effective and accepted in the logging industry. This paper presents such a system designed on simple principles with realistic cost and ecological benefits.

Mosher, C. F.

1975-01-01

334

47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...error is to be accomplished using a strike-through formatting effect or a similar software function, and the correction is to...must maintain a log, whether by means of written or automatic logging or a combination thereof. The log must contain the...

2013-10-01

335

47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...error is to be accomplished using a strike-through formatting effect or a similar software function, and the correction is to...must maintain a log, whether by means of written or automatic logging or a combination thereof. The log must contain the...

2012-10-01

336

47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...error is to be accomplished using a strike-through formatting effect or a similar software function, and the correction is to...must maintain a log, whether by means of written or automatic logging or a combination thereof. The log must contain the...

2011-10-01

337

Infinite log-concavity: developments and conjectures  

E-print Network

[4] conjectured that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave. Using a computer of infinite log-concavity. We investigate related questions about the columns of Pascal's triangle, q this to be a conjecture that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave, although we will later discuss

McNamara, Peter

338

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

Vail, W.B. III.

1989-02-14

339

Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool  

DOEpatents

New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

1989-01-01

340

Tracking the Inside Intruder Using Net Log on Debug Logging in Microsoft Windows Server Operating Systems  

SciTech Connect

In today's well-connected environments of the Internet, intranets, and extranets, protecting the Microsoft Windows network can be a daunting task for the security engineer. Intrusion Detection Systems are a must-have for most companies, but few have either the financial resources or the people resources to implement and maintain full-scale intrusion detection systems for their networks and hosts. Many will at least invest in intrusion detection for their Internet presence, but others have not yet stepped up to the plate with regard to internal intrusion detection. Unfortunately, most attacks will come from within. Microsoft Windows server operating systems are widely used across both large and small enterprises. Unfortunately, there is no intrusion detection built-in to the Windows server operating system. The security logs are valuable but can be difficult to manage even in a small to medium sized environment. So the question arises, can one effectively detect and identify an in side intruder using the native tools that come with Microsoft Windows Server operating systems? One such method is to use Net Logon Service debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity. This paper discusses how to use Net Logon debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity both in real-time and for forensic analysis.

Davis, CS

2004-01-20

341

40 CFR 49.4165 - Control equipment requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Natural Gas Well Production Facilities; Fort Berthold Indian Reservation (mandan, Hidatsa and Arikara Nation), North Dakota § 49.4165 Control equipment requirements. (a) Covers. Each owner or operator must equip all...

2013-07-01

342

Linear Broadcasting and N log log N Election in Unoriented Hypercubes ?  

E-print Network

with sense of direction a O(N logN) solution has been given in MS94], while (e + N logN) messages are neededLinear Broadcasting and N log log N Election in Unoriented Hypercubes ? Stefan Dobrev, Peter, Bratislava, Slovak Republic Abstract. In this paper, we provide e cient broadcasting and elec- tion

Santoro, Nicola

343

Log Chlorine Dioxide Conc. (mg/L) LogTime(days)  

E-print Network

Log Chlorine Dioxide Conc. (mg/L) 1 10 100 LogTime(days) 0.1 1 10 100 Log 90%; n=-0.49 Log 99%; n Network Security, Which is a Better Disinfectant; Chlorine or Chlorine Dioxide? Department of Civil was fit to Delayed Chick Watson model to determine the lag phase magnitude. Chlorine Showed a Lag phase

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

344

Shipboard Electronic Equipments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

345

Engineer Equipment Mechanic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on engineer equipment mechanics is designed to advance the professional competence of privates through sergeants as equipment mechanics, Military Occupation Specialty 1341, and is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction. Introductory materials include…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

346

Equipment Operator 1 & C.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Rate Training Manual and Nonresident Career Course (RTM/NRCC) form a self-study package to assist Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief in fulfilling the requirements of their rating. (Navy Equipment Operators First and Chief direct and coordinate efforts of individuals and crews in construction, earthmoving, roadbuilding, quarrying, and…

Naval Education and Training Program Development Center, Pensacola, FL.

347

Technology Equipment Rooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines telecommunications equipment room design features that allow for growth and can accommodate numerous equipment replacements and upgrades with minimal service disruption and with minimal cost. Considerations involving the central hub, power and lighting needs, air conditioning, and fire protection are discussed. (GR)

Day, C. William

2001-01-01

348

Frac height may increase away from well bore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well logs with deep investigation capabilities are necessary to determine accurately the height of hydraulically produced fractures. Logs with shallow investigation capability will indicate the height of the fracture near the well bore, but as shown in a test in an East Texas well, fracture height in some formations can be substantially greater away from the well bore. In the

Hunt

1991-01-01

349

19. SEDIMENTARY RESPONSE TO PALEOCLIMATE FROM DOWNHOLE LOGS AT SITE 693, ANTARCTIC CONTINENTAL MARGIN 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first well logs collected below the Antarctic circle were obtained during Leg 113 at Site 693 on the Dronning Maud Land Margin (Antarctica) in the Weddell Sea. Gamma-ray, resistivity, and sonic logs were collected between 108.0 and 439.0 mbsf. The downhole logs show good agreement with the data collected from cores and provide a con­ tinuous measurement of the

Xenia Golovchenko; Suzanne B. O'Connell; Richard Jarrard

350

Three dimensional interpretations of single-well electromagnetic data for geothermal applications  

SciTech Connect

An efficient 3-D electromagnetic (EM) inversion algorithm has been developed for geothermal applications and tested successfully using a set of single-hole EM logging data. The data was collected at an oil field undergoing CO{sub 2} injection in southern California using a single-hole EM tool, Geo-BILT, developed by Electromagnetic Instruments, Inc (EMI). The tool is equipped with a multi-component source, and multi-component receivers at different separations. The inversion result provides a reasonable electrical conductivity image to a distance of 10 m from the well, and illustrates several zones with lateral conductivity variations that could not be resolved with traditional induction logging tools. The successful case study demonstrates potential applications of the tool and software for characterizing fracture systems in geothermal reservoirs.

Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha

2004-01-09

351

A fast algorithm for three-dimensional interpretations ofsingle-well electromagnetic data  

SciTech Connect

An efficient inversion algorithm has been developed forthree-dimensional (3D) interpretations for single-hole electromagnetic(EM) logging data based on a modified extended Born approximation (MEBA)scheme. The single-hole data was collected at an oil field undergoing CO2injection in southern California using a tool, Geo-BILT, developed byElectromagnetic Instruments, Inc (EMI). The tool is equipped with amulti-component source, and an array of multi-component receivers atdifferent separations. The inversion result provides a reasonableelectrical conductivity image to a distance of 10 m from the well, andillustrates several zones with lateral conductivity variations that couldnot be resolved with traditional induction logging tools. The computercost of the inversion processes can be further reduced using a trivialmulti-grid methodology.

Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha

2004-09-17

352

Formation evaluation: benefits of downhole logging while drilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of new downhole measurement systems, coupled with mud-pulse telemetry techniques, allows real time surface evaluation of downhole parameters while drilling. Currently available systems, such as Exploration Logging's DLWD tool, combine formation resistivity and natural gamma ray sensors with directional survey and other measurements. These parameters aid formation evaluation, pressure evaluation, well-bore positioning, and drilling efficiency. For real time

J. A. Turvill; G. W. Troy

1983-01-01

353

A 1-V CMOS log-domain integrator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel circuit implementation of a CMOS log-domain integrator is presented. Unlike most other implementations, it does not require placing of MOSFETs in separated wells, and therefore allows very compact filters, which are fully compatible with modern standard CMOS technologies. Besides the saving of chip area, this also helps to reduce parasitic capacitances. The most important advantage of this circuit

Dominique Python; Manfred Punzenberger; Christian C. Enz

1999-01-01

354

Tolerance bounds for log gamma regression models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present procedure for finding lower confidence bounds for the quantiles of Weibull populations, on the basis of the solution of a quadratic equation, is more accurate than current Monte Carlo tables and extends to any location-scale family. It is shown that this method is accurate for all members of the log gamma(K) family, where K = 1/2 to infinity, and works well for censored data, while also extending to regression data. An even more accurate procedure involving an approximation to the Lawless (1982) conditional procedure, with numerical integrations whose tables are independent of the data, is also presented. These methods are applied to the case of failure strengths of ceramic specimens from each of three billets of Si3N4, which have undergone flexural strength testing.

Jones, R. A.; Scholz, F. W.; Ossiander, M.; Shorack, G. R.

1985-01-01

355

Computer model for calculating gamma-ray pulse-height spectra for logging applications  

SciTech Connect

A generalized computer model has been devised to simulate the emission, transport, and detection of natural gamma radiation from various logging environments. The model yields high-resolution gamma-ray pulse-height spectra that can be used to correct both gross gamma and spectral gamma-ray logs. The technique can help provide corrections to airborne and surface radiometric survey logs for the effects of varying altitude, formation composition, and overburden. Applied to borehole logging, the model can yield estimates of the effects of varying borehole fluid and casing attenuations, as well as varying formation porosity and saturation.

Evans, M.L.

1981-01-01

356

Evaluation of geophysical logs, phase I, for Crossley Farms Superfund Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Twenty-one wells were drilled at Crossley Farms Superfund Site between December 15, 1987, and May 1, 1988, to define and monitor the horizontal and vertical distribution of ground-water contamination emanating from a suspected contaminant source area (Blackhead Hill). Eight well clusters were drilled on or near the Crossley Site and three well clusters were drilled at locations hydrologically down gradient from the site. Depths of wells range from 21 to 299 feet below land surface. These wells were installed in saprolite in shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock aquifer. Borehole-geophysical and video logging were conducted between April 24, 1997, and May 8, 1997, to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical flow, borehole depth, and casing integrity in each well. This data and interpretation will be used to determine the location of the well intake for the existing open-hole wells, which will be retrofitted to isolate and monitor water-producing zones and prevent further cross-contamination within each open borehole, and identify wells that may need rehabilitation or replacement. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluidresistivity logs indicated possible fluid-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller?s notes, all wells will be constructed so that water-level fluctuations can be monitored and discrete water samples collected from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones in each well. Geophysical logs were run on seven bedrock and two deep bedrock wells. Gamma logs were run on 10 bedrock wells. Twenty-two wells were inspected visually with the borehole video camera for casing integrity.

Conger, Randall W.

1998-01-01

357

Cleaning supplies and equipment  

MedlinePLUS

... something means to clean it to destroy germs. Disinfectants are the cleaning solutions that are used to ... each solution. You may need to allow the disinfectant to dry on the equipment for a set ...

358

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1979-01-01

359

Leak checker data logging system  

DOEpatents

A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time. 18 figs.

Gannon, J.C.; Payne, J.J.

1996-09-03

360

Leak checker data logging system  

SciTech Connect

A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

Payne, J.J.; Gannon, J.C.

1994-12-31

361

Leak checker data logging system  

DOEpatents

A portable, high speed, computer-based data logging system for field testing systems or components located some distance apart employs a plurality of spaced mass spectrometers and is particularly adapted for monitoring the vacuum integrity of a long string of a superconducting magnets such as used in high energy particle accelerators. The system provides precise tracking of a gas such as helium through the magnet string when the helium is released into the vacuum by monitoring the spaced mass spectrometers allowing for control, display and storage of various parameters involved with leak detection and localization. A system user can observe the flow of helium through the magnet string on a real-time basis hour the exact moment of opening of the helium input valve. Graph reading can be normalized to compensate for magnet sections that deplete vacuum faster than other sections between testing to permit repetitive testing of vacuum integrity in reduced time.

Gannon, Jeffrey C. (Arlington, TX); Payne, John J. (Waterman, IL)

1996-01-01

362

Synergistic interpretation of formation characteristics of a low temperature geothermal well in Susanville, California  

SciTech Connect

A synergistic interpretation of drilling logs, formation logs, production logs and pump test data, from a low temperature geothermal well is presented to yield the stratigraphic sequence and the nature and thickness of the permeable zones. The well penetrated fluvial and lake bed sediments (ash/clay/sand) with occasional basalt/andesite. An unconventional application of repeat temperature logging in a nearby well during the drilling of the subject well proved invaluable in locating permeable zones and in casing and completion.

McNitt, J.R.; Sanyal, S.K.; Petersen, C.A.

1981-10-01

363

Well Topologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Call a topology well if and only if every open is com- pact. The starting point of this note is that this notion generalizes that of well-quasi order, in the sense that an Alexandroff topology is well if and only if its specialisation quasi-ordering is well. For more general topologies, this opens the way to verifying infinite transition systems based

Jean Goubault-Larrecq

364

A hybrid constraint programming approach to the log-truck scheduling problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduling problems in the forest industry have received sig- nificant attention in the recent years and have contributed many chal- lenging applications for optimization technologies. This paper proposes a solution method based on constraint programming and mathematical programming for a log-truck scheduling problem. The problem consists of scheduling the transportation of logs between forest areas and woodmills, as well as

Michel Gendreau; Louis-Martin Rousseau

2011-01-01

365

Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels  

E-print Network

Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels Fabian-log-map (MLM) detector has well-known appli- cations to the intersymbol interefence (ISI) channel [1, · · · , is trans- mitted across the ISI channel. Let the following random This work was performed when F. Lim

Kavcic, Aleksandar

366

Annual Logging Symposium, June 16-20, 2012 SATURATION-HEIGHT AND INVASION CONSISTENT HYDRAULIC  

E-print Network

HYDRAULIC ROCK TYPING USING MULTI-WELL CONVENTIONAL LOGS Chicheng Xu and Carlos Torres-Verdín The University logging Symposium held in Cartagena, Colombia, June 16-20, 2012. ABSTRACT Hydraulic rock typing is based characterization. Additionally, pore geometry affects mud-filtrate invasion under over-balanced drilling conditions

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

367

PISTA EQUIP EQUIP GRUP PEPE FOR THE WIND BITCH VOLLEY 1 18 21  

E-print Network

PISTA EQUIP EQUIP GRUP PEPE FOR THE WIND BITCH VOLLEY 1 18 21 WELL IS IN THE TOP EL CUARTETO DE LA MUERTE 1 16 21 PEPE FOR THE WIND WELL IS IN THE TOP 1 14 21 BITCH VOLLEY EL CUARTETO DE LA MUERTE 1 21 12 PEPE FOR THE WIND EL CUARTETO DE LA MUERTE 1 16 21 BITCH VOLLEY WELL IS IN THE TOP 1 20 21 DRUGSTORE

Geffner, Hector

368

Listing of Food Service Equipment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive listing of food service equipment including--(1) companies authorized to use the National Sanitation Foundation seal of approval, and (2) equipment listed as meeting NSF standards including soda fountains, spray-type dishwashers, dishwashing equipment, cooking equipment, commerical cooking and warming equipment, freezers,…

National Sanitation Foundation, Ann Arbor, MI. Testing Lab.

369

Optimal message log reclamation for independent checkpointing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Independent (uncoordinated) check pointing for parallel and distributed systems allows maximum process autonomy but suffers from possible domino effects and the associated storage space overhead for maintaining multiple checkpoints and message logs. In most research on check pointing and recovery, it was assumed that only the checkpoints and message logs older than the global recovery line can be discarded. It is shown how recovery line transformation and decomposition can be applied to the problem of efficiently identifying all discardable message logs, thereby achieving optimal garbage collection. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to show the benefits of the proposed algorithm for message log reclamation.

Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. Kent

1993-01-01

370

Wean-Tail Log.xls  

Cancer.gov

A SP #: ________________ _ Investigator: _________________ WEAN / TAIL CLIP LOG Strain: ___________________ Room Number: ___________________ STRAIN CODE WEAN DATE # ? # ? COMMENTS WATER A OR B # CAGES DOB TAILCLIP DATE CAGE / LITTER

371

Factor analysis of borehole logs for evaluating formation shaliness: a hydrogeophysical application for groundwater studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculation of groundwater reserves in shaly sand aquifers requires a reliable estimation of effective porosity and permeability; the amount of shaliness as a related quantity can be determined from well log analysis. The conventionally used linear model, connecting the natural gamma-ray index to shale content, often gives only a rough estimate of shale volume. A non-linear model is suggested, which is derived from the factor analysis of well-logging data. An earlier study of hydrocarbon wells revealed an empirical relationship between the factor scores and shale volume, independent of the well site. Borehole logs from three groundwater wells drilled in the northeastern Great Hungarian Plain are analyzed to derive depth logs of factor variables, which are then correlated with shale volumes given from the method of Larionov. Shale volume logs derived by the statistical procedure are in close agreement with those derived from Larionov's formula, which confirms the validity of the non-linear approximation. The statistical results are in good accordance with laboratory measurements made on core samples. Whereas conventional methods normally use a single well log as input, factor analysis processes all available logs to provide groundwater exploration with reliable estimations of shale volume.

Szabó, Norbert Péter; Dobróka, Mihály; Turai, Endre; Sz?cs, Péter

2014-05-01

372

Breaking the vicious circle of illegal logging in Indonesia.  

PubMed

The government of Indonesia, which presides over 10% of the world's tropical forests, has set ambitious targets to cut its high deforestation rates through an REDD+ scheme (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation). This will require strong law enforcement to succeed. Yet, strategies that have accomplished this are rare and, along with past failures, tend not to be documented. We evaluated a multistakeholder approach that seeks to tackle illegal logging in the carbon-rich province of Aceh, Sumatra. From 2008 to 2009, Fauna & Flora International established and supported a community-based informant network for the 738,000 ha Ulu Masen ecosystem. The network reported 190 forest offenses to local law enforcement agencies, which responded with 86 field operations that confiscated illicit vehicles, equipment, and timber, and arrested 138 illegal logging suspects. From 45 cases subsequently monitored, 64.4% proceeded to court, from which 90.0% of defendants received a prison sentence or a verbal warning for a first offense. Spatial analyses of illegal logging and timber storage incidents predicted that illegal activities would be more effectively deterred by law enforcement operations that targeted the storage sites. Although numerous clusters of incidents were identified, they were still widespread reflecting the ubiquity of illegal activities. The multistakeholder results were promising, but illegal logging still persisted at apparently similar levels at the project's end, indicating that efforts need to be further strengthened. Nevertheless, several actions contributed to the law enforcement achievements: strong political will; strong stakeholder support; and funding that could be promptly accessed. These factors are highlighted as prerequisites for achieving Indonesia's ambitious REDD+ goals. PMID:24628366

Linkie, Matthew; Sloan, Sean; Kasia, Rahmad; Kiswayadi, Dedy; Azmi, Wahdi

2014-08-01

373

About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)  

MedlinePLUS

... FDA's Role in Regulating PPE About Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) On this page: What is personal protective ... with other users? Q. What is personal protective equipment? A. Personal protective equipment is any type of ...

374

Public service user terminus study compendium of terminus equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

General descriptions and specifications are given for equipments which facilitate satellite and terrestrial communications delivery by acting as interfaces between a human, mechanical, or electrical information generator (or source) and the communication system. Manufactures and suppliers are given as well as the purchase, service, or lease costs of various products listed under the following cateories: voice/telephony/facsimile equipment; data/graphics terminals; full motion and processes video equipment; and multiple access equipment.

1979-01-01

375

Perception of FRP corrosion resistant equipment manufacturers  

SciTech Connect

A guide to help buyers, specifiers, users and material suppliers formulate and assess perceptions of the quality of manufacturers and fabricators of FRP corrosion resistant equipment. Presentation reviews oral and written communications and makes a visit to a vendor`s facility with an emphasis on identifying the true indicators of the quality and integrity of the products as well as the company. Provides the user and manufacturer of FRP equipment a means to judge the image and perceptions of companies and products.

Holtzclaw, W.F. [Holtec, Ltd., Rehoboth Beach, DE (United States)

1998-12-31

376

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing  

SciTech Connect

The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

Burdick, A.

2012-02-01

377

Equipment Operational Requirements  

SciTech Connect

The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

2009-06-11

378

26 MHz 1300 MHz Log periodic antenna  

E-print Network

An, Computer and Power Supplies 2000 MHz ­ 8000 MHz Horn Antenna 3000 MHz High Pass Filter Low Noise26 MHz ­ 1300 MHz Log periodic antenna 1000 MHz ­ 4000 MHz Log periodic antenna Pre Supply Control cable to computer USB port USB to GPIB Cable RF cables from antennas to pre

379

Security Event and Log Management Service  

E-print Network

Management Service 8 A Better Security Event and Log Management Solution 12 IBM Security Operations CenterSecurity Event and Log Management Service: Comprehensive, Cost-effective Approach to Enhance Network Security and Security Data Management IBM Global Technology Services December 2007 #12;Executive

380

Applications of an Automated Interlibrary Loan Log.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Marquette University Interlibrary Loan Log, which is an online log of borrowing and lending requests. Applications of the interlibrary loan data for statistical reporting, management decision making, collection development, online enhancement, and copyright monitoring are discussed. (3 references) (CLB)

Beaton, Barbara; Kirk, Jay H.

1988-01-01

381

Learning Logs in Introductory Literature Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the beneficial and sometimes unpredictable implications of a daily reflective writing exercise for introductory literature courses: the learning log. Pseudonymous samples of student writing, coupled with instructor commentary, gesture toward ways in which the learning log's continual implementation and modification foster a…

Babcock, Matthew James

2007-01-01

382

Dynamical evolution of active detached binaries on log Jo - log M diagram and contact binary formation  

E-print Network

Orbital angular momentum (Jo), systemic mass (M) and orbital period (P) distributions of chromospherically active binaries (CAB) and W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) systems were investigated. The diagrams of log Jo - log P, log M - log P and log Jo-log M were formed from 119 CAB and 102 W UMa stars. The log Jo-log M diagram is found to be most meaningful in demonstrating dynamical evolution of binary star orbits. A slightly curved borderline (contact border) separating the detached and the contact systems was discovered on the log Jo - log M diagram. Since orbital size (a) and period (P) of binaries are determined by their current Jo, M and mass ratio q, the rates of orbital angular momentum loss (dlog Jo/dt) and mass loss (dlog M/dt) are primary parameters to determine the direction and the speed of the dynamical evolution. A detached system becomes a contact system if its own dynamical evolution enables it to pass the contact border on the log Jo - log M diagram. Evolution of q for a mass loosing detached system is...

Eker, Z; Bilir, S; Karatas, Y

2006-01-01

383

Dynamical evolution of active detached binaries on log Jo - log M diagram and contact binary formation  

E-print Network

Orbital angular momentum (Jo), systemic mass (M) and orbital period (P) distributions of chromospherically active binaries (CAB) and W Ursae Majoris (W UMa) systems were investigated. The diagrams of log Jo - log P, log M - log P and log Jo-log M were formed from 119 CAB and 102 W UMa stars. The log Jo-log M diagram is found to be most meaningful in demonstrating dynamical evolution of binary star orbits. A slightly curved borderline (contact border) separating the detached and the contact systems was discovered on the log Jo - log M diagram. Since orbital size (a) and period (P) of binaries are determined by their current Jo, M and mass ratio q, the rates of orbital angular momentum loss (dlog Jo/dt) and mass loss (dlog M/dt) are primary parameters to determine the direction and the speed of the dynamical evolution. A detached system becomes a contact system if its own dynamical evolution enables it to pass the contact border on the log Jo - log M diagram. Evolution of q for a mass loosing detached system is unknown unless mass loss rate for each component is known. Assuming q is constant in the first approximation and using the mean decreasing rates of Jo and M from the kinematical ages of CAB stars, it has been predicted that 11, 23 and 39 cent of current CAB stars would transform to W UMa systems if their nuclear evolution permits them to live 2, 4 and 6 Gyrs respectively.

Z. Eker; O. Demircan; S. Bilir; Y. Karatas

2006-09-14

384

Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging  

E-print Network

Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal logging Shippers in Indonesia fight decree on illegal Organization (ITTO), shippers in Indonesia are threatening to stop transporting logs if the government insists harvesting affects 700,000-850,000 hectares of forest per year in Indonesia, but widespread illegal logging

385

SILEX Beacon equipment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design of this equipment based on the use of nineteen 500 mW laser diodes is presented. The Beacon is a powerful and collimated optical source based upon semi-conductor lasers. This equipment is implemented in the SILEX GEO2 terminal and its function is to provide a continuous wave light beam towards the LEO or GEO1 satellites during the acquisition phases. The design was experimentally validated with a functional breadboard, and test results demonstrated the feasibility of every performance required by the SILEX system.

Crepin, Pierre-Jean; Leblay, Pierrick; Haller, Regine; Tremillon, Isabelle; Sonon, Jean-Pierre

1990-07-01

386

Standard laboratory equipment.  

PubMed

This appendix lists pieces of equipment that are standard in the modern toxicology laboratory, i.e., items used extensively in this manual and thus not usually included in the individual materials lists. No attempt has been made to list all items required for each procedure in the Materials list of each protocol; rather, those lists note those items that might not be readily available in the laboratory or that require special preparation. See SUPPLIERS APPENDIX for contact information for commercial vendors of laboratory equipment. PMID:20972961

2001-05-01

387

Equipment Management Manual  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Equipment Management Manual (NHB 4200.1) is issued pursuant to Section 203(c)(1) of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, as amended (42 USC 2473), and sets forth policy, uniform performance standards, and procedural guidance to NASA personnel for the acquisition, management, and use of NASA-owned equipment. This revision is effective upon receipt. This is a controlled manual, issued in loose-leaf form, and revised through page changes. Additional copies for internal use may be obtained through normal distribution.

1992-01-01

388

Photographic Equipment Test System (PETS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Photographic Equipment Test System is presented. The device is a mobile optical system designed for evaluating performance of various sensors in a laboratory, in a vacuum chamber or on a flight line. The carriage is designed to allow elevation as well as azimuth control of the direction of the light from the collimator. The pneumatic tires provide an effective vibration isolation system. A target/illumination system is mounted on a motor driven linear slide, and focusing and exposure control can be operated remotely from the small electronics control console.

1975-01-01

389

Public Wells  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Example of wellhead plumbing typical of public wells sampled in a USGS study of 932 public wells nationwide. About 105 million people?or more than one-third of the Nation's population?receive their drinking water from one of the 140,000 public water systems across the United States that re...

2010-05-19

390

Engineer Equipment Operator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment operators. Addressed in the seven individual units of the course are the following topics: introduction to Military Occupation Specialty (MOS) 1345…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

391

Equipment & New Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information about equipment and new products such as the melting point instrument and TV-microscope coupler which are helpful in college science teaching. Descriptions of each product, how it operates, its prices, and address for ordering are presented. (HM)

Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

1977-01-01

392

Engineer Equipment Chief.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by engineer equipment chiefs. Addressed in the five individual units of the course are the following topics: construction management (planning, scheduling, and supervision);…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

393

AFBITS experimental equipment evaluations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Air Force Base Information Transfer System (AFBITS) is a broadband, multimode communications system for the transfer of audio, digital, and video information over coaxial cable on Air Force Bases. An experimental equipment configuration was established in order to facilitate the laboratory evaluation of the concept and the problems that may be encountered in the system implementation. This paper discusses

W. T. Grinnell

1975-01-01

394

Dairy Equipment Lubrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lake To Lake Dairy Cooperative, Manitowoc, Wisconsin, operates four plants in Wisconsin for processing milk, butter and cheese products from its 1,300 member farms. The large co-op was able to realize substantial savings by using NASA information for improved efficiency in plant maintenance. Under contract to Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a handbook consolidating information about commercially available lubricants. The handbook details chemical and physical properties, applications, specifications, test procedures and test data for liquid and solid lubricants. Lake To Lake's plant engineer used the handbook to effect savings in maintenance labor and materials costs by reducing the number of lubricants used on certain equipment. Strict U.S. Department of Agriculture and Food and Drug Administration regulations preclude lubrication changes n production equipment, but the co-op's maintenance chief was able to eliminate seven types of lubricants for ancillary equipment, such as compressors and high pressure pumps. Handbook data enabled him to select comparable but les expensive lubricants in the materials consolidation process, and simplified lubrication schedules and procedures. The handbook is in continuing use as a reference source when a new item of equipment is purchased.

1978-01-01

395

STDN ranging equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Final results of the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) Ranging Equipment program are summarized. Basic design concepts and final design approaches are described. Theoretical analyses which define requirements and support the design approaches are presented. Design verification criteria are delineated and verification test results are specified.

Jones, C. E.

1975-01-01

396

Basic Engineer Equipment Mechanic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by basic engineer equipment mechanics. Addressed in the four individual units of the course are the following topics: mechanics and their tools (mechanics, hand tools, and power…

Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

397

A small-diameter NMR logging tool for groundwater investigations.  

PubMed

A small-diameter nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool has been developed and field tested at various sites in the United States and Australia. A novel design approach has produced relatively inexpensive, small-diameter probes that can be run in open or PVC-cased boreholes as small as 2 inches in diameter. The complete system, including surface electronics and various downhole probes, has been successfully tested in small-diameter monitoring wells in a range of hydrogeological settings. A variant of the probe that can be deployed by a direct-push machine has also been developed and tested in the field. The new NMR logging tool provides reliable, direct, and high-resolution information that is of importance for groundwater studies. Specifically, the technology provides direct measurement of total water content (total porosity in the saturated zone or moisture content in the unsaturated zone), and estimates of relative pore-size distribution (bound vs. mobile water content) and hydraulic conductivity. The NMR measurements show good agreement with ancillary data from lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydrogeologic measurements, and provide valuable information for groundwater investigations. PMID:23425428

Walsh, David; Turner, Peter; Grunewald, Elliot; Zhang, Hong; Butler, James J; Reboulet, Ed; Knobbe, Steve; Christy, Tom; Lane, John W; Johnson, Carole D; Munday, Tim; Fitzpatrick, Andrew

2013-01-01

398

Log-amplitude statistics for Beck-Cohen superstatistics.  

PubMed

As a possible generalization of Beck-Cohen superstatistical processes, we study non-Gaussian processes with temporal heterogeneity of local variance. To characterize the variance heterogeneity, we define log-amplitude cumulants and log-amplitude autocovariance and derive closed-form expressions of the log-amplitude cumulants for ?(2), inverse ?(2), and log-normal superstatistical distributions. Furthermore, we show that ?(2) and inverse ?(2) superstatistics with degree 2 are closely related to an extreme value distribution, called the Gumbel distribution. In these cases, the corresponding superstatistical distributions result in the q-Gaussian distribution with q=5/3 and the bilateral exponential distribution, respectively. Thus, our finding provides a hypothesis that the asymptotic appearance of these two special distributions may be explained by a link with the asymptotic limit distributions involving extreme values. In addition, as an application of our approach, we demonstrated that non-Gaussian fluctuations observed in a stock index futures market can be well approximated by the ?(2) superstatistical distribution with degree 2. PMID:23767484

Kiyono, Ken; Konno, Hidetoshi

2013-05-01

399

Documentation of hazards and safety perceptions for mechanized logging operations in East Central Alabama.  

PubMed

The logging industry remains one of the most hazardous in the nation. Despite more stringent safety regulations and improvements in equipment safety features, the rate of logging fatalities has decreased at a much lower rate than the decrease in the rate of illnesses and injuries in the same occupation. The objective of this research was to identify and assess the hazards associated with logging operations in the Southeast region of the U.S. and propose interventions, taking into consideration the fact that, currently, most operations in the region are fully mechanized. Five logging crews in East Central Alabama participated in the study and were observed repeatedly during their normal operations. Researchers observed loggers engaging in multiple unsafe behaviors, but none of those led to an injury. The incidence of unsafe behaviors may be due in part to a lack of awareness of the hazards. Results indicate that Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations appear to have little influence on logging safety. Loggers believe that most safety training recommendations are difficult to implement and negatively impact productivity. Thus, there seem to be fundamental drawbacks in the logging industry regarding effective delivery of safety training to loggers. The present study was a joint venture by the Industrial and Systems Engineering and Psychology departments of Auburn University, with support from the United States Forest Service (USFS). PMID:11465386

Bordas, R M; Davis, G A; Hopkins, B L; Thomas, R E; Rummer, R B

2001-05-01

400

Interpreting Horizontal Well Flow Profiles and Optimizing Well Performance by Downhole Temperature and Pressure Data  

E-print Network

Horizontal well temperature and pressure distributions can be measured by production logging or downhole permanent sensors, such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensors (DTS). Correct interpretation of temperature and pressure data can...

Li, Zhuoyi

2011-02-22

401

Liver Wellness  

MedlinePLUS

... Liver Foundation www.liverfoundation.org 1-800-GO-LIVER © 2009 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Increasing Public Awareness of Liver Health Liver Wellness • The liver is the second ...

402

First Order Optic Flow from Log-Polar Sampled Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first-order spatial derivatives of optic flow — dilation, shear and rotation — provide powerful information about motion and surface layout. The log-polar sampled image (LSI) is of increasing interest for active vision, and is particularly well-suited to the measurement of local first-order flow. We explain why this is, propose a simple least-squares method for measuring first-order flow in an

H. Tunley; D. Young

1994-01-01

403

Field surveys of office equipment operating patterns  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of 11 after-hours walk-throughs of offices in the San Francisco CA and Washington D.C. areas. The primary purpose of these walk-throughs was to collect data on turn-off rates for various types of office equipment (computers, monitors, printers, fax machines, copiers, and multifunction products). Each piece of equipment observed was recorded and its power status noted (e.g. on, off, low power). Whenever possible, we also recorded whether power management was enabled on the equipment. The floor area audited was recorded as well, which allowed us to calculate equipment densities. We found that only 44 percent of computers, 32 percent of monitors, and 25 percent of printers were turned off at night. Based on our observations we estimate success rates of 56 percent for monitor power management and 96 percent for enabling of power management on printers.

Webber, Carrie A.; Roberson, Judy A.; Brown, Richard E.; Payne, Christopher T.; Nordman, Bruce; Koomey, Jonathan G.

2001-09-05

404

Annual Logging Symposium, June 22-26, 2013 Copyright 2013, held jointly by the Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log  

E-print Network

this problem, we introduce a new Bayesian approach that inherently adopts the scientific method of iterative with maximum likelihood, the Bayesian method quantifies the uncertainty of rock types and associated technique based on the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo method, thereby enabling an efficient search of rock types

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

405

Dimensions of Wellness Staying Well  

E-print Network

, quality food, adequate shelter, satisfactory work conditions, personal safety and healthy relationships a Good Night's Sleep Self-Care Healthy Eating Body Image & Eating Disorders Exercise Smoking Alcohol a more balanced and fulfilling life. Wellness combines seven dimensions of well-being into a quality way

Fernandez, Eduardo

406

A case study of the evaluation, completion, and testing of a Devonian shale gas well  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the operational procedures, geochemical analyses, well-log-interpretation techniques, perforation selection methodology, production-log interpretation, well-test analysis, and stimulation evaluation for a Devonian shale gas well in Pike County, KY. Contractors collected well-log, core, geochemical, and well-test data in addition to those which the operator would have routinely collected on this well. The purpose of this paper is to discuss

D. E. Lancaster; F. K. Guldry; R. L. Graham; J. B. Curtis; J. S. Shaw

1989-01-01

407

Recognizing Patterns In Log-Polar Coordinates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Log-Hough transform is basis of improved method for recognition of patterns - particularly, straight lines - in noisy images. Takes advantage of rotational and scale invariance of mapping from Cartesian to log-polar coordinates, and offers economy of representation and computation. Unification of iconic and Hough domains simplifies computations in recognition and eliminates erroneous quantization of slopes attributable to finite spacing of Cartesian coordinate grid of classical Hough transform. Equally efficient recognizing curves. Log-Hough transform more amenable to massively parallel computing architectures than traditional Cartesian Hough transform. "In-place" nature makes it possible to apply local pixel-neighborhood processing.

Weiman, Carl F. R.

1992-01-01

408

Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

1992-01-01

409

Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

2012-11-01

410

Equipment cost optimization  

SciTech Connect

Considering the importance of the cost of material and equipment in the overall cost profile of an oil company, which in the case of Petrobras, represents approximately 23% of the total operational cost or 10% of the sales, an organization for the optimization of such costs has been established within Petrobras. Programs are developed aiming at: optimization of life-cycle cost of material and equipment; optimization of industrial processes costs through material development. This paper describes the methodology used in the management of the development programs and presents some examples of concluded and ongoing programs, which are conducted in permanent cooperation with suppliers, technical laboratories and research institutions and have been showing relevant results.

Ribeiro, E.M.; Farias, M.A.; Dreyer, S.R.B. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-12-01

411

Equipment Failure Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tennessee Eastman uses NASTRAN to minimize lost production by pinpointing the causes of equipment failures and preventing recurrences. An example of the program's utility involves a large centrifugal fan which developed cracks during start-ups and shutdowns. This information prompted redesign of the fan. Tennessee Eastman has made extensive use of NASTRAN, both as failure analysis tool and as an aid in redesigning production hardware.

1980-01-01

412

GPS Equipped Sonobuoy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sonobuoys equipped with a Global Positioning System (GPS) prove extremely useful when calibrating underwater sonar systems. Hermes Electronics Inc., in collaboration with Defence Research Establishment Atlantic (DREA) has developed such a buoy. The sonobuoy is a modified version of Hermes AN\\/SSQ53D(2) DIFAR sonobuoy. Modifications include de-sensitizing the acoustic r eceiver, installing a commercial GPS engine, and providing an electronic interface

Gregory J. Baker; Y. R. M. Bonin

413

Everything about Construction Equipment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children can learn about bulldozers, hydraulic excavators, and other construction equipment at this fun Web site. Cartoon animations show the operation of the main systems in these vehicles. The interactive applications give the user an operator's view of the machines and even show the location and function of several controls. While keeping a fairly simplistic perspective, the material explains some more advanced concepts such as hydraulic cylinders. Three methods used in construction to transform unwanted materials into something useful are also highlighted.

414

Secure authenticated video equipment  

SciTech Connect

In the verification technology arena, there is a pressing need for surveillance and monitoring equipment that produces authentic, verifiable records of observed activities. Such a record provides the inspecting party with confidence that observed activities occurred as recorded, without undetected tampering or spoofing having taken place. The secure authenticated video equipment (SAVE) system provides an authenticated series of video images of an observed activity. Being self-contained and portable, it can be installed as a stand-alone surveillance system or used in conjunction with existing monitoring equipment in a non-invasive manner. Security is provided by a tamper-proof camera enclosure containing a private, electronic authentication key. Video data is transferred communication link consisting of a coaxial cable, fiber-optic link or other similar media. A video review station, located remotely from the camera, receives, validates, displays and stores the incoming data. Video data is validated within the review station using a public key, a copy of which is held by authorized panics. This scheme allows the holder of the public key to verify the authenticity of the recorded video data but precludes undetectable modification of the data generated by the tamper-protected private authentication key.

Doren, N.E.

1993-07-01

415

Influence of binder and wall lubrication on compacting coal logs for hydraulic transport  

SciTech Connect

In the first part of this study, different levels of binder were added to a bituminous coal to compact coal logs in a steel mold with or without wall lubrication. After ejecting from the mold, the coal logs were immersed in water under 500 psi pressure for an hour. Log expansion due to water absorption was measured. It was found that the expansion reduced significantly with increasing binder concentrations. After the water-absorption test, the coal logs were circulated through a recirculating pipe. The abrasion or wear of the coal logs, determined by measuring the weight loss as a function of circulating cycles through the pipe, increased with decreasing binder concentrations. In the second part of the study, the effects of lubricating mold surface using two different solid lubricants were evaluated in terms of force transmission, friction force, and wear resistance. For binderless coal logs, wall lubrication using calcium stearate or molybdenum disulfide did not improve wear resistance even through the friction force was reduced and the force transmission was improved. With the presence of binder, wall lubrication using calcium sterate increased the force transmission but did not improve the coal log quality significantly. However, the molybdenum disulfide lubricated mold increased the force transmission as well as reduced the coal log wear.

Li, Y.; Liu, H.; Tao, B. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Capsule Pipeline Research Center

1996-12-31

416

Exercise Log Date Distance Date Distance  

E-print Network

routine. Are You Starting a New Exercise Program? Stretching Brought to you by Staff Council httpExercise Log Date Distance Date Distance College of Sports Medicine recommends that if you are undertaking an exercise program that you see your

Gering, Jon C.

417

Optimal message log reclamation for uncoordinated checkpointing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Uncoordinated checkpointing for message-passing systems allows maximum process autonomy and general nondeterministic execution, but suffers from potential domino effect and the large space overhead for maintaining checkpoints and message logs. Traditionally, it has been assumed that only obsolete checkpoints and message logs before the global recovery line can be garbage-collected. Recently, an approach to identifying all garbage checkpoints based on recovery line transformation and decomposition has been developed. We show in this paper that the same approach can be applied to the problem of identifying all garbage message logs for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages. Communication trace-driven simulation for several parallel programs is used to evaluate the proposed algorithm.

Wang, Yi-Min; Fuchs, W. K.

1994-01-01

418

Infinite log-concavity: developments and conjectures  

E-print Network

Given a sequence (a_k) = a_0, a_1, a_2,... of real numbers, define a new sequence L(a_k) = (b_k) where b_k = a_k^2 - a_{k-1} a_{k+1}. So (a_k) is log-concave if and only if (b_k) is a nonnegative sequence. Call (a_k) "infinitely log-concave" if L^i(a_k) is nonnegative for all i >= 1. Boros and Moll conjectured that the rows of Pascal's triangle are infinitely log-concave. Using a computer and a stronger version of log-concavity, we prove their conjecture for the nth row for all n Pascal's triangle, q-analogues, symmetric functions, real-rooted polynomials, and Toeplitz matrices. In addition, we offer several conjectures.

McNamara, Peter R W

2008-01-01

419

47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...nature of the corrective action. Indications of all parameters whose values are affected by the modulation of the carrier must be read without modulation. The actual time of observation must be included in each log entry. The following...

2014-10-01

420

RIAPROG: logit-log radioimmunoassay data processing  

SciTech Connect

This document provides the users guide and program listings for the 1980 version of RIAPROG. RIAPROG is a program for weighted least squares linear regression using the logit-log model for analysis of RIA results.

Faden, V.B.; Huston, J.C. Jr.; Munson, P.J.; Rodbard, D.

1980-03-01

421

Geothermal Well Stimulation  

SciTech Connect

The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

1981-03-01

422

12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF REMOTELY OPERATED EQUIPMENT. OPERATORS VIEWED THE EQUIPMENT THROUGH A WATER-FILLED WINDOW. (10/8/81) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

423

Monitoring well  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a monitoring well which includes an enclosure defining a cavity and a water reservoir enclosed within the cavity and wherein the reservoir has an inlet and an outlet. The monitoring well further includes a porous housing borne by the enclosure and which defines a fluid chamber which is oriented in fluid communication with the outlet of the reservoir, and wherein the porous housing is positioned in an earthen soil location below-grade. A geophysical monitoring device is provided and mounted in sensing relation relative to the fluid chamber of the porous housing; and a coupler is selectively moveable relative to the outlet of reservoir to couple the porous housing and water reservoir in fluid communication. An actuator is coupled in force transmitting relation relative to the coupler to selectively position the coupler in a location to allow fluid communication between the reservoir and the fluid chamber defined by the porous housing.

Hubbell, Joel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sisson, James B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

2002-01-01

424

CLARET user's manual: Mainframe Logs. Revision 1  

SciTech Connect

CLARET (Computer Logging and RETrieval) is a stand-alone PDP 11/23 system that can support 16 terminals. It provides a forms-oriented front end by which operators enter online activity logs for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's OCTOPUS computer network. The logs are stored on the PDP 11/23 disks for later retrieval, and hardcopy reports are generated both automatically and upon request. Online viewing of the current logs is provided to management. As each day's logs are completed, the information is automatically sent to a CRAY and included in an online database system. The terminal used for the CLARET system is a dual-port Hewlett Packard 2626 terminal that can be used as either the CLARET logging station or as an independent OCTOPUS terminal. Because this is a stand-alone system, it does not depend on the availability of the OCTOPUS network to run and, in the event of a power failure, can be brought up independently.

Frobose, R.H.

1984-11-12

425

Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri. 4th Quarterly report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This paper is a progress report on a research project aimed at the development of coal log technology. Efforts have been directed at the development of technology for the fabrication of stable coal logs, as well as the energy efficient transport of these logs, in particular by pipelines. Work has been directed at new types of binders, new fabrication presses, the application of polymers to reduce transport losses, and modeling efforts.

Liu, H.

1994-05-01

426

Direct-push hydrostratigraphic profiling: coupling electrical logging and slug tests.  

PubMed

Spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can significantly affect the transport of contaminants in ground water. Conventional field methods, however, rarely provide a description of these variations at the level of detail necessary for reliable transport predictions and effective remediation designs. A direct-push (DP) method, hydrostratigraphic profiling, has been developed to characterize the spatial variability of both electrical conductivity (EC) and hydraulic conductivity in unconsolidated formations in a cost-effective manner. This method couples a dual-rod approach for performing slug tests in DP equipment with high-resolution EC logging. The method was evaluated at an extensively studied site in the Kansas River floodplain. A series of profiles was performed on a surface grid, resulting in a detailed depiction of the three-dimensional distribution of EC and K. Good agreement was found between K estimates obtained from this approach and those obtained using other methods. The results of the field evaluation indicate that DP hydrostratigraphic profiling is a promising method for obtaining detailed information about spatial variations in subsurface properties without the need for permanent wells. PMID:15726921

Sellwood, Stephen M; Healey, John M; Birk, Steffen; Butler, James J

2005-01-01

427

Direct-push hydrostratigraphic profiling: Coupling electrical logging and slug tests  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spatial variations in hydraulic conductivity (K) can significantly affect the transport of contaminants in ground water. Conventional field methods, however, rarely provide a description of these variations at the level of detail necessary for reliable transport predictions and effective remediation designs. A direct-push (DP) method, hydrostratigraphic profiling, has been developed to characterize the spatial variability of both electrical conductivity (EC) and hydraulic conductivity in unconsolidated formations in a cost-effective manner. This method couples a dual-rod approach for performing slug tests in DP equipment with high-resolution EC logging. The method was evaluated at an extensively studied site in the Kansas River floodplain. A series of profiles was performed on a surface grid, resulting in a detailed depiction of the three-dimensional distribution of EC and K. Good agreement was found between K estimates obtained from this approach and those obtained using other methods. The results of the field evaluation indicate that DP hydrostratigraphic profiling is a promising method for obtaining detailed information about spatial variations in subsurface properties without the need for permanent wells.

Sellwood, S.M.; Healey, J.M.; Birk, S.; Butler, J.J., Jr.

2005-01-01

428

Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Specialized Equipment. Training Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes 18 units of instruction covering the large equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives,…

Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

429

Highway Maintenance Equipment Operator. Miscellaneous Equipment. Training Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide provides instructional materials to assist in training equipment operators in the safe and effective use of highway maintenance equipment. It includes six units of instruction covering the small, specialized equipment used in maintenance operations. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance…

Perky, Sandra Dutreau; And Others

430

Getting Equipped and Staying Equipped, Part 2: Finding the Funds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests how school libraries can fund computer equipment; gain assistance from high-tech businesses; develop business partnerships and foundations; lease equipment; accept equipment donations; fund raise; build money into the budget; and communicate school needs with budget voters. Sidebars include leasing advice; resources for parent-teacher…

Jordahl, Gregory; Orwig, Ann

1995-01-01

431

Test wells T27 and T28, White Sands Missile Range, Dona Ana County, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Two test wells, T27 and T28, were drilled at White Sands Missile Range in south-central New Mexico as part of a joint military training program sponsored by the U.S. Army in February and March 1983. Test wells T27 and T28 were drilled as observation wells in the vicinity of the Liquid Propellant Storage Area. Information obtained from these wells includes lithologic logs, driller 's logs, and borehole-geophysical logs from the cased wells. (USGS)

Myers, R.G.; Pinckley, K.M.

1985-01-01

432

30 CFR 250.618 - Tubing and wellhead equipment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...during well-workover operations with the tree removed: (a) No tubing string...Manager. (c) When reinstalling the tree, you must: (1) Equip wells to monitor...tubing hanger, and a surface christmas tree. (2) Follow the casing pressure...

2011-07-01

433

Materials, Safety, and Equipment Overview for Nanotechnology Laboratory  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory course is provided by Nano4Me.org, a product of the National Center for Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK Center) which is based at the Penn State College of Engineering and is funded through the National Science Foundation's Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program. The six labs available in this laboratory are titled Chemical and Hazardous Waste Handling; Vacuum Function, Operation, and Systems; EHS Equipment Safety Awareness; Vacuum Equipment Simulation Lab; Vacuum Equipment Components and Systems. These labs can be used in conjunction in a course, or individually as needed by the teacher. Each lab should include an objective, background information, detailed procedure, charts and tables, and follow-up questions. This resource, along with all resources from the NACK Center, require a fast, easy, free log-in to access their materials.

434

Comparative Study for the Interpretation of Mineral Concentrations, Total Porosity, and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well  

E-print Network

formations, these techniques are ineffective because all well logs are affected by large variations-based workflow to estimate mineral and fluid concentrations of shale gas formations using conventional well logs, and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well Logs Haryanto Adiguna, SPE, Anadarko Petroleum

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

435

Equipment fragility data base  

SciTech Connect

Part of the effort of the Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has been directed at generating a fragility data base for equipment used in control and safety systems in commercial nuclear power plants. Component fragility data exist in various forms, depending on their content, intended use, and level of reduction. Th data are stored in a relational data base on the LLNL CDC 7600 computers; this provides easy accessibility for LLNL computer users. This report describes the present structure of the data base and presents its contents through the use of tables.

Cover, L.E.

1982-03-01

436

Precision Instrument and Equipment Repairers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains the job of precision instrument and equipment repairers, who work on cameras, medical equipment, musical instruments, watches and clocks, and industrial measuring devices. Discusses duties, working conditions, employment and earnings, job outlook, and skills and training. (JOW)

Wyatt, Ian

2001-01-01

437

China production equipment sourcing strategy  

E-print Network

This thesis recommends a China business and equipment strategy for the Controls Conveyor Robotics Welding (CCRW) group at General Motors. The current strategy is to use globally common equipment through predetermined global ...

Chouinard, Natalie, 1979-

2009-01-01

438

Determination of organic-matter content of Appalachian Devonian shales from gamma-ray logs.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The organic-matter content of the Devonian shale of the Appalachian basin is important for assessing natural-gas resources. In most of the western part of the Appalachian basin the organic-matter content of the Devonian shale can be estimated from gamma-ray wire-line logs. Organic-matter contents estimated using these logs are compared with determinations from direct laboratory analyses of organic carbon for 74 intervals of varying thickness from 12 widely separated wells. The cumulative pool of gamma-ray logs for the Devonian shale forms a large and geographically broad data base. The approach may also be applicable to other formations.-from Author

Schmoker, J.W.

1981-01-01

439

Performance and Improved Design of the Log Spiral of Revolution Monochromator  

SciTech Connect

We show that, whereas the present log spiral of revolution monochromator works well for Cr edges of 2.8% Cr2O3 in a V2O3 matrix, the device transmits noticeable V extended structure in the case of 0.365% Cr2O3. We demonstrate that the transmitted V extended structure is due to the V K{beta} line which is unresolved by the monochromator. It is suggested that this limitation may be overcome by designing a log spiral detector for the Cr K{beta} line rather than the Cr K{alpha} line. Aspects of the design of this modified log spiral are discussed.

Pease, D. M.; Shanthakumar, P.; Huang, T.; Budnick, J. I.; Odong, O. [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States); Frenkel, A. I.; Abitbol, N. [Physics Department, Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Balasubramanian, M.; Brewer, D. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

2007-02-02

440

Carbon and Nutrient Transfer due to Selective Logging in the Amazon Using Remote Sensing Data.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until recently it was thought that remotely sensed data was not sensitive enough to detect and quantify selective logging damage in tropical forests. Spectral mixture analysis of multispectral remote sensing data resolves fractions of surface covered by photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV = litter and woody debris), and bare soil. We have successfully applied this method to detect selective logging in the Amazon and have developed an equation to estimate canopy gap fraction in selectively logged areas using a combination of field and satellite data. The Tapajos National Forest in Para is the site of a controlled logging experiment where reduced impact logging (RIL) has been measured and monitored. In RIL, vines and lianas are cut before trees are felled. This practice should reduce damage to surrounding areas and thus may result in logging damage that correlates to the size and number of trees removed. We tested how well an estimate of gap fraction from EO-1 Advanced Land Imager data correlated with harvested wood volume in logging blocks. Percent gap ranged from 9-22%, while volume harvested ranged from 26-54 m3/ha. Remote sensing derived canopy gap fraction data can also be used to quantify green canopy biomass and nutrients transferred to the ground during logging. Canopy biomass transferred averaged 25.07 kg/ha for 5 logging blocks immediately following timber harvests in 2001. Canopy carbon and nitrogen transfers were estimated at 12.56 kg C/ha and 0.44 kg N/ha for the same year. Our results suggest that remotely sensed data can provide valuable information about the spatial characteristics and quantity of C and nutrients altered by selective logging.

Olander, L. P.; Asner, G. P.; Bustamante, M. M.

2003-12-01

441

Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

2012-01-01

442

Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

2012-01-01

443

Home Furnishings and Equipment. Money Management.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet provides guidelines for buying major home appliances from ranges and refrigerators to washers and dryers, as well as wood and upholstered furniture, and bedding and floor coverings, with helpful charts to make selection easier. It begins with suggestions on how to furnish within one's means. Next, information on equipping the home…

Baran, Nancy H., Ed.

444

Lean advanced equipment supplier training  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2008, facing a severe worldwide recession, a key strategy by senior Intel corporation management was reducing discretionary and wasteful spending by 50%. One of the largest discretionary spending categories is the cost of technical training provided by our equipment suppliers and the travel associated with sending senior equipment maintenance technicians and equipment engineers to lengthy training classes at

Joey Cavaleri

2010-01-01

445

Scientist Using Terrestrial Lidar Equipment  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Chris Soulard using the Terrestrial Lidar to scan study area in the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument, AZ.  Note the bag of ice on the equipment.  High temperates can cause equipment to overheat, requiring scientists to be creative in protecting equipment....

446

Economic Equipment Policies: An Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper summarizes the results of a detailed empirical investigation of the theory of economic equipment policy as applied to one important kind of industrial equipment, viz line-haul truck-tractor power units. The objective of this research was to ascertain, for a type of equipment which is perhaps best suited to exact replacement analysis, the quantitative importance to the firm

Vernon L. Smith

1957-01-01

447

Purchasing Department Equipment Evaluation Request  

E-print Network

Purchasing Department Equipment Evaluation Request Complete this form, obtain the required generated by the evaluation is subject to existing Capital Equipment request procedures and current for the condition or use of equipment during the evaluation. AUTHORIZED SIGNATURES REQUIRED PRIOR TO EVALUATION

Tipple, Brett

448

30 CFR 250.807 - Additional requirements for subsurface safety valves and related equipment installed in high...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments...and related equipment installed in high pressure high temperature (HPHT) environments...or well control equipment assigned a pressure rating greater than 15,000 psig...

2014-07-01

449

Identification of water-bearing fractures in hard rock terrain by electrical conductivity logs, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the delineation of water-bearing fractures in hard rock areas, a new hydro-chemical technique has been developed which\\u000a is based on electrical conductivity (EC) logs. The EC logs were carried out in experimental shallow bore wells (?50 m) in\\u000a three different parts of India. A sharp variation in EC was observed near water-bearing fractures in hard rock areas. To access\\u000a applications

V. K. Saxena; N. C. Mondal; V. S. Singh; Dewashish Kumar

2005-01-01

450

Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux often focus on annual timescales but overlook potentially important process response on shorter intervals immediately following timber harvest. We resolve such dynamics with non-parametric quantile regression forests (QRF) based on high-frequency (3 min) discharge measurements and sediment concentration data sampled every 30-60 min in similar-sized (˜0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the random forest algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ˜80% of the total sediment load was transported during extremely variable runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. In particular, dry-season logging dampened the relative role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more efficient moderate events. We show that QRFs outperform traditional sediment rating curves (SRCs) in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment fluxes at high temporal resolution.

Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

2014-03-01

451

Characterization equipment essential drawing plan  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this document is to list the Characterization equipment drawings that are classified as Essential Drawings. Essential Drawings: Are those drawings identified by the facility staff as necessary to directly support the safe operation of the facility or equipment (HNF 1997a). The Characterization equipment drawings identified in this report are deemed essential drawings as defined in HNF-PRO-242, Engineering Drawing Requirements (HNF 1997a). These drawings will be prepared, revised, and maintained per HNF-PRO-440, Engineering Document Change Control (HNF 1997b). All other Characterization equipment drawings not identified in this document will be considered Support drawings until the Characterization Equipment Drawing Evaluation Report is completed.

WILSON, G.W.

1999-05-18

452

Enhanced Max-Log-APP and Enhanced Log-APP Decoding for DVB-RCS  

E-print Network

Enhanced Max-Log-APP and Enhanced Log-APP Decoding for DVB-RCS Youssouf Ould for Return Channel via Satellite (DVB- RCS) standard. The proposed techniques are re- ferred criterion are also presented. 1 Introduction DVB-RCS [1] has been standardized by the ETSI for digital video

Kabal, Peter

453

Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Commercial Lawn Equipment (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program produced this guide to help inform the commercial mowing industry about product options and potential benefits. This guide provides information about equipment powered by propane, ethanol, compressed natural gas, biodiesel, and electricity, as well as advanced engine technology. In addition to providing an overview for organizations considering alternative fuel lawn equipment, this guide may also be helpful for organizations that want to consider using additional alternative fueled equipment.

Not Available

2014-10-01

454

On Efficient Confidence Intervals for the Log-Normal Mean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data obtained in biomedical research is often skewed. Examples include the incubation period of diseases like HIV/AIDS and the survival times of cancer patients. Such data, especially when they are positive and skewed, is often modeled by the log-normal distribution. If this model holds, then the log transformation produces a normal distribution. We consider the problem of constructing confidence intervals for the mean of the log-normal distribution. Several methods for doing this are known, including at least one estimator that performed better than Coxxs method for small sample sizes. We also construct a modified version of Coxxs method. Using simulation, we show that, when the sample size exceeds 30, it leads to confidence intervals that have good overall properties and are better than Coxxs method. More precisely, the actual coverage probability of our method is closer to the nominal coverage probability than is the case with Coxxs method. In addition, the new method is computationally much simpler than other well-known methods.

Chami, Peter; Antoine, Robin; Sahai, Ashok

455

Orbital construction support equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Approximately 200 separate construction steps were defined for the three solar power satellite (SPS) concepts. Detailed construction scenarios were developed which describe the specific tasks to be accomplished, and identify general equipment requirements. The scenarios were used to perform a functional analysis, which resulted in the definition of 100 distinct SPS elements. These elements are the components, parts, subsystems, or assemblies upon which construction activities take place. The major SPS elements for each configuration are shown. For those elements, 300 functional requirements were identified in seven generic processes. Cumulatively, these processes encompass all functions required during SPS construction/assembly. Individually each process is defined such that it includes a specific type of activity. Each SPS element may involve activities relating to any or all of the generic processes. The processes are listed, and examples of the requirements defined for a typical element are given.

1977-01-01

456

An ecosystem model for tropical forest disturbance and selective logging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new three-dimensional version of the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford Approach (CASA) ecosystem model (CASA-3D) was developed to simulate regional carbon cycling in tropical forest ecosystems after disturbances such as logging. CASA-3D has the following new features: (1) an alternative approach for calculating absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR) using new high-resolution satellite images of forest canopy gap fraction; (2) a pulse disturbance module to modify aboveground carbon pools following forest disturbance; (3) a regrowth module that simulates changes in community composition by considering gap phase regeneration; and (4) a radiative transfer module to simulate the dynamic three-dimensional light environment above the canopy and within gaps after forest disturbance. The model was calibrated with and tested against field observations from experimental logging plots in the Large-scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) project. The sensitivity of key model parameters was evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations, and the uncertainties in simulated NPP and respiration associated with model parameters and meteorological variables were assessed. We found that selective logging causes changes in forest architecture and composition that result in a cascading set of impacts on the carbon cycling of rainforest ecosystems. Our model sensitivity and uncertainty analyses also highlight the paramount importance of measuring changes in canopy gap fraction from satellite data, as well as canopy light-use efficiency from ecophysiological measurements, to understand the role of forest disturbance on landscape and regional carbon cycling in tropical forests. In sum, our study suggests that CASA-3D may be suitable for regional-scale applications to assess the large-scale effects of selective logging, to provide guidance for forest management, and to understand the role of forest disturbance in regional and global climate studies.

Huang, Maoyi; Asner, Gregory P.; Keller, Michael; Berry, Joseph A.

2008-03-01

457

Compacting a Kentucky coal for quality logs  

SciTech Connect

A Kentucky coal was found more difficult to be compacted into large size strong logs. Study showed that compaction parameters affecting the strength of compacted coal logs could be categorized into three groups. The first group is coal inherent properties such as elasticity and coefficient of friction, the second group is machine properties such as mold geometry, and the third group is the coal mixture preparation parameters such as particle size distribution. Theoretical analysis showed that an appropriate backpressure can reduce surface cracks occurring during ejection. This has been confirmed by the experiments conducted.

Lin, Y.; Li, Z.; Mao, S.

1999-07-01

458

Drilling equipment to shrink  

SciTech Connect

Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

Silverman, S.

2000-01-01

459

Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.  

PubMed

Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (? 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (? 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ? 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment. PMID:25475272

Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

2015-04-01

460

School Equipment--Repair or Replace?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective evaluations of whether to repair or replace existing school equipment depend on an equipment inventory, evaluation of equipment suitability, and knowledge of repair possibilities and costs. (MLF)

Patterson, Don E.

1983-01-01

461

Deep-Sea Research II 54 (2007) 177182 Bio-logging science: Logging and relaying physical and  

E-print Network

have concerned marine animals. For the past 15 years, the Sea Mammal Research Unit (SMRU) has beenDeep-Sea Research II 54 (2007) 177­182 Editorial Bio-logging science: Logging and relaying physical and biological data using animal-attached tags Bio-logging can be defined as the theory and practice of logging

Hooker, Sascha K.

462

Studies of U.S. Universities' Research Equipment Needs Inconclusive.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the General Accounting Office (GAO), scientific leaders estimated in 1982 that between $1 and $4 billion was necessary to update university research equipment. Because of this large cost variance, GAO was requested to assess how well past studies have defined the nationwide deficiency in university research equipment and to suggest…

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

463

EQUIPMENT EVALUATION TOOL BASED ON THE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM DESIGN DECOMPOSITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an evaluation tool that can be used to determine how well the physical characteristics of a particular piece of equipment (or set of machines) satisfy the functional requirements of the manufacturing system design. This evaluation tool for equipment is based on the Manufacturing System Design Decomposition v5.1 (MSDD). The MSDD identifies a series of goals for a

Deny D. Gomez; David S. Cochran

464

Evaluation of Porous Medium Permeability by Acoustic Logging Finds Geothermal Applications  

SciTech Connect

In a well, after an acoustic waveform has circulated through the surrounding porous media, the study of its alteration can help in evaluating their permeability. The treatment of the acoustic compressional wave's first three cycles yields a unique parameter called I-c. The recording of this I-c log all along any open hole interval is now possible by respecting some practical rules known by logging companies. Large flows of fluid found in geothermal low-enthalpy operations have provided an opportunity to check the validity of this method. Cumulative I-c derived permeability with depth (''EXAFLO'' log) correlates with the flowmeter log, as examples will show. Some new aspects of the theory underlying the I-c/permeability relationship have been developed and are described here.

Conche, B.; Lebreton, F.; Rojas, J.

1986-01-21

465

BYU Astronomical Society Observation Log Book  

E-print Network

elements designed for the amateur astronomer: an observation program, and a log book. Brigham Young newcomers to the hobby of astronomy become experienced amateur astronomers. It is designed to be accessible using telescopes within an amateur's capabilities. By working to individually observe and record

Hart, Gus

466

Data-Logging: Effects on Practical Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A pilot study of laboratory data logging in three secondary schools found that when computers were used students spent less time measuring, recording, and reporting data and more time observing and discussing. Qualitative changes, however, were much more context dependent. Contextual factors were computer skill, physical nature of the topic under…

Rogers, Laurence; Wild, P.

1996-01-01