Sample records for well logging equipment

  1. Well Logs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kevin Brewer

    This activity provides students with three fundamental borehole geophysics experiences using real data -- correlating, mapping, and logging. Students are asked to correlate well logs and construct maps and cross-sections based on that information. Students are also asked to construct a "mud log" from actual drill cuttings and compare their interpretation to that from a borehole geophysics log. This activity as minimal/no quantitative component.

  2. Tests pits for calibrating well logging equipment in fractured hard-rock environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.A.; Scott, J.H.; LaDelfe, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration facility consists of three pits containing fine-grained granite, coarse-grained granite, and medium-grained metamorphosed granodiorite. Each pit contains large quarried blocks of rock that are 8 ft octagons and form a 20 ft stack. The blocks are saturated with water and sealed in watertight fiberglass containers that are recessed so that the top of the upper block is approximately level with the ground. The blocks contain simulated fractures that are formed by the joints between the blocks and by saw cuts at several locations. Cored boreholes through the blocks are 7 7/8 in. in diameter, with a fiberglass-cased ''rat hole'' extending 30 ft below the bottom block. Laboratory and well logging studies (United States Geological Society, Schlumberger, and Dresser Atlas logs) have been made to determine the physical properties of rocks in the three pits, and preliminary results are reported. Porosities of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 1 ft intervals in the three pits range from 0.00 to 0.90%, densities from 2.64 to 2.79 g/cm/sup 3/, and sonic velocities from 18,700 to 22,500 ft/sec. Radio-element of individual samples (core measurements) taken at 5 ft intervals from these test pits range from 0.62 to 4.08% K (potassium) content, from 0.34 to 5.01 ppM RaeU (uranium) content and from 0.46 to 19.6 ppM Th (thorium) content. Access to the pits for calibrating well logging equipment can be arranged by contacting the United States Geological Survey (phone number 303-236-5913) in Denver, Colorado. 4 refs., 38 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Well logging for physical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Hearst; P. H. Nelson

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of well logging techniques for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered include the wellbore environment, logging practice; temperature, electrical and magnetic methods; nuclear radiation logging; acoustic logging; borehole gravimetry; ethology; porosity; saturation; permeability; fluid movement; fractures; elemental analysis; cement; directional surveying; dipmeter logging, and some other interesting applications.

  4. Using Well Logs in the Petroleum Industry

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Walter Borowski

    This exercise shows how well logs are used in the petroleum industry. It is designed as a first exposure to well logs for undergraduate geology majors and introduces not only well logs and their interpretation as proxies for stratigraphic sections, but also investigates concepts of porosity and permeability, oil reservoirs, and structural traps.

  5. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Charles A. (Idaho Falls, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1981-01-01

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  6. Mineralogy from Geochemical Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Herron

    1986-01-01

    Multivariate statistical analyses of geochemical, mineralogical, and cation-exchange capacity (CEC) data from a Venezuelan oil well were used to construct a model which relates elemental concen- trations to mineral abundances. An r-mode factor analysis showed that most of the variance could be accounted for by four independent factors and that these factors were related to individual mineral components: kaolinite, illite,

  7. Automatic well log correlation using neural networks 

    E-print Network

    Habiballah, Walid Abdulrahim

    1991-01-01

    AUTOMATIC WELL LOG CORRELATION USING NEURAL NETWORKS A Thesis by WALID ABDULHAHIM HABIBALLAH Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... August 1991 Major Subject; Petroleum Engineering AUTOMATIC WELL LOG CORRELATION USING NEURAL NETWORKS A Thesis by WALID ABDULRAHIM HABIBALLAH Approved as to style and content by: R. A. St tzman (Chair of Committee) S. W. Poston (Member) R. R...

  8. Sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Izotova, T.S. (Ukrainian State Geological Research Institute, Kiev (Ukraine))

    1993-09-01

    The application of geophysical well logs in sedimentology and stratigraphic prospecting holds great promise in solving a number of geological problems. A suite of logs provides data on a wide range of rock properties: vertical and lateral variation of resistivity, natural polarization, natural and induced radioactivity, shear strength, and acoustic properties. Each of these properties is controlled by the depositional environment of the sediments and their later diagenesis. The attention of geologists and geophysicists is drawn to new techniques in the interpretation of geophysical well logs for exploration, appraisal, and development of oil and gas fields. The relationship between geophysical logs and depositional environments is explored. Bulk composition, rock structure, and texture and facies variation can be quantified by electric log parameters. Also, the possibility of using logs to demonstrate long- and short-period sedimentary cycles is demonstrated. Methods of sedimentological analysis using geophysical well logs are demonstrated. The importance of a genetic approach in the interpretation of geological sequences and paleogeological reconstructions is emphasized using examples taken from oil and gas prospecting operations in the Ukraine.

  9. High temperature spectral gamma well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, R.A.; Henfling, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    A high temperature spectral gamma tool has been designed and built for use in small-diameter geothermal exploration wells. Several engineering judgments are discussed regarding operating parameters, well model selection, and signal processing. An actual well log at elevated temperatures is given with spectral gamma reading showing repeatability.

  10. Corrected logs indicate lithofacies around horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, G.M. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt)

    1996-03-04

    A Gulf of Suez well illustrates how to correct logs to model and identify the lithofacies characteristics and petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks crossed by a horizontal lateral. Based on data collected from modeling the formation and logging response, it was possible to draw a cross section of the formation surrounding the well bore. This type of cross section could not have been derived from data obtained in a vertical well. The cross section displays the formation petrophysical properties along with lateral changes in water saturation and lithology along the horizontal section.

  11. Unconventional neutron sources for oil well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankle, C. M.; Dale, G. E.

    2013-09-01

    Americium-Beryllium (AmBe) radiological neutron sources have been widely used in the petroleum industry for well logging purposes. There is strong desire on the part of various governmental and regulatory bodies to find alternate sources due to the high activity and small size of AmBe sources. Other neutron sources are available, both radiological (252Cf) and electronic accelerator driven (D-D and D-T). All of these, however, have substantially different neutron energy spectra from AmBe and thus cause significantly different responses in well logging tools. We report on simulations performed using unconventional sources and techniques to attempt to better replicate the porosity and carbon/oxygen ratio responses a well logging tool would see from AmBe neutrons. The AmBe response of these two types of tools is compared to the response from 252Cf, D-D, D-T, filtered D-T, and T-T sources.

  12. Well logging for the nontechnical person

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Pile, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Introduction to logging; Reading logs; Formation parameters; Mud logging; Resistivity measurements; Porosity measurements; Putting it all together; detailed interpretations; Computer-generated logs; Specialty logs.

  13. Automatic Determination of Lithology From Well Logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Delfiner; Olivier Peyret; Oberto Serra

    1987-01-01

    A procedure combining modern wireline measurements with a lithofacies data base has been developed to produce an automatic lithologic description of the formations crossed by a well. The database lithofacies are defined from petrographic knowledge and translated in terms of log responses. The assignment of depth levels to a lithofacies is done with the data base and with a discriminating

  14. Applicability of GSO scintillators for well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Melcher; J. S. Schweitzer; R. S. Manente; C. A. Peterson

    1991-01-01

    Cerium-doped gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (GSO:Ce) was developed as a scintillating material for application in positron emission tomography. The fundamental properties of this material were studied, with particular attention given to properties relevant to nuclear well logging applications and their temperature dependence. Initial evaluations indicated that this material had a number of properties which seemed to make it a favorable candidate for

  15. Constraint optimum well-log signal segmentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Moghaddamjoo

    1989-01-01

    A special classification algorithm is proposed that can be applied to a preprocessed (or the original noisy) well-log signal for segmentation. Knowledge of the number of segments or any other constraint, if existent, along with a criterion function can be used to complete the algorithm. The preprocessing routine consists of a running window change-detection algorithm which detects all the potential

  16. MCNP capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Forster; R. C. Little; J. F. Briesmeister; J. S. Hendricks

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. The general-purpose, continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo neutron photon), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational, predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well-suited

  17. LOTUS template for calculating well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.J. (Schlumberger Well Services, Amarillo, TX (United States)); Taylor, S.J. (Taylor Energy Corp., Amarillo, TX (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Calculating well logs is a time-consuming process. This template uses input parameters consisting of well name, location county, state, formation name, starting depth, repeat interval, resistivity of shale, and irreducible bulk volume water, which provides heading information for print outs. Required information from basic well logs are porosity, conductivity (optional), formation resistivity, resistivity of the formation water for the zone being calculated, resistivity of the mud filtrate, the porosity cutoff for pay in the zone being calculated, and the saltwater saturation cutoff for the pay zone. These parameters are used to calculate apparent water resistivity, saltwater saturation, bulk volume water, ratio of apparent water resistivity to input water resistivity, irreducible saltwater saturation, resistivity volume of shale, permeability, and a derived porosity value. A print out of the results is available through the lotus print function. Using this template allows maximum control of the input parameters and reduces hand calculation time.

  18. Wigner distribution analysis of acoustic well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Boudreaux-Bartels; P. Wiseman

    1987-01-01

    We use the Wigner distribution(WD) mixed time-frequency representation(TFR) to design two heuristic algorithms that can be used to analyze and separate the compressional(P), shear(S), Pseudo-Rayleigh (PR), and Stoneley(ST) wave components of the multi-component time-varying borehole seismic signals recorded in well logging velocity surveys. The first algorithm uses auto WD analysis, modification, and synthesis techniques to successively isolate each of the

  19. Automatic determination of lithology from well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Delfiner, P.C.; Peyret, O.; Serra, O.

    1987-09-01

    A procedure combining modern wireline measurements with a lithofacies data base has been developed to produce an automatic lithologic description of the formations crossed by a well. The database lithofacies are defined from petrographic knowledge and translated in terms of log responses. The assignment of depth levels to a lithofacies is done with the data base and with a discriminating function (Bayesian decision rule). External knowledge can be taken into account by use of artificial intelligence methods. A confidence factor is produced for each result. Logs currently in the data base are the density, neutron, sonic transit time, gamma ray, photoelectric cross section, and concentrations of thorium, potassium, and uranium. Major lithofacies groups represented in the data base include sandstones, limestones, dolomites, shales, coals, and evaporites. These are subdivided by introducing cement and special minerals and by considering porosity ranges. The construction of the data base is a critical step. It is largely empirical and requires careful calibration against intervals with well-known lithologies (e.g., from cores). The data base can be tuned to local conditions. The procedure has been tested in several environments and compared with cores and mud log descriptions. A detailed lithologic column can be produced at the wellsite and used in decision making. The results can also serve as input for further geologic studies of facies and sequences or for quantitative evaluation of formations.

  20. Automatic well log correlation using neural networks

    E-print Network

    Habiballah, Walid Abdulrahim

    1991-01-01

    Architecture 28 Figure 4: Zonation . Figure 5: Development of Training Examples 31 32 Figure 6: Windowing Mechanism 33 Figure 7: Well Location Map 36 Figure 8: Conductivity Log, Smith Unit II, Well 1 . . Figure 9: Error in Training Networks Figure 10...-Delta-Rule . The process of executing the algorithm is known as learning or training. The Neuzal Network literature contains references to a number of versions of this algorithm ' . These versions were developed in an attempt to improve on the speed of convergence...

  1. Requirements for downhole equipment used for geothermal-well stimulation. Geothermal-reservoir well-stimulation program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The needs for new and improved down-hole stimulation equipment for geothermal wells are identified. The following kinds of equipment are discussed: mechanical downhole recording instruments, electric line logging tools, and downhole tools used for zone isolation.

  2. Derive capillary pressure from well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, A. (Suez Canal Univ. (Egypt)); Desbrandes, R.; Bassiouni, Z. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States))

    1994-07-01

    A new approach has been developed to estimate in-situ capillary pressure and relative permeability characteristics in the transition zone. The technique is based on incorporating petrophysical data measured on core samples with well log analysis. Relative permeability can be determined for both drainage and inhibition conditions using the matched capillary pressure data. A technique has been developed to extrapolate petro-physical data where core data is absent or not representative of in-situ conditions. It is based on using log data to derive a water saturation vs. depth profile in the transition zone of the formation of interest. The log-derived water saturation distribution is then correlated to generalized capillary pressure curves typical of the formation studied. The capillary pressure type curves are generated from available core data and other petrophysical information. Relative permeability curves are then generated using correlations based on Purcell's model. The technique can be used in multi-layered and homogeneous reservoirs provided that one homogeneous layer is at least 20 ft thick.

  3. Comprehensive study of LASL Well C/T-2 Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Utah, and applications to geothermal well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, W.E.; Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1981-02-01

    Utah State Geothermal Well 9-1 in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA, Beaver County, Utah, has been donated by Phillips Petroleum Company for calibration and testing of well-logging equipment in the hot, corrosive, geothermal environment. It is the second Calibration/Test Well (C/T-2) in the Geothermal Log Interpretation Program. A study of cuttings and well logs from Well C/T-2 was completed. This synthesis and data presentation contains most of the subsurface geologic information needed to effect the total evaluation of geophysical logs acquired in this geothermal calibration/test well, C/T-2.

  4. Automatic determination of lithology from well logs

    SciTech Connect

    Delfiner, P.C.; Peyret, O.; Serra, O.

    1984-09-01

    A procedure combining modern wireline measurements with a lithofacies database has been developed to produce an automatic lithological description of the formations crossed by a well. The database lithofacies are defined from petrographic knowledge and translated in terms of log responses. The assignment of depth levels to a lithofacies is done by reference to the database and a discriminant function (Bayesian decision rule). External knowledge can be taken into account using Artificial Intelligence methods. A confidence factor is produced for each result. Logs currently in the database are the density, neutron, sonic transit time, gamma ray, photoelectric cross-section, and thorium, potassium and uranium concentrations. Major lithofacies groups are represented in the database: sandstones, limestones, dolomites, shales, coal, evaporites, and miscellanea. They are subdivided by introducing cement and special minerals, and considering several porosity ranges. The construction of the database is a critical step. It is largely empirical and requires careful calibration against intervals whose lithology is well known (e.g. from cores). The database can be tuned to local conditions. The procedure has been tested in several environments and compared with cores and mudlogs descriptions. A detailed lithologic column can be produced at the wellsite and used as an aid to decision making. The results can also serve as input for further geological studies of facies and sequences or for quantitative evaluation of formations.

  5. Effects of borehole stability on well log data

    E-print Network

    Grandi Karam, Samantha, 1973-

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis we analyze the effects of borehole irregularities on well logs and develop methods to obtain reliable formation properties from such logs. Data from a well in eastern Venezuela are analysed. Borehole ...

  6. Integrating MDT, NMR log and conventional logs for one-well evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Tangyan; Ma Zaitian; Wang Junxiao; Lv Hongzhi

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a case study for one-well evaluation integrating MDT, NMR logs and conventional logs. MDT, NMR logs and conventional logs provide formation permeability in different ways though the parameter can be derived in the three kinds of data. Integrating the three kinds of data and comparing the change trends among the data, the heterogeneity of reservoir and tiger

  7. 36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? 1254...12 Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a) If you bring personal computers, scanners, tape recorders,...

  8. 36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? 1254...12 Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a) If you bring personal computers, scanners, tape recorders,...

  9. 36 CFR 1254.12 - Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... true Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? 1254...12 Will NARA log or inspect my computer, other equipment, and notes? (a) If you bring personal computers, scanners, tape recorders,...

  10. A heuristic search method for optimal zonation of well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Chuan Chen; J. H. Fang

    1986-01-01

    Optimal zonation of well-log data, that is, determining an optimal number of major segments such as waveforms in a log, may be achieved by employing a criterion of minimum variance (within a segment) and a heuristic search of potential boundary (link) points of digitized log data. This new method is based on an algorithm originally devised by D. M. Hawkins

  11. ProcintLog: A GUI Academic Software For Open Hole Well-Logging Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Silva

    2005-01-01

    ProcintLog is a GUI academic software that runs under MATLAB and is useful for simplified conventional oil and gas well logs analysis. It works through two distinct modes: (1) direct petrophysical parameters inclusion from both field copies and digital files and (2) by reading and filling data from visual log zoning. The software load ASCII and LAS format files and

  12. Knowledge-based stratigraphic well-log correlation 

    E-print Network

    Denton, Michael A.

    1990-01-01

    inspirational support. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT nl DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES x1 LIST OF FIGURES xl1 CHAPTER I ? INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Well-Logs 1. 2 Stratigraphic Well-Log Correlation . 1. 3 Well-Log Correlation.... 3 LITHO Expert System 2. 5. 4 MUD Expert System 2. 5. 5 Expert Log Analysis System (ELAS) . . Chapter 2. 5. 6 WLAI Expert System 2. 5. 7 LOGIX Expert System 2. 5. 8 INTELLOG Expert System 2. 5. 9 Well Test Expert System Page CHAPTER III...

  13. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil\\/water contact,

  14. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation

  15. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation

  16. Seismic well logging system and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaveness

    1980-01-01

    Disclosed is a seismic data gathering system for use in well drilling operations. A seismic pulse generator may be placed in the drill string near the drill bit and advanced in the well for generation of seismic pulses at any depth. An array of seismometers, rotationally symmetric about the well, may be arranged at the surface to detect both pulses

  17. Geothermal well log interpretation state of the art. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    An in-depth study of the state of the art in Geothermal Well Log Interpretation has been made encompassing case histories, technical papers, computerized literature searches, and actual processing of geothermal wells from New Mexico, Idaho, and California. A classification scheme of geothermal reservoir types was defined which distinguishes fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, salinity, and fluid chemistry. Major deficiencies of Geothermal Well Log Interpretation are defined and discussed with recommendations of possible solutions or research for solutions. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated primarily on Western US reservoirs. Geopressured geothermal reservoirs are not considered.

  18. An algorithm for the stratigraphic correlation of well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin Kemp

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an algorithm for the semiautomatic shifting and stretching of one well log relative to another until a local maximum correlation coefficient between the two logs is found. The algorithm grew out of a graphical interpretation of the standard shift correlation procedure. The algorithm does not interpolate data and it is as computationally efficient as the standard correlation

  19. Review of nuclear magnetic resonance magnet for oil well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiming Zhang; Pingchou Xia; Yunjia Yu

    2000-01-01

    Compared with the magnet of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectrometer that of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Oil Well Logging is faced with some special difficulties. This paper begins with the explanation of these special difficulties, and then analyzes the main known borehole NMR logging apparatuses through strict calculations. Finally, this paper gives some useful clues to solve those problems existing in

  20. Estimating thermal conductivity from core and well log data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    G?sior, Irena; Przelaskowska, Anna

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the presented work was to introduce a method of estimating thermal conductivity using well log data. Many petrophysical properties of rocks can be determined both by laboratory measurements and well-logs. It is thus possible to apply geophysical data to empirical models based on relationships between laboratory measured parameters and derive continuous thermal conductivity values in well profiles. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 62 core samples of Meso-Paleozoic rocks from the Carpathian Foredeep. Mathematical models were derived using multiple regression and neural network methods. Geophysical data from a set of seven well logs: density, sonic, neutron, gamma ray, spectral gamma ray, caliper and resistivity were applied to the obtained models. Continuous thermal conductivity values were derived in three well profiles. Analysis of the obtained results shows good consistence between laboratory data and values predicted from well log data.

  1. NMR in well logging and hydrocarbon exploration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Prammer

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has become a versatile tool for the evaluation of underground hydrocarbon reservoirs. Formation\\u000a attributes such as rock porosity and rock pore size distributions, as well as the relative concentrations of water, oil and\\u000a gas, can be inferred from subsurface NMR. The hydrogen NMR signal encodes porosity as amplitude, pore sizes as relaxation\\u000a times and fluid properties

  2. Fluid-temperature logs for selected wells in eastern Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Stoffel, K.L.; Widness, S. (comps.)

    1983-12-01

    This Open-File Report consists of fluid temperature logs compiled during studies of the geohydrology and low temperature geothermal resources of eastern Washington. The fluid temperature logs are divided into two groups. Part A consists of wells which are concentrated in the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell area. Full geophysical log suites for many of these wells are presented in Stoffel and Widness (1983) and discussed in Widness (1983, 1984). Part B consists of wells outside of the Moses Lake-Ritzville-Connell study area.

  3. Total organic carbon content determined from well logs using ?LogR and Neuro Fuzzy techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Reza Kamali; Ahad Allah Mirshady

    2004-01-01

    Total organic carbon (TOC) content present in potential source rocks significantly affects the response of several types of well logs. Wireline logs can be used to identify source rocks and serve as an indicator for the source rock potential. Because the source rock intervals generally show a lower density, higher sonic transit time, higher porosity and higher resistivity than other

  4. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity.

  5. Total Organic Carbon Content Determined From Well Logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Fertl; George Chilingar

    1988-01-01

    Total organic-carbon (TOC) content present in potential source rocks significantly affects the response of various well logs. This paper discusses and illustrates well-log anomalies caused by TOC as observed on various wireline measurements, including resistivity (or conductivity), acoustic, nuclear (density and neutron), gamma ray, natural gamma ray spectra, and pulsed neutron (sigma and carbon\\/oxygen (C\\/O) ratio). Field examples of these

  6. Interpretation of well log response in the Austin chalk

    E-print Network

    Hinds, Gregory Scott

    1990-01-01

    INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOG RESPONSE IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by GREGORY SCOTT HINDS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 1990 Major Subject: Geology INTERPRETATION OF WELL LOG RESPONSE IN THE AUSTIN CHALK A Thesis by GREGORY SCOTT HINDS Approved as to style and content by; Robert R. Berg (Chair of Committee) Wayne . Ahr (Member) I R. . Brimhall (Member) Joh...

  7. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  8. An expert system advisor for well log quality control

    E-print Network

    Warnken, Dean Kennedy

    1988-01-01

    of the minerals into their chemical components. The inference trees for the dual induction, gamma ray, sonic, caliper and tension logs are included in Appetxlix D. Inference trees supply the logical framework for generating rules, the final phase developing..., in identical formats for quality control of the sonic, gamma ray and dual induction well logs. A ~ial system program shell served as the fork for building the ~ system. The system has been written as a prototype model. With minimal alterations...

  9. Improved production log interpretation in horizontal wells using pulsed neutron logs

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, J.L.; Kohring, J.J.; North, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    Production log flow profiles provide a valuable tool to evaluate well and reservoir performance. Horizontal wellbores and their associated completion designs present several challenges to profile interpretation for conventional production logging sensors and techniques. A unique approach combining pulsed neutron capture (PNC) log data with conventional production logging measurements is providing improved flow profile answers in slotted liner, horizontal well completions on the North Slope of Alaska. Identifying and eliminating undesirable gas production is one of the chief goals of production logging on the North Slope. This process becomes difficult in horizontal wellbores as fluid segregation affects the area investigated by the various logging sensors and also the velocities of the individual phases. Typical slotted liner completions further complicate analysis as fluids are able to flow in the liner/openhole annulus. Analysis of PNC log data provides two good qualitative indicators of formation permeability. The first technique is derived from the difference of the formation sigma response before and after injecting a high-capture cross-section borax solution. The second technique uses the difference of the formation sigma response and the formation porosity measured while injecting the formation with crude or seawater. Further analysis of PNC log runs show that the two techniques closely correlate with production flow profiles under solution gas-oil ratio (GOR) conditions. These two techniques in combination with conventional production logging measurements of temperature, capacitance, pressure, and spinner improve flow profile results. PNC results can be combined with temperature and pressure data in the absence of valid spinner data to provide an approximate flow profile. These techniques have been used to successfully determine profiles in both cemented and slotted liner completions with GORs in excess of 15,000 scf/bbl.

  10. Nuclear Cross Section Library for Oil Well Logging Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Kodeli; S. Kitsos

    As part of the IRTMBA (Improved Radiation Transport Modelling for Borehole Applications) Project of the EU Community's 5th Programme a special purpose multigroup cross section library to be used in the deterministic (as well as Monte Carlo) oil well logging particle transport calculations was prepared. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at

  11. Application of the spread-spectrum technique in well logging

    SciTech Connect

    Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.; Dadakarides, Simos D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the novel concept of employing the noise insensitive spread-spectrum technique in well logging. The proposed design of a spread-spectrum device improves the performance of well logging tools, particularly within highly noisy environments. The heart of the device is a shift register which generates a pseudorandom binary code sequence. A coder is connected to the transmitter and codes the probing signal by utilizing the pseudorandom sequence. A decoder is connected to the receiver and correlates the return signal to the same sequence, which is used as a sliding reference. Shifts as small as a fraction of a bit are unambiguously resolvable, and distance resolution of the order of micrometers is achievable. Spread-spectrum well logging tools can operate even with coded signal-to-noise ratio below zero-dB. The spread-spectrum device can be interfaced with any available wave transmitting logging tool. However, tools employing acoustic waves are favorable because the acoustic wave propagation velocity is low and allows the use of inexpensive electronics. The problems associated with high temperatures which are commonly encountered In geothermal reservoirs are bypassed, since the spread-spectrum device can be located either inside the well logging tool or together with the supporting electronics on the surface.

  12. A rule-based system for well log correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Startzman, R.A.; Kuo, T.B.

    1987-09-01

    Computer-assisted approaches to well log correlation are of interest to engineers and geologists for two reasons. In large field studies, a computer can be used simply to reduce the time required to correlate zones of interest. It is also possible that computer-assisted correlations may suggest zonal matches of interest and originality that might not have been considered. This paper presents a new approach to the computer-assisted log correlation. Geologic horizons are correlated between wells by use of an artificial intelligence rule-based technique. Using the symbol-manipulation capabilities of a computer language called List Processing (LISP), the author developed a prototype rule-bases system that has symbolic representation of log data, recognizes log shapes from traces, identifies geologic zones from a sequence of shapes in a log, characterizes the zones, correlates zones from well to well with a set of ''if/then'' type of rules, and uses a forward-chaining inference scheme to execute the rule base. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of the LISP language and the methodology involved in the development of this system.

  13. Electronic neutron sources for compensated porosity well logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. X.; Antolak, A. J.; Leung, K.-N.

    2012-08-01

    The viability of replacing Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) radiological neutron sources in compensated porosity nuclear well logging tools with D-T or D-D accelerator-driven neutron sources is explored. The analysis consisted of developing a model for a typical well-logging borehole configuration and computing the helium-3 detector response to varying formation porosities using three different neutron sources (Am-Be, D-D, and D-T). The results indicate that, when normalized to the same source intensity, the use of a D-D neutron source has greater sensitivity for measuring the formation porosity than either an Am-Be or D-T source. The results of the study provide operational requirements that enable compensated porosity well logging with a compact, low power D-D neutron generator, which the current state-of-the-art indicates is technically achievable.

  14. An expert system advisor for well log quality control 

    E-print Network

    Warnken, Dean Kennedy

    1988-01-01

    , in identical formats for quality control of the sonic, gamma ray and dual induction well logs. A ~ial system program shell served as the fork for building the ~ system. The system has been written as a prototype model. With minimal alterations... PORTION OF THE WELL IOG QUALZIY CONTROL ~ SYSZEM ADVISOR APPENDIX C ? ~TION OF TAXONCMIES 59 59 62 TABLE OF CONTENTS (cont. ) DUAL INDUCTION IOG Page 64 APPENDIX D ? ~CE TREES FOR THE GAK% RAY, DUAL INDUCTION AND SONIC IOGS 68 GAMMA RAY LOG...

  15. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  16. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty; K. Kishore

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between

  17. Automated Variance Reduction Applied to Nuclear Well-Logging Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method enables detailed, explicit geometric, energy and angular representations, and hence is considered to be the most accurate method available for solving complex radiation transport problems. Because of its associated accuracy, the Monte Carlo method is widely used in the petroleum exploration industry to design, benchmark, and simulate nuclear well-logging tools. Nuclear well-logging tools, which contain neutron and/or gamma sources and two or more detectors, are placed in boreholes that contain water (and possibly other fluids) and that are typically surrounded by a formation (e.g., limestone, sandstone, calcites, or a combination). The response of the detectors to radiation returning from the surrounding formation is used to infer information about the material porosity, density, composition, and associated characteristics. Accurate computer simulation is a key aspect of this exploratory technique. However, because this technique involves calculating highly precise responses (at two or more detectors) based on radiation that has interacted with the surrounding formation, the transport simulations are computationally intensive, requiring significant use of variance reduction techniques, parallel computing, or both. Because of the challenging nature of these problems, nuclear well-logging problems have frequently been used to evaluate the effectiveness of variance reduction techniques (e.g., Refs. 1-4). The primary focus of these works has been on improving the computational efficiency associated with calculating the response at the most challenging detector location, which is typically the detector furthest from the source. Although the objective of nuclear well-logging simulations is to calculate the response at multiple detector locations, until recently none of the numerous variance reduction methods/techniques has been well-suited to simultaneous optimization of multiple detector (tally) regions. Therefore, a separate calculation is typically performed for each desired detector response. This paper summarizes recent work to apply and evaluate the effectiveness of deterministic-adjoint-based variance reduction methods, including a recently developed method for simultaneous optimization of multiple detectors, for two simple nuclear well-logging tool problems that have been widely used in the variance reduction literature. The computational effectiveness of the method for simultaneous optimization is also compared to the use of multiple, individually optimized simulations for these simple well-logging problems.

  18. Automated Variance Reduction Applied to Nuclear Well-Logging Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, John C [ORNL; Peplow, Douglas E. [ORNL; Evans, Thomas M [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method enables detailed, explicit geometric, energy and angular representations, and hence is considered to be the most accurate method available for solving complex radiation transport problems. Because of its associated accuracy, the Monte Carlo method is widely used in the petroleum exploration industry to design, benchmark, and simulate nuclear well-logging tools. Nuclear well-logging tools, which contain neutron and/or gamma sources and two or more detectors, are placed in boreholes that contain water (and possibly other fluids) and that are typically surrounded by a formation (e.g., limestone, sandstone, calcites, or a combination). The response of the detectors to radiation returning from the surrounding formation is used to infer information about the material porosity, density, composition, and associated characteristics. Accurate computer simulation is a key aspect of this exploratory technique. However, because this technique involves calculating highly precise responses (at two or more detectors) based on radiation that has interacted with the surrounding formation, the transport simulations are computationally intensive, requiring significant use of variance reduction techniques, parallel computing, or both. Because of the challenging nature of these problems, nuclear well-logging problems have frequently been used to evaluate the effectiveness of variance reduction techniques (e.g., Refs. 1-4). The primary focus of these works has been on improving the computational efficiency associated with calculating the response at the most challenging detector location, which is typically the detector furthest from the source. Although the objective of nuclear well-logging simulations is to calculate the response at multiple detector locations, until recently none of the numerous variance reduction methods/techniques has been well-suited to simultaneous optimization of multiple detector (tally) regions. Therefore, a separate calculation is typically performed for each desired detector response. This paper summarizes recent work to apply and evaluate the effectiveness of deterministic-adjoint-based variance reduction methods, including a recently developed method for simultaneous optimization of multiple detectors, for two simple nuclear well-logging tool problems that have been widely used in the variance reduction literature. The computational effectiveness of the method for simultaneous optimization is also compared to the use of multiple, individually optimized simulations for these simple well-logging problems.

  19. Application of Nuclear Well Logging Techniques to Lunar Resource Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albats, P.; Groves, J.; Schweitzer, J.; Tombrello, T.

    1992-01-01

    The use of neutron and gamma ray measurements for the analysis of material composition has become well established in the last 40 years. Schlumberger has pioneered the use of this technology for logging wells drilled to produce oil and gas, and for this purpose has developed neutron generators that allow measurements to be made in deep (5000 m) boreholes under adverse conditions. We also make ruggedized neutron and gamma ray detector packages that can be used to make reliable measurements on the drill collar of a rotating drill string while the well is being drilled, where the conditions are severe. Modern nuclear methods used in logging measure rock formation parameters like bulk density and porosity, fluid composition, and element abundances by weight including hydrogen concentration. The measurements are made with high precision and accuracy. These devices (well logging sondes) share many of the design criteria required for remote sensing in space; they must be small, light, rugged, and able to perform reliably under adverse conditions. We see a role for the adaptation of this technology to lunar or planetary resource assessment missions.

  20. Well-log interpretation of carbonate reservoirs with bimodal porosity

    E-print Network

    Tandircioglu, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    of the Ratio method water saturations for Bayou Middle Fork, Running Duke, and Black Lake fields. The Ratio method water saturations are much lower than the Archie water saturations in the Bayou Middle Fork and Running Duke fields due to the presence... water bound in micropores, formation resistivity is reduced appreciably. Therefore, reservoirs appear as water-productive from the interpretation of well logs when, in fact, they are hydrocarbon-productive. Bayou Middle Fork field, Claiborne Parish...

  1. Reservoir parameters estimation from well log and core data: a case study from the North Sea

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Reservoir parameters estimation from well log and core data: a case study from the North Sea Jun approach to derive reservoir parameters from core and well-log data in clay­sand mixtures. This method of core and well-log data. First, well-log and core data are edited and corrected before they can be used

  2. Instant well-log inversion with a parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Kimminau, S.J.; Trivedi, H.

    1993-08-01

    Well-log analysis requires several vectors of input data to be inverted with a physical model that produces more vectors of output data. The problem is inherently suited to either vectorization or parallelization. PLATO (parallel log analysis, timely output) is a research prototype system that uses a parallel architecture computer with memory-mapped graphics to invert vector data and display the result rapidly. By combining this high-performance computing and display system with a graphical user interface, the analyst can interact with the system in real time'' and can visualize the result of changing parameters on up to 1,000 levels of computed volumes and reconstructed logs. It is expected that such instant'' inversion will remove the main disadvantages frequently cited for simultaneous analysis methods, namely difficulty in assessing sensitivity to different parameters and slow output response. Although the prototype system uses highly specific features of a parallel processor, a subsequent version has been implemented on a conventional (Serial) workstation with less performance but adequate functionality to preserve the apparently instant response. PLATO demonstrates the feasibility of petroleum computing applications combining an intuitive graphical interface, high-performance computing of physical models, and real-time output graphics.

  3. Calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a neutron well logging tool 

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chien-Hsiang

    1993-01-01

    detector were 5. 08 cm, 25. 4 cm, and 50. 8 cm. Each He(n, p) reaction in s, detector volume was assumed to result in the detection oi' a neutron. The structural material of the tool was iron (density 7. 8 8/cms) except for the He containing detector... (Mem er) Dick B. Simmons (Member) John W. Poston (Head of Department) August 1993 ABSTRACT Calculation of Sensitivity Coefficients for a Neutron Well Logging Tool. (August 1993) Chien-Hsiang Chen, B. S. , National Tsing Hua University, Taiwan...

  4. Chirped CPMG for well-logging NMR applications.

    PubMed

    Casabianca, Leah B; Mohr, Daniel; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-05-01

    In NMR well-logging, the measurement apparatus typically consists of a permanent magnet which is inserted into a bore, and the sample is the rock surrounding the borehole. When compared to the conditions of standard NMR experiments, this application is thus challenged by relatively weak and invariably inhomogeneous B0 and B1 fields. Chemical shift information is not generally obtained in these measurements. Instead, diffusivity, porosity and permeability information is collected from multi-echo decay measurements - most often using a Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence to enhance the experiment's limited sensitivity. In this work, we explore the consequences of replacing the hard square pulses used in a typical CPMG sequence with chirped pulses sweeping a range of frequencies. The greater bandwidths that for a maximum B1 level can be excited by chirped pulses translates into marked expansion of the detection volume, and thus significant signal-to-noise improvements when compared to standard CPMG acquisitions using hard pulses. This improvement, usually amounting to signal enhancements ?3, can be used to reduce the experimental time of NMR well-logging measurements, for measuring T2 even when B0 and B1 inhomogenieties complicate the measurements, and opening new opportunities in the determination of diffusional properties. PMID:24674888

  5. Chirped CPMG for well-logging NMR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casabianca, Leah B.; Mohr, Daniel; Mandal, Soumyajit; Song, Yi-Qiao; Frydman, Lucio

    2014-05-01

    In NMR well-logging, the measurement apparatus typically consists of a permanent magnet which is inserted into a bore, and the sample is the rock surrounding the borehole. When compared to the conditions of standard NMR experiments, this application is thus challenged by relatively weak and invariably inhomogeneous B0 and B1 fields. Chemical shift information is not generally obtained in these measurements. Instead, diffusivity, porosity and permeability information is collected from multi-echo decay measurements - most often using a Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) pulse sequence to enhance the experiment’s limited sensitivity. In this work, we explore the consequences of replacing the hard square pulses used in a typical CPMG sequence with chirped pulses sweeping a range of frequencies. The greater bandwidths that for a maximum B1 level can be excited by chirped pulses translates into marked expansion of the detection volume, and thus significant signal-to-noise improvements when compared to standard CPMG acquisitions using hard pulses. This improvement, usually amounting to signal enhancements ?3, can be used to reduce the experimental time of NMR well-logging measurements, for measuring T2 even when B0 and B1 inhomogenieties complicate the measurements, and opening new opportunities in the determination of diffusional properties.

  6. Interpretation of Array Production Logging Measurements in Horizontal Wells for Flow Profile

    E-print Network

    Liao, Lulu

    2013-12-12

    Interpretation of production logging in multi-phase flow wells is challenging, especially for highly deviated wells or horizontal wells. Flow regime-dependent flow conditions strongly affect the measurements of production logging tools. Segregation...

  7. Sequence stratigraphic correlation of well-log cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    Correlation of well-log cross sections using the principles of sequence stratigraphy is not as straight forward as it might at first appear. It is a very subjective process, being an interpretation of limited data based on the geologist's knowledge and experience, and consequently, the results can be as varied as the interpreters who do the work. Many decisions are required at each step of the correlation process, and they may be made subjectively (to fit a preconceived understanding of the stratigraphy) or as objectively as possible. Experience has yielded a number of guidelines and [open quotes]rules of thumb[close quotes] that make the process easier and, if not more objective, at least provide a clearer understanding of what assumptions are being made and how they affect the correlation decisions underlying the finished product. This paper provides some of those guidelines. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Determination of Residual Oil Saturation from Geophysical Well Logs in Tertiary Recovery Projects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WALTER H. FERTL

    1979-01-01

    Residual oil saturation (ROS), a key factor in the planning of tertiary recovery projects, can be determined on the basis of reservoir engineering concepts, core data, single-well tracer tests, and specialized geophysical well-logging techniques. Uncertainty limits of conventional logging techniques are not too promising. However, several log-inject-log techniques using multiple repeat logging runs will determine residual oil saturation within the

  9. Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

  10. An index of geophysical well logging in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulheren, M. Patrick; Larson, J.D.; Hopkins, Herbert T.

    1982-01-01

    Geophysical logs have been obtained in more than 170 wells in Virginia by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1968. These logs include natural gamma, electric, caliper, temperature, fluid conductivity, and fluid velocity. Most of the logs are for wells in the Coastal Plain Province of eastern Virginia. Geophysical logs aid in the interpretation of properties of earth materials, including the capacity to store and transmit water in the immediate vicinity of the well bore.

  11. Symposium on high-temperature well-logging instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.R. (comp.)

    1986-06-01

    The symposium contains papers about developments in borehole logging instrumentation that can withstand downhole temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 103 MPa. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  12. Comparison of VSP and sonic-log data in nonvertical wells in a heterogeneous structure

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Comparison of VSP and sonic-log data in nonvertical wells in a heterogeneous structure Petr Bulant1- culated by integrating the sonic-log slowness. The drift curve can be plotted along the part of the well and Ludk Klimes1 ABSTRACT To compare the results of sonic-log measurements and of vertical seismic

  13. Application of accelerator sources for pulsed neutron logging of oil and gas wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Randall

    1985-01-01

    Dresser Atlas introduced the first commercial pulsed neutron oil well log in the early 1960s. This log had the capability of differentiating oil from salt water in a completed well. In the late 1970s the first continuous carbon\\/oxygen (C\\/O) log capable of differentiating oil from fresh water was introduced. The sources used in these commercial logs are radial geometry deuterium-tritium

  14. Downhole well log and core montages from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Lewis, R.E.; Winters, W.J.; Lee, M.W.; Rose, K.K.; Boswell, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was an integral part of an ongoing project to determine the future energy resource potential of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. As part of this effort, the Mount Elbert well included an advanced downhole geophysical logging program. Because gas hydrate is unstable at ground surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole-logging program to determine the occurrence of gas hydrates and the in-situ physical properties of the sediments. In support of this effort, well-log and core data montages have been compiled which include downhole log and core-data obtained from the gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in the Mount Elbert well. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces calculated from available downhole well log and core data. ?? 2010.

  15. Determination of Lithology From Well Logs by Statistical Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Busch; W. G. Fortney; L. N. Berry

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a method of predicting lithology by statistical analysis of wireline log measurements with calibration to a core lithology standard. Although an example of the technique applied to the Shublik formation of the Prudhoe Bay area, North Slope, AK, is developed and presented, the method can be applied to any field where some core has been taken. The

  16. Porosity and Pore Structure from Acoustic Well Logging DATA1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Tao; M. S. King

    1993-01-01

    Wyllie's time-average equation and subsequent refinements have been used for over 20 years to estimate the porosity of reservoir rocks from compressional (P)-wave velocity (or its reciprocal, transit time) recorded on a sonic log. This model, while simple, needs to be more convincingly explained in theory and improved in practice, particularly by making use of shear, (S)-wave velocity. One of

  17. Thermal conductivity from core and well log data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Hartmann; Volker Rath; Christoph Clauser

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between thermal conductivity and other petrophysical properties have been analysed for a borehole drilled in a Tertiary Flysch sequence. We establish equations that permit us to predict rock thermal conductivity from logging data. A regression analysis of thermal conductivity, bulk density, and sonic velocity yields thermal conductivity with an average accuracy of better than 0.2W(mK)-1. As a second

  18. Borehole logging for radium-226: recommended procedures and equipment. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. B. Olsen; V. W. Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Field investigations and a literature review were conducted to determine whether existing well-logging techniques are suitable for measuring ²²Ra at remedial action sites. These methods include passive gamma-ray measurement techniques using NaI(Tl) and, occasionally, intrinsic germanium detectors. Parameters that must be considered when logging boreholes at remedial action sites include: (1) casing material and thickness, (2) water in the borehole,

  19. Calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a neutron well logging tool

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chien-Hsiang

    1993-01-01

    ; Doveton, 1986; Ellis, 1990) Since the scattering cross section of hydrogen is relatively large, neutron logging has become an important method for determining the water saturation and hydrocarbon content of formations. On the other hand, this method... of the zones was taken to be 300'K. The neutron sourece was assumed to be an Am ? Be source emitting 10 neutrons per second isotropically, The detectors were taken to be He ? gas ? filled proportional 3 counters and each He(n, p) reaction in each detector...

  20. Well-log interpretation of carbonate reservoirs with bimodal porosity 

    E-print Network

    Tandircioglu, Ahmet

    1990-01-01

    61 6 4 5 1 7 45 6 8 4. 5 6. 5 11 17 12 14 77 25 63 44 97 53 79 50 86 34 96 32 100 39 86 30 97 42 1) Pm = 2. 71 g/cm, Pf = 1. 0 g/cms 2) I3dn = ((gd~+ gn )/2) 3) Archie water saturation, using Rw = 0. 016 Qm @ 205 'F 4) The Ratio...-method water saturation 500 POROSITY /o IO I5 20 30 SHIREY I A IOO 50 E I E O Ic IO 5 I? VI LIJ 0. 5 ~ I 0 6Q os ~ 3 ~RI = 5. 2 ~ 4 ~ I 2 Rp = (. 3~~ ~ PERFORATED ZONE 'SO 0 O. I Q4 Q6 Q8 I. O I. 2 I. 4 1. 6 LOG Figure 12-Plot...

  1. Western Gas Sands Project: Los Alamos NMR Well Logging Tool Development. Progress report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.A.; Jackson, J.A.; Koelle, A.R.

    1985-03-01

    This document is the final report on the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Well Logging Tool Development Program, part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Western Gas Sands Project, most recently supported through DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The report covers the entire progress of the program from initial conception of the technique in 1978 to field testing of a prototype tool and contract termination in mid-1983. First, a theoretical development of the concept of a remotely-produced region of homogeneous magnetic field is presented, with its verification through laboratory measurements. The results provided confirmation of the concept and estimates of performance of a full-scale tool. A discussion of laboratory experiments undertaken to characterize the NMR response of saturated porous media is then given. The detailed results, presented in Appendix A, describe the limits of applicability of the NMR relaxation data acquired from the new logging tool. The development of the prototype downhole tool is then described, including magnet performance, development of NMR signal processing electronics, and an automated data acquisition system designed for use in downhole testing. Described next is the first downhole test of the prototype tool carried out in May 1983. The raw data acquired from this test, preliminary analysis, and a discussion of the result are then presented. Finally, preparations for extending the performance of the NMR logging tool by using superconducting magnets are described. A description of cryogenic equipment required for construction and testing of a laboratory mockup superconducting tool and initial performance data are given in detail. A summary of the project results and a discussion of potential improvements and inherent limitations of the technique complete the report. 14 references, 78 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Inversion of well logs into facies -using a convolved hidden Markov model

    E-print Network

    Eidsvik, Jo

    Inversion of well logs into facies - using a convolved hidden Markov model David Lindberg into facies - using a convolved hidden Markov model #12;About -- Name: David Lindberg -- Supervisor: Professor 2010, estimated end spring 2014 www.ntnu.no David Lindberg, Inversion of well logs into facies - using

  3. Lithology determination from well logs with fuzzy associative memory neural network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsien-Cheng Chang; Hui-Chuan Chen; Jen-Ho Fang

    1997-01-01

    An artificial intelligence technique of fuzzy associative memory is used to determine rock types from well-log signatures. Fuzzy associative memory (FAM) is a hybrid of neural network and fuzzy expert system. This new approach combines the learning ability of neural network and the strengths of fuzzy linguistic modeling to adaptively infer lithologies from well-log signatures based on (1) the relationships

  4. How well logs were used to improve evaluation of a gas storage project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Hawkins; R. W. Snyder; S. B. Pahwa

    1979-01-01

    Petromation, J.R. Butler and Co., and Intercomp Resource Development and Engineering, Inc., describe the application and interpretation of well logs in a gas-storage project in New Mexico. Logs proved most useful in evaluating and operating the storage reservoirs when combined with other forms of information to: monitor bubble growth and detect leaks outside the storage zone; assist in verifying gas

  5. A robust technique for well-log data inversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaideva C. Goswami; Ravicharan Mydur; Peter Wu; Denis Heliot

    2004-01-01

    Inverse problems associated with many geophysical measurements are often ill-conditioned, nonunique, and multimodal. Consequently, the gradient-type optimization methods to obtain model parameters become ineffective since the accuracy and convergence of these methods depend highly on initial position and search direction in the parameter space. Evolutionary algorithms which employ direct search global optimization technique are well suited for such problems. In

  6. Application of accelerator sources for pulsed neutron logging of oil and gas wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, R. R.

    1985-05-01

    Dresser Atlas introduced the first commercial pulsed neutron oil well log in the early 1960s. This log had the capability of differentiating oil from salt water in a completed well. In the late 1970s the first continuous carbon/oxygen (C/O) log capable of differentiating oil from fresh water was introduced. The sources used in these commercial logs are radial geometry deuterium-tritium reaction devices with Cockcroft-Walton voltage multipliers providing the accelerator voltage. The commercial logging tools using these accelerators are comprised of scintillators detectors, power supplies, line drivers and receivers, and various timing and communications electronics. They are used to measure either the time decay or energy spectra of neutron-induced gamma events. The time decay information is useful in determining the neutron capture cross section, and the energy spectra is used to characterize inelastic neutron events.

  7. Log ASCII Standard (LAS) Files for Geophysical (Gamma Ray) Wireline Well Logs and Their Application to Geologic Cross Section C-C' Through the Central Appalachian Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trippi, Michael H.; Crangle, Robert D., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) regional geologic cross section C-C' (Ryder and others, 2008) displays key stratigraphic intervals in the central Appalachian basin. For this cross section, strata were correlated by using descriptions of well cuttings and gamma ray well log traces. This report summarizes the procedures used to convert gamma ray curves on paper well logs to the digital Log ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Standard (LAS) format using the third-party software application Neuralog. The procedures could be used with other geophysical wireline logs also. The creation of digital LAS files from paper well logs by using Neuralog is very helpful, especially when dealing with older logs with limited or nonexistent digital data. The LAS files from the gamma ray logs of 11 wells used to construct cross section C-C' are included in this report. They may be downloaded from the index page as a single ZIP file.

  8. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-07-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Study of well logs from Cove Fort-Sulphurdale KGRA, Millard and Beaver Counties, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, W.E.; Ross, H.P.

    1982-07-01

    Union Oil Company drilled four geothermal test wells in the Cove Fort-Sulphurdale KGRA between 1975 and 1979. A fairly complete suite of well logs were recorded for the three deeper holes, and these data are presented as composite well log plots in this report. The composite well log plots have facilitated the interpretation of limestone, dolomite, sandstone, quartz-monzonite, serpentine, and volcanic lithologies and the identification of numerous fractures. This has been especially helpful because of the extensive lost circulaton zones and poor cuttings recovery. Intraformational flow was identified by a fluid migration-temperature tracer log at depth in CFSU 31-33. Well log crossplots were computed to assist in lithologic identification and the determination of physical properties for specific depth intervals in a given hole. The presence of hydrous minerals sometimes results in neutron porosity somewhat higher than the true nonfracture porosity, which is generally less than 4%. Permeability is clearly controlled by fractures. A maximum well temperature of 178.9/sup 0/C, low flow rates and low probable percent flash indicate these wells are subeconomic for electric generation at present. The well log study has substantially improved our understanding of the reservoir as presently drilled.

  10. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2001-07-13

    This semi-annual report briefly summarizes the progress since the 1st Annual Report issued September, 2000 and the next annual report. More detailed results will be in the annual reports. The main emphasis on fluid properties was on measurements of the relaxation time and self-diffusion coefficient of ethane and propane. Ethane is similar to methane while propane is more similar to the higher alkanes. The ratio of T1 and T2 is demonstrated to be a function of both viscosity and the NMR frequency. The diffusion-induced T2 in a uniform magnetic gradient was simulated in one dimension to seek improved understanding NMR diffusion in restricted geometry. Analytical solutions can be found for this system if the correct region of validity is used. Estimation of permeability of vuggy carbonates has been problematic because the pore body size does not correlate well with pore throat size. CT scans and CPMG NMR measurements were made on a set of vuggy carbonate rocks.

  11. Event Based Low Frequency Impedance Modeling using Well Logs and Seismic Attributes

    E-print Network

    Mosegaard, Klaus

    a broad spatial frequency response, the accuracy of the predicted low frequency response and therefore the porosity estimates as comparedEvent Based Low Frequency Impedance Modeling using Well Logs and Seismic Attributes Radmila

  12. Applications of the BCGS-FFT method to 3-D induction well logging problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Qing Zhang; Qing Huo Liu

    2003-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction logging is one of the most important measurements in borehole characterization of an oil reservoir. With the ever increasing number of deviated and horizontal wells aiming for improved hydrocarbon production, simulation of induction well logging in realistic three-dimensional (3-D) environments has become an important subject of research. In this paper, we investigate a fast spectral-domain solver for the

  13. Modular artificial neural network for prediction of petrophysical properties from well log data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Che Fung; Kok Wai Wong; H. Eren

    1997-01-01

    An application of Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM), learning-vector quantization (LVQ) algorithms, and commonly used backpropagation neural network (BPNN) to predict petrophysical properties obtained from well-log data are presented. A modular, artificial neural network (ANN) comprising a complex network made up from a number of subnetworks is introduced. In this approach, the SOM algorithm is applied first to classify the well-log

  14. A new method for investigating heterogeneities from well logs using the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima; Hachay, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Borehole logs exhibit multi-scale properties that cannot be analyzed using the conventional tools. Here, we propose a new method based on Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), a combination of the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert transform (HT), for estimating a local scaling coefficient from well logs. This parameter measures heterogeneities degree of the layers crossed by the borehole. The proposed technique has been applied on P- and S-wave seismic velocity logs recorded at the KTB main borehole drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling program. The calculated depth-dependent scaling parameter highlighted the lithological discontinuities occurred within the logged depth interval, and allowed to measure the complexity of underground heterogeneities. To conclude, the suggested method presents a new way to explore multi-scale features of the logs data, and may bring additional information to the conventional analysis tools. More datasets are needed to establish a possible relationship between the local scaling parameter and lithology.

  15. Well-log seismic sequence biostratigraphic analysis in the subsalt trend

    SciTech Connect

    Worndardt, W.W. (MICRO-START Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Sediments in offshore Louisiana, Gulf of Mexico, were analyzed in non-subsalt wells away from the subsalt and non subsalt sediment interface using high resolution biostratigraphy, well-logs and seismic profiles. The Maximum Flooding Surfaces and Sequence Boundaries, lowstand prograding, slope fan and basin floor fan complexes were identified using first downhole occurrence of important tops, paleobathymetry, abundance and diversity histograms well-log signatures and seismic profiles. The reservoir sands identified in the non-subsalt wells, the bottom-set turbidites, slope fan and basin floor fan complexes, could be present in the subsalt well. The paleobathymetry, stratigraphic position within the lowstand systems tract, slope fan condensed sections (sf cs) and basin floor fan condensed sections (bf cs), fauna and flora abundances were used to help identify these reservoir sands in the subsalt and non-subsalt wells. Well-Log Sequence Biostratigraphy, the identification of the Maximum Flooding Surfaces and Sequence Boundaries, lowstand prograding, slope fan and basin floor fan complexes, first occurrence downhole of important tops, sample by paleowater depth, species abundance and diversity while the well was being drilled. After logging, the systems tract surfaces were further refined on the well-log, and seismic profile and correlated with the seismic profile in non-subsalt wells previously analyzed. This methodology combined with 3-D seismic will result in a substantial reduction in risk in the subsalt trend.

  16. Fast Multiparameter Reconstruction of Multicomponent Induction Well-Logging Datum in a Deviated Well in a Horizontally Stratified Anisotropic Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongnian Wang; Honggen Tao; Jingjin Yao; Guibo Chen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we advance a fast iterative inversion algorithm of multicomponent induction well-logging (MCIL) datum to simultaneously reconstruct a total model vector in a deviated well in the horizontally stratified transversally isotropic (TI) formation (TI medium) with the case-neglecting borehole. The model vector consists of the horizontal and vertical conductivities, the interface depth of each bed, and a borehole

  17. Downhole well log and core montages from the Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Collett; R. E. Lewis; W. J. Winters; M. W. Lee; K. K. Rose; R. M. Boswell

    2011-01-01

    The BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well was an integral part of an ongoing project to determine the future energy resource potential of gas hydrates on the Alaska North Slope. As part of this effort, the Mount Elbert well included an advanced downhole geophysical logging program. Because gas hydrate is unstable at ground surface pressure and temperature conditions,

  18. Results of well logging operations at the Ahuachapan geothermal field, El Salvador

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Jermance, R.; Lawton, R.; Quintinilla, A.; Berganza, J.

    1988-01-01

    Well logging operations were performed in eight of the geothermal wells at Ahucachapan. A series of high temperature instruments, including temperature/rabbit, caliper, fluid velocity/temperature/pressure (STP) and fluid sampler were deployed in each well. The caliper tool was used primarily to determine the possible chemical desposit buildup in the casing or liner, and in one well to investigate a suspected break in the casing. STP logs were obtained from six of the eight wells at various flow rates ranging from 30 to 70 kg/s. A static STP log was also run with the wells shut in to provide data to be used in the thermodynamic analysis of several production wells. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Drilling, construction, and caliper-log data for well 3-3505-25, North Lower Anahulu exploratory well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The North Lower Anahulu exploratory well (State well number 3-3505-25) was drilled about 1.4 miles east-northeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well was drilled on agricultural land in the Kawailoa ground-water area. The well was drilled from an elevation of about 232 feet above mean sea level and penetrates about 22 feet into a basalt aquifer. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July, 1993 and May, 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  20. Comparison of two methods of estimating static formation temperature from well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Leblanc; H. L. Lam; L. J. Pascoe; F. W. Jones

    1982-01-01

    Two methods for estimating the true formation temperature from well logs are compared. One method requires knowledge of the circulation time, whereas the other requires an estimate of the thermal diffusivity of the contents of the well. Both methods require three or more successive bottom-hole temperature measurements. Data from 157 wells have been analyzed, and the calculated formation temperatures from

  1. Characterization of the L-1 sand using well logs and amplitude attribute analysis

    E-print Network

    Ratliff, Thomas Lee

    1989-01-01

    University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Joel S. Watkins The L-1 sand (located in the Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas) is the first sand of the Miocene and lies just above the Anahuac marine shale. Its thickness ranges from 9? 64 feet throughout the study... of the Early Miocene B Petrophysical properties determined using well logs C Using SP logs to determine depositional environment D Resolution, amplitude, and bed thickness E Pore fluid tie acoustic impedence F Reflection strength and instantaneous phase...

  2. Characterization of light hydrocarbon reservoirs by gradient-NMR well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Mardon; M. G. Prammer; G. R. Coates

    1996-01-01

    New methods for acquiring and processing gradient NMR well log data enable signals from gas, light oil, and water to be unambiguously separated and, in many cases, quantified. These methods exploit the combined effects of T1-based and diffusion-based contrast on log response. T1 contrast, which separates the water and light hydrocarbon (oil or gas) signals, is measured by subtracting spin-echo

  3. Lithology identification of aquifers from geophysical well logs and fuzzy logic analysis: Shui-Lin Area, Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bieng-Zih Hsieh; Charles Lewis; Zsay-Shing Lin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a fuzzy lithology system from well logs to identify formation lithology of a groundwater aquifer system in order to better apply conventional well logging interpretation in hydro-geologic studies because well log responses of aquifers are sometimes different from those of conventional oil and gas reservoirs. The input variables for this system are

  4. Characterization of light hydrocarbon reservoirs by gradient-NMR well logging.

    PubMed

    Mardon, D; Prammer, M G; Coates, G R

    1996-01-01

    New methods for acquiring and processing gradient NMR well log data enable signals from gas, light oil, and water to be unambiguously separated and, in many cases, quantified. These methods exploit the combined effects of T1-based and diffusion-based contrast on log response. T1 contrast, which separates the water and light hydrocarbon (oil or gas) signals, is measured by subtracting spin-echo decays measured at different, appropriately chosen wait times. Gas and oil signals are then separated based on the large contrast in the diffusion-induced T2 relaxation times for gas vs. liquid. Practical application of these principles is illustrated with new log examples that also highlight the advantages of NMR over traditional logging methods for detecting and typing light hydrocarbons, especially in mineralogically complex rocks. PMID:8970080

  5. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations...OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.514 Well-control fluids, equipment, and...

  6. Some Measured Levels of Noise Produced by Logging Equipment in 1998 Cornelis F. de Hoop and Neil J. Lalonde

    E-print Network

    Wu, Qinglin

    than nine million Americans are exposed to daily average occupation noise levels above 85 decibels (dSome Measured Levels of Noise Produced by Logging Equipment in 1998 By Cornelis F. de Hoop and Neil-6202 Tel: (225) 578-4242 Fax: (225) 578-4251 Email: cdehoop@lsu.edu #12;2 Some Measured Levels of Noise

  7. Well log interpretation and seismic character of the cenozoic sequence in the northern Alboran Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Jurado; M. C. Comas

    1992-01-01

    Seismic stratigraphic and main lithological features of the sedimentary cover overlying the basement of the Alboran Sea were established via the analysis of commercial multichannel seismic surveys, geophysical well logs, and well data. Six seismic stratigraphics units (VI to I), bounded by unconformities, form the marine sediments that range in age from early Miocene to Quaternary. They are dated by

  8. View of McKenzieRichey covered well showing log and lumber construction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of McKenzie-Richey covered well showing log and lumber construction and shingles, facing southeast - McKenzie Property, Covered Well, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  9. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Adams; B. Dennis; E. Van Eeckhout; F. Goff; R. Lawton; P. E. Trujillo; D. Counce; J. Archuleta; V. Medina

    1991-01-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements

  10. DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY AND POROSITY LOGS IN WELLS WITH A DISTURBED ANNULUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method is developed to determine the Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of the formation surrounding a well as a function of depth. n electrically anomalous fluid is injected into a fully screened well and the radius of invasion is determined by induction logging. he radius of...

  11. Investigating uplift in the South-Western Barents Sea using sonic and density well log measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Ellis, M.

    2014-12-01

    Sediments in the Barents Sea have undergone large amounts of uplift due to Plio-Pleistoncene deglaciation as well as Palaeocene-Eocene Atlantic rifting. Uplift affects the reservoir quality, seal capacity and fluid migration. Therefore, it is important to gain reliable uplift estimates in order to evaluate the petroleum prospectivity properly. To this end, a number of quantification methods have been proposed, such as Apatite Fission Track Analysis (AFTA), and integration of seismic surveys with well log data. AFTA usually provides accurate uplift estimates, but the data is limited due to its high cost. While the seismic survey can provide good uplift estimate when well data is available for calibration, the uncertainty can be large in areas where there is little to no well data. We estimated South-Western Barents Sea uplift based on well data from the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. Primary assumptions include time-irreversible shale compaction trends and a universal normal compaction trend for a specified formation. Sonic and density logs from two Cenozoic shale formation intervals, Kolmule and Kolje, were used for the study. For each formation, we studied logs of all released wells, and established exponential normal compaction trends based on a single well. That well was then deemed the reference well, and relative uplift can be calculated at other well locations based on the offset from the normal compaction trend. We found that the amount of uplift increases along the SW to NE direction, with a maximum difference of 1,447 m from the Kolje FM estimate, and 699 m from the Kolmule FM estimate. The average standard deviation of the estimated uplift is 130 m for the Kolje FM, and 160 m for the Kolmule FM using the density log. While results from density logs and sonic logs have good agreement in general, the density log provides slightly better results in terms of higher consistency and lower standard deviation. Our results agree with published papers qualitatively with some differences in the actual amount of uplifts. The results are considered to be more accurate due to the higher resolution of the log scale data that was used.

  12. Estimating pore-space gas hydrate saturations from well log acoustic data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Myung W.; Waite, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Relating pore-space gas hydrate saturation to sonic velocity data is important for remotely estimating gas hydrate concentration in sediment. In the present study, sonic velocities of gas hydrate–bearing sands are modeled using a three-phase Biot-type theory in which sand, gas hydrate, and pore fluid form three homogeneous, interwoven frameworks. This theory is developed using well log compressional and shear wave velocity data from the Mallik 5L-38 permafrost gas hydrate research well in Canada and applied to well log data from hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaskan permafrost, Gulf of Mexico, and northern Cascadia margin. Velocity-based gas hydrate saturation estimates are in good agreement with Nuclear Magneto Resonance and resistivity log estimates over the complete range of observed gas hydrate saturations.

  13. Identifying Complex Fluvial Sandstone Reservoirs Using Core, Well Log, and 3D Seismic Data: Cretaceous Cedar Mountain and Dakota Formations,

    E-print Network

    Seamons, Kent E.

    i Identifying Complex Fluvial Sandstone Reservoirs Using Core, Well Log, and 3D Seismic Data Log, and 3D Seismic Data: Cretaceous Cedar Mountain and Dakota Formations, Southern Uinta Basin, Utah core, well-log, and 3D seismic data. The detailed stratigraphy and sedimentology of the interval were

  14. Comparison of VSP and sonic{log data in non{vertical wells in a heterogeneous structure

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Comparison of VSP and sonic{log data in non{vertical wells in a heterogeneous structure Petr Bulant. Sonic logging provides very detailed information about the slowness in the structure along the well://sw3d.m#11;.cuni.cz/sta#11;/klimes.htm Summary In order to compare the results of sonic{log

  15. Performance evaluation of active wireline heave compensation systems in marine well logging environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tanzhuo; Iturrino, Gerardo; Goldberg, David; Meissner, Eric; Swain, Kerry; Furman, Clayton; Fitzgerald, Peter; Frisbee, Nathan; Chlimoun, Joe; Van Hyfte, John; Beyer, Ron

    2013-02-01

    The basic functionality and performance of a new Schlumberger active wireline heave compensation system on the JOIDES Resolution was evaluated during the sea trial and a 3-year period of the IODP Phase II operations. A suite of software programs was developed to enable real-time monitoring of the dynamics of logging tools, and assess the efficiency of wireline heave compensation during downhole operations. The evaluation of the system effectiveness was performed under normal logging conditions as well as during stationary tests. Logging data were analyzed for their overall quality and repeatability, and to assess the reliability of high-resolution data such as formation microscanner (FMS) electrical images. This revealed that the system reduces 65-80 % of displacement or 88-98 % variance of downhole tool motion in stationary mode under heave conditions of ±0.2-1.5 m and water depths of 300-4,500 m in open holes. Under similar water/heave conditions, the compensator system reduces tool displacement by 50-60 %, or 75-84 % variance in downhole tool motion during normal logging operations. Such compensation efficiency (CE) is comparable to previous compensation systems, but using advanced and upgradeable technologies, and provides 50-85 % heave motion and heave variance attenuation. Moreover, logging down/up at low speeds (300-600 m/h) reduces the system's CE values by 15-20 %, and logging down at higher speeds (1,000-1,200 m/h) eliminates CE values by 55-65 %. Considering the high quality of the logging data collected, it is concluded that the new system can provide an improved level of compensation over previous systems. Also, if practically feasible, future integration of downhole cable dynamics as an input feedback into the current system could further improve its compensation efficiency during logging operations.

  16. Geophysical logs for selected wells in the Picher Field, northeast Oklahoma and southeast Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christenson, Scott C.; Thomas, Tom B.; Overton, Myles D.; Goemaat, Robert L.; Havens, John S.

    1991-01-01

    The Roubidoux aquifer in northeastern Oklahoma is used extensively as a source of water for public supplies, commerce, industry, and rural water districts. The Roubidoux aquifer may be subject to contamination from abandoned lead and zinc mines of the Picher field. Water in flooded underground mines contains large concentrations of iron, zinc, cadmium, and lead. The contaminated water may migrate from the mines to the Roubidoux aquifer through abandoned water wells in the Picher field. In late 1984, the Oklahoma Water Resources Board began to locate abandoned wells that might be serving as conduits for the migration of contaminants from the abandoned mines. These wells were cleared of debris and plugged. A total of 66 wells had been located, cleared, and plugged by July 1985. In cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey took advantage of the opportunity to obtain geophysical data in the study area and provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board with data that might be useful during the well-plugging operation. Geophysical logs obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey are presented in this report. The geophysical logs include hole diameter, normal, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, natural-gamma, gamma-gamma, and neutron logs. Depths logged range from 145 to 1,344 feet.

  17. Lithofacies Classification from Well Log Data using Neural Networks, Interval Neutrosophic Sets and Quantification of Uncertainty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pawalai Kraipeerapun; Chun Che Fung; Wai Wong

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to the question of lithofacies classification based on an assessment of the uncertainty in the classification results. The proposed approach has multiple neural networks (NN), and interval neutrosophic sets (INS) are used to classify the input well log data into outputs of multiple classes of lithofacies. A pair of n-class neural networks are used

  18. An efficient solution for the response of electrical well logging tools in a complex environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weng Cho Chew; Zaiping Nie; Qing-Huo Liu; Barbara Anderson

    1991-01-01

    A symmetrical form of the solution for an electrical source in a multibed well-logging environment is derived. The method uses local reflection and transmission operators of a single-bed boundary and a general recursive algorithm to derive generalized reflection and transmission operators. Using this method, the computation time scales linearly as N, where N is the number of beds in the

  19. Effect of tool eccentricity on some electrical well-logging tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Lovell; W. C. Chew

    1990-01-01

    An algorithm is presented to compute efficiently the propagation of nonaxially symmetric waves induced by realistic eccentered sources with a mandrel in a multicylindrically layered geometry. One of the applications of such a program is in electrical well logging, where all exploration tools operate in a borehole drilled into the ground for geophysical subsurface sensing. The borehole surrounded by an

  20. Applicability of barium fluoride and cadmium tungstate scintillators for well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Melcher; R. A. Manente; J. S. Schweitzer

    1989-01-01

    Barium fluoride and cadmium tungstate have previously been used as radiation detectors in a number of applications such as high energy physics and tomographic imaging. The authors have studied the fundamental properties of these materials, with particular attention to properties relevant to nuclear well logging applications and their temperature dependence. Both detectors have properties that would seem to make them

  1. Benchmarking computer simulations of neutron-induced, gamma-ray spectroscopy for well logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard C. Odom; Shawn M. Bailey; Robert D. Wilson

    1997-01-01

    The spectroscopy of gamma rays created by thermal neutron capture and inelastic scattering of fast neutrons is commonly used in the study of wellbore geophysics. In this type of well logging, a sonde, consisting of a pulsed source of fast neutrons and gamma ray detectors, is pulled through the formations traversed by the borehole. The many geometries, lithologies, reservoir fluids,

  2. Analysis and Summary of Historical Dry Well Gamma Logs for S Tank Farm 200 West

    SciTech Connect

    MYERS, D.A.

    1999-11-22

    Gross gamma ray logs, recorded from January 1975 through mid-year 1994 as part of the Single-Shell Tank Farm Dry Well Surveillance Program, have been reanalyzed for the S tank farm to locate the presence of mobile radionuclides in the subsurface.

  3. Hydrogeochemical investigations in support of well logging operations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Adams; F. Golf; P. E. Jr. Trujillo; D. Counce; J. Archuleta; B. Dennis; V. Medina

    1990-01-01

    A suite of 41 thermal and nonthermal waters in the Zunil-Quetzaltenango region, Guatemala, were collected as part of a well logging operation conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE) and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both in situ and weirbox samples were collected in the Zunil geothermal field. The various data suggest that the reservoir at Zunil is geochemically inhomogeneous.

  4. Oil-based flushed zone electromagnetic well logging system and method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Warren; D. L. Jr. Johnson

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic energy well logging system is described, comprising: means for transmitting electromagnetic energy substantially at a frequency of 4 MHz into an earth formation from a borehole traversing the earth formation; and means for deriving the true resistivity of an oil-based flushed zone of the earth formation in accordance with transmitted electromagnetic energy after the transmitted electromagnetic energy has

  5. Western Gas Sands Project: Los Alamos NMR Well Logging Tool Development. Progress report. Final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Brown; J. A. Jackson; A. R. Koelle

    1985-01-01

    This document is the final report on the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Well Logging Tool Development Program, part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Western Gas Sands Project, most recently supported through DOE's Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The report covers the entire progress of the program from initial conception of the technique in 1978 to

  6. Analysis and design of magnet and antenna for NMR well-logging tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaideva C. Goswami; Bruno Luong; Apo Sezginer; Richard Oldigs

    1999-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a saddle-point nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging tool proposed by Kleinberg, Sezginer and Griffin (1992). A perturbation technique in conjunction with the finite element method (FEM) is used to evaluate the antenna efficiency. The static magnetic field due to a permanent magnet in the presence of ferrites is evaluated by using nonlinear magnetostatic FEM. Comparisons

  7. Some contrast agents in oil well logging and in medical MRI.

    PubMed

    Brown, R J

    1993-04-01

    Magnetite particles and paramagnetic ion chelates are used as contrast agents in both nuclear magnetism logging of oil wells and in medical MRI. An analytic expression for reduction of T2 for free precession signal decay (or gradient echoes) by magnetite particles does not depend on diffusion and agrees with published Monte Carlo computations. PMID:8464372

  8. How Well Equipped are ENT Wards for Airway Emergencies?

    PubMed Central

    Banga, Rupan; Thirlwall, Andrea; Corbridge, Rogan

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION With increased cross cover of specialities at night and more direct triaging of casualty patients to ENT wards, there is an increased need to ensure that there is adequate provision of emergency airway management. There are currently no national guidelines on what equipment should be available on ENT wards, and the authors have devised a portable airway box with all equipment deemed necessary to manage an acute airway. We believe that all junior doctors covering ENT should have airway training and access to an airway box. The aim of this study was to determine the provision of on-ward airway equipment and training on ENT wards in England. MATERIALS AND METHODS A telephone survey of all English hospitals with in-patient ENT services. RESULTS A total of 103 departments were contacted with 98% response rate. Most wards were covered by a combination of ENT and other specialties. Results indicated that only 18% of departments had an airway box and 28% had some training in airway management. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest poor provision of emergency airway equipment and training on wards. We recommend the use of an airway box, and list of minimal equipment required. PMID:16551407

  9. Statistical factor analysis technique for characterizing basalt through interpreting nuclear and electrical well logging data (case study from Southern Syria).

    PubMed

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2014-02-01

    Factor analysis technique is proposed in this research for interpreting the combination of nuclear well logging, including natural gamma ray, density and neutron-porosity, and the electrical well logging of long and short normal, in order to characterize the large extended basaltic areas in southern Syria. Kodana well logging data are used for testing and applying the proposed technique. The four resulting score logs enable to establish the lithological score cross-section of the studied well. The established cross-section clearly shows the distribution and the identification of four kinds of basalt which are hard massive basalt, hard basalt, pyroclastic basalt and the alteration basalt products, clay. The factor analysis technique is successfully applied on the Kodana well logging data in southern Syria, and can be used efficiently when several wells and huge well logging data with high number of variables are required to be interpreted. PMID:24296157

  10. Commercial geophysical well logs from the USW G-1 drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, D.C.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-1 was drilled at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, as part of the ongoing exploration program for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Contract geophysical well logs run at USW G-1 show only limited stratigraphic correlations, but correlate reasonably well with the welding of the ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs. Rocks in the upper part of the section have highly variable physical properties, but are more uniform and predictably lower in the section.

  11. Geothermal-well completions: a survey and technical evaluation of existing equipment and needs

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholson, J.E.; Snyder, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    The geothermal environment and associated well completion problems are reviewed. Existing well completion equipment is surveyed and limitations are identified. A technical evaluation of selected completion equipment is presented. The technical evaluation concentrates on well cementing equipment and identifies potential failure mechanisms which limit the effectiveness of these tools. Equipment employed in sand control, perforating, and corrosion control are identified as potential subjects for future technical evaluation.

  12. Determination from well logs of porosity and permeability in a heterogeneous reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.L.; Salisch, H.A. [Univ. of New South Wales, Canberra (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    A technique has been developed for the petrophysical evaluation of well logs from lithologically complex sandstone reservoirs located in the Barrow Sub-basin in Western Australia. The reservoirs are sands of fairly high porosity and low permeability with a significant amount of clay minerals, among them glauconite. Principal component and cluster analysis were applied to classify the electric facies associated with lithofacies. Bayes discriminant analysis was used to identify several lithofacies in the reservoirs. The different lithofacies are characterized by distinct relationships between porosity and acoustic interval transit times as well as between porosity and permeability. This paper presents mathematical models for each lithofacies for the determination of porosity and permeability from well logs.

  13. Hydrostratigraphic Drilling Record Assessment (HyDRA): Assessing the Consistency and Quantitative Utility of Water Well Drillers' Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohling, G.; Helm, C. F.; Butler, J. J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Hydrostratigraphic Drilling Record Assessment (HyDRA) project is a three-year study to develop improved methods for building groundwater flow models from drillers' logs. Lithologic logs recorded by water well drillers represent a voluminous source of information regarding hydrostratigraphy. However, developing quantitative models from drillers' logs is challenging due to the idiosyncratic nature of each driller's approach to describing sediments and lithologies as well as variability in the amount of care invested in the description process. This presentation uses three approaches to assess the consistency and utility of drillers' logs from 250 wells in the vicinity of a continuously monitored "index" well in the High Plains Aquifer in Thomas County, Kansas. The first assessment procedure will examine logs from wells in the vicinity of the index well to determine whether they show evidence of lateral confinement of a region immediately surrounding the index well, as seems to be indicated by the index well hydrograph. The second will apply a cross-validation procedure to determine the degree of consistency among logs at different wells and identify logs that are most out of keeping with logs at nearby wells. The logs are cast in quantitative terms by first representing the sediment descriptions using 72 standardized lithology terms, further categorizing the standardized lithologies into five hydraulic property categories, and then computing the proportions of the hydraulic property categories over regular ten-foot-intervals in each well. The cross-validation procedure involves using a cross-entropy measure to compare the actual category proportions in each well to those interpolated from neighboring wells. Finally, results of a groundwater flow model using property fields developed from the drillers' logs will be briefly discussed. Comparisons between observed and simulated water levels at the index well and other continuously and annually monitored wells in the area serve as a basis for assessing the utility of the drillers' logs in development of groundwater flow models.

  14. Emulation of petroleum well-logging D-T2 correlations on a standard benchtop spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Fordham, E J

    2011-10-01

    An experimental protocol is described that allows two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) correlations of apparent diffusion coefficient D(app) and effective transverse relaxation time T(2,eff) to be acquired on a bench-top spectrometer using pulsed field gradients (PFG) in such a manner as to emulate D(app)-T(2,eff) correlations acquired using a well-logging tool with a fixed field gradient (FFG). This technique allows laboratory-scale NMR measurements of liquid-saturated cored rock to be compared directly to logging data obtained from the well by virtue of providing a comparable acquisition protocol and data format, and hence consistent data processing. This direct comparison supports the interpretation of the well-logging data, including a quantitative determination of the oil/brine saturation. The D-T(2) pulse sequence described here uses two spin echoes (2SE) with a variable echo time to encode for diffusion. The diffusion and relaxation contributions to the signal decay are then deconvolved using a 2D numerical inversion. This measurement allows shorter relaxation time components to be probed than in conventional diffusion measurements. A brief discussion of the numerical inversion algorithms available for inverting these non-rectangular data is included. The PFG-2SE sequence described is well suited to laboratory-scale studies of porous media and short T(2) samples in general. PMID:21875819

  15. Emulation of petroleum well-logging D - T2 correlations on a standard benchtop spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J.; Fordham, E. J.

    2011-10-01

    An experimental protocol is described that allows two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) correlations of apparent diffusion coefficient Dapp and effective transverse relaxation time T2,eff to be acquired on a bench-top spectrometer using pulsed field gradients (PFG) in such a manner as to emulate Dapp - T2,eff correlations acquired using a well-logging tool with a fixed field gradient (FFG). This technique allows laboratory-scale NMR measurements of liquid-saturated cored rock to be compared directly to logging data obtained from the well by virtue of providing a comparable acquisition protocol and data format, and hence consistent data processing. This direct comparison supports the interpretation of the well-logging data, including a quantitative determination of the oil/brine saturation. The D - T2 pulse sequence described here uses two spin echoes (2SE) with a variable echo time to encode for diffusion. The diffusion and relaxation contributions to the signal decay are then deconvolved using a 2D numerical inversion. This measurement allows shorter relaxation time components to be probed than in conventional diffusion measurements. A brief discussion of the numerical inversion algorithms available for inverting these non-rectangular data is included. The PFG-2SE sequence described is well suited to laboratory-scale studies of porous media and short T2 samples in general.

  16. Reservoir characterization of marine and permafrost associated gas hydrate accumulations with downhole well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.; Lee, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    Gas volumes that may be attributed to a gas hydrate accumulation depend on a number of reservoir parameters, one of which, gas-hydrate saturation, can be assessed with data obtained from downhole well-logging devices. This study demonstrates that electrical resistivity and acoustic transit-time downhole log data can be used to quantify the amount of gas hydrate in a sedimentary section. Two unique forms of the Archie relation (standard and quick look relations) have been used in this study to calculate water saturations (S(w)) [gas-hydrate saturation (S(h)) is equal to (1.0 - S(w))] from the electrical resistivity log data in four gas hydrate accumulations. These accumulations are located on (1) the Blake Ridge along the Southeastern continental margin of the United States, (2) the Cascadia continental margin off the pacific coast of Canada, (3) the North Slope of Alaska, and (4) the Mackenzie River Delta of Canada. Compressional wave acoustic log data have also been used in conjunction with the Timur, modified Wood, and the Lee weighted average acoustic equations to calculate gas-hydrate saturations in all four areas assessed.

  17. Practical approach to estimate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio using Passey's algorithm without sonic log in horizontal well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun

    2013-04-01

    Shale gas evaluation process can be summarized as the selection of sweep spot intervals in the vertical borehole and determination of hydraulic fracturing zones in horizontal borehole. Brittleness index used in the selection of hydraulic fracturing interval is calculated from dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of wireline logging and MWD/LWD data. Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated from the sonic and density log data, and therefore the MWD/LWD in the horizontal borehole should be included sonic log to estimate the dynamic elastic constants. This paper proposes a practical method to estimate the elastic moduli based on Passey's algorithm if we can't use the LWD sonic log in the horizontal borehole. To estimate the TOC (Total Organic Content) using the sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log using Passey's algorithm we use the relationship between Delta log R values and core derived-LOM (Level of Maturity) data. Dynamic elastic constants in the horizontal well, i.e. in case of sweet spot zones, can be estimated using the relationships between P-wave velocity and elastic constants in the vertical well, and similarity between the calculated Delta log R values from sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log, and neutron-resistivity log, respectively. From two Passey's algorithms such as sonic-resistivity log, density-resistivity log relationships in the vertical well, we can derive the P-wave velocity equating the two Passey's algorithms based on the similarity. Then we can derive the dynamic elastic constants using the relationships between P-wave velocity and dynamic elastic constants. Finally we can estimate the brittleness index from the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We expect that this practical method can be effectively applied if we can't use the LWD sonic logging data of the horizontal borehole.

  18. Integrated analysis of well logs and seismic data to estimate gas hydrate concentrations at Keathley Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.; Collett, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    Accurately detecting and quantifying gas hydrate or free gas in sediments from seismic data require downhole well-log data to calibrate the physical properties of the gas hydrate-/free gas-bearing sediments. As part of the Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Program, a series of wells were either cored or drilled in the Gulf of Mexico to characterize the physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to calibrate geophysical estimates, and to evaluate source and transport mechanisms for gas within the gas hydrates. Downhole acoustic logs were used sparingly in this study because of degraded log quality due to adverse wellbore conditions. However, reliable logging while drilling (LWD) electrical resistivity and porosity logs were obtained. To tie the well-log information to the available 3-D seismic data in this area, a velocity log was calculated from the available resistivity log at the Keathley Canyon 151-2 well, because the acoustic log or vertical seismic data acquired at the nearby Keathley Canyon 151-3 well were either of poor quality or had limited depth coverage. Based on the gas hydrate saturations estimated from the LWD resistivity log, the modified Biot-Gassmann theory was used to generate synthetic acoustic log and a synthetic seismogram was generated with a fairly good agreement with a seismic profile crossing the well site. Based on the well-log information, a faintly defined bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) in this area is interpreted as a reflection representing gas hydrate-bearing sediments with about 15% saturation overlying partially gas-saturated sediments with 3% saturation. Gas hydrate saturations over 30-40% are estimated from the resistivity log in two distinct intervals at 220-230 and 264-300 m below the sea floor, but gas hydrate was not physically recovered in cores. It is speculated that the poor recovery of cores and gas hydrate morphology are responsible for the lack of physical gas hydrate recovery.

  19. Magnetic logs from the Lopra-1\\/1A and Vestmanna-1 wells, Faroe Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Niels Abrahamsen; Regin Waagstein

    2006-01-01

    Susceptibility measurements from cores (representing basalt, lapilli-tuffs and tuffs) and magnetic logs from the Lopra-1\\/1A well are presented. The basalts fall into high- and low-susceptibility groups with no overlap. The high-susceptibility basalts (seven cores) have susceptibilities between 4 and 88 ×10 -3 SI and consist of basalt with < 1% vesicles from thick massive units. The low-susceptibility basalts are intergranular,

  20. Extraction of geological information from acoustic well-logging waveforms using time-frequency wavelets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Saito; Ronald R. Coifman

    1997-01-01

    Recently developed classification and regressionmethods are applied to extract geological informationfrom acoustic well-logging waveforms. First, acousticwaveforms are classified into the ones propagatedthrough sandstones and the ones propagated throughshale using the local discriminant basis (LDB) method.Next, the volume fractions of minerals are estimated(e.g., quartz and gas) at each depth using the local regressionbasis (LRB) method. These methods first analyzethe...

  1. Fluid flow model of the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field based on well log interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Halfman, S.E.; Lippmann, M.J.; Zelwe, R.; Howard, J.H.

    1982-08-10

    The subsurface geology of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field was analyzed using geophysical and lithologic logs. The distribution of permeable and relatively impermeable units and the location of faults are shown in a geologic model of the system. By incorporating well completion data and downhole temperature profiles into the geologic model, it was possible to determine the direction of geothermal fluid flow and the role of subsurface geologic features that control this movement.

  2. A new production logging method for fullbore gas holdup measurements in cased wells

    SciTech Connect

    Waid, M.C.; Madigan, W.P.; Smith, H.D. Jr. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The measurement of the gas holdup in a flowing cased-hole environment is a fundamentally difficult problem. Gas holdup, the estimate percent of gas in a volume of wellbore, has traditionally been computed from fluid density measurements. These estimates are inadequate for determining gas holdup in deviated or horizontal wells since the fluid density was not a fullbore measurement. A new Gas Holdup Tool (GHT{trademark}) has been developed which provides a more accurate technique for obtaining gas holdup measurements directly. This 1 11/16-inch production logging tool is used to determine the volumetric fraction of gas in horizontal, deviated, and vertical cased wells, and provides a log of the gas holdup fraction (from 0% to 100%) in all flow regimes. Examples are presented for comparing homogeneous and stratified flows. The tool uses a low-energy Co-57 source and NaI detectors with a new backscatter technique to accurately measure density differences of the total fluid and gas in the borehole around the tool. This new measurement provides the gas fraction (holdup) in all flow regimes, and is not affected by the materials outside the casing. Monte Carlo modeling and experimental data over a wide range of cased-hole conditions validate empirical relationships between detector count rates and gas holdup for various casing diameters. The sensitivity of the measurement to other factors, such as pressure, salinity, and fluid type, are also investigated. The new production logging method may be used in determining points of gas and oil entry into deviated or horizontal wells and for quantitative production logging in deviated or horizontal wells with variable or unknown flow regimes.

  3. On the design of NMR sensor for well-logging applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Goswami; A. Sezginer; B. Luong

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic fields of antenna and magnet used in inside-out nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) well-logging tool are computed using a finite-element method (FEM). A typical operating frequency of such tools is 2 MHz, at which the skin depth is about 47 ?m for copper conductor. A direct application of FEM to evaluate power loss at such frequency, therefore, requires very

  4. Emulation of petroleum well-logging D ? T 2 correlations on a standard benchtop spectrometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mitchell; E. J. Fordham

    2011-01-01

    An experimental protocol is described that allows two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) correlations of apparent diffusion coefficient Dapp and effective transverse relaxation time T2,eff to be acquired on a bench-top spectrometer using pulsed field gradients (PFG) in such a manner as to emulate Dapp?T2,eff correlations acquired using a well-logging tool with a fixed field gradient (FFG). This technique allows

  5. Expected-value techniques for Monte Carlo modeling of well logging problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, Scott W.; Mau?ec, Marko; Spanier, Jerome; Badruzzaman, Ahmed; Chedester, Clint; Evans, Michael

    2010-02-01

    This article describes research performed to develop an expected-value (EV) estimation capability for improving the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulations of oil well logging problems. The basic idea underlying EV estimation is that event-level interaction and transport probabilities are known and can be averaged exactly to produce unbiased estimators that properly account for potential future events in the simulation. Conventional surface-crossing and track-length based estimators do not provide any information unless a particle history actually reaches a detector region. Expected-value estimators, however, can extract information from particles that merely travel along a direction intercepting the detector region. This paper describes two expected-value estimators that have been developed for oil well logging simulations. The first estimates the volume-averaged scalar flux or reaction rate in a detector. The second estimates a weighted surface-averaged incident current that can be enfolded with a detector response function to estimate pulse-height spectra. Though EV estimation reduces variance at the event level, it does not guarantee reduced variance at the history level. However, our oil well logging tests indicate that the EV approach generally improves information content, enhances the efficiency of the transport simulation, and provides an efficient technique to obtain the fluxes, reaction rates, and pulse-height spectra in detectors, especially when applied in conjunction with weight-window variance reduction techniques.

  6. Automated robotic equipment for ultrasonic inspection of pressurizer heater wells

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.; DeRossi, R.S.; Mullins, L.E.

    1991-12-31

    A robotic device for remotely inspecting pressurizer heater wells is provided which has the advantages of quickly, precisely, and reliably acquiring data at reasonable cost while also reducing radiation exposure of an operator. The device comprises a probe assembly including a probe which enters a heater well, gathers data regarding the condition of the heater well and transmits a signal carrying that data; a mounting device for mounting the probe assembly at the opening of the heater well so that the probe can enter the heater well; a first motor mounted on the mounting device for providing movement of the probe assembly in an axial direction; and a second motor mounted on the mounting device for providing rotation of the probe assembly. This arrangement enables full inspection of the heater well to be carried out.

  7. Characterization of the L-1 sand using well logs and amplitude attribute analysis 

    E-print Network

    Ratliff, Thomas Lee

    1989-01-01

    to the west side of the major growth fault because of intense antithetic faulting on the east side of the fault. Figure 18 shows the frequency spectrum for the seismic trace correlating to Well H. The time window used to make this frequency spectrum... for Wells B and H. In making synthetics, acoustic logs were divided into equal time layers of 2 ms (equal to I/2 the seismic sampling rate). These equal time layers &vere converted into equally spaced reflection coefficients v hich were then convolved...

  8. INTERPRETATION OF POROSITY AND FLUID CONSTITUENTS FROM WELL-LOGS USING AN INTERACTIVE NEUTRON-DENSITY MATRIX SCALE

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    1 INTERPRETATION OF POROSITY AND FLUID CONSTITUENTS FROM WELL- LOGS USING AN INTERACTIVE NEUTRON neutron and density measurements is still the most reliable estimate of reservoir porous space from well-log from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or/and core measurements provides reliable evaluations

  9. Western Gas Sands Project: Los Alamos NMR well-logging tool development

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; Brown, J.A.; Koelle, A.R.

    1982-08-01

    Major advances were made in all areas of the project. Two commercial laboratory NMR spectrometers for core studies were acquired and put into operation. A low-frequency NMR spectrometer was built for core measurements at the operating frequency of the logging tool. A permanent magnet laboratory mockup of the logging tool is being used to measure NMR properties of fluid in saturated Western Gas Sands core. Permanent magnets were acquired that will form the basis for construction of a prototype logging tool. Superconducting magnets for a laboratory mockup of an improved tool have been ordered. Major improvements have been and are being made in the areas of electronics and radio frequency circuitry. A computer control and data acquisition system is assembled and in operation. NMR relaxation times have been measured in standard NMR spectrometer geometry and in inside-out (tool) geometry for water saturated Western Gas Sands core and for synthetic samples. The results correlate well with porosimetry measurements. A program was initiated for theoretial analysis of the data, and it may be possible to generate a computer deconvolution of the NMR relaxation times that can extract pore size distribution from the data.

  10. Well log-derived estimates of thermal conductivity in crystalline rocks penetrated by the 4-km deep KTB Vorbohrung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Pribnow; Colin F. Williams; Hans Burkhardt

    1993-01-01

    Well log measurements of compressional and shear velocity (Vp, Vs), density, and temperature from the 4 km-deep KTB Vorbohrung (pilot hole) were applied in a phonon conduction model for the thermal conductivity of a crystalline solid. The resulting conductivity estimates were compared with conductivities (kLAB) measured on the nearly continuous core. Previous studies have shown the log-derived conductivity (kLOG) to

  11. Analyzing pumped-well impeller logs to ascertain vertical hydraulic conductivity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. H.; West, J.; Odling, N. E.; Bottrell, S. H.

    2007-12-01

    Horizontal variations in the hydraulic conductivity of aquifers are generally well characterized through simple pump test analyses. However, vertical variations are often poorly understood and misrepresented in the regional models used by regulatory bodies and water companies. Understanding these is key for predicting flow paths and hence the behavior of contaminants in the aquifer that might present a risk to public drinking water supplies. Traditionally, packer tests were used to characterize these variations, but they can be time consuming and costly to perform. However, other techniques have been developed which can quantify these variations, including impeller logging. This study aims to present new, more rigorous methods of analyzing impeller flow log data. Impeller logs were taken under pumped conditions in open wells in a chalk aquifer located in N. England. Theoretically, hydraulic conductivity can be obtained from the gradient in flow rate with depth. However, data are typically noisy due to turbulent flow and hole diameter variations with depth; so directly converting the flow rate gradient to hydraulic conductivity leads to rapid non-physical variation and negative hydraulic conductivity values. Correcting for hole diameter variations using caliper logs proved difficult due to phenomena such as jetting, whereby when the water enters a widening, it does not instantly slow down. In order to obtain more realistic hydraulic conductivity profiles, we firstly tried a data smoothing algorithm, but this approach distorted the data and still gave an unacceptable noise level. Instead, a layered modeling approach has been developed. A hydraulic conductivity profile consisting of a discrete number of uniform layers is constructed, and layer thicknesses and hydraulic conductivities are varied until a satisfactory fit to the observed flow log is achieved. Results from field sites on the confined Chalk aquifer of East Yorkshire in the United Kingdom showed good correlation to packer test analysis. The absence of significant ambient flows at this test site made the final analysis relatively simple. By testing boreholes across the aquifer a pattern of hydraulic conductivity variation with depth can be established, and compared to the proposed geological and climatic reasons for the variations' existence.

  12. Introducing Data Logging Equipment into Programmes of Study in Field Studies Centre: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Data loggers use sensors to collect environmental data that can be graphed instantly via computer software. A study used four groups of British elementary students to determine the educational benefits of data logging in field situations. Results indicate that data loggers excited the pupils and saved them time recording temperature readings. That…

  13. Induction conductivity and natural gamma logs collected in 15 wells at Camp Stanley Storage Activity, Bexar County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Gregory P.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Camp Stanley Storage Activity conducted electromagnetic induction conductivity and natural gamma logging of 15 selected wells on the Camp Stanley Storage Activity, located in northern Bexar County, Texas, during March 28-30, 2005. In late 2004, a helicopter electromagnetic survey was flown of the Camp Stanley Storage Activity as part of a U.S. Geological Survey project to better define subsurface geologic units, the structure, and the catchment area of the Trinity aquifer. The electromagnetic induction conductivity and natural gamma log data in this report were collected to constrain the calculation of resistivity depth sections and to provide subsurface controls for interpretation of the helicopter electromagnetic data collected for the Camp Stanley Storage Activity. Logs were recorded digitally while moving the probe in an upward direction to maintain proper depth control. Logging speed was no greater than 30 feet per minute. During logging, a repeat section of at least 100 feet was recorded to check repeatability of log responses. Several of the wells logged were completed with polyvinyl chloride casing that can be penetrated by electromagnetic induction fields and allows conductivity measurement. However, some wells were constructed with steel centralizers and stainless steel screen that caused spikes on both conductivity and resulting resistivity log curves. These responses are easily recognizable and appear at regular intervals on several logs.

  14. Hydrogeochemical investigations in support of well logging operations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, A.; Golf, F.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J.; Dennis, B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Unidad de Desarrollo Geotermico, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Inst. Nacional de Electrificacion)

    1990-01-01

    A suite of 41 thermal and nonthermal waters in the Zunil-Quetzaltenango region, Guatemala, were collected as part of a well logging operation conducted by the Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion (INDE) and Los Alamos National Laboratory. Both in situ and weirbox samples were collected in the Zunil geothermal field. The various data suggest that the reservoir at Zunil is geochemically inhomogeneous. Stable isotope data suggest recharge to the field comes primarily from the north and east whereas tritium data indicate that the reservoir waters may be 500 to 7500 years old. 14 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Space age telemetry for geothermal well logging: the wireline transmission link

    SciTech Connect

    Kolar, J.D.; Dennis, B.R.; Stephani, E.L.; Gutierrez, P.

    1985-01-01

    The development of aerospace telemetry has opened new communication data links for making measurements in deep boreholes in the earth's crust. However, now a transmission line must be used since high-frequency signals will not propagate through this medium. Further restrictions are imposed upon well-logging transmission lines in high-temperature boreholes. It is possible to extend the bandwidth and number of data channels to enhance measurements in geothermal boreholes by combining aerospace telemetry techniques with thermal protection systems and careful selection of wireline data transmission configurations. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  16. Logs and completion data for water and mass balance wells in Mortandad and Ten Site Canyons

    SciTech Connect

    McLin, S.G. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Water Quality and Hydrology Group; Purtymun, W.D.; Swanton, A.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, NM (United States); Koch, R.J. [Science Applications International Corp., Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-four monitoring wells were drilled and completed in December 1994 as part of a water and mass balance study for the shallow perched aquifer in the Mortandad Canyon alluvium and in the lower part of Ten-Site Canyon. The wells penetrated the alluvium containing the aquifer and were completed into the top of the weathered tuff. Twelve of these wells encountered the Tshirege Member (Cooing Unit 1 g) of the Bandelier Tuff below the canyon alluvium, while ten wells made contact with the Cerro Toledo interval, which lies between the Tshirege and Otowi Members of the Bandelier Tuff. The remaining two wells were completed into the alluvium above the weathered tuff contact. These wells provide access for continuous water level measurement and water sampling. Data from these new wells will be used to determine changes in alluvial aquifer water storage, water quality sampling, and estimation of seepage into the unsaturated Bandelier Tuff below the alluvium. This report documents drilling activities and well completion logs for the water and mass balance study. These wells also provide critical new data for fourteen north-south vertical cross-sections constructed for the canyon alluvium.

  17. Clay and framework mineralogy, cation exchange capacity, matrix density, and porosity from geochemical well logging in Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, M.M.; Grau, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Elemental concentrations of several inorganic elements were determined in a continuous basis with depth using the Schlumberger gamma-ray spectrometry (GST) and natural gamma-ray spectrometry (NGS) logs in a Santa Fe Energy Company well in the Kern Front field in Bakersfield, California. Logs of Al, Si, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, and non-pore H were processed by a matrix multiplication procedure, used previously for a Venezuelan well, into estimated abundances of quartz, feldspar, calcite, ilmenite, and the clay minerals kaolinite, illite, and smectite. A total of 64 core-plug samples were analyzed for elemental content by x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis and for mineralogy by bulk and < 4 ..mu.. clay x-ray diffraction analyses. Log-derived elemental concentrations and mineral abundances show good agreement with the core values. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) is estimated from the abundances of the clay minerals and typical values for these clays. The CEC log agrees well with CEC values determined on the core samples. The mineral abundance logs also permit an estimation of the average matrix density as a function of depth, derived from typical grain densities for each mineral phase. This matrix density log, combined with the bulk density log, yields a porosity log that compares well with over 200 measurements on core.

  18. Detailed evaluation of gas hydrate reservoir properties using JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well downhole well-log displays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well project was designed to investigate the occurrence of in situ natural gas hydrate in the Mallik area of the Mackenzie Delta of Canada. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed in the Mallik 2L-38 well included the Schlumberger Platform Express with a high resolution laterolog, Array Induction Imager Tool, Dipole Shear Sonic Imager, and a Fullbore Formation Microlmager. The downhole log data obtained from the log- and core-inferred gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary interval (897.25-1109.5 m log depth) in the Mallik 2L-38 well is depicted in a series of well displays. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces, calculated from available downhole well-log and core data. The gas hydrate accumulation delineated by the Mallik 2L-38 well has been determined to contain as much as 4.15109 m3 of gas in the 1 km2 area surrounding the drill site.

  19. MCMA Online Equipment Checkout System Tutorial PART 1: HOW TO LOG IN & OUT

    E-print Network

    Nickrent, Daniel L.

    in with your dawgtag and 16-digit network ID password. 4. Click OK to join the MCMA group. 5. click the "Equipment Checkout" tab on the menu bar, then click on "Create Reservation" 2. Fill out "Requested Check Out Time" and "Requested Check In Time" on the right side of the "Reservation Details" window. Select times

  20. Seismic velocity estimation from well log data with genetic algorithms in comparison to neural networks and multilinear approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleardi, Mattia

    2015-06-01

    Predicting missing log data is a useful capability for geophysicists. Geophysical measurements in boreholes are frequently affected by gaps in the recording of one or more logs. In particular, sonic and shear sonic logs are often recorded over limited intervals along the well path, but the information these logs contain is crucial for many geophysical applications. Estimating missing log intervals from a set of recorded logs is therefore of great interest. In this work, I propose to estimate the data in missing parts of velocity logs using a genetic algorithm (GA) optimisation and I demonstrate that this method is capable of extracting linear or exponential relations that link the velocity to other available logs. The technique was tested on different sets of logs (gamma ray, resistivity, density, neutron, sonic and shear sonic) from three wells drilled in different geological settings and through different lithologies (sedimentary and intrusive rocks). The effectiveness of this methodology is demonstrated by a series of blind tests and by evaluating the correlation coefficients between the true versus predicted velocity values. The combination of GA optimisation with a Gibbs sampler (GS) and subsequent Monte Carlo simulations allows the uncertainties in the final predicted velocities to be reliably quantified. The GA method is also compared with the neural networks (NN) approach and classical multilinear regression. The comparisons show that the GA, NN and multilinear methods provide velocity estimates with the same predictive capability when the relation between the input logs and the seismic velocity is approximately linear. The GA and NN approaches are more robust when the relations are non-linear. However, in all cases, the main advantages of the GA optimisation procedure over the NN approach is that it directly provides an interpretable and simple equation that relates the input and predicted logs. Moreover, the GA method is not affected by the disadvantages that characterise gradient descent techniques such as the NN method.

  1. Lithology identification of aquifers from geophysical well logs and fuzzy logic analysis: Shui-Lin Area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Bieng-Zih; Lewis, Charles; Lin, Zsay-Shing

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to construct a fuzzy lithology system from well logs to identify formation lithology of a groundwater aquifer system in order to better apply conventional well logging interpretation in hydro-geologic studies because well log responses of aquifers are sometimes different from those of conventional oil and gas reservoirs. The input variables for this system are the gamma-ray log reading, the separation between the spherically focused resistivity and the deep very-enhanced resistivity curves, and the borehole compensated sonic log reading. The output variable is groundwater formation lithology. All linguistic variables are based on five linguistic terms with a trapezoidal membership function. In this study, 50 data sets are clustered into 40 training sets and 10 testing sets for constructing the fuzzy lithology system and validating the ability of system prediction, respectively. The rule-based database containing 12 fuzzy lithology rules is developed from the training data sets, and the rule strength is weighted. A Madani inference system and the bisector of area defuzzification method are used for fuzzy inference and defuzzification. The success of training performance and the prediction ability were both 90%, with the calculated correlation of training and testing equal to 0.925 and 0.928, respectively. Well logs and core data from a clastic aquifer (depths 100-198 m) in the Shui-Lin area of west-central Taiwan are used for testing the system's construction. Comparison of results from core analysis, well logging and the fuzzy lithology system indicates that even though the well logging method can easily define a permeable sand formation, distinguishing between silts and sands and determining grain size variation in sands is more subjective. These shortcomings can be improved by a fuzzy lithology system that is able to yield more objective decisions than some conventional methods of log interpretation.

  2. MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon) capabilities for nuclear well logging calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, R.A.; Little, R.C.; Briesmeister, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    The Los Alamos Radiation Transport Code System (LARTCS) consists of state-of-the-art Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates transport codes and data libraries. The general-purpose continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (Monte Carlo Neutron Photon), part of the LARTCS, provides a computational predictive capability for many applications of interest to the nuclear well logging community. The generalized three-dimensional geometry of MCNP is well suited for borehole-tool models. SABRINA, another component of the LARTCS, is a graphics code that can be used to interactively create a complex MCNP geometry. Users can define many source and tally characteristics with standard MCNP features. The time-dependent capability of the code is essential when modeling pulsed sources. Problems with neutrons, photons, and electrons as either single particle or coupled particles can be calculated with MCNP. The physics of neutron and photon transport and interactions is modeled in detail using the latest available cross-section data. A rich collections of variance reduction features can greatly increase the efficiency of a calculation. MCNP is written in FORTRAN 77 and has been run on variety of computer systems from scientific workstations to supercomputers. The next production version of MCNP will include features such as continuous-energy electron transport and a multitasking option. Areas of ongoing research of interest to the well logging community include angle biasing, adaptive Monte Carlo, improved discrete ordinates capabilities, and discrete ordinates/Monte Carlo hybrid development. Los Alamos has requested approval by the Department of Energy to create a Radiation Transport Computational Facility under their User Facility Program to increase external interactions with industry, universities, and other government organizations. 21 refs.

  3. Drilling and geophysical logs of the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site, Central Venango County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.; Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.; Anderson, J. Alton

    2014-01-01

    Collection and integrated analysis of drilling and geophysical logs provided an efficient and effective means for characterizing the geohydrologic framework and conditions penetrated by the tophole at the selected oil-and-gas well site. The logging methods and lessons learned at this well site could be applied at other oil-and-gas drilling sites to better characterize the shallow subsurface with the overall goal of protecting freshwater aquifers during hydrocarbon development.

  4. Log data comparison and quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, M.; LaDelfe, C.

    1981-01-01

    Two geothermal wells were logged with similar wireline logs by several logging companies in a period of five years (1974 to 1979). The results of these equivalent logs are quantitatively different and in some cases qualitatively different. This difference also occurs between the same type of logs recorded at different time intervals by the same logging company. These various log data are related and qualified when logging equipment has not been properly calibrated. All depths referred to for either well are from their respective kelly bushing (KB). The first well (Mesa 31-1) is in the Imperial Valley of California and penetrates a sand, shale, and clay sedimentary lithology with a maximum temperature of 165/sup 0/C (330/sup 0/F) and a total depth of 1882 m (6175 ft). The second well (Phillips 9-1) is in the Roosevelt Hot Springs known geothermal resource areas (KGRA) of southwestern Utah and penetrates hydrothermally altered (low-grade metamorphic) and igneous lithology with a maximum temperature of 225/sup 0/C (440/sup 0/F) and a toatl depth of 2098.5 m (6885 ft). During that period (1974 to 1979) calibration of logging equipment in metamorphic and igneous lithologies could not be done. The logging data from this well is not qualitatively comparable in all cases and indicates the need for calibration. The open-hole log data acquired from Mesa 31-1 and Phillips 9-1 wells were compared to core data from these wells and comparison factors were calculated to better quantify the open-hole log data. Then open-hole log data were compared to the cased-hole log data from various companies and additional comparison factors were calculated for the cased-hole log data. These comparison factors allow for some quantification of these uncalibrated log data.

  5. Apparatus for use in energizing submergible pumping equipment in underwater wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zehren

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for energizing submergible pumping equipment in an underwater well comprises a suspension head for the equipment and an adapter spool associated with wellhead apparatus and in which the suspension head seats. The apparatus includes internal electrical contacts within the adapter spool and contacts carried by radially expandable slips on the suspension head for establishing electrical connection between an external

  6. Well log and seismic application in delineating CBM sweet spot in Berau Basin, East Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdani, Ahmad Helman; Hamdiana, Diana Putri; Ramadhan, Welly Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    The study area is situated in the northern part of Berau Basin Northeast of Kalimantan. In the area Sajau Formation is the main coal bearing formation. The Sajau Coal were range from Lignite to sub bituminous, low ash content, and low to high cleated coal. Different with the conventional reservoir, coalbed methane reservoirs have sweet spot that are a function of structural/cleat and stratigraphy of the coal seam. The seismic data provides excellent image of faults and stratigraphy of coal seams are very much essential in CBM exploration as delineating the CBM sweet spot. Well log and acoustic impedance inversion can be applied in such a way to provide added insight to the coal distribution and cleat directions in coalbed-methane reservoirs. In this technique the property of acoustic impedance is of much importance in identifying different rock formations, which are associated with coal, and it has been successfully implemented.

  7. Specific purpose Monte Carlo modelling of nuclear well logging tool responses

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, R.P.; Verghese, K.; Choi, H.K.; Mickael, M.

    1988-02-01

    Some very powerful variance reduction techniques are either not possible to incorporate entirely or are not presently available in the general purpose Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP. These techniques include statistical estimation, direction biasing combined with path length stretching, and correlated sampling. The first two of these have been incorporated in specific purpose Monte Carlo codes for modelling the pulsed neutron and dual-spaced neutron well logging tool responses. Experimental test pit results have been simulated with these new specific purpose Monte Carlo codes and indicate that they are accurate. These codes are run on a DEC Microvax II computer in very reasonable CPU times and are very ''friendly'' compared to use of the general purpose codes. It is estimated that further optimization of the biasing parameters, inclusion of correlated sampling, and other improvements will yield computer codes that are about an order of magnitude faster than the present use of optimized general purpose codes.

  8. Flow-Log Analysis for Hydraulic Characterization of Selected Test Wells at the Indian Point Energy Center, Buchanan, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Flow logs from 24 test wells were analyzed as part of the hydraulic characterization of the metamorphosed and fractured carbonate bedrock at the Indian Point Energy Center in Buchanan, New York. The flow logs were analyzed along with caliper, optical- and acoustic-televiewer, and fluid-resistivity and temperature logs to determine the character and distribution of fracture-flow zones and estimate their transmissivities and hydraulic heads. Many flow zones were associated with subhorizontal to shallow-dipping fractured zones, southeast-dipping bedding fractures, northwest-dipping conjugate fractures, or combinations of bedding and conjugate fractures. Flow-log analysis generally provided reasonable first-order estimates of flow-zone transmissivity and head differences compared with the results of conventional hydraulic-test analysis and measurements. Selected results of an aquifer test and a tracer test provided corroborating information in support of the flow-log analysis.

  9. Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact age, cratering, target-impactite stratigraphy, ejecta, impact dynamics, hydrothermal alterations and post-impact processes are presented. The challenges and perspectives of drilling studies of impact craters are discussed.

  10. Results of well-bore flow logging for six water-production wells completed in the Santa Fe Group aquifer system, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 1996-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Conde R.

    2000-01-01

    Over the last several years, an improved conceptual understanding of the aquifer system in the Albuquerque area, New Mexico, has lead to better knowledge about the location and extent of the aquifer system. This information will aid with the refinement of ground-water simulation and with the location of sites for future water-production wells. With an impeller-type flowmeter, well-bore flow was logged under pumping conditions along the screened interval of the well bore in six City of Albuquerque water-production wells: the Ponderosa 3, Love 6, Volcano Cliffs 1, Gonzales 2, Zamora 2, and Gonzales 3 wells. From each of these six wells, a well-bore flow log was collected that represents the cumulative upward well-bore flow. Evaluation of the well-bore flow log for each well allowed delineation of the more productive zones supplying water to the well along the logged interval. Yields from the more productive zones in the six wells ranged from about 70 to 880 gallons per minute. The lithology of these zones is predominantly gravel and sand with varying amounts of sandy clay.

  11. Improving the analysis of well-logs by wavelet cross-correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, M. V. C.; Leite, F. E. A.; Andrade, R. F. S.; Andrade, J. S.; Lucena, L. S.; Neto, M. Lucena

    2015-01-01

    The concept of wavelet cross-correlation is used to provide a new approach to identify similar patterns in related data sets, which largely improves the confidence of the results. The method amounts to decompose the data sets in the wavelet space so that correlations between wavelet coefficients can be analyzed in every scale. Besides the identification of the scales in which two independent measures are correlated, the method makes it possible to find patches of data sets where correlations exist simultaneously in all scales. This allows to extend the information of a small number of spots to larger regions. Well-log data sets from two neighboring oil wells are used. We compare similar measures at different probe sites, and also measurements of different physical quantities taken on the same place. Although this is a typical scenario for the application of classical geostatistical methods, it is well known that such methods erase out local differences in favor of smoother variability. In contraposition, this wavelet cross-correlation takes advantage of the fluctuations to give information about the continuity of the geological structures in space. It works even better if no filtering procedure has been applied to the original raw data.

  12. Mobile well site test equipment to provide hydrodynamic/kinetic reaction and power plant design data

    SciTech Connect

    Nesewich, J.P.; Gracey, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    Mobile well site test equipment was constructed. The equipment simulates geothermal power cycle conditions and provides data for the study of the interactions between the hydrodynamics of a single phase brine and the kinetics of scale formation. Equipment can presently control, monitor, and record all surface conditions a geothermal brine may experience while undergoing a single or double flash energy conversion process. The unit is designed to be operated in parallel with, or independent of, well flow tests and can accommodate flow rates up to 300 gpm.

  13. Wireline log-based stratigraphy of flood basalts from the Lopra-1\\/1A well, Faroe Islands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars O. Boldreel

    2006-01-01

    The present study shows that it is possible to use conventional borehole logs to perform a detailed lithological\\/stratigraphical division of a column of subaerially extruded basalt. A stratigraphical divi- sion of the subaerial flood basalts penetrated by the Lopra-1\\/1A well has been carried out using new wire-line logging data measured in 1996 in the interval 200-2489 m depth. Resistivity data

  14. 40 CFR 146.87 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...installed; and (ii) A cement bond and variable density log to...installed; and (ii) A cement bond and variable density log, and... (2) Other physical and chemical characteristics of the injection...and (3) Physical and chemical characteristics of the...

  15. 40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...installed; and (B) A cement bond and variable density log, and...installed; and (B) A cement bond and variable density log, and... (2) Other physical and chemical characteristics of the injection...zones; and (3) Physical and chemical characteristics of the...

  16. 40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...installed; and (B) A cement bond and variable density log, and...installed; and (B) A cement bond and variable density log, and... (2) Other physical and chemical characteristics of the injection...zones; and (3) Physical and chemical characteristics of the...

  17. Western Gas Sands Project: Los Alamos NMR well-logging tool development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Jackson; J. A. Brown; A. R. Koelle

    1982-01-01

    Major advances were made in all areas of the project. Two commercial laboratory NMR spectrometers for core studies were acquired and put into operation. A low-frequency NMR spectrometer was built for core measurements at the operating frequency of the logging tool. A permanent magnet laboratory mockup of the logging tool is being used to measure NMR properties of fluid in

  18. Analysis of geophysical well logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole, Salton Sea geothermal area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Morin, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A complete suite of conventional geophysical well logs was obtained in the upper part of a 3220-m-deep borehole drilled into geothermally altered alluvial sediments on the southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Geophysical logs obtained in the State 2-14 borehole indicate that neutron porosity, gamma-gamma, and deep-induction logs provide useful information on lithologic trends with depth. The natural gamma log contains almost continuous, high-frequency fluctuations that obscure lithologic trends and that may be related to recent radioisotope redistribution and departure from radiometric equilibrium. Acoustic transit time logs give unrealistically low in situ compressional velocities ranging from 1.8 to 3.0 km/s, whereas acoustic waveform logs indicate that sediment compressional velocities range from less than 3.0 km/s shallower than 1000 m in depth to almost 5.0 km/s at depths greater than 2000 m. Analyses indicate that most log values lie between two lithologic end points: an electrically conductive claystone with moderate neutron porosity, but no effective porosity, and an electrically nonconductive, fully cemented siltstone that has small but finite porosity. -from Authors

  19. Characterization of light hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs by gradient NMR well logging: A Gulf of Mexico case study

    SciTech Connect

    Mardon, D.; Miller, D.; Howard, A.; Coates, G. [and others

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a case study from an offshore Gulf-of-Mexico field that illustrates some of the advantages and limitations of new gradient NMR (MRI) well log interpretation methods for evaluating light hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs. in one well, analysis of dual-wait time MRI log data using the differential spectrum method reveals the presence of free gas in shaly sand reservoirs that was invisible by the standard neutron-density {open_quotes}cross-over{close_quotes} method due to shaliness effects on the nuclear logs. Well test results have confirmed the MRI log interpretation in the one zone in this well that has been perforated to date. Effective porosity and free fluid volume readings were artificially suppressed due to the well-known effects of low hydrogen density and long T{sub 1} relaxation times characteristic of light hydrocarbons. However, the MRI irreducible water volume measurement was unaffected by light hydrocarbons and thus found to be a powerful tool for evaluating low-resistivity zones when integrated with conventional log analysis.

  20. Geophysical logging studies in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: Wells 44, 45, and 46

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Taylor, T.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Barrash, W. [Idaho Dept. of Health and Welfare, Boise, ID (United States)

    1993-05-01

    A geophysical logging program was undertaken to vertically profile changes in the hydrology and hydrochemistry of the Snake River Plain aquifer underlies the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Field investigations were concentrated within an area west of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in three wells that penetrated the upper 190 feet of the aquifer. The logs obtained in these wells consisted of temperature, caliper, nuclear (neutron porosity and gamma-gama density), natural gamma, borehole televiewer, gamma spectral, and thermal flowmeter (with and without pumping). The nuclear, caliper, and televiewer logs are used to delineate individual basalt flows or flow units and to recognize breaks between flows or flow units at interflow contact zones and sedimentary interbeds. The temperature logs and flowmeter measurements obtained under ambient hydraulic head conditions identified upward fluid-circulation patterns in the three wells. Gamma-spectral analyses performed at several depths in each well showed that the predominant source of gamma radiation in the formation at this site originates mainly from potassium ({sup 40}K). However, {sup 137}Cesium was detected at 32 feet below land surface in well 45. An empirical investigation of the effect of source-receiver spacing on the response of the neutron-porosity logging tool was attempted in an effort to understand the conditions under which this tool might be applied to large-diameter boreholes in-unsaturated formations.

  1. Geophysical Logs of Selected Wells at the Diaz Chemical Superfund Site in the Village of Holley, New York, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eckhardt, David A.V.; Anderson, J. Alton

    2010-01-01

    Geophysical logs were collected and analyzed to define the bedrock fracture patterns and flow zones penetrated by three wells at the Diaz Chemical Superfund Site in the Village of Holley in Orleans County, New York. The work was conducted in December 2009 as part of the investigation of contamination by organic compounds in the shale, mudstone, and sandstone bedrock at the Site. The geophysical logs include natural-gamma, caliper, borehole image, fluid properties, and flowmeter data. The orientation of fractures in the boreholes was inferred from the log data and summarized in stereo and tadpole plots; when possible, the transmissivity and hydraulic head was also determined for fracture zones that were observed to be hydraulically active through the flowmeter logs. The data are intended, in part, for use in the remediation of the site.

  2. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3604-01, Kawailoa deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Kawailoa deep monitor well (State well number 3-3604-01) was drilled about 1.9 miles east- northeast of the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land in the Kawailoa ground-water area. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone to an elevation of -392 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, specific-conductance and caliper-log data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north-central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  3. Drilling, construction, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data for well 3-3406-12, Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well, Oahu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Presley, T.K.; Oki, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The Twin Bridge Road deep monitor well (State well number 3-3406-12) was drilled about 2,000 feet northeast of Weed Circle in the town of Haleiwa. The well is on agricultural land. The well penetrates through the freshwater lens and into the freshwater-saltwater transition zone of the Waialua ground-water area to an elevation of -596 feet below mean sea level. Well-construction data, logs of drilling notes, geologic descriptions for the samples, caliper-log, and specific-conductance data are presented for the well. The well is one of 12 exploratory wells drilled in the north- central Oahu area between July 1993 and May 1994 in cooperation with the Honolulu Board of Water Supply.

  4. Estimation of NMR log parameters from conventional well log data using a committee machine with intelligent systems: A case study from the Iranian part of the South Pars gas field, Persian Gulf Basin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Mahdi Labani; Ali Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi; Karim Salahshoor

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) log provides useful information for petrophysical study of the hydrocarbon bearing intervals. Free fluid porosity (effective porosity), rock permeability and bound fluid volume (BFV) could be obtained by processing and interpretation of NMR data. The present study proposes an improved strategy to make a quantitative correlation between the NMR log parameters and conventional well logs by

  5. Uncertainty Analysis in Upscaling Well Log data By Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method 

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Kyubum

    2010-01-16

    -scale properties in subsurface layers, one ongoing challenge is accurately upscaling fine-scale (high frequency) logging measurements to coarse-scale data, such as surface seismic images. In addition, numerically efficient modeling cannot use models defined...

  6. 40 CFR 146.66 - Logging, sampling, and testing prior to new well operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...logs and tests shall be run to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity, permeability, and rock type of, and the salinity of any entrained fluids in, all relevant geologic units to assure conformance with performance standards in §...

  7. K-THEORY OF LOG-SCHEMES I WIESLAWA NIZIOL

    E-print Network

    Niziol, Wieslawa

    -schemes come equipped with several natural topologies. The main two are the Kummer log-´etale topology, well ­ the Kummer log-syntomic topology) reasonably well-suited to study p-adic phenomena. These topologies that over a separably closed field Kummer log-´etale K-theory satisfies devissage, localization as well

  8. Chapter 9 -Irrigation Equipment Safety The following suggestions are aimed at ensuring the safety of the irrigator as well as

    E-print Network

    141 Chapter 9 - Irrigation Equipment Safety The following suggestions are aimed at ensuring the safety of the irrigator as well as preventing damage to his equipment. 1. Read and follow directions equipment is not in the path of the irrigation system. 11. Be certain that moving irrigation equipment

  9. Enormous sums of money are invested by industry and scientific funding agencies every year in seismic, well log-

    E-print Network

    optimally (Curtis, 1999; Curtis et al., 2004); updating shallow resistivity survey designs in real in seismic, well log- ging, electromagnetic, earthquake monitoring and micro- seismic surveys, and in laboratory-based experiments. For each survey or experiment a design process must first take place

  10. Interpretation of Core and Well Log Physical Property Data From Drill Hole UPH-3, Stephenson County, Illinois

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Daniels; Gary R. Olhoeft; James H. Scott

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory and well log physical property measurements show variations in the mineralogy with depth in UPH-3. Gamma ray values generally decrease with depth in the drill hole, corresponding to a decrease in the felsic mineral components of the granite. Correspondingly, an increase with depth in mafic minerals in the granite is indicated by the magnetic susceptibility and gamma ray measurements.

  11. Western gas sands project. Los Alamos NMR well logging tool development. Progress report, April 1, 1980September 30, 1981

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Jackson; J. A. Brown; A. R. Koelle

    1982-01-01

    A new well logging technique based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been under development at Los Alamos since 1978. The new technique has important potential applications for improved analytical procedures for the Western Gas Sands in the Western United States. The period April 1, 1980 to October 1, 1981, was one of considerable progress in the Los Alamos NMR

  12. Three-dimensional nonlinear inversion in cross-well electrode logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aria Abubakar; Peter M. van den Berg

    1998-01-01

    Electrode logging as known in the oil industry is a method for determining the electrical conductivity distribution around a borehole or between two boreholes from the static field (dc) measurements in the borehole. In this paper we discuss the reconstruction of the conductivity in a three-dimensional domain between two boreholes. The electric current density integral equation will be taken as

  13. 2D/3D Electromagnetic sounding and well log integration on Santos Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, V. R.; Fontes, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetotellurics (MT) is a naturally induced electromagnetic technique used to map resistivity contrasts in the subsurface of the earth. The method uses the time-varying natural electric and magnetic fields incident on the earth's surface as signal source. The method has been successfully used to achieve marine exploration objectives such as imaging sub-basalts, carbonates and subsalts in situations where seismic imaging is poor. A marine magnetotelluric survey on Santos basin in the southeast of Brazil has generated high quality data in 96 sites split in three parallel profiles in NW-SE direction along a 160 km central line and two other lines, east and west, with approximately 54 km long each one. All sites were submitted to some stages of processing to avoid noise amount and reach quality improvement. Firstly, we start applying 2D inversion to MT data and we obtained two-dimensional models with very good resolution for the three profiles and they are consistent each other. We have used well log data to provide priori resistivity information for magnetotelluric models and make correlation from different data sets. The study points out that the profiles can be imaged by two-dimensional except by small parts in the models with low misfits. These parts are associated with some interesting geological structures of highlighted importance as salt domes and diapirs. The halokinetic structures have special geometries hence they are better explained by three-dimensional approach. However, it is more appropriate utilize a 3D imaging in order to reach the best model with minor uncertainties. Recently, the number of publications regarding 3D magnetotelluric inversion has increased and it is due to the fact of the effort in performing a better characterization of the research area. It is because the magnetotelluric method has been increasingly accepted as powerful technique capable to predict valuable information. Currently we are performing a 3D inversion using all profiles with a grid of approximately 160 x 6 km2 and the first results will be shown at the meeting.

  14. Geophysical log analysis of selected test and residential wells at the Shenandoah Road National Superfund Site, East Fishkill, Dutchess County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Anderson, J. Alton; Williams, John H.

    2015-01-01

    The geophysical logs and their analyses are available for display and download from the U.S. Geological Survey, New York Water Science Center, online geophysical log archive (http://ny.water.usgs.gov/maps/geologs/) in LAS (Log ASCII Standard), PDF, and WellCad formats.

  15. Geophysical natural ?-ray well logging and spectrometric signatures of south AL-Abter phosphatic deposits in Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Asfahani; A Abdul-Hadi

    2001-01-01

    A combination of several exploration techniques was carried out in AL-Abter region, aiming at outlining the main characteristics of the phosphatic layers in this region. The techniques used in this research are natural ?-ray well logging, gamma and alpha-spectrometry. It is shown that uranium concentrations in the samples taken from the wells studied vary between 42.8 and 112.5 ppm with

  16. Integrated analysis of well logs and seismic data to estimate gas hydrate concentrations at Keathley Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Lee; T. S. Collett

    2008-01-01

    Accurately detecting and quantifying gas hydrate or free gas in sediments from seismic data require downhole well-log data to calibrate the physical properties of the gas hydrate-\\/free gas-bearing sediments. As part of the Gulf of Mexico Joint Industry Program, a series of wells were either cored or drilled in the Gulf of Mexico to characterize the physical properties of gas

  17. Anhydrite Cementation In A Geothermal Research Well and Permeability Prediction From Porosity Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pape, H.; Clauser, C.; Wagner, R.

    A few sandstone formations are suitable for direct use of geothermal heat in northern Germany, one of them is the Upper Keuper Rhaetian sandstone. In one particular borehole (Allermoehe 1, south of Hamburg) the Rhaetian aquifer was drilled at 3250 m. Unfortunately, the porespace was cemented by anhydrite resulting in porosities as low as 2%. A classification of the rock type with respect to free fluid porosity, capillary bound porosity and clay bound porosity was based on a NMR log (CMR measured by Schlumberger). While porosity can easily be determined, it is difficult to evaluate permeability. One way to predict permeability is based on an existing permeability-porosity relationship, which depends in a complicated way on the pore structure. A theory was developed using a fractal pore space model. A fundamental expression for the permeability is given by the Kozeny-Carman equation which de- scribes permeability as a function of the porosity, the tortuosity T and the effective hydraulic pore radius reff . In this model theory, T and reff themselves are functions of f and the so-called fractal dimension D, which is the fundamental structure parame-ter. The result is a general equation for permeability as a function of porosity, which was calibrated for several types of clean and shaly sandstones. This calibrated per-meability-porosity relationship can be used for calculating permeability from stan-dard industry porosity logs. For a lithological sequence with a strong variation of rock type, the quality of per - meability prediction can be improved by the additional information of a NMR log which discriminates between free fluid, capillary bound and clay bound porosity. We studied 18 samples of the Rhaetian sandstone for several petrophysical properties. The comparison of the NMR porosity-log with the anhydrite volume content shows that the section of sandstone with the lowest porosities, due to intense anhydrite cementation, originally started with an initial porosity of up to 27 % and is supposed to have been the most permeable part when cementation began. The diagenetic evo-lution of a sandstone formation is reflected by the permeability- porosity (k-f) data in a log-log plot. The paths of diagenetic cementation and the paths resulting from dissolution experiments are presented in the permeability- porosity diagram. For strongly cemented samples these paths are the same for cementation and dissolution, but in the opposite direction. They have a characteristc form which differs from the porosity-permeability relationship of avarage sandstones with mainly mechanical compaction.

  18. Rock Classification in Organic Shale Based on Petrophysical and Elastic Rock Properties Calculated from Well Logs 

    E-print Network

    Aranibar Fernandez, Alvaro A

    2015-01-05

    : Apparent deep resistivity, and Track 4: Separation between the two curves (the gray shaded area) is the ?logR.………………………………………. Core TOC vs. uranium concentration from spectral gamma ray cross- plot and linear regression used to find the correlation... between both properties..…………………………………………………………… Core TOC vs. uranium concentration from spectral gamma ray cross- plot and linear regression used to fin the correlation between both properties………………..……………………………….................... Comparison...

  19. A new intense neutron generator and high-resolution detector for well logging applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Celata; M. Amman; R J Donahue; K. Leung; P. N. Luke; L. T. Perkins; P. T. Zawislanski; E. Greenspan; D. Hua; Y. Karni

    1996-01-01

    Advances in both ion source and gamma-ray detector technology at LBNL are being used to develop a new high-sensitivity neutron logging instrument. Up to 37 mA of current per 10-20 ?s pulse, 80-95% D+ , has been produced by a 2 inch diameter pulsed multicusp ion source. A D-T neutron flux of 109-1010 n\\/s is projected from this data. CdZnTe

  20. Volcanic stratigraphy of DSDP\\/ODP Hole 395A: An interpretation using well-logging data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Bartetzko; Philippe Pezard; David Goldberg; Yue-Feng Sun; Keir Becker

    2001-01-01

    Deep Sea Drilling Project\\/Ocean Drilling Program Hole 395A was drilled approximately 500 m deep into young oceanic crust west\\u000a of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Core recovery is very poor in this hole and therefore continuous downhole measurements are important\\u000a to understand the drilled lithology. Geophysical downhole measurements were carried out during several cruises. A new set\\u000a of logs was recorded during Leg

  1. A computer program for borehole compensation of dual-detector density well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, James Henry

    1978-01-01

    The computer program described in this report was developed for applying a borehole-rugosity and mudcake compensation algorithm to dual-density logs using the following information: the water level in the drill hole, hole diameter (from a caliper log if available, or the nominal drill diameter if not), and the two gamma-ray count rate logs from the near and far detectors of the density probe. The equations that represent the compensation algorithm and the calibration of the two detectors (for converting countrate or density) were derived specifically for a probe manufactured by Comprobe Inc. (5.4 cm O.D. dual-density-caliper); they are not applicable to other probes. However, equivalent calibration and compensation equations can be empirically determined for any other similar two-detector density probes and substituted in the computer program listed in this report. * Use of brand names in this report does not necessarily constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  2. Western gas sands project. Los Alamos NMR well logging tool development. Progress report, April 1, 1980-September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; Brown, J.A.; Koelle, A.R.

    1982-03-01

    A new well logging technique based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been under development at Los Alamos since 1978. The new technique has important potential applications for improved analytical procedures for the Western Gas Sands in the Western United States. The period April 1, 1980 to October 1, 1981, was one of considerable progress in the Los Alamos NMR Well Logging Project. Major advances were made in all areas of the project. Two commercial laboratory NMR spectrometers for core studies were acquired and put into operation. A low-frequency NMR spectrometer was built for core measurements at the operating frequency of the logging tool. A permanent magnet laboratory mockup of the logging tool is being used to measure NMR properties of fluid in saturated Western Gas Sands core. Permanent magnets were acquired that will form the basis for construction of a prototype logging tool. Superconducting magnets for a laboratory mockup of an improved tool have been ordered. Major improvements have been and are being made in the areas of electronics and radio-frequency circuitry. A computer control and data acquisition system is assembled and in operation. NMR relaxation times have been measured in standard NMR spectrometer geometry and in inside-out (tool) geometry for water saturated Western Gas Sands core and for synthetic samples. The results correlate well with porosimetry measurements. A program was initiated for theoretical analysis of the data, and it may be possible to generate a computer deconvolution of the NMR relaxation times that can extract pore size distribution from the data.

  3. A Generalized Approach for the Interpretation of Geophysical Well Logs in Ground-Water Studies - Theory and Application

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.; Crowder, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum exploration, making such logs difficult to calibrate and complicating inversion problem formulation. At the same time, data inversion and analysis depend on inversion model formulation and refinement, so that log interpretation cannot be deferred to a geophysical log specialist unless active involvement with interpretation can be maintained by such an expert over the lifetime of the project. We propose a generalized log-interpretation procedure designed to guide hydrogeologists in the interpretation of geophysical logs, and in the integration of log data into ground-water models that may be systematically refined and improved in an iterative way. The procedure is designed to maximize the effective use of three primary contributions from geophysical logs: (1) The continuous depth scale of the measurements along the well bore; (2) The in situ measurement of lithologic properties and the correlation with hydraulic properties of the formations over a finite sample volume; and (3) Multiple independent measurements that can potentially be inverted for multiple physical or hydraulic properties of interest. The approach is formulated in the context of geophysical inversion theory, and is designed to be interfaced with surface geophysical soundings and conventional hydraulic testing. The step-by-step procedures given in our generalized interpretation and inversion technique are based on both qualitative analysis designed to assist formulation of the interpretation model, and quantitative analysis used to assign numerical values to model parameters. The approach bases a decision as to whether quantitative inversion is statistically warranted by formulating an over-determined inversion. If no such inversion is consistent with the inversion model, quantitative inversion is judged not possible with the given data set. Additional statistical criteria such as the statistical significance of regressions are used to guide the subsequent calibration of geophysical data in terms of hydraulic variables in those situations where quantitative data inversion is considered appropriate.

  4. The Synthetic Convection Log - geophysical detection and identification of density-driven convection in monitoring wells and boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthold, S.

    2009-12-01

    Detection and quantification of flow and transport is an important part of groundwater geophysics. A distinctive flow and transport problem occurs in boreholes and groundwater monitoring wells. They locally distort the natural flow field and open up an additional possibility of vertical heat and mass transfer between rock formations (e.g. aquifers), surrounding, and atmosphere. A variety of processes can cause a mass input or exchange through the fluid column. Density-driven convection (also called free convection or natural convection) plays an important role among them. Density-driven convective flows have adulterating effects on groundwater samples and in-situ measurements in monitoring wells and boreholes. Gases and other (dissolved) substances are possibly transported into new depths where varying chemical processes may arise. Consequently, knowing about the existence of vertical density-driven flows in fluid columns is crucial for hydrological investigations and for borehole geophysics. Moreover, temperatures in fluid columns and in the proximate formation may depart significantly from the ones in the surrounding rock when affected by vertical convection. Thus, understanding convective flow within the borehole is also important for subsurface water movement investigations and geothermics. The existence of significant vertical free convection was proven using pilot scale experiments and numerical modeling. However, so far, no particular logging device or interpretation algorithm was available that could detect free convection. Here an interpretation algorithm will be presented that approaches the problem. The so-called Synthetic Convection Log (SYNCO-Log) enables in-situ detection and even identification of free convective, including double-diffusive, flows using state-of-the-art geophysical borehole measurements like temperature and water conductivity/mud resistivity logs. In the sense of a "quick look" interpretation, the SYNCO-Log visually divides the fluid column into sections that are characterized by density-driven flow and sections that are characterized by no density-driven convective flow. Additionally, it classifies the sections with density-driven flow according to its flow type. The applicability of the SYNCO-Log and relevance of the results is shown on the example of borehole measurements from both groundwater monitoring wells and deep boreholes of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). The research is funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) under the label BO 1082/10-1 within the priority program 1006 “International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP)“.

  5. Well-log based prediction of thermal conductivity of sedimentary successions: a case study from the North German Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Sven; Förster, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Data on rock thermal conductivity (TC) are important for the quantification of the subsurface temperature regime and for the determination of heat flow. If drill core is not retrieved from boreholes and thus no laboratory measurement of TC can be made, other methods are desired to determine TC. One of these methods is the prediction of TC from well logs. We have examined the relationships between TC and standard well-log data (gamma ray, density, sonic interval transit time, hydrogen index and photoelectric factor) by a theoretical analysis and by using real subsurface data from four boreholes of the North German Basin. The theoretical approach comprised the calculation of TC from well-log response values for artificial sets of mineral assemblages consisting of variable contents of 15 rock-forming minerals typical for sedimentary rocks. The analysis shows different correlation trends between TC and the theoretical well-log response in dependence on the mineral content, affecting the rock matrix TC, and on porosity. The analysis suggests the development of empirical equations for the prediction of matrix TC separately for different groups of sedimentary rocks. The most valuable input parameters are the volume fraction of shale, the matrix hydrogen index and the matrix density. The error of matrix TC prediction is on the order of 4.2 ± 3.2 per cent (carbonates), 7.0 ± 5.6 per cent (evaporites), and 11.4 ± 9.1 per cent (clastic rocks). From the subsurface data, comprising measured TC values (n = 1755) and well-log data, four prediction equations for bulk TC were developed resembling different lithological compositions. The most valuable input parameters for these predictions are the volume fraction of shale, the hydrogen index and the sonic interval transit time. The equations predict TC with an average error between 5.5 ± 4.1 per cent (clean sandstones of low porosity; Middle Buntsandstein), 8.9 ± 5.4 per cent (interbedding of sandstone, silt- and claystones; Wealden), and 9.4 ± 11 per cent (shaly sandstones; Stuttgart Fm.). An equation including all clastic rock data yields an average error of 11 ± 10 per cent. The subsurface data set also was used to validate the prediction equation for matrix TC established for clastic rocks. Comparison of bulk TC, computed from the matrix TC values and well-log porosity according to the geometric-mean model, to measured bulk TC results in an accuracy <15 per cent. A validation of the TC prediction at borehole scale by comparison of measured temperature logs and modeled temperature logs (based on the site-specific surface heat flow and the predicted TC) shows an excellent agreement in temperature. Interval temperature gradients vary on average by <3 K km-1 and predicted compared to measured absolute temperature fitted with an accuracy <5 per cent. Compared to previously published TC prediction approaches, the developed matrix and bulk TC prediction equations show significantly higher prediction accuracy. Bulk TC ranging from 1.5 to 5.5 W (m K)-1 is always predicted with an average error <10 per cent relative to average errors between 15 and 35 per cent resulting from the application to our data set of the most suitable methods from literature.

  6. Western Gas Sands Project, Los Alamos NMR well logging tool development. Progress report, October 1, 1981-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.; Brown, J.A.; Koelle, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    During the period October 1, 1981, through September 30, 1982, considerable progress was made in the development of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool and in the laboratory studies required to interpret and understand the data received when operating the tool. A pre-prototype tool using permanent magnets has been operated in the laboratory, and preparations are in progress for the first downhole test of this tool. New, improved electronics have been designed, built, and tested. Components for a laboratory version of a tool that uses superconducting magnets have been received and are ready for assembly and testing. Improved data acquisition equipment has been acquired and tested. A very exciting development in the program on laboratory NMR studies of synthetic samples and Western Gas Sands core resulted in the first successful extraction of a pore-size distribution from NMR relaxation data. 27 figures, 2 tables.

  7. Well log and seismic character of tertiary terumbu carbonate, South China Sea, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.A.

    1985-09-01

    The Esso Exploration and Production Inc. Natuna DAlpha block lies approximately 125 mi (200 km) northeast of Natuna Island in the Indonesian portion of the South China Sea. The block contains a large Miocene platform carbonate complex called the L-structure. The Terumbu Formation L-structure, situated in front of and isolated from a much larger carbonate shelf, is similar to the carbonate atolls developed in front of the barrier-reef complex offshore of Belize. The lower platform and upper platform have a similar log character. The detrital facies is composed of fore-reef talus, pelagic, and hemipelagic carbonates. By mapping the Terumbu carbonate facies, the growth history of the L-structure is revealed.

  8. New NMR well logging/fracture mapping technique with possible application of SQUID NMR detection

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new method for making NMR measurements has been developed that potentially can receive NMR signals from a precise distance into the geologic formation. It is based on the production of a toroidal region of homogeneous radial magnetic field near the mid-plane between two magnets arranged axially so their fields oppose between them. NMR signals have been detected from such a region in the laboratory. Preliminary data have been extrapolated to the projected performance of a logging tool using superconducting magnets. The presence of cryogenic temperatures required for these magnets may make signal detection using SQUIDs a logical consideration. Preliminary comparison of normal and SQUID NMR detection shows that near the borehole (<18 in.) standard NMR detection is probably superior; at greater distances SQUID detection may be advantageous. Directional detection of the signal may allow fractures near the wellbore to be mapped. Use of SQUID detection may be useful for this application.

  9. Artificial neural networks to support petrographic classification of carbonate-siliciclastic rocks using well logs and textural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Adrielle A.; Lima Neto, Irineu A.; Misságia, Roseane M.; Ceia, Marco A.; Carrasquilla, Abel G.; Archilha, Nathaly L.

    2015-06-01

    Petrographic class identification is of great importance to petroleum reservoir characterization and wellbore economic viability analysis, and is usually performed using core or geophysical log analysis. The coring process is costly, and well log analysis requires highly specific knowledge. Thus, great interest has arisen in new methods for predicting the lithological and textural properties of a wide area from a small number of samples. The artificial neural network (ANN) is a computational method based on human brain function and is efficient in recognizing previously trained patterns. This paper demonstrates petrographic classification of carbonate-siliciclastic rocks using a back-propagation neural network algorithm supported by elastic, mineralogical, and textural information from a well data set located in the South Provence Basin, in the southwest of France. The accuracy of the testing suggests that an ANN application offers an auxiliary tool for petrographic classification based on well data, specifically for prediction intervals in wells that have not been sampled or wells adjacent to sampled wells.

  10. Characterization of injection wells in a fractured reservoir using PTS logs, Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Goranson, Colin; Combs, Jim

    1995-01-26

    The Steamboat Hills Geothermal Field in northwestern Nevada, about 15 km south of Reno, is a shallow (150m to 825m) moderate temperature (155 C to 168 C) liquid-dominated geothermal reservoir situated in highly-fractured granodiorite. Three injection wells were drilled and completed in granodiorite to dispose of spent geothermal fluids from the Steamboat II and III power plants (a 30 MW air-cooled binary-type facility). Injection wells were targeted to depths below 300m to inject spent fluids below producing fractures. First, quasi-static downhole pressure-temperature-spinner (PTS) logs were obtained. Then, the three wells were injection-tested using fluids between 80 C and 106 C at rates from 70 kg/s to 200 kg/s. PTS logs were run both up and down the wells during these injection tests. These PTS surveys have delineated the subsurface fracture zones which will accept fluid. The relative injectivity of the wells was also established. Shut-in interzonal flow within the wells was identified and characterized.

  11. Well log and 2D seismic data character of the Wilcox Group in south-central Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enomoto, Catherine B.

    2014-01-01

    The Wilcox Group is productive in updip areas of Texas and Louisiana from fluvial, deltaic, and near-shore marine shelf sandstones. The reported presence of porous sandstones at 29,000 feet within the Wilcox Group containing about 200 feet of gas in the Davy Jones 1 discovery well in the offshore Louisiana South Marsh Island area illustrates a sand-rich system developed during the Paleocene and early Eocene. This study describes some of the well log and reflection seismic data characteristics of the slope and basin-floor reservoirs with gas-discovery potential that may be in the area between the producing trend onshore Louisiana and the offshore discovery.

  12. Miravalles Geothermal Project: Portable Well Flow Test Equipment and Procedures Manual

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1980-05-01

    The well flow test program has been designed to facilitate the gathering of information, with portable test equipment, from various wells with regard to their capability of flow, the quality of steam produced at various back pressures, the composition and quantity of noncondensable gases flashed from the wells and the composition and quantity of solids in the well's liquid streams (brine). The test program includes procedures for obtaining the following basic flow data pertinent to the plant power cycle design: (1) Effluent steam and brine flows, pressures and temperatures; (2) Noncondensable and dissolved gas contents in steam and brine; (3) H{sub s}S content in gases formed; and (4) Solids content and chemical analysis of steam and brine.

  13. Comprehensive glacial sediment characterization and correlation with natural gamma log response to identify hydrostratigraphic units in a rotosonic well core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, A. L.; Lemke, L. D.

    2010-12-01

    Common borehole geophysical methods use electrical, acoustic, and nuclear measurements to determine physical and chemical characteristics of soils and rocks encountered while drilling. In texturally and mineralogically mature detrital sediments, natural gamma logs are frequently used to differentiate coarse and fine textures that exert primary control on fluid flow in reservoir and aquifer units. Interpretation of natural gamma log response in immature sediments can be complicated by the presence of clays in the fine fraction of poorly sorted units and further confounded in heterogeneous glacial sediments which characteristically display a high degree of vertical and lateral lithologic variability. This study examined natural gamma log response to textural and mineralogical variability in a continuous 70m (230ft) rotosonic borehole drilled through Pleistocene glacial sediments west of Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. The objective of the investigation is to establish a statistical linkage between natural gamma radiation and glacial sediment texture that can be extrapolated to a set of more than 120 monitoring wells and used as soft conditioning information for stochastic simulations of aquifer characteristics across a 10 km2 area impacted by groundwater contamination. The core was sampled at 0.3m (1ft) intervals and sieved to quantify sediment texture at 225 points. 150 grain mount thin sections from samples selected to correspond to a distribution of low, moderate, and high natural gamma log readings.were point counted to quantify mineralogy of the sand size fraction. 30 samples of clay-sized particles taken from the decanted fine fraction of the sieved material were analyzed by X-ray diffraction for clay component analysis. Weak correlations of gamma response to measured characteristics were observed over the entire dataset. As expected, positive relationships with gamma response were observed in samples with higher K-feldspar content and greater proportions of fine particles. Conversely, negative correlations were observed for samples with higher quartz content and greater proportions of coarse particle sizes. Separation of data corresponding to higher confidence gamma readings (i.e., excluding samples corresponding to gamma log inflection points) improved correlations, especially for K-feldspar content and in samples bearing a greater proportion of decanted fine materials. X-ray diffraction results indicate a relationship between gamma response and chlorite and illite, the dominant clays detected in the decanted fine clay fraction. Comparison to sorting metrics (i.e., inclusive graphic standard deviation, uniformity index, and effective size) confirms that higher gamma responses are associated with more poorly sorted sediments. Results demonstrate that gamma ray log response in these glacial sediments is controlled by a combination of texture and mineralogy. Consequently, a stochastic simulation will be required to accommodate uncertainty when linking texture to gamma response.

  14. The CPMG Pulse Sequence in Strong Magnetic Field Gradients with Applications to Oil-Well Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goelman, G.; Prammer, M. G.

    It is shown that transverse relaxation measurements obtained from CPMG echo trains are valid even in the presence of strong, static magnetic field gradients. In the context of in situ measurements for water or oil exploration, low magnetic fields and short echo spacings are utilized to minimize diffusional effects. Under these conditions, it is shown that, for T1 = T2, the inverse Laplace transformation of the echo train is essentially independent of field homogeneity. For T1 ? T2, the error in determining T2 does not exceed ˜12%, even for high T1/ T2 ratios. In most porous media, T1/ T2 is less than 3, in which case the error is below 8%. Analytical expressions for the echo amplitudes including relaxation are derived based on the density-matrix formalism. We define recursion relations that give the density matrix at echo i by a simple multiplication of the density matrix at echo i - 1 with a set of operators describing the evolution between consecutive echoes. The echo intensity is shown to be a function of the ratio between the radiofrequency strength and the receiver bandwidth. The optimal signal-to-noise ratio is obtained when this ratio is unity. The paper provides the theoretical framework for interpreting data obtained in situ by a modern NMR logging instrument. Furthermore, the results are directly applicable to magnetic resonance imaging.

  15. Closed-loop flow test Miravalles Geothermal Field well log results

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, B.; Eden, G.; Lawton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE) conducted a closed-loop flow test in the Miravalles Geothermal Field. The closed-loop test was started in May and ran through August of 1990. The effluent from the production well PG-11 was carried by a pipeline through a monitor station to the injection well PG-2. Before starting the long-term flow test in May, cold-water injection experiments were performed in each well to determine the pressure and temperature response. A series of downhole measurements were made in each well to obtain background information. The downhole measurements were repeated in August just before terminating the flow test to evaluate the results.

  16. Design and implementation of PDA-based mobile inquiring system for oil well logging information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liu Dejun; Gong Dali; Ma Zhonghua; Liu Yue

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the PDA-based mobile inquiring system of oil well information and show the design of the systems. PDA-based mobile monitoring system for oil wells using the TCP\\/IP communication mechanism, the client PDA terminal through the WIFI and GPRS switch-in the data center. As the Web-Service provides the data service, one can carry on the dynamic monitor to the

  17. Simultaneous determination of LogD, LogP, and pK(a) of drugs by using a reverse phase HPLC coupled with a 96-well plate auto injector.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding

    2009-03-01

    For years, the physicochemical properties of drug candidates have been used to predict their in vivo pharmacokinetic behaviors. Several theories and empirical correlations have been established by various researchers with the overall goal of expediting the drug candidate selection process, with greater confidence and faster turnaround. This study describes a 96-well reverse phase HPLC method, simultaneously determining LogD, LogP, and pK(a) values of drugs in a throughput mode. The LogD and LogP values of each compound were determined, based on the octanol-aqueous partitioning behavior of the charged and non-charged species under different pH values. The pK(a) value was determined by using the Polynomial fit between LogP and LogD and the equation LogD (pK(a)) approximately LogP-0.301. The advantages of this method are: low sample consumption, suitability for low solubility compounds, less restriction on compound purity, potential for higher throughput, precise data, and multiple determinations in one assay. PMID:19275530

  18. Neural network modelling and classification of lithofacies using well log data: a case study from KTB borehole site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Saumen; Krishna Tiwari, Ram; Kümpel, Hans-Joachim

    2007-05-01

    A novel approach based on the concept of super self-adapting back propagation (SSABP) neural network has been developed for classifying lithofacies boundaries from well log data. The SSABP learning paradigm has been applied to constrain the lithofacies boundaries by parameterzing three sets of well log data, that is, density, neutron porosity and gamma ray obtained from the German Continental Deep Drilling Project (KTB). A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks model was generated in a supervised feed-forward mode for training the published core sample data. A total of 351 pairs of input and output examples were used for self-adaptive network learning and weight and bias values were appropriately updated during each epoch according to the gradient-descent momentum scheme. The actual data analysis suggests that the SSABP network is able to emulate the pattern of all three sets of KTB data and identify lithofacies boundaries correctly. The comparisons of the maximum likelihood geological sections with the available geological information and the existing geophysical findings over the KTB area suggest that, in addition to the known main lithofacies boundaries units, namely paragneisses, metabasites and heterogeneous series containing partly calc-silicate bearing paragneisses-metabasites and alternations of former volcano-sedimentary sequences, the SSABP neural network technique resolves more detailed finer structures embedded in bigger units at certain depths over the KTB region which seems to be of some geological significance. The efficacy of the method and stability of results was also tested in presence of different levels of coloured noise. The test results suggest that the designed network topology is considerably unwavering for up to 20 per cent correlated noise; however, adding more noise (~50 per cent or more) degrades the results. Our analyses demonstrate that the SSABP based approach renders a robust means for the classification of complex lithofacies successions from the KTB borehole log data and thus may provide useful guide/information for understanding the crustal inhomogeneity and structural discontinuity in many other regions.

  19. Analysis of Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using 2D seismic data and well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taher Zouaghi; Issam Ferhi; Mourad Bédir; Mohamed Ben Youssef; Mohamed Gasmi; Mohamed Hédi Inoubli

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a structural and depositional model of lower Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using detailed facies relations in outcrops, seismic reflection data, and wells. The study interval (called the “Aptian supersequence”) is subdivided into four seismic sequences containing third-order sequences. Sequence architecture was strongly affected by syndepositional tectonic movements, which controlled sequence position and distribution. Specifically, the

  20. Geological Attributes from Conventional Well Logs: Relating Rock Types to Depositional Facies in Deepwater Turbidite Reservoirs

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Facies in Deepwater Turbidite Reservoirs Chicheng Xu, SPE, The University of Texas at Austin; Carlos for sedimentary facies analysis and reservoir quality ranking in deepwater turbidite reservoirs. Grain size to assist facies interpretation and stratigraphic reservoir modeling. We model physical properties and well

  1. Physical rock properties in and around a conduit zone by well-logging in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikeda, R.; Kajiwara, T.; Omura, K.; Hickman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) is not only to reveal the structure and eruption history of the Unzen volcano but also to clarify the ascent and degassing mechanisms of the magma conduit. Conduit drilling (USDP-4) was conducted in 2004, which targeted the magma conduit for the 1990-95 eruption. The total drilled length of USDP-4 was 1995.75??m. Geophysical well logging, including resistivity, gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, sonic-wave velocity, density, neutron porosity, and Fullbore Formation MicroImager (FMI), was conducted at each drilling stage. Variations in the physical properties of the rocks were revealed by the well-log data, which correlated with not only large-scale formation boundaries but also small-scale changes in lithology. Such variations were evident in the lava dike, pyroclastic rocks, and breccias over depth intervals ranging from 1 to 40??m. These data support previous models for structure of the lava conduit, in that they indicate the existence of alternating layers of high-resistivity and high P-wave velocity rocks corresponding to the lava dikes, in proximity to narrower zones exhibiting high porosity, low resistivity, and low P-wave velocity. These narrow, low-porosity zones are presumably higher in permeability than the adjacent rocks and may form preferential conduits for degassing during magma ascent. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Development and demonstration of an enhanced spreadsheet-based well log analysis software. Final report, May 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Watney, W.L.; Doveton, J.H.; Guy, W.J.

    1998-10-01

    The Advanced Class Work Program is a field-based research and demonstration program for demonstration of advanced or improved technologies identified in the Department of Energy`s Class Field Demonstration Projects. The objective of the Advanced Class Work program is to conduct field demonstrations of technologies for which a small, incremental amount of work will produce or improve a transferable, useful technology for oil recovery. The goal of the program is to enhance the products of near-term Class projects and maximize the applicability and effectiveness of project results. PfEFFER (Petrofacies Evaluation of Formations For Engineering Reservoirs) is a well log analysis computer package. The software was tested and successfully applied in Schaben Field, a DOE Class 2 Field Demonstration Project to assist in improving reservoir characterization and assessing reservoir performance. PfEFFER v.1 was released in January, 1996 as a commercial spreadsheet-based well-log analysis program developed and distributed through the Kansas Geological Survey. The objectives of this project were: Task 1 -- Enhance the PfEFFER software package; Task 2 -- Develop major new modules to significantly augment PfEFFER capabilities; Task 3 -- Conduct field demonstration of software application using the necessary reservoir data acquired from oil operators and construct a database; and Task 4 -- Perform technology transfer activities that include workshops, reports, presentations, or other methods to communicate results to interested parties.

  3. Determination of TDS in Geothermal Systems by Well-Log Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan L. Brown; Brian D. Gobran; Subir K. Sanyal

    1980-01-01

    An estimate of t h e chemistry of the fluid within a geothermal;\\u000areservoir is required to establish the geological source and the;\\u000apossible environmental impact of the fluid as well as scaling and;\\u000acorrosion problems which might develop during production. While a;\\u000adetailed analysis of the chemical composition of a geothermal fluid;\\u000acan only be obtained from a water

  4. Application of petroleum geophysical well logging and sampling techniques for evaluating aquifer characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom J. Temples; Mike G. Waddell

    1996-01-01

    The Hilton Head Island Test Well {number_sign}1 was drilled to a depth of 3,833 feet to evaluate the upper Cretaceous section as a potential ground-water source for Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. The initial plan was to analyze continuous conventional cores. The interval to be analyzed extended from the top of the Eocene to the base of the Cretaceous (approximately

  5. Realtime logging

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, A.; Kashuba, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This article reports that measurement-while-drilling (MWD) logging services have become an important new source of drilling and geological information on wildcats and some development wells. Sensors located within the bottomhole assembly, barely a few feet above the bit, make measurements on the formation, the borehole and the drill string itself. The MWD measurements are electronically processed and stored in the logging tool downhole. Simple MWD logging systems must wait until after tripping out of the hole for the MWD data to be downloaded from the logging tool to a surface computer in order for logs to be produced. This method is acceptable for some formation evaluation problems. But when well control, directional or completion decisions must be made, the benefit of MWD logging data is obtained only if the downhole measurements are available to the engineer in realtime.

  6. Comparison of VSP and sonic{log data in non{vertical wells in a heterogeneous structure Petr Bulant & Lud ek Klime s, Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Prague,

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Comparison of VSP and sonic{log data in non{vertical wells in a heterogeneous structure Petr Bulant vertical well. Starting at the shallowest data point common to both sonic{log and VSP measurements to compare the results of sonic{log measurements and of vertical seismic pro#12;ling (VSP), the sonic{log ve

  7. Assessing spatial uncertainty in reservoir characterization for carbon sequestration planning using public well-log data: A case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venteris, E.R.; Carter, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    Mapping and characterization of potential geologic reservoirs are key components in planning carbon dioxide (CO2) injection projects. The geometry of target and confining layers is vital to ensure that the injected CO2 remains in a supercritical state and is confined to the target layer. Also, maps of injection volume (porosity) are necessary to estimate sequestration capacity at undrilled locations. Our study uses publicly filed geophysical logs and geostatistical modeling methods to investigate the reliability of spatial prediction for oil and gas plays in the Medina Group (sandstone and shale facies) in northwestern Pennsylvania. Specifically, the modeling focused on two targets: the Grimsby Formation and Whirlpool Sandstone. For each layer, thousands of data points were available to model structure and thickness but only hundreds were available to support volumetric modeling because of the rarity of density-porosity logs in the public records. Geostatistical analysis based on this data resulted in accurate structure models, less accurate isopach models, and inconsistent models of pore volume. Of the two layers studied, only the Whirlpool Sandstone data provided for a useful spatial model of pore volume. Where reliable models for spatial prediction are absent, the best predictor available for unsampled locations is the mean value of the data, and potential sequestration sites should be planned as close as possible to existing wells with volumetric data. ?? 2009. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists/Division of Environmental Geosciences. All rights reserved.

  8. Recent and pre-instrumental climatic conditions as reconstructed from temperature logs in wells in western and northern Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Majorowicz, J.A. [Northern Geothermal, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Skinner, W.R. [Environment Canada, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-11-01

    This study reports a subregional analysis of ground surface temperature (GST) and surface air temperature (SAT) in Canada. Temperature logs made to depths of up to 300 m in 80 wells in the Canadian Prairie Provinces were compared with SAT in this area. A statistically significant spatial correlation was found between identical grid samples extracted from the 1950-1990 warming maps for SAT and GST warming. The results of modelling of precise temperature logs show evidence of annual warming of GST over the past half century of 2.1 C with a standard deviation of 0.9C. Annual SAT warming in this region for the same period, as derived from historical climatological records, has been 1.5C with a standard deviation of 0.4C. The difference between GST and SAT warming has been close to 40% in the boreal forest ecozone of northern Alberta and less than 10% in the prairie grassland ecozone of southern Alberta. It is hypothesized that a large portion of GST warming is a result of accelerating natural and anthropogenic land clearing through deforestation and farming. If the rate of climatic warming and anthropogenic change to the land surface continues, the southern boundary of the discontinuous permafrost will move northward at a faster rate than predicted from instrumental SAT warming data alone. 21 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Contribution of Conventional Well-Logs Data For The Identification of Shale Gas Intervals (Illizi Basin, South Of Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eladj, Said; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila; Mordjane, Houcine

    2015-04-01

    In our work a petrophysical evaluation was conducted for the Franien source rock located in the depth interval (2700m-2900m) in the Illizi basin which is one of the largest unconventional reservoirs in the Algerian Palaeozoic basins. This assessment is made by exploiting some conventional logs of well A which they can be divided into three categories: (1) Natural gamma ray, (2) deep resistivity (3) porosity such as the neutron porosity, the sonic porosity and the density porosity. The gas in the source rock can be found in three locations: (1) in the pores, (2) in the fractures, (3) adsorbed by the mature organic matter. We can observe that the shale gas reservoir has a gamma ray greater than 150API, a deep resistivity greater than 1500 ohm.m , a low porosity of 4% to 6% and 4% content of total organic carbon (TOC).Through our study, we have shown that our tight shale gas reservoir is characterized by low matrix characteristics, riche of organic carbon that has a good maturity Keywords: Unconventional Reservoir, conventional logging, Adsorption, Shale gas, Total Organic Carbon, Kerogen.

  10. Analysis of Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using 2D seismic data and well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouaghi, Taher; Ferhi, Issam; Bédir, Mourad; Youssef, Mohamed Ben; Gasmi, Mohamed; Inoubli, Mohamed Hédi

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a structural and depositional model of lower Cretaceous (Aptian) strata in central Tunisia, using detailed facies relations in outcrops, seismic reflection data, and wells. The study interval (called the "Aptian supersequence") is subdivided into four seismic sequences containing third-order sequences. Sequence architecture was strongly affected by syndepositional tectonic movements, which controlled sequence position and distribution. Specifically, the seismic sections show irregular distribution of different zones of subsidence and uplift. The observed structures identified through the detailed mapping suggest that lower Cretaceous rifting created depressions and grabens that filled with strata characterized by divergent reflectors striking against dipping growth faults. The Aptian-Albian unconformity ("crisis") marked a change of the extensional stress field from NNW-SSE to NE-SW induced rotation of blocks and an evolution of sedimentary basin filling related to the regional tectonic deformation. Local salt tectonic movement accentuated the formation of asymmetric depocenters. The salt ascended at the junction of master faults, resulting in cross-cutting of the strata and local reworking of Triassic evaporites in Aptian strata. Basinward to landward variations of the thickness and facies associated with strata pinch-outs and unconformities are related to the main synsedimentary tectonic events that were synchronous with salt tectonic movements. Triassic salt domes and salt intrusions along faults accentuated the border elevations between basin depocenters and uplifts. These sedimentary phenomena in central Tunisia are interpreted as causally related aspects of a local and global tectonic event during the Aptian.

  11. Quantifying the Permeability Heterogeneity of Sandstone Reservoirs in Boonsville Field, Texas by Integrating Core, Well Log and 3D Seismic Data 

    E-print Network

    Song, Qian

    2013-04-29

    the permeability heterogeneity of the target reservoir by integrating core, well log and 3D seismic data. A set of permeability coefficients, variation coefficient, dart coefficient, and contrast coefficient, was defined in this study to quantitatively identify...

  12. State-Of-The-Art in Permeability Determination From Well Log Data: Part 2-Verifiable, Accurate Permeability Predictions, the Touch-Stone of All Models

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    , Accurate Permeability Predictions, the Touch-Stone of All Models Mohaghegh, S., Balan, B., Ameri, S., West only the well log data is available. So far all the available models and techniques have been tried for these wells were available. In separate tests all data from an entire well were designated and put aside

  13. Completion reports, core logs, and hydrogeologic data from wells and piezometers in Prospect Gulch, San Juan County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2006-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, San Juan County, Colorado, was the center of a metal mining boom in the San Juan Mountains. Although most mining activity ceased by the 1990s, the effects of historical mining continue to contribute metals to ground water and surface water. Previous research by the U.S. Geological Survey identified ground-water discharge as a significant pathway for the loading of metals to surface water from both acid-mine drainage and acid-rock drainage. In an effort to understand the ground-water flow system in the upper Animas River watershed, Prospect Gulch was selected for further study because of the amount of previous data provided in and around that particular watershed. In support of this ground-water research effort, wells and piezometers were installed to allow for coring during installation, subsurface hydrologic testing, and the monitoring of ground-water hydraulic heads and geochemistry. This report summarizes the data that were collected during and after the installation of these wells and piezometers and includes (1) subsurface completion details, (2) locations and elevations, (3) geologic logs and elemental data, (4) slug test data for the estimation of subsurface hydraulic conductives, and (5) hydraulic head data.

  14. Sweet spots discrimination in shale gas reservoirs using seismic and well-logs data. A case study from the Worth basin in the Barnett shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Boudella, Amar

    2014-05-01

    Here, we present a case study of sweet spots discrimination in shale gas reservoirs located in the Worth basin of the Barnett shale using seismic and well-logs data. Seismic attributes such the Chaos and the ANT-Tracking are used for natural fractures system identification from seismic data, the maps of the stress and the Poisson ratio obtained from the upscaling of well-logs data of a horizontal well are able to provide an information about the drilling direction which is usually in the minimum horizontal stress profile, the map of the Poisson ratio can provide an information hardness of the source rock. The set of well logs data is used for geo-mechanical and petrophysical discrimination of the sweet spots, after discrimination the identified zones are useful for reserves estimation from unconventional shale gas reservoir.

  15. Absolute elemental concentrations estimated from geochemical well logging using neutron-induced gamma-ray spectrometry and a geological model

    SciTech Connect

    Grau, J.A.; Herron, M.M.

    1987-05-01

    Elemental concentrations of several inorganic elements were determined on a continuous basis with depth using the Schlumberger gamma-ray spectrometry (GST) log in a Santa Fe Energy Co. well in the Kern Front field, Bakersfield, California, Relative gamma-ray yields of Si, Ca, Fe, S, Cl, H, Ti, Gd + Sm, and K were determined using a weighted least-squares fitting of standard elemental spectra, determined from laboratory measurements, to the measured spectra. The relative yields were then placed on an absolute basis using measured sensitivity coefficients and the assumption that, excluding Cl and H, the abundances of these elements plus Al, considered as oxides and, for Ca, carbonates, total 100% of the rock. This assumption removes variations in porosity and salinity from impacting the denormalization procedure. The output is estimated absolute concentrations in weight percent of the rock that are compared with elemental analyses made on over 60 core plug and sidewall samples by x-ray fluorescence and neutron activation analysis.

  16. Predicting injection related changes in seismic properties at Kevin Dome, north central Montana, using well logs and laboratory measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltiel, S.; Bonner, B. P.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Time-lapse seismic monitoring (4D) is currently the primary technique available for tracking sequestered CO2 in a geologic storage reservoir away from monitoring wells. The main seismic responses to injection are those due to direct fluid substitution, changes in differential pressure, and chemical interactions with reservoir rocks; the importance of each depends on reservoir/injection properties and temporal/spatial scales of interest. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, we are monitoring the upcoming large scale (1 million ton+) CO2 injection in Kevin Dome, north central Montana. As part of this research, we predict the relative significance of these three effects, as an aid in design of field surveys. Analysis is undertaken using existing open-hole well log data and cores from wells drilled at producer and injector pads as well as core experiments. For this demonstration site, CO2 will be produced from a natural reservoir and re-injected down dip, where the formation is saturated with brine. Effective medium models based on borehole seismic velocity measurements predict relatively small effects (less than 40 m/s change in V¬p) due to the injection of more compressible supercritical CO2. This is due to the stiff dolomite reservoir rock, with high seismic velocities (Vp~6000 m/s, Vs~3000 m/s) and fairly low porosity (<10%). Assuming pure dolomite mineralogy, these models predict a slight increase in Vp during CO2 injection. This velocity increase is due to the lower density of CO2 relative to brine; which outweighs the small change in modulus compared to the stiff reservoir rock. We present both room pressure and in-situ P/T ultrasonic experiments using core samples obtained from the reservoir; such measurements are undertaken to access the expected seismic velocities under pressurized injection. The reservoir appears to have fairly low permeability. Large-volume injection is expected to produce large local pore pressure increases, which may have the largest immediate effect on seismic velocities. Increasing pore pressure lowers the differential pressure due to confining stress, which decreases seismic velocities by opening cracks. The magnitude of this effect depends both on rock microstructure and fracture at the field scale; core scale measurements will help separate these effects.

  17. Heat flow variation with depth in Poland: evidence from equilibrium temperature logs in 2.9-km-deep well Torun-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek; Šafanda, Jan

    2008-04-01

    High-precision temperature measurements were carried out up to a depth of 2,930 m in the 5.5-km-deep well Torun-1, 26 years after completion of drilling. The temperature log provides equilibrium thermal state information for the Polish Lowland at the western margin of the Precambrian craton. Geothermal gradient calculated from the equilibrium temperature log, together with estimates of thermal conductivity from ‘net rock’ geophysical well logging analysis and available core measurements, yields heat flow in the range 50-60 mW/m2 below 2-km depth. Heat flow of 50 mW/m2 plus ˜10 mW/m2 generated within thick sediments and highly metamorphosed sedimentary wedge is typical for the western margin of the Precambrian East European craton. Heat-flow variations with depth can be explained by a model of surface-temperature changes >10°C (glaciation to Holocene).

  18. Comparison of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Logs to Hydraulic Tests in Wells Completed in Glacial Sediments in New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, C. D.; Lane, J. W.; LeBlanc, D. R.; Walsh, D. O.

    2011-12-01

    Borehole nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logs provide depth-dependent estimates of porosity, saturation, mobile and immobile water fraction, and estimates of permeability, all of which are aquifer properties important in groundwater-resource and contamination investigations. NMR tools, which have been widely used in the oil and gas industry for reservoir evaluation, recently have been designed for small-diameter boreholes typically used in groundwater investigations. In 2010 and 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Vista Clara, Inc., evaluated borehole NMR logging tools with diameters of 44 and 89 mm. The NMR logging was conducted in New England as the beginning phase of a national method development and demonstration effort. NMR logs were collected in boreholes completed in glacial sediments with interbedded layers of sand, silt, and gravel. The boreholes are less than 100-m deep and are cased with 2- or 4-inch diameter PVC. Estimates of bound water, free water, and total water content were determined from the distribution of transverse relaxation time at discrete vertical intervals of 1.0 m and 0.5 m, depending on which tool was used. Permeability was estimated empirically using the porosity and relaxation time. In this investigation, we compare NMR-derived estimates of water content and permeability to results of hydraulic testing and demonstrate the usefulness of NMR logging for obtaining in situ estimates of aquifer properties.

  19. Seismic Interpretation and Well Logging Results of a Deep Borehole into the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, J.; Schmitt, D.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Nieuwenhuis, G.; Poureslami Ardakani, E.; van der Baan, M.; Sahay, P. N.; Kueck, J.; Abasolo, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing awareness of the need for the reduction of carbon emissions globally, geothermal energy, which offers a potential for cleaner energy generation, is one potential new source. In Alberta, these geothermal resources are likely to be found in the sedimentary basin, or in the deeper crystalline basement rocks. Alberta exhibits a very low geothermal gradient compared to other existing geothermal fields located in areas of volcanic and tectonic activity. To mitigate this effect, the focus in Alberta will involve the development of engineered geothermal systems (EGS) in the target resource. This project is part of the Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI), which is a research collaboration between scientists in Germany and Canada on energy projects for cleaner energy production. The first goal for EGS research and development is to develop a detailed geological-geophysical characterization of selected sites to delineate potential geothermal reservoirs in Northern Alberta. One of the selected sites is in the Fort McMurray area. Using an existing deep borehole that reaches a depth of 2.3 km into the crystalline basement, our aim is to identify geological features such as zones of fractures in the basin and/or basement that could provide an indication of enhanced fluid flow potential - a necessary component for any geothermal systems to be viable. The earlier stage of our research involves re-processing of surface seismic data. This helps to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for the geological interpretation of the subsurface, such as the locations of saline aquifers and faults that allow heat flow in the rocks, and zones of fractures that may indicate elevated porosity. Current re-processing of the seismic data displays sets of dipping reflectors which may intersect the borehole. Zero offset and walkaway vertical seismic profiles (VSP) were conducted at the borehole for direct comparison with the surface seismic sections. They are also useful in obtaining information about the reflectivity and the velocity structure of the subsurface. The full integration of surface seismic data, VSP data, and well logs are expected to provide a detailed characterization of the sedimentary basin and crystalline basement rocks of the Canadian Shield in Northeastern Alberta. In particular, the unusually low fluid pressures in the well may be related to states of stress that are likely still influenced by post-glacial rebound.

  20. IMPROVED WELL PLUGGING EQUIPMENT AND WASTE MANGEMENT TECHNIQUES EXCEED ALARA GOALS AT THE OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteside, R.; Pawlowicz, R.; Whitehead, L.; Arnseth, R.

    2002-02-25

    In 2000, Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) contracted Tetra Tech NUS, Inc. (TtNUS) and their sub-contractor, Texas World Operations, Inc. (TWO), to plug and abandon (P&A) 111 wells located in the Melton Valley area of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). One hundred and seven of those wells were used to monitor fluid movement and subsurface containment of the low level radioactive liquid waste/grout slurry that was injected into the Pumpkin Valley Shale Formation, underlying ORNL. Four wells were used as hydrofracture injection wells to emplace the waste in the shale formation. Although the practice of hydrofracturing was and is considered by many to pose no threat to human health or the environment, the practice was halted in 1982 after the Federal Underground Injection Control regulations were enacted by United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) making it necessary to properly close the wells. The work is being performed for the United States Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations (DOE ORO). The project team is using the philosophy of minimum waste generation and the principles of ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as key project goals to minimize personnel and equipment exposure, waste generation, and project costs. Achievement of these goals was demonstrated by the introduction of several new pieces of custom designed well plugging and abandonment equipment that were tested and used effectively during field operations. Highlights of the work performed and the equipment used are presented.

  1. Comparison of Petrophysical Rock Types from Core and Well-logs using Post-stack 3D Seismic Data: Field Example from Maracaibo-Venezuela

    E-print Network

    Ramachandran, Kumar

    Comparison of Petrophysical Rock Types from Core and Well-logs using Post-stack 3D Seismic Data with post stack 3D seismic data analysis was used to assess the petrophysical rock type distribution in an area located on the West side of Lake Maracaibo-Venezuela. The calculated petrophysical rock types were

  2. 36. LABORATORY AND WELL-LOG VELOCITY AND DENSITY MEASUREMENTS FROM THE ONTONG JAVA PLATEAU: NEW IN-SITU CORRECTIONS TO LABORATORY DATA FOR PELAGIC CARBONATES1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jozsef Urmos; Roy H. Wilkens; Franck Bassinot; Mitchell Lyle; Janice C. Marsters; Larry A. Mayer; David C. Mosher

    During Ocean Drilling Program Leg 130, sonic velocity and bulk density\\/porosity well logs were measured in five separate holes drilled through the sequence of pelagic carbonate oozes, chalks, and limestones that comprise the thick, continuous sedimentary cover on the Ontong Java Plateau. An internally consistent and continuous suite of shipboard laboratory velocity and sediment physical properties measurements were made from

  3. Fractured-bedrock aquifer studies based on a descriptive statistics of well-logging data: A case study from the Dajia River basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Po-Yi; Hsu, Shih-Meng; Chen, Po-Jui; Lin, Jung-Jun; Lo, Hung-Chieh

    2014-06-01

    A simple descriptive-statistical approach is proposed for evaluating the transmissivity of fractured-bedrock under field conditions. Based on standard well logging and identification of structural discontinuities from borehole televiewer, the approach consists of four steps: (1) determination of discontinuity properties, namely the frequency of discontinuities and the ratio of open fractures along the borehole; (2) ranking the three well logs and the discontinuity properties into tertiles (high-to-low); (3) performing statistical analysis (F-test) for the three well logs to assess the significance of open fractures on the water-transmitting potential and then assigned a weighting factor; and (4) a semi-quantitative indicator, RGVFO, is obtained by multiplying all predictive indexes and weighting factors. It is a multi-criteria evaluation procedure that elucidates the quantitative and qualitative importance of all selected geophysical indexes. A high cross-correlation between transmissivity to RGVFO value is found, which indicates that by a combined consideration of well logging and structural discontinuities, an appropriate estimate of bedrock water-transmitting potential can be derived.

  4. Attenuation measurements from sonic waveform logs in methane hydrate-bearing sediments at the Nankai Trough exploratory well off Tokai, central Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Matsushima

    2005-01-01

    I have used full waveform logs from the Nankai Trough exploratory well off central Japan to estimate both compressional and shear attenuation in sediments containing methane hydrate (MH). The attenuation estimates are based on a median frequency shift to the amplitude spectrum of the recorded waveforms. This paper is concerned with attenuation at sonic frequencies of 10–20 kHz for compressional

  5. A generalized approach for the interpretation of geophysical well logs in ground-water studies -- Theory and application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Paillet; R. E. Crowder

    1996-01-01

    Implementation of models for the simulation of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in aquifers requires subsurface characterization of the boundaries and hydraulic properties of the geological formations through which ground water flows. Quantitative analysis of geophysical logs in ground-water studies often involves at least as broad a range of applications and variation in lithology as is typically encountered in petroleum

  6. Western Gas Sands Project, Los Alamos NMR well logging tool development. Progress report, October 1, 1981September 30, 1982

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Jackson; J. A. Brown; A. R. Koelle

    1983-01-01

    During the period October 1, 1981, through September 30, 1982, considerable progress was made in the development of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging tool and in the laboratory studies required to interpret and understand the data received when operating the tool. A pre-prototype tool using permanent magnets has been operated in the laboratory, and preparations are in progress for

  7. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin (Arizona and Sonora) using Well Logs, Geologic Mapping, Gravity, Magnetics, and Electromagnetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callegary, J. B.; Page, W. R.; Megdal, S.; Gray, F.; Scott, C. A.; Berry, M.; Rangel, M.; Oroz Ramos, L.; Menges, C. M.; Jones, A.

    2011-12-01

    In 2006, the U.S. Congress passed the U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act which provides a framework for study of aquifers shared by the United States and Mexico. The aquifer of the Upper Santa Cruz Basin was chosen as one of four priority aquifers for several reasons, including water scarcity, a population greater than 300,000, groundwater as the sole source of water for human use, and a riparian corridor that is of regional significance for migratory birds and other animals. Several new mines are also being proposed for this area which may affect water quality and availability. To date, a number of studies have been carried out by a binational team composed of the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mexican National Water Commission, and the Universities of Arizona and Sonora. Construction of a cross-border hydrogeologic framework model of the basin between Amado, Arizona and its southern boundary in Sonora is currently a high priority. The relatively narrow Santa Cruz valley is a structural basin that did not experience the same degree of late Cenozoic lateral extension and consequent deepening as found in other basin-and-range alluvial basins, such as the Tucson basin, where basin depth exceeds 3000 meters. This implies that storage may be much less than that found in other basin-and-range aquifers. To investigate the geometry of the basin and facies changes within the alluvium, a database of over one thousand well logs has been developed, geologic mapping and transient electromagnetic (TEM) surveys have been carried out, and information from previous electromagnetic, magnetic, and gravity studies is being incorporated into the hydrogeologic framework. Initial geophysical surveys and analyses have focused on the portion of the basin west of Nogales, Arizona, because it supplies approximately 50% of that city's water. Previous gravity and magnetic modeling indicate that this area is a narrow, fault-controlled half graben. Preliminary modeling of airborne and ground-based transient electromagnetic surveys corroborates earlier conclusions from the gravity modeling that depth to bedrock is greater than 500 meters in some locations. Results from other portions of the study area including Mexico are still being evaluated and incorporated into the three-dimensional hydrologic framework which will ultimately be used to construct a groundwater flow model.

  8. Internet Data logging and Display 

    E-print Network

    Sweeney, J., Jr.; Culp, C.; Haberl, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The current energy savings technology relies on conventional data logging systems, in which two major barriers exist. Formost is the fact that retrieving the energy data is not convenient, and the cost of the data logging equipment is high...

  9. Records of wells, drillers' logs, water-level measurements, and chemical analyses of ground water in Brazoria, Fort Bend, and Waller counties, Texas, 1980-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J. F., III; Ranzau, C.F., Jr.; Lind, W.B.; Coplin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    Information on major new water wells in Brazoria, Fort Bend, and Waller Counties was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1980 through 1984. This report presents the results of the hydrologic data collection on new large-capacity and other selected wells, including well location and completion data, drillers ' logs of the strata penetrated, water levels, and chemical quality of the produced water. These water-well data are supplementary to similar data on older wells in these counties and descriptive evaluations of the groundwater resources which have been published previously. (USGS)

  10. Records of wells, drillers' logs, water-level measurements, and chemical analyses of ground water in Chambers, Liberty, and Montgomery counties, Texas, 1980-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J. F., III; Coplin, L.S.; Ranzau, C.E., Jr.; Lind, W.B.

    1986-01-01

    Information on major new water wells in Chambers, Liberty, and Montgomery Counties was compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1980 through 1984. This report presents the results of the hydrologic data collection on new large-capacity and other selected wells, including well location and completion data, drillers ' logs of the strata penetrated, water levels, and chemical quality of the produced water. These water-well data are supplementary to similar data on older wells in these counties and descriptive evaluations of the groundwater resources which have been published previously. (USGS)

  11. Applying NMR spin-echo logging to Shaly Sand Formation evaluation: Case studies of Rocky Mountain region gas wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Ladtkow; B. J. Stambaugh; D. Mardon

    1995-01-01

    Conventional wireline logs often fail to provide a reliable evaluation of reservoir quality and producibility in shaly mud formations, particularly in the shaly gas sand reservoirs of the Rocky Mountains which are characterized by low porosity (i.e., <15 pu), low permeability (0.1 to 1 md), very fine grain size, and high irreducible water saturations. A new-generation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)

  12. Estimating the Amount of Eroded Section in a Partially Exhumed Basin from Geophysical Well Logs: An Example from the North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, W. Matthew; Hayba, Daniel O.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Houseknecht, David W.

    2007-01-01

    The reconstruction of burial and thermal histories of partially exhumed basins requires an estimation of the amount of erosion that has occurred since the time of maximum burial. We have developed a method for estimating eroded thickness by using porosity-depth trends derived from borehole sonic logs of wells in the Colville Basin of northern Alaska. Porosity-depth functions defined from sonic-porosity logs in wells drilled in minimally eroded parts of the basin provide a baseline for comparison with the porosity-depth trends observed in other wells across the basin. Calculated porosities, based on porosity-depth functions, were fitted to the observed data in each well by varying the amount of section assumed to have been eroded from the top of the sedimentary column. The result is an estimate of denudation at the wellsite since the time of maximum sediment accumulation. Alternative methods of estimating exhumation include fission-track analysis and projection of trendlines through vitrinite-reflectance profiles. In the Colville Basin, the methodology described here provides results generally similar to those from fission-track analysis and vitrinite-reflectance profiles, but with greatly improved spatial resolution relative to the published fission-track data and with improved reliability relative to the vitrinite-reflectance data. In addition, the exhumation estimates derived from sonic-porosity logs are independent of the thermal evolution of the basin, allowing these estimates to be used as independent variables in thermal-history modeling.

  13. Preliminary design of a special casing joint for a well equipped twin horizontal drainholes in the Oxnard field

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The Oxnard field is presently under production,with a typical average monthly oil production of about 70,000 B, of which the Vaca Tar sand represents more than half.It is Unitized and operated under cyclic steam injection.The hot Tar and produced water are lifted to the surface with rod pumps equipped for injection of a diluent. The produced WOR is about 2.5 and the GOR is about 150 scf/B. The Vaca Tar sand originally contained about 400 million STB. The estimated recoverable reserve under full-scale cyclic steam injection is 100 to 120 Million STB. Under steamflood, it might reach 240 million STB. The objectives of this field test are: (1) increase well productivity by using a vertical well equipped with twin horizontal drainholes, each of about 1,000 ft. reach; (2) maximize the well draw-down by locating the horizontal wells near the base of the sand layer; (3) reduce capital cost by using twin drainholes connected to the same vertical cased well; (4) reduce operating expenses by eliminating the need for a service rig to pull-out the rods and pump before each steam injection cycle; and (5) be adaptable to other operating modes.

  14. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations...When coming out of the hole with drill pipe, the annulus shall be...psi) or every five stands of drill pipe, whichever gives a...

  15. 30 CFR 250.514 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations...When coming out of the hole with drill pipe, the annulus shall be...psi) or every five stands of drill pipe, whichever gives a...

  16. 30 CFR 250.1623 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be pulled...

  17. 30 CFR 250.1623 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be pulled...

  18. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be...

  19. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be...

  20. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be...

  1. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be...

  2. 30 CFR 250.1623 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be pulled...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1623 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be pulled...

  4. 30 CFR 250.614 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be...

  5. 30 CFR 250.1623 - Well-control fluids, equipment, and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...the hole with drill pipe or a workover string, the annulus shall be filled with well-control...five stands of drill pipe or workover string, whichever gives a lower decrease in...number of stands of drill pipe or workover string and drill collars that may be pulled...

  6. Automatic lithofacies segmentation from well-logs data. A comparative study between the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) and Walsh transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliouane, Leila; Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Rabhi, Abdessalem; Rouina, Fouzi; Benaissa, Zahia; Boudella, Amar

    2013-04-01

    The main goal of this work is to realize a comparison between two lithofacies segmentation techniques of reservoir interval. The first one is based on the Kohonen's Self-Organizing Map neural network machine. The second technique is based on the Walsh transform decomposition. Application to real well-logs data of two boreholes located in the Algerian Sahara shows that the Self-organizing map is able to provide more lithological details that the obtained lithofacies model given by the Walsh decomposition. Keywords: Comparison, Lithofacies, SOM, Walsh References: 1)Aliouane, L., Ouadfeul, S., Boudella, A., 2011, Fractal analysis based on the continuous wavelet transform and lithofacies classification from well-logs data using the self-organizing map neural network, Arabian Journal of geosciences, doi: 10.1007/s12517-011-0459-4 2) Aliouane, L., Ouadfeul, S., Djarfour, N., Boudella, A., 2012, Petrophysical Parameters Estimation from Well-Logs Data Using Multilayer Perceptron and Radial Basis Function Neural Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7667, 2012, pp 730-736, doi : 10.1007/978-3-642-34500-5_86 3)Ouadfeul, S. and Aliouane., L., 2011, Multifractal analysis revisited by the continuous wavelet transform applied in lithofacies segmentation from well-logs data, International journal of applied physics and mathematics, Vol01 N01. 4) Ouadfeul, S., Aliouane, L., 2012, Lithofacies Classification Using the Multilayer Perceptron and the Self-organizing Neural Networks, Lecture Notes in Computer Science Volume 7667, 2012, pp 737-744, doi : 10.1007/978-3-642-34500-5_87 5) Weisstein, Eric W. "Fast Walsh Transform." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/FastWalshTransform.html

  7. Spin Dynamics of Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill-like Sequences in Grossly Inhomogeneous B 0 and B 1 Fields and Application to NMR Well Logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D Hürlimann; D. D. Griffin

    2000-01-01

    The spin dynamics for Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill-like sequences is analyzed in grossly inhomogeneous B0 and B1 fields. This problem is important for many applications, especially when the bandwidth of the signal is excitation limited. Examples include stray-field NMR or inside-out NMR probes used in well logging. The amplitudes of the first few echoes exhibit a characteristic transient behavior but quickly approach a

  8. Power-law scaling of spatially correlated porosity and log(permeability) sequences from north-central North Sea Brae oilfield well core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, P. C.; Al-Kindy, F.

    2002-03-01

    The spatial cross-correlation and power spectra of porosity and log(permeability) sequences are analysed for a total of 750 m of reservoir rock drill-core from four vertical wells in the Brae Formation, an important coarse-grained clastic North Sea hydrocarbon reservoir rock. The well core sequences are 80+/-4 per cent cross-correlated at zero lag and have power-law-scaling spatial power spectra S (k )~1/k ? , ? ~ 1+/-0.4, for spatial frequencies 5km-1 log(permeability) and the systematic power-law scaling of log(permeability) spatial fluctuation spectra fit into a broad physical context of (1) the 1/k spectral scaling observed in several hundred well logs of sedimentary and crystalline rock recorded world-wide; (2) the 1/f spectral scaling of temporal sequences in a wide range of physical systems; and (3) analogy with power-law-scaling spatial fluctuation spectra in a wide range of critical-state thermodynamic systems. In this physical context, the spatial fluctuations of log(permeability) of clastic reservoir rock are interpreted as due to long-range correlated random fracture-permeability networks in a fluid-saturated granular medium where the range ? of spatial correlation is effectively infinite. Fracture-permeability spatial fluctuations with long-range correlations and 1/k -scaling spectra have practical implications for geofluid reservoir management. Inadequate models of reservoir flow structure are widely attributed to uncertainty in fault and fracture location and connectivity. As a general phenomenon, spatial configurations of large-amplitude, long-range spatially correlated random fluctuations are unpredictable from the statistics of small-scale samples. The observed 1/k spectral scaling of porosity and log(permeability) distributions thus implies that large-scale, large-amplitude fracture-related flow heterogeneity (1) can determine the drainage pattern of crustal reservoirs but (2) cannot be accurately predicted using statistical techniques based on small-scale reservoir samples. Incompatibility of the physics of reservoir heterogeneity and the statistical approaches to reservoir models can thus explain the persistent under-performance of stochastic reservoir models. Accurate reservoir flow models can, however, be determined by direct observation of fluid flow at the reservoir scale. Recent advances in seismic time-lapse reservoir-fluid monitoring may provide data for significantly more effective management of hydrocarbon reservoirs, waste burial sites, mining works and groundwater aquifers.

  9. Results of borehole geophysical logging and hydraulic tests conducted in Area D supply wells, former US Naval Air Warfare Center, Warminster, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Grazul, Kevin E.

    1998-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging, aquifer tests, and aquifer-isolation (packer) tests were conducted in four supply wells at the former U.S. Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) in Warminster, PA to identify the depth and yield of water-bearing zones, occurrence of borehole flow, and effect of pumping on nearby wells. The study was conducted as part of an ongoing evaluation of ground-water contamination at the NAWC. Caliper, natural-gamma, single-point resistance, fluid resistivity, and fluid temperature logs and borehole television surveys were run in the supply wells, which range in depth from 242 to 560 ft (feet). Acoustic borehole televiewer and borehole deviation logs were run in two of the wells. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement under non-pumping conditions were measured with a high-resolution heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to locate water-bearing fractures, determine probable zones of vertical borehole-fluid movement, and determine the depth to set packers. An aquifer test was conducted in each well to determine open-hole specific capacity and the effect of pumping the open borehole on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities ranged from 0.21 to 1.7 (gal/min)/ft (gallons per minute per foot) of drawdown. Aquifer-isolation tests were conducted in each well to determine depth-discrete specific capacities and to determine the effect of pumping an individual fracture or fracture zone on water levels in nearby wells. Specific capacities of individual fractures and fracture zones ranged from 0 to 2.3 (gal/min)/ft. Most fractures identified as water-producing or water-receiving zones by borehole geophysical methods produced water when isolated and pumped. All hydrologically active fractures below 250 ft below land surface were identified as water-receiving zones and produced little water when isolated and pumped. In the two wells greater then 540 ft deep, downward borehole flow to the deep water-receiving fractures is caused by a large difference in head (as much as greater then 49 ft) between water-bearing fractured in the upper and lower part of the borehole. Vertical distribution of specific capacity between land surface and 250 ft below land surface is not related to depth.

  10. Modeling and analysis of stick-slip and bit bounce in oil well drillstrings equipped with drag bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Jasem M.; Yigit, Ahmet S.

    2014-12-01

    Rotary drilling systems equipped with drag bits or fixed cutter bits (also called PDC), used for drilling deep boreholes for the production and the exploration of oil and natural gas, often suffer from severe vibrations. These vibrations are detrimental to the bit and the drillstring causing different failures of equipment (e.g., twist-off, abrasive wear of tubulars, bit damage), and inefficiencies in the drilling operation (reduction of the rate of penetration (ROP)). Despite extensive research conducted in the last several decades, there is still a need to develop a consistent model that adequately captures all phenomena related to drillstring vibrations such as nonlinear cutting and friction forces at the bit/rock formation interface, drive system characteristics and coupling between various motions. In this work, a physically consistent nonlinear model for the axial and torsional motions of a rotating drillstring equipped with a drag bit is proposed. A more realistic cutting and contact model is used to represent bit/rock formation interaction at the bit. The dynamics of both drive systems for rotary and translational motions of the drillstring, including the hoisting system are also considered. In this model, the rotational and translational motions of the bit are obtained as a result of the overall dynamic behavior rather than prescribed functions or constants. The dynamic behavior predicted by the proposed model qualitatively agree well with field observations and published theoretical results. The effects of various operational parameters on the dynamic behavior are investigated with the objective of achieving a smooth and efficient drilling. The results show that with proper choice of operational parameters, it may be possible to minimize the effects of stick-slip and bit-bounce and increase the ROP. Therefore, it is expected that the results will help reduce the time spent in drilling process and costs incurred due to severe vibrations and consequent damage to equipment.

  11. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  12. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  13. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  14. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  15. 32 CFR 700.846 - Status of logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Commanding Officer Commanding Officers Afloat § 700.846 Status of logs. The deck log, the engineering log, the compass record, the bearing hooks, the engineer's bell book, and any records generated by automated data logging equipment shall...

  16. The efficiency calibration and development of environmental correction factors for an in situ high-resolution gamma spectroscopy well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, J.R.

    1996-05-01

    A Gamma Spectroscopy Logging System (GSLS) has been developed to study sub-surface radionuclide contamination. Absolute efficiency calibration of the GSLS was performed using simple cylindrical borehole geometry. The calibration source incorporated naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) that emitted photons ranging from 186-keV to 2,614-keV. More complex borehole geometries were modeled using commercially available shielding software. A linear relationship was found between increasing source thickness and relative photon fluence rates at the detector. Examination of varying porosity and moisture content showed that as porosity increases, relative photon fluence rates increase linearly for all energies. Attenuation effects due to iron, water, PVC, and concrete cylindrical shields were found to agree with previous studies. Regression analyses produced energy-dependent equations for efficiency corrections applicable to spectral gamma-ray well logs collected under non-standard borehole conditions.

  17. Geophysical Logs, Specific Capacity, and Water Quality of Four Wells at Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) Property, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Pennsylvania, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Bird, Philip H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in the remediation of properties on the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site in Lansdale, Pa., the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2006-07 collected data in four monitor wells at the Rogers Mechanical (former Tate Andale) property. During this period, USGS collected and analyzed borehole geophysical and video logs of three new monitor wells (Rogers 4, Rogers 5, and Rogers 6) ranging in depth from 80 to 180 feet, a borehole video log and additional heatpulse-flowmeter measurements (to quantify vertical borehole flow) in one existing 100-foot deep well (Rogers 3S), and water-level data during development of two wells (Rogers 5 and Rogers 6) to determine specific capacity. USGS also summarized results of passive-diffusion bag sampling for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the four wells. These data were intended to help understand the groundwater system and the distribution of VOC contaminants in groundwater at the property.

  18. Photon log

    SciTech Connect

    Chudy, S.

    1981-01-01

    Gravel packing has been used in the Schoonebeek oil field of The Netherlands in recent years to allow sand- free production. With increased thermal activity in the field, i.e., steam injection, the success of gravel packing operations becomes more important. Well completion problems are exaggerated by high temperature and deviation. The field operator aims to gravel pack up to a minimum of 10 m inside the casing shoe with the top of the slotted liner or wire wrap screen also inside the casing. The Photon Log now is being used to indicate the quality of the gravel packing operation, particularly the gravel top, thus aiding decision-making on whether or not corrective action is needed. The objective is to obtain all the information from one logging trip into the hole after the gravel pack operation, without needing a base log run beforehand. This work discusses the theory of operation and calibration technique, results of logs with field examples, and plans for the future.

  19. Logs of wells and boreholes drilled during hydrogeologic studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, January 1, 1982--June 30, 1988: January 1, 1982 through June 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, K.C.; Crow, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    We present the hydrogeologic well logs for monitor wells and exploratory boreholes drilled at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 between the beginning of environmental investigations in June 1982 and the end of June 1988. These wells and boreholes were drilled as part of studies made to determine the horizontal and vertical distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), high explosive (HE) compounds, and tritium in soil, rock, and ground water at Site 300. The well logs for 293 installations comprise the bulk of this report. We have prepared summaries of Site 300 geology and project history that provide a context for the well logs. Many of the logs in this report have also been published in previous topical reports, but they are nevertheless included in order to make this report a complete record of the wells and boreholes drilled prior to July 1988. A commercially available computer program, LOGGER has been used since late 1985 to generate these logs. This report presents details of the software programs and the hardware used. We are presently completing a project to devise a computer-aided design (CAD) system to produce hydrogeologic cross sections and fence diagrams, utilizing the digitized form of these logs. We find that our system produces publication-quality well and exploratory borehole logs at a lower cost than that of logs drafted by traditional methods.

  20. October 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING

    E-print Network

    , and networking equipment, and the applications on the systems. Guide to Computer Security Log Management GuideOctober 2006 LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY LOG MANAGEMENT: USING COMPUTER AND NETWORK RECORDS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY Shirley Radack, Editor

  1. Study effects of geopressured-geothermal subsurface environment on elastic properties of Texas Gulf Coast sandstones and shales using well logs, core data, and velocity surveys. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, A.R.

    1980-05-01

    Relations between porosity and permeability for the Pleasant Bayou wells were determined from conventional core data. Porosities from the time average equations required compaction correction factors of 1.9 in hydropressured sandstones and 1.0 in geopressured sandstones. Best average prmeabilities in the geopressured zone were found in the primary production interval 14,687 to 14,716 ft (4477 to 4485 m). Average density gradients were 2.106 x 10/sup -3/ and 2.688 x 10/sup -3/ (gm/cm/sup 3/)/100 ft in sandstones and shales respectively. Compressional (P-wave) and shear (S-wave) velocities from the long-spaced sonic log and bulk densities from the formation density log were used to compute in-situ elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio, V/sub p//V/sub s/, and bulk compressibility in two intervals of deep geopressured sandstone and shale in No. 2 Pleasant Bayou. Most computed values of these parameters seem reasonable. Improved accuracy of travel times from the long-spaced sonic log should permit more accurate depth-to-time correlation with seismic data.

  2. Geophysical Logs, Aquifer Tests, and Water Levels in Wells in and Near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2002-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with several volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund Site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 from October 2002 through December 2006. This followed work that began in 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form fractured-rock aquifers that act as a set of confined to semi-confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area. This stream flows southwest approximately parallel to strike and bisects North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 42 wells that ranged in depth from 40 to 477 ft. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 17 of the 42 wells, for a total of 122 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping and shutdown of a 600-ft deep production well in November-December 2004. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in four wells in the area from October 2002 through September 2006, and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on Wissahickon Creek from December 2002 through September 2005. Geophysical logging identified water-bearing zones associated with high-angle fractures and bedding-plane openings throughout the depth of the boreholes. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under non-pumping, ambient conditions in 16 wells greater than 200 ft in depth indicated that borehole flow, where detected, was only upward in 2 wells and only downward in 5 wells. In nine wells, both upward and downward flow were measured. Geologic structure and pumping in the area affect the spatial distribution of vertical gradients. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions were used to identify the most productive intervals in wells. Correlation of natural-gamma-ray logs indicated bedding in the area probably strikes about 45 to 65 degrees northeast and dips about 9 degrees northwest. Aquifer intervals isolated by inflatable packers in 17 wells were pumped to test productivity of water-bearing zones and to collect samples to determine chemical quality of water produced from the interval. Interval-isolation testing confirmed the vertical hydraulic gradients indicated by heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The specific capacities of the 122 isolated intervals ranged over about three orders of magnitude, from 0.01 to 10.6 gallons per minute per foot, corresponding to calculated transmissivities of 1.2 to 2,290 feet squared per day. Intervals adjacent to isolated pumped intervals commonly showed little response to pumping of the isolated zone. The presence of vertical hydraulic gradients and lack of adjacent-interval response to pumping in isolated intervals indicate a limited degree of vertical hydraulic connection between the aquifer sections tested. Differences were apparent in inorganic water quality of water from isolated intervals, including pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen. Concentrations of most VOC contaminants in most wells with predominantly upward vertical gradients were g

  3. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Conoco MCA unit well No. 358, Maljamar Field, Lea County, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Kumar, R.M.; Marlow, R.E.; Wilhelm, M.H.

    1982-08-01

    Field operations, which were conducted as a cooperative effort between Conoco and Gruy Federal, began on January 16, 1980 when the well was spudded. The well was drilled to 3692 feet, and 18 cores recovered in 18 core-barrel runs (144 feet). Upon completion of the coring phase, the hole was drilled to a total depth of 4150 feet and a complete suite of geophysical logs was run. Logging was then followed by completion and testing by Concoco. Core porosities agreed well with computed log porosities. Core water saturation and computed log porosities agree fairly well from 3692 to 3712 feet, poorly from 3712 to 3820 feet and in a general way from 4035 to 4107 feet. Computer log analysis techniques did not improve the agreement of log versus core derived water saturations. However, both core and log analysis indicated the ninth zone had the highest residual hydrocarbon saturations. Residual oil saturation were 259 STB/acre-ft for the 4035 - 4055 feet interval, and 150 STB/acre-ft for the 3692 - 3718 feet interval. Nine BOPD was produced from the 4035 - 4055 feet interval and no oil was produced from 3692 to 3718 feet interval, qualitatively confirming the relative oil saturations. The low oil production in the zone from 4022 to 4055 and the lack of production from 3692 to 3718 feet indicated the zone to be at or near residual waterflood conditions as determined by log analysis. 68 figures, 11 tables.

  4. The automatic interpretation of natural ?-rays in well logging at the phosphatic deposits in the Palmyra region in Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Asfahani; Z Kamarji

    1996-01-01

    A new methodology has been introduced for the automatic interpretation of natural ?-rays in wells and pits, using numerical analysis. This approach is aimed at the accurate determination of radioactive lithology levels, the thickness and the radioactive intensities. A model of four main radioactive types (K, H, A and Q) has been suggested in the prospecting region for phosphatic deposits

  5. The Department of Biology maintains well equipped teaching and research laboratories with a wide variety of modern equipment. In addition to what is currently

    E-print Network

    Karsai, Istvan

    . This instrument will be useful for both clinical and basic research. There are several FDA- approved assays available a variety of expensive research equipment, including; The Electron Microscopy Core Facility provides services related to electron microscopy including in ultrastructural techniques when needed

  6. Analysis and Summary Report of Historical Dry Well Gamma Logs for the 241-B Tank Farm 200 East

    SciTech Connect

    SYDNOR, H.A.

    2000-06-05

    This report provides a summary of the gross gamma ray data for the 241-B Tank Farm and is intended to identify changes in the gamma activity of gamma-emitting radionuclide contaminants around each accessible borehole, and is not intended to provide interpretation of the data relative to vadose zone mechanics. Trends in data, as well as areas where additional information would be helpful in evaluating the unusual nature of some of the data, are discussed.

  7. Directional Borehole Logging Configurations Using DC and Telluric Methods for Detecting Deep Conductors Not Intersected by Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asfahani, Jamal

    2005-12-01

    Herewith, two borehole directional geoelectrical configurations have been introduced for the detection of deep conductors not intersected by the well. The first one is a hole to surface configuration (HSC) using the dc current, and the second one is a telluric configuration (TC). Characterized by a deeper penetration depth, and a directional effect, both configurations have superiority comparable with other traditional geoelectrical configurations. Basically, a Directional Natural Induced Polarization methodology termed (DNIP) has been developed and proposed by benefiting from borehole telluric measurements taken at two sufficiently low frequencies. These configurations have been tested in the Rouez mine, Bretagne, France, where sulphide mineralization is known to occur. Several anomalies have been isolated in field data and interpreted by different interpretative techniques. The results obtained by applying these configurations are in good agreement, and the detected conductors are confirmed by morphological and lithological description.

  8. Preliminary Fracture Description from Core, Lithological Logs, and Borehole Geophysical Data in Slimhole Wells Drilled for Project Hotspot: the Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, J. A.; Evans, J. P.; Shervais, J. W.; Schmitt, D.

    2011-12-01

    The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project (Project Hotspot) seeks to assess the potential for geothermal energy development in the Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho. Three deep slimhole wells are drilled at the Kimama, Kimberly, and Mountain Home sites in the central SRP. The Kimama and Kimberly wells are complete and the Mountain Home well is in progress. Total depth at Kimama is 1,912 m while total depth at Kimberly is 1,958 m. Mountain Home is expected to reach around 1,900 m. Full core is recovered and complete suites of wireline borehole geophysical data have been collected at both Kimama and Kimberly sites along with vertical seismic profiles. Part of the geothermal assessment includes evaluating the changes in the nature of fractures with depth through the study of physical core samples and analysis of the wireline geophysical data to better understand how fractures affect permeability in the zones that have the potential for geothermal fluid migration. The fracture inventory is complete for the Kimama borehole and preliminary analyses indicate that fracture zones are related to basaltic flow boundaries. The average fracture density is 17 fractures/3 m. The maximum fracture density is 110 fractures/3 m. Fracture density varies with depth and increases considerably in the bottom 200 m of the well. Initial indications are that the majority of fractures are oriented subhorizontally but a considerable number are oriented subvertically as well. We expect to statistically evaluate the distribution of fracture length and orientation as well as analyze local alteration and secondary mineralization that might indicate fluid pathways that we can use to better understand permeability at depth in the borehole. Near real-time temperature data from the Kimama borehole indicate a temperature gradient of 82°C/km below the base of the Snake River Plain aquifer at a depth of 960 m bgs. The measured temperature at around 1,400 m depth is 55°C and the projected temperature at 2,000 m depth is 102°C. The rock types at Kimama and Kimberly are primarily basalt and rhyolite, respectively, with interbedded thin sedimentary layers. We identify anomalies in the physical properties of igneous rocks using porosity logs (neutron and acoustic), lithology logs (gamma ray and magnetic susceptibility) and fracture/saturation logs (televiewer and electrical resistivity). The core will be used to constrain the geophysical data and confirm the ability to identify permeability in fracture zones and saturated zones through analysis of the wireline log data. The matrix porosity of these igneous lithologies is near zero aside from porosity from vugs and vesicles. However, open and sealed fractures indicate that mineralizing fluids form connected pathways in the rock. Core samples show a series of alteration phases, including amygdaloidal fine-grained calcite and secondary clays. The geophysical data will be used to predict anomalies in lithology and identify open fractures and saturated zones with high permeability.

  9. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Sites at Slick Rock, Colorado: Appendix B to Attachment 3, Lithologic logs and monitor well construction information. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This volume contains lithology logs and monitor well construction information for: NC processing site; UC processing site; and Burro Canyon disposal site. This information pertains to the ground water hydrology investigations which is attachment 3 of this series of reports.

  10. The thermal regime in the resurgent dome of Long Valley Caldera, California: Inferences from precision temperature logs in deep wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hurwitz, S.; Farrar, C.D.; Williams, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Long Valley Caldera in eastern California formed 0.76Ma ago in a cataclysmic eruption that resulted in the deposition of 600km3 of Bishop Tuff. The total current heat flow from the caldera floor is estimated to be ~290MW, and a geothermal power plant in Casa Diablo on the flanks of the resurgent dome (RD) generates ~40MWe. The RD in the center of the caldera was uplifted by ~80cm between 1980 and 1999 and was explained by most models as a response to magma intrusion into the shallow crust. This unrest has led to extensive research on geothermal resources and volcanic hazards in the caldera. Here we present results from precise, high-resolution, temperature-depth profiles in five deep boreholes (327-1,158m) on the RD to assess its thermal state, and more specifically 1) to provide bounds on the advective heat transport as a guide for future geothermal exploration, 2) to provide constraints on the occurrence of magma at shallow crustal depths, and 3) to provide a baseline for future transient thermal phenomena in response to large earthquakes, volcanic activity, or geothermal production. The temperature profiles display substantial non-linearity within each profile and variability between the different profiles. All profiles display significant temperature reversals with depth and temperature gradients <50??C/km at their bottom. The maximum temperature in the individual boreholes ranges between 124.7??C and 129.5??C and bottom hole temperatures range between 99.4??C and 129.5??C. The high-temperature units in the three Fumarole Valley boreholes are at the approximate same elevation as the high-temperature unit in borehole M-1 in Casa Diablo indicating lateral or sub-lateral hydrothermal flow through the resurgent dome. Small differences in temperature between measurements in consecutive years in three of the wells suggest slow cooling of the shallow hydrothermal flow system. By matching theoretical curves to segments of the measured temperature profiles, we calculate horizontal groundwater velocities in the hydrothermal flow unit under the RD that range from 1.9 to 2.8m/yr, which corresponds to a maximum power flowing through the RD of 3-4MW. The relatively low temperatures and large isothermal segments at the bottom of the temperature profiles are inconsistent with the presence of magma at shallow crustal levels. ?? 2010.

  11. Yucatan Subsurface Stratigraphy from Geophysical Data, Well Logs and Core Analyses in the Chicxulub Impact Crater and Implications for Target Heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales, I.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Camargo, A. Z.; Perez-Cruz, G.

    2011-12-01

    Asymmetries in the geophysical signature of Chicxulub crater are being evaluated to investigate on effects of impact angle and trajectory and pre-existing target structural controls for final crater form. Early studies interpreted asymmetries in the gravity anomaly in the offshore sector to propose oblique either northwest- and northeast-directed trajectories. An oblique impact was correlated to the global ejecta distribution and enhanced environmental disturbance. In contrast, recent studies using marine seismic data and computer modeling have shown that crater asymmetries correlate with pre-existing undulations of the Cretaceous continental shelf, suggesting a structural control of target heterogeneities. Documentation of Yucatan subsurface stratigraphy has been limited by lack of outcrops of pre-Paleogene rocks. The extensive cover of platform carbonate rocks has not been affected by faulting or deformation and with no rivers cutting the carbonates, information comes mainly from the drilling programs and geophysical surveys. Here we revisit the subsurface stratigraphy in the crater area from the well log data and cores retrieved in the drilling projects and marine seismic reflection profiles. Other source of information being exploited comes from the impact breccias, which contain a sampling of disrupted target sequences, including crystalline basement and Mesozoic sediments. We analyze gravity and seismic data from the various exploration surveys, including multiple Pemex profiles in the platform and the Chicxulub experiments. Analyses of well log data and seismic profiles identify contacts for Lower Cretaceous, Cretaceous/Jurassic and K/Pg boundaries. Results show that the Cretaceous continental shelf was shallower on the south and southwest than on the east, with emerged areas in Quintana Roo and Belize. Mesozoic and upper Paleozoic sediments show variable thickness, possibly reflecting the crystalline basement regional structure. Paleozoic and Precambrian basement outcrops are located farther to the southeast in Belize and northern Guatemala. Inferred shelf paleo-bathymetry supports existence of a sedimentary basin extending to the northeast, where crater rim and terrace zones are subdued in the seismic images.

  12. Spin dynamics of Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill-like sequences in grossly inhomogeneous B(0) and B(1) fields and application to NMR well logging.

    PubMed

    Hürlimann, M D; Griffin, D D

    2000-03-01

    The spin dynamics for Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill-like sequences is analyzed in grossly inhomogeneous B(0) and B(1) fields. This problem is important for many applications, especially when the bandwidth of the signal is excitation limited. Examples include stray-field NMR or inside-out NMR probes used in well logging. The amplitudes of the first few echoes exhibit a characteristic transient behavior but quickly approach a smooth asymptotic behavior. For simple Hamiltonians without scalar or dipolar couplings, the evolution of a refocusing subcycle for a given isochromat is described by a rotation. Simple expressions for the signal of the Nth echo are derived in terms of these effective rotations that have a simple geometrical interpretation. It is shown that the asymptotic behavior is controlled by the direction of the axis of these effective rotations and the signal is dominated by magnetization "spin-locked" to the rotation axis. The phase of the signal is independent of the details of the field inhomogeneities. Relaxation in inhomogeneous fields leads to a signal decay that is in general nonexponential with an initial decay rate that is a weighted sum of T(-1)(1) and T(-1)(2). At long times, the echo amplitudes decay to a finite value. Phase cycling eliminates this offset. The effect of diffusion is also studied. This analysis has been applied to an inside-out NMR well logging apparatus. Good quantitative agreement is found between measurements and calculations that are based on the measured B(0) and B(1) field maps. PMID:10698653

  13. Color display of well logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter L. Briggs

    1985-01-01

    Information displayed in image form is conventionally at least two-dimensional. One-dimensional data can also be displayed as imagery by amplitude slicing a function and representing these amplitude slices as grey levels or as intensities of a particular color. An image having length and width can be formed from one-dimensional data by arranging a sequence of such color levels along the

  14. Sandstone and shale compaction curves derived from sonic and gamma ray logs in offshore wells, North Slope, Alaska; parameters for basin modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Hayba, Daniel O.; Nelson, Philip H.; Burns, W. Matthew; Houseknecht, David W.

    2003-01-01

    Representative compaction curves for the principle lithologies are essential input for reliable models of basin history. Compaction curves influence estimates of maximum burial and erosion. Different compaction curves may produce significantly different thermal histories. Default compaction curves provided by basin modeling packages may or may not be a good proxy for the compaction properties in a given area. Compaction curves in the published literature span a wide range, even within one lithology, e.g., sandstone (see Panel 3). An abundance of geophysical well data for the North Slope, from both government and private sources, provides us with an unusually good opportunity to develop compaction curves for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian sandstones, siltstones, and shales. We examined the sonic and gamma ray logs from 19 offshore wells (see map), where significant erosion is least likely to have occurred. Our data are primarily from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Brookian sequence and are less complete for older sequences. For each well, the fraction of shale (Vsh) at a given depth was estimated from the gamma ray log, and porosity was computed from sonic travel time. By compositing porosities for the near-pure sand (Vsh99%)from many individual wells we obtained data over sufficient depth intervals to define sandstone and shale 'master' compaction curves. A siltstone curve was defined using the sonic-derived porosities for Vsh values of 50%. These compaction curves generally match most of the sonic porosities with an error of 5% or less. Onshore, the curves are used to estimate the depth of maximum burial at the end of Brookian sedimentation. The depth of sonic-derived porosity profiles is adjusted to give the best match with the 'master' compaction curves. The amount of the depth adjustment is the erosion estimate. Using our compaction curves, erosion estimates on the North Slope range from zero in much of the offshore, to as much as 1500 ft along the coast, and to more than 10,000 ft in the foothills (Panel 3). Compaction curves provide an alternative to vitrinite reflectance for estimating erosion. Vitrinite reflectance data are often very sparse in contrast to well log data and are subject to inconsistencies when measurements are made by different labs. The phenomenon of 'recycling' can also make the reflectance values of dispersed vitrinite problematic for quantifying erosion. Recycling is suspected in dispersed vitrinite in North Slope rocks, particularly in the younger, Cretaceous-Tertiary section. The compaction curves defined here are being integrated into our burial history and thermal models to determine the timing of source rock maturation. An example on Panel 3 shows the results of calculating the maturity of the Shublik Fm. at the Tulaga well using two different sets of shale and siltstone compaction curves. Finally, accurate compaction curves improve a model's ability to realistically simulate the pressure regime during burial, including overpressures.

  15. Inverse Porosity-Hydraulic Conductivity Relationship in Sand-and-Gravel Aquifers Determined From Analysis of Geophysical Well Logs: Implications for Transport Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, R. H.

    2004-05-01

    It is intuitive to think of hydraulic conductivity K as varying directly and monotonically with porosity P in porous media. However, laboratory studies and field observations have documented a possible inverse relationship between these two parameters in unconsolidated deposits under certain grain-size distributions and packing arrangements. This was confirmed at two sites in sand-and-gravel aquifers on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where sets of geophysical well logs were used to examine the interdependence of several aquifer properties. Along with K and P, the resistivity R and the natural-gamma activity G of the surrounding sediments were measured as a function of depth. Qualitative examination of field results from the first site was useful in locating a contaminant plume and inferred an inverse relation between K and P; this was substantiated by a rigorous multivariate analysis of log data collected from the second site where K and P were determined to respond in a bipolar manner among the four independent variables. Along with this result come some implications regarding our conceptual understanding of contaminant transport processes in the shallow subsurface. According to Darcy's law, the interstitial fluid velocity V is proportional to the ratio K/P and, consequently, a general inverse K-P relationship implies that values of V can extend over a much wider range than conventionally assumed. This situation introduces a pronounced flow stratification within these granular deposits that can result in large values of longitudinal dispersivity; faster velocities occur in already fast zones and slower velocities in already slow zones. An inverse K-P relationship presents a new perspective on the physical processes associated with groundwater flow and transport. Although the results of this study apply strictly to the Cape Cod aquifers, they may merit a re-evaluation of modeling approaches undertaken at other locations having similar geologic environments.

  16. Interpretation of Flow Logs from Nevada Test Site Boreholes to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity Using Numerical Simulations Constrained by Single-Well Aquifer Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of volcanic and carbonate lithologic units at the Nevada Test Site were estimated from flow logs and aquifer-test data. Borehole flow and drawdown were integrated and interpreted using a radial, axisymmetric flow model, AnalyzeHOLE. This integrated approach is used because complex well completions and heterogeneous aquifers and confining units produce vertical flow in the annular space and aquifers adjacent to the wellbore. AnalyzeHOLE simulates vertical flow, in addition to horizontal flow, which accounts for converging flow toward screen ends and diverging flow toward transmissive intervals. Simulated aquifers and confining units uniformly are subdivided by depth into intervals in which the hydraulic conductivity is estimated with the Parameter ESTimation (PEST) software. Between 50 and 150 hydraulic-conductivity parameters were estimated by minimizing weighted differences between simulated and measured flow and drawdown. Transmissivity estimates from single-well or multiple-well aquifer tests were used to constrain estimates of hydraulic conductivity. The distribution of hydraulic conductivity within each lithology had a minimum variance because estimates were constrained with Tikhonov regularization. AnalyzeHOLE simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates for lithologic units across screened and cased intervals are as much as 100 times less than those estimated using proportional flow-log analyses applied across screened intervals only. Smaller estimates of hydraulic conductivity for individual lithologic units are simulated because sections of the unit behind cased intervals of the wellbore are not assumed to be impermeable, and therefore, can contribute flow to the wellbore. Simulated hydraulic-conductivity estimates vary by more than three orders of magnitude across a lithologic unit, indicating a high degree of heterogeneity in volcanic and carbonate-rock units. The higher water transmitting potential of carbonate-rock units relative to volcanic-rock units is exemplified by the large difference in their estimated maximum hydraulic conductivity; 4,000 and 400 feet per day, respectively. Simulated minimum estimates of hydraulic conductivity are inexact and represent the lower detection limit of the method. Minimum thicknesses of lithologic intervals also were defined for comparing AnalyzeHOLE results to hydraulic properties in regional ground-water flow models.

  17. Wells

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wells: From the Groundwater Foundation's web site this page explains what a well is, the three basic types, how they are constructed, how they may become contaminated, etc. There are also links to GWF programs and events and to the Kid's Corner.

  18. 30 CFR 250.513 - Approval and reporting of well-completion operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...schematic drawing of the well showing the proposed producing...s) and the subsurface well-completion equipment...completions, a partial electric log showing the zones proposed for completion, if logs have not been previously...515. (5) When the well-completion is in a...

  19. 30 CFR 250.513 - Approval and reporting of well-completion operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...schematic drawing of the well showing the proposed producing...s) and the subsurface well-completion equipment...completions, a partial electric log showing the zones proposed for completion, if logs have not been previously...515. (5) When the well-completion is in a...

  20. Field project to obtain pressure core, wireline log, and production test data for evaluation of CO/sub 2/ flooding potential. Texas Pacific Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310, Wasson (San Andres) Field, Yoakum County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, T.E.; Goodrich, J.H.; Kumar, R.M.; McCoy, R.L.; Wilhelm, M.H.; Glascock, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    The coring, logging and testing of Bennett Ranch Unit well No. 310 was a cooperative effort between Texas Pacific, owner of the well, and Gruy Federal, Inc. The requirements of the contract, which are summarized in Enclosure 1, Appendix A, include drilling and coring activities. The pressure-coring and associated logging and testing programs in selected wells are intended to provide data on in-situ oil saturation, porosity and permeability distribution, and other data needed for resource characterization of fields and reservoirs in which CO/sub 2/ injection might have a high probability of success. This report presents detailed information on the first such project. This project demonstrates the usefulness of integrating pressure core, log and production data to realistically evaluate a reservoir for carbon dioxide flood. The engineering of tests and analysis of such experimental data requires original thinking, but the reliability of the results is higher than data derived from conventional tests.

  1. Monomorphisms in Categories of Log Schemes

    E-print Network

    . Theorem 4.6, (iv)], as well as for versions ``Sch log (-)'', ``SCH log (-)'' of the categories ``Sch logRIMS­1802 Monomorphisms in Categories of Log Schemes By Shinichi MOCHIZUKI April 2014 RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR MATHEMATICAL SCIENCES KYOTO UNIVERSITY, Kyoto, Japan #12; Monomorphisms in Categories of Log

  2. Transaction Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the use of transaction logging in Okapi-related projects to allow search algorithms and user interfaces to be investigated, evaluated, and compared. A series of examples is presented, illustrating logging software for character-based and graphical user interface systems, and demonstrating the usefulness of relational database management…

  3. Compressional wave character in gassy, near-surface sediments in southern Louisiana determined from variable frequency cross-well, borehole logging, and surface seismic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fasnacht, T. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Velocity and attenuation data were used to test theoretical equations describing the frequency dependence of compressional wave velocity and attenuation through gas-rich sediments in coastal Louisiana. The cross-well data were augmented with velocities derived from a nearby seismic refraction station using a low-frequency source. Energy at 1 and 3 kHz was successfully transmitted over distances from 3.69 to 30 m; the 5 and 7-kHz data were obtained only at distances up to 20 m. Velocity tomograms were constructed for one borehole pair and covered a depth interval of 10--50 m. Results from the tomographic modeling indicate that gas-induced low velocities are present to depths of greater than 40 m. Analysis of the velocity dispersion suggests that gas-bubble resonance must be greater than 7 kHz, which is above the range of frequencies used in the experiment. Washout of the boreholes at depths above 15 m resulted in a degassed zone containing velocities higher than those indicated in both nearby refraction and reflection surveys. Velocity and attenuation information were obtained for a low-velocity zone centered at a depth of approximately 18 m. Measured attenuations of 1.57, 2.95, and 3.24 dB/m for the 3-, 5-, and 7-kHz signals, respectively, were modeled along with the velocity data using a silt-clay sediment type. Density and porosity data for the model were obtained from the geophysical logs; the bulk and shear moduli were estimated from published relationships. Modeling results indicate that gas bubbles measuring 1 mm in diameter occupy at least 25% to 35% of the pore space.

  4. How Well Does Brazil's Environmental Law Work in Practice? Environmental Impact Assessment and the Case of the Itapiranga Private Sustainable Logging Plan.

    PubMed

    Eve; Arguelles; Fearnside

    2000-09-01

    / The Itapiranga Sustainable Logging Plan provides an example of how Brazil's licensing system functions for logging companies in the state of Amazonas. Two questions need to be dealt with: "How sustainable can logging in the Amazon be?" and "What and how effective are existing legal mechanisms to deal with logging projects?" The environmental impact assessment (EIA) and environmental impact statement (EIS, known as the RIMA in Brazil), present relatively detailed accounts of biodiversity and the need to adopt conservation strategies to protect it. However, social and health impacts are only superficially addressed. The economic sustainability of the operation over multiple cycles is not demonstrated. The multidisciplinary teams responsible for the EIA and EIS (RIMA) reports are hired by the project proponent, an arrangement inherently carrying the risk of biasing the result. Logging reduces biodiversity, releases greenhouse gases and inflicts social and health costs. These impacts reduce the ability of Amazonian forests to provide environmental services and to supply food and livelihood security to local populations. The reports inflate positive effects such as employment: the estimated number of jobs was cut by more than half in a revision made after the EIA and EIS (RIMA) had been approved. Not only do the reports need to be more realistic in assessing both positive and negative consequences of proposed projects, but better means are needed to ensure that promised mitigatory measures are enforced in practice. Many of the lessons that can be drawn from the Itapiranga Plan are not unique to logging projects and apply to licensing of development activites generally in Brazil and elsewhere. PMID:10977880

  5. Intelligent approaches for prediction of compressional, shear and Stoneley wave velocities from conventional well log data: A case study from the Sarvak carbonate reservoir in the Abadan Plain (Southwestern Iran)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojtaba Rajabi; Bahman Bohloli; Esmaeil Gholampour Ahangar

    2010-01-01

    Compressional, shear and Stoneley wave velocities (Vp, Vs and Vst, respectively) are important reservoir characteristics that have many applications in petrophysical, geophysical and geomechanical studies. In this study Vp, Vs and Vst were predicted from well log data using genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy techniques in an Iranian carbonate reservoir (Sarvak Formation). A total of 3030 data points from

  6. Overpressure prediction by mean total stress estimate using well logs for compressional environments with strike-slip or reverse faulting stress state 

    E-print Network

    Ozkale, Aslihan

    2007-04-25

    by modifying Eaton�s pore-pressure equations, which require either resistivity or sonic log data. The method was tested in the Snorre Field in the Norwegian North Sea, where the field changes from strike-slip to reverse stress state. Eaton...

  7. Geological & Geophysical findings from seismic, well log and core data for marine gas hydrate deposits at the 1st offshore methane hydrate production test site in the eastern Nankai Trough, offshore Japan: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Noguchi, S.; Takayama, T.; Suzuki, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    2012-12-01

    In order to evaluate productivity of gas from marine gas hydrate by the depressurization method, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation is planning to conduct a full-scale production test in early 2013 at the AT1 site in the north slope of Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, Japan. The test location was determined using the combination of detailed 3D seismic reflection pattern analysis, high-density velocity analysis, and P-impedance inversion analysis, which were calibrated using well log data obtained in 2004. At the AT1 site, one production well (AT1-P) and two monitoring wells (AT1-MC and MT1) were drilled from February to March 2012, followed by 1 coring well (AT1-C) from June to July 2012. An extensive logging program with logging while drilling (LWD) and wireline-logging tools, such as GeoVISION (resistivity image), EcoScope (neutron/density porosity, mineral spectroscopy etc.), SonicScanner (Advanced Sonic tool), CMR/ProVISION (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Tools), XPT (formation pressure, fluid mobility), and IsolationScanner (ultrasonic cement evaluation tools) was conducted at AT1-MC well to evaluate physical reservoir properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, to determine production test interval in 2013, and to evaluate cement bonding. Methane hydrate concentrated zone (MHCZ) confirmed by the well logging at AT1-MC was thin turbidites (tens of centimeters to few meters) with 60 m of gross thickness, which is composed of lobe type sequences in the upper part of it and channel sand sequences in the lower part. The gross thickness of MHCZ in the well is thicker than previous wells in 2004 (A1, 45 m) located around 150 m northeast, indicating that the prediction given by seismic inversion analysis was reasonable. Well-to-well correlation between AT1-MC and MT1 wells within 40 m distance exhibited that lateral continuity of these sand layers (upper part of reservoir) are fairly good, which representing ideal reservoir for the production test. The XPT measurement results showed approximately 0.1 to several mD of water permeability in both the hydrate-bearing formation and seal formation, although there are some variations in measured values. However, the comparison of these results with permeability estimated by NMR log showed significant discrepancy (more than one order of difference), which suggests that it is necessary to have further investigation considering the difference in scale, measurement direction (Kh or Kv), and calibration methodology by pressure core data. In order to obtain basic reservoir/seal properties for the well log calibration within and above production test interval, pressure coring using Hybrid Pressure Coring System (Hybrid PCS) and also non-destructive core analysis onboard using Pressure Core Analysis and Transfer System (PCATS) were conducted for 60 m interval in AT1-C, which located about 10 m northeast of AT1-MC. Finally, integrated reservoir characterization based on well-log and pressure core data was conducted to predict and optimize the flow rate of upcoming production test.

  8. Log Ruler

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students construct Log Rulers, finely calibrated in base-10 exponents and numbers (logs and antilogs). They practice reading these scales as accurately as possible, listing all certain figures plus one uncertain figure.  This is activity D1 in the "Far Out Math" educator's guide. Lessons in the guide include activities in which students measure,compare quantities as orders of magnitude, become familiar with scientific notation, and develop an understanding of exponents and logarithms using examples from NASA's GLAST mission. These are skills needed to understand the very large and very small quantities characteristic of astronomical observations. Note: In 2008, GLAST was renamed Fermi, for the physicist Enrico Fermi.

  9. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...depth of casing; all well logs and surveys run in...shall transmit copies of logs and charts developed by well-logging operations, directional-well surveys, and core analyses. Composite logs of multiple runs...

  10. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...depth of casing; all well logs and surveys run in...shall transmit copies of logs and charts developed by well-logging operations, directional-well surveys, and core analyses. Composite logs of multiple runs...

  11. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...depth of casing; all well logs and surveys run in...shall transmit copies of logs and charts developed by well-logging operations, directional-well surveys, and core analyses. Composite logs of multiple runs...

  12. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...depth of casing; all well logs and surveys run in...shall transmit copies of logs and charts developed by well-logging operations, directional-well surveys, and core analyses. Composite logs of multiple runs...

  13. 30 CFR 250.1619 - Well records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...depth of casing; all well logs and surveys run in...shall transmit copies of logs and charts developed by well-logging operations, directional-well surveys, and core analyses. Composite logs of multiple runs...

  14. Estimation of Performance of an Active Well Coincidence Counter Equipped with Boron-Coated Straw Neutron Detectors - 13401

    SciTech Connect

    Young, B.M. [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)] [Canberra Industries, Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States); Lacy, J.L.; Athanasiades, A. [Proportional Technologies, Inc., 8022 El Rio Street, Houston, TX 77054 (United States)] [Proportional Technologies, Inc., 8022 El Rio Street, Houston, TX 77054 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    He-3, a very rare isotope of natural helium gas, has ideal properties for the detection of thermal neutrons. As such it has become the standard material for neutron detectors and sees ubiquitous use within many radiometric applications that require neutron sensitivity. Until recently, there has been a fairly abundant supply of He-3. However, with the reduction in nuclear weapons, production of tritium ceased decades ago and the stockpile has largely decayed away, reducing the available He-3 supply to a small fraction of that needed for neutron detection. A suitable and rapidly-deployable replacement technology for neutron detectors must be found. Many potential replacement technologies are under active investigation and development. One broad class of technologies utilizes B-10 as a neutron capture medium in coatings on the internal surfaces of proportional detectors. A particular implementation of this sort of technology is the boron-coated 'straw' (BCS) detectors under development by Proportional Technologies, Inc. (PTi). This technology employs a coating of B-10 enriched boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) on the inside of narrow tubes, roughly 4 mm in diameter. A neutron counter (e.g. a slab, a well counter, or a large assay counter designed to accommodate 200 liter drums) could be constructed by distributing these narrow tubes throughout the polyethylene body of the counter. One type of neutron counter that is of particular importance to safeguards applications is the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC), which is a Los Alamos design that traditionally employs 42 He-3 detectors. This is a very flexible design which can accurately assay small samples of uranium- and plutonium-bearing materials. Utilizing the MCNPX code and benchmarking against measurements where possible, the standard AWCC has been redesigned to utilize the BCS technology. Particular aspects of the counter performance include the single-neutron ('singles') detection efficiency and the time constant for the decrease in neutron population in the counter following a fission event (a.k.a. the die-away time). Results of the modeling and optimization are presented. (authors)

  15. INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE PETROPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF POST-AND PRE-STACK 3-D SEISMIC DATA, WELL-LOG DATA, CORE DATA, GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND RESERVOIR PRODUCTION DATA VIA BAYESIAN STOCHASTIC INVERSION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; Mrinal K. Sen

    2004-01-01

    The present report summarizes the work carried out between September 30, 2000 and September 30, 2004 under DOE research contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15305. During the three-year project period, we carried out extensive studies on the inversion post-stack and pre-stack data together with well logs, petrophysical information and fluid flow data. We have achieved all the project goals including development of algorithm

  16. Seismic reflection data imaging and interpretation from Braniewo2014 experiment using additional wide-angle refraction and reflection and well-logs data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trzeciak, Maciej; Majda?ski, Mariusz; Bia?as, Sebastian; Gaczy?ski, Edward; Maksym, Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Braniewo2014 reflection and refraction experiment was realized in cooperation between Polish Oil and Gas Company (PGNiG) and the Institute of Geophysics (IGF), Polish Academy of Sciences, near the locality of Braniewo in northern Poland. PGNiG realized a 20-km-long reflection profile, using vibroseis and dynamite shooting; the aim of the reflection survey was to characterise Silurian shale gas reservoir. IGF deployed 59 seismic stations along this profile and registered additional full-spread wide-angle refraction and reflection data, with offsets up to 12 km; maximum offsets from the seismic reflection survey was 3 km. To improve the velocity information two velocity logs from near deep boreholes were used. The main goal of the joint reflection-refraction interpretation was to find relations between velocity field from reflection velocity analysis and refraction tomography, and to build a velocity model which would be consistent for both, reflection and refraction, datasets. In this paper we present imaging results and velocity models from Braniewo2014 experiment and the methodology we used.

  17. Interpretation of geophysical logs, aquifer tests, and water levels in wells in and near the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Upper Gwynedd Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, 2000-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Conger, Randall W.; Bird, Philip H.; Pracht, Karl A.

    2005-01-01

    Ground water in the vicinity of various industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and Lansdale Borough, Montgomery County, Pa., is contaminated with various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, water-level monitoring, and streamflow measurements in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 beginning autumn 2000 to assist the USEPA in developing an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. The study area is underlain by Triassic and Jurassic-age sandstones, siltstones, and shales of the Lockatong Formation and the Brunswick Group. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layered aquifers of differing permeabilities. The aquifers are recharged by precipitation and discharge to streams and wells. The Wissahickon Creek headwaters are less than 1 mile northeast of the study area, and this stream flows southwest to bisect North Penn Area 7. Ground water is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use and public supply. The USGS collected geophysical logs for 16 wells that ranged in depth from 50 to 623 feet. Aquifer-interval-isolation testing was done in 9 of the 16 wells, for a total of 30 zones tested. A multiple-well aquifer test was conducted by monitoring the response of 14 wells to pumping a 600-ft deep production well in February and March 2002. In addition, water levels were monitored continuously in three wells in the area and streamflow was measured quarterly at two sites on Wissahickon Creek from December 2000 through September 2002. Geophysical logging identified water-bearing zones associated with high-angle fractures and bedding-plane openings throughout the depth of the boreholes. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under nonpumping, ambient conditions indicated that borehole flow, where detected, was in the upward direction in three of the eight wells and in the downward direction in three wells. In two wells, both upward and downward flow were measured. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions were used to identify the most productive intervals in wells. Correlation of natural-gamma-ray and single-point-resistance logs indicated that bedding in the area probably strikes about 40 degrees northeast and dips from 6 to 7 degrees northwest. Aquifer intervals isolated by inflatable packers in wells were pumped to test productivity and to collect samples to determine chemical quality of water produced from the interval. Interval-isolation testing confirmed the presence of vertical hydraulic gradients indicated by heatpulse-flowmeter measurements. The specific capacities of isolated intervals ranged over two orders of magnitude, from 0.02 to more than 3.6 gallons per minute per foot. Intervals adjacent to isolated pumped intervals showed little response to pumping the isolated zone. The presence of vertical hydraulic gradients and lack of adjacent-interval response to pumping in isolated intervals indicate a limited degree of vertical hydraulic connection between the aquifer intervals tested. Concentrations of most VOC contaminants generally were highest in well-water samples from the shallowest isolated intervals, with some exceptions. Trichloroethylene, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, and toluene were the most frequently detected VOCs, with maximum concentrations of greater than 340, 680, and greater than 590 micrograms per liter, respectively. Results of the aquifer test with multiple observation wells showed that water levels in 4 of the 14 wells declined in response to pumping. The four wells that responded to pumping are either along str

  18. Discrete-Log-Based Signatures May Not Be Equivalent to Discrete Log

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    be equivalent to the discrete log problem in the standard model. This contradicts in nature well-known proofsDiscrete-Log-Based Signatures May Not Be Equivalent to Discrete Log Pascal Paillier1 and Damien evidence that the unforgeability of several discrete-log based signatures like Schnorr signatures cannot

  19. Processing, Analysis, and General Evaluation of Well-Driller Logs for Estimating Hydrogeologic Parameters of the Glacial Sediments in a Ground-Water Flow Model of the Lake Michigan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arihood, Leslie D.

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot study for the National Assessment of Water Availability and Use Program to assess the availability of water and water use in the Great Lakes Basin. Part of the study involves constructing a ground-water flow model for the Lake Michigan part of the Basin. Most ground-water flow occurs in the glacial sediments above the bedrock formations; therefore, adequate representation by the model of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments is important to the accuracy of model simulations. This work processed and analyzed well records to provide the hydrogeologic parameters of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity and ground-water levels for the model layers used to simulated ground-water flow in the glacial sediments. The methods used to convert (1) lithology descriptions into assumed values of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity for entire model layers, (2) aquifer-test data into point values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity, and (3) static water levels into water-level calibration data are presented. A large data set of about 458,000 well driller well logs for monitoring, observation, and water wells was available from three statewide electronic data bases to characterize hydrogeologic parameters. More than 1.8 million records of lithology from the well logs were used to create a lithologic-based representation of horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the glacial sediments. Specific-capacity data from about 292,000 well logs were converted into horizontal hydraulic conductivity values to determine specific values of horizontal hydraulic conductivity and its aerial variation. About 396,000 well logs contained data on ground-water levels that were assembled into a water-level calibration data set. A lithology-based distribution of hydraulic conductivity was created by use of a computer program to convert well-log lithology descriptions into aquifer or nonaquifer categories and to calculate equivalent horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivities (K and KZ, respectively) for each of the glacial layers of the model. The K was based on an assumed value of 100 ft/d (feet per day) for aquifer materials and 1 ft/d for nonaquifer materials, whereas the equivalent KZ was based on an assumed value of 10 ft/d for aquifer materials and 0.001 ft/d for nonaquifer materials. These values were assumed for convenience to determine a relative contrast between aquifer and nonaquifer materials. The point values of K and KZ from wells that penetrate at least 50 percent of a model layer were interpolated into a grid of values. The K distribution was based on an inverse distance weighting equation that used an exponent of 2. The KZ distribution used inverse distance weighting with an exponent of 4 to represent the abrupt change in KZ that commonly occurs between aquifer and nonaquifer materials. The values of equivalent hydraulic conductivity for aquifer sediments needed to be adjusted to actual values in the study area for the ground-water flow modeling. The specific-capacity data (discharge, drawdown, and time data) from the well logs were input to a modified version of the Theis equation to calculate specific capacity based horizontal hydraulic conductivity values (KSC). The KSC values were used as a guide for adjusting the assumed value of 100 ft/d for aquifer deposits to actual values used in the model. Water levels from well logs were processed to improve reliability of water levels for comparison to simulated water levels in a model layer during model calibration. Water levels were interpolated by kriging to determine a composite water-level surface. The difference between the kriged surface and individual water levels was used to identify outlier water levels. Examination of the well-log lithology data in map form revealed that the data were not only useful for model input, but also were useful for understanding th

  20. log laws 9/13/2007 1 1.3 The log laws

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Peter

    (xy), log(xr ), etc. Well, let's use the big idea above: logx is the inverse of 10x . We have nice algebraic What log law can you extract from that? How should your thinking run? Well, you have to keep hold to use a and b as arguments for log(x) as well, and that will surely give them grief. The key

  1. Preliminary geological interpretation and lithologic log of the exploratory geothermal test well (INEL-1), Idaho National Enginering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Doherty; L. A. McBroome; M. A. Kuntz

    1979-01-01

    A 10,365 ft (3159 m) geothermal test well was drilled in the spring of 1979 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The majority of rock types encountered in the borehole are of volcanic origin. An upper section above 2445 ft (745 m) consists of basaltic lava flows and interbedded sediments of alluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic

  2. New materials for fireplace logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kieselback, D. J.; Smock, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    Fibrous insulation and refractory concrete are used for logs as well as fireproof walls, incinerator bricks, planters, and roof shingles. Insulation is lighter and more shock resistant than fireclay. Lightweight slag bonded with refractory concrete serves as aggregrate.

  3. Intelligent approaches for prediction of compressional, shear and Stoneley wave velocities from conventional well log data: A case study from the Sarvak carbonate reservoir in the Abadan Plain (Southwestern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, Mojtaba; Bohloli, Bahman; Gholampour Ahangar, Esmaeil

    2010-05-01

    Compressional, shear and Stoneley wave velocities ( Vp, Vs and Vst, respectively) are important reservoir characteristics that have many applications in petrophysical, geophysical and geomechanical studies. In this study Vp, Vs and Vst were predicted from well log data using genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy techniques in an Iranian carbonate reservoir (Sarvak Formation). A total of 3030 data points from the Sarvak carbonate reservoir which have Vp, Vs, Vst and conventional well log data were used. These data were divided into two groups; one group included 2047 data points used for constructing intelligent models, and the other included 983 data points used for models testing. The measured mean squared errors (MSEs) of predicted Vp in the test data, using genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and neuro-fuzzy techniques, were 0.0296, 0.0148 and 0.029, respectively, for Vs these errors were 0.0153, 0.0084 and 0.0184, respectively, and for Vst they were 0.00035, 0.00020 and 0.00062, respectively. Despite different concepts in these intelligent techniques, the results (especially those from fuzzy logic) seem to be reliable.

  4. Preliminary geological interpretation and lithologic log of the exploratory geothermal test well (INEL-1), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doherty, David J.; McBroome, Lisa Ann; Kuntz, Mel A.

    1979-01-01

    A 10,365 ft (3,159 m) geothermal test well was drilled in the spring of 1979 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho: The majority of rock types encountered in the borehole are of volcanic origin. An upper section above 2,445 ft (745 m) consists of basaltic lava flows and interbedded .sediments of alluvial, lacustrine, and volcanic origin. A lower section below 2,445 ft (745 m) consists exclusively of rhyolitic welded ash-flow tuffs, air-fall ash deposits, nonwelded ash-flow ruffs, and volcaniclastic sediments. The lithology and thickness of the rhyolitic rocks suggest that they are part of an intracaldera fill.

  5. The application of well logging and seismic modeling to assess the degree of gas saturation in Miocene strata (Carpathian Foredeep, Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzec, Pawe?; Niepsuj, Magdalena; Ba?a, Maria; Pietsch, Kaja

    2014-02-01

    The presence of natural gas in the pore space of reservoir rocks results in a significant decrease in P-wave velocity. Even low gas saturation can generate seismic anomalies (DHI) and false image of gas accumulation of economic importance. This article presents an attempt to evaluate gas saturation from 2D seismic section in the Miocene sandstone strata in the south-eastern part of the Carpathian Foredeep. The ESTYMACJA program and the Biot-Gassmann model were used to study the dependence between elastic parameters and saturating fluids (water and gas) recorded in wells. Series of calculations was carried out using a method of fluid substitution for various gas saturation. The applicability of seismic data for evaluating gas saturation of reservoir beds was assessed with the use of 1D modelling (synthetic seismograms) and 2D modelling (theoretical seismic section) calculated for different gas saturation. The proposed methodology can be used to identify low and high gas-saturated zones and contour the reservoir.

  6. A modeling solution for predicting (a) dry rock bulk modulus, rigidity modulus and (b) seismic velocities and reflection coefficients in porous, fluid-filled rocks with applications to laboratory rock samples and well logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Alvin K.; Wu, Jie

    1999-02-01

    The velocity of sound in porous, fluid-saturated rocks can be predicted using the Biot-Geertsma-Gassmann (BGG) and shear-wave velocity equations. However, two of the needed input parameters, the bulk modulus ( Kb) of the empty, porous rock and the shear modulus ( ?) of the rock are very difficult to obtain in situ. In the past, these values were typically chosen a priori and input into the BGG and shear-wave equations in a forward modeling mode. In addition to Kb and ?, it is also essential to input rock-matrix and fluid parameters that reflect in situ conditions. In this paper, the BGG and shear-wave equations are inverted to generate values for Kb and ?, respectively, by using available velocity and porosity data obtained from well logs and/or cores for water/brine-saturated rocks. These values of Kb and ?, along with reasonable in situ estimates of rock-matrix and fluid parameters generated from the Batzle-Wang [Batzle, M., Wang, Z., 1992. Seismic properties of pore fluids. Geophysics 57, 1396-1408.] formulation, are then used to predict compressional and shear-wave velocities, compressional-shear wave ratios, and reflection coefficients at the interfaces between host rocks and fluid-saturated rocks, either fully or partially saturated with hydrocarbons, as a function of depth and/or porosity. Although generally similar to the approach of Murphy et al. [Murphy, W.F., Reischer, A., Hsu, K., 1993. Modulus decomposition of compressional and shear velocities in sand bodies. Geophysics 58, 227-239.], our method of inversion to determine Kb and ?, coupled with our input of in situ estimates of rock-matrix and fluid parameters as a function of depth from the Batzle-Wang formulation, forms a novel solution for predicting in situ velocities. A modeling program has been developed to perform these calculations and plot the velocity and reflection coefficient information as a function of depth, porosity, and water saturation. The resulting relationships between porous rock parameters provide valuable information for imaging and interpreting seismic data, interpreting well log data, aiding in the direct detection of subsurface fluids, and in developing reasonable models of the subsurface geology to assist with exploration and exploitation decisions. When our modeling program is applied to water-saturated reservoir rocks (sandstones and limestones) under controlled laboratory conditions, the percentage error between velocities predicted by our modeling program and values measured in the laboratory are typically less than 10% for both sandstone and limestone samples. When applied to well logs to predict sonic travel times and/or velocities for hydrocarbon-saturated rocks in the uninvaded formation, the predictions correlate with interpretations from other well logs and with hydrocarbon production from zones of interest.

  7. Responsive Sonification of Well-logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Barrass; Björn Zehner

    2000-01-01

    Our goal is to apply and evaluate sonification for oil and gas exploration on a Responsive Workbench. The end-users are geologicalinterpreters who build up models of underground formations, and stake holders in a consortium of oil and gas companies,software vendors, and Virtual Environments researchers. Based on the goals and users we formulated developmentcriteria that the sonification should be easy to

  8. Velocity filtering of acoustic well logging waveforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai Hsu; T. L. Marzetta

    1989-01-01

    A velocity filter that is based on a particularly convenient and effective combination of an up\\/down filter and slanting (time-shift) operations is presented. The up\\/down filter is based on a cascade of spatial and temporal Hilbert transform filters. The Hilbert transform filters and the time-shift operators are finite-duration impulse response (FIR) filters designed according to the minimax criterion. The velocity

  9. ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA

    E-print Network

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 #12;ILLEGAL LOGGING IN INDONESIA | 2 Executive Summary Indonesia's rainforests are the third

  10. Thermal neutron decay time /SUP TM/ log applications in California

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, H.C.

    1983-02-01

    The Thermal Neutron Decay Time /SUP TM/ (TDT) log has had wide applications throughout the world for many years. Recent improvements in equipment design, combined with the effect of the presence of trace elements in the low-salinity formation waters of California, have extended the TDT's use to these reservoirs. Interpretation of TDT logs employs the dual water model concept. The dual water model concept is explained and an example of its use is shown in this paper. The TDT logs run in California are processed through the Schlumberger Computing Center using the Cased Reservoir Analysis /SUP TM/ (CRA) program. The CRA program uses the dual water model. An example is shown including pass 1 EDIT output, parameter selection, and CRA output. Example of California applications are presented, including selection of zones for recompletion, location of zones of high GOR, evaluation of diatomite, monitoring of reservoir performance and production, and logging of TDT through drillpipe. With the introduction of the Schlumberger Cyber Service Units /SUP TM/ (CSU's) to the field, the scope of wellsite Quicklook /SUP TM/ computations has increased greatly. Recently introduced to the field is Cyberscan, /SUP TM/ a Quicklook wellsite computation. The process is described, and an example is presented. Also shown is a comparison of the Cyberscan example and the CRA computed on the same well.

  11. TORIC SINGULARITIES: LOG-BLOW-UPS AND GLOBAL RESOLUTIONS

    E-print Network

    Niziol, Wieslawa

    TORIC SINGULARITIES: LOG-BLOW-UPS AND GLOBAL RESOLUTIONS WIESLAWA NIZIOL 1. Introduction It is well. In the language of log-geometry, Kato's toric singularities are called log-regular schemes. Since many of our results hold for more general log-schemes than that, we have chosen to work here in the setting of fine

  12. University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM

    E-print Network

    He, Chuan

    University Equipment EQUIPMENT DISPOSAL FORM Please return form to Financial Services Attn: Debt and Capital Asset Accounting, 6054 S Drexel Ave. Suite 300 or skgill@uchicago.edu Asset Information Equipment Equipment Purchased on Federal Funds: By checking this box, I confirm this disposal complies

  13. 30 CFR 250.513 - Approval and reporting of well-completion operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...producing zone(s) and the subsurface well-completion equipment to be used...multiple completions, a partial electric log showing the zones proposed for completion...previously submitted; (4) When the well-completion is in a zone known to...

  14. 30 CFR 250.513 - Approval and reporting of well-completion operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...producing zone(s) and the subsurface well-completion equipment to be used...multiple completions, a partial electric log showing the zones proposed for completion...previously submitted; (4) When the well-completion is in a zone known to...

  15. 30 CFR 250.513 - Approval and reporting of well-completion operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...producing zone(s) and the subsurface well-completion equipment to be used...multiple completions, a partial electric log showing the zones proposed for completion...previously submitted; (4) When the well-completion is in a zone known to...

  16. Basic Summary The TraceMoment program calculates regressions from the log-log plots of the trace moments for

    E-print Network

    Lovejoy, Shaun

    Outerscale Basic Summary The TraceMoment program calculates regressions from the log-log plots inputs of parameters derived from the TraceMoment analysis and outputs a graph of Log(M) vs. Log() by forcing fits through a fixed outer scale as well as a graph of K(q). Not only does it give more reliable

  17. 10 CFR 39.51 - Use of a sealed source in a well without a surface casing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Use of a sealed source in a well without a surface casing. 39.51 ...LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.51 Use of a sealed source in a well without a surface casing. The...

  18. 10 CFR 39.51 - Use of a sealed source in a well without a surface casing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Use of a sealed source in a well without a surface casing. 39.51 ...LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Equipment § 39.51 Use of a sealed source in a well without a surface casing. The...

  19. Depth dependent multiple logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Howells, A. P. S.; Angehrn, J. A.; Dienglewicz, A. M.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-12-03

    An improved well logging technique is provided for more accurately deriving and correlating a plurality of measurements made during a single traversal of a logging instrument through subsurface formations. In one exemplary embodiment, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving a more accurate and precise measurement of depth at which real-time logging measurements are made, and in particular for correcting anomalies occurring in the depth indication from cable stretch, yo-yo of the sonde in the borehole and the like. The more accurate and precise depth measurement is then utilized for generating well logging measurements on a depth-dependent basis, deriving at least some of such measurements in digital form and alternately transmitting to the surface digital and analog representations of such measurements. Furthermore, methods and apparatus are provided for deriving measurements of subsurface earth formation from a plurality of logging instruments combined in a single tool, wherein such measurements are made during a single pass through a borehole with the resultant measurement data correlatively merged, recorded and displayed.

  20. Log N-log S in inconclusive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klebesadel, R. W.; Fenimore, E. E.; Laros, J.

    1983-01-01

    The log N-log S data acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Gamma Burst Detector (PVO) are presented and compared to similar data from the Soviet KONUS experiment. Although the PVO data are consistent with and suggestive of a -3/2 power law distribution, the results are not adequate at this state of observations to differentiate between a -3/2 and a -1 power law slope.

  1. Tectonic vs. eustatic control on the 3D sedimentary architecture of a carbonate succession from the Browse Basin, NW-Australia: An integration of well logs, 2D- and 3D-seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosleff-Soerensen, B.; Reuning, L.; Back, S.; Kukla, P.

    2009-04-01

    An extensive and multivariate dataset from the Browse Basin on the Australian NW-shelf provides the opportunity to gain a comprehensive picture of the area by combining the benefits of several data types. From the Early to Middle Miocene onward, the carbonate sediment system of the Browse Basin is characterized by tropical reef growth. Reef growth terminates during the earliest Late Miocene by stepwise drowning, preceded by a subaerial exposure event. 3D-seismic data from two adjacent multichannel seismic dataset covering more than 1000 km2 provide valuable insights on the geometries and timely development of the reef system, thus contributing to a better spatial understanding of such systems. The analysis of seismic attributes and facies allows further constraints on the distribution of rock fabrics. The regional context of the sedimentary system is provided by a large -scale network of 2D-seismic lines, documenting the tectonic framework for the evolution of the sedimentary succession. This allows to determine the influence of subsidence, respectively uplift caused by the approach of the NW-shelf to the Sunda-Banda arc subduction zone. Additionally, wireline logs, isotopic records and core material from two wells provide stratigraphic control and additional paleoenvironmental information from microfossils and isotope data. The integration of these data allows a correlation of features of the Browse Basin carbonate shelf to global events and thereby an estimation of the proportional influence of tectonics and eustasy on the evolution of the tropical reef system. Generally the succession of the depositional features in the Browse Basin conforms to a pattern recognised in several other carbonate sediment systems from the Indo-pacific region, both tropical and non-tropical, implying a strong impact of eustatic changes, despite the active tectonic setting.

  2. INTEGRATED APPROACH FOR THE PETROPHYSICAL INTERPRETATION OF POST- AND PRE-STACK 3-D SEISMIC DATA, WELL-LOG DATA, CORE DATA, GEOLOGICAL INFORMATION AND RESERVOIR PRODUCTION DATA VIA BAYESIAN STOCHASTIC INVERSION

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos Torres-Verdin; Mrinal K. Sen

    2004-03-01

    The present report summarizes the work carried out between September 30, 2002 and August 30, 2003 under DOE research contract No. DE-FC26-00BC15305. During the third year of work for this project we focused primarily on improving the efficiency of inversion algorithms and on developing algorithms for direct estimation of petrophysical parameters. The full waveform inversion algorithm for elastic property estimation was tested rigorously on a personal computer cluster. For sixteen nodes on the cluster the parallel algorithm was found to be scalable with a near linear speedup. This enabled us to invert a 2D seismic line in less than five hours of CPU time. We were invited to write a paper on our results that was subsequently accepted for publication. We also carried out a rigorous study to examine the sensitivity and resolution of seismic data to petrophysical parameters. In other words, we developed a full waveform inversion algorithm that estimates petrophysical parameters such as porosity and saturation from pre-stack seismic waveform data. First we used a modified Biot-Gassmann equation to relate petrophysical parameters to elastic parameters. The transformation was validated with a suite of well logs acquired in the deepwater Gulf of Mexico. As a part of this study, we carried out a sensitivity analysis and found that the porosity is very well resolved while the fluid saturation remains insensitive to seismic wave amplitudes. Finally we conducted a joint inversion of pre-stack seismic waveform and production history data. To overcome the computational difficulties we used a simpler waveform modeling algorithm together with an efficient subspace approach. The algorithm was tested on a realistic synthetic data set. We observed that the use of pre-stack seismic data helps tremendously to improve horizontal resolution of porosity maps. Finally, we submitted four publications to refereed technical journals, two refereed extended abstracts to technical conferences, and delivered two oral presentation at a technical forum. All of these publications and presentations stemmed from work directly related to the goals of our DOE project.

  3. Annual Logging Symposium, June 22-26, 2013 IMPROVED PETROPHYSICAL EVALUATION OF CONSOLIDATED

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    with the developed interpretation method honor all the available measurements including conventional well logs, NMR by the Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) and the submitting authors. This paper referred to as shoulder-bed effect on well logs. Due to shoulder-bed effects on well logs, horizontal

  4. Ulysses log 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Raul Garcia

    1993-01-01

    The Ulysses Log tells the story of some intriguing problems that we (=The Spacecraft Team) have encountered. Ulysses was launched on 6 Oct. 1990, and it made the fastest trip to Jupiter (8 Feb. 1992). It is presently going out of the ecliptic. This paper presents log entries from the following areas: (1) ingenious maneuvers; (2) telecommunication problems; and (3) surprises.

  5. Hanford wells

    SciTech Connect

    McGhan, V.L.

    1989-06-01

    The Site Characterization and Assessment Section of the Geosciences Department at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has compiled a list of wells located on or near the Hanford Site. Information has been updated on wells existing from the days before construction of the Hanford Works to the present. This work was funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The list of wells will be used by DOE contractors who need condensed, tabular information on well location, construction, and completion dates. This report does not include data on lithologic logs and ground-water contamination. Moreover, the completeness of this list is limited because of new well construction and existing well modifications, which are continually under way. Despite these limitations, this list represents the most complete description possible of data pertaining to wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Phototherapy equipment.

    PubMed

    McClelland, P B; Morgan, P; Leach, E E; Shelk, J

    1996-10-01

    Treating patients with phototherapy is like dosing patients with medication. The purpose of this continuing education article is to describe various phototherapy equipment and how to conduct safe and efficacious therapy. PMID:9069832

  7. Acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1988-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth3 s magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation . The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores.

  8. Blood Glucose Log

    MedlinePLUS

    ... here ¢ cut here ¢ If you have high blood glucose , make notes in your log and talk with ... physical activity, or diabetes medicines. Having low blood glucose means that your blood glucose level is too ...

  9. Engineered Log Jam

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Engineered Log Jam on the lower river opposite the new Lower Klallam Tribe Fish Hatchery. The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe project creates salmon habitat on the lower Elwha River in preparation for dam removal and habitat restoration....

  10. Hanford wells

    SciTech Connect

    Chamness, M.A.; Merz, J.K.

    1993-08-01

    Records describing wells located on or near the Hanford Site have been maintained by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the operating contractor, Westinghouse Hanford Company. In support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project, portions of the data contained in these records have been compiled into the following report, which is intended to be used by those needing a condensed, tabular summary of well location and basic construction information. The wells listed in this report were constructed over a period of time spanning almost 70 years. Data included in this report were retrieved from the Hanford Envirorunental Information System (HEIS) database and supplemented with information not yet entered into HEIS. While considerable effort has been made to obtain the most accurate and complete tabulations possible of the Hanford Site wells, omissions and errors may exist. This document does not include data on lithologic logs, ground-water analyses, or specific well completion details.

  11. Using Flow Logging Experiments to Bridge the Scale Gap in Borehole Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillet, F. L.

    2001-12-01

    Until the recent development of high-resolution borehole flow logging equipment, geophysical well logs were indirectly related to aquifer parameters such as porosity and permeability through various interpretation equations. Heat-pulse and electro-magnetic flowmeters allow the direct measurement of aquifer permeability in situ during borehole flow experiments. An important limitation on the interpretation such flow experiments is the scale of investigation, because permeability profiles derived from flow logs apply to the immediate vicinity of the borehole. A few local samples of the permeability of heterogeneous aquifers are unlikely to apply to large-scale flow within the aquifer. The aquifer scale limitation of geophysical logging is addressed by: 1) using a borehole flow model to interpret the large scale boundary conditions driving local borehole flow; and 2) using pulsed cross-borehole flow experiments to define hydraulic connections between boreholes. Conventional geophysical logs are used to identify generalized aquifer structure, including individual bedding planes or fractures conducting flow into or out of the borehole. A flow log model is used to quantify the local-scale hydraulic conductivity of the conduits intersecting the borehole, and to estimate the hydraulic head of the large-scale aquifer or aquifers to which those conduits are connected. These estimations can be interpreted in terms of large-scale aquifer structure. In a more direct and straightforward sampling of large-scale permeability, cross-borehole flow tests consist of experiments where one borehole is stressed for a short period, and the transient flow field induced by that stress is monitored in adjacent boreholes. These experiments are used to define the flow paths between boreholes, and to identify possible hidden connections short-circuiting those flow paths. Specific examples of local flow-log data used to define large-scale aquifer properties are given for study sites in Minnesota, Massachusetts, Maine, and New York.

  12. Equipment Race 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-09-05

    provided by the manu- facturer and are recommended when it is necessary to work or move around the machine with the bucket in a raised position and the controls are unattended. Newer skid-steer loaders are equipped with pin or strut sup- ports that can...-steer loader will start. Seat Belts When worn on skid-steer loaders equipped with a rollover protection structure, seat belts restrain the opera- tor within the zone of protection in case of a rollover. If seat belts are part of the safety interlock system...

  13. An O n log n log log n

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Schwarzt; Michiel Smidt

    1992-01-01

    Let V be a set of n points in k-dimensional space. It is shown how the closest pair in V can be maintained under insertions in O(log n log log n) amortized time, using O(n) amortized time, using O(n) space. Distances are measured in the Lt-metric, where 1 ? ? . This gives an O(n log n log log n0

  14. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  15. USGS Equipment

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS traveling equipment above Minot, North Dakota. USGS personnel were measuring the streamflow of the Souris River above Minot, ND on June 24, 2011.  Streamflow was approximately 20,800 cubic feet per second, stage approximately 23.46 feet....

  16. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  17. 6.EE Log Ride

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-01

    This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: A theme park has a log ride that can hold 12 people. They also have a weight limit of 1500 lbs per log for safety reason. If the average adult weighs 1...

  18. Recover it yourself with user logging

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, D.

    1984-01-01

    IMAGE logging is a good product that has proved to be an effective and accurate way to save interactive transactions for recovery and audit purposes. There is one shortcoming with the product in that it only logs transactions within the IMAGE domain. Some applications require that KSAM and MPE files be updated in an on-line system. How can these files be recovered. One answer is to use a recoverable program structure that not only posts the interactive transactions, but recovers them as well. The user logging facility is used to store the successful transactions to either tape or disc. This paper will discuss the recoverable program structure and the user logging subsystem.

  19. Intelligent approaches for the synthesis of petrophysical logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaee, M. Reza; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Alizadeh, Pooya Mohammad

    2008-03-01

    Log data are of prime importance in acquiring petrophysical data from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Reliable log analysis in a hydrocarbon reservoir requires a complete set of logs. For many reasons, such as incomplete logging in old wells, destruction of logs due to inappropriate data storage and measurement errors due to problems with logging apparatus or hole conditions, log suites are either incomplete or unreliable. In this study, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were used as intelligent tools to synthesize petrophysical logs including neutron, density, sonic and deep resistivity. The petrophysical data from two wells were used for constructing intelligent models in the Fahlian limestone reservoir, Southern Iran. A third well from the field was used to evaluate the reliability of the models. The results showed that fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were successful in synthesizing wireline logs. The combination of the results obtained from fuzzy logic and neural networks in a simple averaging committee machine (CM) showed a significant improvement in the accuracy of the estimations. This committee machine performed better than fuzzy logic or the neural network model in the problem of estimating petrophysical properties from well logs.

  20. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  1. The Log of Gravity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. C. Santos Silva; Silvana Tenreyro

    2006-01-01

    Although economists have long been aware of Jensen's inequality, many econometric applications have neglected an important implication of it: under heteroskedasticity, the parameters of log-linearized models estimated by OLS lead to biased estimates of the true elasticities. We explain why this problem arises and propose an appropriate estimator. Our criticism of conventional practices and the proposed solution extend to a

  2. ,"_' ",',-i_~ :FORESTRY AND LOGGING

    E-print Network

    ":~I> ", .' '. ,"_' ",',-i_~ . :FORESTRY AND LOGGING Hcscarch on Plantation Species A Positive in plantation forestry. par- ticularly in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere. in the past 30 years plantation forestry. Indeed, one could list many exam- ples of such problems that have plagued exotic

  3. Borehole Geophysical Logging

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    USGS hydrologist conducts borehole geophysical logging as part of an applied research project to evaluate the use of new hydrogeophysical tools to remotely monitor and visualize bioremediation of contaminated groundwater. This research is being conducted at the Brandywine Defense Reutilization and M...

  4. Deposition Equipment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a description for a learning module from Maricopa Advanced Technology Education Center. This PDF describes the module; access may be purchased by visiting the MATEC website. Use this module to develop your learners' ability to control deposition equipment operations. The activities are adaptable to cleanroom or laboratory, and employ the Applied Materials Precision 5000 as a prototypical CVD tool. The module takes learners through a review of the deposition process, an introduction to the systems and subsystems of a CVD tool, and through an entire operations cycle from recipe interpretation through process control of inputs/outputs.

  5. Principle and geometric precision of photographic geological logging of tunnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Rong-Chun; Yang, Biao; Wu, Ming-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Considering the problem of engineering geological logging technique by means of sketching at the work site, this paper presents a photographic geological logging technique based on photogrammetry as well as engineering geology. The principles, methods, and working process have been discussed, and the photographic geological logging precision of a tunnel and its estimation method have been researched. The theoretical and experimental analysis shows that the precision of the digital unfolded image map of tunnel automatically generated by the photographic geological logging method is sufficient for serving as the logging base map. Besides, the measurement precision of unfolded images or stereopairs meets the requirements of geological attitude measurement. The new technique of photographic geological logging proposed in this paper is expected to replace the current sketch way of engineering geological logging on site, with the operation mode converted from manual operation to computer-aided operation and informatized management.

  6. LogN-LogS Studies of EGRET Sources

    E-print Network

    O. Reimer; D. L. Bertsch

    2001-08-22

    A comprehensive investigation of logN-logS distributions of gamma-ray sources discovered by EGRET has been performed for subsequent use in population studies. Existing models explaining the spatial arrangement of unidentified sources do not compare against an observed logN-logS distribution. However, viable population models not only have to reproduce the logN-logS distribution for different source classes globally, they have to correspond to apparent differences among their spatial, spectral and variability characteristics. Furthermore, it needs to be understood in which way results from selections among the unidentified sources like "persistent" (Grenier 2000) or "steady" sources (Gehrels et al. 2000) are related to the overall picture regarding their logN-logS characteristics.

  7. Naïve Bayesian filters for log file analysis: Despam your logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russel W. Havens; Bary Lunt; Chia-Chi Teng

    2012-01-01

    System log files are critical for troubleshooting complex modern computer systems. Systems can easily produce more log file entries than a human can realistically use. However, there are a number of good filtering and clustering technologies that are used in various areas of data mining. This research focuses on using very easily accessible Bayesian spam filters for categorizing log entries.

  8. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n log log n) Update Time

    E-print Network

    Riko Jacob

    Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n #1; log log n) Update Time Gerth St fgerth,rjacobg@brics.dk Abstract. The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points(log n #1; log log n) time, and various queries about the convex hull in optimal O(log n) worst-case time

  9. Equipment Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Magnavox Government & Electronics Company originally used the NASTRAN program in the design stage of heavy aluminum fixtures for vibration testing. Program also used to compare the resonant frequencies of the circuitry to predict whether failures may occur because of high vibration levels. The company engineers can then make design alterations to improve the equipment's vibration resistance. Method allows Magnavox to insure reliability and reduce any possibility of vibration-caused failure in critical defense products they manufacture. Magnavox uses another COSMIC software package called GENOPTICS in the development of a Digital Optical Recorder, and also in research and development of other optical systems. This enables use of an optically recorded disc to store and retrieve digital data. It is reported that this program provides accurate results and that its use saved six man-months of time that would have been needed to develop a comparable software package.

  10. Borehole Calibration Facilities to Support Gamma Logging for Hanford Subsurface Investigation and Contaminant Monitoring - 13516

    SciTech Connect

    McCain, R.G.; Henwood, P.D.; Pope, A.D.; Pearson, A.W. [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)] [S M Stoller Corporation, 2439 Robertson Drive, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Repeated gamma logging in cased holes represents a cost-effective means to monitor gamma-emitting contamination in the deep vadose zone over time. Careful calibration and standardization of gamma log results are required to track changes and to compare results over time from different detectors and logging systems. This paper provides a summary description of Hanford facilities currently available for calibration of logging equipment. Ideally, all logging organizations conducting borehole gamma measurements at the Hanford Site will take advantage of these facilities to produce standardized and comparable results. (authors)

  11. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  12. Fishing tool retrieves MWD nuclear source from deep well

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-17

    A new wire line tool has successfully retrieved the nuclear sources and formation data from a measurement-while-drilling (MWD) tool stuck in a deep, highly deviated well in the Gulf of Mexico. On Nov. 8, 1993, Schlumberger Wireline and Testing and Anadrill ran a logging-while-drilling inductive coupling (LINC) tool on conventional wire line to fish the gamma ray and neutron sources from a compensated density neutron (CDN) tool stuck in a well at 19,855 ft with an inclination greater than 80[degree]. The paper briefly describes the operation and equipment.

  13. Annual Logging Symposium, June 22-26, 2013 MULTI-SCALE ORTHOGONAL ROCK CLASS DECOMPOSITION

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) and the submitting authors. This paper was prepared for presentation seismic surveys, well logs, core data, and pore-scale imaging. As an important reservoir description tool-scale orthogonal rock class decomposition, which integrates well logs and core data to quantify heterogeneous tight

  14. Grid Logging: Best Practices Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L; Tierney, Brian L; Gunter, Dan

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to help developers of Grid middleware and application software generate log files that will be useful to Grid administrators, users, developers and Grid middleware itself. Currently, most of the currently generated log files are only useful to the author of the program. Good logging practices are instrumental to performance analysis, problem diagnosis, and security auditing tasks such as incident tracing and damage assessment. This document does not discuss the issue of a logging API. It is assumed that a standard log API such as syslog (C), log4j (Java), or logger (Python) is being used. Other custom logging API or even printf could be used. The key point is that the logs must contain the required information in the required format. At a high level of abstraction, the best practices for Grid logging are: (1) Consistently structured, typed, log events; (2) A standard high-resolution timestamp; (3) Use of logging levels and categories to separate logs by detail and purpose; (4) Consistent use of global and local identifiers; and (5) Use of some regular, newline-delimited ASCII text format. The rest of this document describes each of these recommendations in detail.

  15. Outcrop gamma-ray logging applied to subsurface petroleum geology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Slatt; J. M. Borer; B. W. Horn

    1995-01-01

    Developing a gamma-ray log profile of an outcrop with a hand-held scintillometer has many applications to subsurface petroleum geology. The outcrop gamma-ray log provides a readily understandable bridge between what is observed in outcrop and what is to be interpreted on well logs and seismic records. Several examples are presented in this paper that demonstrate major applications. An outcrop from

  16. 47 CFR 18.203 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Applications and Authorizations...Grants of equipment authorization issued, as well as on-site certifications performed, before March 1, 1986, remain...

  17. 47 CFR 18.203 - Equipment authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Applications and Authorizations...Grants of equipment authorization issued, as well as on-site certifications performed, before March 1, 1986, remain...

  18. Swept energy source acoustic logging system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mailett

    1984-01-01

    An acoustic energy mode propagation speed or travel time measurement system for use in well logging is disclosed. A downhole sonde is provided with an acoustic transmitter and at least one acoustic receiver. The transmitter is repetitively driven with a unique or characteristic swept frequency signal. Propagated acoustic energy detected at the receiver is cross-correlated with the characteristic transmitter swept

  19. Design of high reliability nuclear logging probe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingchun Xiao; Shihong Xiang; Zhengyu Zhao; Zuping Qian

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Logging Probe may measure the naturally occurring gamma ray radiation level and detect gamma rays from a radioactive source within a well bore. It is used for depth correlation, lithology, mixture density measurement, identification of radioactive scale. But because of the harsh working environment, high temperature above 100 °C, high pressure, shock, it is difficult to get accurate measurement result.

  20. Wave functions of log-periodic oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Bessa, V.; Guedes, I. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, CE 60455-760 (Brazil)

    2011-06-15

    We use the Lewis and Riesenfeld invariant method [J. Math. Phys. 10, 1458 (1969)] and a unitary transformation to obtain the exact Schroedinger wave functions for time-dependent harmonic oscillators exhibiting log-periodic-type behavior. For each oscillator we calculate the quantum fluctuations in the coordinate and momentum as well as the quantum correlations between the coordinate and momentum. We observe that the oscillator with m=m{sub 0}t/t{sub 0} and {omega}={omega}{sub 0}t{sub 0}/t, which exhibits an exact log-periodic oscillation, behaves as the harmonic oscillator with m and {omega} constant.

  1. NMR logging and core analysis -- simplified

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.P. [Shell E and P Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the use of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine various characteristics of oil and well stratigraphy and drill cores. NMR wireline logging tools, and benchtop spectrometer core and fluid analyzers can obtain information for formation evaluation decisions. All of this formation evaluation information cannot be obtained from NMR in every situation. Formation rock and fluid properties, and borehole environment affect accuracy and type of data that can be obtained. Information and performances is discussed on identifying: porosity, water saturation, permeability, fluid types, hydrocarbon types, oil saturation, and wettability information. The information is demonstrated in various graphs and a brief discussion of the types of logging tools are described.

  2. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of (235)U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously. PMID:25832251

  3. Development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-guang; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Feng

    2015-03-01

    This article introduces a development of pulsed neutron uranium logging instrument. By analyzing the temporal distribution of epithermal neutrons generated from the thermal fission of 235U, we propose a new method with a uranium-bearing index to calculate the uranium content in the formation. An instrument employing a D-T neutron generator and two epithermal neutron detectors has been developed. The logging response is studied using Monte Carlo simulation and experiments in calibration wells. The simulation and experimental results show that the uranium-bearing index is linearly correlated with the uranium content, and the porosity and thermal neutron lifetime of the formation can be acquired simultaneously.

  4. Thin-bed reservoir characterization using integrated three-dimensional seismic and well log data: A case study of the central Boonsville Field, Fort Worth basin, north-central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Deyi

    This dissertation is designed to resolve two problems using seismic attributes to: (1) delineate thin-bed reservoirs, and (2) distinguish thin-bed sandstone reservoirs from thin-bed non-reservoir carbonates where they appear similar at seismic scale. I evaluated some widely used techniques, developed new approaches for better imaging of thin-bed reservoirs, and found optimal attributes for thin-bed reservoir characterization. These techniques were then tested on the Pennsylvanian Caddo sequence of the Boonsville Field, Texas using public domain data. The main results found through this study are: (1) A new pattern recognition model has been developed to recognize the subtle geological and geophysical features of a thin-bed sequence based on cross-correlation of seismic traces with one or more traces believed to represent specific depositional environments. This algorithm has been proven, via the case study, to be robust and promising in defining seismic facies for subtle geological features and predicting thin-bed reservoirs. (2) Examination of the conventional thin-bed tuning model reveals that it works well only if one single thin-bed is developed or multiple thin beds are widely spaced in the sequence of interest. In other words, the model does not work for multiple closely-spaced thin-beds because of significant destructive interference. (3) A statistical inversion method was developed using the generalized regression neural network (GRNN). For a comparison study, two commercial packages were applied to the Boonsville Field data set. This study shows that all three models were able to identify the thicker reservoir sandstones and non-reservoir limestones. However, the resulting details for the thin beds vary. The GRNN method predicted the thin beds at 13 out of 20 wells with less noise and can be very useful in detecting thin-bed reservoirs in existing fields where a number of wells are available.

  5. Console Log Keeping Made Easier - Tools and Techniques for Improving Quality of Flight Controller Activity Logs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David W.; Underwood, Debrah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) for International Space Station (ISS), each flight controller maintains detailed logs of activities and communications at their console position. These logs are critical for accurately controlling flight in real-time as well as providing a historical record and troubleshooting tool. This paper describes logging methods and electronic formats used at the POIC and provides food for thought on their strengths and limitations, plus proposes some innovative extensions. It also describes an inexpensive PC-based scheme for capturing and/or transcribing audio clips from communications consoles. Flight control activity (e.g. interpreting computer displays, entering data/issuing electronic commands, and communicating with others) can become extremely intense. It's essential to document it well, but the effort to do so may conflict with actual activity. This can be more than just annoying, as what's in the logs (or just as importantly not in them) often feeds back directly into the quality of future operations, whether short-term or long-term. In earlier programs, such as Spacelab, log keeping was done on paper, often using position-specific shorthand, and the other reader was at the mercy of the writer's penmanship. Today, user-friendly software solves the legibility problem and can automate date/time entry, but some content may take longer to finish due to individual typing speed and less use of symbols. File layout can be used to great advantage in making types of information easy to find, and creating searchable master logs for a given position is very easy and a real lifesaver in reconstructing events or researching a given topic. We'll examine log formats from several console position, and the types of information that are included and (just as importantly) excluded. We'll also look at when a summary or synopsis is effective, and when extensive detail is needed.

  6. Linear Discriminant Analysis and Discriminative Log-linear Modeling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Keysers; Hermann Ney

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the relationship between the discriminative training of Gaussian models and the maximum entropy framework for log-linear models. Observing that linear transforms leave the distributions resulting from the log- linear model unchanged, we derive a discriminative linear feature reduction technique from the maximum entropy ap- proach and compare it to the well-known linear discrimi- nant analysis. From experiments on

  7. 43 CFR 3264.13 - What drilling and operational records must I maintain for each well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...following information for each well, and make it available...complete and accurate drilling log, in chronological order; (b) All other logs; (c) Water or steam...surveys; (f) A complete log of all subsequent well operations, such as...

  8. 43 CFR 3264.13 - What drilling and operational records must I maintain for each well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...following information for each well, and make it available...complete and accurate drilling log, in chronological order; (b) All other logs; (c) Water or steam...surveys; (f) A complete log of all subsequent well operations, such as...

  9. 43 CFR 3264.13 - What drilling and operational records must I maintain for each well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...following information for each well, and make it available...complete and accurate drilling log, in chronological order; (b) All other logs; (c) Water or steam...surveys; (f) A complete log of all subsequent well operations, such as...

  10. 43 CFR 3264.13 - What drilling and operational records must I maintain for each well?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...following information for each well, and make it available...complete and accurate drilling log, in chronological order; (b) All other logs; (c) Water or steam...surveys; (f) A complete log of all subsequent well operations, such as...

  11. Annual Logging Symposium, May 25-28, 2008 ADVANTAGES IN JOINT-INVERSIONS OF RESISTIVITY AND

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    -Verdín, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright 2008, held jointly by the Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log formation than models obtained through stand- alone well-log correlations. INTRODUCTION It is common solutions inherent to multilayered rock formation models. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log

  12. Application of cased-hole logs to reservoir management

    SciTech Connect

    Olarunsola, A.O.; Ekpo, E.U.

    1984-04-01

    Cased-hole electric wireline logs can be useful for diagnosing well problems as well as assuring optimum application of clearly defined remedial work. These logs are carefully run directly opposite points of fluid entry into the borehole. When used appropriately, interpretation is facilitated, and their subsequent application to well problems often yield positive results. The data obtained offer more definitive and more complete understanding of the production trends and the reservoir behavior. This work illustrates the interpretation and the appropriate use of various logs for identifying gas and water production problems in oil reservoirs. Examples as encountered in the Niger Delta are discussed.

  13. The Lincoln Log

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    What exactly was Abraham Lincoln doing on June 11, 1850? As it turns out, he was writing a letter to one Nathaniel Hay, describing the details of a potential home-improvement project. If you're looking for more details on Lincoln's daily doings, click on over to The Lincoln Log. The information on the site was compiled by the Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, and in 2003, the materials were redesigned by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Visitors to the site can find out what Lincoln was doing on a particular day by using the drop-down menus on the homepage, and they can also browse by year or click on the "Today's Date in Lincoln's Life" section. Also, visitors can use the "Browse New Entries" to look over newly added materials.

  14. Lithology-independent, high-resolution porosity logs

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, A.; Head, E.; Gubelin, W.G.

    1995-12-31

    A unique attribute of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging is the ability to measure a lithology-independent porosity. New NMR tools have generated renewed interest in measurements related to producibility, such as permeability and definition of water production potential. Industry discussion of those parameters has sometimes overshadowed the value of a lithology-independent porosity measurement. Such a porosity log can be easily understood by and utilized by non-specialists as well as log interpretation experts. The log reflects true porosity even in a complex lithology that changes over the well interval, such as limestone to dolomite transitions with evaporate inclusions. Similarly, since the log reads near zero in compacted shale, the measurement closely approaches effective porosity in clastic environments. A new pad-type NMR logging tool produces such a porosity measurement with excellent vertical resolution. Investigation is focused within a volume whose vertical dimension is only 6 in. Examples from a number of wells illustrate excellent repeatability and resolution of thin reservoir components that are not visible with other NMR devices or conventional porosity logs. Logs are verified by core data and electrical images. The measurement is unaffected by borehole salinity, and the tool is combinable with other wireline tools.

  15. Log interpretation of shaly sandstones

    E-print Network

    Baker, Joel Foster

    1987-01-01

    Log Interpretation of Shaly Sandstones. (August 1987) Joel Foster Baker, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert R. Berg The determination of water saturation from the resistivity logs to evaluate the potential... to the Union Oil Company of California and to the Society of Professional Nell Log Analysts for their grants to help fund the project. Special thanks go to Dr. Berg for his help, and more importantly, his availability and willingness to give help. Last...

  16. Comparative Study for the Interpretation of Mineral Concentrations, Total Porosity, and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    , and TOC in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Shale from Conventional Well Logs Haryanto Adiguna, SPE, Anadarko Petroleum and fluid component on well logs using conventional interpretation methods, well logs still bear essential

  17. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerth Stølting Brodal; Riko Jacob

    The dynamic maintenance of the convex hull of a set of points in the plane is one of the most important problems in computational\\u000a geometry. We present a data structure supporting point insertions in amortized O(log n · log log log n) time, point deletions in amortized O(log n · log log n) time, and various queries about the convex

  18. 2. LOG OUTBUILDINGS, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: BARN, STORE HOUSE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOG OUTBUILDINGS, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: BARN, STORE HOUSE, WELL HOUSE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Walnut Grove, Outbuildings, Route 1, 1 mile East of intersection US 221 & I-26, Roebuck, Spartanburg County, SC

  19. Extensible Log VISualization Christopher Humphries

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ELVIS Extensible Log VISualization Christopher Humphries Supélec/INRIA first.last@inria.fr Nicolas DGA-MI/Supélec first.last@supelec.fr ABSTRACT In this article, we propose ELVIS, a security through relevant represen- tations. When a log file is loaded into ELVIS, a summary view is displayed

  20. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  1. Interpretation of well log response in the Austin chalk 

    E-print Network

    Hinds, Gregory Scott

    1990-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES CITED . Page . . 2 . . 7 . . . I 1 . . 14 . . 15 . . 16 . . 18 . . . . . 18 . . . . 19 . . . . . 21 . . . . . 21 . . . . . 24 . . . 24 . . . 24 . . . 31 . . . 34 . . 34 . . 43 . . . 66 . . . 71 . . 75 . . . 75... saturations in the core of the Prairie Pmducing H. T, Hurts 1 (PHTH), Gonzales County, Texas. . 46 Figure 17 18 LIST OF FIGURES (continued) Gamma-ray (GR), deep resistivity (R;Id), density porosuy (8D) and neutron porosity (8N) in the cored section...

  2. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Max Peeters; Brad Blair

    2000-01-01

    Growing interest in extraterrestrial subsurface exploration has prompted an examination of advanced technologies for drilling slim holes and obtaining geophysical data in these holes. The borehole surveys with geophysical measurements called \\

  3. Amplitude bound interpolation of sonic well-log data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Burnside

    1990-01-01

    The problem of interpolating and resampling signals known to result from the application of a linear operator to signals whose minimum and maximum values are known is addressed. These limits are physically meaningful in many applications, and modeling the signals with the limits is preferable to modeling with the unrealistic energy bounds that are sometimes used. It is shown that

  4. SedMob: A mobile application for creating sedimentary logs in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolniewicz, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    SedMob is an open-source, mobile software package for creating sedimentary logs, targeted for use in tablets and smartphones. The user can create an unlimited number of logs, save data from each bed in the log as well as export and synchronize the data with a remote server. SedMob is designed as a mobile interface to SedLog: a free multiplatform package for drawing graphic logs that runs on PC computers. Data entered into SedMob are saved in the CSV file format, fully compatible with SedLog.

  5. Lithologic reconstruction of anhydrite cemented aquifers from well logs and core logs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Krug; H. Pape; C. Clauser

    2003-01-01

    The Rhaetian sandstone in the North German sedimentary basin is considered as a geothermal energy resource. Two particular boreholes (Allermoehe 1, south of Hamburg, and Neuruppin 1-88, north of Berlin) show a large degree of cementation resulting in porosities as low as 2%. This motivated several coordinated research projects in order to investigate the conditions leading to this type of

  6. A regularity-based modeling of oil borehole logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, Said; Zaourar, Naima

    2013-04-01

    Multifractional Brownian motions (mBms) are successfully used to describe borehole logs behavior. These local fractal models allow to investigate the depth-evolution of regularity of the logs, quantified by the Hölder exponent (H). In this study, a regularity analysis is carried out on datasets recorded in Algerian oil boreholes located in different geological settings. The obtained regularity profiles show a clear correlation with lithology. Each lithological discontinuity corresponds to a jump in H value. Moreover, for a given borehole, all the regularity logs are significantly correlated and lead to similar lithological segmentations. Therefore, the Hölderian regularity is a robust property which can be used to characterize lithological heterogeneities. However, this study does not draw any relation between the recorded physical property and its estimated regularity degree for all the analyzed logs. Keywords: well logs, regularity, Hölder exponent, multifractional Brownian motion

  7. Restoring Meaningful Episodes in a Proxy Log

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenwu Lou; Hongjun Lu; Guimei Liu; Qiang Yang

    Web logs collected at proxy servers, referred to as proxy logs, contain rich information about Web user activities. These logs are becoming critical data sources for various Web applications such as Web log mining. However, a raw proxy log treated as a at sequence of individual Web requests does not reliably represent correct information about Web user behavior, owing to

  8. The Methodology of Search Log Analysis

    E-print Network

    Jansen, James

    EVIEW OF LItErAtUrE What is a search Log? Not surprisingly, a search log is a file (i.e., log99 Chapter VI The Methodology of Search Log Analysis Bernard J. Jansen Pennsylvania State permission of IGI Global is prohibited. AbstrAct Exploiting the data stored in search logs of Web search

  9. Annual Logging Symposium, June 4-7, 2006 ASSESSMENT OF SHOULDER-BED, INVASION, AND LAMINATION

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    -Verdín, The University of Texas at Austin Copyright 2006, held jointly by the Society of Petrophysicists and Well Log of water- base mud invading oil-bearing formations. Our simulations indicate that P-wave sonic logs can-shale laminations. In addition, the process of mud-filtrate invasion can have adverse effects on sonic logs, thereby

  10. Determining Earthquake Recurrence Intervals from Trench Logs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patricia Cashman

    Trench logs of the San Andreas Fault at Pallett Creek, CA are the data base for a lab or homework assignment that teaches about relative dating, radiometric dating, fault recurrence intervals and the reasons for uncertainty in predicting geologic phenomena. Students are given a trench log that includes several fault strands and dated stratigraphic horizons. They estimate the times of faulting based on bracketing ages of faulted and unfaulted strata. They compile a table with the faulting events from the trench log and additional events recognized in nearby trenches, then calculate maximum, minimum and average earthquake recurrence intervals for the San Andreas Fault in this area. They conclude by making their own prediction for the timing of the next earthquake. While basically an exercise in determining relative ages of geologic horizons and events, this assignment includes radiometric dates, recurrence intervals, and an obvious societal significance that has been well received by students. With minor modifications, this exercise has been used successfully with elementary school students through university undergraduate geology majors. Less experienced students can work in groups, with each group determining the age of a single fault strand; combining the results from different groups and calculating recurrence intervals can then be done as a class activity. University students in an introductory geology course for non-majors can add their data from the trench log to an existing table with other faulting events already provided. The exercise can be made more challenging for advanced students by using logs from several different trenches, requiring students to design the table themselves, and giving students the uncertainties for the radiometric dates rather than simple ages for the strata. Most studentsâat all levelsâare initially frustrated by their inability to determine an exact date of faulting from the available data. They gain a new appreciation for the task of the geoscientist who attempts to relate geologic phenomena to the human, rather than geologic, time scale.

  11. Teff log g nHe Teff log g A

    E-print Network

    ; 10 #12; 8 #12; 6 -2 4 3 8 9 × 10 #12;#12;core env Teff log g nHe n STERNE F S F = 0 S(,)e- d. °A http://star.arm.ac.uk/csj/models/Grid.html Teff log g nHe #12;LTE ATLAS9 TLUSTY LTE LTE LTE LINES °A #12; °A STERNE °A SPECTRUM °A vt -1 LTE LINES LTE http://star.arm

  12. Department of Recreational Sports Live Well. Learn Well. Be Well Recreational Sports

    E-print Network

    Escher, Christine

    Department of Recreational Sports Live Well. Learn Well. Be Well Recreational Sports oregonstate ___ Climbing Center Staff ___ Facility Operations Staff ___ Rec Services Staff ___ Facility/Equipment Maintenance Staff ___ Fitness Staff ___ Graphic Designer Staff ___ Intramural Sports & Sport Club Staff

  13. Geomicrobial Optical Logging Detectors (GOLD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramall, N. E.; Stoker, C. R.; Price, P. B.; Coates, J. D.; Allamandola, L. J.; Mattioda, A. L.

    2008-12-01

    We will present concepts for downhole instrumentation that could be used in the Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL). We envision optical borehole-logging instruments that could monitor bacterial concentration, mineralogy, aromatic organics, temperature and oxygen concentration, allowing for the in situ monitoring of time-dependent microbial and short-scale geologic processes and provide valuable in situ data on stratigraphy to supplement core analyses, especially where instances of missing or damaged core sections make such studies difficult. Incorporated into these instruments will be a sampling/inoculation tool to allow for the recovery and/or manipulation of particularly interesting sections of the borehole wall for further study, enabling a series of microbiological studies. The borehole tools we will develop revolve around key emerging technologies and methods, some of which are briefly described below: 1) Autofluorescence Spectroscopy: Building on past instruments, we will develop a new borehole logger that searches for microbial life and organics using fluorescence spectroscopy. Many important organic compounds (e.g. PAHs) and biomolecules (e.g. aromatic amino acids, proteins, methanogenic coenzymes) fluoresce when excited with ultraviolet and visible light. Through the careful selection of excitation wavelength(s) and temporal gating parameters, a borehole logging instrument can detect and differentiate between these different compounds and the mineral matrix in which they exist. 2) Raman Spectroscopy: Though less sensitive than fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy is more definitive: it can provide important mineral phase distribution/proportions and other chemical data enabling studies of mineralogy and microbe-mineral interactions (when combined with fluorescence). 3) Borehole Camera: Imaging of the borehole wall with extended information in the UV, visible, and NIR for a more informative view can provide a lot of insight to in situ processes. 4) Temperature and Oxygen Sensors: The ambient temperature will be recorded as well as the presence of oxygen. Oxygen presence can be measured using a fluorescence quenching fiber optic probe to avoid interference from other gases. We forsee that this technology will enable experiments including studies of gene transfer, microbial habitat, in situ stratigraphy and hydrological processes. In addition, though designed to scan borehole walls, GOLD could be used to scan core samples as they are recovered for rapid quantification and analysis in order to discover samples of particular interest that could then be prioritized for more in-depth, traditional analysis.

  14. Integration of Geology, Rock-Physics, Logs, and Pre-stack Seismic for Reservoir Porosity Estimation

    E-print Network

    Al Muhaidib, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to obtain reservoir properties, such as porosity, both at the well locations and in the inter-well regions from seismic data and well logs. The seismic and well-log datasets are from an ...

  15. Apollo experience report: Ground-support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The experience gained in management of the ground-support-equipment and site-readiness activity for the Apollo Program is summarized. The design of equipment and facilities are examined as well as some operational aspects. The organization for ensuring site readiness and the maintenance of ground-support equipment are discussed. Recommendations for use in future programs are given in the areas of design considerations, cleanliness requirements, periodic evaluation of changing requirements, maintenance and overhaul, special test equipment, site-activation schedule coordination, and schematics for ground-support equipment.

  16. Log-Derived evaluation of shaly sandstone reservoirs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fertl

    1984-01-01

    Significant natural gas resources are known to exist in the United States in tight, low-permeability sandstones that cover a prospective area of 1,000,000 mi² (2,590,000 km²). Characterization and reliable estimation of their production potential based on well logs are important although difficult task. Proper evaluation of low permeability sands based on conventional log-interpretation techniques is frequently inadequate. Furthermore, while empirical

  17. New developments in carbon\\/oxygen (C\\/O) logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fertl

    1982-01-01

    Carbon\\/oxygen (C\\/O) logging applicable in cased well bores measures energy and intensity of inelastic and capture gamma rays resulting from pulsed neutron irradiation of subsurface formations. Continuous C\\/O logs define the relative abundance of elements, such as C, O, Si, Ca, H, etc., which in turn relates to lithology, porosity, and hydrocarbon saturation distribution in potential reservoir rocks independent of

  18. Applying multiwell normalization in open hole log analysis

    E-print Network

    Sinanan, Haydn Brent

    1997-01-01

    APPLYING MULTIWELL NORMALIZATION IN OPEN HOLE LOG ANALYSIS A Thesis by HAYDN BRENT SINANAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 1997 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering APPLYING MULTI WELL NORMALIZATION IN OPEN HOLE LOG ANALYSIS A Thesis by HAYDN BRENT SINANAN Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  19. Oil well pumping system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    A well equipped to produce oil from a subterranean formation is described including a casing string cemented in a well bore penetrating the earth to a depth below the formation and having a multiplicity of perforations therein providing communication between the formation and the casing string, a packer sealed against the interior of the casing string above the formation, a

  20. Abyssal soil investigation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, F.P.; Maggioni, W.; Mainardi, U. [ISMES, Bergamo (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The present paper deals with the development of a testing device for quick offshore geotechnical investigations. The equipment, at present, consists of a penetrometer, mounted on a sea bed platform, a handling frame and a control cabin; a further development includes a drill rig and a geotechnical laboratory. All this is designed so as to be an autonomous unit that can be handled by various types of non-specialized ships which have the necessary deck space. The sea bed platform can operate in 2,000 m of waterdepth and is provided with a hydraulic penetrometer, with a thrust capacity of 400 kN, able to carry out cone penetration type testing until a depth of more than 100 m, as well as shallow depth continuous sampling. The penetrometer can be equipped with a series of probes (piezocone, pressiocone, total radial pressure transducer, seismic cone) allowing the execution of the wide range of direct geotechnical measurements normally performed during on-land penetration tests.

  1. M2PM1 Comments on Sheet 4 1. By definition, f(x) = E(x log c) = E(g(x)), where g(x) = x log c. For any a R, we know

    E-print Network

    Ruzhansky, Michael

    (x)). For this function to be well defined we need log g(x) to be well defined, which is the case when g(x) > 0. We alsoM2PM1 Comments on Sheet 4 1. By definition, f(x) = E(x log c) = E(g(x)), where g(x) = x log c rule tells us that f is differentiable at a, and that f (a) = E (g(a))g (a) = E(a log c) log c = ca log

  2. Cleaning supplies and equipment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on any object the patient touched or on equipment that was used during their care. Some germs ... why it is important to disinfect supplies and equipment. To disinfect something means to clean it to ...

  3. Energy Audit Equipment 

    E-print Network

    Phillips, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include those items which assist the auditor in measuring the energy used by equipment or lost in inefficiency. Each tool is designed for a specific measurement. They can be inexpensive simple...

  4. Energy Audit Equipment

    E-print Network

    Phillips, J.

    2012-01-01

    The tools (equipment) needed to perform an energy audit include those items which assist the auditor in measuring the energy used by equipment or lost in inefficiency. Each tool is designed for a specific measurement. They can be inexpensive simple...

  5. CATALOGUE of EQUIPMENT & RESOURCES

    E-print Network

    Cui, Yan

    of Memphis Integrated Microscopy Center Laser Capture Microdissection Mass Spectrometry Core Laboratory;EQUIPMENT in the COLLEGE of DENTISTRY RESEARCH CENTERS The following section lists the equipment microscope (SEM) Stereo Microscope: CCD camera & image analysis software Strain Gauge Measurement Set

  6. High-Resolution Flow Logging for Hydraulic Characterization of Boreholes and Aquifer Flow Zones at Contaminated Bedrock Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. H.; Johnson, C. D.; Paillet, F. L.

    2004-05-01

    In the past, flow logging was largely restricted to the application of spinner flowmeters to determine flow-zone contributions in large-diameter production wells screened in highly transmissive aquifers. Development and refinement of tool-measurement technology, field methods, and analysis techniques has greatly extended and enhanced flow logging to include the hydraulic characterization of boreholes and aquifer flow zones at contaminated bedrock sites. State-of-the-art in flow logging will be reviewed, and its application to bedrock-contamination investigations will be presented. In open bedrock boreholes, vertical flows are measured with high-resolution flowmeters equipped with flexible rubber-disk diverters fitted to the nominal borehole diameters to concentrate flow through the measurement throat of the tools. Heat-pulse flowmeters measure flows in the range of 0.05 to 5 liters per minute, and electromagnetic flowmeters measure flows in the range of 0.3 to 30 liters per minute. Under ambient and low-rate stressed (either extraction or injection) conditions, stationary flowmeter measurements are collected in competent sections of the borehole between fracture zones identified on borehole-wall images. Continuous flow, fluid-resistivity, and temperature logs are collected under both sets of conditions while trolling with a combination electromagnetic flowmeter and fluid tool. Electromagnetic flowmeters are used with underfit diverters to measure flow rates greater than 30 liters per minute and suppress effects of diameter variations while trolling. A series of corrections are applied to the flow-log data to account for the zero-flow response, bypass, trolling, and borehole-diameter biases and effects. The flow logs are quantitatively analyzed by matching simulated flows computed with a numerical model to measured flows by varying the hydraulic properties (transmissivity and hydraulic head) of the flow zones. Several case studies will be presented that demonstrate the integration of flow logging in site-characterization activities framework; 2) evaluate cross-connection effects and determine flow-zone contributions to water-quality samples from open boreholes; and 3) design discrete-zone hydraulic tests and monitoring-well completions.

  7. Heavy equipment management practices and problems in Thai highway contractors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thanapun Prasertrungruang; B. H. W. Hadikusumo

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – This study is intended to investigate the current practices and problems in heavy equipment management as well as to identify practices capable of alleviating equipment management problems for highway contractors in Thailand. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Equipment management practices were identified and analysed by SPSS using a questionnaire survey. ANOVA test was used to reveal significant differences in equipment management

  8. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. At present, lithology logs are produced at the well site by mud loggers. They provide basic description and relative amounts of lithologies. Major difficulties are encountered in relating the cuttings to their original formations due to mixing in the drilling mud while transporting to the surface, sloughing shales, flawed sampling, etc. This results in a poor control on the stratigraphic sequence and on the depth of formation boundaries. A composite log can be produced after drilling this additional inputs such as wireline, petrography, and paleontology. This process is labor intensive and expensive. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution to bed boundaries, (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input results in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries.

  9. A composite lithology log while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, E.; Sutcliffe, B.; Franks, A.

    1988-02-01

    A new method for producing a computerized composite lithology log (CLL) while drilling by integrating MWD (measurement while drilling) and surface data is described. The CLL integrates three types of data (MWD mechanical, MWD geophysical, and surface cuttings) acquired during drilling, in three time stages: (1) Real Time. MWD drilling mechanical data including the rate of penetration and the downhole torque. This stage would provide bed boundaries and some inferred lithology. This would assist the driller with immediate drilling decisions and determine formation tops for coring, casing point, and correlation. (2) MWD Time. Recomputation of the above by adding MWD geophysical data (gamma-ray, resistivity, neutron-density). This stage would upgrade the lithology inference, and give higher resolution of bed boundaries. (3) Lag Time. Detailed analysis of surface cuttings to confirm the inferred lithologies. This last input will result in a high-quality CLL with accurate lithologies and bed boundaries. The log will serve the geologist as well as the driller, petrophysicist, and reservoir engineer. It will form the basis for more comprehensive formation evaluation while drilling by adding hydrocarbon and MWD log data.

  10. Equipment management system (EMS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yurtsever; M. Comerford

    1995-01-01

    Equipment Management System (EMS) is a software tool used to monitor and track equipment states, restrictions and PM schedules in real time. EMS has been designed and customized to support the MOS-2 die production facility. The system provides graphical representation of the entire factory. Color coded icons represent equipment's current state (i.e. qualification, production, unscheduled maintenance, etc.). Preventative maintenance schedules

  11. Mobile Equipment Expands Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Robert L.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Describes the Mobile Equipment Modules (MEM) system in Duluth, Minnesota. MEM is a way to hold down costs and increase learning opportunities by consolidating purchases of expensive shop equipment within the school district, grouping the equipment in modules, and scheduling and moving it from school to school as needed. (MF)

  12. Mail LOG: Program operating instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, D. K.

    1979-01-01

    The operating instructions for the software package, MAIL LOG, developed for the Scout Project Automatic Data System, SPADS, are provided. The program is written in FORTRAN for the PRIME 300 computer system. The MAIL LOG program has the following four modes of operation: (1) INPUT - putting new records into the data base (2) REVISE - changing or modifying existing records in the data base (3) SEARCH - finding special records existing in the data base (4) ARCHIVE - store or put away existing records in the data base. The output includes special printouts of records in the data base and results from the INPUT and SEARCH modes. The MAIL LOG data base consists of three main subfiles: Incoming and outgoing mail correspondence; Design Information Releases and Releases and Reports; and Drawings and Engineering orders.

  13. Release of ethylene from pruned olive logs: Influence on attack by bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytidae).

    PubMed

    Campos, M; Peña, A; Sánchez Raya, A J

    1994-10-01

    In recently pruned olive logs, an increase in ethylene release has been observed between 48 and 72 hr after pruning. The values reached, as well as the duration of ethylene release, varied greatly from one log to another. PioneerPhloeotribus scarabaeoides females have shown a preference for logs in which ethylene emission was higher. In logs treated with ethrel, a significant increase in ethylene emission was observed, together with a greater period of release. Therefore, the use of logs treated with ethrel could be of great importance in the control of this pest of olive trees. PMID:24241828

  14. G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue

    E-print Network

    aim · facilitate a high-level legislator dialogue that involves the private sector and civil society · deliver Dialogue outcomes to G8 Heads of State, EU, UN, World Bank, bilateral summits, national Secretariat & Com+ #12;G8 Illegal Logging Dialogue Dialogue focus ­ Working Groups Markets ­ public & private

  15. Extended reach and horizontal wells experienced on the Statfjord field

    SciTech Connect

    Kostol, P.; Tjotta, H. (Statoil, Stavanger (Norway))

    1993-09-01

    Statfjord field, the largest producing field in Europe, is located 200 km northwest of Bergen, Norway on the United Kingdom/Norwegian boundary. Statfjord field is being developed with three fully integrated platforms of concrete gravity based on Condeep design. The Statfjord field consists of four reservoirs: Upper Brent, Lower Brent, Dunlin, and Statfjord, which are developed separately. The overall objective for the horizontal and extended reach wells on Statfjord is to maximize the field recovery and accelerate production at a minimal cost. This is done by drilling extended reach wells to the far-away flanks of the field and drilling horizontal wells to drain fault blocks and erosion zones in the Brent reservoir and wedge zones in the Statfjord reservoir. To date, a total of 11 horizontal and extended reach wells have been drilled and completed on Statfjord field. The following have been key factors in drilling the horizontal and extended reach wells: well profile, torque and drag, equipment limitations, hole cleaning, hole stability, mud and cement programs, and surveying. To optimize the well profiles, extensive work has been put into simulating torque, drag, and ECDs. The well profiles are optimized with regards to drilling, completion, and workover, in addition to the reservoir targets. The completion is designed to be able to perform all future work through tubing. Factors like zone isolation requirements, well profile, casing program, logging/testing/perforating requirements, and sand production are considered when planning the completion. A 7 in. monobore completion string together with a 7 in. cemented liner is used to meet the completion objective. Several production logging tool, bridge plug, and perforation jobs have been performed on coiled tubing in horizontal wells on Statfjord field. Problems related to hole cleaning, well killing, fishing, and packer setting have been experienced during drilling and completion of the wells.

  16. A note on the applicability of log-Gumbel and log-logistic probability distributions in hydrological analyses: II. Assumed pdf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    STANISLAW WEGLARCZYK; WITOLD G. STRUPCZEWSKI; VIJAY P. SINGH

    2002-01-01

    Applicability of log-Gumbel (LG) and log-logistic (LL) probability distributions in hydrological studies is critically examined under real conditions, where the assumed distribution differs from the true one. The set of alternative distributions consists of five two-parameter distributions with zero lower bound, including LG and LL as well as lognormal (LN), linear diffusion analogy (LD) and gamma (Ga) distributions. The log-Gumbel

  17. Discriminating Between the Log-Normal and Log-Logistic Distributions

    E-print Network

    Kundu, Debasis

    Discriminating Between the Log-Normal and Log-Logistic Distributions Arabin Kumar Dey & Debasis Kundu Abstract Log-normal and log-logistic distributions are often used to analyze lifetime data- verted bath-tub hazard function, whereas the hazard function of the log-logistic distribution is either

  18. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Loren F; Izbicki, John A

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality-possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer. PMID:22607466

  19. Outdoor Education Student Log Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbutt, Barbara; And Others.

    A student log book for outdoor education was developed to aid Oakland County (Michigan) teachers and supervisors of outdoor education in preparing student campers for their role and responsibilities in the total program. A sample letter to sixth graders explains the purpose of the booklet. General camp rules (10) are presented, followed by 6 woods…

  20. briefing paper Controlling Illegal Logging

    E-print Network

    placing illegally harvested timber and timber products on the European market. It adopts a broad Regulation Introduction How to exclude illegally logged timber and timber products from consumer markets has to control imports of illegal timber. The EU's Action Plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade

  1. A New Approach to Logging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Donna

    2001-01-01

    In response to high numbers of preventable fatal accidents in the logging industry, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) developed a week-long logger safety training program that includes hands-on learning of safety techniques in the woods. Reaching small operators has been challenging; outreach initiatives in Maine, North…

  2. CRYPTOSPORIDIUM LOG INACTIVATION CALCULATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appendix O of the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) Guidance Manual introduces the CeffT10 (i.e., reaction zone outlet C value and T10 time) method for calculating ozone CT value and Giardia and virus log inactivation. The LT2ESWTR Pre-proposal Draft Regulatory Language for St...

  3. Downhole memory-logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1992-01-01

    Logging technologies developed hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (i) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (ii) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions.'' Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about on year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400{degrees}C is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. 8 refs.

  4. Downhole Memory-Logging Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, Peter

    1992-03-24

    Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature onboard computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make ''decisions''. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of potassium, uranium and thorium will be available in about one year, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A second tool designed to sample fluids at conditions exceeding 400 C (752 F) is in the proposal stage. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry, scientific drilling programs, and the national laboratories to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information.

  5. Reducing costs with well tractors for horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hallundbaek, J.

    1995-12-31

    The Well Tractor is a new concept for a down hole tool that significantly reduces operation costs for servicing horizontal wells. The Well Tractor is a cost effective alternative to the very expensive and time consuming conventional drill pipe conveyed operations. The Well Tractor is capable of pulling coiled tubing and/or wireline horizontally beyond 10,000 ft. The Well Tractor is capable of pulling more then 25,000 ft of coiled tubing and/or wireline into a highly deviated well. Furthermore the tool is designed for pushing other tools into the hole, e.g. logging tools, video cameras. The lateral reach capacity with coiled tubing is therefore increased considerably. Time consuming production logging operations of horizontal wells utilizing jointed pipe can be carried out by the Well Tractor as a wireline job.

  6. Tracking log displacement during floods in the Tagliamento River using RFID and GPS tracker devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzolo, D.; Mao, L.; Picco, L.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Large pieces of in-channel wood can exert an important role on the ecological and morphological properties of gravel-bed rivers. On the other side, when transported during flood events, large wood can become a source of risk for sensitive structures such as bridges. However, wood displacement and velocity in river systems are still poorly understood, especially in large gravel-bed rivers. This study focuses on log transport in a valley reach of Tagliamento River (Italy). Log displacement during flood events of different magnitudes recorded from June 2010 to October 2011 has been analysed thanks to the installation of 113 radio frequency identification (RFID) tags and 42 GPS tracker devices in logs of different dimensions. Recovery rates of logs equipped with RFID and GPS trackers were about 43% and 42%, respectively. The GPS devices allowed us to analyse in details the log displacement and transport overtime, indicating a higher log entrainment during rising limb of hydrographs. The threshold for the entrainment of logs from low bars is around 40% of bankfull water stage. No clear relationship was found between the peak of flood and log displacement length and velocity. However, log displacement length and velocity appear significantly correlated to the ratio between the peak of flow and the water stage exceeding the flow duration curve for 25% of time (i.e. the ratio hmax/h25 ratio). Log deposition was observed to occur at the peak flow, and logs transported during ordinary events are preferably deposited on low bars. This study reveals the potentials of GPS tracker devices to monitor the entrainment and movements of logs in large gravel-bed rivers during floods. These observations could be useful for better planning of river management practices and strategies involving the use of large wood pieces and could help for calibrating wood budgets at the reach scale.

  7. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-08-25

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler.

  8. ForPeerReview Interpretation of hydraulic rock types with resistivity logs in

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Subject Areas: Borehole and log interpretation, Integrated workflows and best practices (with broad hydraulic rock types. Core data and well logs acquired from a deep-drilling exploration well penetrating at irreducible water saturation. Classification results exhibit a good agreement with those obtained from nuclear

  9. Calibration of log and core saturation data: case history from San Ardo field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    A major problem in reservoir evaluation is determining saturations and monitoring changes during production. Many companies in the San Joaquin Valley use extensive coring to solve this problem. Modern lithologic and well-log analyses offer a means of calibrating log-derived saturations to core saturations, thus reducing the need for expensive coring. Such a study was performed on a well in the

  10. Annual Logging Symposium, June 22-26, 2013 ESTIMATION OF POROSITY AND FLUID CONSTITUENTS FROM

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    of Petrophysicists and Well Log Analysts (SPWLA) and the submitting authors This paper was prepared for presentation and density measurements is still the most reliable estimate of reservoir capacity from well-log analysis (NMR) or/and core measurements, provides reliable evaluations of reservoir capacity. In practice

  11. What to expect when logging the Cotton Valley trend

    SciTech Connect

    Nangle, P.; Fertl, W.H.; Frost, E. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    Exploration within the low-porosity, low-permeability sections of the Cotton Valley sands and limestones of E. Texas, Louisiana, and Arkansas has proven economic only within the last 5 to 8 yr due to improved gas prices and advanced reservoir analyzation and stimulation techniques. This work details those logging suites necessary to properly assess these less than optimum reservoirs, and illustrates, through specific well cases, how deliverability from well to well can vary due to delicate differences in reservoir properties. It is evident from the case wells illustrated that not all tight Cotton Valley sand or limestone wells result in high-rate flows. That being the case, it is important that detailed logging analysis be utilized so optimum stimulation procedures can be designed at each well site. Improperly place perforations or poorly designed and operated stimulation procedures can result in a bad well, where a successful one was possible.

  12. Well pump controller

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pikna

    1985-01-01

    A device for automatically controlling the pumping of fluids from a well of the type using a walking beam and positive displacement pump to provide efficient utilization of the pumping equipment and energy required therefor, and to obtain efficient flow rates from the wall. A sensor detects the position of the walking beam at a predetermined position on the up-stroke

  13. Materials, Safety, and Equipment Overview for Nanotechnology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by the Nano4Me.org, the National Center for Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge (NACK Center), this course features an overview of safety, equipment, and materials information regarding nanofabrication. It includes detailed lecture materials entitled Safety and Environmental Concerns; Vacuum Function, Operation and Systems; Materials Overview; General Processing Concerns, Contamination and Damage; and Basic Characterization Tools. Each separate PowerPoint contains in-depth coverage of each topic, including illustrations, examples, and comprehensive information. The website sponsoring this resource requires a quick, easy, free log-in to access this and many other great resources.

  14. Deep Space Network equipment performance, reliability, and operations management information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, T.; Lin, J.; Chatillon, M.

    2002-01-01

    The Deep Space Mission System (DSMS) Operations Program Office and the DeepSpace Network (DSN) facilities utilize the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS) to collect, process, communicate and manage data discrepancies, equipment resets, physical equipment status, and to maintain an internal Station Log. A collaborative effort development between JPL and the Canberra Deep Space Communication Complex delivered a system to support DSN Operations.

  15. Keep a "SLOG" (Sleep Log)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric H. Chudler, Ph.D.

    2009-01-01

    In this activity (1st on the page), learners keep a "SLOG" or Sleep Log to study their sleep patterns. Learners keep track of their sleep behavior and the dreams that they have each night on the "Dream Journal Worksheet" and "Sleep Journal Worksheet" included in this activity guide. This guide also includes twenty questions for learners to consider when recording and analyzing their dreams.

  16. Sugarcane Log Turning Ltd. Business Plan

    E-print Network

    Sugarcane Log Turning Ltd. Business Plan Prepared by: Jordan Barlow Sarah Saddler Kimberley LeDrew Morgan Kennah WOOD 465 April 14, 2004 #12;ii EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sugarcane Log Turning (SCLT) is a unique

  17. 29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

  18. 29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

  19. 29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

  20. 29 CFR 788.9 - “Preparing * * * logs.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR LOGGING OPERATIONS IN WHICH NOT MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.9 “Preparing * * * logs.”...

  1. Explosive Detection Equipment Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. K. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    As the Technical Direction Agent for the Department of Defense's Explosive Detection Equipment Program, the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division provides leadership in the pursuit of effective and suitable technology for concealed threat device detection. This program seeks explosive detection equipment that will effectively and economically confirm the presence or absence of energetic materials in or on: 1) mail\\/parcels\\/cargo,

  2. Adaptive Equipment for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetters, Linda

    1980-01-01

    Instructing the physically handicapped technical education student in the use of adaptive equipment (AE), such as Braille computers, involves four steps: keeping a current file of access to AE, insuring proper education in the use of AE, encouraging student creativity, and evaluating the equipment to recommend changes and adaptations. (CT)

  3. Troubleshooting rotating equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.F. (Petroleos del Peru, Lima (Peru))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reports that equipment problems in a Peruvian refinery illustrate the process engineer's role as a troubleshooter. Examples show that rotating equipment problems can stem from mechanical or process factors and involve both inspection/maintenance specialists and process engineers.

  4. Shipboard Electronic Equipments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of major electronic equipments on board ships are presented in this text prepared for naval officers in general. Basic radio principles are discussed in connection with various types of transmitters, receivers, antennas, couplers, transfer panels, remote-control units, frequency standard equipments, teletypewriters, and facsimile…

  5. OKEANOS EXPLORER Deck Equipment

    E-print Network

    systems using hydrographic winch and traction winch. ROV Crane HydraPro Knuckle-boom type craneOKEANOS EXPLORER Deck Equipment Dynamic Positioning (DP-1) Equipped with a Kongsberg DP-1 system for holding station. System capitalizes on a new 500 hp retractible azimuthing bow thruster and 2 - 250 hp

  6. Duke University Laboratory Equipment

    E-print Network

    Wolpert, Robert L

    , incubators, chemical fume hoods, biological safety cabinets, and other items potentially contaminated, and does not pose a hazardous materials risk to service personnel. For Chemical Fume Hoods only (mark one equipment must be free of hazardous materials (i.e. biological, chemical, radiological) prior to equipment

  7. Equipping the School Kitchen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Deborah Hutcherson

    2000-01-01

    The best way to purchase food-service equipment for a new or renovated school is to assemble a team, assess the school's needs, see what is available, follow state and federal procurement guidelines, install the equipment, and train employees to use it safely. A sidebar outlines procurement tips. (MLH)

  8. Equip a Biotechnology Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Biotechnology labs need specialized equipment for different types of processes and activities. The list on this site contains links to photos, SOPs, and information about different pieces of equipment. The content is divided by type of laboratory: Core Facilities, Media/Buffer/Reagent/Solution Preparation, Molecular Biology, and Downstream Processing.

  9. Three dimensional interpretations of single-well electromagnetic data for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Hung-Wen; Lee, Ki Ha

    2004-01-09

    An efficient 3-D electromagnetic (EM) inversion algorithm has been developed for geothermal applications and tested successfully using a set of single-hole EM logging data. The data was collected at an oil field undergoing CO{sub 2} injection in southern California using a single-hole EM tool, Geo-BILT, developed by Electromagnetic Instruments, Inc (EMI). The tool is equipped with a multi-component source, and multi-component receivers at different separations. The inversion result provides a reasonable electrical conductivity image to a distance of 10 m from the well, and illustrates several zones with lateral conductivity variations that could not be resolved with traditional induction logging tools. The successful case study demonstrates potential applications of the tool and software for characterizing fracture systems in geothermal reservoirs.

  10. Geologic sample handling and logging at Apache Leap, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, J.H.; Hartley, J.A.; Moyer, J.L.; Sinks, D.J.

    1991-12-31

    Early in 1990, the Yucca Mountain Project Office (Project Office; presently the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Office) of the US DOE completed two prototype boreholes at Apache Leap, Arizona, to test dry drilling and coring techniques that will be used during site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Staff of the Sample Management Facility (SMF), Technical and Management Support Services contractor, used the boreholes to test sample handling and geologic logging procedures. Results of this testing indicate that modifications to approved Project Office procedures will be necessary before site characterization commences. These modifications include reduction of paperwork, verification of drill depths, upgrade of equipment, and enhanced training of SMF field staff.

  11. Web Search/Browse Log Mining: Challenges, Methods, and Applications

    E-print Network

    Pei, Jian

    ;Different Types of Log Data: Search Logs Query Click: Algo result Ads result Browse Search Logs · Collected by the search engine Search Log Search Results Collected by search engine server "Algo result" means algorithmic result #12;Different Types of Log Data: Browse Logs Query Click: Algo click Ads click Browse Browse Log

  12. Research and Methodological Foundations of Transaction Log

    E-print Network

    Jansen, James

    of data collection also involves a choice of methods. Transaction logs and transaction log analysis is one of transaction log analysis spe- cifically from the perspective of an unobtrusive method. Some of the ethical approach to data collection and a research method for both system performance and user behavior analysis

  13. RECOVERY FROM SIMULATED SAWN LOGS WITH SWEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT A. MONSERm; DEAN L. PARRY; CHRISTINE L. TODOROKI

    A sawing simulator, AUTOSAW, was used to examine the effect of increasing sweep on lumber recovery. Sample material consisted of 5 1 logs from 22 western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. ) trees in western Oregon, United States. All knots on the4.9-m logs were measured, mapped, and converted into 3-dimensional digital formats. The digital logs were then increasingly bent, in

  14. University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log

    E-print Network

    Sin, Peter

    University of Florida Cell Phone Usage Log Information below must be compared to the monthly statement provided by the cell phone service provider. It is required that this log be completed when of the last page of the usage log. Employee's Name:Business Device - Cell Phone Number: Printed Name

  15. Bivariate Log Birnbaum-Saunders Distribution

    E-print Network

    Kundu, Debasis

    Bivariate Log Birnbaum-Saunders Distribution Debasis Kundu1 Abstract Univariate Birnbaum-Saunders-linear model for the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution', Technometrics, 51-60) introduced a log Birnbaum- Saunders distribution. The main aim of this paper is to introduce bivariate log Birnbaum-Saunders distribution

  16. The effect of wellbore condition on wireline and MWD neutron density logs

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.F.; Best, D.L.; Evans, M.; Holenka, J.M. (Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The wellbore condition and its corresponding effect on log readings must be assessed and corrected during log quality control and formation evaluation. Differences arise between measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and wireline neutron density, photo-electric factor (PEF) logs made in the same well because the two systems respond differently to the wellbore environment. Differences also occur because of changes in wellbore condition over time.

  17. Experience Explorer: A Life-Logging Platform Based on Mobile Context Collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petros Belimpasakis; Kimmo Roimela; Yu You

    2009-01-01

    As mobile smart phones are being equipped with multiple radio interfaces and sensors, they are becoming capable of continuously collecting context information related to the users and the environment. This information can be utilized in different applications and services for providing rich, context-aware experiences. In this paper, we present a client-server platform that enables life logging, via mobile context collection,

  18. Tracking the Inside Intruder Using Net Log on Debug Logging in Microsoft Windows Server Operating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, CS

    2004-01-20

    In today's well-connected environments of the Internet, intranets, and extranets, protecting the Microsoft Windows network can be a daunting task for the security engineer. Intrusion Detection Systems are a must-have for most companies, but few have either the financial resources or the people resources to implement and maintain full-scale intrusion detection systems for their networks and hosts. Many will at least invest in intrusion detection for their Internet presence, but others have not yet stepped up to the plate with regard to internal intrusion detection. Unfortunately, most attacks will come from within. Microsoft Windows server operating systems are widely used across both large and small enterprises. Unfortunately, there is no intrusion detection built-in to the Windows server operating system. The security logs are valuable but can be difficult to manage even in a small to medium sized environment. So the question arises, can one effectively detect and identify an in side intruder using the native tools that come with Microsoft Windows Server operating systems? One such method is to use Net Logon Service debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity. This paper discusses how to use Net Logon debug logging to identify and track malicious user activity both in real-time and for forensic analysis.

  19. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B. (Bothell, WA)

    1989-01-01

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in gelogical formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleous present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be preformed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described.

  20. Dual excitation acoustic paramagnetic logging tool

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-02-14

    New methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the presence of oil and water in geological formations using a new physical effect called the Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Effect (APLE). The presence of petroleum in formation causes a slight increase in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the reservoir. This is the phenomena of paramagnetism. Application of an acoustic source to a geological formation at the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present causes the paramagnetism of the formation to disappear. This results in a decrease in the earth's magnetic field in the vicinity of the oil bearing formation. Repetitively frequency sweeping the acoustic source through the Larmor frequency of the nucleons present (approx. 2 kHz) causes an amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field which is a consequence of the APLE. The amplitude modulation of the earth's magnetic field is measured with an induction coil gradiometer and provides a direct measure of the amount of oil and water in the excitation zone of the formation. The phase of the signal is used to infer the longitudinal relaxation times of the fluids present, which results in the ability in general to separate oil and water and to measure the viscosity of the oil present. Such measurements may be performed in open boreholes and in cased well bores. The Dual Excitation Acoustic Paramagnetic Logging Tool employing two acoustic sources is also described. 6 figs.

  1. Dewarless Logging Tool - 1st Generation

    SciTech Connect

    HENFLING,JOSEPH A.; NORMANN,RANDY A.

    2000-08-01

    This report focuses on Sandia National Laboratories' effort to create high-temperature logging tools for geothermal applications without the need for heat shielding. One of the mechanisms for failure in conventional downhole tools is temperature. They can only survive a limited number of hours in high temperature environments. For the first time since the evolution of integrated circuits, components are now commercially available that are qualified to 225 C with many continuing to work up to 300 C. These components are primarily based on Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) technology. Sandia has developed and tested a simple data logger based on this technology that operates up to 300 C with a few limiting components operating to only 250 C without thermal protection. An actual well log to 240 C without shielding is discussed. The first prototype high-temperature tool measures pressure and temperature using a wire-line for power and communication. The tool is based around the HT83C51 microcontroller. A brief discussion of the background and status of the High Temperature Instrumentation program at Sandia, objectives, data logger development, and future project plans are given.

  2. The Impact of the Russian Log Export Tariff on the Global Market for Logs and Lumber

    E-print Network

    The Impact of the Russian Log Export Tariff on the Global Market for Logs and Lumber CINTRAFOR News is available on the web: http://www.cintrafor.org Russian Tariff continued on page 3 In This Issue: Director announced its plan to implement a series of log export tariffs designed to reduce the export of raw logs

  3. Time-Dilation, Log N - Log P, and Cosmology

    E-print Network

    R. J. Nemiroff; J. P. Norris; J. T. Bonnell; J. D. Scargle

    1996-02-01

    We investigate whether a simple cosmology can fit GRB results in both time dilation and Log N - Log P simultaneously. Simplifying assumptions include: all GRBs are spectrally identical to BATSE trigger 143, $\\Omega=1$ universe, and no luminosity and number density evolution. Observational data used includes: the BATSE 3B peak brightness distribution (64-ms time scale), the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) brightness distribution, and the Norris et al. time dilation results for peak aligned profiles presented at this meeting. We find acceptable cosmological fits to the brightness distributions when placing BATSE trigger 143 at a redshift of 0.15 $\\pm$ 0.10. This translates into a $(1 + z_{dim}) / (1 + z_{bright})$ factor of about 1.50 $\\pm$ 0.50 between selected brightness extremes of the Norris et al. sample. Norris et al. estimate, however, that $(1 + z_{dim}) / (1 + z_{bright})$ $\\approx$ 2.0 $\\pm$ 0.5 when considering duration tests. The difference is marginal and could be accounted for by evolution. We therefore find that evolution of GRBs is preferred but not demanded.

  4. Animal Health Equipment Management.

    PubMed

    Rethorst, David N

    2015-07-01

    Proper health equipment management requires significant attention to detail. Establishing and following protocols during processing (eg, cleaning and disinfecting equipment at the end of the work day) is required to ensure a safe product that is free of defects and residues. Overall cleanliness of equipment and facilities is important not only from a food safety standpoint but many view these as an overall indicator of attention to detail in the entire production system. Ensuring that needles are changed, implant guns are managed properly, vaccine is handled in an acceptable manner, and that proper chute operation occurs is essential. PMID:26139191

  5. An economic reliability test plan: Log-logistic distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. L. Kantam; G. Srinivasa Rao; B. Sriram

    2006-01-01

    Sampling plans in which items that are put to test, to collect the life of the items in order to decide upon accepting or rejecting a submitted lot, are called reliability test plans. The basic probability model of the life of the product is specified as the well-known log-logistic distribution with a known shape parameter. For a given producer's risk,

  6. Local regularity analysis of strata heterogeneities from sonic logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, S.; Zaourar, N.; Hamoudi, M.; Holschneider, M.

    2010-09-01

    Borehole logs provide geological information about the rocks crossed by the wells. Several properties of rocks can be interpreted in terms of lithology, type and quantity of the fluid filling the pores and fractures. Here, the logs are assumed to be nonhomogeneous Brownian motions (nhBms) which are generalized fractional Brownian motions (fBms) indexed by depth-dependent Hurst parameters H(z). Three techniques, the local wavelet approach (LWA), the average-local wavelet approach (ALWA), and Peltier Algorithm (PA), are suggested to estimate the Hurst functions (or the regularity profiles) from the logs. First, two synthetic sonic logs with different parameters, shaped by the successive random additions (SRA) algorithm, are used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods. The obtained Hurst functions are close to the theoretical Hurst functions. Besides, the transitions between the modeled layers are marked by Hurst values discontinuities. It is also shown that PA leads to the best Hurst value estimations. Second, we investigate the multifractional property of sonic logs data recorded at two scientific deep boreholes: the pilot hole VB and the ultra deep main hole HB, drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). All the regularity profiles independently obtained for the logs provide a clear correlation with lithology, and from each regularity profile, we derive a similar segmentation in terms of lithological units. The lithological discontinuities (strata' bounds and faults contacts) are located at the local extrema of the Hurst functions. Moreover, the regularity profiles are compared with the KTB estimated porosity logs, showing a significant relation between the local extrema of the Hurst functions and the fluid-filled fractures. The Hurst function may then constitute a tool to characterize underground heterogeneities.

  7. Benchmark neutron porosity log calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Little, R.C.; Michael, M.; Verghese, K.; Gardner, R.P.

    1989-02-01

    Calculations have been made for a benchmark neutron porosity log problem with the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP and the specific purpose Monte Carlo code McDNL. For accuracy and timing comparison purposes the CRAY XMP and MicroVax II computers have been used with these codes. The CRAY has been used for an analog version of the MCNP code while the MicroVax II has been used for the optimized variance reduction versions of both codes. Results indicate that the two codes give the same results within calculated standard deviations. Comparisons are given and discussed for accuracy (precision) and computation times for the two codes.

  8. Advanced fluid-typing methods for NMR logging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ranhong Xie; Lizhi Xiao

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been increasingly used for fluidtyping in well-logging because of the\\u000a improved generations of NMR logging tools. This paper first discusses the applicable conditions of two one-dimensional NMR\\u000a methods: the dual TW method and dual TE method. Then, the two-dimensional (T\\u000a 2, D) and (T\\u000a 2, T\\u000a 1) NMR methods are introduced. These

  9. Equipment & New Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poitras, Adrian W., Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews new science equipment and products for the laboratory. Includes hand-held calculators, fiberglass fume hoods, motorized microtomy, disposable mouse cages, and electric timers. Describes 11 products total. Provides manufacturer name, address, and price. (MA)

  10. Investigation on log responses of bulk density and thermal neutrons in coalbed with different ranks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peiqiang; Mao, Zhiqiang; Jin, Ding; Zhao, Peihua; Sun, Baodian; Sun, Wei; Pang, Xu

    2015-06-01

    Density and neutron logs play an important role in the exploration of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs. However, the study of these two log responses of coalbeds is deficient. Based on laboratory data in the published literature and field logs of CBM reservoirs from several coal basins in China, this paper focuses on acquiring and analyzing variations in bulk density and thermal neutrons of coal with different ranks. Two new methods are introduced to correct the effect of ash on field logs to obtain the log values of ash-free coal. The corrected coalbed density logs are in accordance with the density of coal samples in the laboratory. Then, hydrogen indices of coals with different ranks are simulated, and the corrected neutron logs are well verified by simulated values. After obtaining the variations of density and neutrons of coalbeds with different ranks, the behaviors of density and neutron logs are analyzed and discussed. Based on the laboratory data and the simulated and corrected field logs, the specific values of density and neutron porosity for ash-free coals with higher ranks are listed. Furthermore, a crossplot of density versus neutron logs is proposed to identify coal ranks, which has been successfully applied to various CBM fields of several basins in China.

  11. Decision support in construction equipment management using a nonparametric outlier mining algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongqin Fan; Hyoungkwan Kim; Simaan M. Abourizk; Seung Heon Han

    2008-01-01

    Innovations in construction equipment using cognitive and automation techniques, as well as computerized equipment Information Management System (IMS) have greatly simplified the equipment operations and management process. Though the data collection, storage and reporting for equipment management are no longer pressing issues for the company equipment manager, data analysis becomes increasingly difficult with large amounts of data, especially for identifying

  12. Well tractors for highly deviated and horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hallundbaek, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper introduces the oil industry to a new type of downhole tools--the Well Tractors with modular power source designed for running in open hole and inside the completions of horizontal and highly deviated wells. The Well Tractors are used for cleaning, setting and pulling of plugs, operating sliding sleeves, open hole logging, running of production logs, drilling, perforation guns, cement bond logs, etc. Horizontally the Well Tractors pull coiled tubing and/or wireline beyond 10,000 ft. The Well Tractors are capable of pulling more than 25,000 ft of coiled tubing and/or wireline into a highly deviated well. Furthermore the tools are designed for pushing other tools into the hole, e.g., logging tools, video cameras, etc. The Well Tractors with modular power source are designed in two versions: A fluid driven version for coiled tubing operations, powered by brine, water, mud, etc., which is pumped down through standard coiled tubing. The tool is controlled from the surface via a wireline running inside the tubing. Through the wireline measurements can be transmitted to the surface. Alternatively the tool can also operate without the wireline which enables it to run with a smaller size of coiled tubing or have a higher flow rate for cleaning jobs. An electric driven version of the Well Tractor for wireline operations, powered and controlled through the wireline. The Well Tractors are designed in 3 different sizes. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 3 1/8 in. A Tractor with an outside diameter of 4 3/4 in. and a Tractor with an outside diameter of 2 1/8 in.

  13. High voltage VLF test equipment with sinusoidal waveform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricliard Reid

    1999-01-01

    The problems associated with testing field aged XLPE cable using HVDC are now well documented. AC test equipment for field tests at power frequency also presents problems. The equipment required for such tests is large, heavy and expensive even with resonant test sets. Equipment producing very low frequency (VLF) high voltage has been used to some extent in the past.

  14. Evaluation of geophysical logs, phase I, for Crossley Farms Superfund Site, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-one wells were drilled at Crossley Farms Superfund Site between December 15, 1987, and May 1, 1988, to define and monitor the horizontal and vertical distribution of ground-water contamination emanating from a suspected contaminant source area (Blackhead Hill). Eight well clusters were drilled on or near the Crossley Site and three well clusters were drilled at locations hydrologically down gradient from the site. Depths of wells range from 21 to 299 feet below land surface. These wells were installed in saprolite in shallow, intermediate, and deep water-producing zones of the fractured bedrock aquifer. Borehole-geophysical and video logging were conducted between April 24, 1997, and May 8, 1997, to determine the water-producing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical flow, borehole depth, and casing integrity in each well. This data and interpretation will be used to determine the location of the well intake for the existing open-hole wells, which will be retrofitted to isolate and monitor water-producing zones and prevent further cross-contamination within each open borehole, and identify wells that may need rehabilitation or replacement. Caliper and video logs were used to locate fractures, inflections on fluid-temperature and fluidresistivity logs indicated possible fluid-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance and natural-gamma logs provided information on stratigraphy. After interpretation of geophysical logs, video logs, and driller?s notes, all wells will be constructed so that water-level fluctuations can be monitored and discrete water samples collected from shallow, intermediate, and deep water-bearing zones in each well. Geophysical logs were run on seven bedrock and two deep bedrock wells. Gamma logs were run on 10 bedrock wells. Twenty-two wells were inspected visually with the borehole video camera for casing integrity.

  15. Tolerance bounds for log gamma regression models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Scholz, F. W.; Ossiander, M.; Shorack, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The present procedure for finding lower confidence bounds for the quantiles of Weibull populations, on the basis of the solution of a quadratic equation, is more accurate than current Monte Carlo tables and extends to any location-scale family. It is shown that this method is accurate for all members of the log gamma(K) family, where K = 1/2 to infinity, and works well for censored data, while also extending to regression data. An even more accurate procedure involving an approximation to the Lawless (1982) conditional procedure, with numerical integrations whose tables are independent of the data, is also presented. These methods are applied to the case of failure strengths of ceramic specimens from each of three billets of Si3N4, which have undergone flexural strength testing.

  16. Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels

    E-print Network

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels Fabian-log-map (MLM) detector has well-known appli- cations to the intersymbol interefence (ISI) channel [1, · · · , is trans- mitted across the ISI channel. Let the following random This work was performed when F. Lim

  17. Prediction of reservoir depletion degree and production GOR using logging-while-drilling data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Fangming; Tian Zhongyuan; Jiang Aming; Wang Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    Data of logging-while-drilling (LWD) log, formation pressure from MDT (modular formation dynamics tester) measurement, and production performance are used to study the relationship between depletion degree (formation pressure), initial production GOR (gas oil ratio) of single well and LWD response of depletion development in reservoirs. The results indicate that the overlap between density and neutron porosity curves from LWD data

  18. The use of NMR spectroscopy to validate NMR logs from deeply buried reservoir sandstones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H Rueslåtten; T Eidesmo; K. A Lehne; O. M Relling

    1998-01-01

    A Lower Jurassic deeply buried sandstone oil reservoir offshore Mid Norway was logged with NUMAR's MRIL-C tool. The NML data have been compared with standard logs as well as laboratory NMR and standard petrophysical core measurements. The two formations studied are in the oil zone, Formation A being characterised by an extensive distribution of pore lining chlorite, while asphalt staining

  19. Chemical treating system for oil wells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    A chemical treating system for oil wells is described in the form of a chemical injector and well manifold for protecting downhole oil well equipment from corrosion by injecting a predetermined quantity of chemical additive into a circulating fluid. The equipment includes a supply tank or reservoir supported in elevated position above a calibrated measuring container which discharges into a

  20. Correlating Log Messages for System Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL] [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL] [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL] [ORNL; Maxwell, Don E [ORNL] [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL] [ORNL; Park, Byung H [ORNL] [ORNL; Geist, Al [ORNL] [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale computing systems, the sheer volume of log data generated presents daunting challenges for debugging and monitoring of these systems. The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility s premier simulation platform, the Cray XT5 known as Jaguar, can generate a few hundred thousand log entries in less than a minute for many system level events. Determining the root cause of such system events requires analyzing and interpretation of a large number of log messages. Most often, the log messages are best understood when they are interpreted collectively rather than individually. In this paper, we present our approach to interpreting log messages by identifying their commonalities and grouping them into clusters. Given a set of log messages within a time interval, we group the messages based on source, target, and/or error type, and correlate the messages with hardware and application information. We monitor the Lustre log messages in the XT5 console log and show that such grouping of log messages assists in detecting the source of system events. By intelligent grouping and correlation of events in the log, we are able to provide system administrators with meaningful information in a concise format for root cause analysis.