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1

West Coast Shipwrecks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data activity, learners will explore shipwrecks from four National Marine Sanctuaries on the West Coast of the United States. Learners will practice map skills while exploring historical and modern ocean navigation technology.

Rose, Laura

2013-01-04

2

Greenland: Full West Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

3

Greenland full west coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

4

West Coast Earthquakes Ongoing, Scientists Discover  

NSF Publications Database

... Jim Whitcomb (703) 292-8553 jwhitcom@nsf.gov West Coast Earthquakes Ongoing, Scientists Discover ... earthquake going on right now on the West Coast, yet no one feels it. The temblor, a so-called slow ...

5

West Coast Chlorophyll Bloom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on board the Orbview 2 satellite captured the phytoplankton bloom October 6, 2002 . Red represents high concentration of chlorophyll, follow by orange, yellow and green. Land and cloud portions of the image are presented in natural color. SeaWiFS monitors ocean plant life by measuring the amount of chlorophyll in the ocean. Large phytoplankton blooms tend to coincide with natural phenomena that drive that nutrient-rich water to the surface. The process is called upwelling. Winds coming off principal land masses push surface layers of water away from the shore. Into the resulting wind-driven void deeper water underneath the surface layers rushes in toward the coast, bringing with it nutrients for life to bloom. This upwelling fuel the growth of marine phytoplankton which, along with larger seaweeds, nourishes the incredible diversity of creatures found along the northern and central California coast.

Perkins, Lori; Feldman, Gene

2002-10-15

6

Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

NONE

1997-05-01

7

Petroleum geology framework, West Coast offshore region  

Microsoft Academic Search

The west coast offshore region of western Canada is a large, relatively- unexplored frontier hydrocarbon province. It includes Queen Charlotte (QC) and Georgia basins on the continental shelf inboard of Queen Charlotte Islands and Vancouver Island, and Tofino and Winona basins on the continental shelf and slope west of Vancouver Island (Fig. 1). A number of exploration wells drilled on

James W. Haggart; James R. Dietrich; Henry V. Lyatsky

8

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

2004-01-01

9

Roots and Branches: Contemporary Essays by West Coast Writers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Celebrating the vitality and diversity of West Coast writing, this book is a collection of 35 essays by writers based in California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Loosely organized around the ideas that West Coast writers often look to their roots elsewhere and that they pursue new directions as varied as their roots, the collection presents a

Junker, Howard, Ed.

10

Preliminary meteorological results for 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This memo documents preliminary meteorological results from the 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment, a joint US/UK radar ocean imaging experiment. Measurements of wind speed and direction are reported for both phases of the experiment covering the periods...

H. F. Robey

1993-01-01

11

A Selected Bibliography of the Nearshore Environment: Florida West Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of over 2,900 references on ecological and coastal engineering subjects related to the nearshore environment of the Florida west coast. References are grouped by subject and alphabetized by author within each subject heading.

C. H. Saloman

1975-01-01

12

A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new article is available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast, discusses the "contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the U.S. West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise." Data published in this article is presented in ASCII text and/or can be read using a FORTRAN 77 data-retrieval routine

13

Greenland: Full West Coast (2nd render)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

14

An Observing System Experiment with the West Coast Picket Fence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses and forecasts from a modern data assimilation and modeling system are used to evaluate the impact of a special rawinsonde dataset of 3-h soundings at seven sites interspersed with the seven regular sites along the West Coast (to form a so-called picket fence to intercept all transiting circulations) plus special 6-h rawin- sondes over the National Weather Service Western

Paul A. Hirschberg; Perry C. Shafran; Russell L. Elsberry; Elizabeth A. Ritchie

2001-01-01

15

Research Spotlight: Mapping U.S. West Coast surface circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A network of high-frequency radar systems designed for mapping ocean surface currents now provides unprecedented detail of coastal ocean dynamics along the U.S. West Coast, according to Kim et al. The network has grown over the past decade from a few radars to what is now considered the largest network of its kind in the world, providing nearly complete coverage

Ernie Tretkoff

2011-01-01

16

Gaining more access is focus on West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Beaufort Sea wildcat off the tantalizing Arctic National Wildlife Refuge highlights U.S. West Coast exploration\\/development action this year. Targeting the same structure tapped by the only wildcat drilled on ANWR's coastal Plain, the Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production offshore well may give more clues as to the potential of North America's most prospective and most controversial untapped petroleum province.

1988-01-01

17

North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)|

McIntosh, C. Barron

1974-01-01

18

US west coast revisited: An aeromagnetic perspective  

SciTech Connect

A new compilation of magnetic data for the western conterminous United States and offshore areas provides significant information about crustal units and structures in the region. Features shown on the compilation include a magnetic quiet zone along the coast and two lineaments inland. The magnetic quiet zone correlates with the accretionary prism at the western edge of the North American plate and overlies subducted ocean crust; abrupt termination of ocean-floor magnetic anomalies at, or a short distance east of, the toe of the accretionary prism is an inferred effect subduction-induced low-temperature metamorphism of the ocean crust. The Puget Lowlands-San Joaquin lineament is an alignment of high-intensity magnetic anomalies that in the south, and possibly also in the north, are cause by bodies of mafic-ultramafic rocks accreted to North America during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The lineup of the highs and the inferred lineup of the causative bodies may reflect fundamental structures that control Mesozoic and Tertiary evolution of the continental margin. The Mojave Desert lineament, a distinctive chain of short-wavelength magnetic anomalies in southern California, coincides partly with a zone of Mesozoic intrusions and the Cenozoic San Andreas fault system, but is likely to be older than both in origin and may reflect a Mesozoic or older crustal discontinuity.

Zietz, I.; Johnson, P.R. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (USA)); Bond, K.R. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1990-04-01

19

Preliminary meteorological results for 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This memo documents preliminary meteorological results from the 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment, a joint US\\/UK radar ocean imaging experiment. Measurements of wind speed and direction are reported for both phases of the experiment covering the periods from June 7--13 and from June 19--25. The measurements were obtained using a Campbell Scientific CR10 Datalogger and R. M. Young model 03001-5

Robey

1993-01-01

20

Two Fisheries Biology Problems in West Coast Groundfish Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major fisheries biology problems currently confront managers of west coast groundfish. First, fisheries that develop while long-lived but low-production stocks such as rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) are fished up attain a harvesting potential that vastly exceeds the long-term productive capacity of the resource. The most effective and perhaps only way to manage these types of fish

Robert C. Francis

1986-01-01

21

Heat flow through the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom?hole temperature data collected from 24 petroleum exploration wells have been used to calculate conductive heat flow through the West Coast, South Island. Steady?state modelling suggests a mean heat flow of 76 15 mW\\/m (20%, 1 SD), a figure higher than those obtained previously by Funnell et al. and Funnell & Allis for the southern Taranaki and southwest South

John Townend

1999-01-01

22

The Conflicts Between Tourist & Industrial Activities Along The Suez Gulf N-West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tourism development along Coast is mainly dependent on the natural environment as resource base. Coasts are endowed with special beauty, abundance of natural Resources and rich heritage. Suez Gulf west coast is one of the coasts that have special economic importance. It provides potential for establishing multiple activities: industry, harbor and tourism. According to the economic situation and the major

Ghada Farouk Hassan

23

Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind wave spectra were recorded simultaneously at three shallow (water depth 7-9 m) locations (Malpe, Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April-24 May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June-8 July (monsoon), and 1-31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions that exist along the coast of Karnataka State, west coast of India.

Sanil Kumar, V.; Johnson, Glejin; Udhaba Dora, G.; Chempalayil, Sajiv Philip; Singh, Jai; Pednekar, P.

2012-04-01

24

Livestock and Meat Marketing in West Africa. Volume III: Ivory Coast and Mali.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mali is the Sahel's principal meat and livestock supplier to coastal West Africa; the Ivory Coast is the latter region's main consumer of Sahelian meat products. This report studies West African livestock and meat marketing and provides sector reports for...

C. Delagdo J. Staaz

1980-01-01

25

75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling Group Project in West Sacramento, Yolo...for the development of the West Coast Recycling Group project located at the Port of...of the Proposed Action The West Coast Recycling Group (WCRG) proposes to develop...

2010-11-02

26

Shallow gas charged sediments off the Indian west coast: Genesis and distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geophysical and geochemical surveys were carried out off Goa, central west coast of India, to understand the genesis and distribution of shallow gases in marine sediments. Shallow gas charged sediments within the water depths of ?15 to 40m are reported all along the west coast and are characterized by gas masking, high amplitude and reverse polarity reflections in high resolution

A. Mazumdar; A. Peketi; P. Dewangan; F. Badesab; T. Ramprasad; M. V. Ramana; D. J. Patil; A. Dayal

2009-01-01

27

Christine Wilson and the West Coast Nutritional Anthropologists, 19781989  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution to the Christine Wilson memorial volume is based upon personal recollections of the author and West Coast Nutritional Anthropologist Society documents in his files dated between the period of 1976 through 1989. Christine Wilson was the leading anthropologist on the West Coast who established the WCNA society and helped it flourish. Records of annual meetings and symposia sponsored

Louis Grivetti

2007-01-01

28

Vital population statistics of the exploited eel stock on the Swedish west coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population dynamics and exploitation of the yellow eel (Anguilla anguilla (L.)) stock on the Swedish west coast were studied. In contrast to a generally observed reduction in the recruitment of glass eels in Europe, including in Swedish waters, there was no indication of a decline in the total eel fishery yields along the Swedish west coast. Long-term records of

H. Svedng

1999-01-01

29

Modelling the Orust fjord system on the Swedish west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a numerical model to examine the dynamics controlling flushing of the basins of the Orust fjord system on the Swedish west coast over a period of 71 days in the autumn of 2010. This fjord system is known for its seasonal and permanent hypoxic basins; Koljfjord, Byfjord and Havstensfjord. It is shown that wind direction determines in- and outflows of the basins. Westerly winds result in surface currents towards the interior of the system, and counter currents at the bottom. In contrast, easterly winds cause the export of surface water, which is compensated by upwelling of Skagerrak water. Although these easterly winds cause renewal to take place several times a month in southern Havstensfjord, it occurs only once or twice in the northern part, while Koljfjord and Byfjord are ventilated about every 3 years.

Hansson, Daniel; Stigebrandt, Anders; Liljebladh, Bengt

2013-03-01

30

History of petroleum exploration in California and the West Coast  

SciTech Connect

California's main oil and gas basins consist of the inland Sacramento and San Joaquin and the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Maria basins adjacent to the coast and extending offshore. The state's total oil production to 1991 is approximately 22.8 billion bbls. Producing formations range in age from basement Jurassic to Pleistocene, but production is mainly from thick multiple sand zones of Miocene and Pliocene age. The first oil discovery was in the eastern Ventura basin in 1875. By the turn of the century, 22 fields, including several giants in the San Joaquin Valley, had been discovered by drilling near oil seepages. The most important event of the 1920s was the discovery of several giant oil fields in the Los Angeles basin, drilled on topographic highs suggestive of underlying anticlines. State production rapidly increased to 850,000 BOPD, or 40% of all US production. The 1930s saw the advent of the reflection seismograph, responsible for the state's largest oil field (Wilmington) in the Lost Angeles basin and the state's largest gas field (Rio Vista) in the Sacramento basin. A number of important fields were found under the San Joaquin Valley floor. Geological thinking in the late 1930s and 1940s resulted in the discovery of large stratigraphic traps in the San Joaquin Valley (e.g., East Coalinga) and at Santa Maria from fractured shale, plus two new small producing basins, the Cuyama and the Salinas. Offshore exploration, consisting of seismic work, ocean-bottom sampling, and coreholing, revealed the presence of a number of anticlines in the Ventura basin, paralleling the Santa Barbara coast. The first offshore discovery was made in 1959 on state lands followed by several major fields on federal lands in the late 1960s. Elsewhere along the West Coast, exploration in Oregon and Washington has yielded only minor gas.

Kilkenny, J.E.

1991-03-01

31

"Speaking a Secret Language:" West Coast Swing as a Community of Practice of Informal and Incidental Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non-profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community

Callahan, Jamie L.

2005-01-01

32

Comparative study on foraminifera of east and west coast of India.  

PubMed

The oceanographic conditions of west and east coasts of India provide variations in ecological conditions. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the geographic distribution and diversity of foraminifera (Protista) of west and east Coasts of India to gain insights in to ecological conditions that effect their distribution. The intertidal sediment samples, collected for a period of two years from October 2004 to September 2006 were analysed for foraminiferal diversity and sediment characteristics by standard methods. Relatively high densities (west coast--156 to 19,400 g(-1), east coast--37-214 g(-1)) and diversities were observed at all the sites of the West (74 species) compared to the east coast (57 species). Thirty three species were common to both the coasts. Forty one and 24 species were found to be unique to west and east coast, respectively. Foraminifera of west and east coasts form distinct clusters as revealed by Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, indicating distinctly different foraminiferal assemblages. The geographical and oceanographic conditions thus seem to influence a differential diversity of forams. PMID:23734457

Gadi, Subhadra Devi; Patil, Rajashekhar K

2012-09-01

33

Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM).

Larry Myer

2005-09-29

34

West Coast Open Access Groundfish and Salmon Troller Survey: Protocol and Results for 2005 and 2006.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This technical memorandum describes the fielding protocols and empirical results from an economic cost earnings survey of the West Coast open access groundfish and salmon troller fleets. The survey was conducted by the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monito...

C. E. Lian

2012-01-01

35

West Coast Forum on Appropriate Technology Held at Tucson, Arizona on September 21, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Summarized are the events of a West Coast Forum on Appropriate Technology (AT). The goal identified is to provide scientific research support to promote successful performance of AT projects including the provision of a scientific educational base as well...

K. E. Foster R. L. Caldwell T. Triffet L. K. Robinson

1979-01-01

36

Chigger (Acarina: Trombiculidae) Surveys of the West Coast Beaches of Sabah and Sarawak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) arenicola Traub, a vector of scrub typhus, had previously been found to occur in the coastal vegetation behind the edge of open sand along the beaches of Peninsular Malaysia. Surveys of the west coast beaches of Sabah and...

A. L. Dohany O. W. Phang G. Rapmund

1977-01-01

37

Contrasting oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton communities on the east and west coasts of Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and dynamics of the phytoplankton communities and hydrographic factors that control them are described for eastern and western Australia with a focus on the Eastern Australian Current (EAC) and Leeuwin Current (LC) between 27.5 and 34.5S latitude. A total of 1685 samples collected from 1996 to 2010 and analysed for pigments by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed the average TChl a (monovinyl+divinyl chlorophyll a) concentration on the west coast to be 0.280.16 ?g L -1 while it was 0.581.4 ?g L -1 on the east coast. Both coasts showed significant decreases in the proportions of picoplankton and relatively more nanoplankton and microplankton with increasing latitude. On both coasts the phytoplankton biomass (by SeaWiFS) increased with the onset of winter. At higher latitudes (>27.5S) the southeast coast developed a spring bloom (September) when the mean monthly, surface chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration (by SeaWiFS) was 48% greater than on the south west coast. In this southern region (27.5-34.5S) Synechococcus was the dominant taxon with 60% of the total biomass in the southeast (SE) and 43% in the southwest (SW). Both the SE and SW regions had similar proportions of haptophytes; 14% of the phytoplankton community. The SW coast had relatively more pelagophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes, chlorophytes and less bacillariophytes and dinophytes. These differences in phytoplankton biomass and community composition reflect the differences in seasonality of the 2 major boundary currents, the influence this has on the vertical stability of the water column and the average availability of nutrients in the euphotic zone. Seasonal variation in mixed layer depth and upwelling on the west coast appears to be suppressed by the Leeuwin Current. The long-term depth averaged (0-100 m) nitrate concentration on the west coast was only 14% of the average concentration on the east coast. Redfield ratios for NO 3:SiO 2:PO 4 were 6.5:11.9:1 on the east coast and 2.2:16.2:1 on the west coast. Thus new production (nitrate based) on the west coast was likely to be substantially more limited than on the eastcoast. Short term (hourly) rates of vertical mixing were greater on the east coast. The more stable water column on the west coast produced deeper subsurface chlorophyll a maxima with a 25% greater proportion of picoeukaryotes.

Thompson, P. A.; Bonham, P.; Waite, A. M.; Clementson, L. A.; Cherukuru, N.; Hassler, C.; Doblin, M. A.

2011-03-01

38

Plummeting crude prices hurt West Coast work, but several projects start up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. West Coast this year will see the nation's first commercial offshore arctic production and the start-up of oil flow from the controversial Santa Maria basin off California. An even bigger controversy involves the best remaining U.S. petroleum prospect-the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The collapse in oil prices in 1986 has crippled drilling on the West Coast. The

1987-01-01

39

Redescription of Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 (Crustacea: Branchiura) collected on the west coast of South Africa.  

PubMed

Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 was originally described from a single female found in a littoral sample from the east coast of South Africa. We present a redescription of this species based on light and scanning electron microscope studies of 25 females collected from the southern mullet Liza richardsonii (Smith) on the west coast of South Africa. PMID:15791403

Smit, Nico J; Van As, Liesl L; Van As, Jo G

2005-01-01

40

Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives  

SciTech Connect

A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

Pietrafesa, L.J.

1983-06-01

41

Engineering geomorphology on the coast: lessons from west Dorset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central aim of this paper is to describe the general context in which an applied geomorphological investigation for a management project on a Heritage coast will be set. We attempt to show how the decisions may be affected by historical legacies and public or administrative attitudes. Modern attitudes to the coast in Great Britain are summarized in the light of recent studies by the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. The Dorset coast in southwest England is used to illustrate the main points. The paper describes the coastal features, explains the historical legacy of use, and examines problems of contemporary coastal management. The paper concludes with a consideration of the natural geomorphological principles of landscape design which might be employed as part of the guiding concepts.

Brunsden, Denys; Moore, Roger

1999-12-01

42

United States Coast Pilot 4. Atlantic Coast, Cape Henry to Key West. Fifteenth Edition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Ocean Survey Coast Pilots cover a wide variety of information important to navigators of United States coastal and intracoastal waters. Most of this book information cannot be shown graphically on the standard nautical charts and is not readi...

1977-01-01

43

77 FR 55153 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...rule includes but is not limited to corrections to coordinates defining depth countours...CV endorsement, and others. Each correction is explained below. DATES:...

2012-09-07

44

76 FR 67092 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason Adjustments AGENCY: National...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures; request for comments...announces inseason changes to management measures in the commercial Pacific Coast...

2011-10-31

45

Background ozone levels of air entering the west coast of the US and assessment of longer-term changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of surface ozone measurements at a west coast site in northern California (Trinidad Head) demonstrates that this location is well situated to sample air entering the west coast of the US from the Pacific Ocean. During the seasonal maximum in the spring, this location regularly observes hourly average ozone mixing ratios ?50ppbv in air that is uninfluenced by

Samuel J. Oltmans; Allen S. Lefohn; Joyce M. Harris; Douglas S. Shadwick

2008-01-01

46

Surf-zone Diatoms of the Coasts of Washington and New Zealand ('Chaetoceros armatum' T. West and 'Asterionella' spp.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surf-zone diatom populations occurring along the west coast of the Olympic Peninsula, state of Washington, are quite comparable to similar surf-zone populations along the west coast of North Island, New Zealand. In both locations, Chaetoceros armatum T. W...

J. Lewin R. E. Norris

1970-01-01

47

Observations and numerical simulation of the sea and land breeze circulations along the west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sea breeze circulation along the west coast of India during the Indian Ocean Experiment (1999) is investigated. Pilot balloon sounding data from Mumbai, Goa, and Trivandrum, India show a diurnal variation in wind direction caused by land and sea breeze circulations along the west coast of India. Rawinsonde wind profiles taken from R\\/V Sagar Kanya 130 km offshore from the

M. D. Simpson; S. Raman

48

Greenland: Pan to West Coast Area of Interest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Krabill, William; Manizade, Serdar

2000-06-25

49

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.  

PubMed

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

2010-07-14

50

Evolution of operational management procedures for the South African West Coast rock lobster (Jasus lalandii) fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial fishery for Jasus lalandii, the South Africa West Coast rock lobster, began in the late 1800s and at its peak in the early 1950s yielded an annual catch of 18 000 t. Although this annual catch has dropped to only some 2000 t over recent years, the fishery remains South Africa's third most valuable for landed value. The

S. J. Johnston; D. S. Butterworth

2005-01-01

51

Tropospheric hydrocarbon and CO profiles over the US West Coast and Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons were measured in seven profiles from the boundary layer up to 13 km over the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of the US and over Alaska in April 1985. Mid-latitude profiles displayed the altitudinal variability of hydrocarbons and CO in the marine troposphere. Mixing ratios, in general, decreased with increasing altitude. Over Alaska,

J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; P. Haagenson

1990-01-01

52

Tropospheric hydrocarbon and CO profiles over the U.S. West Coast and Alaska  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons were measured in seven profiles from the boundary layer up to 13 km over the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of the United States and over Alaska in April 1985. Mid-latitude profiles displayed the altitudinal variability of hydrocarbons and CO in the marine troposphere. Mixing ratios, in general, decreased with increasing altitude. Over

J. P. Greenberg; P. R. Zimmerman; P. Haagenson

1990-01-01

53

Ecology of the Seagrass Meadows of the West Coast of Florida: A Community Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes information on the ecology of seagrass meadows on the west coast of Florida, from south of Tampa Bay to Pensacola. The area contains more than 3,500 ha of seagrass beds, dominated by three species, Thalassia testudinum (turtle grass)...

J. C. Zieman R. T. Zieman

1989-01-01

54

Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics

J. Sei; F. Morato; G. Kra; S. Staunton; H. Quiquampoix; J. C. Jumas; J. Olivier-Fourcade

2006-01-01

55

Littoral nemerteans from spain. North and north?west atlantic coasts species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Littoral nemerteans specimens have been collected in recent years including the second quarter of 1990, from various sites on the north and north?west Spanish Atlantic coasts. They belong to 20 species, 8 of which described and classified here, are new to the fauna of the region: Procephalothrix filiformis, Baseodiscus delineatus, Lineus ruber, L. sanguineus, Amphiporus lactifloreus, Emplectonema echinoderma, E. gracile,

Guy Vernet; Nuria Anadon

1991-01-01

56

Updated Status of Federally Listed ESUs of West Coast Salmon and Steelhead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 1990s, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS or NOAA Fisheries Service) conducted a series of reviews of the status of West Coast populations of Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to the U.S. Endangered Species ...

P. Adams R. S. Waples T. P. Good

2005-01-01

57

Static grounding lines and dynamic ice streams: Evidence from the Siple Coast, West Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grounding line dynamics are key to our understanding of marine ice sheets such as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). We present an accurate and rapid method for locating grounding lines using GLAS ICESat laser altimetry data. We then apply this technique to the Siple Coast region of the WAIS. Our technique exploits the high surface slope at the grounding

H. J. Horgan; S. Anandakrishnan

2006-01-01

58

New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of

Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

2009-01-01

59

A Eucheuma (Solieriaceae, rhodophyta) cultivation test on the south-west coast of Madagascar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well established populations of Eucheuma denticulatum and E. striatum exist on the coral reef of the south west coast of Madagascar but natural beds are not dense enough to support high harvest pressure. A cultivation test was conducted on a 250 m2 module using the monoline method with 1560 seedlings of both species for over one year (weighings at 15

Jean Mollion; Jean-Paul Braud

1993-01-01

60

76 FR 11969 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...projected to be reached by the effective date of this rule. Under this...limited to 30-percent by weight of all fish caught per trip...off the West Coast. DATES: Effective 12:01 am PST, March 5...limited to 30-percent by weight of all fish caught during...

2011-03-04

61

Shelf-sea response to tropical storms along the west coast of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The shelf-sea response to tropical storms along the west coast of Mexico is investigated using a layered ocean model forced by a travelling circular storm. Simulations using a straight coastline with a narrow continental shelf show that the response is typified by a cyclonic eddy along the storm track with inertial oscillations in the deep ocean and a trapped wave

B. Gjevik; M. A. Merrifield

1993-01-01

62

Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1992  

SciTech Connect

The joint US-UK 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in the Sound of Sleat from June 6 to 25. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

Lehman, S.K.; Johnston, B.; Twogood, R.; Wieting, M.; Yorkey, T.; Robey, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Whelan, D.; Nagele, R. (Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1993-01-05

63

New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of

Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

2009-01-01

64

Characterization of a West Nile virus isolate from a human on the Gulf Coast of Texas.  

PubMed

Genetic characterization of a human cerebrospinal fluid West Nile virus isolate from Beaumont, Texas, revealed several nucleotide changes and amino acid substitutions that differentiated it from all other North American strains isolated to date, suggesting that isolates from the Texas Gulf Coast may form a unique genetic group among North American strains. PMID:15528747

Granwehr, Bruno P; Li, Li; Davis, Charles T; Beasley, David W C; Barrett, Alan D T

2004-11-01

65

Distribution and growth dynamics of ephemeral macroalgae in shallow bays on the Swedish west coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distribution and growth dynamics of ephemeral macroalgae were investigated in some shallow (01 m) bays on the Swedish west coast during the period 1992 to 1994. Variation in cover and biomass was assessed in nine bays, and in one of them the seasonal dynamics of these algae was followed intensively over three years. Frequent measurements were taken of algal biomass,

Leif Pihl; Gunilla Magnusson; Ingela Isaksson; Inger Wallentinus

1996-01-01

66

Diatom community dynamics in a tropical, monsoon-influenced environment: West coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatom communities are influenced by environmental perturbations, such as the monsoon system that impact the niche opportunities of species. To discern the influence of the monsoon system on diatom community structure, we sampled during two consecutive post-monsoons (2001 and 2002) and the intervening pre-monsoon at Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports along the central west coast of India. Characteristic temporal shifts

Priya M. DCosta; Arga Chandrashekar Anil

2010-01-01

67

Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setbal, Cascais and Nazar Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was

Gideon Mordecai; Paul A. Tyler; Douglas G. Masson; Veerle A. I. Huvenne

2011-01-01

68

Remote sensing of wetland conditions in West Coast salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the PEEIR (Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research Consortium) program is to develop new indicators for assessing wetland health or condition. As part of PEEIR program we are investigating the use of imaging spectrometry to map and characterize marsh vegetation of several estuarine systems in California. We obtained airborne Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, an instrument which measures a detailed reflectance spectrum (400-2500nm) for each pixel, over paired tidal marshes, having either a history of exposure to pollution or no known exposure. AVIRIS image data was analyzed based on comparison to field measurements and reflectance changes measured in hydroponic experiments. We report leaf and canopy reflectance measurements of several common plant species of Pacific coast salt marshes exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, V) and crude oil contaminants. Species exhibited differential sensitivities to specific contaminants, however in general, Salicornia virginica, the most salt tolerant species and the dominant species in these wetlands (70-90% cover) was most sensitive to metal and petroleum contaminants. Field measurements of canopy reflectance, biomass and vegetation structure were acquired across GPS-located transects at each field site. The AVIRIS data were calibrated to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiative transfer code and geometrically registered to coordinates using the 1m USGS digital orthophoto quads. AVIRIS results show spatial patterns of plant stress indicators (e.g., reduced chlorophyll and water contents) are consistent with known patterns of contamination in these tidal wetlands.

Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui C.; Li, Lin

2004-11-01

69

Plummeting crude prices hurt West Coast work, but several projects start up  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. West Coast this year will see the nation's first commercial offshore arctic production and the start-up of oil flow from the controversial Santa Maria basin off California. An even bigger controversy involves the best remaining U.S. petroleum prospect-the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The collapse in oil prices in 1986 has crippled drilling on the West Coast. The region always has had to contend with lower prices for lesser quality crudes and some of the highest operating costs in the U.S. But as oil prices continue to show stability, action will rebound in the two states that furnish more than one third of U.S. oil production.

Williams, B.

1987-06-08

70

Seasonal variability of methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a data-set of dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Como, Bia and Tano) and five lagoons (Grand-Lahou, Ebri, Potou, Aby and Tendo) of Ivory Coast (West\\u000a Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season).\\u000a The surface waters of the three rivers were over-saturated in CH4 with

Y. J. M. Kon; G. Abril; B. Delille; A. V. Borges

2010-01-01

71

Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

Warwick, William M.

2012-06-30

72

Seasonal Variability of Carbon Dioxide in the Rivers and Lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and ancillary data in three rivers (Bia, Tano, and Como) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebri, Potou, and Grand-Lahou)\\u000a in Ivory Coast (West Africa), during four cruises covering the main climatic seasons. The three rivers were oversaturated\\u000a in CO2 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, and the seasonal variability of pCO2 was due to

Y. J. M. Kon; G. Abril; K. N. Kouadio; B. Delille; A. V. Borges

2009-01-01

73

Rayleigh-Wave Multipathing along the West Coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created a movie of surface ground motion for the 3 November 2002 Denali fault earthquake based on spectral-element simulations using crustal model CRUST2.0, mantle model S20RTS, topography and bathymetry model ETOPO5, and a finite-fault slip model. The movie features two anomalous wave packets that travel along the west coast of the North American plate following off- great-circle paths.

Chen Ji; Seiji Tsuboi; Dimitri Komatitsch; Jeroen Tromp

2005-01-01

74

Springtime cloud condensation nuclei concentrations on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements were made with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometer at the Korea Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Observatory (KGAWO) (3632?N, 12619?E) on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula from May 122, 2004. A TSI CPC3010 counter simultaneously measured condensation nuclei (CN). For seven of these days, submicron aerosol size distributions were also measured

Seong Soo Yum; James G. Hudson; Keun Yong Song; Byoung-Cheol Choi

2005-01-01

75

Antibiotic resistant bacteria in consumable fishes from Digha coast, West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic resistant bacteria from the commercial marine catch of the pelagic fishes in the Bay of Bengal at Digha coast (2137?N,\\u000a 8733?E), West Bengal, India were evaluated. Aerobic heterotrophic and gram negative, along with the enteric bacteria were\\u000a enumerated from gill and intestinal homogenates. Media supplemented with the antibiotics were used to evaluate the antibiotic\\u000a resistant bacterial load. Viable counts

Koushik Ghosh; Sudipta Mandal

2010-01-01

76

Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1991  

SciTech Connect

The joint US -- UK 1991 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in two locations. From July 5 to 12, 1991, in Upper Loch Linnhe, and from July 18 to July 26, 1991, in the Sound of Sleat. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

Lehman, S.K.; Johnston, B.; Twogood, R.; Wieting, M.; Yorkey, T.; Robey, H. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Whelan, D.; Nagele, R. (Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States))

1993-01-05

77

Volatility of aerosol at Mace Head, on the west coast of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile properties of maritime and modified maritime aerosol were measured at the remote site at Mace Head (53°19N, 9°54W) on the west coast of Ireland, located on the eastern edge of the North Atlantic Ocean. The volatility measurements were made with a light-scattering counter equipped with a temperature-controlled heated inlet. The work extends the temperature range from 300°C to 850°C

S. G. Jennings; C. D. ODowd

1990-01-01

78

Coastal erosion along the west coast of the Taiwan Strait and its influencing factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the field surveys and repeated cross-profile observations combined with the comparison of many years topographic\\u000a maps, this study shows the spatial variability and varying patterns of coastal erosion along the west coast of the Taiwan\\u000a Strait. Regional differentiation in the Meso-Cenozoic coastal tectonics determined the irregular coastline and geological\\u000a background for large-scale coastal erosion distribution. The intensity of

Jianhui Liu; Feng Cai; Hongshuai Qi; Gang Lei; Lihua Cao

2011-01-01

79

Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setbal, Cascais and Nazar Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

2011-12-01

80

Cenozoic history of the west coast margin, Jamaica  

SciTech Connect

Cycles of emergence and submergence caused by tectonic movements and glacio-eustatic sea-level changes have left a strong signature on the geologic record of Jamaica's west coat margin. The fault-bounded Hanover Block controlled sites of Early Eocene to late Middle Miocene bank, slope and deep water carbonate sedimentation. Uplift in the Late Middle Miocene resulted in subaerial exposure of the limestones, with the formation of distinctive karst topograpy. Downfaulting of an extensive coastal block occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene, with glacio-eustatic sea-level changes becoming superimposed on tectonic events. Lower than present sea-levels are recorded by submerged terraces, a downed river valley, cliff and sea-level notch. The latter may correspond with late-Pleistocene interstadial sea-level positions of c.-18m. below present. Higher-than-present sea levels created a series of terraces, some underlain by Pleistocene reef, though levels have been affected by tectonic movements. The downfaulted block is veneered by thick terrestrial clays and gravels of Pleistocene age, succeeded by Holocene peat, and at the beach margin, carbonate sands. Radiometric dating of buried peat indicates that upward growth of the wetland surface was accompanied by landward migration of the beach across the wetland during the last 4000 years of the Holocene transgression.

Hendry, M.D.

1985-01-01

81

Characteristics of Physical Training Activities of West Coast U.S. Navy Sea-Air-Land Personnel (SEALS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A physical training activity questionnaire was administered to 102 West Coast Naval Special Warfare personnel (SEALs). Responses provided information on the types, frequencies, and intensities of aerobic and strength training activities and locations. The...

W. K. Prusaczyk H. W. Goforth M. L. Nelson

1992-01-01

82

Reconstructing the range expansion and subsequent invasion of introduced European green crab along the west coast of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European green crab, Carcinus maenas, was first documented in San Francisco Bay in 1989, and has since spread north along the west coast of North America. The\\u000a spread of this invasion has not been a smooth expansion, which has raised questions about the underlying causes of variation\\u000a in recruitment. We modeled larval development and transport along the West Coast

Kevin E. See; Blake E. Feist

2010-01-01

83

The 2010 Chilean Tsunami Off the West Coast of Canada and the Northwest Coast of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major ( M w = 8.8) Chilean earthquake of 27 February 2010 generated a trans-oceanic tsunami that was observed throughout the Pacific Ocean. Waves associated with this event had features similar to those of the 1960 tsunami generated in the same region by the Great ( M w = 9.5) 1960 Chilean Earthquake. Both tsunamis were clearly observed on the coast of British Columbia. The 1960 tsunami was measured by 17 analog pen-and-paper tide gauges, while the 2010 tsunami was measured by 11 modern digital coastal tide gauges, four NEPTUNE-Canada bottom pressure recorders located offshore from southern Vancouver Island, and two nearby open-ocean DART stations. The 2010 records were augmented by data from seven NOAA tide gauges on the coast of Washington State. This study examines the principal characteristics of the waves from the 2010 event (height, period, duration, and arrival and travel times) and compares these properties for the west coast of Canada with corresponding properties of the 1960 tsunami. Results show that the 2010 waves were approximately 3.5 times smaller than the 1960 waves and reached the British Columbia coast 1 h earlier. The maximum 2010 wave heights were observed at Port Alberni (98.4 cm) and Winter Harbour (68.3 cm); the observed periods ranged from 12 min at Port Hardy to 110-120 min at Prince Rupert and Port Alberni and 150 min at Bamfield. The open-ocean records had maximum wave heights of 6-11 cm and typical periods of 7 and 15 min. Coastal and open-ocean tsunami records revealed persistent oscillations that "rang" for 3-4 days. Tsunami energy occupied a broad band of periods from 3 to 300 min. Estimation of the inverse celerity vectors from cross-correlation analysis of the deep-sea tsunami records shows that the tsunami waves underwent refraction as they approached the coast of Vancouver Island with the direction of the incoming waves changing from an initial direction of 340 True to a direction of 15 True for the second train of waves that arrived 7 h later after possible reflection from the Marquesas and Hawaiian islands.

Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.; Fine, Isaac V.

2013-09-01

84

Redescription of Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 (Crustacea: Branchiura) collected on the west coast of SouthAfrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 was originally described from a single female found in a littoral sample from the east coast of South Africa. We present a redescription of this species based on light and scanning electron microscope studies of 25 females collected from the southern mullet Liza richardsonii (Smith) on the west coast of South Africa.

Nico J. Smit; Liesl L. Van As; Jo G. Van As

2005-01-01

85

Near?shore distribution and abundance of dolphins along the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to other stretches of the New Zealand coast, very little is known about the cetacean fauna off the West Coast of the South Island. The purpose of this paper is to describe the near?shore distribution and abundance of dolphins in that area by summarising the results of two major studies. Between February 1995 and February 1997, 97 day trips

Stefan Brager; Karsten Schneider

1998-01-01

86

A springtime comparison of tropospheric ozone and transport pathways on the east and west coasts of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a study to determine the influence of Asian pollution plumes on free tropospheric ozone above the west coast of the United States during spring. We also explored the additional impact of North American emissions on east coast free tropospheric ozone. Long-term ozone monitoring sites in the United States are few, but we obtained ozonesonde profiles from Trinidad

O. R. Cooper; A. Stohl; S. Eckhardt; D. D. Parrish; S. J. Oltmans; B. J. Johnson; P. Ndlec; F. J. Schmidlin; M. J. Newchurch; Y. Kondo; K. Kita

2005-01-01

87

A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India.  

PubMed

Harbours are heavily stressed coastal habitats characterised by high concentration of contaminant and low diversity of benthic community. The west coast of India harbours most of the major harbours compared to the east coast. Very few studies have compared the macrobenthic community between different Indian harbours. The present study was therefore conducted in three important harbour (Ratnagiri, Goa, Karwar) along the central west coast of India. The paper discusses the health status of the three harbours diagnosed using various biotic indices. Sediment samples were collected using van Veen grab (0.11 m(2)) on board CRV Sagar Sukti. A total of 55 macrobenthic taxa were identified and were numerically dominated by polychaete. Biomass was high (0.14-145.7 g m(-2)) and was made largely by echiurans (>80%). Overall, polychaete dominated the macrobenthic diversity. Opportunistic P.pinnata, Notomastus sp. and Mediomastus sp., dominated the macrobenthic community responding to the increased in the harbour. Biotic indices (Polychaete:Amphipod ratio, ABC curve and geometric class abundance) and the dominance of opportunistic species indicate that, the three harbours are under stress from anthropogenic activities. PMID:18566901

Ingole, B; Sivadas, S; Nanajkar, M; Sautya, S; Nag, A

2008-06-20

88

East-West Coast Differences in Ionospheric Electron Density over the Continental US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on a new finding of pronounced longitudinal variations in midlatitude electron density in the F region over the continental US manifested as an east-west coast difference, based on observations by a dense network of ground-based GPS receivers and extra-wide coverage experiments by the incoherent scatter radar at Millstone Hill. We find that the evening TEC is substantially higher on the US east coast than on the west, and vice versa for the morning TEC; the longitudinal difference displays a clear diurnal variation. Through an analysis of morning-evening variability in the east-west TEC difference, minimum variability is found to coincide with the longitudes of zero magnetic declination over the continental US. We suggest that these new findings of longitudinal differences in ionospheric electron density at midlatitudes are caused by the longitudinal difference in magnetic declination combined with the effects of thermospheric zonal winds which are subject to directional reversal over the course of a day. This study indicates that longitudinal variations in TEC measurements contain critical information on thermospheric zonal winds. The proposed declination-zonal wind mechanism may also provide a new insight into longitude/UT changes at midlatitudes on a global scale, as well as on some geospace disturbances.

Zhang, S.; Foster, J. C.; Coster, A. J.; Erickson, P. J.

2011-12-01

89

Photochemical pollution under sea breeze conditions, during summer, at the Portuguese West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photochemical pollution was studied at three sampling places located on the Portuguese West Coast along the coast-to-continent breeze direction, during the summer period. A first basic campaign (June-July 2001) covered mainly the monitoring of trace gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the vertical profiles of O 3. During a second auxiliary campaign (July 2002), the vertical profiles of pollutants (O 3 and VOCs) at the west coast point were further assessed. The important role of marine breezes on the formation and transport of photochemical pollutants has been confirmed. Vertical profiles of O 3 revealed a depletion of ozone at altitudes lower than 100-300 m during the night and the early morning and a good vertical mixture during the day in the sea breeze boundary layer. The analysis of vertical profiles of VOCs revealed that lower concentrations tended to exist at the top of the sea breeze layer. However some compounds, such as n-hexane, showed a higher concentration at higher levels. The concentration of O 3 in the diurnal boundary layer, resulting from photochemical reactions of both the anthropogenic and biogenic precursors, gradually increased with the sea breeze inland, ranging from around 30 ppb at midday on the coast, to 70 ppb in the inland rural zone. However, in all sampling places, the photochemical pollution episodes at 80-100 ppb level took place under particular conditions of high photochemical activity and see breeze circulation. As revealed from analyses of propylene equivalent concentrations, the photochemical formation of O 3 in the inland rural zone is strongly affected by biogenic VOCs (isoprene and monoterpenes), whereas a major contribution to the photochemical pollution with ozone in the coastal zone issued from anthropogenic VOCs (alkenes and aromatics).

Evtyugina, Margarita G.; Nunes, Teresa; Pio, Casimiro; Costa, Carla Sandra

90

Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis--vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches with seasonal morphological changes and annual cyclicity. The coastal zone in Goa is exposed to environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Some of the factors attributing to these pressures can be due to demographic settings and population growth, rapid urbanization, migration, recreation and tourism activities, fishery activities, transportation problems, socio-economic shift and transformation in occupation like, fishing, tourism, trade, salt industry; wetlands conversion, degradation of agriculture land and fallow lands. Shoreline changes observed overlapping the data after 32 years showed that all along the coast of Goa, from north to south, there is large variation in depositional and erosional processes. Deposition is specifically observed at Morjim, Baga, Campal, Miramar, Mobor and erosion is specifically observed at Kerim, Anjuna, Velsao. The present study reveals that all along the estuarine systems, there is net deposition. Further change detection study carried out overlapping the data after 38 years showed transformation of Khazan lands, conversion of marshy swampy and water logged areas, increase in Mangrove areas and decrease in salt pans. The present paper has succeeded in delineating various coastal ecosystems, coastal land forms, their resource potentials and transformation, if any. The study has helped earmarking the coastal region into conservation, development and utilization areas.

Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

2010-05-01

91

Tropospheric hydrocarbon and CO profiles over the U.S. West Coast and Alaska  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons were measured in seven profiles from the boundary layer up to 13 km over the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of the United States and over Alaska in April 1985. Mid-latitude profiles displayed the altitudinal variability of hydrocarbons and CO in the marine troposphere. Mixing ratios, in general, decreased with increasing altitude. Over Alaska, mixing ratios of hydrocarbons and CO were higher than at mid-latitudes. Most profiles showed measurable mixing ratios of many hydrocarbons up to the tropopause and suggested that many non-methane hydrocarbons may be present throughout the troposphere in the northern hemisphere.

Greenberg, J. P.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Haagenson, P.

1990-08-01

92

Tropospheric hydrocarbon and CO profiles over the US West Coast and Alaska  

SciTech Connect

Methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons were measured in seven profiles from the boundary layer up to 13 km over the Pacific Ocean off the west coast of the US and over Alaska in April 1985. Mid-latitude profiles displayed the altitudinal variability of hydrocarbons and CO in the marine troposphere. Mixing ratios, in general, decreased with increasing altitude. Over Alaska, mixing ratios of hydrocarbons and CO were higher than at mid-latitudes. Most profiles showed measurable mixing ratios of many hydrocarbons up to the tropopause and suggested that many non-methane hydrocarbons may be present throughout the troposphere in the northern hemisphere.

Greenberg, J.P.; Zimmerman, P.R.; Haagenson, P. (National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (USA))

1990-08-20

93

A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. West Coast (1997)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new data resource has recently been made available by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's CDIAC. A Coastal Hazards Database for the U.S. West Coast (1997), contains digital information for predicting effects on US western coastlines that are sensitive to rises in sea level. The data cover 0.25 degree by 0.25 degree grid cells and 1:2,000,000 line segments and include elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement, tidal ranges, and wave heights. Fortran source code is provided to examine the data.

94

A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

Gornitz, V.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Beaty, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Daniels, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1997-12-01

95

Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West Coast during winter storms and that these patterns vary substantially with latitude. These results should assist with future evaluations of flood plume formation and sediment fate along this coast. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Kniskern, T. A.; Warrick, J. A.; Farnsworth, K. L.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Goni, M. A.

2011-01-01

96

Comparison of HIV infection risk behaviors among injection drug users from East and West Coast US cities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed whether behavioral differences explained higher human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among\\u000a injection drug users (IDUs) in three East Coast versus two West Coast cities in the United States. Sociodemographic, sexual,\\u000a and injecting information were collected during semiannual face-to-face interviews. Baseline data from New York City; Baltimore,\\u000a Maryland; and New Haven, Connecticut, were compared with data from Los

Richard S. Garfein; Edgar R. Monterroso; Tony C. Tong; David Vlahov; Don C. Des Jarlais; Peter Selwyn; Peter R. Kerndt; Carl Word; M. Daniel Fernando; Lawrence J. Ouellet; Scott D. Holmberg

2004-01-01

97

A springtime comparison of tropospheric ozone and transport pathways on the east and west coasts of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have conducted a study to determine the influence of Asian pollution plumes on free tropospheric ozone above the west coast of the United States during spring. We also explored the additional impact of North American emissions on east coast free tropospheric ozone. Long-term ozone monitoring sites in the United States are few, but we obtained ozonesonde profiles from Trinidad Head on the west coast, Huntsville, Alabama, in the southeast, and Wallops Island, Virginia, on the east coast. Additional east coast ozone profiles were measured by the MOZAIC commercial aircraft at Boston, New York City, and Philadelphia. Kilometer-averaged ozone was compared between Trinidad Head and the three east coast sites (MOZAIC, Wallops Island, and Huntsville). Only in the 0-1 km layer did the MOZAIC site have a statistically significant greater amount of ozone than Trinidad Head. Likewise only the 0-1 and 1-2 km layers had greater ozone at Wallops Island and Huntsville in comparison to Trinidad Head. While Wallops Island did show greater ozone than Trinidad Head at 6-9 km, this excess ozone was attributed to a dry air mass sampling bias. A particle dispersion model was used to determine the surface source regions for each case, and the amount of anthropogenic NOx tracer that would have been emitted into each air mass. Transport times were limited to 20 days to focus on the impact of direct transport of pollution plumes from the atmospheric boundary layer. As expected, the amount of NOx tracer emitted into the east coast profiles was much greater in the lower and mid troposphere than at the west coast. At various altitudes at both coasts there existed a significant positive correlation between ozone and the NOx tracer, but the explained variance was generally less than 30%. On the east coast, Wallops Island had the weakest relationship between ozone and the NOx tracer, while Huntsville had the strongest. During spring, differences in photochemistry and transport pathways in the lowest 2 km of the troposphere results in an extra 5-14 ppbv of ozone on the east coast in comparison to Trinidad Head. However, despite differing amounts of NOx tracer from Asia and North America in the free troposphere, we found no significant difference in free tropospheric ozone between the east and west coasts of the United States during spring.

Cooper, O. R.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Parrish, D. D.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; NDLec, P.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Newchurch, M. J.; Kondo, Y.; Kita, K.

2005-03-01

98

Assessment Of Extremes in Air Temperature Over North-East and West Coast Regions of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The projected effect of climate change is the increase of both the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. An attempt has been made to study the extremes in temperature over two regions of India i.e. North-East Region (NER) and West Coast Region (WCR). A detailed analysis indicated that in the NER, ten stations indicate increase in annual extreme minimum but significant at four stations. Post-monsoon season is very predominant where five stations show significant increase. In the WCR, all the stations indicate increasing trend in annual extreme maximum temperature significant at nine stations. Majority of the stations indicate significant increasing trend in all the seasons except monsoon season.

Tondgimenba, Jamir; Shankar De, Uday; Krishnakumar, Gaddam

2012-01-01

99

Springtime cloud condensation nuclei concentrations on the west coast of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) measurements were made with the Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometer at the Korea Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Observatory (KGAWO) (3632'N, 12619'E) on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula from May 1-22, 2004. A TSI CPC3010 counter simultaneously measured condensation nuclei (CN). For seven of these days, submicron aerosol size distributions were also measured with an SMPS. Data were classified maritime or continental according to air mass back trajectories. Average maritime and continental CCN concentrations at 1% supersaturation were 2406 cm-3 and 5292 cm-3, respectively, while CN concentrations were 3983 cm-3 and 8313 cm-3, respectively. The average ratios of CCN to CN concentrations were 0.64 for both maritime and continental. These results suggest ubiquitously high aerosol concentrations in this area regardless of air mass origin.

Yum, Seong Soo; Hudson, James G.; Song, Keun Yong; Choi, Byoung-Cheol

2005-05-01

100

Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

Shama, Ayman A.

2011-03-01

101

Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

2006-10-01

102

Extreme irgarol tolerance in an Ulva lactuca L. population on the Swedish west coast.  

PubMed

The herbicide irgarol 1051 is commonly used on ship hulls to prevent growth of algae, but as a component of self-eroding paints it can also spread in the surrounding waters and affect non-target organisms. The effect of irgarol on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macro algae Ulva lactuca from the Gullmar fjord on the Swedish west coast was investigated in the present study. The zoospores were allowed to settle and grow in the presence of irgarol, but neither settlement - nor growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of up to 2000nmoll(-1). This is between 10 and 100 times higher than effect concentrations reported earlier for algae. Irgarol also induced the greening effect (4-fold increase in chlorophyll a content) in the settled zoospore/germling population, typical for photosystem II inhibitors like irgarol. This study support previous findings that irgarol constitutes a selection pressure in the marine environment. PMID:24054733

Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Sa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

2013-09-18

103

Soils developed from marine and moraine deposits on the Billefjord coast, West Spitsbergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphogenetic features of soils developed from noncalcareous and calcareous deposits of the marine and glacial origins on the coasts of Billefjord and Petunia Bay in West Spitsbergen are studied. Grayhumus (soddy) soils develop from noncalcareous deposits; they consist of the AO-AY-C horizons and differ from analogous soils in other locations in a higher bulk content of calcium, a close to neutral reaction, and a relatively high degree of base saturation. Gray-humus residually calcareous soils (AO-AYca-Cca) developed from calcareous deposits have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction; their exchange complex is almost completely saturated with bases. The soils that developed from both marine and moraine deposits are generally similar in their major genetic features. The profiles of all the soils are not differentiated with respect to the contents of major elements, including oxalate-soluble forms of aluminum and iron. Gley features are also absent in the profiles of these soils.

Pereverzev, V. N.

2012-11-01

104

Intercalibration of wave and wind data from TOPEX\\/POSEIDON and moored buoys off the west coast of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant wave height (SWH) and wind speed data from the merged geophysical data record (MGDR) of the TOPEX\\/POSEIDON satellite altimeters, for the first 47 cycles of satellite coverage (September 1992 to December 1993), are compared with measurements from an array of instrumented buoys moored along and off the west coast of Canada. SWH values from the satellite and buoys cover

J. F. R. Gower

1996-01-01

105

Using a GLMM to estimate the somatic growth rate trend for male South African west coast rock lobster, Jasus lalandii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A decrease in somatic growth rate, and hence productivity, of the South African west coast rock lobster population which occurred in the late 1980s has had important ramifications for subsequent TACs set for this resource. These are critically dependent on monitoring growth rates and determining whether an increase back towards earlier higher levels is underway. The available data are not

A. Brando; D. S. Butterworth; S. J. Johnston; J. P. Glazer

2004-01-01

106

Iron, manganese and trace metal concentrations in seaweeds from the central west coast of the Gulf of California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in four macroalgae species (Ulva lactuca, Chondracanthus squarrulosus, Sargassum sinicola and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis) were obtained for the first time from the central part of the west coast of the Gulf of California. Generally, no differences in metal concentrations were found among the different seaweed species, although spatial differences were apparent.

Miguel Angel Huerta-Diaz; Francisco de Len-Chavira; Mara Lucila Lares; Alfredo Chee-Barragn; Arturo Siqueiros-Valencia

2007-01-01

107

The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides is common along the west coast of North America. Death cap mushrooms are especially abundant in habitats around the San Francisco Bay, California, but the species grows as far south as Los Angeles County and north to Vancouver Island, Canada. At different times, various authors have considered the species as either native or introduced, and

ANNE PRINGLE; RACHEL I. ADAMS; HUGH B. CROSS; THOMAS D. BRUNS

2009-01-01

108

Distribution and abundance of anthropogenic marine debris along the shelf and slope of the US West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

As marine debris levels continue to grow worldwide, defining sources, composition, and distribution of debris, as well as potential effects, becomes increasingly important. We investigated composition and abundance of man-made, benthic marine debris at 1347 randomly selected stations along the US West Coast during Groundfish Bottom Trawl Surveys in 2007 and 2008. Anthropogenic debris was observed in 469 tows at

Aimee A. Keller; Erica L. Fruh; Melanie M. Johnson; Victor Simon; Catherine McGourty

2010-01-01

109

Isolation, characterisation and antifungal activity of marine actinobacteria from Goa and Kerala, the west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

In total, 53 marine actinobacteria were isolated from the soils of six different locations in Goa and Kerala, on the west coast of India. All the isolates were screened for their antifungal properties against some phytopathogenic fungi by dual culture experiments. Among the 53 actinobacterial isolates, five isolates inhibited the growth of phytopathogens, namely Colletotrichum falcatum, Thielaviopsis paradoxa and Fusarium

R. Vijayakumar; G. Gopika; D. Dhanasekaran; R. Saravanamuthu

2012-01-01

110

Community structure and seasonal variation of an inshore demersal fish community at Goa, West Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure and seasonal variation of an inshore demersal fish assemblage have been described from 52 trawl samples collected between November 1988November 1989 from Aguada and Marmugao Bays at Goa (west coast of India). A total of 12 519 individuals belonging to 59 species were collected. There was a clear seasonal fluctuation in relative abundance, biomass, species occurrence and species dominance.

Z. A Ansari; A Chatterji; B. S Ingole; R. A Sreepada; C. U Rivonkar; A. H Parulekar

1995-01-01

111

Levels of organochlorine compounds, including PCDDS and PCDFS, in the blubber of cetaceans from the west coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine compounds (PCDD, PCDF, PCB and organochlorine pesticides) were determined in cetaceans collected from the west coast of North America between 1986 and 1989. The samples included gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), killer whale (Orcinus orca), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) collected in British Columbia, and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

W. M. Jarman; R. J. Norstrom; D. C. G. Muir; B. Rosenberg; M. Simon; R. W. Baird

1996-01-01

112

Two new genera and twelve new species of Anthuridea (Crustacea: Isopoda) from off the West Coast of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the shelf and upper slope off the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand, the following new taxa of Isopoda Anthuridea (Crustacea) are described: Kupellonura proberti n. sp. (Hyssuridae); Quantanthura pacifica n. sp., Haliophasma platytelson n. sp. and H. novaezelandiae n. sp. (Anthuridae) Albanthura stenodactyla n. gen. et sp., A. rotunduropus n. sp., Bullowanthura crebrui n. sp.,

J. W. Wgele

1985-01-01

113

Variability of the oceanic temperature and salinity fields on the West Coast continental shelf South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations on temperature and salinity with depth made over the continental shelf on the northern half of the West Coast, South Island in January, March, and May, 1982 are presented and discussed. The presence of non?seasonal temperature and salinity variations extending over the entire shelf is evidenced by the change in the salinity and temperature fields between March and May.

R. A. Heath; N. M. Ridgway

1985-01-01

114

Water Quality and Trophic Levels as Indicators of Anthropogenic Influences on Aquatic Environments along the Central West Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study highlights the characterization of water bodies in different aquatic environments in relation to anthropogenic influences along the central west coast of India. The physico-chemical and biological data of water generated from these environments during the period 2006-2010 have been used to define the existing water quality and their productivity status. Multivariate Statistics, Water Quality Index (WQI) and

Sonali R. Haldankar; P. V. Shirodkar; Dearlyn Fernandes

2011-01-01

115

Incorporating climate information into rebuilding plans for overfished groundfish species of the U.S. west coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rebuilding plans are required by the U.S. Sustainable Fisheries Act (1996) for stocks that are designated to be overfished, including several stocks of groundfish on the U.S. west coast. Despite evidence for climate effects on groundfish recruitment, the analyses that underlie rebuilding plans have not incorporated those effects. We extended the conventional approach used to conduct rebuilding analyses to evaluate

Carrie A. Holt; Andr E. Punt

2009-01-01

116

Properties and Distributions of Aerosol Particles Transported from Asia to the West Coast of the United States During ITCT 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformations experiment in April and May, 2002, airborne measurements were made of particle microphysical and chemical properties and of trace gases. Layers of air containing enhanced number and mass concentrations of particles transported from Asia were encountered near the West Coast of the United States on several flights. During the most concentrated events, the

J. M. Reeves; C. A. Brock; D. Murphy; D. Cziczo; J. Holloway; P. Hudson; B. Lafleur; J. C. Wilson; D. Parrish; T. Ryerson; D. Nicks; J. Degouw; C. Warneke

2002-01-01

117

Breeding biology and breeding success of the blue penguin (Eudyptula minor) on the West Coast of New Zealand's South Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the first detailed study of the timing and breeding success of an apparently declining population of blue penguins (Eudyptula minor) on the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand. Nest contents of 138 natural burrows and 19 nest boxes were determined at regular intervals during the 2006 breeding season. Hatching, fledging, and overall breeding success rates were comparatively

Sol Heber; Laura Molles

2008-01-01

118

Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

119

What determines the spatial pattern in summer upwelling trends on the U.S. West Coast?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) from coastal buoys suggests that the summertime over-shelf water temperature off the U.S. West Coast has been declining during the past 30 years at an average rate of -0.19C decade-1. This cooling trend manifests itself more strongly off south-central California than off Oregon and northern California. The variability and trend in the upwelling north of off San Francisco are positively correlated with those of the equatorward wind, indicating a role of offshore Ekman transport in the north. In contrast, Ekman pumping associated with wind stress curls better explains the stronger and statistically more significant cooling trend in the south. While the coast-wide variability and trend in SST are strongly correlated with those of large-scale modes of climate variability, they in general fail to explain the southward intensification of the trend in SST and wind stress curl. This result suggests that the local wind stress curl, often topographically forced, may have played a role in the upwelling trend pattern.

Seo, Hyodae; Brink, Kenneth H.; Dorman, Clive E.; Koracin, Darko; Edwards, Christopher A.

120

East-West Coast differences in total electron content over the continental US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Total electron content (TEC) measurements made by a network of dense GPS receivers over the continental US are used to investigate ionospheric longitudinal differences. We find that the evening TEC is substantially higher on the US east coast than on the west, and vice versa for the morning TEC; the longitudinal difference displays a clear diurnal variation. Through an analysis of morning-evening variability in the east-west TEC difference, minimum variability is found to coincide with the longitudes of zero magnetic declination over the continental US. We suggest that these new findings of longitudinal differences in ionospheric TEC at midlatitudes are caused by the longitudinal difference in magnetic declination combined with the effects of thermospheric zonal winds which are subject to directional reversal over the course of a day. This study indicates that longitudinal variations in TEC measurements contain critical information on thermospheric zonal winds. The proposed declination-zonal wind mechanism may also provide a new insight into longitude/UT changes at midlatitudes on a global scale, as well as into some geospace disturbances.

Zhang, Shun-Rong; Foster, John C.; Coster, Anthea J.; Erickson, Philip J.

2011-10-01

121

Modeling reactive halogen species based on measurements at the Irish West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed model studies based on measurements of reactive halogen species performed at Mace Head and Mweenish Bay at the Irish West Coast in summer 2007. The measurements were made using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and showed a strong heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of molecular iodine and iodine oxide. The model study was aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the trace gases, the mechanisms that lead to the formation of new particles and the impact of iodine emissions on atmospheric chemistry. We used the one-dimensional model MISTRA, which was initialized with the conditions encountered at the Irish West Coast. The iodine flux (from macro algae) was adjusted so that the model reproduces the observed IO mixing ratios. A number of different model runs were performed in order to quantify the impact of iodine chemistry on local and regional photochemistry under different meteorological conditions. The model suggests that inorganic iodine is rapidly mixed vertically: About 75% of the inorganic iodine is transported upwards, which is in good agreement with field measurements using multi-axis DOAS indicating a significant amount of IO in higher layers of the lower troposphere. Furthermore, the model was able to reproduce the field measurements of IO and molecular iodine during day and night. Not only the modeled mixing ratios, but also the spatial distribution of the iodine species was in good agreement with the field studies. The model also qualitatively reproduced the nucleation of aerosol particles that was observed during the field campaigns. The model results also suggest that IO2- in sulphate particles as well as in sea salt particles is oxidized to IO3- during the model runs. Most interestingly, the model showed strong indications for rapid multiphase cycling of halogen species as well as an exciting link between the chemistry of bromine and iodine: Iodine is taken up on the particles in the form of HOI, which acts as a source of I- to the aqueous phase. This then leads to the release of ICl, IBr and later Br2 into the gas phase. These species get photolysed quickly and yield bromine atoms, which then rapidly react with ozone to form bromine monoxide BrO. During this process a significant amount of ozone is destroyed, surprisingly not as a direct result of the iodine source, but as an indirect effect via bromine chemistry.

Seitz, K.; von Glasow, R.; Platt, U.; Sommariva, R.; Phler, D.; Buxmann, J.

2011-12-01

122

Intertidal and submarine groundwater discharge on the west coast of Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Submarine Groundwater Discharge is now a phenomenon of global interest, as studies show that it represents both a significant proportion of the fresh water input to the ocean, and a significant contribution to the loads of many substances. At present, little monitoring of groundwater in Ireland is carried out at its point of entry to seawater, and consequently the volumes of fresh water, and the loads of nutrients and contaminants being carried into Irish coastal waters by submarine and intertidal groundwater discharge (SiGD), are unknown. SiGD is the principal source of fresh water entering Irish coastal waters between the major west coast estuaries of the Corrib and the Shannon. Calculations of the volume of submarine SiGD delivered to southern Galway bay in winter indicate it equals 10-25% of the discharge of the R. Corrib, and that its nutrient load may be of the same order of magnitude as that from the R. Corrib. This coastal karst area includes important commercial shellfish waters, which may be strongly impacted by SiGD.

R., R.; | T., Cave; Henry

2011-05-01

123

Magnitude scaling relationship from the first P-wave arrivals on Canada's west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The empirical magnitude scaling relationship from ground-motion period parameter ?c is derived using vertical waveforms recorded in the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) along Canada's west coast. A high-pass filtered displacement amplitude parameter, Pd, is calculated from the initial 3 s of the P waveforms and the empirical relationship between Pd and peak ground velocity, PGV, is derived using the same data set. We selected earthquakes of M >3.0 recorded during 1996-2009 by the seismic network stations in the region operated by National Resources Canada (NRCan). In total, 90 events were selected and the vertical components of the earthquakes signals were converted to ground velocity and displacement. The displacements were filtered with a one-way Butterworth high-pass filter with a cut-off frequency of 0.075 Hz. Pd and ?c are computed from the vertical seismogram components. While the average magnitude error was approximately 0.70 magnitude units when using the individual record, the error dropped to approximately 0.5 magnitude units when using the average ?c for each event. In case of PGV, the average error is approximately 0.3. These relationships may be used for initial steps in establishing an earthquake early warning system for the CSZ.

Eshaghi, A.; Tiampo, K. F.

2011-12-01

124

Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

NONE

1995-01-01

125

Seasonal biomass and energy content in seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal collections were made over a 16 month period in seven seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida. The seagrass component accounted for at least 45% of the total biomass and Thalassia testudinum was the dominant species. The 15 month mean of total biomass at six sites that were dominated year around by T. testudinum from Tampa Bay to Cedar Key, Florida was 385 g dry weight m/sup 2/ or 1.42 tons dry weight/acre. The drift and attached seaweed components showed seasonal fluctuations in terms of species and biomass. Of the six open water sites, only one site, characterized by depressed salinity, showed significant differences in seasonal biomass for T. testudinum using a nested ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test for variance. Available kilocalories ranged from a 16 month low of 344 to a high of 1837 kcal/m/sup 2/ with the highest biomass and caloric values occurring in the late spring and summer.

Dawes, C.J.; Hall, M.O.; Riechert, R.K.

1985-01-01

126

Hydrocarbons in seawater and sediment from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The Straits of Malacca, along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the busiest waterways in the world with about 2000 vessels passing through it per month, of which about 25 percent are oil tankers of varying sizes. In the course of their passage, the practices of tanker ballasting and pumping of bilges by non-tanker vessels result in considerable pollution in these waters. Collisions and groundings also cause oil spills in Malaysian waters. Oil contaminants not only pollute the high seas but also affects the near-coastal waters. Marine oil pollution, in particular that of near-coastal waters, may also be attributed to land-based activities such as the utilisation of petroleum related products, the direct discharge of untreated municipal and industrial wastes containing refined and partly weathered oils to sewers and rivers, and the discharge of effluents from refineries and other similar sources. There is, at present, little information available on the total hydrocarbon concentrations (THCs) in water and sediments in these waters. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of hydrocarbons in water and sediments along the near-coastal areas of the Straits of Malacca. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Abdullah, A.R.; Tahir, N.M.; Wei, L.K. (Univ. of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

1994-10-01

127

Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.  

PubMed

Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments. PMID:18774643

Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

2008-08-03

128

Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of mangrove species on the west coast of India.  

PubMed

Because mangrove plant species are a valuable source of useful metabolites, their endophytes have gained more importance. Randomly sampled surface-sterilized whole root segments of four mangrove plant species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucronata, and Sonneratia caseolaris from the mangroves of Udyavara (Karnataka) on the west coast of India, were characterized for fungal communities by direct plating, damp chamber, and bubbling chamber incubation methods. The richness of endophytic fungal species from whole root segments after direct plating and damp chamber incubation was greatest for R. mucronata than for other plants (18 vs. 8-13). Incubation of whole root segments in bubbling chambers yielded conidia of two freshwater hyphomycetes: Mycocentrospora acerina (in Avicennia officinalis) and Triscelophorus acuminatus (in R. mucronata and in S. caseolaris). Surface-sterilized whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata sampled from the mid-tide level on direct plating yielded more fungi than that of the root segments sampled from low-tide and high-tide levels. The greatest number of isolates, species richness, and diversity of fungi were shown by the whole root segments of R. mucronata from the mid-tide level. Rarefaction indices also revealed the highest expected number of species out of 150 random isolations from the mid-tide level samples of whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata. The present study showed that fungi in mangrove roots are composed of a consortium of soil, marine, and freshwater fungi. PMID:12489776

Ananda, K; Sridhar, K R

2002-10-01

129

Dinoflagellate cysts and hydrographical change in Gullmar Fjord, west coast of Sweden.  

PubMed

This high-resolution study of the latest Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record from Gullmar Fjord, on the west coast of Sweden, provides evidence for the recognition of two major dinoflagellate communities within the fjord over the last 85 years. These communities may have their origins with the history of cultural eutrophication within the region, but are more likely to be associated with the wider phenomenon of the North Atlantic Oscillation and/or the complex hydrographical response of the fjord to various changing climatic environments between 1915 and 1999. The changing dinoflagellate cyst populations are compared in detail with the many hydrographical parameters available from this well studied fjord with its long instrumental records. Indeed the dinoflagellate cysts fail to demonstrate a convincing ongoing eutrophication record for the fjord but do show a major change in the cyst assemblages at about 1969/1970 at a time when the NAO was changing from a negative phase to the present-day positive phase. Gullmar Fjord is important in the history of dinoflagellate cyst studies, being the site of the 1954 study by Erdtman in which viable cysts, produced within the phytoplankton, were first documented within the water column. PMID:15950265

Harland, Rex; Nordberg, Kjell; Filipsson, Helena L

2005-06-09

130

Environmental influences on the trawl catches in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of relationship between trawl catch and environmental variables was assessed in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India using multivariate techniques. The demersal fish assemblage was dominated by the families, Leiognathidae, Sciaenidae, Clupeidae, Cynoglossidae and Stromateidae and were considered to be typical for the Indo-Pacific. Patterns in community-structure were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) which

Z. A. Ansari; R. A. Sreepada; S. G. Dalal; B. S. Ingole; A. Chatterji

2003-01-01

131

Long-term assessment of the population dynamics of Amphiura filiformis (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in Galway Bay (west coast of Ireland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The burrowing ophiuroid Amphiura filiformis (O. F. Mller) is a dominant member of a silty sand community in Galway Bay on the west coast of Ireland (5313'16?N; 96'30?W). High-density populations in the area (greater than 700 m-2) generally occur in sediment having a silt\\/clay content of 10 to 20%. On the basis of such numerical prominence, the species has been

B. O'Connor; T. Bowmer; A. Grehan

1983-01-01

132

Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

Benson, A. J.; Marelli, D. C.; Frischer, M. E.; Danforth, J. M.; Williams, J. D.

2001-01-01

133

Real-time Tsunami Warning Operations at the NOAA West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, provide tsunami warning services for a large portion of the world's coasts. The WCATWC has primary responsibility for providing tsunami detection, warnings, and forecasts to Canada, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and all U.S. States except Hawaii. WCATWC also acts as back-up for the PTWC, requiring the center to constantly monitor global tsunami activities by rapidly detecting and evaluating earthquakes for their tsunamigenic potential. The Centers' goals are to issue initial messages as quickly as possible to alert those near the source to potential danger (assuming there is any), and to follow that with a reasonable forecast of impact level. With these goals in mind, a Watchstander's initial action is based entirely on estimates of tsunami potential from the earthquake's source parameters. The course of action for the first message is determined primarily by the earthquake's magnitude, location, tsunami history, tsunami travel time, estimated threat based on pre-computed models, and pre-set criteria. Supplemental messages, if necessary, are based on wave observations and forecasts generated from hydrodynamic models (which are calibrated with near real-time observations). In April 2006, the WCATWC increased staff level so that the Center can be staffed 24/7 with two watchstanders. Since then, the Center's response time for events within the primary area-of-responsibility has decreased to less than 5 minutes. In order to illustrate the WCATWC's real time tsunami warning operational environment, tsunami warning operation timelines for several tsunamigenic earthquakes - including the September 12 southern Sumatra 8.4 and the January 13 Kuril Island 8.1 earthquakes - are provided. The timelines highlight the key parameters and observations that guide tsunami warning operations chronicling the event through: 1) initial alarm, 2) earthquake analysis, 3) dissemination of information, 4) sea level observation/forecasting model calibration, and 5) supplemental message dissemination. The timelines demonstrate processing and dissemination capabilities.

Whitmore, P.; Huang, P.; Crowley, H.; Ferris, J.; Hale, D.; Knight, W.; Medbery, A.; Nyland, D.; Preller, C.; Turner, B.; Urban, G.

2007-12-01

134

Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210 meters. The individual surveys were compiled to form a comprehensive grid of the entire region, which covers an area of approximately 1,110,000 square kilometers. Applications such as MB-System, Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL), Generic Mapping Tools (GMT), and Fledermaus were used to grid, compile, and visualize the data. This study focuses on the gridding methods, compilation, and pitfalls of creating a large-scale multibeam sonar grid for use on a single region of the U.S ECS project.

Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

2011-12-01

135

Maritime-continental contrasts of cloud condensation nuclei in the west coast of the Korean peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) were made at the Korea Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Observatory (KGAWO) (36.32 \\deg N, 126.19 \\deg E) on the west coast of the Korean Peninsula, south of Seoul, from April 30 to May 22, 2004. This location - 500 km distance from China across the Yellow Sea - provides a unique opportunity to monitor the influence of east China's rapidly growing industrial and human activities as well as the local Korean pollution. CCN were measured with the two Desert Research Institute (DRI) instantaneous CCN spectrometers. Condensation Nuclei (CN) were also measured with a TSI 3010 counter. On some foggy days fog droplets (2 - 50 micrometer diameter) were measured with an FSSP-100. For the whole period air masses were divided into 10 maritime and 12 continental regimes according to Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model (HYSPLIT4) results. Preliminary analyses showed that the average CCN concentration at 1% supersaturation of the continental air masses was 6573 cm-3, which almost doubled the maritime average concentration of 2758 cm-3. Average total particle (i.e., CN) concentration was higher and showed similar contrast between the continental and maritime air masses (8594 cm-3 vs. 4872 cm-3). These concentrations were significantly higher than those measured in some other parts of the earth atmosphere. For example, CCN measurements in marine environment but with continental influences showed 1411 cm-3 in Florida and 1023 cm-3 in northeast Atlantic. These are even lower than the maritime CCN concentrations in this study. Therefore, maritime in this study is only in a relative sense. An Asian Dust (AD) event occurred on May 4. CN and CCN concentrations on this day, 10880 and 8835 cm-3, respectably, were higher than the average continental concentrations. However, one non-AD day also showed as high concentrations. Much more detailed analyses and comparisons will be made and presented at the conference.

Song, K.; Hudson, J. G.; Yum, S. S.; Choi, B.

2004-12-01

136

VOC Composition of Air Masses Transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Airborne measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were performed using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) operated onboard a NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) experiment in 2002. Enhancements of acetone (CH3COCH3), methanol (CH3OH), acetonitrile (CH3CN) and in some cases benzene were observed in air masses that were impacted by outflow from Asia. The enhancement ratios with respect to carbon monoxide are compared to emission factors for fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, which gives some insight into the sources responsible for the pollution. The observed mixing ratios for acetone, methanol and in particular acetonitrile were generally reduced in the marine boundary layer, suggesting the presence of an ocean uptake sink. The ocean uptake of acetonitrile was found to be particularly efficient in a zone with upwelling water off of the U.S. west coast. Reduced mixing ratios of acetone and methanol were observed in a stratospheric intrusion. This observation gives some information about the lifetime of these VOCs in the stratosphere. Enhanced concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were observed in air masses that were impacted by urban sources in California. The ratio between the concentrations of benzene, toluene and higher aromatics indicated the degree of photochemical oxidation. PTR-MS only gives information about the mass of the ions produced by proton-transfer reactions between H3O+ and VOCs in the instrument. The identification of VOCs was confirmed by coupling a gas-chromatographic (GC) column to the instrument and post-flight GC-PTR-MS analyses of canister samples collected during the flights.

de Gouw, J.; Warneke, C.; Kuster, B.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Huebler, G.; Fehsenfeld, F.

2002-12-01

137

Pacific West Coast Cretaceous molluscan faunas: time and aspect of changes  

SciTech Connect

Cretaceous deposits of the West Coast of North America, from central Baja California to southern Alaska, yield molluscan faunas that commonly contain some forms of tropical aspect, some suggestive of cool water, and some which are typically or uniquely found in North Pacific deposits. The Aptian-Albian faunas of the Alisitos Formation of northern Baja California are entirely tropical in aspect, but may have been moved northward relative to the North American plate, as may have the older deposits of the Vizcaino Peninsula that contain buchias of boreal or North Pacific affinities. The faunas with the coolest aspect are those of the Early Cretaceous late Valanginian Stage, which contain buchias of the boreal Canadian lineage, and/or the Late Cretaceous Senonian to early Maestrichtian faunas that are dominated by North Pacific taxa. Nonetheless, both these Early and Late Cretaceous faunas include warm-water elements. In the northern occurrences of these faunas, the warm-water taxa are farther north than are comparable living taxa. Shifting faunas southward to compensate for their warmer water elements would displace the cooler water components (which during most stages comprised more than half of the faunas) too far into tropical areas. Cretaceous island arcs may have afforded protection from southerly flowing cooler currents and allowed various warm-water forms to live unexpectedly farther north. The strong North Pacific element in these faunas makes it unlikely that they originated elsewhere, or that the relatively cool or warm fluctuations they record are a result of successive exotic origins. The cooling at the end of the Valanginian was followed by a warming trend.

Saul, L.R.

1986-04-01

138

78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason Adjustments AGENCY: National...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures...announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish...

2013-05-06

139

77 FR 63758 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason Adjustments AGENCY: National...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures...announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish...

2012-10-17

140

Aerial measurement of radioxenon concentration off the west coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima reactor accident.  

PubMed

In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to (133)Xe was observed. Methods to extract (133)Xe count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding (133)Xe activity concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that (133)Xe concentrations on average lie in the range of 30-70Bq/m(3). PMID:21745702

Sinclair, L E; Seywerd, H C J; Fortin, R; Carson, J M; Saull, P R B; Coyle, M J; Van Brabant, R A; Buckle, J L; Desjardins, S M; Hall, R M

2011-07-13

141

Response of West Coast Beach Taxa to Salt Spray, Seawater Inundation, and Soil Salinity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Twelve taxa, characteristic of beach vegetation along the Pacific Coast of the United States, were grown from seed and subjected to realistic levels of salt spray and seawater inundation. Mortality, morphology, and biomass were measured and combined in a ...

M. G. Barbour T. M. DeJong

1976-01-01

142

77 FR 12503 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason Adjustments AGENCY: National...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures; request for comments...announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish...

2012-03-01

143

77 FR 24634 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason Adjustments AGENCY: National...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures; request for comments...announces an inseason change to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish...

2012-04-25

144

77 FR 22679 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason Adjustments AGENCY: National...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures; request for comments...announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish...

2012-04-17

145

Operating history of Arun LNG Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Arun LNG plant is owned by PERTAMINA (The Oil And Gas State Enterprise Of The Republic Of Indonesia) and is located at Blang Lancang, North Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia. It is about 15 km west of the port of Lhokseumawe, or about 300 km north-west of the city of Medan. The plant is operated by PT Arun NGL Co. The Arun LNG plant receives gas and unstabilized hydrocarbon condensate from the Arun Field gas reservoir which is developed and operated by MOBIL OIL INDONESIA under Production Sharing Contract with PERTAMINA and is located about 30 km south-east of the plant. The gas and condensate are transported by pipeline to the plant. Operation of the condensate recovery unit began in April 1977 and the three LNG trains began producing LNG in August 1978, September 1978 and February 1979 respectively. The original three-train plant now produces 34000 m/sup 3//day of LNG and 85000 bbl/day of condensate. An additional two LNG trains have been constructed and recently began production.

Suyanto, J.R.O.

1984-02-01

146

Distribution and abundance of anthropogenic marine debris along the shelf and slope of the US West Coast.  

PubMed

As marine debris levels continue to grow worldwide, defining sources, composition, and distribution of debris, as well as potential effects, becomes increasingly important. We investigated composition and abundance of man-made, benthic marine debris at 1347 randomly selected stations along the US West Coast during Groundfish Bottom Trawl Surveys in 2007 and 2008. Anthropogenic debris was observed in 469 tows at depths of 55-1280 m. Plastic and metallic debris occurred in the greatest number of hauls followed by fabric and glass. Mean density was 67.1 items km(-2) throughout the study area but was significantly higher south of 36 degrees 00'N latitude. Mean density significantly increased with depth, ranging from 30 items km(-2) in shallow (55-183 m) water to 128 items km(-2) in the deepest depth stratum (550-1280 m). Debris densities observed along the US West Coast were comparable to those seen elsewhere and provide a valuable backdrop for future comparisons. PMID:20092858

Keller, Aimee A; Fruh, Erica L; Johnson, Melanie M; Simon, Victor; McGourty, Catherine

2010-01-22

147

Abrupt Changes in the Post-glacial and Paleo-environmental History of the West Coast of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our continuing studies of annually laminated marine sediments in anoxic fjords along the west coast of Canada chronicle changes in the Holocene environment as glaciers retreated from this area about 12 ky BP, and are shedding new light on the nature and timing of abrupt "regime" shifts in coastal ocean dynamics and climate. We are refining our knowledge of the interplay between climate, ecosystems, and ocean dynamics in the northeast Pacific Ocean, with new perspectives from a diverse suite of proxy indicators including archaeological evidence from pre-historical aboriginal settlement sites, modern oceanographic and meteorological data, and landscape changes associated with recent record-breaking storms and sea surges. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene record on this coast also marks dramatic changes in sea level, with implications for the possibility of early human migration routes and glacial refugia. Excellent chronological control on Holocene paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions along the British Columbia coast is now possible by complementary, yet independent, dating methods of ocean sediments in a giant 40 m piston core which is now being used as a chronological tie point for other proxy records from this area.

Dallimore, A.; Thomson, R. E.; Enkin, R. J.; Baker, J.; McKechnie, I.; Wright, C.

2007-12-01

148

An Effective Combination Trawl for West Coast Draggers: Atlantic-Western Trawls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication describes the modification, rigging, and fishing of effective combination otter trawls on the Pacific Northwest Coast by several Oregon otter trawlers. The trawls, the Atlantic-Western Model IV-A, IV-A-3/4, and Model II-A, are four seam bo...

R. B. Fisher

1974-01-01

149

Association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with plants of coastal sand dunes of west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inventory of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status of 28 plant species belonging to 14 families established on the coastal sand dunes of southwest coast of India was performed. Roots of 23 plant species were colonized by AM fungi, whereas the rhizosphere of only 20 plant species possessed AM fungal spores. Canavalia cathartica had the highest root colonization (83%) by

K. R. BEENA; A. B. ARUN; N. S. RAVIRAJA; K. R. SRIDHAR

150

77 FR 36192 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rule to implement the annual catch limit (ACL), harvest guideline (HG), annual catch...through June 30, 2012. NMFS establishes the ACL, HG, and ACT under the regulations implementing...Pacific mackerel off the Pacific coast. The ACL (or maximum HG) for the 2011- 2012...

2012-06-18

151

Nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics off the west coast of Vancouver Island during the 1997/98 ENSO event  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six research cruises were conducted off the west coast of Vancouver Island between April and October of 1997 and 1998 as part of the Canadian GLOBEC project to compare nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics between ENSO (1997) and non-ENSO (1998) years. Limited sampling also was conducted during three cruises in 1999. During the 1997 ENSO period, there was a shallow thermocline (10 m) that resulted in a shallower mixed layer, lower salinity and density, and stronger summer stratification. In general on the shelf, the 1997 growing season was characterized by higher nitrate (7.5 ?M) and silicic acid (17 ?M) concentrations, lower total chlorophyll (76 mg m -2), lower phytoplankton carbon biomass (0.2 mg C L -1), and lower diatom abundance and biomass than in 1998. Phytoplankton assemblages were dominated by nanoplankton in 1997 and by diatoms in 1998. These results suggest that the 1997 ENSO was responsible for a reduction in the growth and biomass of larger phytoplankton cells. In mid-1998, the hydrographic characteristics off the west coast of Vancouver Island changed suddenly. The 1997 poleward transport of warm water reversed to an equatorward transport of coastal water in July 1998, which was accompanied by normal summer upwelling. During 1998, a large diatom bloom (mainly dominated by Chaetoceros debilis, Leptocylindrus danicus and to a lesser extent by Skeletomema and Pseudo-nitzschia sp.) was observed in July over the continental shelf. This large bloom resulted in chlorophyll concentrations of up to 400 mg m -2, primary productivity of up to 11 g C m -2 d -1, and near undetectable dissolved nitrogen concentrations at some of the shelf stations in 1998. In contrast, during 1997, the sub-tropical waters that were advected over the slope, resulted in low chlorophyll a and primary productivity (generally <1 g C m -2 d -1). Therefore, there was a sharp contrast between the very high primary productivity on the shelf in July 1998, due to normal nutrient replenishment from summer upwelling and outflow from the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the lower primary productivity during the 1997 ENSO year. During 1998, non-ENSO conditions resulted in phytoplankton biomass that was twice as high on the shelf as that measured in regions beyond the continental shelf of the west coast of Vancouver Island.

Harris, Shannon L.; Varela, Diana E.; Whitney, Frank W.; Harrison, Paul J.

2009-12-01

152

Radar-derived bed roughness characterization of Institute and Mller ice streams, West Antarctica, and comparison with Siple Coast ice streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subglacial bed conditions exert a significant control on ice stream behavior and evolution, and can be characterized by determining bed roughness from FFT analysis of radar-imaged basal reflectors. Here we assess bed roughness across Institute and Mller ice streams, West Antarctica, and compare our findings with bed roughness determined across the Siple Coast ice streams. We find that variations in

Robert G. Bingham; Martin J. Siegert

2007-01-01

153

Selection of areas for protecting rare plants with integration of land use conflicts: A case study for the west coast of Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the west coast of Newfoundland (Canada) about 40% of the provincially rare plant species are not protected within the system of three national parks and two ecological reserves existing in the region. This study examines how heuristic algorithms can be used for selecting areas filling this gap while minimizing potential land use conflicts. One algorithm selected 78 areas of

Patrick Nantel; Andr Bouchard; Luc Brouillet; Stuart Hay

1998-01-01

154

Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered subtidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction of the commercial sea urchinParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck) from contrasting habitats on the west coast of Ireland was examined from May 1986 through August 1988. Urchins were collected intertidally from an exposed rocky shore and subtidally from a protected bay. Monthly measurements of the gonad index and histological examination of the gonads demonstrated thatP. lividus has an annual reproductive cycle.

M. Byrne

1990-01-01

155

PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN

CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

156

Sedimentary processes of fine-grained material and the effect of seawall construction in the Daeho macrotidal flatnearshore area, northern west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sedimentary processes on the lower tidal flat of the reclaimed Seosan Bay (Daeho tidal flat), at the west coast of Korea, have undergone significant changes since 1984 when seawalls over 8 km long were constructed at the bay mouth. Comparison of pre- and post-construction tidal flow models indicates that in general tidal currents have increased considerably in front of the

Hee Jun Lee; Yong Shik Chu; Yong Ahn Park

1999-01-01

157

Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S  

Microsoft Academic Search

GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple

B. E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

2010-01-01

158

The Future of Fisheries Science on Canada's West Coast Is Keeping up with the Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A look back at the issues in fisheries management on Canada's Pacific coast identifies a history of surprises. Expect the\\u000a unexpected, was the advice of W.E. Ricker. Surprises will always occur, but fisheries science needs to be in a position to\\u000a minimize their economic impacts and explain the causes to the people who manage and care about fish and fisheries.

Richard J. Beamish; Brian E. Riddell

159

The impact of the 2009-10 El Nio Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Nio. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Nio of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Nio did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Nio winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Nio is principally linked to the El Nio Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Nio), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, Andr

2011-07-01

160

Towards a quantification of ocean wave heights off the west coast of Ireland using land based seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean gravity waves are driven by atmospheric pressure systems. Their interactions with one another and the production of standing waves in the water column generate pressure changes at the sea floor. These pressure fluctuations are the cause of continuous background seismic noise known as microseisms. The levels of microseism activity vary as a function of the sea state and increase during periods of intensive ocean wave activity. In 2011 a seismic network was deployed along the west coast of Ireland to continuously record microseisms generated in the Atlantic Ocean. This project aims to determine the characteristics of the causative ocean gravity waves through calibration of the microseism data with ocean buoy data. In initial tests we are using a Backpropagation Feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (BP ANN) to establish the underlying relationships between microseisms and ocean waves. If successful these tools could then be used to estimate ocean wave heights and wave periods using a land-based seismic network and complement current wave observations being made offshore by marine buoys. Preliminary ANN results are promising with the network successfully able to reconstruct trends in ocean wave heights and periods. Microseisms can provide significant information about oceanic processes. With a deeper understanding of how these processes work there is potential for 1) locating and tracking the evolution of the largest waves in the North-East Atlantic and 2) reconstructing the wave climate off the west coast of Ireland using legacy seismic data on a longer time scale than is currently available using marine based observations.

Donne, Sarah; Bean, Chris; Lokmer, Ivan; Creamer, Columba; Lambkin, Keith

2013-04-01

161

Distribution of Sargassum muticum on the North West coast of Spain: Relationships with urbanization and community diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasions are common in coastal marine environments where proximity to urban areas should influence the number of non-native organisms due to the likelihood of unintentional introductions from urban centers. Invasive species are widely recognised as important agents of global change, and can colonize new habitats and even cause local extinction of native species. This study was focused on the invasive marine macroalga Sargassum muticum, a problematic invasive species on the West coast of America and in European waters. An intensive survey was carried out along the Galician coast (North West of Spain) from March to August 2008 to determine the current distribution of this species, and its relationship with level of urbanization and native macroalgal diversity. We sampled the presence of S. muticum and native macroalgae in the mid and low intertidal zones of twenty rocky shores distributed along ten rias. Rias were grouped into high and scarcely urbanized based on their population density. Results indicated that S. muticum was present in nine out of the ten rias, confirming its presence in most of the intertidal rocky shores of Galicia twenty years after it was first observed. The presence of S. muticum was not related to the degree of urbanization of the rias, and its distribution and abundance did not seem to be influenced by diversity or functional groups of native algae. In addition, there was a great variability in the percentage cover, number and length of individuals amongst localities and rias suggesting that both large-scale and local processes may play a role in the distribution of this species. This study highlights the importance of future research into the distribution and impact of introduced algae and proves the urgent need for monitoring programmes and increasing efforts to prevent and control new introductions.

Incera, Mnica; Olabarria, Celia; Cacabelos, Eva; Csar, Javier; Troncoso, Jess S.

2011-04-01

162

Post-glacial Paleo-oceanographic and Paleo-climatic Conditions and Linkages Along the West Coast of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along the west coast of Canada, our continuing studies of annually laminated marine sediments in anoxic fjords illustrate the changing environment as glaciers retreated from this area about 12 ka y BP. New data from mid-coastal British Columbia expands our knowledge of the interplay between climate and ocean dynamics in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, and defines the evolution of modern climate conditions as ice receded from the coast, followed by the establishment of modern oceanographic and climatic conditions about 6,000 ky BP. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene record also marks dramatic changes in sea level, climate, coastal oceanographic dynamics and glacial sedimentary source and transport, with implications for the possibility of early human migration routes and glacial refugia. Changes in pre-historical aboriginal settlement sites and food sources also give indications of a dynamic Holocene land and seascape as modern conditions became established. Excellent chronological control is provided by complementary yet independent dating methods including radiocarbon dates on both plants and shells, identification of the Mazama Ash, varve counting and paleomagnetic/paleosecular variation correlations.

Dallimore, A.; Enkin, R. J.; McKechnie, I.

2006-12-01

163

Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

164

Year-round West Nile Virus Activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and Louisiana  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in 11 dead birds and two mosquito pools collected in east Texas and southern Louisiana during surveillance studies in the winter of 2003 to 2004. These findings suggest that WNV is active throughout the year in this region of the United States.

Parsons, Ray; Siirin, Marina; Randle, Yvonne; Sargent, Chris; Guzman, Hilda; Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Bala, Adil A.; Haas, Keith; Zerinque, Brian

2004-01-01

165

The upwelling regime off the West Portuguese Coast, 1941-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of the upwelling regime off west Portugal between 1941 and 2000 was investigated. Monthly averages of the longshore (meridional) wind component at four coastal stations of the Institute for Meteorology were computed and subject to linear regression analysis. Several comparisons were made among stations until a final regression model was reached. The resulting residuals were checked for the

Ricardo T. Lemos; Henrique O. Pires

2004-01-01

166

Year-round West Nile Virus Activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in 11 dead birds and two mosquito pools collected in east Texas and south- ern Louisiana during surveillance studies in the winter of 2003 to 2004. These findings suggest that WNV is active throughout the year in this region of the United States.

Robert B. Tesh; Ray Parsons; Marina Siirin; Yvonne Randle; Chris Sargent; Hilda Guzman; Taweesak Wuithiranyagool; Stephen Higgs; Dana L. Vanlandingham; Adil A. Bala; Keith Haas; Brian Zerinque

167

Evidence of Possible Precursor Events for Mega-thrust Earthquakes on the West Coast of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megathrust earthquakes in western North America may be preceded by precursors several years ahead of the main event. For example on March 27, 1964, a 9.2 magnitude (on the Richter scale) earthquake occurred on the coast of Alaska. Changes in foraminifera and diatom biotas provided evidence of a precursor to this earthquake, thereby detailing a previously unknown sequence of events. We describe further evidence from marshes in Turnagain Arm, Alaska, USA and farther south in Netart's Bay, Oregon, USA; this is the first time that two widely spaced locations have been examined for precursors. The Alaska earthquake offers the possibility to compare a modern sequence (1964) of events with the geologic record. The Netart's Bay marsh has experienced no modern earthquake that could be used for comparison, but the nature of mega-thrust earthquakes implies that the modern and ancient events should be physically similar. The new cores examined from Turnagain Arm include both the 1964 earthquake and an event identified and dated at 1800yBP. The foraminifera and thecamoebian biota change from a forest sequence to a mildly brackish sequence just before the 1964 event; this zone was dated as being 15 years or less in length using Pb210 and Cs dating techniques. The event at 1800yBP was also associated with a similar transition indicating a small subsidence just before the major subsidence event. In Netart's Bay a new core was taken from a previously cored site because the chronology had already been determined by carbon-14 dating and also because at least four events were known to have occurred over the last 3000 years. The new core had four visual lithological transitions of which three were from marsh peat to mineralic deposits (possibly deposited by tsunamis) and back to a marsh deposit. Foraminifera indicated that these units represented high marsh transition to lower marsh, the earthquake event, and then rebounding back into marsh deposits. Sand deposits with either no or few foraminifera marked the tsunami/earthquake intervals. These transitions in two widely separated geographical areas indicate that similar mechanisms operate for large megathrust earthquakes from Alaska to Northern California in the Cascadia Subduction Zone thus implying that precursor events also occur and be detected by foraminiferal zonations all along this area as well. In a recent newspaper article scientists from the west coast suggested that "slow" or "silent" earthquakes they had measured with tiltmeters might be indicators of megathrust earthquakes. The transitions we document may be the prehistoric representations of these "silent" quakes. Foraminiferal evidence may help provide more accurate positioning of seismometers along the west coast of North America and therefore lead to more precise and timely earthquake predictions.

Scott, D. B.; Hawkes, A.; Lipps, J. H.

2003-12-01

168

Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched  

SciTech Connect

World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

NONE

1997-10-20

169

Interdecadal variability of the thermocline along the west coast of South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using gridded MBT and XBT data for the period 1955-2002, we analyze the interdecadal variability of the thermocline along the western coast of South America between the equator and 32S. Results show a relatively small, but coherent, interdecadal oscillation of the depth of different isotherms representing the thermocline along the region. This oscillation is well correlated with interdecadal SST anomalies. At the end of the 1960s the thermocline was on average 10 m shallower than during the beginning of the 1980s, while SST anomalies changed from -0.3C to 0.5C during the same period. The transition from shallow to deep thermocline depths during the mid-1970s is consistent with the change from cold to warm conditions observed at the surface. Changes in the depth of the thermocline base may modify the properties of the subsurface water that feeds the coastal upwelling, with further consequences for the ecosystem of the region.

Pizarro, Oscar; Montecinos, Aldo

2004-10-01

170

The upwelling regime off the West Portuguese Coast, 1941-2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the upwelling regime off west Portugal between 1941 and 2000 was investigated. Monthly averages of the longshore (meridional) wind component at four coastal stations of the Institute for Meteorology were computed and subject to linear regression analysis. Several comparisons were made among stations until a final regression model was reached. The resulting residuals were checked for the presence of red noise, and pairwise correlation coefficients were estimated for residuals of different stations. To complement this study, monthly sea-surface temperature averages were computed for six regions off west Portugal and subject to a similar procedure. In both analyses, it was concluded that the Portuguese upwelling regime has weakened since the 1940s. The waning of the northerly, upwelling-favourable winds was significant throughout the traditional upwelling season (April-September). Sea-surface temperature showed a steady year-round increase from 1941 onwards, in both offshore (+0.002C/year) and coastal (+0.010C/year) regions.

Lemos, Ricardo T.; Pires, Henrique O.

2004-03-01

171

Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the Spring transition along the West Coast of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. In both 1980 and 1981 a large increase in pigment concentration occurs (from 0.5 mg m-3 to >3.0 mg m-3 in 1980 and from 0.3 mg m-3 to >1.5 mg m-3 in 1981). In these years, as well as in 1982, the increase takes place between ?33N and ?41N, but it occurs in a region centered 300 km offshore in 1980 and within 300 km of the coast in 1981 and 1982. These changes are in contrast to 1983 and 1986, when virtually no change in pattern or concentration is associated with the transition. Calculations of light availability and in situ data suggest this region is nutrient limited even in the mid to late winter. Time series of pigment concentration and wind forcing for extended periods before and after the transition date show that increases in concentration are associated with strong wind mixing events prior to the transition and with the onset of southward wind stress (upwelling) at the time of the transition. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

1989-12-01

172

Biomarker pigment signatures in Cochin back water system - A tropical estuary south west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary biomarker pigments around Cochin estuary situated in the southwest coast of India were determined by HPLC. Fucoxanthin, an indicator of diatom was observed to be the most abundant carotenoid pigment in the estuary. Dinoflagellate derived carotenoid pigment peridinin was confined in the southern part of estuary and zeaxanthin pigment indicative of cyanobacteria were more found in sites influenced by anthropogenic activities. One compound having close similarity to fucoxanthin was also detected. Alloxanthin (cryptophyceae), chl b (green algae), canthaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein and peridinin isomer were also detected by spectra and corresponding algal class were identified. The highest concentration of chl a (11.01 ?g g-1) found near to the anthropogenic affected area while the lowest chl a (0.65 ?g g-1) was recorded in industrial area. Degradation products of chl a, such as pheophorbide and pheophytin were observed and principal mode of mechanism of degradation were derived. Higher pheopigments content than chl a, reflects a density trapping of dead cells and early degradation of phytopigments from grazing activities.

Aneeshkumar, N.; Sujatha, C. H.

2012-03-01

173

Distribution and character of upper mesozoic subduction complexes along the west coast of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structurally complex sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive igneous rocks characterize a nearly continuous narrow band along the Pacific coast of North America from Baja California, Mexico to southern Alaska. They occur in two modes: (1) as complexly folded but coherent sequences of graywacke and argillite that locally exhibit blueschist-grade metamorphism, and (2) as melanges containing large blocks of graywacke, chert, volcanic and plutonic rocks, high-grade schist, and limestone in a highly sheared pelitic, cherty, or sandstone matrix. Fossils from the coherent graywacke sequences range in age from late Jurassic to Eocene; fossils from limestone blocks in the melanges range in age from mid-Paleozoic to middle Cretaceous. Fossils from the matrix surrounding the blocks, however, are of Jurassic, Cretaceous, and rarely, Tertiary age, indicating that fossils from the blocks cannot be used to date the time of formation of the melanges. Both the deformation of the graywacke, with accompanying blueschist metamorphism, as well as the formation of the melanges, are believed to be the result of late Mesozoic and early Tertiary subduction. The origin of the melanges, particularly the emplacement of exotic tectonic blocks, is not understood. ?? 1978.

Jones, D. L.; Blake, Jr. , M. C.; Bailey, E. H.; McLaughlin, R. J.

1978-01-01

174

Population structure of the black seabream Spondyliosoma cantharus along the south-west Portuguese coast inferred from otolith chemistry.  

PubMed

The chemistry of black seabream Spondyliosoma cantharus otoliths from three main fishery grounds (Olho, Sagres and Sesimbra) located along c. 400 km of the Portuguese south and west coasts was examined. Element:Ca ratios were determined in whole otoliths and otolith cores of young adult specimens of 2-3 years of age. Using the data from whole otoliths, it was possible to discriminate among S. cantharus from the three fishing grounds with an average accuracy of 91%. Differences among fishing grounds were significant for all element:Ca ratios, and otoliths from Sagres had significantly higher levels of all ratios compared to the other fishing grounds. In contrast, the chemical composition of the otolith core, representative of the larval stage, showed limited variation among the fishing grounds, with an average discrimination accuracy of only 44%, although the Mg:Ca ratio of the otolith cores was also significantly higher for the Sagres samples. The data suggest that larval stages experienced a homogenous environment consistent with an offshore oceanic spawning. Juveniles appeared to display local residency on the inshore fishing grounds, areas probably characterized by greater environmental heterogeneity. Spondyliosoma cantharus population structure is consistent with distinct local population units that share a spawning ground providing recruits to different coastal fishery areas. PMID:22268439

Correia, A T; Gomes, P; Gonalves, J M S; Erzini, K; Hamer, P A

2012-02-01

175

Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.  

PubMed

Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress. PMID:23856298

Pawar, Prabhakar R

2013-07-13

176

Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast.  

PubMed

Measurements (1994-2007) from four cabled-to-shore hydrophone systems located off the North American west coast permit extensive comparisons between "contemporary" low frequency ship traffic noise (25-50 Hz) collected in the past decade to measurements made over 1963-1965 with the same in-water equipment at the same sites. An increase of roughly 10 dB over the band 25-40 Hz at one site has already been reported [Andrew et al., Acoust. Res. Lett. Online 3(2), 65-70 (2002)]. Newly corrected data from the remaining three systems generally corroborate this increase. Simple linear trend lines of the contemporary traffic noise (duration 6 to 12+ years) show that recent levels are slightly increasing, holding steady, or decreasing. These results confirm the prediction by Ross that the rate of increase in traffic noise would be far less at the end of the 20th century compared to that observed in the 1950s and 1960s. PMID:21361423

Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M; Mercer, James A

2011-02-01

177

Lacaziosis and lacaziosis-like prevalence among wild, common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the west coast of Florida, USA.  

PubMed

Lacaziosis (lobomycosis; Lacazia loboi) is a fungal skin disease that naturally occurs only in humans and dolphins. The first reported case of lacaziosis in a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus occurred in 1970 in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA, and subsequent photo-ID monitoring of the Sarasota Bay dolphin population has revealed persistence of the disease. The objectives of this study were to estimate lacaziosis prevalence (P) in 2 bottlenose dolphin populations on the west coast of Florida (Sarasota Bay and Charlotte Harbor) and compare disease occurrence to other published estimates of lacaziosis in dolphin populations across the globe. Historic photographic records of dolphins captured and released for health assessment purposes (Sarasota Bay) and photo-ID studies (Charlotte Harbor) were screened for evidence of lesions consistent with lacaziosis. Health assessment data revealed a prevalence of lacaziosis in the Sarasota Bay bottlenose dolphin population between 2 and 3%, and analyses of photo-ID data provided a lacaziosis-like prevalence estimate of 2% for Charlotte Harbor dolphins. With the exception of lacaziosis prevalence estimates for dolphins inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (P = 0.068; P = 0.12), no statistically significant differences were seen among Sarasota Bay, Charlotte Harbor, and other published estimates. Although lacaziosis is a rare disease among these dolphin populations, studies that assess disease burden among different populations can assist with the surveillance of this zoonotic pathogen. PMID:21797035

Burdett Hart, Leslie; Rotstein, Dave S; Wells, Randall S; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Schwacke, Lori H

2011-05-24

178

The indigenous Sea Gypsy divers of Thailand's west coast: measurement of carbon monoxide in the breathing air.  

PubMed

Approximately 400 indigenous divers live and work on Thailand's west coast. They dive with surface supplied air from primitive compressor units mounted on open boats which measure from seven to 11 meters in length. It was suspected that carbon monoxide was present in the breathing air of at least the gasoline-driven compressor units. To determine the presence of carbon monoxide gas in the breathing air, compressed air from the compressor was pumped through the diver air supply hose through a plenum (monitoring) chamber established on the boat. After a compressor warm-up of 15 minutes, the diving air was measured with the boat at eight different bearings to the wind, each 45 degrees apart at intervals of five minutes. Three of the four gasoline-driven compressor units tested showed presence of carbon monoxide in the breathing air. One diesel-driven unit showed a very low concentration of carbon monoxide (3-4 ppm) and six diesel-driven units showed no detectable carbon monoxide. Although not tested, diesel exhaust emissions could also enter the breathing air by the same route. A locally made modification to the compressor air intake was designed and successfully tested on one gasoline-driven compressor unit. An information sheet on the hazards of carbon monoxide as well as on the modification has been developed for distribution among the villages. PMID:10461405

Gold, D; Geater, A; Aiyarak, S; Juengpraert, W

1999-07-01

179

Health of Chinese illegal immigrants who arrived by boat on the West Coast of Canada in 1999.  

PubMed

This was a retrospective review and descriptive analysis of the findings from the medical screening examinations conducted on the illegal migrants from Fujian Province of China (n = 589) who arrived on four boats on the West Coast of Canada between June 14 and September 9, 1999. The Canadian Navy conducted a screening medical exam of the illegal migrants, with Health Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada providing suggestions on the format of the exam. The illegal Chinese migrants were predominantly young, male adults. The most prevalent medical conditions detected were dermatological (55.2%), dental problems (25%), trauma (9.2%), urogenital (7.6%), and head/neck (6.6%). Recently induced trauma was more prevalent among females (20.5%) than males (6.5%). One case of community-acquired pneumonia was identified and later diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis. Physicians dealing with illegal migrants should look for unusual physical findings and have a higher clinical suspicion regarding infectious diseases (tuberculosis, scabies) and abuse. Future encounters with illegal migrants should include standardized immigration screening exams, with adequate history taking and follow-up. PMID:19813289

Allan, G Michael; Szafran, Olga

2005-10-01

180

Use of drift substrates to characterize marine fungal communities from the west coast of Portugal.  

PubMed

This survey reports the occurrence, diversity and similarity of marine fungi associated with five categories of drift substrates (Arundo donax, Phragmites australis, Spartina maritima, "other stems" and driftwood) collected on four sandy beaches of the western coast of Portugal. "Other stems" and driftwood are composite samples with a variety of identified and unidentified pieces of non-woody and woody substrates respectively. Fifty-six taxa were identified, including 38 Ascomycota and 18 anamorphic fungi. Twenty-six taxa were generalists; however several cases of "substrate recurrence" were identified. The very frequent fungi differed among the categories of studied substrates, with the exception of Corollospora maritima, very frequent on four categories. Except for S. maritima, P. australis and driftwood, cases of multiple fungal colonization were rare. S. maritima was the single substrate with five different marine fungi on one sample, as well as with the highest number of very frequent fungi, highest percentage of colonization and average number of fungi per sample. Driftwood presented the highest value of fungal richness (37 taxa) and A. donax the lowest (22 taxa). ANOSIM analysis of similarity showed that all substrates supported different fungal communities with the exception of the pair P. australis/"other stems". The effect of sample size on estimated fungal richness was tested, and the results let us conclude that, although most of the sporadic fungi (<1% occurrence) will be detected only in a very large number of samples, 60 samples of A. donax and "other stems" and 70 samples of all the other substrates may suffice to assess their respective representative marine mycota. PMID:22241614

Azevedo, Egidia; Rebelo, Rui; Caeiro, Maria Filomena; Barata, Margarida

2012-01-12

181

Observation of Crude Oil Spill Off the West Coast of Korea using TerraSAR-X, ENVISAT ASAR and ALOS PALSAR  

Microsoft Academic Search

On December 7th, 2007, more than 10,000 tons of crude oil from a tanker leaked into the Yellow Sea off the west coast of Korean Peninsula. Several SAR images including TerraSAR-X, ENVISAT ASAR, RADARSAT-1, ERS-2 SAR and ALOS PALSAR were acquired over the contaminated area from oil spill. Observed dark patches in SAR images, due to the presence of oil

Duk-jin Kim; Jinho Kang; Boyeol Yoon; Youn-soo Kim; Yongseung Kim

2008-01-01

182

Characterization of sea\\/land breeze circulation along the west coast of Indian sub-continent during pre-monsoon season  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-resolution Regional Model is used to study the structure and dynamics of Sea\\/Land Breeze Circulation along west coast of Indian Sub-continent during pre-monsoon season. Both the observations from ocean and land are in agreement with the model simulations. From the model simulations, a time delay of 3hours is observed in the onset of sea breeze over ocean and land (?28km

S. Indira Rani; Radhika Ramachandran; D. Bala Subrahamanyam; Denny P. Alappattu; P. K. Kunhikrishnan

2010-01-01

183

Evaluation of a Selective Flatfish Trawl and Diel Variation in Rockfish Catchability as Bycatch Reduction Tools in the Deepwater Complex Fishery off the U.S. West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the potential of a selective flatfish trawl to reduce bycatch of slope rockfish in the upper continental slope bottom-trawl fishery (250500 m) on the U.S. West Coast. The trawl we tested differed from typical slope trawls in that it was a low-rise, two-seam trawl with a severely cut back headrope. We used an alternate haul, randomized block design

Robert W. Hannah; Steven J. Parker; Troy V. Buell

2005-01-01

184

A regional paleolimnological assessment of the impact of clear-cutting on lakes from the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of forest harvesting on lakes within the temperate rainforest on the west coast of Vancouver Island was examined in a paleolimnological study of four lakes that had 35-92% of their watersheds progressively clear-cut over a period of 15-30 years (impact lakes) and four lakes that had experienced little or no known anthropogenic disturbance in their watersheds (reference lakes).

Kathleen Laird; Brian Cumming; Rick Nordin

2001-01-01

185

Brain Tumor Risk in Children in Relation to Use of Electric Blankets and Water Bed Heaters Results from the United States West Coast Childhood Brain Tumor Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possible relation between the occurrence of brain tumors in children and exposure to electric blankets or electrically heated water beds was investigated in a multicenter, population-based case-control study conducted on the West Coast of the United States. Information on maternal exposure during pregnancy or direct exposure to the subject child was collected by in-person interview from the mothers of

Susan Preston-Martin; James G. Gumey; Janice M. Pogoda; Elizabeth A. Holly; Beth A. Mueller

186

Chemical composition of air masses transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT 2K2: Fossil fuel combustion versus biomass-burning signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft was used to study the long-range transport of Asian air masses toward the west coast of North America. During research flights on 5 and 17 May, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were

J. A. de Gouw; O. R. Cooper; C. Warneke; P. K. Hudson; F. C. Fehsenfeld; J. S. Holloway; G. Hbler; D. K. Nicks Jr.; J. B. Nowak; D. D. Parrish; T. B. Ryerson; E. L. Atlas; S. G. Donnelly; S. M. Schauffler; V. Stroud; K. Johnson; G. R. Carmichael; D. G. Streets

2004-01-01

187

Metal Concentrations in Two Bioindicator Fish Species, Merlangius merlangus , Mullus Barbatus , Captured from the West Black Sea Coasts (Bartin) of Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Black Sea is very vulnerable to originating from land based human activities and its health is equally dependent on the\\u000a coastal and non-coastal states of its basin. Total concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminum, iron,\\u000a manganese, boron and chromium concentrations were determined in Merlangius merlangus (whiting) and Mullus barbatus found in Amasra in the West Coast of

. F?nd?k; E. iek

188

LNG risk management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general methodology is presented for conducting an analysis of the various aspects of the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which should be considered during the planning stages of a typical LNG ship terminal. The procedure includes the performance of a hazards and system analysis of the proposed site, a probability analysis of

Paul Martino

1980-01-01

189

Observational evidence from direct current measurements for propagation of remotely forced waves on the shelf off the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use data from six Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) moorings deployed during March-September 2008 on the continental shelf and slope off Bhatkal, Goa, and Jaigarh on the central west coast of India to present evidence for poleward propagation of shelf or coastal-trapped waves (CTWs). Wave propagation is seen on the shelf in the 20-40-day, 10-14-day, and 3-5-day-period bands. The lag from south to north indicates that remote forcing is important even at periods as short as 4 days. Using QuikSCAT wind data, we show that the contribution of remote forcing to the shelf West Indian Coastal Current (WICC) is significant even when the local alongshore wind is strong, as during the summer-monsoon onset during May-June, and forces a strong local response that masks the effect of remote forcing. Forced wave calculations using CTW theory show that remote forcing of the WICC is present at all times, but is most striking when the local winds are weak, as during March-April. The CTW calculations show that the source region for the remote forcing may extend beyond the west coast into the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka. On the slope, propagation is seen only at the 4-day period. At higher periods, the slope WICC decorrelates rapidly along the coast, but upward phase propagation, implying downward propagation of energy associated with poleward propagation, is evident even at these higher periods.

Amol, P.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, S. G.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Fernando, V.; Shetye, S. R.; Mukherjee, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Khalap, S.; Satelkar, N. P.

2012-05-01

190

Sclerochronology of Holocene oyster shells (Crassostrea gigas) from the West Coast of Bohai Sea, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sclerochronology, the study of periodic increments in skeletal organisms, can decipher the life history and environmental records preserved in fossil shells. Although there have been a number of studies that apply isotopic analyses to shells in open ocean and fresh water, investigations for brackish environments are rare. One of the common inhabitants in estuaries is the Crassostrea oyster. Kirby et al. (1998) demonstrated a close correspondence between the ligamental increments of convex and concave bands and yearly ^18O cycles; Andrus and Crowe (2000) found a close correspondence between translucent growth bands on the cross-section of the hinge and yearly ^18O cycles. They conclude that the morphological features on hinge and growth bands on the cross-section are formed annually and can be used to determine accurately age and growth rate in this species. However, Surge et al. (2001) could not find that these morphologic features have seasonal significance in the C. virginica shells. Therefore, these concave ridges are not reliable independent proxies of seasonality. These studies were carried out with C. virginica shells; none was studied with nature C. gigas, which was widely distributed along the Pacific coastal area. C. gigas has been introduced from its native home to all over the world, ranging from North America to Australia and Europe; it has become an important commercial harvest in many of these places. Buried Holocene oyster shells of C. gigas were sampled from a huge buried oyster reef on the West of Bohai Sea, China. One of these shells was selected for high resolution micro-sampling and stable isotope analyses testing the assumption that C. gigas ligamental increments are annual in nature. We analyzed 236 consecutive samples from the shell to show that morphologic features both on hinge and cross-section are annual by comparing them to the ^18O profiles. We tested the assumption that the morphologic features of C.gigas are delineated by convex tops and concave bottoms on hinge and corresponding translucent growth bands on cross-section. The shell has 13.5 ligamental increments, based on 13.5 convex bands and 13 concave bottoms on hinge. Convex tops correspond to ^18O minima (summers), whereas concave bottoms correspond to ^18O maxima, which were formed during the low temperature of winter in the study area. We demonstrate that the ligamental increments of convex tops, concave bottoms and translucent growth bands in the studied C. gigas shell are suitable indicators of annual growth increments. The life spans, growth rates, and the timing of death can be determined from the ligament increments and isotope profiles of buried oyster shells.

Fan, C.; Koeniger, P.; Wang, H.; Frechen, M.

2009-04-01

191

Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 500 to 20,000 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between 25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

2013-08-01

192

Estimation of atmospheric surface layer parameters and numerical simulation using MM5 at Mangalore, West Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric surface layer meteorological observations obtained from 20-m-high meteorological tower at Mangalore, situated along the west coast of India are used to estimate the surface layer scaling parameters of roughness length ( z o) and drag coefficient ( C D), surface layer fluxes of sensible heat and momentum. These parameters are computed using the simple flux-profile relationships under the framework of Monin-Obukhov (M-O) similarity theory. The estimated values of z o are higher (1.35-1.54 m) than the values reported in the literature (>0.4-0.9 m) probably due to the undulating topography surrounding the location. The magnitude of C D is high for low wind speed (<1.5 m s-1) and found to be in the range 0.005-0.03. The variations of sensible heat fluxes (SHF) and momentum fluxes are also discussed. Relatively high fluxes of heat and momentum are observed during typical days on 26-27 February 2004 and 10-11 April 2004 due to the daytime unstable atmospheric conditions. Stable or near neutral conditions prevail after 1700 h IST with negative SHF. A mesoscale model PSU/NCAR MM5 is run using a high-resolution (1 km) grid over the study region to examine the influence of complex topography on the surface layer parameters and the simulated fluxes are compared with estimated values. Spatial variations of the frictional velocity ( u *), C D, surface fluxes, planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and surface winds are noticed according to the topographic variations in the simulation.

Hegde, Anitha Kumari; Venkatesan, R.; Srinivas, C. V.; Balakrishna, K. M.

2010-08-01

193

Bacterial production, glucosidase activity and particle-associated carbohydrates in Dona Paula bay, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size-fractionated bacterial production, abundance and ?- and ?- glucosidase enzyme activities were studied with respect to changes in hydrography, total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen ratio (POC:PON), 1.5 M NaCl-soluble and 10 mM EDTA-soluble carbohydrates (Sal-PCHO and CPCHO) and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) in the surface waters from July 1999-2000 at a shallow coastal station in Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India. The bulk of the total bacterial production and glucosidase activity were associated with particles (75% and >80%, respectively). Total bacterial production was linearly correlated to chlorophyll a ( r = 0.513; p < 0.05) whereas enzyme activity was significantly correlated to TSM (?-glucosidase: r = 0.721 ( p < 0.001); ?-glucosidase: r = 0.596 ( p < 0.01)). Both ?-glucosidase ( r = 0.514; p < 0.05) and ?-glucosidase enzymes ( r = 0.598; p < 0.01) appeared to be involved in the degradation of CPCHO and Sal-PCHO, respectively. Changes in ?-glucosidase/?-glucosidase ratios highlighted the varying composition of particulate organic matter. The bacterial uptake of 14C-labeled bacterial extracellular carbohydrate measured over 11 days showed a strong linear correlation between 14C-uptake and bacterial production using tritiated thymidine. The turnover rate of 14C-labeled carbohydrate-C was 0.52 d -1, higher than the estimated annual mean potential carbohydrate carbon turnover rate of 0.33 0.2 d -1. Our study suggests that carbohydrates derived from sediments may serve as an important alternative carbon source sustaining the bacterial carbon demand in the surface waters of Dona Paula Bay.

Bhaskar, P. V.; Bhosle, N. B.

2008-11-01

194

Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Nio-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play significant roles in flatfish distribution.

Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

2013-07-01

195

A comparative study of US EPA 1996 and 1999 emission inventories in the west Gulf of Mexico coast region, USA.  

PubMed

Emission inventory is one of the required inputs to air quality models. To assist in the urban and regional modeling efforts, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criterion pollutants, and the precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM). In December 2002, EPA released the 1999 NEI estimates (NEI99), which represent the most recent national emission data. However, the data sets are not in model-ready format for air quality simulations. This present work converts the NEI99 Final Version 2 data sets into Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format and processes the data using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling system to generate a gridded emission inventory in a domain covering the west Gulf Coast Region, USA. The spatial and diurnal emission characteristics of the gridded emission inventories are then assessed and compared with those of the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96). The NEI99 database contains more complete emission records in both area and point sources. It is also found that NEI99 data exhibit greater emissions with respect to point and mobile sources but smaller emissions with respect to area sources when compared to the corresponding gridded NET96 data in the same study domain. The most distinct differences between the NEI99 and NET96 databases are CO emission of mobile sources, SO2 emissions of point sources, and VOC/PM/NH3/NOx emissions of area and non-road sources. The gridded NEI99 data show low VOC/NOx ratios (<2-5) in the urban areas of the study domain. PMID:15945131

Lin, Che-Jen; Ho, Thomas C; Chu, Hsing-wei; Yang, Heng; Mojica, Martha J; Krishnarajanagar, Nagesh; Chiou, Paul; Hopper, Jack R

2005-06-01

196

Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in ``West-to-east pipeline gas'' in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

2006-04-01

197

Constraining regional scale carbon budgets at the US West Coast using a high-resolution atmospheric inverse modeling approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study presented is embedded within the NACP (North American Carbon Program) West Coast project ORCA2, which aims at determining the regional carbon balance of the US states Oregon, California and Washington. Our work specifically focuses on the effect of disturbance history and climate variability, aiming at improving our understanding of e.g. drought stress and stand age on carbon sources and sinks in complex terrain with fine-scale variability in land cover types. The ORCA2 atmospheric inverse modeling approach has been set up to capture flux variability on the regional scale at high temporal and spatial resolution. Atmospheric transport is simulated coupling the mesoscale model WRF (Weather Research and Forecast) with the STILT (Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport) footprint model. This setup allows identifying sources and sinks that influence atmospheric observations with highly resolved mass transport fields and realistic turbulent mixing. Terrestrial biosphere carbon fluxes are simulated at spatial resolutions of up to 1km and subdaily timesteps, considering effects of ecoregion, land cover type and disturbance regime on the carbon budgets. Our approach assimilates high-precision atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements and eddy-covariance data from several sites throughout the model domain, as well as high-resolution remote sensing products (e.g. LandSat, MODIS) and interpolated surface meteorology (DayMet, SOGS, PRISM). We present top-down modeling results that have been optimized using Bayesian inversion, reflecting the information on regional scale carbon processes provided by the network of high-precision CO2 observations. We address the level of detail (e.g. spatial and temporal resolution) that can be resolved by top-down modeling on the regional scale, given the uncertainties introduced by various sources for model-data mismatch. Our results demonstrate the importance of accurate modeling of carbon-water coupling, with the representation of water availability and drought stress playing a dominant role to capture spatially variable CO2 exchange rates in a region characterized by strong climatic gradients.

Goeckede, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Vickers, D.; Turner, D.; Law, B.

2009-04-01

198

Benthic fish and invertebrate assemblages within the National Marine Fisheries Service US west coast triennial bottom trawl survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This project sought to derive the ecological boundaries within a bottom trawl survey by treating benthic fish and invertebrate species as biological indicators in assemblage analyses. A secondary goal was to determine if these ecological boundaries match the strata boundaries of the bottom trawl survey. Most fishery-independent bottom trawl surveys are driven by management needs for relative biomass estimation of commercial stocks within certain strata, and the strata boundaries are often abiotic features such as political borders, capes and submarine canyons, or arbitrary depths. However, these surveys also generate a great deal of under-utilized datasuch as the abundance of non-commercial benthic species and the occurrence of size-groups of commercial speciesthat can be used for defining ecological boundaries that are independent of the strata boundaries. For an example data set, this analysis used the National Marine Fisheries Service US west coast bottom trawl survey, which has sampled the same 610 stations in three surveys (1995, 1998, and 2001). This analysis determined the geographic extent of three biologically distinct assemblages which occurred in a total of 9 analyses across three bottom trawl surveys and across three assemblage analysis methods: hierarchical clustering, detrended correspondence analysis (DCA), and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). Most trawl survey stations were consistently grouped into the same assemblage in a majority of the 9 analyses, indicating that the assemblages were stable with respect to time and to interpretation from the different assemblage analyses. Kriging on the percent agreement of the 9 analyses at each station defined boundaries of agreement (edges of assemblages), areas of disagreement (transition zones between assemblages), and clear differences from the arbitrary latitude/depth bottom trawl survey stratification scheme. The temporal and statistical consistency, and the geographical continuity of the assemblages, along with significant differences in depth and bottom water temperature among assemblages, indicated the utility of using benthic species for deriving the number and geographic extent of ecological boundaries within the bottom trawl survey area.

Zimmermann, Mark

2006-06-01

199

Aspects of the biology of the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei (Proscylliidae: Carcharhiniformes) from the south-west coast of India.  

PubMed

Biological data are presented for the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea off the south-west coast of India. A total of 549 individuals, from 101 to 257 mm total length (L(T)) and 22 to 56 g, were collected. The L(T) at first maturity (L(T50)) of females and males was estimated at 183 and 170 mm, respectively, and analysis of stomach contents revealed that E. radcliffei feeds primarily on crustaceans. PMID:22880745

Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Pillai, N G K

2012-07-16

200

Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the principal period of breeding activity, but there was no difference between the sexes in daily travel rate during the winter. The timing of seasonal migrations differed markedly between geographic regions. Most long-distance movements in the southern half of the study area occurred between November and March in response to changing temperatures, whereas most migrations in the northern region took place during the warmer, non-winter months. Manatees left their warm-season range in central Florida in response to cold fronts that dropped water temperatures by an average of 2.0??C over the 24-hr period preceding departure. Water temperature at departure from the warm-season range averaged 19??C, but varied among individuals (16-22??C) and was not related to body size or female reproductive status. The presence of industrial warm-water effluents permitted many manatees to overwinter north of their historic winter range, and for some migrants this delayed autumn migrations and facilitated earlier spring migrations. Southward autumn and northward spring migrations lasted an average of 10 and 15 days at mean rates of 33.5 (SD = 7.6) and 27.3 (SD = 10.5) km/day, respectively. The highest rate of travel during migration was 87 km/day (3.6 km/hr) during winter. Manatees overwintering in southeastern Florida often traveled north during mild weather - sometimes reaching their warm-season range - only to return south again with the next major cold front. Manatees were consistent in their seasonal movement patterns across years and showed strong fidelity, to warm-season and winter ranges. Within a season, individuals usually occupied only 1 or 2 core use areas that encompassed about 90% of daily locations. Most manatees returned faithfully to the same seasonal ranges year after year (median distance between range centers was <5 km between years). Seasonal movements of 4 immature manatees tracked as calves with their mothers

Deutsch, C. J.; Reid, J. P.; Bonde, R. K.; Easton, D. E.; Kochman, H. I.; O'Shea, T. J.

2003-01-01

201

50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

Fishing by vessels of Canada under the 1981 Treaty Between the Government of the United States of America and the Government of Canada on Pacific Coast Albacore Tuna Vessels and Port Privileges is regulated only under this section and §...

2012-10-01

202

The impact of different hydrographic conditions and zooplankton communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composition and abundance of zooplankton were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks (Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. Zooplankton was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Srkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the

Slawomir Kwasniewski; Marta Gluchowska; Dariusz Jakubas; Katarzyna Wojczulanis-Jakubas; Wojciech Walkusz; Nina Karnovsky; Katarzyna Blachowiak-Samolyk; Malgorzata Cisek; Lech Stempniewicz

2010-01-01

203

Paleo-tsunami and land-level change evidence from the west coast of South Andaman, Andman Nicobar Island, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, Mw 9.3 provided an ideal opportunity to understand the pattern of paleoseismic event and paleo-tsunami deposition in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The present investigation carried out along the west coast of Andaman Island around Collinpur village (N113956.9 and E924431.3) revealed excellent evidences pointing towards land-level change and tsunami deposition during recent historic past. Sedimentary records studied from the geo-slicer and trench sections collected along transect across stable beach ridges and swales between the ridges (N1141'38?, E9235'52?) revealed distinct change in depositional environments which have been attributed to tectonic activity. In total we excavated 4 trenches and collected 9 geo-slicer sections. We present here our preliminary results and interpretations. Based on sedimentary structures, grain size and nature of contact and colour, sedimentary units from the trenches and geoslicers were classified into seven units (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) from bottom to top. The bottom most unit a is marked by poor laminations of fine silty-sand and peaty material suggestive of inter-tidal to marshy environment. This is overlain by 30 cm thick unit b - comprising coarse sand with gravel fragments (corals, shells, rock clasts etc.) in the swale and coarse sandy deposits along with broken shells, peaty material and rip-up clasts of underlying soil on the back-limb of the beach ridge. The sharp-erosive contact with the underlying and overlying sedimentary unit, distinct variation in grain marked assorted fragments, broken shell; peaty material suggests deposition by tsunami wave during recent geological past. Overlying unit c marked by partially developed peaty layer suggests marshy environment at or above mean sea level indicative of a probable uplift (?) which occurred during Event I accompanied with tsunami waves. Unit d with finer deposits comprised of silty-clay suggests deposition under sub-tidal environment; change of depositional environment from marshy to sub-tidal suggests subsidence - Event II. Thick silty-sand unit (unit e) and overlying humic soil (unit f) indicates land-level change. Based on the change in sediment grain size and well develop humic soil it is suggested that the uplift was gradual during inter-seismic period. Unit g shows yellowish medium to coarse sand with prominent laminations at the basal part and sharp contact with the underlying humic soil (unit f). This unit marks the deposition by recent tsunami generated by 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquakes. Marginal coseismic subsidence probably occurred during this event - Event II. AMS ages obtained from the peaty material, charcoal, wood from the geo-slice and trench sections suggests that Event I marked by tsunami deposits occurred at around 1200-1300 AD; Event II marked by subsidence occurred somewhere during 1300-1800 AD. It is inferred that the gradual uplift during inter-seismic period occurred between 1800 and 2000 AD. Finally the area marginally subsided during 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake along with deposition of tsunami sediments.

Malik, Javed; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Shishikura, M.

2010-05-01

204

LNG annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

1982-09-01

205

Storage metabolism in the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in relation to summer mortalities and reproductive cycle (West Coast of France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of digestive gland, adductor muscle and gonad and surrounding mantle area in Crassostrea gigas from the Western Atlantic coast of France. Seasonality in histology of storage tissues and glycogen storage capacity in isolated vesicular cells were also studied. Proteins, the main muscle components did not contribute to the gametogenetic effort. Glycogen and

Clothilde Berthelin; Kristell Kellner; Michel Mathieu

2000-01-01

206

Radar-derived bed roughness characterization of Institute and Mller ice streams, West Antarctica, and comparison with Siple Coast ice streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subglacial bed conditions exert a significant control on ice stream behavior and evolution, and can be characterized by determining bed roughness from FFT analysis of radar-imaged basal reflectors. Here we assess bed roughness across Institute and Mller ice streams, West Antarctica, and compare our findings with bed roughness determined across the Siple Coast ice streams. We find that variations in bed roughness are spatially organized, and attribute this to the varying efficacy of subglacial erosion and deposition, with rougher (inland, slow-flowing) regions largely manifesting preglacial topography, and smoother (downstream, fast-flowing) regions evincing significant postglacial modification to the subglacial landscape. The observed similarities between bed roughness characteristics of IIS/MIS and the Siple ice streams suggest that IIS and MIS are largely underlain by wet, poorly consolidated sediments, and may therefore be vulnerable to the types of dynamical instabilities experienced by the Siple ice streams.

Bingham, Robert G.; Siegert, Martin J.

2007-11-01

207

Determination of in situ biomass and energetics in seagrass beds on the west coast of Florida. Topical report, May 1982-January 1984  

SciTech Connect

The Gulf Coastal region of Florida supports extensive grass beds that almost continuously cover the shallow (1-5m) depths from Apalachicola Bay to Anclote Bay and in Tampa Bay. Attached and drift benthic seaweeds occur as well and may have higher energetic yields than the seagrasses. The shallow and continuous beds offer a possible source for plant biomass use in methane production, if sufficient material is available throughout the year and the energetics are high enough. Triweekly samplings at three sites around Tampa Bay and bimonthly samplings at four sites along the west coast of Florida showed highest biomass occurring during the spring through fall months. The available biomass of combined attached and drift seagrasses and seaweeds was lower than that predicted when compared with terrestrial crops. Naturally occurring seagrass and seaweed beds do not have sufficient biomass to justify harvesting for biogass production, although energetics levels are high.

Dawes, C.J.

1984-01-01

208

November 2009 tropical cyclone Phyan in the eastern Arabian Sea: Oceanic response along west India coast and Kavaratti lagoon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial and temporal response of the coastal waters of eastern Arabian Sea (AS) and Kavaratti lagoon to the tropical cyclonic storm `Phyan', which developed in the southeastern AS and swept northward along the eastern AS during 9-12 November 2009 and finally made landfall at the northwest coast of India, is examined based on time-series measurements of sea-surface wind (U10), gust,

Antony Joseph; R. G. Prabhudesai; Prakash Mehra; Vijay Kumar; Yogesh Agarwadekar; Luis Ryan; Pradhan Rivankar; Blossom Viegas

2010-01-01

209

Aspects of the structure on the coast of the West Greenland volcanic province revealed in seismic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal structure in central West Greenland is expressed by Palaeogene basalts which show pronounced seaward dip. Traced along strike the tilted basalts occur in two segments, separated by an area in which dips are low. Within these segments the lavas have been displaced by extensional faults with strike parallel to the strike of the lavas and dip and downthrow

NINA SKAARUP; T. CHRISTOPHER R. PULVERTAFT

210

Using Multi-Scenario Tsunami Modelling Results combined with Probabilistic Analyses to provide Hazard Information for the South-WestCoast of Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia is located at one of the most active geological subduction zones in the world. Following the most recent seaquakes and their subsequent tsunamis in December 2004 and July 2006 it is expected that also in the near future tsunamis are likely to occur due to increased tectonic tensions leading to abrupt vertical seafloor alterations after a century of relative tectonic silence. To face this devastating threat tsunami hazard maps are very important as base for evacuation planning and mitigation strategies. In terms of a tsunami impact the hazard assessment is mostly covered by numerical modelling because the model results normally offer the most precise database for a hazard analysis as they include spatially distributed data and their influence to the hydraulic dynamics. Generally a model result gives a probability for the intensity distribution of a tsunami at the coast (or run up) and the spatial distribution of the maximum inundation area depending on the location and magnitude of the tsunami source used. The boundary condition of the source used for the model is mostly chosen by a worst case approach. Hence the location and magnitude which are likely to occur and which are assumed to generate the worst impact are used to predict the impact at a specific area. But for a tsunami hazard assessment covering a large coastal area, as it is demanded in the GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project in which the present work is embedded, this approach is not practicable because a lot of tsunami sources can cause an impact at the coast and must be considered. Thus a multi-scenario tsunami model approach is developed to provide a reliable hazard assessment covering large areas. For the Indonesian Early Warning System many tsunami scenarios were modelled by the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) at different probable tsunami sources and with different magnitudes along the Sunda Trench. Every modelled scenario delivers the spatial distribution of the inundation for a specific area, the wave height at coast at this area and the estimated times of arrival (ETAs) of the waves, caused by one tsunamigenic source with a specific magnitude. These parameters from the several scenarios can overlap each other along the coast and must be combined to get one comprehensive hazard assessment for all possible future tsunamis at the region under observation. The simplest way to derive the inundation probability along the coast using the multiscenario approach is to overlay all scenario inundation results and to determine how often a point on land will be significantly inundated from the various scenarios. But this does not take into account that the used tsunamigenic sources for the modeled scenarios have different likelihoods of causing a tsunami. Hence a statistical analysis of historical data and geophysical investigation results based on numerical modelling results is added to the hazard assessment, which clearly improves the significance of the hazard assessment. For this purpose the present method is developed and contains a complex logical combination of the diverse probabilities assessed like probability of occurrence for different earthquake magnitudes at different localities, probability of occurrence for a specific wave height at the coast and the probability for every point on land likely to get hit by a tsunami. The values are combined by a logical tree technique and quantified by statistical analysis of historical data and of the tsunami modelling results as mentioned before. This results in a tsunami inundation probability map covering the South West Coast of Indonesia which nevertheless shows a significant spatial diversity offering a good base for evacuation planning and mitigation strategies. Keywords: tsunami hazard assessment, tsunami modelling, probabilistic analysis, early warning

Zosseder, K.; Post, J.; Steinmetz, T.; Wegscheider, S.; Strunz, G.

2009-04-01

211

Temporal Variations And Lateral Profiles Of Volatile Organic Compounds (voc) In The Breeze Front Of The Portugal West Coast During Summer Period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this study was the evaluation of diurnal variation and regional dis- tribution patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the breeze front of the Por- tugal West Coast aiming to access an air quality situation and to provide a database for regional biogenic/anthropogenic air pollution modelling. Simultaneously to hydro- carbons analysis, ozone and NOx concentrations were determined in order to estimate the eventual contribution of photochemical oxidation to the variation of unstable VOC. The measurements of C2-C10 hydrocarbons were carried out from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. at three locations along the wind direction (from coast to continental - about 70 km inside) in the period of June 25 U July 2, 2001.In some experiments in order to access the vertical concentration profile the simultaneous analysis of C5 U C10 hydrocar- bons have been carried out using a tethered balloon measurement system at 200 m altitude. Air samples for C2 U C5 hydrocarbons were collected in evacuated stainless steel electropolished canisters equipped with a single Nupro SS4H metal-below sealed shut-off valve. The canister samples were quantitatively analysed by a GC/FID. The hydrocarbons compounds in the C5 U C10 range were collected in stainless Tenax TA/Carbotrap multisorbent tubes. The thermal desorption/GC/FID detection method was used for the analysis. The identification of VOC was performed by GC/MS. It was observed out that the concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons such as isoprene and terpenes increased gradually along the coast-to-continental direction reflecting the natural contribution of forest canopies. Maximal concentrations of these hydrocarbons were registered from 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. In contrast to isoprene and terpenes, the concen- tration variation of C2-C5 hydrocarbons showed clearly negative horizontal gradient distribution reaching minimal values at the farthest point from the coast. For these VOCs the maximal concentration levels were achieved within period from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. Very similar temporal and horizontal concentration profiles were registered for aromatic VOC (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes). The analysis of vertical variation of C5 U C10 hydrocarbon concentrations indicated increase with altitude (at least up to 200 m).

Evtiouguina, M.; Nunes, T.; Pio, C.

212

Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial indicators in relation to tidal variations were studied at five locations for over 2days covering three tidal cycles\\u000a in the southwestern region of Gulf of Kachchh, India. Tidal flow here is predominantly in the east west direction and can\\u000a transport particles up to 32km. Tidal amplitude appears to play a prominent role in abundance, distribution, and dispersal\\u000a of coliform

Chellandi Mohandass; S. Jaya Kumar; N. Ramaiah; P. Vethamony

2010-01-01

213

California offshore LNG port feasible  

Microsoft Academic Search

An offshore facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been declared technologically and economically feasible by the California Coastal Commission, which is also charged with selecting the best onshore site. The Commission chose an offshore site in Ventura County on the basis of its remoteness and fewer potential environmental impacts. An offshore LNG terminal is estimated to cost in the

Murnane

1978-01-01

214

Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast of Arabian Sea during Indian summer monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over the coast of Arabian Sea, Goa (1521'N, 7351'E) in India. These observations were collected, in association with the surface layer turbulent parameters for the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX). In the summer monsoon period, concentration of CO2 was in the range of 550-790 mg m - 3 whereas the water vapour was in the range of 17.5-24.5 g m - 3. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has been performed on these observations to investigate the spectral behaviour of CO2 and water vapour. The relation between CO2 and water vapour on various atmospheric scales has been proposed. CO2 and water vapour observations confirmed the existence of periodicities of large (11, 8 days), meso (5 days) and micrometeorological (20 min) scales.

Dharmaraj, T.; Patil, M. N.; Waghmare, R. T.; Ernest Raj, P.

2012-08-01

215

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

2013-01-01

216

Refining Glacial Isostatic Adjustment Models in Northern Canada: Implications for Ice Sheet History, Sea-Level Change, and Land Emergence Along the West Coast of Hudson Bay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former Laurentide ice sheet was centred over Hudson Bay, and the region is therefore important for studies of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) that aim to constrain both the ice sheet history and Earth rheology. The west coast of Hudson Bay has low topographic relief, and following deglaciation, much of this region was submerged as ocean entered the still isostatically depressed area. During and following deglaciation, the land rose and relative sea-level (RSL) fell. Relatively few (6) constraining RSL observations were available for the region surrounding Arviat, Nunavut, on the west coast of Hudson Bay, before the commencement of this study. Data for the Late Holocene were almost lacking. We present a better-constrained RSL curve for Arviat, which has an additional 10 radiocarbon ages. Ages on marine shells and algae, and on terrestrial material, constrain the lower and upper limits of RSL, respectively. With other available regional RSL observations, it is used to adjust GIA models in the area. Our reference GIA model is the ICE-5G ice sheet reconstruction, and an Earth model with a 90 km thick elastic lithosphere and a model viscosity profile that approximates VM2. Our GIA calculation includes a time-dependent and gravitationally consistent ocean load, an effect of particular importance for locations proximal to the former ice sheet-ocean margin, such as Hudson Bay. The ICE-5G/VM2 reference model predicts RSL change over much of the Arctic that is in reasonable agreement with observations; however, there are localized regions of misfit. For example, RSL change at Arviat is overpredicted by approximately 70 metres at 7 kyr BP. Preliminary modifications to the ice sheet history suggest that the thickness of ICE-5G in the area may need to be reduced by up to one-third in order to fit the RSL data, which is generally consistent with space geodetic constraints discussed by Argus and Peltier (2010). Predictions of a GIA model that fits the Arviat RSL data suggest that peak ocean inundation extended 250-300 km inland from the present-day coastline and occurred at approximately 8 kyr BP, consistent with available observations pertaining to the marine limit. We first focus on modifying ICE-5G to fit the direct constraints provided by the RSL data from Arviat. These modifications may require subsequent adjustments to ICE-5G over a broader region in the Arctic in order to maintain agreement between model predictions and available RSL data. This modelling study thus forms part of a larger effort to improve GIA predictions in the Canadian North.

Simon, K. M.; James, T. S.; Dyke, A.; Forbes, D. L.

2011-12-01

217

SEABIRDS OFF THE SOUTHWESTERN COAST OF AFRICA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summerhayes, C. P., Hofmeyr. P. K. & Rioux, R. H. 1974. Seabirds off the southwestern coast of Africa. Ostrich 45: 83109.The distribution of seabirds off the southwestern coast of Africa was observed during April. May and November, and observed south of Africa in March. Most seabirds off the west coast were concentrated near to the coast or over the edge

C. P. Summerhayes; P. K. Hofmeyr; Raymond H. Rioux

1974-01-01

218

Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India).  

PubMed

Bacterial indicators in relation to tidal variations were studied at five locations for over 2 days covering three tidal cycles in the southwestern region of Gulf of Kachchh, India. Tidal flow here is predominantly in the east west direction and can transport particles up to 32 km. Tidal amplitude appears to play a prominent role in abundance, distribution, and dispersal of coliform bacteria examined during this study. Shallow depths, clayey sediments, strong currents, and higher tidal amplitudes appear to rise by an order of magnitude in total bacterial abundance up to 2.4 x 10(4) ml(-1) due to their resuspension from the churned up sediments. Dispersal of allochthonous microflora far into coastal marine regions appears to be governed by the strong tidal amplitude in this region. PMID:19876750

Mohandass, Chellandi; Kumar, S Jaya; Ramaiah, N; Vethamony, P

2009-10-30

219

Observations, Analysis and Modeling of the Tohoku Tsunami in the Far-Field: US West Coast and New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe observations, analysis and modeling of the March 11, 2001 Tohoku tsunami in the far field based on field surveys conducted immediately after the event. In California, significant damage occurred in Crescent City and Santa Cruz harbors with moderate to minor damage at maritime facilities throughout the state. The largest surges coincided with low tide, however, tsunami effects persisted through the day and the highest water levels were recorded at high tide 16 - 22 hours later. New Zealand experienced similar effects; several docks and boats were damaged at Tutukaka Marina with some significant overland flooding at Port Charles. Strong currents, surges and broken mooring lines were observed at other locations and persisted throughout the tide cycle. Tide gauge records from California and New Zealand were analyzed for spectral content. Spectral analysis of tide gauge records from the event showed the long duration of the tsunami in the far-field. Preliminary results show clearly the difference in tsunami duration for open coast versus locations in natural or man made harbors. The spectral content of the tsunami signal as recorded on opposite corners of the Pacific Ocean is compared for this event and the 2010 Chilean tsunami.

Borrero, J. C.; Greer, S. D.; Pickett, V.; Bell, R.; Lynett, P. J.; Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M. R.; Dengler, L.; Wilson, R. I.

2011-12-01

220

Hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas a year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In marine bivalves, hemocytes support various physiological functions, including immune defense, nutrient transport, shell repair, and homeostatic maintenance. Although the effects of marine contaminants on the immunological functions of bivalves have been extensively investigated, the impacts of oil spills are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas 13 months after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (December 2007) off the west coast of Korea. The parameters studied included hemocyte concentration and mortality, relative proportion of hemocyte populations, and immunological functions such as phagocytosis and oxidative activity using flow cytometry. These immune-related parameters in oysters damaged by the oil spill were also compared to control oysters that were collected from an area unaffected by the spill. The flow cytometry study indicated that granulocyte population, phagocytic capacity, and reactive oxygen species production in oysters exposed to crude oil 13 months prior were depressed compared to the unexposed control oysters. Our data suggest that immunocompetence in oysters affected by the oil spill had not fully recovered 1 year after the accident, although more detailed studies on the physiology and disease resistance should be performed.

Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jun, Je-Cheon; Park, Young-Je; Choi, Kwang-Sik

2010-12-01

221

Metal concentrations in two bioindicator fish species, Merlangius merlangus, Mullus Barbatus, captured from the West Black Sea coasts (Bartin) of Turkey.  

PubMed

The Black Sea is very vulnerable to originating from land based human activities and its health is equally dependent on the coastal and non-coastal states of its basin. Total concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminum, iron, manganese, boron and chromium concentrations were determined in Merlangius merlangus (whiting) and Mullus barbatus found in Amasra in the West Coast of the Black Sea (Turkey). The metal contents that were measured in head and muscle was expressed in ?g g(-1) wet weight. On average, while the highest Fe (344.25 ?g g(-1)), Mn (10.35 ?g g(-1)), Cr (0.96 ?g g(-1)) and Al (76.77 ?g g(-1)) concentrations were measured in the heads of M. merlangus and the highest Zn (77.99 ?g g(-1)), Cu(8.53 ?g g(-1)), B (44.83 ?g g(-1)), Ni (1.96 ?g g(-1)), Cd (0.40 ?g g(-1)) and Pb (6.80 ?g g(-1)) concentrations were detected in the muscles of M. merlangus. There were significant differences between metal levels of muscles in these two species. In terms of permissible levels reported by WHO FAO and TSE, there is not any risk for human consumption for both M. merlangus and M. barbatus, for Pb. PMID:21785875

F?nd?k, ; iek, E

2011-07-23

222

Changes in groundwater levels or pressures associated with the 2004 earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra (M9.0)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Associated with the 2004 earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra, changes in groundwater levels or pressures were observed at many observation stations in Japan which are more than 5000 km from the hypocenter. At 38 of the 45 observation stations, there were changes in groundwater levels or pressures. At the 10 observation stations in which the Ishii-type borehole strain instruments were established, changes in crustal strains were also observed. A major part of the changes in crustal strains and groundwater levels or pressures were dynamic oscillations due to a seismic wave. At some stations, coseismic or postseismic rises or drops were also observed. At five stations where both crustal stain and groundwater levels or pressures were observed, postseismic changes in groundwater levels or pressures were consistent with coseismic static steps in crustal strains. At the other five stations, postseismic changes in groundwater levels or pressures did not agree with the coseismic static steps. At two stations of these five stations, it is anticipated that the pore water pressure change in each aquifer locally occurred independently of the change in crustal strain. At another station, postseismic changes in groundwater level possessed the same characteristics as a model removing the temporary deposition. At the last two stations, the causes of the changes are unknown.

Kitagawa, Y.; Koizumi, N.; Takahashi, M.; Matsumoto, N.; Sato, T.

2006-02-01

223

Upwelling filaments and motion of a satellite-tracked drifter along the west coast of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An Argos-tracked surface buoy deployed off Vancouver Island in July 1984 reached Hawaii in July 1985. We present an analysis of the drifter track with particular emphasis on the equatorward leg seaward of the North American coast for the period July-December 1984. A low-pass filter is used to separate motions into mean and fluctuating components. The mean track was consistently to the right of the direction expected according to the climatological geopotential topography relative to 1000 dbar, and the average southward drift speed of 0.20 m s-1 exceeded the mean geopotential flow speed by a factor of 2-3. On the basis of 1 year of drifter positions we estimate that surface waters complete one circuit of the North Pacific Gyre in 4-5 years. The amplitudes of the mesoscale buoy displacements about the mean path were approximately 43 10 km, and the root-mean-square drift speed was 0.32 0.18 m s-1. Motions at tidal and near-inertial frequencies were negligible. From August to October the buoy paralleled a major upwelling regime centered off northern California. During this period the track underwent five sinuous zonal perturbations with characteristic amplitudes of approximately 50 km. Two of the perturbations were associated with abrupt temperature drops of 3C and maximum seaward currents of 0.70 m s-1. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration advanced very high resolution radiometer thermal imagery for these times reveals that the buoy had encountered seaward protruding cold water filaments ("squirts") associated with 100-km-length upwelling zones that constitute the large-scale upwelling regime. Southward of the upwelling regime the equatorward drift speed of the buoy was only slightly greater than the equatorward advance of the surface isotherms, suggesting that advection rather than winter cooling might be mainly responsible for the shift in the temperature pattern.

Thomson, Richard E.; Papadakis, John E.

1987-06-01

224

Analysis of the Thermostable Direct Hemolysin (tdh) Gene and the tdh-Related Hemolysin (trh) Genes in Urease-Positive Strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated on the West Coast of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urease-positive (Ure1) and urease-negative (Ure2) strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from patients on the West Coast of the United States between 1979 and 1995 were analyzed for the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene and the tdh-related hemolysin (trh) genes (trh1 and trh2). The DNA colony hybridization method with the polynucleotide probes was used to determine the distribution of the genes.

JUN OKUDA; MASANORI ISHIBASHI; SHARON L. ABBOTT; J. MICHAEL JANDA; MITSUAKI NISHIBUCHI

1997-01-01

225

Depositional response to seagrass mortality along a low-energy, barrier-island coast: west-central Florida  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of aerial photographs and surficial sediment samples from the northern islands of the west-central barrier system of Florida indicates that: (1) seagrass beds in the nearshore zone have controlled onshore/longshore sand transport, and (2) resulting sedimentary accumulations within nearshore seagrass beds make differentiation of nearshore and backbarrier facies difficult. Between 1957 and 1973, an extensive seagrass community occupying the nearshore zone off Anclote Key disappeared, thus allowing the sudden and rapid onshore and longshore transport of sand. The 1000 year old barrier island lengthened 30% by recurved spit growth in this very short period of time. Although there are not direct observations, four possible causes of seagrass mortality have been postulated, and of these overgrazing as a result of the accelerated population growth of sea urchins (Lytechinus variegatus) seems to be the most likely cause. Because of the ability of seagrasses to trap fine-grained sediments, contribute organic matter, and provide for low-energy, sheltered, molluscan biocoenosis, there is little depositional difference between these nearshore and backbarrier/lagoonal facies. This work indicates that the development and destruction of benthic floral communities should be considered as a process that generates or accentuates episodicity/cyclicity in the sedimentary record. Additionally, such changes in these communities should be expected to present a blurred distinction between certain types of coastal sedimentary facies.

Evans, M.W.; Hine, A.C.; David, R.A.; Belknap, D.F.

1985-01-01

226

Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19N in July and 6N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanr, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jrg; Cermak, Jan

2013-04-01

227

[Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].  

PubMed

The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration for La Restinga; the polyunsaturated fatty acids were between 4.66 and 35.55% with lower values for Chacopata and higher values for Chaguaramas samples. P. viridis is recommended for human being consumption, according to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids found for this species. PMID:21516644

Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

2011-03-01

228

Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment  

PubMed Central

We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique taken from the published literature and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75N and 28.25N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 104 cells L?1) varied considerably (sensitivityEmpirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificityEmpirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%).

Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A.

2011-01-01

229

LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to

C. F. Blazek; R. T. Biederman

1992-01-01

230

MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding workshops to other regions, providing coverage in its newsletter, through columns and case studies in trade journals, and through coordinating presentations at association and professional society meetings. Combined, there were more than 800 participants. Applying ''application percentages'' from PTTC's total technology transfer program, more than 250 participants are likely to be applying technologies (39% of industry participants). Polymer gel water-shutoff (WSO) treatments and wellbore management were a focus in the Midcontinent area. A major provider of polymer gel WSO treatments has experienced a significant increase in treatment activity in Oklahoma, some of which can be logically attributed to this project. A provider of polylined tubing, a product related to wellbore management, has noted a 280% increase in their independent customer base and opening of a new market due to their involvement in PUMP-spinoff technology transfer. Detailed case studies on polymer gel WSO treatments and wellbore management, along with more global analyses, demonstrate the economic value of these technologies to producers. Among the many information sources that producers consider when applying technology, PTTC knows it is an important source in these technology areas.

Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

2004-12-01

231

Numerical study of sea fogs off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula using a Single Column Model coupled with WRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea fog is a weather phenomenon that usually occurs below a marine boundary layer. Over the past several decades, efforts have been made to understand clearly the physical mechanisms of formation, evolution and dissipation of sea fogs using numerical modeling. Recently, 3D numerical simulations with a very high horizontal and vertical resolution have been carried out using mesoscale models to identify the influences of the turbulent mixing within PBL, radiative cooling at the fog top, even aerosols, on the formation of sea fogs. However, expensive computation cost is a big concern for these 3D model simulations with high resolution. Alternatively approach is to use a 1D model, i.e., single column model. However, a typical 1D model does not resolve the horizontal advection and pressure gradient force and therefore it is limited to radiation fog studies. More recent approach is to couple a 1D model with a 3D model to compensate for the limitation of a 1D model. In this study, WRFV3.1.1 is used as a 3D model and Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) is employed as a 1D model. For the 3D simulation, three nested domains of 18 km, 6 km, 2 km are used along with 64 layers in the vertical. Horizontal advections of heat and moisture, geostrophic winds and vertical motion produced every hour from WRFV3.1.1 are provided as an external forcing into the 1D model, CLUBB. CLUBB is designed for studying stable boundary layer as well as convective boundary layer and also supports sophisticated double moment microphysics (e.g., Khairoutdinov and Kogan scheme, and Morrison scheme). Several sea fog events observed in the eastern part of the Yellow Sea near the west coast of Korea are simulated and the effects of radiative cooling and turbulence are examined and a sensitivity tests of microphysics are done using CLUBB. Detailed results will be presented in the conference.

Kim, C.; Yum, S. S.

2010-12-01

232

Importance of organic and black carbon in atmospheric aerosols at Mace Head, on the West Coast of Ireland (5319'N, 954'W)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass concentrations of total organic carbon (TC) and its chemical fractions, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-insoluble organic carbon (WISOC), and black carbon (BC), were determined in marine aerosols, which were collected during the period July 1998-September 1999 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland. In addition, mass concentrations of major inorganic ions, like non-sea-salt (NSS) sulphate, and mass concentrations of dicarboxylic acids have been measured separately within the water-soluble aerosol fraction. The aerosol samples were classified into 'clean marine aerosol samples' and 'modified marine aerosol samples' according to the origin of air masses arriving at Mace Head, and using BC as a tracer for anthropogenic pollution. Following this classification, the data set was further divided into samples taken during summertime and wintertime. An average TC mass concentration of 59175 ng m -3 was determined for all aerosol samples taken at Mace Head. WSOC was found to be the dominating fraction in 'modified marine aerosol samples', followed by WISOC and BC, whereas in 'clean marine aerosol samples' WISOC was the main fraction, followed by WSOC, and BC. A comparison of the mass concentration of the water-soluble organic matter to the main water-soluble inorganic component, NSS sulphate, gave an average ratio of 0.720.10, which increased to 1.590.23 when considering solely 'clean marine aerosol samples'. The dominating dicarboxylic acid found in carbonaceous aerosols at Mace Head was oxalic acid, followed by malonic acid. Both diacids were responsible for about 142% of the WSOC (in terms of carbon).

Kleefeld, S.; Hoffer, A.; Krivcsy, Z.; Jennings, S. G.

233

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ensure that (1) The marine transfer area for LNG is under the supervision...other assigned duties during the transfer operation; (2) Personnel transferring fuel or oily waste are not involved in LNG transfer; and (3) No vessels...

2013-07-01

234

Recommended research on LNG safety  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

1981-03-01

235

Risks of LNG and LPG. [Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) as fuels is likely to increase and will certainly persist for some time to come, assessment of the safety of LNG\\/LPG systems will continue to draw attention and is quite likely to force continuing review of operating and design standards for LNG\\/LPG facilities. Scientific investigations to date

Fay

1980-01-01

236

LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen  

SciTech Connect

Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

NONE

1997-02-24

237

A comparative seasonal study of two populations of Hypnea musciformis from the East and West Coasts of Florida, USA II. Photosynthetic and respiratory rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiration rates of Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) Lamouroux in Florida, USA, generally increased with increased temperature. Gulf coast H. musciformis respired at significantly higher rates than the Atlantic coast population, which exhibited a region of temperature independence between 2432C. Respiration rates were highest in the fall and winter, during the periods of rapid growth. Respiration rates were lowest in the summer

M. J. Durako; C. J. Dawes

1980-01-01

238

The ORCA West Coast Regional Project - Atmospheric Top-Down Modeling to constrain Regional Carbon Budgets at high Temporal and Spatial Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ORCA project aims at determining the regional carbon balance of Oregon, California and Washington, with a special focus on the effect of disturbance history and climate variability on carbon sources and sinks. ORCA provides a regional test of the overall NACP strategy by demonstrating bottom-up and top-down modeling approaches to derive carbon balances at subregional to regional scales. The ORCA top-down modeling component has been set up to capture flux variability on the regional scale at high temporal and spatial resolution. Atmospheric transport is simulated coupling the mesoscale model WRF (Weather Research and Forecast) with the STILT (Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport) footprint model. This setup allows identifying sources and sinks that influence atmospheric observations with highly resolved mass transport fields and realistic turbulent mixing. High-precision atmospheric CO2 concentrations are monitored as continuous time series in hourly timesteps at 5 locations within the model domain, west to east from the Pacific Coast to the Great Basin, and include two flux sites for evaluation of computed fluxes. Terrestrial biosphere carbon fluxes are simulated at an effective spatial resolution of smaller than 1km and subdaily timesteps, considering effects of ecoregion, land cover type and disturbance regime on the carbon budgets. Flux computation assimilates high-resolution remote sensing products (e.g. LandSat, MODIS) and interpolated surface meteorology (DayMet, SOGS, PRISM). We present results on regional carbon budgets for the ORCA modeling domain that have been optimized using Bayesian inversion and the information provided by the network of high-precision CO2 observations. We address the influence of spatial and temporal resolution in the general modeling setup on the findings, and test the level of detail that can be resolved by top-down modeling on the regional scale, given the uncertainties introduced by various sources for model-data mismatch. Application of the approach highlights the strong regional variability in CO2 exchange rates on the regional scale. For Oregon, we found that this type of model must account for water availability and drought stress to avoid overestimating terrestrial sinks for CO2.

Goeckede, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Vickers, D.; Turner, D.; Law, B.

2008-12-01

239

Diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae) and geochemistry from annually laminated mid-Holocene sediments, west coast Canada: insights into abrupt climate change in the past  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 115-year record of annually laminated sediments from Effingham Inlet, a small anoxic fjord on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (49?N, 125?W), was analyzed for diatoms (species and abundances) and geochemistry (C and N isotopes, organic C and trace elements Ag, Cd, Re and Mo) from a piston core. The sediments were radiocarbon dated at approx. 4200-4400 years before present (yr BP) and show diatom enriched varves in the lower 70 years, with a sudden transition to diatom impoverished varves above. In the lower section, varves are thick (2-5 mm) and consist of well-defined Thalassiosira-Skeletonema-Chaetoceros spring bloom successions. Diatom concentrations average at 787 733 million valves/g of dry sediment, del 15N at 7.0 0.5 per mil, and organic C at 5.2 0.5 wt. %. In the upper section, the varves are thinner (1-2 mm), do not clearly show the seasonal diatom succession, and contain increased terrigenous detritus. Diatom concentrations average at 388 202 million valves/g with an increased relative abundance of benthic and freshwater taxa, del 15N at 7.3 0.6 per mil and organic C at 5.7 0.5 wt. %. Values of del 13C for both sections are similar, averaging at -24.0 0.5 per mil. The trace element concentrations are quite variable throughout the section. However, several thin (<1 cm) nonlaminated intervals show decreased diatom abundances with concomitant increases in trace element concentrations, suggesting short-lived changes in surface productivity, upwelling and nutrient delivery, and/or anoxic conditions. The abrupt transition from diatom-rich to diatom-poor varves could reflect a shift in dominance of the North Pacific High and Aleutian Low atmospheric pressure systems over the northeast Pacific Ocean, not unlike the well-documented 1976/1977 climate regime shift which showed a change in upwelling and nutrient delivery. A transition between warm and sunny climates to cooler and wetter regimes at around 4000 yr BP has been noted in previous paleoenvironmental studies from British Columbia and the northern hemisphere in general. The Effingham Inlet sediment record data will also be compared with modern sediment trap data from the inlet.

Chang, A.; Pedersen, T. F.

2009-04-01

240

Future scenarios of land-use and land-cover change in the United States--the Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detecting, quantifying, and projecting historical and future changes in land use and land cover (LULC) has emerged as a core research area for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Changes in LULC are important drivers of changes to biogeochemical cycles, the exchange of energy between the Earths surface and atmosphere, biodiversity, water quality, and climate change. To quantify the rates of recent historical LULC change, the USGS Land Cover Trends project recently completed a unique ecoregion-based assessment of late 20th century LULC change for the western United States. To characterize present LULC, the USGS and partners have created the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) for the years 1992, 2001, and 2006. Both Land Cover Trends and NLCD projects continue to evolve in an effort to better characterize historical and present LULC conditions and are the foundation of the data presented in this report. Projecting future changes in LULC requires an understanding of the rates and patterns of change, the major driving forces, and the socioeconomic and biophysical determinants and capacities of regions. The data presented in this report is the result of an effort by USGS scientists to downscale the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) to ecoregions of the conterminous United States as part of the USGS Biological Carbon Sequestration Assessment. The USGS biological carbon assessment was mandated by Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. As part of the legislative mandate, the USGS is required to publish a methodology describing, in detail, the approach to be used for the assessment. The development of future LULC scenarios is described in chapter 3.2 and appendix A. Spatial modeling is described in chapter 3.3.2 and appendix B and in Sohl and others (2011). In this report, we briefly summarize the major components and methods used to downscale IPCC-SRES scenarios to ecoregions of the conterminous United States, followed by a description of the Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion, and lastly a description of the data being published as part of this report.

Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Griffith, Glenn; Acevedo, William; Bennett, Stacie; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan; Ryan, Christy; Sayler, Kristi L.; Sleeter, Rachel; Soulard, Christopher E.

2012-01-01

241

Potential Application of Floating LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the efficiency of LNG and its contribution to world energy resources. It also examines the political, economical and technical drivers for successful realization of offshore liquefaction vessel development, main challenges and risks associated with it; it also reviews the current status of technology development and projects which are under development today. Objective: This paper seeks to identify

Elena Voskresenskaya

242

Assessing LNG tank volume calibrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Bureau of Standards (NBS) is cooperating with others to develop measuring techniques and establish calibration standards for liquefied natural gas (LNG) tankers. A photogrammetric survey technique is now used to determine the volume of each tank, but there are errors inherent in the method that could be very costly. NBS checks of the photographic method are described and

K. Higgins; M. Baum

1979-01-01

243

United States LNG trade potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Any assessment of the potential for U.S. liquefied natural gas imports made after February 26, 1976, must take into account the 1 trillion CF\\/yr limit on such imports proposed by President Ford in his energy message to Congress of that date. Specifically, the message called for increasing LNG imports to supplement declining supplies of domestic natural gas but also for

P. J. Anderson; E. J. Daniels

1976-01-01

244

Summary of LNG Safety Research: Supplement - Task III.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from major published research programs related to assessment and alleviation of potential LNG hazards are described. Topics covered include: vaporization and dispersion from LNG spills, boiling heat transfer rates for LNG on water, superheat 'expl...

E. Drake R. Reid S. Atallah

1974-01-01

245

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Design and Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

2009-10-01

246

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Design and Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

2010-10-01

247

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193.2181...193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric...

2011-10-01

248

States urge LNG safety, siting rules; costs debated. [Regulation of LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Energy Administration held hearings at which several states urged the Federal government to adopt minimum standards for siting and safety rules for liquefied natural gas (LNG) in order to lower costs for LNG users. Spokesmen for the gas industry as well as state representatives were opposed to restrictions on LNG imports and rates based on incremental costs. The

1976-01-01

249

Fire safety aboard LNG vessels. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reports results of an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations at receiving terminals, and more specifically, on the LNG tanker's cargo handling and hazard sensing and control equipment and operations. Analytical procedures included historical (statistical) analysis of failure

J. R. Welker; L. E. Brown; J. N. Ice; W. E. Martinsen; H. H. West

1976-01-01

250

Analysing the risk of LNG carrier operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generic, high-level risk assessment of the global operation of ocean-going liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. The analysis collects and combines information from several sources such as an initial hazid, a thorough review of historic LNG accidents, review of previous studies, published damage statistics and expert judgement, and develops modular risk models for critical accident scenarios. In

Erik Vanem; Pedro Anto; Ivan stvik; Francisco Del Castillo de Comas

2008-01-01

251

Cove Point LNG receiving terminal control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control systems installed to operate the Cove Point LNG receiving terminal have performed exceptionally well, reports Columbia LNG Corp. All major equipment at the terminal is operated locally from manned monitoring stations that are linked via telemetry to the computer in the terminal's main control room. An independent emergency system, activated by designated pushbuttons located throughout the plants, automatically

Kazinoff

1979-01-01

252

Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines)...

Battelle

1999-01-01

253

Direct application of west coast geothermal resources in a wet corn milling plant supplementary analyses and information dissemination. Final report, addendum  

SciTech Connect

In an extension to the scope of the previous studies, supplementary analyses were to be performed for both plants which would assess the economics of geothermal energy if coal had been the primary fuel rather than oil and gas. The studies include: supplementary analysis for a coal fired wet corn milling plant, supplementary analysis for an East Coast frozen food plant with coal fired boilers, and information dissemination activities.

Not Available

1982-03-19

254

TO THE MEMORY OF GILBERT L. VOSS: PORTUNUS VOSSI, A RARE NEW SPECIES OF SWIMMING CRAB (DECAPODA: BRACHYURA: PORTUNIDAE) FROM THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new species of swimming crab, Portunus vossi, is described from thr west coat of Florida. The new species resembles Poniinus ordwayi (Stimpson), but can be differentiated by the shape of the frontal teeth, the armature of the merus of the swimming leg, and the absence of iridescence on the chelae. The material of the new species was collected using

Rafael Lemaitre

255

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01

256

LNG importing project in Taiwan, ROC  

SciTech Connect

To cope with an ever-increasing demand for natural gas facing a dwindling indigenous supply and to follow the national policy of diversification of energy resources in the Republic of China, Chinese Petroleum Corporation (CPC) has launched its first LNG Receiving Terminal project at Yung-An, Kaohsiung for the importation of LNG to Taiwan. This paper presents selected design essentials and distinguished characteristics of this project. In pursuit of safety, operability and energy efficiency, the design and engineering of this facility features the following: Higher pressure LNG in-ground storage tanks. Application of recondensers for BOG in process. Integrated control system.

Liu, J.C.; Chung, S.T.; Shen, R.H.

1988-01-01

257

Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report  

SciTech Connect

Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

Battelle

1999-07-01

258

Analysis of winter dust activity off the coast of West Africa using a new 24-year over-water advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite dust climatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

(1) A 24-year (1982-2005) winter daytime advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data set has been processed utilizing a new over-water dust detection algorithm. The dust data are for the oceanic regions surrounding West Africa and provide a long-term remotely sensed continuous record of dustiness in the region. These AVHRR dust observations are comparable to dust records produced via the

Amato T. Evan; Andrew K. Heidinger; Peter Knippertz

2006-01-01

259

Analysis of winter dust activity off the coast of West Africa using a new 24-year over-water advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite dust climatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 24-year (19822005) winter daytime advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data set has been processed utilizing a new over-water dust detection algorithm. The dust data are for the oceanic regions surrounding West Africa and provide a long-term remotely sensed continuous record of dustiness in the region. These AVHRR dust observations are comparable to dust records produced via the Total

Amato T. Evan; Andrew K. Heidinger; Peter Knippertz

2006-01-01

260

77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FE Docket No. 12-155-LNG] Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization...filed on October 26, 2012, by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to...

2012-12-26

261

Upper-ocean thermal structure and heat content off the US West Coast during the 1997 1998 El Nio event based on AXBT and satellite altimetry data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the 1997/1998 El Nio event, extensive oceanic temperature profiles were taken off the coast of California in January and February 1998 using Airborne Expendable Bathythermographs (AXBTs). These AXBT measurements are compared with altimetry-based upper-ocean temperature estimates using TOPEX and ERS satellite altimetry data. The altimetry-based temperature estimates are well correlated with the AXBT data, in particular when combining the two satellite data sets together to form a blended altimeter temperature estimate. Both the AXBT and altimetry data show that the nearshore coastal El Nio signal differed from that further offshore. The AXBT data show that near shore, the warm anomalies extended to much greater depths and had greater amplitude. A time series of the satellite-derived layer-averaged temperatures, averaged separately over the nearshore and offshore halves of the AXBT analysis domain, also shows a larger El Nio signal in the nearshore half. The role of local atmospheric forcing of the coastal oceanic temperature anomalies is analyzed using NCEP reanalysis and coastal upwelling data sets. The forcing terms include Ekman pumping, radiation, surface heat fluxes, precipitation, and alongshore wind stresses that drive coastal upwelling (expressed as a coastal downwelling index, CDI). The temperature forcing from all of the terms except the CDI anomalies are small. The CDI anomalies can explain most of the slowly varying temperature changes that occur near the coast during a two-year period spanning the El Nio event, as well as some of the larger amplitude, rapid (monthly) warming episodes that appear to be part of the El Nio signal. Several distinct rapid warming episodes, however, are not correlated with the CDI anomalies, and therefore we conclude that the nearshore El Nio signal originates from a combination of both a remote oceanic pathway and local atmospheric forcing.

Wilczak, James M.; Leben, Robert R.; McCollum, David S.

2007-07-01

262

THERMOACOUSTIC LIQUEFACTION OF COAL MINE METHANE TO PRODUCE LNG FOR HEAVY VEHICLE APPLICAITONS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activity undertaken by the project members under MORGANTOWN ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER (METC) contract No. DE-AC21-95MC32185 to develop a project that will provide a commercial use for Coal Mine Methane (CMM). In particular, the report describes a project to convert CMM into Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and to market that LNG to the transportation sector in and around the I-79 corridor near Morgantown, West Virginia. The report discusses the sources of CMM and provides estimates of the extent of the resource specifically dedicated to the project. It discusses the novel refrigeration technology that will be employed to convert the CMM to LNG and the gas conditioning technology that will be used to bring the raw CMM up to cryogenic processing specifications. Summary capital and operating cost estimates are furnished for the project and specific monetary and schedule requirements are identified so the project can be examined in its entirety. The report discusses the immediate market potential for the successful commercial sale of LNG into the nearby market and provides estimates of future market penetration into local, regional and wider markets. Lastly, the report comments on the environmental effects of the project and extrapolates these benefits to future markets. One of the driving forces for the project is the reduction of environmentally harmful greenhouse gases currently escaping unchecked into the atmosphere. This final section analyzes the TASHER technology's potential net environmental benefits both in terms of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants.

Dr. Kashi Aminian; Dr. Lloyd English; Dr. Douglas Patchen; Dr. Hema Siriwardane; Charles D. Estes; Raymond L. Zahradnik

1999-10-29

263

Keys to modeling LNG spills on water.  

PubMed

Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they are unconfined. Modeling of LNG spills onto water is much more difficult than for land spills because the phenomena are more complex and the experimental basis is more limited. The most prevalent practice in predicting pool sizes is to treat the release as instantaneous or constant-rate, and to calculate the pool size using an empirical evaporation or burn rate. The evaporation or burn rate is particularly difficult to estimate for LNG spills on water, because the available data are so limited, scattered, and difficult to extrapolate to the large releases of interest. A more effective modeling of possible spills of LNG onto water calculates, rather than estimating, the evaporation or burn rate. The keys to this approach are to: * Use rigorous multicomponent physical properties. * Use a time-varying analysis of spill and evaporation. * Use a material and energy balance approach. * Estimate the heat transfer from water to LNG in a way that reflects the turbulence. These keys are explained and demonstrated by predictions of a model that incorporates these features. The major challenges are describing the effects of the LNG-water turbulence and the heat transfer from the pool fire to the underlying LNG pool. The model includes a fundamentally based framework for these terms, and the current formulation is based on some of the largest tests to-date. The heat transfer coefficient between the water and LNG is obtained by applying a "turbulence factor" to the value from correlations for quiescent film and transition boiling. The turbulence factor is based on two of the largest unignited tests on water to-date. The heat transfer from the fire to the pool is based on the burning rate for the largest pool fire test on land to-date. PMID:17113709

Hissong, D W

2006-10-20

264

Paleomagnetism in northern Alaska (and the career of David Symons), from displaced terranes on the west coast of North America to the age dating of base metal ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetism of barren and mineralized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Red Dog Zn-Pb deposit in the Brooks Range Mountains of northern Alaska isolated several components. Mineralized and barren rocks with quartz alteration have a steep west-southwesterly magnetization retained by magnetite (N=16, D=247, I=73, k=73). Fluid inclusions indicate that the quartz formed during deep burial and Ar/Ar dating yielded an age of 126 Ma. Heavily mineralized rocks plus mineralized shales lacking quartz replacement have a shallower southwesterly magnetization carried by pyrrhotite (N=11, D=220, I=51, k=28). Geological features and Re/Os dating indicate that the ore formed in the late Paleozoic. A Mississippian igneous sill (344 Ma, Ar/Ar) in the mine has a southwest and shallow magnetization carried by magnetite (1 site). Ultramafic igneous intrusive rocks from Asik Mountain ~100 kms south of Red Dog, have been indirectly dated at about 150 Ma (K/Ar) and have a west-southwesterly magnetization carried by magnetite (N=11, D=255, I=82, k=19). Tectonic models for the Mesozoic origin of northern Alaska can be grouped into three categories: 1) contiguous to ancestral of North America; 2) peri-autochthonous with angular displacements; and, 3) allochthonous terranes accreted to ancestral North America. The combination of geologic, radiometric and paleomagnetic data from Red Dog allows for both testing of the models and paleomagnetic dating of the Red Dog ores. The data can only be collectively explained by Mississippian syngenetic mineralization and pyrrhotite magnetization, Mesozoic northward translation and counterclockwise rotation of a displaced terrane (aka "The Alaskan Terrane Wreck") and, finally, deep burial resulting in remagnetization of some of the ores associated with quartz replacement.

Lewchuk, M. T.; Leach, D.; Kelley, K.; Symons, D. T.; Elmore, R. D.; Foucher, J.

2004-05-01

265

Duffy Negative Antigen Is No Longer a Barrier to Plasmodium vivax - Molecular Evidences from the African West Coast (Angola and Equatorial Guinea)  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium vivax shows a small prevalence in West and Central Africa due to the high prevalence of Duffy negative people. However, Duffy negative individuals infected with P. vivax have been reported in areas of high prevalence of Duffy positive people who may serve as supply of P. vivax strains able to invade Duffy negative erythrocytes. We investigated the presence of P. vivax in two West African countries, using blood samples and mosquitoes collected during two on-going studies. Methodology/Findings Blood samples from a total of 995 individuals were collected in seven villages in Angola and Equatorial Guinea, and 820 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Equatorial Guinea. Identification of the Plasmodium species was achieved by nested PCR amplification of the small-subunit rRNA genes; P. vivax was further characterized by csp gene analysis. Positive P. vivax-human isolates were genotyped for the Duffy blood group through the analysis of the DARC gene. Fifteen Duffy-negative individuals, 8 from Equatorial Guinea (out of 97) and 7 from Angola (out of 898), were infected with two different strains of P. vivax (VK210 and VK247). Conclusions In this study we demonstrated that P. vivax infections were found both in humans and mosquitoes, which means that active transmission is occurring. Given the high prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, we may speculate that this hypnozoite-forming species at liver may not be detected by the peripheral blood samples analysis. Also, this is the first report of Duffy negative individuals infected with two different strains of P. vivax (VK247 and classic strains) in Angola and Equatorial Guinea. This finding reinforces the idea that this parasite is able to use receptors other than Duffy to invade erythrocytes, which may have an enormous impact in P. vivax current distribution.

Mendes, Cristina; Dias, Fernanda; Figueiredo, Joana; Mora, Vicenta Gonzalez; Cano, Jorge; de Sousa, Bruno; do Rosario, Virgilio E.; Benito, Agustin; Berzosa, Pedro; Arez, Ana Paula

2011-01-01

266

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG...

2012-10-01

267

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to verify that each of the following conditions does not impair the structural...

2010-10-01

268

A small-scale oceanic eddy off the coast of West Africa studied by multi-sensor satellite and surface drifter data, and by a numerical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution satellite images and oceanographic field measurements have revealed that oceanic eddies with diameters ranging from 1 to several hundred km are ubiquitous phenomena in the World's ocean. While eddies with horizontal scales above 100 km have been studied extensively using altimeter data, only few papers exist dealing with observations of eddies with horizontal scales below 50 km. These small-scale eddies cannot be resolved by conventional altimeters, but they can be observed from space by high-resolution optical/infrared sensors and by synthetic aperture radars (SARs). In this paper we report about a single small-scale cyclonic (cold) eddy which was generated at the headland of Cap-Vert off the coast of Senegal following a sudden freshening of the trade winds. Due to favorable cloud conditions, we were able to track the time evolution of the eddy for 31 days by satellite images acquired in the visible/ infrared band. Furthermore, the eddy was also imaged during this period by a space-borne SAR. Cold eddies become visible on SAR images via the change in the small-scale sea surface roughness caused by the damping of short surface waves by biogenic surface films or/and by the change of the stability of the air-sea interface. Biogenic surface films consist of surface-active material secreted by biota in the cold eddy. The satellite data we are using are from the MODIS sensor onboard the American Aqua satellite, the AVHHR sensor onboard the European MetOp satellite, and the Advanced SAR (ASAR) onboard the European Envisat satellite. The sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (CHL) maps derived from MODIS data show that the eddy propagated from its birth place at Cap-Vert in the Senegal upwelling region westward into the open North Atlantic. During the 31 days of satellite observations, the eddy moved 200 km westward thereby carrying nutrients from the upwelling region into the oligotrophic North Atlantic, where it caused enhanced CHL concentration. Maximum CHL concentration was encountered few days after the eddy generation, which is consistent with a delayed plankton growth following nutrient supply into the euphotic zone within the eddy. Furthermore, we recorded the movement of the eddy also by a satellite-tracked surface drifter. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a small-scale eddy has been tracked over such a long time period by high-resolution satellite images and simultaneously by a surface drifter. Model calculations carried out with the "Mercator" ocean circulation model show that the generation of the small-scale eddy was linked to a sudden increase of the trade winds. This wind event caused enhanced southward flow and upwelling at the coast of Senegal. The model calculations show further that the eddy was generated by flow separation at the headland of Cap-Vert.

Alpers, Werner; Brandt, Peter; Lazar, Alban; Dagorne, Dominique; Sow, Bamol; Faye, Saliou; Hansen, Morten; Rubino, Angelo; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Bremer, Patrice

2013-04-01

269

Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence West (COSEE-West)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The COSEE center for ocean science integration and outreach for the west coast of the U.S. Site includes information on the COSEE West partners, its mission, goals, upcoming activities, including workshops, and additional resources. Site also links to three curriculum supplements.

270

LNG shipments in 1994 set records  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide LNG shipments by ocean-going vessels in 1994 increased to 1,619 voyages, according to an LNG shipping industry statistical annual. LNG Log 20 published the recently compiled 1994 data in the last quarter of 1995. The publication is from the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators Ltd., London. The year`s total was 8.8% more than for 1993 and the most in 35 years of records. The trips were made and the vessels loaded and discharged without report of serious safety or environmental incident, says the publication. Of the voyages completed during the year, 596 were to European receiving terminals (up 2.8% over 1993), and 1,003 went to the Far East (an increase of 10.7%); shipments to the US, however, dropped to 20, from 32 in 1993. This paper shows that the 1,619 voyages represent 3.6 million nautical miles logged by 78 vessels active during the year. These ships pumped ashore record annual volumes of approximately 144.3 million cu m of LNG, 110.1 million cu m (76.3%) of which went to Far Eastern customers. The paper also summarizes containment systems in use in 1994 and since LNG began to be shipped in 1959.

NONE

1996-01-15

271

Safety and Risk Management of Large LNG Spills Over Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for natural gas in the U.S. could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) imports. While many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of

Michael Hightower

272

Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection

Marion Michael Hightower; Louis Alan Gritzo; Anay Josephine Luketa-Hanlin

2005-01-01

273

Industry will pay most of Algeria LNG price hike  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial users will pay most of the fivefold incremental price increase in Algerian liquefied natural gas (LNG) recently approved by the Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA). The three affected gas-importing companies - Columbia LNG Corp., Consolidated LNG corp., and Southern Energy Co. - are major suppliers for eastern and southern states. They will be paying $1.94 per million Btu (mmBtu) (increase

1980-01-01

274

Study on the Representative LNG Sampling for Property Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The calorific value of LNG is very important factor for the quality and the price of imported LNG. But it is impossible to measure the composition of total amount of imported LNG. So, KGC uses the sampling method to represent the total amount of imported ...

K. Y. Choe K. C. Ryu

1994-01-01

275

Analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) release prevention systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is playing an important role in meeting the energy needs of the U.S. and other countries. Since one unit volume of LNG is equivalent to 600 unit volumes of natural gas, liquefaction permits large volumes of gas to be economically stored and transported. In the United States, LNG has a twenty-year record of safe handling and

P. J. Pelto; E. G. Baker

1984-01-01

276

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to verify...

2011-10-01

277

Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

1982-07-01

278

Problems and solutions for pipelining LNG  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses an engineering program and a test program to prove a suitable pipe structure for LNG transport, performed in collaboration with European official organizations, petroleum companies, pipe and material manufacturers, pipe insulators, and contractors. It reveals that new technical solutions have been found to determine mechanical stresses due to pipe shrinkage, to ease the construction of pipe sections, and to accelerate the construction work progress. Results of technical and economical approaches showed that high-capacity, long-distance LNG lines may be suitable to long-distance gas lines. The fact that the need for cold power (as supplied by LNG pipelines) of various industries is significant is outlined. The main disadvantages of cryogenic lines is the low operating temperatures which require the use of high cost nickel steel, and the need for a highly efficient insulation to reduce the thermal exchange through the pipe structure.

Tuyen, N.V.; Regnaud, P.

1983-01-24

279

Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

2005-04-01

280

View west, pier D replacement (foreground), pier C, and wharf ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View west, pier D replacement (foreground), pier C, and wharf B - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

281

Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, ?, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. ? for dry 100 nm particles decreased with increasing organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF) as 0.34-0.20OMF over Central Mexico and 0.47-0.43OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as ?(-1/3), within measurement uncertainty (~20%). The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0-0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as -0.70OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust). Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemical composition and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Dunlea, E. J.; Roberts, G. C.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Collins, D. R.; Howell, S. G.; Kapustin, V. N.; McNaughton, C. S.; Zhou, J.

2009-09-01

282

Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, ?, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. ? for dry 100-nm particles decreased with the organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF) as 10(-0.43-0.44*OMF) over Central Mexico and 10(-0.29-0.70*OMF) over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as ?(-1/3), within measurement uncertainty (~20%). The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0-0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as -0.70*OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust). Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemistry and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

Shinozuka, Y.; Clarke, A. D.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Dunlea, E. J.; Roberts, G. C.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Collins, D. R.; Howell, S. G.; Kapustin, V. N.; McNaughton, C. S.; Zhou, J.

2009-05-01

283

LNG links remote supplies and markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable.

A. A. Avidan; R. E. Gardner; D. Nelson; E. N. Borrelli; T. J. Rethore

1997-01-01

284

Development of LNG Facilities Safety Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines a set of safety regulations adopted by the California Public Utilities Commission entitled ''Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities Safety Standards.'' The standards prescribe rules governing the design, construction, and safety aspects of the operation and maintenance of LNG facilities in California. These regulations are the most comprehensive in the United States today.

Ony

1985-01-01

285

Accident at the Cove Point LNG facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

On October 6, 1979, an explosion occurred at the Cove Point, Md, liquefied natural gas receiving terminal when leaking LNG was ignited by an electrical arc. The explosion destroyed an electrical substation building containing switchgear and motor controllers. This paper briefly describes the accident itself, the source of the gas leakage and cause of the explosion. Details of the seal

Van Meerbeke

1982-01-01

286

LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A. [Mobil Shipping and Transportation, Fairfax, VA (United States)

1997-06-02

287

Monitoring of LNG Vapors - Phase I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the development and subsequent field testing of two rapid response instruments for the detection of methane gas in the vapor resulting from an LNG spill. The instruments were: a laser instrument with a 0.005 second response time and ...

E. D. Hinckley

1979-01-01

288

Impact analysis of LNG carrier modelling systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global energy demand especially natural gas is expected to grow due to high world oil prices. Natural gas composed mostly of methane is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. Thus, offering an alternative fuel and at the same time has ability to reduces the environment impact. LNG carrier has been successfully used to transport this fuel across the globe, despite being

M. R. Zoolfakar; E. Mesbahi; R. Norman

2011-01-01

289

Siting hazardous facilities: lessons from LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a descriptive framework for siting large scale technological facilities such as liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals, and suggests ways of using analyses to improve the process. A key feature of these problems is that they involve relatively new technologies where there has not been a long history with which to construct a statistical data base. Hence the

Howard Kunreuther; John W. Lathrop

1981-01-01

290

U.S. LNG Imports - The Next Wave  

EIA Publications

U.S. LNG imports - The Next Wave, is now available as a special supplement to the January 2007 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports still account for less than three percent of total U.S. natural gas supplies, the global market is growing and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) foresees another wave of U.S. LNG import growth over the next 2 years. The supplement focuses on recent trends in global and U.S. LNG trade, and presents factors expected to influence LNG imports through 2008. EIA expects year-over-year increases in LNG imports of 34.5 and 38.5 percent in 2007 and 2008, respectively.

Information Center

2007-01-11

291

Quantifying the Growth History of an Ancient Border Fault System, and the Role of Normal Fault Growth on Sedimentation During Basin Formation: a Case Study from the Late Cambrian Owen Conglomerate, West Coast Range, western Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic and depositional architecture of evolving extensional basins is principally controlled by normal fault growth through the generation of accommodation space. The history of border fault systems therefore controls the evolution of internal drainage patterns and basin facies distributions. Despite recent advances in the understanding of present-day normal fault growth, quantifying the effect of normal fault evolution on the architecture of ancient sedimentary basins has been largely obscured by post-rift deformation and erosion. The Late Cambrian Owen Conglomerate along the West Coast Range of western Tasmania, Australia, includes thick fluvial sandstone and marine turbidite sequences, as well as fluvial and marine conglomerates. The accumulation of this formation provides excellent insights into the rift-fill history of an ancient extensional basin, due to rugged, glaciated topography and exceptional outcrops, and the typically overfilled nature of the basin, which preserves the fault displacement history. Structural traverses have delineated the geometry of the extensional fault system active during deposition of the Owen Conglomerate. The fault system comprises a segmented array of border faults with variable along-strike polarity. Minimum displacements were calculated from present-day stratigraphic thicknesses, and define a roughly symmetric displacement-length profile that resembles that of a single, isolated fault, with maximum displacement (Dmax) located at the centre of the fault array, and decreasing displacement toward the distal segments. Displacement along the fault system, however, indicates a varied growth history through time. Isolated faulting (Stage 1) occurred during the early stages of rifting, when small fault segments grew in isolation. Stage 1 faults exhibit a Dmax at the centre of each individual segment. Rapid propagation of fault segments to maximum strike length occurred early in the basin history, with only limited interaction and feedback between individual segments. Continued growth faulting (Stage 2) resulted in migration of the locus of maximum displacement as individual segments began to interact and link. Eventual linkage of fault segments (Stage 3) occurred during the final stages of rifting, where the overall system exhibits a characteristic, through-going, displacement-length profile. Integration of lithofacies distributions, isopach maps and palaeocurrent data with the structural dataset shows that the stratigraphic architecture is strongly coupled with the development of the border fault system, and offers a high resolution model for fault development. While the generation of accommodation space adjacent to footwall scarps facilitated the development of a hanging-wall, dip-slope fluvial catchment and axial-through drainage networks, tectonic subsidence also provided a crucial trigger for the onset of isolated marine sedimentation where accommodation space generated by the localised accumulation of displacement on individual segments outpaced sediment supply.

Noll, C. A.; Hall, M.

2003-12-01

292

High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG  

DOEpatents

A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-18

293

Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production Part two  

Microsoft Academic Search

In liquefied natural gas (LNG) regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. In a previous paper, the authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved combined heat and power (CHP) plant. Considering

Celidonio Dispenza; Giorgio Dispenza; Vincenzo La Rocca; Giuseppe Panno

2009-01-01

294

Key Technologies of Mitsubishi LNG Carriers - Present and Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

CO2 emission control is recognized as the essential issue related to the greenhouse effect, especially since demand for energy increasing. Use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) must be expanded because it produces less CO2 emission than any other fossil fuel. Worldwide, approximately 90 million tons of LNG are transported by sea in 1999. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has developed

Kazuaki Yuasa; Katsuya Uwatoko; Junshiro Ishimaru

295

Economics of the LNG Value Chain and Corporate Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global LNG industry. In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the ,determinants driving companies ,towards increasing vertical integration a typical corporate behavior currently observable. Our hypothesis of high ,transaction costs along the LNG value chain inducing a higher degree of vertical integration is tested by implementing,an Ordered Probit Model.

Sophia Rster; Anne Neumann

296

Model of spills and fires from LNG and oil tankers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive model for predicting the dynamics of spills from LNG and oil product tankers is constructed from fluid mechanics principles and empirical properties of oil and LNG spills on water. The analysis utilizes the significant tanker hold and discharge flow area dimensions to specify the cargo liquid outflow history and the ensuing pool characteristics, including the establishment of a

J. A. Fay

2003-01-01

297

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system...master shall ensure that the fuel oil fired pilot under § 154...the vessel is on the navigable waters of the United States. (b) When the methane (LNG) fuel supply is shut down due...

2011-10-01

298

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system...master shall ensure that the fuel oil fired pilot under § 154...the vessel is on the navigable waters of the United States. (b) When the methane (LNG) fuel supply is shut down due...

2012-10-01

299

Early Commitment and Entry Deterrence in an LNG Shipping Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) trade is one of the most promising sectors in energy shipping. An impor- tant characteristic of the LNG shipping market is its oligopolistic structure. The market actors make their decisions independently, yet knowing that these deci- sions are likely to influence the strategic positioning of the other players. This context is appropriate for the adoption

Konstantinos G. Gkonis; Harilaos N. Psaraftis

300

Imported LNG (liquid natural gas) as an alternative fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) first arrived in the United States in 1972 at the rate of one billion cubic feet (Bcf) per year. By 1979, they had reached 252 Bcf\\/year. However, as US as demand declined and domestic deliverability grew, inflexible LNG prices led to the complete collapse of trade during the 1980s. In 1987, all four US

1990-01-01

301

LNG (liquefied natural gas): A necessary part in China's future energy infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the LNG industry in China, covering LNG plants, receiving terminals, transportation, and applications. Small and medium scale LNG plants with different liquefaction processes have already been built or are being built. China's first two LNG receiving terminals have been put into operation in Guangdong and Fujian, another one is being built in Shanghai, and

Wensheng Lin; Na Zhang; Anzhong Gu

2010-01-01

302

A survey of LNG technological needs in the USA: 1974 to beyond 2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive analysis of research needs of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was conducted. LNG research priorities for five years are considered vital to overcome the potential suppression of growth in the LNG industry that could result from lack of available technology. A survey of National Bureau of Standards LNG research and how these relate to the future technological growth of

L. A. Sarkes; D. B. Mann

1974-01-01

303

Taphonomy of the West Runton Mammoth  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantially complete skeleton of a huge male mammoth Mammuthus trogontherii (estimated weight in life 9 tonnes) was excavated from the West Runton Freshwater Bed (the Cromerian stratotype) at West Runton on the North Sea coast of Norfolk, UK, over the period 19901995. The high standard of excavation of the skeleton and subsequent careful preparation and conservation provides much detailed

Anthony J. Stuart; Nigel R. Larkin

2010-01-01

304

Improvisation in West African Musics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)|

Locke, David

1980-01-01

305

Improvisation in West African Musics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

Locke, David

1980-01-01

306

Model of spills and fires from LNG and oil tankers.  

PubMed

A comprehensive model for predicting the dynamics of spills from LNG and oil product tankers is constructed from fluid mechanics principles and empirical properties of oil and LNG spills on water. The analysis utilizes the significant tanker hold and discharge flow area dimensions to specify the cargo liquid outflow history and the ensuing pool characteristics, including the establishment of a pool fire. The pool fire area, duration, and heat release rate are determined as functions of the tanker cargo variables. Examples of an LNG and gasoline spill show that for likely discharge flow areas these spills may be regarded as instantaneous, simplifying the evaluation of risk consequences. PMID:12493207

Fay, J A

2003-01-31

307

33 CFR 165.777 - Security Zone; West Basin, Port Canaveral Harbor, Cape Canaveral, Florida.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; West Basin, Port Canaveral...Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS...Guard District § 165.777 Security Zone; West Basin, Port...

2013-07-01

308

Safety of cargo handling and transport liquefied natural gas by sea. Dangerous properties of LNG and actual situation of LNG Fleet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural gas becomes very important source of energy. There is only one economical solution of transport natural gas to distant destination - LNG - Liquefied Natural Gas. The LNG fleet is growing very fast and fleet characteristic is changing. Very popular is myth that gas carriers are sailing bombs - is it true? Properties of LNG compare with other liquid

A. Starosta

309

Environmental Assessment for an LNG Spill Test Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has assessed the environmental effects of a proposed LNG (liquefied natural gas) spill test program involving the construction of a temporary experimental spill test facility. The major objective of this environmenta...

W. C. O'Neal W. J. Hogan

1981-01-01

310

The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

2010-12-01

311

Aussie LNG players target NE Asia in expansion bid  

SciTech Connect

Australia's natural gas players, keen to increase their presence in world liquefied natural gas trade, see Asia as their major LNG market in the decades to come. That's despite the fact that two spot cargoes of Australian Northwest Shelf LNG were shipped to Europe during the last 12 months and more are likely in 1994. Opportunities for growth are foreseen within the confines of the existing Northwest Shelf gas project for the rest of the 1990s. But the main focus for potential new grassroots project developers and expansions of the existing LNG plant in Australia is the expected shortfall in contract volumes of LNG to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan during 2000--2010. Traditionally the price of crude oil has been used as a basis for calculating LNG prices. This means the economics of any new 21st century supply arrangements are delicately poised because of the current low world oil prices, a trend the market believes is likely to continue. In a bid to lessen the effect of high initial capital outlays and still meet projected demand using LNG from new projects and expansion of the existing plant, Australia's gas producers are working toward greater cooperation with prospective Asian buyers.

Not Available

1994-02-28

312

77 FR 58373 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Notice of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...feed gas line to supply natural gas to the liquefaction facility from existing gas transmission pipelines; Approximately...Construction of the planned feed gas pipeline, LNG line, and vapor...general headings: Geology and soils; Land use; Water...

2012-09-20

313

Currents along the pacific coast of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of oceanographic studies along the west coast of British Columbia in 19791982 produced several realizations of the seasonal cycle of currents. At one site, occupied for 31\\/4 years, the monthly mean currents are stable in speed and direction indicating that a single year of data reliably describes the pattern.Based upon three sets of observations at 15?m depth (summer

H. J. Freeland; W. R. Crawford; R. E. Thomson

1984-01-01

314

LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

2011-12-01

315

Feasibility of Methods and Systems for Reducng LNG Tanker Fire Hazards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a con...

1980-01-01

316

33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. 165...Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a...the right descending bank of the Savannah River. All marine traffic is...

2010-07-01

317

33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. 165...Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a...the right descending bank of the Savannah River. All marine traffic is...

2013-07-01

318

33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. 165...Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a...the right descending bank of the Savannah River. All marine traffic is...

2009-07-01

319

View north, showing western docking structure U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north, showing western docking structure - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

320

Living on the Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video, adapted from material provided by the ECHO partners, illuminates how living on the coast affects individuals and communities, particularly humans' interrelationships with natural resources.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-02-12

321

Insulating polymer concrete for LNG impounding dikes. [Polymer concretes  

SciTech Connect

An insulating polymer concrete (IPC) composite has been developed under contract to the Gas Research Institute for possible use as a dike insulation material at Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities. In the advent of an LNG spill into the impounding dike area, the boiloff rate of the LNG can be substantially reduced if the surfaces of the dike are insulated. This increased safety at the LNG facility will tend to reduce the hazardous explosive mixture with atmospheric air in the surrounding region. The dike insulation material must have a low thermal conductivity and be unaffected by environmental conditions. The IPC composites developed consist of perlite or glass nodule aggregates bound together as a closed cell structure with a polyester resin. In addition to low thermal conductivity and porosity, these composites have correspondingly high strengths and, therefore, can carry transient loads of workmen and maintenance equipment. Prefabricated IPC panels have been installed experimentally and at least one utility is currently considering a complete installation at its LNG facility. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

Fontana, J.J.; Steinberg, M.

1986-03-01

322

High Expansion Foam for LNG Vapor Mitigation. Topical Report September 1987-December 1989.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the purposes of these high expansion foam systems is to reduce the extent of the hazardous vapor cloud generated during an accidental LNG release. Should the LNG ignite, these systems serve the additional function of controlling the LNG fire and mi...

S. Atallah J. N. Shah M. E. Peterlinz

1990-01-01

323

Pilot study on the underground lined rock cavern for LNG storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the background information and the initial results obtained from the pilot underground LNG (liquefied natural gas) storage cavern in Korea, where all natural gas is stored in the condition of liquid phase. Many attempts have been made in the past to store LNG underground in unlined containment, though without success. A new concept for storing LNG in

Eui-Seob Park; Yong-Bok Jung; Won-Kyong Song; Dae-Hyuk Lee; So-Keul Chung

2010-01-01

324

Dispersion phenomenology of LNG vapor in the Burro and Coyote LNG spill experiments  

SciTech Connect

Various physical phenomena affecting LNG vapor dispersion were observed in LNG spill experiments conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Unterstanding the phenomena is necessary in predicting the size of the hazardous region of vapor concentration following a spill. Gravity flow of the cold dense vapor increased cloud width while density stratification and heat flow from the ground had substantial effects on the mixing rate with air. Density stratification inhibits turbulent mixing while heat flow into the cloud promotes it through a number of processes including buoyancy. Some possible instances of buoyancy were observed in the experiments, and calculations indicate that modest amount of additional heat might substantially increase cloud dispersion. In the experiments, these phenomena led to a dependence of the maximum distance L-script to the lower flammability limit on source rate, wind speed, and atmospheric stability that was substantially different from the prediction of the Gaussian plume model. Including these phenomena in predictive models is important for their model. Time-dependent features of the concentration field due to turbulence and rapid phase-transition explosions, which also affect L-script, were examined by applying a space--time interpolation scheme to the concentration data.

Morgan D.L. Jr.

1987-11-01

325

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, 1977 detail of ordnance wharf decking - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

326

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, 1977 north elevation, ordance wharf deck house - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

327

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, 1975 Aerial view looking northeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

328

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI) photographer unknown, 1975 Aerial view directly above - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

329

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of the U.S. Coast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of the U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, circa 1970 Aerial view looking northeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

330

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwich, RI), photographer unknown, 1977 view south, showing western docking structure and ordnance wharf - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

331

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, circa 1977 aerial view looking north, detail of eastern docking structure travel lift, boat house and station - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

332

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, circa 1977 Aerial view looking southeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

333

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI) photographer unknown, 1977 Aerial view looking northeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

334

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, after 1978 aerial view looking northeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

335

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, 1977 detail of ordnance wharf framing - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

336

Wind Power Plants off the Swedish Coasts. Estimate of Generation Costs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two alternative sites for the location of wind power plants are discussed. The first one is off the southern part of the island of Oeland at the east coast of Sweden and the second one off the west coast around 50 km south of Goeteborg. Both these areas a...

R. Hardell

1984-01-01

337

Medical Exchange on the Gold Coast during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians of the Atlantic slave trade have argued that the inhabitants of the Gold Coast of West Africa participated in a system of cultural and material exchange during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries that resulted in the diffusion and syncretism of ideas and practices. This position presumes that the cultures of the Gold Coast were transformed by centuries of contact

Jonathan Roberts

2011-01-01

338

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI), U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering, third district, Sandy Hook L/B Station, Fort Hancock, NJ, boathouse, plot plan, floor plan, elevation. & section., November 8, 1963 Proposed boathouse wharf B, L.A.S. building shown on wharf A - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

339

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI), U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering, third district, Sandy Hook L/B Station showing boat basin plan, circa 1945 Detail of western docking structure - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

340

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI) U.S. Coast Guard, shore maintenance detachment, New York, mooring facilities for 110 WPB's Station Sandy Hook, Middletown Township, New Jersey, civil demolition of wharf & pier E December 22, 1988 detail of framing and decking wharf B - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

341

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI), U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering, third district, Sandy Hook L/B Station, Sandy Hook N.J., buoy hoist installation and bldg alterations, January 3, 1952 Details of 4 ton hoist and building, wharf B - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

342

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI), U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering, third district, marine railway, Sandy Hook Station, Ft. Hancock, Sandy Hook, NJ, repairs, plan sections & framing details, wharf B - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

343

LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th meeting that the fundamental research being performed on surface to cloud heat transfer and low wind speed issues will be relevant to the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent Model. In general, it was decided that all research to be performed from December 9th through the remainder of the contract is to be focused on the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent model. In addition, all GTI activities for dissemination and transfer of FEM3A will cease and dissemination activities will focus on the new DOE LNG/Fluent model. The proposed new scope of work is presented in section 4 of this report. The work reported in the present document relates to the original scope of work which was in effect during the reporting period. The future work will be re-scoped to meet the requirements of the new scope of work. During the report period work was underway to address numerical problems present during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, the University of Arkansas has been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A.

Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

2005-02-21

344

Coaxial piping system devised as LNG spill prevention solution  

SciTech Connect

A functional, dual containment system that contains piping spools that are coaxial in construction and components, fittings, unique valving arrangements, and engineering features that improve reliability, safety, and economics of hazardous and cryogenic fluid transfer and containment is described. The purpose is to improve reliability for liquefied natural gas (LNG) transfer and spill prevention. Elements of the system are inner and outer concentric pipe spool pieces; a spider element which holds the 2 pipes in coaxial relationship to each coupling by allowing vapor flow between the pipes; and an external insulation jacket. A qualified coaxial piping system is a viable solution for existing and new LNG facility transfer systems subject to regulatory enforcement.

Pfenning, T.E.

1982-12-01

345

Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators  

SciTech Connect

Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

True, W.R.

1998-11-16

346

Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

347

Analysis of LNG peakshaving-facility release-prevention systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of release prevention systems for a reference LNG peakshaving facility. An overview assessment of the reference peakshaving facility, which preceeded this effort, identified 14 release scenarios which are typical of the potential hazards involved in the operation of LNG peakshaving facilities. These scenarios formed the basis for this more detailed study. Failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis were used to estimate the expected frequency of each release scenario for the reference peakshaving facility. In addition, the effectiveness of release prevention, release detection, and release control systems were evaluated.

Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Powers, T.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Hobbs, J.M.; Daling, P.M.

1982-05-01

348

Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery. Work was done in the following areas: (1) production of natural gas pipeline methane for liquefaction at an existing LNG facility, (2) production of LNG from sewage digester gas, (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling in the production of LNG, liquid CO{sub 2} and pipeline methane, (4) cost estimates for an LNG production facility at the Arden Landfill in Washington PA.

Brown, W.R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L.A.

2000-10-20

349

Regional stratigraphy and petroleum potential of Gulf Coast Lower Cretaceous  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited throughout the Gulf Coast during the Neocomian, Aptian, Albian, and early Cenomanian epochs. Basal sandstones extend across the entire region, onlapping Upper Jurassic terrigeneous strata. Following the initial stage of detrital rock deposition, a shallow epicontinental sea covered the W. coastal plain and regions on the south and west. In this area, and also in

Rainwater

1970-01-01

350

Identification of geopressured occurrences outside of the Gulf Coast  

SciTech Connect

Methane dissolved in saline formation waters under abnormally high pressure (geopressure) is one of several unconventional gas sources that is under intensive investigation by the Department of Energy. The most well-known and studied region of geopressures in the US is the Gulf Coast geosyncline. Recent studies, however, indicate that this phenomenon is displayed in many other sedimentary basins encompassing lithologies and sedimentary environments unlike those of the Gulf Coast. These include various Rocky Mountain and Mid-Continent basins, onshore and offshore Californian, Alaskan and Pacific Coast basins, and other isolated occurrences. Of this group, two prime target areas, based on the indicated methane content of geopressured formation waters, would include the Cambrian sands of the Rome trough in West Virginia and selected Miocene sediments along the west side of the San Joaquin Valley in California.

Strongin, O.

1981-01-01

351

West Florida shelf response to upwelling favorable wind forcing: Kinematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The barotropic responses of the west Florida continental shelf to idealized upwelling favorable alongshore and offshore wind stresses are studied using the three-dimensional, time-dependent, primitive equation Princeton Ocean Model (POM). When forced with uniform winds, the shelf circulation evolves quickly to a quasi steady state. A southeastward alongshore wind lowers sea level along the coast and drives a southeastward coastal jet with a relatively weak northwestward return flow farther offshore. A southwestward offshore wind lowers sea level along the west Florida coast and raises sea level along the Panhandle coast. Two independent circulation gyres are set up in association with these regionally different sea level distributions: an anticyclonic gyre off the west Florida coast consisting of a southeastward coastal jet and a broad return flow over the middle shelf and a cyclonic gyre off the Panhandle coast consisting of a strong northwestward coastal jet and an adjacent narrow southeastward undercurrent. These gyres are separated by the Big Bend region. In both cases (alongshore and offshore wind forcing) the circulations are fully three-dimensional, with opposing surface and bottom boundary layer flows accounting for the across-shelf transports. The shapes of the coastline and the isobaths are important determinants of the shelf-wide responses. Several locally maximum upwelling regions are identified for geometrical reasons. These include the Panhandle coast south of Apalachicola Bay, the west Florida coast south of Tampa Bay, along the Florida Keys, and at the shelf break where topographic Rossby waves are evident.

Li, Zhenjiang; Weisberg, Robert H.

1999-06-01

352

LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the

Jason P. Petti; Robert J. Kalan

2011-01-01

353

LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to

Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

2005-01-01

354

The role of consequence modeling in LNG facility siting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) project modeling focuses on two primary issues, facility siting and the physical layout of element spacing. Modeling often begins with an analysis of these issues, while ensuring code compliance and sound engineering practice. The most commonly performed analysis involves verifying compliance with the siting provisions of NFPA 59A, which primarily concern property-line spacing (offsite hazard impacts).

Dennis W. Taylor

2007-01-01

355

Comparison of hypothetical LNG and fuel oil fires on water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large spills of refined petroleum products have been an occasional occurrence over the past few decades. This has not been true for large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper compares the likely similarities and differences between accidental releases from a ship of sizable quantities of these different hydrocarbon fuels, their subsequent spreading, and possible pool-fire behavior. Quantitative estimates

William Lehr; Debra Simecek-Beatty

2004-01-01

356

LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004. Activity during this period included preparation of a CD containing the FEM3a FORTRAN code for distribution and organization of an LNG safety workshop. Contract negotiation between GTI and University of Arkansas continued.

Iraj A. Salehi

2004-09-30

357

LNGFIRE: A Thermal Radiation Model for LNG Fires (for Microcomputers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) fire tests conducted since 1962 were reviewed and an improved model for predicting exclusion distances was developed and verified. The model assumes that the flame takes the shape of a cylinder or a parallelepiped, d...

1990-01-01

358

Long-term variability in the deposition of marine ions at west coast sites in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network: impacts on surface water chemistry and significance for trend determination.  

PubMed

Eight lake sites in central and south-west Scotland, north-west England and north Wales, forming part of the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (UKAWMN), have been studied with regard to the influence of marine ions on surface water chemistry. Since monitoring began in 1988 these sites have exhibited large and long-term variation in Cl concentration, which are consistent between regions and can be linked to inter-annual variations in wet deposition. Through regression analysis against Cl, the response of other solutes to these fluctuations has been assessed. Sites show a highly consistent pattern of Na, and Mg retention during periods of high Cl, in accordance with the 'sea-salt' mechanism of marine cation adsorption onto soil exchange sites following large marine inputs. An associated displacement of cations with non-marine sources is also observed, with one or more of non-marine Ca, labile Al and hydrogen ions exhibiting a positive relationship with Cl at all sites. The relative extent to which these are released appears not to follow a simple relationship to site acidity, and may be linked to site/region-specific geology and soil characteristics. In addition, an inverse relationship between non-marine SO4 and Cl is observed at five of the sites, and the possibility is considered that a sea-salt related process, with soil retention and subsequent release, may also operate for SO4. A mechanism that might explain this process is suggested. The impact of marine inputs on non-marine solutes, including important indicators of acidification such as pH, labile Al and non-marine SO4, has clear implications for the detection of long-term trends in acidity status and is, therefore, of particular relevance to the UKAWMN. Due to their unpredictability, and the long timescale over which they operate, fluctuations caused by marine inputs may be difficult to separate from acid deposition related long-term trends. Evidence from a longer Cl time series from mid-Wales shows that fluctuations in concentration could be linked to the North Atlantic Oscillation and might therefore be expected to exhibit a similar, decal periodicity. Currently, the UKAWMN dataset only appears long enough to represent one climatic cycle. Consequently, and since few surface water chemistry datasets in the UK extend over more than a decade, it is important that: (a) trend analyses of current data from marine-impacted areas take account of possible marine input cycles; and (b) long-term monitoring is maintained into the future so that the impact of these cycles can be better quantified, and distinguished from anthopogenically-induced long-term changes. PMID:11227259

Evans, C D; Monteith, D T; Harriman, R

2001-01-29

359

Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

2012-09-01

360

78 FR 25407 - Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Grand Traverse Bay, Traverse City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...Coast Guard, Sector Sault Sainte Marie, MI, telephone (906) 253-2443, email thomas...National Cherry Festival in Traverse City, MI will host an air show over the West...

2013-05-01

361

40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

2013-07-01

362

Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues  

SciTech Connect

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1998-02-01

363

Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues  

SciTech Connect

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1997-07-01

364

A review of large-scale LNG spills: experiments and modeling.  

PubMed

The prediction of the possible hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by ship has motivated a substantial number of experimental and analytical studies. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to date on large-scale spills of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the dispersion of LNG, as well as experiments of LNG fires from spills on water and land are reviewed. Explosion, pool boiling, and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosion studies are described and discussed, as well as models used to predict dispersion and thermal hazard distances. Although there have been significant advances in understanding the behavior of LNG spills, technical knowledge gaps to improve hazard prediction are identified. Some of these gaps can be addressed with current modeling and testing capabilities. A discussion of the state of knowledge and recommendations to further improve the understanding of the behavior of LNG spills on water is provided. PMID:16271829

Luketa-Hanlin, Anay

2005-11-04

365

Insulating LNG (liquified natural gas) storage tank containment dikes with a lightweight polymer concrete  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas industry has always been concerned ith accidental spills of liquified natural gas (LNG) from storage tanks into surrounding containment dikes. The LNG that is leaked to the dike area boils off and the vapors mix with the atmosphere forming a hazardous explsoive mixture within the dike walls. These hazardous mixtures can travel long distances into industrial or residential areas surroungind LNG storage facilities. Studies by the natural gas industry indicate that the hazards associated with accidental spills of LNG from storage tanks can be makedly reduced by insulating the diked areas surrounding these tanks. In this manner, the heat transfer from the dike surface to the LNG is reduced. The insulating composite is used to construct a thermal barrier between the walls and floor of the dike an the spilled LNG. The thermal conductivity, porosity, and compression strength of a concrete, polymer composite insulating material is discussed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tbs.

Fontana, J.J.

1987-08-01

366

Flare system for safe disposal of LNG from a disabled tanker  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of a flare system for the rapid and safe incineration of the cargo of a disabled LNG tanker is evaluated. The project developed design parameters and proof-of-principle investigations of a system for off-loading and flaring LNG from a disabled LNG tanker. The system described offers enough promise to warrant additional investigation, if cargo burning is desired as a way of reducing other possible hazards.

Not Available

1982-12-01

367

US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

Attanasi, E. D.

1994-01-01

368

The role of consequence modeling in LNG facility siting.  

PubMed

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) project modeling focuses on two primary issues, facility siting and the physical layout of element spacing. Modeling often begins with an analysis of these issues, while ensuring code compliance and sound engineering practice. The most commonly performed analysis involves verifying compliance with the siting provisions of NFPA 59A, which primarily concern property-line spacing (offsite hazard impacts). If the facility is located in the US, compliance with 49 CFR 193 is also required. Other consequence modeling is often performed to determine the spacing of elements within the facility (onsite hazard impacts). Often, many issues concerning in-plant spacing are addressed with the guidance provided in Europe's LNG standard, EN-1473. Spacing of plant buildings in relation to process areas is also a concern as analyzed using the approach given in API RP 752. Studies may also include probabilistic analysis, depending on the perceived risk and cost of mitigation. PMID:16934395

Taylor, Dennis W

2006-08-23

369

Radiation scanning aids tower diagnosis at Arun LNG plant  

SciTech Connect

Radiation scanning has been used effectively to troubleshoot the treating towers of the Arun LNG plant in Sumatra, Indonesia. The plant is one of the world's largest such facilities. The analysis was part of an investigation aimed at increasing the capacity of the treater section of the plant. Radiation scanning is a tool which, in addition to tower differential pressure and product purity, can aid in diagnosing tower performance.

Naklie, M.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (US)); Pless, L. (Tru-Tec Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Gurning, T.P.; Hyasak, M. (P.T. Arun Natural Gas Liquefaction Co., Sumatera (USA))

1990-03-26

370

Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there

Sinor

1992-01-01

371

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

372

Transportation Planning and Inventory Management in the LNG Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this chapter, the LNG supply chain is introduced, and two planning problems related to the transportation planning and\\u000a inventory management within the chain are presented. The two problems have different characteristics and reflect the planning\\u000a situations for a producer and a vertically integrated company, respectively. Both problems are formulated as mixed integer\\u000a programs, and possible solution methods are briefly

Henrik Andersson; Marielle Christiansen; Kjetil Fagerholt

373

Chenier Plain Coast, Louisiana: Seasonal to Decadal-Scale Shoreline Evolution and Response to Episodic Storm Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple aerial photographic surveys conducted above the chenier plain coast, Louisiana, between 1987 and 2001 reveal rapid morphologic evolution along this mud-dominated shoreline west of the Atchafalaya River. Mudflat progradation is apparent on sub-seasonal time scales, as sediment derived from the Atchafalaya River plume and shallow inner shelf accretes on to the coast. Much of this accreted sediment is subsequently

A. E. Draut; O. K. Huh; C. C. Moeller; J. M. Grymes; G. C. Kineke

2002-01-01

374

Northwest Coast Indian Art.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend. Characteristics of

Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

375

LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

Kiani, B.

1990-01-01

376

Horizons West.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)

Kitses, Jim

377

78 FR 37966 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Grand Traverse Bay, Traverse City, MI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary...National Cherry Festival in Traverse City, MI will host an air show over the West Arm...West Grand Traverse Bay, Traverse City, MI. (a) National Cherry Festival...

2013-06-25

378

In-situ strain monitoring in liquid containers of LNG transporting carriers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport carriers are exposed to a risk by the repeated bump in the LNG container during the vessel traveling over the wave in ocean. The liquid inside the container, especially when it was not fully contained, make a strong bump onto the insulation panel of the tank wall. The insulation panel consists of several layers of

Min-Cheol Oh; Jun-Kyu Seo; Kyung-Jo Kim; Sang-Min Lee; Myung-Hyun Kim

2008-01-01

379

Hazards of LNG spillage in marine transportation. Final report, December 1968June 1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the hazard of spillage of liquefied natural gas onto water is described. About 2000 gallons of LNG were consumed in various tests. The initial vaporization rate of LNG following spillage was found to be 0.037 lbs\\/sq ft sec; when the spill was confined, this vaporization rate was moderated after about 20 seconds by the growth of an

D. S. Burgess; J. N. Murphy; M. G. Zabetakis

1970-01-01

380

Intermountain Gas expands LNG storage to meet an exaggerated peak load problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermountain Gas Co., Boise, Idaho, uses LNG to solve its excessive winter peak load caused by a seasonal industrial demand and a heavy heating requirement. Having a year-round contract demand of 163 million SCF\\/day from Northwest Pipeline Col., Intermountain Gas must store excess gas as LNG in summer and draw from 3 storage systems for the winter peakshaving days: the

Forsyth

1975-01-01

381

Insulating LNG (liquified natural gas) storage tank containment dikes with a lightweight polymer concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural gas industry has always been concerned ith accidental spills of liquified natural gas (LNG) from storage tanks into surrounding containment dikes. The LNG that is leaked to the dike area boils off and the vapors mix with the atmosphere forming a hazardous explsoive mixture within the dike walls. These hazardous mixtures can travel long distances into industrial or

Fontana

1987-01-01

382

LNGFIRE: A thermal radiation model for LNG fires. Topical report, June 29, 1990. Documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Code Model for predicting exclusion distances from LNG fires (49 CFR 193.2057) was critically evaluated. The results of LNG fire tests carried out to date were reviewed and an improved model for predicting exclusion distances was developed and verified. This model assumes that the flame takes the shape of a cylinder or a parallellepiped, depending on whether the

S. Atallah; J. N. Shah

1990-01-01

383

Comparison of LNG, CNG, and diesel transit bus economics. Topical report, July 1992September 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the report is to compare the expected costs of operating a transit bus fleet on liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and diesel fuel. The special report is being published prior to the overall project final report in response to the current high level of interest in LNG transit buses. It focuses exclusively on the

C. A. Powars; C. B. Moyer; D. R. Luscher; D. D. Lowell; C. J. Pera

1993-01-01

384

78 FR 23552 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Cove Point LNG, LP (Dominion Cove Point), 120 Tredegar Street...authorization to construct, modify, own and operate certain facilities to...for the export at its existing Cove Point LNG terminal in Calvert...section 7 of the NGA, Dominion Cove Point seeks authority to...

2013-04-19

385

76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RP11-2136-000; RP11-2137-000] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical...Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed revised tariff records in Docket Nos. RP11-2136-000 and RP11-2137-000, proposing...

2011-07-11

386

Insulating LNG (Liquified Natural Gas) Storage Tank Containment Dikes with a Lightweight Polymer Concrete.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The natural gas industry has always been concerned with accidental spills of liquified natural gas (LNG) from storage tanks into surrounding containment dikes. The LNG that is leaked to the dike area boils off and the vapors mix with the atmosphere formin...

J. J. Fontana

1987-01-01

387

Analysis of Rollover phenomena and testing research of boil-off on the surface of LNG.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When a large amount of LNG of different density and temperature is added to a partially filled LNG tank, temporarily stratified layers are present together. As time elapses the subsequent abrupt mixing of the layers leads to a great deal of vaporization o...

H. Kim S. Y. Kim Y. S. Sohn

1994-01-01

388

Ignition sources of LNG vapor clouds. Final report aug 80-nov 81  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report presents a series of coordinated efforts to develop a data base for ignition sources of LNG vapor clouds in urban areas. A literature survey and field surveys of an urban area and of an LNG plant were conducted. Over 150 potential ignition sources were identified. The main source characteristics affecting ignition were analyzed, covering source density, accessibility to

D. J. Jeffreys; N. A. Moussa; R. N. Caron; D. S. Allan

1982-01-01

389

A combined power cycle using refuse incineration and LNG cold energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper are to develop a combined power generation cycle using refuse incineration and LNG cold energy, and to conduct parametric analysis to investigate the effects of key parameters on the thermal and exergy efficiencies. The combined cycle consists of an ammoniawater Rankine cycle with refuse incinerator and a LNG cold energy cycle. The combined cycle is

T Miyazaki; Y. T Kang; A Akisawa; T Kashiwagi

2000-01-01

390

Coupled hydro-thermal modeling of ice ring formation around a pilot LNG cavern in rock  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method of storing LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) in a lined, hard rock cavern has been developed and verified by the construction and operation of a pilot plant in Korea. Creation of an ice ring is one of the core techniques in LNG storage in a lined rock cavern. The ice ring serves not only as a primary barrier

Yong-Bok Jung; Eui-Seob Park; So-Keul Chung; Ho-Yeoung Kim

2011-01-01

391

Air Quality Study over the Atlantic Coast of Iberian Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The west coast of Iberian Peninsula, surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, is characterized by complex topography and some favourable\\u000a synoptical situations, which imply the appearance of mesoscale circulations strongly influencing the transport of pollutants.\\u000a On the other hand, the regions of Galicia (NW Spain), and the North of Portugal, have important air pollutants sources (power\\u000a plants, chemical industries, traffic and

Ana C. Carvalho; Anabela Carvalho; Alexandra Monteiro; Carlos Borrego; Ana I. Miranda; Ivan R. Gelpi; Vicent Prez-Muuzuri; Maria R. Mndez; Jos A. Souto

392

Mapping The Pacific Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maps of the Pacific Coast from the earliest period of European exploration continue to interest cartographers, geographers, and antiquarians. The maps in the Quivira Collection date from 1540 to 1802 and include early depictions of California as an island, Russian cartographic interpretations of the Pacific Coast, and overland maps across the continent westward to the ocean. All told, this online collection includes forty-five maps, books, and illustrations organized into six thematic galleries. Visitors can start by listening to an audio introduction, and then look around through the thematic galleries, which include such intriguing headings as " In the Wake of Captain James Cook" and "Secret Russian Explorations in the Pacific". Of course, visitors must click their way into the "California as an Island" section, if not just for a taste of six examples of what is perhaps one of the best-known cartographic mistakes in the world.

393

Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard

2000-01-28

394

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI), U.S. Engineer Office, New York District, military reservation location of fortification structures, map no. 1, Fort Hanconck, New Jersey, July 29, 1944 Detail of western docking structure - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

395

Huayanpeng boulder beach of Putuo Island, southeast coast of China: characteristics and explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Huayanpeng boulder beach is located at the Cape of Putuo Island, southeast coast of China. From 6000 years ago, sea level\\u000a changed little and turned steady, which was prone to forming the boulder beach. Since then, numerous storm surges propagated\\u000a from the West Pacific Ocean have imposed on the bedrock of the eastern coast of Putuo Island, resulting in a

Bin Chen; Zhongyuan Chen

2009-01-01

396

Geochemistry and age of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ivory Coast tektites were first reported in 1934 from a geographically restricted area at Ivory Coast, West Africa. Although some additional specimens have been found later, the total number remains small (a few hundred). The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana is most likely the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites, based on the finding that the tektites and the crater have the same age as well as similar isotopic and chemical compositions. In addition to tektites on land, microtektites were found in (so far) eleven deep-sea cores off the West African coast, between about 9N and 11S and 0 and 23W, defining the extent of the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field. In this study we analyzed eleven Ivory Coast tektites for their major and trace element composition, studied their petrographical characteristics, provided major element data for 111 microtektites, and major and trace element data for four microtektites. We determined the 40Ar39Ar step-heating age of five Ivory Coast tektites and four microtektites and obtained fission-track dates for ten tektites and one Bosumtwi impact glass. The tektites have very small intersample and intrasample variations of their major and trace element composition. 111 Ivory Coast microtektites from eleven cores were analyzed for their major element compositional range. Their compositional range is significantly wider than that of the Ivory Coast tektites, but the majority of all microtektites have compositions very similar to those of the tektites (within a factor of 1.2). Trace element compositions of the tektites also show little variation between samples. The samples do not show any distinct Eu anomaly in the REE patterns. This characteristic, as well as the high absolute REE abundances and La NYbN ratios of about 8, indicate that Archean rocks are plausible source rocks. The major and trace element contents of four individually analyzed Ivory Coast microtektites show compositions that are very similar to those of the Ivory Coast tektites. However, the microtektites contain >20 rel% higher abundances of some of the lithophile and siderophile trace elements, such as Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, Zr, Ba, Hf, Ta, Th, and the REEs. These differences are probably due to incorporation of a higher abundance of accessory trace minerals with the microtektite-forming melt. The Ivory Coast microtektites also have a uniform internal composition. Duplicate 40Ar39Ar step-heating age analyses were performed on five tektites. The best age estimate for the formation age of the tektites was calculated by taking a weighted average of the ages from the plateau portions of the runs, resulting in an age of 1.1 0.05 Ma. We also tried to date four microtektites by 40Ar39Ar age analyses, but their young age and small sample size makes it impossible to assign a reliable age to the microtektites. One run yielded satisfactory results that were similar to the tektite age. In addition, we determined the fission-track ages for ten individual Ivory Coast tektite samples and for one impact glass sample from the Bosumtwi crater. The track-size corrected ages for the Ivory Coast tektites ranged from 0.91 to 1.18 Ma, resulting in an average fission-track age of 1.05 0.11 Ma. This age is, within errors, identical to that of the Bosumtwi impact glass at 1.03 0.11 Ma, and to the 40Ar39Ar age of 1.1 0.05 Ma. The preferred age of the Ivory Coast tektite event is 1.07 Ma.

Koeberl, Christian; Bottomley, Richard; Glass, Billy P.; Storzer, Dieter

1997-04-01

397

Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na ?wiecie powoduje, ?e produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje si? coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem zwi?zanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze oko?o 111K pod ci?nieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezb?dny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciek?ej w gazow? dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umo?liwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do r?nych zastosowa?, mi?dzy innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znan? technik? analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na okre?lenie dystrybucji, ?rd?a i wielko?ci nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a wi?c ustali? wytyczne dotycz?ce efektywnego zu?ycia energii. Poniewa? zarwno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego s? energoch?onne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezb?dny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

?aciak, Mariusz

2013-06-01

398

LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to application for dispersion over smooth, level terrain free of obstacles (such as buildings, tanks, or dikes). There is a need for a dispersion model that allows consideration of the effects of terrain features and obstacles on the dispersion of LNG vapor clouds. Project milestones are: (1) Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Milestones Conditions; (2) Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces, With And Without Obstacles; and (3) Adapting the FEM3A Model for General Application. Results for this quarter are work continues to underway to address numerical problems during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, we have been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A. The present effort is directed to describing the ground surface temperature decrease as a function of time.

Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

2005-05-10

399

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

2012-03-01

400

West Coast Configuration Management Symposium. Technical Papers, Volume I.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The challenge of configuration management, organization for configuration management, systems management as a means to program management, configuration control at launch site, Minuteman configuration acct'g., machine systems for control of cont...

1965-01-01

401

COMPARISONOF THE MOST SUCCESSFULAND LEAST SUCCESSFUL WEST COAST ALBACORETROLL FISHERMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACf Catch data for albacore troll boats were collected from fishermen's logbooks and from dockside interviews during the 1968, 1969, and 1970 seasons. Fishing powers of these boats were calculated and used to determine the 10 most successful and 10 least successful fishermen (highliners and lowliners, respectively) who fished off Oregon and Washington. Characteristics of these two groups of fishermen

DONALD F. KEENE; WILLIAM G. PEARCy

1976-01-01

402

Climatic Fluctuations and the Timing of West Coast Streamflow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since about 1950 there has been a trend in the California Sierra Nevada toward a decreasing portion of the total annual streamflow occurring during April through July, while the streamflow during autumn and winter has increase. This trend not only has important ramifications with regard to water management, it also brings up the question of whether this represents a shift

E. Aguado; D. Cayan; L. Riddle; M. Roos

1992-01-01

403

Climatic fluctuations and the timing of west coast streamflow  

SciTech Connect

Since about 1950 there has been a trend in the California Sierra Nevada toward a decreasing portion of the total annual streamflow occurring during April through July, while the streamflow during autumn and winter has increased. This trend not only has important ramifications with regard to water mangement, it also brings up the question of whether this represents a shift toward earlier release of the snowpack resulting from greenhouse warming. Therefore, the observed record has been examined in terms of relative influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on the timing of streamflow in this region. To carry out this study, the fraction of annual streamflow (called the fractional streamflow) occurring in November-January (NDJ), February-April (FMA), and May-July (MJJ) at low, medium and high elevation basins in California and Oregon was examined. Linear regression models were used to relate precipitation and temperature to the fractional streamflow at the three elevations for each season. Composites of monthly temperature and precipitation were employed to further examine the fractional streamflow in its high and low tercile extremes. Long time series of climatic and hydrologic data were also looked at to infer the causes in the trend toward earlier runoff. 14 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

Aguado, E. (San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)); Cayan, D.; Riddle, L. (Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States)); Roos, M. (State of California Dept. of Water Resources, Sacramento, CA (United States))

1992-12-01

404

AN UPWELLING CASE STUDY ON FLORIDA'S WEST COAST. (R827085)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

405

Gandhis West, the Wests Gandhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gandhi had a life-long engagement with “the West.” He was educated in Britain, had close Jewish friends in South Africa, and engaged in discussions with Christian clergymen for much of his life. In the midst of struggles against racism and colonialism, Gandhi never lacked friends and admirers in Britain, Europe, and the U.S. Thoreau, Tolstoy, and Ruskin—the “Holy Trinity”—are widely

Vinay Lal

2009-01-01

406

A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. Operating costs of a salt cavern terminal are lower than tank based terminals because ''boil off'' is eliminated and maintenance costs of caverns are lower than LNG tanks. Phase II included the development of offshore mooring designs, wave tank tests, high pressure LNG pump field tests, heat exchanger field tests, and development of a model offshore LNG facility and cavern design. Engineers designed a model facility, prepared equipment lists, and confirmed capital and operating costs. In addition, vendors quoted fabrication and installation costs, confirming that an offshore salt cavern based LNG terminal would have lower capital and operating costs than a similarly sized offshore tank based terminal. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or purposeful damage, and much more acceptable to the community. More than thirty industry participants provided cost sharing, technical expertise, and guidance in the conduct and evaluation of the field tests, facility design and operating and cost estimates. Their close participation has accelerated the industry's acceptance of the conclusions of this research. The industry participants also developed and submitted several alternative designs for offshore mooring and for high pressure LNG heat exchangers in addition to those that were field tested in this project. HNG Storage, a developer, owner, and operator of natural gas storage facilities, and a participant in the DOE research has announced they will lead the development of the first offshore salt cavern based LNG import facility. Which will be called the Freedom LNG Terminal. It will be located offshore Louisiana, and is expected to be jointly developed with other members of the research group yet to be named. An offshore port license application is scheduled to be filed by fourth quarter 2005 and the terminal could be operational by 2009. This terminal allows the large volume importa

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

2005-05-31

407

Vapor burn analysis for the Coyote series LNG spill experiments  

SciTech Connect

A major purpose of the Coyote series of field experiments at China Lake, California, in 1981 was to study the burning of vapor clouds from spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water. Extensive arrays of instrumentation were deployed to obtain micrometeorological, gas concentration, and fire-related data. The instrumentation included in situ sensors of various types, high-speed motion picture cameras, and infrared (IR) imagers. Five of the total of ten Coyote spill experiments investigated vapor burns. The first vapor-burn experiment, Coyote 2, was done with a small spill of LNG to assess instrument capability and survivability in vapor cloud fires. The emphasis in this report is on the other four vapor-burn experiments: Coyotes 3, 5, 6, and 7. The data are analyzed to determine fire spread, flame propagation, and heat flux - quantities that are related to the determination of the damage zone for vapor burns. The results of the analyses are given here. 20 references, 57 figures, 7 tables.

Rodean, H.C.; Hogan, W.J.; Urtiew, P.A.; Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; McRae, T.G.; Morgan, D.L. Jr.

1984-04-01

408

Monitoring for Ozone Injury in West Coast (Oregon, Washington, California) Forests in 1998. Forest Health Monitoring/West Coast Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1998, forest vegetation was monitored for ozone injury on permanent plots in two Sierra Nevada national forests in California, at three locations in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington, and at 68 forest health monitoring (FHM) locations throughou...

S. Campbell G. Smith P. Temple J. Pronos R. Rochefort C. Anderson

2000-01-01

409

76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...California coastal Chinook), April 28, 2008 (Lower Columbia River natural coho), and April 30, 2010 (Sacramento...effect on ESA-listed North American green sturgeon (biological opinion dated April 30, 2007) or Pacific...

2011-12-29

410

Coasts In Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Geological Survey publication (Circular 1075) is the first of a planned group of monographs in a series called "Public Issues in Earth Science." It discusses the dangers posed to coasts and coastal communities by "development, recreation, and waste disposal," among other activities. It describes the ever changing nature of coastlines, and both the natural and human causes of coastal change. Four case studies are very briefly described. While not an exhaustive treatment of its subject, this is an effective introduction that may encourage further study. A small bibliography is provided.

Williams, S. J.; Dodd, Kurt.; Gohn, Kathleen K.

1997-01-01

411

Echo Integration-Trawl Survey of Pacific Hake, 'Merluccius productus', off the Pacific Coast of the United States and Canada during July-August, 1998.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results are presented for the eighth triennial echo integration-trawl (EIT) survey of Pacific hake, Merluccius productus, along the west coasts of the United States and Canada during the summer 1998. Scientists from the United States and Canada conducted ...

C. D. Wilson K. Cooke M. A. Guttormsen M. W. Saunders

2000-01-01

412

Business-to-business marketing practices in West Africa, Argentina and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose This study aims to examine the nature of business-to-business marketing practices in two West African nations, Ghana and Ivory Coast, and compare them with marketing practices in another emerging market economy (Argentina) and a developed economy (the USA). Design\\/methodology\\/approach Survey data were collected in both West African nations, Argentina and the USA, using a standard survey instrument

Kofi Q. Dadzie; Wesley J. Johnston; Jaqueline Pels

2008-01-01

413

Identification and Assessment of Scleractinians at Tarou Point, Dominica, West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tarou Point, located on the west coast of Dominica in the West Indies, is a volcanic outcrop covered with coral assemblages. Four different sections within Tarou Point were surveyed for scleractinian species richness and frequency distribution analyses. Twenty-two species of scleractinians were identified, among which Porites astreoides, Agaracia agaricites, Siderastrea siderea, and Meandrina meandrites represented the highest average abundance over

AMY DIAMOND

2003-01-01

414

Trends and Issues in Vocational Technical Education in Francophone West Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Francophone West Africa has committed itself to the goal of universal formal education as the most effective method of insuring rapid economic and national development. (Francophone West Africa is composed of Senegal, Mauritania, Guinea, Mali, Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin, Niger, and Burkina-Faso.) The costly investments of limited fiscal resources

Kogoe, Akrima

415

77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast...on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during...Room W12-140 on the ground floor of the Department of Transportation...on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located south of Key...

2012-12-26

416

Trends and Issues in Vocational Technical Education in Francophone West Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Francophone West Africa has committed itself to the goal of universal formal education as the most effective method of insuring rapid economic and national development. (Francophone West Africa is composed of Senegal, Mauritania, Guinea, Mali, Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin, Niger, and Burkina-Faso.) The costly investments of limited fiscal resources in

Kogoe, Akrima

417

Coasts in Crisis  

SciTech Connect

Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

Hinrichsen, D.

1996-11-01

418

Outlook for third Malaysian LNG plant brighter with big gas find  

SciTech Connect

Prospects for a third liquefied natural gas export complex in Malaysia are brighter than ever. A unit of Occidental Petroleum Corp. has drilled its fourth and biggest natural gas strike into a carbonate reef on Block SK-8 off Sarawak, East Malaysia, turning up still more potential reserves for the country's proposed third LNG plant. The find brings to a combined total of 5 tcf of gas in place in the four SK-8 fields for which Oxy has disclosed test results. Well details are given. The LNG project under study would make Malaysia the largest supplier of LNG to the rapidly expanding East Asian market, Oxy said.

Not Available

1993-05-03

419

75 FR 67809 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rockfish is particularly vulnerable to hook and line gear. Because yelloweye rockfish...majority of participants in both fisheries use hook-and-line gear. These fisheries will...implement a gear restriction (e.g. hook limits) for cabezon and kelp...

2010-11-03

420

75 FR 67032 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Rationalization Program; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; correction...Washington, Oregon, and California, and reductions to daily...S.C. 553 so that this correction is effective on November...

2010-11-01

421

77 FR 67973 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...another species), the choice of canary rockfish and...the ``rebuilding paradox'' (the fishing interaction...contributes to the local social fabric, culture...another species), the choice of canary rockfish and...carryover provision is the choice of the vessel...

2012-11-14

422

76 FR 34910 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the 2011 sablefish annual catch limit (ACL). DATES: Effective June 10, 2011. Comments...the 2011 sablefish annual catch limit (ACL) for the area north of 36[deg] N. lat. From the sablefish ACL, NMFS calculated the allocations,...

2011-06-15

423

75 FR 38030 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Specifications for Yelloweye Rockfish and In-Season Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures...Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; in-season adjustments to biennial groundfish management...for yelloweye rockfish and makes in-season adjustments to trawl fishery...

2010-07-01

424

76 FR 54713 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Specifications and Management Measures; Correction AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...SUMMARY: This document contains corrections to the final regulations that were published...California. This action provides nine corrections to the regulations, all of which...

2011-09-02

425

75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Specifications and Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...adjustments to groundfish management measures; Pacific whiting harvest specifications...Groundfish Specifications and Management Measures are available from Donald McIsaac,...

2010-05-04

426

75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inseason Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures; request for comments...adjustments to commercial fishery management measures for several groundfish species...

2010-08-23

427

76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason Adjustments AGENCY: National...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures; request for comments...announces inseason changes to management measures in the commercial and recreational...

2011-12-21

428

75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inseason Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures; request for comments...adjustments to commercial fishery management measures for several groundfish species...

2010-10-04

429

76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inseason Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures; request for comments...commercial and recreational fishery management measures for several groundfish species...

2011-03-02

430

75 FR 75417 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Inseason Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures; request for comments...commercial and tribal fishery management measures for several groundfish species...

2010-12-03

431

75 FR 23615 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason Adjustments; Pacific Halibut...inseason adjustments to management measures; announcement of elimination of incidental...Groundfish specifications and management measures are developed by the Pacific...

2010-05-04

432

75 FR 32993 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...halibut south of Pt. Arena, and sea cucumbers south of Pt. Arena. Nontrawl fishery...Non-groundfish trawl gear for sea cucumber, (13) Open access longline...lat.), California halibut or sea cucumbers). Restrictions for gears used in...

2010-06-10

433

33 CFR 117.511 - West Pearl River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Pearl River. 117.511 Section 117.511 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.511...

2010-07-01

434

Missionary Education in West Africa: A Study of Pedagogical Ambition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The history of the North German Mission Society (established 1836 in Hamburg) and its activity on the West African coast (from 1847 onwards among the Ewe, in what is now Ghana and Togo where it was and still is known as the "Bremen Mission") mirrors neatly the various phases of the idea of "mission": its composite motivation (Enlightenment,

Ustorf, Werner

2011-01-01

435

North and South Carolina Coasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This coastal region of North and South Carolina is a gently sloping plain, containing large riverine estuaries, sounds, lagoons, and salt marshes. The most striking feature is the large, enclosed sound known as the AlbemarlePamlico Estuarine System, covering approximately 7530 km2. The coast also has numerous tidal creek estuaries ranging from 1 to 10 km in length. This coast has

MICHAEL A. MALLIN; JOANN M. BURKHOLDER; LAWRENCE B. CAHOON; MARTIN H. POSEY

2000-01-01

436

What's West Nile Virus?  

MedlinePLUS

... Baseball Injuries Jellyfish The Pink Locker Society What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > ... are most at risk for the infection. Continue West Nile Symptoms Most of the time, symptoms of West ...

437

Holocene deglaciation of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica.  

PubMed

Surface exposure ages of glacial deposits in the Ford Ranges of western Marie Byrd Land indicate continuous thinning of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet by more than 700 meters near the coast throughout the past 10,000 years. Deglaciation lagged the disappearance of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere by thousands of years and may still be under way. These results provide further evidence that parts of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet are on a long-term trajectory of decline. West Antarctic melting contributed water to the oceans in the late Holocene and may continue to do so in the future. PMID:12511648

Stone, John O; Balco, Gregory A; Sugden, David E; Caffee, Marc W; Sass, Louis C; Cowdery, Seth G; Siddoway, Christine

2003-01-01

438

WestEd: Technology In Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WestEd's Technology in Education site is designed to disseminate educational information. They offer an array of services & resources to assist educators, educational agencies, policy makers in the development, implementation, and evaluation of educational technology.

1997-01-01

439

75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the application...

2010-11-17

440

76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...Application. The application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port facility that would be...

2011-01-25

441

33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside...is limited to (1) Personnel who work at the waterfront...including persons assigned for transfer operations, vessel personnel, and delivery and...

2013-07-01

442

Hazards to nuclear power plants from large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spills on water  

SciTech Connect

The hazards to nuclear power plants arising from large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water transportation routes are treated by deterministic analytical procedures. Global models, which address the salient features of the LNG spill phenomena are used in the analysis. A coupled computational model for the combined LNG spill, spreading, and fire scenario is developed. To predict the air blast environment in the vicinity of vapor clouds with pancake-like geometries, a scalable procedure using both analytical methods and hydrocode calculations is synthesized. Simple response criteria from the fire and weapons effects literature are used to characterize the susceptibility of safety-related power plant systems. The vulnerability of these systems is established either by direct comparison between the LNG threat and the susceptibility criteria or through simple response calculations. Results are analyzed.

Kot, C.A.; Eichler, T.V.; Wiedermann, A.H.; Pape, R.; Srinivasan, M.G.

1981-11-01

443

Remarkable fossil locality: Crinoid stems from migmatite of the Coast Plutonic Complex, British Columbia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Well-preserved, unstrained casts of crinoid stem fragments have been discovered in a calc-silicate boudin in deformed migmatitic gneiss of the Coast Plutonic Complex, west-central British Columbia. This is among the first reports of macrofossils in rock of such high metamorphic grade.

Hill, Mary Louise

1985-11-01

444

Workin' from cain to cain't: Challenges within Florida's Gulf Coast oyster industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oyster tongers are a cultural icon of Florida's maritime heritage and geography. Challenged for generations by the vagaries of weather, including catastrophic storms and years-long droughts, and economic uncertainties this maritime heritage is fading fast. While Florida's north and west coasts produce 90 percent of the Florida oyster harvest and ten percent of oysters consumed in the United States, the

Diane Marie Wakeman

2009-01-01

445

Emerita analoga (Stimpson) as an indicator species for paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity along the California coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSPT) produced by certain harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Along the West coast of North America, Mytilus californianus (California sea mussel) has long been used as the primary indicator species for monitoring levels of PSPT in the environment. However, because the natural distribution of this species is limited to

C. K. Bretz; T. J. Manouki; R. G. Kvitek

2002-01-01

446

Effect of Landscape-Watershed Attributes on CDOM in Florida's Gulf Coast Rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Florida's Gulf Coast has multiple river systems with unique landscape and watershed attributes. Systems that supply water and material to the West Florida Shelf include the Apalachicola, Suwannee, Tampa Bay, Charlotte Harbor and the Shark Rivers. Northern riversheds have large watershed size and are dominated by forest and agricultural land cover, whereas riversheds in Central Florida are primarily urbanized landscapes

R. N. Conmy; J. C. Lehrter; J. Jackson; P. G. Coble; R. H. Hastings

2010-01-01

447

ASSESSMENT OF OFFSHORE SAND RESOURCES FOR BEACH NOURISHMENT ALONG THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF FLORIDA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional sand resource investigations along the west coast of Florida (from Pinellas County to Collier County) identify types of primary depositional settings that are commonly explored for beach nourishment projects and indicate future availability of sand for beach restoration. Because the nature of sedimentary deposits determines sand quality and its potential use for beach nourishment, it is necessary to understand

Charles W. Finkl; Jeffrey L. Andrews; Lindino Benedet

448

SUMMER STREAM TEMPERATURES, JUVENILE COHO CONDITION FACTORS AND BLACK SPOT INFECTION IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

We monitored stream temperatures at 35 locations throughout the West Fork Smith River watershed in the Oregon Coast Range during the summer of 2002. Between July 24 and August 24, maximum seven-day moving average high daily temperatures ranged from 21.8 C near the catchment's mo...

449

Refrigeration cycles for future base-load LNG plants need a close look  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper briefly reviews the liquefaction cycles which are presently used in base-load liquefied natural gas (LNG) plants, and presents some information for equipment and process selection for new facilities. Twelve base-load LNG facilities are described. The facilities are categorized according to the general type of refrigeration cycle used: classical cascade, mixed refrigerant, and propane-precooled\\/mixed-refrigerant. Variations exist within each category,

Geist

1985-01-01

450

Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction\\u000a pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range\\u000a of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used\\u000a for extra-large

Ruifu Zhang; Dagen Weng; Xiaosong Ren

2011-01-01

451

A study of the gas flow through a LNG safety valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safety valve functions to control an upper limit of pressure inside the LNG line of transportation. If the pressure inside\\u000a the safety valve nozzle exceeds a pre-determined value on the valve sheet which plugs the nozzle, an excess of LNG discharges\\u000a through the gap between the nozzle exit and valve sheet. In this situation, the forces acting on the

Heuy-Dong Kim; Jun-Hee Lee; Kyung-Am Park; Toshiaki Setoguchi; Shigeru Matsuo

2006-01-01

452

Comparison of LNG, CNG, and diesel transit bus economics. Topical report, July 1992-September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the report is to compare the expected costs of operating a transit bus fleet on liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and diesel fuel. The special report is being published prior to the overall project final report in response to the current high level of interest in LNG transit buses. It focuses exclusively on the economics of LNG buses as compared with CNG and diesel buses. The reader is referred to the anticipated final report, or to a previously published 'White Paper' report (Reference 1), for information regarding LNG vehicle and refueling system technology and/or the economics of other LNG vehicles. The LNG/CNG/diesel transit bus economics comparison is based on total life-cycle costs considering all applicable capital and operating costs. The costs considered are those normally borne by the transit property, i.e., the entity facing the bus purchase decision. These costs account for the portion normally paid by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA). Transit property net costs also recognize the sale of emissions reduction credits generated by using natural gas (NG) engines which are certified to levels below standards (particularly for NOX).

Powars, C.A.; Moyer, C.B.; Luscher, D.R.; Lowell, D.D.; Pera, C.J.

1993-10-20

453

Regional seismotectonic model for the southern Coast Ranges  

SciTech Connect

On the basis of seismicity in the southern Coast Ranges for the 11 years before the May 2 earthquake and on focal mechanisms of selected moderate recent earthquakes in the region, the authors propose a model for the generation of reverse- and thrust-fault earthquakes, such as the May 2 earthquake, along both the east and west flanks of the Coast Ranges. These earthquakes appear to result from a component of apparent convergent displacement across the San Andreas transform system in the southern Coast Ranges. Earthquakes with reverse and thrust focal mechanisms occur in regions with a distinctive pattern of seismicity characterized by detached clusters of epicenters. These regions lie along the flanks of the southern Coast Ranges and are separated from the San Andreas fault by other regions of relative quiescence. In this model, the reverse- and thrust-fault earthquakes occur where detachment zones within a ductile lower crust beneath the center of the transform system pass upward into the brittle upper crust along its margins. Convergence across the transform system, together with regions of unusually strong materials in the brittle upper crust flanking the San Andreas fault southeast of Cholame, may also play an important role in producing great earthquakes in that region.

Eaton, J.P.; Rymer, M.J.

1990-01-01

454

Meteorological and internal wave forcing of seiches along the Sri Lanka coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regularly observed seiches from tide gauge records around the Sri Lanka coast have been analyzed to determine the forcing mechanisms. The seiche periods range from a few 10s of min to 2 h. Fortnightly and seasonal variations of seiche amplitudes are clearly visible on the east coast. These seiche amplitudes are particularly large approximately 6-8 days after spring tides, with maximum seiche amplitudes observed during March-April and October-November, suggesting that the seiche variation could be related to stratification and internal wave activity. There is no visible fortnightly and seasonal variation of seiche amplitudes in west coast records. Instead, they show a daily pattern with relatively larger seiches around 1000 LT, suggesting that the seiches on the west coast could result from diurnal atmospheric forcing. Barotropic and two-layer models have been developed to investigate the influence of atmospheric forcing and internal wave activity on the seiches. A barotropic model applied to the west coast shows that the daily seiche amplitude variation could be simulated with cyclic diurnal meteorological forcing. Two-layer model runs for Trincomalee Bay and the adjacent east coast shelf suggest that seiche amplitudes are proportional to vertical stratification and mixed layer depths. Therefore, the observed seiches there could be excited by internal waves, which originate as far away as the Andaman Sea during spring tides and have a travel time of 6-8 days to the Sri Lankan east coast. However, further studies, including direct measurements of internal wave activity within the region, are required to confirm this hypothesis.

Wijeratne, E. M. S.; Woodworth, P. L.; Pugh, D. T.

2010-03-01

455

Andrew spares Florida Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When geologists heard of the intensity of Hurricane Andrew, which struck the Florida coast on August 25 and then moved on to southern Louisiana, they were expecting the same kinds of coastal damage that Hurricane Hugo brought to the Caribbean and Carolina shores in 1989. Both storms were category 4 hurricanes, having winds of 131-155 mph and surges of 13-18 feet. However, the coastal damage never materialized, leaving geologists to analyze the factors that lessened the impact of the storm. For minimum coastal damage, you couldn't have designed a better storm, said Orrin Pilkey, director of the Program for the Study of Developed Shorelines (PSDS) in Durham, N.C. This was due in part to the nature of the storm itself and where it hit land, and in part to the regional geology, said Rob Thieler of PSDS. Despite the huge amounts of damage to buildings, there was virtually no evidence of coastal process destruction, he said.

Bush, Susan

456

California Coast Nearshore Processes Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers form detectable seasonal patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. The ocean current systems, as plotted from three California coast ERTS mosai...

D. M. Pirie D. D. Steller

1973-01-01

457

Controlling the Hazards from LNG Spills on the Ground, LNG Firefighting Methods and Their Effects Application to Gas de France Terminals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gaz de France has developed a mathematical model to calculate vapor dispersion from accidental LNG spills on land. This model has been applied to make clear the influence of certain parameters in reducing the extension of the plumes. Based on the results ...

F. Bellus H. Cochard J. Mauger R. Vincent

1978-01-01

458

78 FR 53750 - EcoElctrica, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff of...will prepare an environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the LNG...ctrica) at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility...

2013-08-30

459

Regulatory Application of Wind Tunnel Models and Complex Mathematical Models for Simulating Atmospheric Dispersion of LNG Vapor. Topical Report, September 1988-August 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reassessment of wind-tunnel methods for modeling liquefied natural gas (LNG) vapor dispersion at very low wind speeds is suggested. An evaluation of wind tunnel simulations of LNG vapor dispersion indicates that the assumptions required for scaling wind...

J. Havens T. Spicer H. Walker

1994-01-01

460

East Coast 'Derecho'  

NASA Video Gallery

This movie of the derecho that affected the Eastern United States in late June 2012 was created by imagery from NOAA's GOES -13 satellite. It begins on June 28 at 1515 UTC (11:15 a.m. EDT) and ends on June 30 at 1601 UTC (12:01 p.m. EDT). The derecho's clouds appear as a line in the upper Midwest on June 29 at 1432 UTC. By 1602 UTC, they appear as a rounded area south of Lake Michigan. By 2132, the area of the derecho's clouds were near Lake Erie and over Ohio expanding as the system track southeast. By 0630 UTC, the size appears to have almost doubled as the derecho moves over West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia. At 0232 UTC on June 30 (10:32 p.m. EDT), the Derecho was over the mid-Atlantic bringing a 100 mile line of severe storms and wind gusts as high as 90 mph to the region. Credit: NASA GOES Project > Related story > Download video

Robert Garner

2012-07-03

461

78 FR 17094 - Safety Zone; 2013 Naval Air Station Key West Air Spectacular, Boca Chica Channel; Boca Chica, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Air Spectacular, Boca Chica Channel; Boca Chica, FL AGENCY: Coast...the waters of the Boca Chica Channel in Boca Chica, Florida, during...Transportation West Building, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington...areas extend into Boca Chica Channel located west of Boca...

2013-03-20

462

Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

Beck, Douglas S.

2003-01-10

463

Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

2011-06-01

464

Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

Hayes, Mark Hanley

465

Zero-Emission Combined Power Cycle Using LNG Cold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potential zero emission combined power generation plant fired by liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been investigated. A mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2)-steam is used as the working fluid of a gas turbine cycle, which replaces the normal combustion-in-air products and air, notably as the thermal ballast for the control of flame temperature. Oxygen (O2) is used as the fuel oxidant and is obtained from an air separation unit (ASU). The excess CO2 due to combustion is extracted by a simple flow separator and liquefied ready to be reused and/or sequestered. The plant configuration and thermodynamics of the cycle are discussed first and then the optimised overall efficiency of the plant is calculated with a comparison of 100% and 120% stoichiometric combustion. The overall net efficiency, optimised to pressure and temperature levels complying with the material and cooling techniques currently available, is around 56% (LHV basis), including the energy penalty of the ASU and the CO2 separation.

Velautham, Sanjayan; Ito, Takehiro; Takata, Yasuyuki

466

West Antarctic Glacier Ice Flows and Elevation Change  

NASA Video Gallery

This animation shows glacier changes detected by ATM, ICESat and ice bridge data in the highly dynamic Amundsen Embayment of West Antarctica. Integrating these altimetry sources allows us to estimate surface height changes throughout the drainage regions of the most important glaciers in the region. We see large elevation changes at the coast on Thwaites glacier, at the center of the images, and large and accelerating elevation changes extending inland from the coast on Pine Island and Smith glaciers, to the left and right of the images, respectively.

Holly Zell

2011-11-03

467

How States Can Affect Federal Deepwater Port LNG Licensing Decisions: A Case Study Involving the Deepwater Port Act and the Coastal Zone Management Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article explores the general role of coastal states in permitting offshore LNG terminals, and the specific role that California played in the licensing process for the proposed Cabrillo Port LNG project. There are many facets of state authority, including the approvals required for the portions of LNG projects located within a coastal states jurisdiction (primarily within the first three

Linda Krop

2011-01-01

468

Environmental Impact Assessment For Oman LNG Expansion Project: NO 2 Air Quality Analysis with A Proposal For A Third Train  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oman entered the LNG market (liquefied Natural Gas) in April 2000 with the first shipment to South Korea. Oman LNG plant is currently producing 6.6 million metric tonne per annum from two trains. However, there are plans for expansion of the plant to increase its existing capacity by adding one more gas liquefaction train (train 3). The purpose of this

Sabah A. Abdul-Wahab; Krishnasamy Raman; Mazin Al-Riyamy; Mohammed Al-Barashdi

2002-01-01

469

Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water  

Microsoft Academic Search

While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention

Gerald William Wellman; Brian Matthew Melof; Anay Josephine Luketa-Hanlin; Marion Michael Hightower; John Morgan Covan; Louis Alan Gritzo; Michael James Irwin; Michael Jiro Kaneshige; Charles W. Morrow

2004-01-01

470

LNGFIRE: A thermal-radiation model for LNG fires. Topical report, October 25, 1988June 29, 1990. documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Federal Code Model for predicting exclusion distances from Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) fires (49 CFR 193.2057) was critically evaluated. The results of LNG fire tests carried out to date were reviewed, and an improved model for predicting exclusion distances was developed and verified. The model assumes that the flame takes the shape of a cylinder or a parallellepiped, depending

S. Atallah; J. N. Shah

1990-01-01

471

LNG vapor dispersion prediction with the DEGADIS dense-gas dispersion model. Topical report, April 1988July 1990. Documentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The topical report is one of a series on the development of methods for LNG vapor dispersion prediction for regulatory application. The results indicate that the DEGADIS model is superior both phenomenologically and in performance to the Gaussian line source model promulgated in 49 CFR 193 for LNG vapor dispersion simulation. Availability of the DEGADIS model for VAX and IBM-PC

J. Havens; T. Spicer

1990-01-01

472

The utilization of LH2 and LNG cold for generation of electric power by a cryogenic-type Stirling engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a regasification process for LNG and LH2, a cryogenic-type Stirling engine combined with an electric generator is used as the main component. This engine is cooled by LNG or LH2 and is heated by hot water rejected from the power station, so that the engine runs and supplies additional electric power together with fuel gas supplied at room temperature.

K. Oshima; Y. Ishizaki; S. Kamiyama; M. Akiyama; M. Okuda

1978-01-01