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1

West Coast Fog  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is part of the Physical Processes Professional Competency Unit of the Forecasting Low-Altitude Clouds and Fog for Aviation Operations Professional Development Series. West Coast Fog discusses the climatology, physical processes, and evolution of hot spell fogs along the U.S. West Coast.

Comet

2000-09-29

2

West Coast Shipwrecks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data activity, learners will explore shipwrecks from four National Marine Sanctuaries on the West Coast of the United States. Learners will practice map skills while exploring historical and modern ocean navigation technology.

Rose, Laura

2013-01-04

3

West Coast Poverty Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

4

Greenland full west coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

5

Greenland: Full West Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

6

West Coast Chlorophyll Bloom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on board the Orbview 2 satellite captured the phytoplankton bloom October 6, 2002 . Red represents high concentration of chlorophyll, follow by orange, yellow and green. Land and cloud portions of the image are presented in natural color. SeaWiFS monitors ocean plant life by measuring the amount of chlorophyll in the ocean. Large phytoplankton blooms tend to coincide with natural phenomena that drive that nutrient-rich water to the surface. The process is called upwelling. Winds coming off principal land masses push surface layers of water away from the shore. Into the resulting wind-driven void deeper water underneath the surface layers rushes in toward the coast, bringing with it nutrients for life to bloom. This upwelling fuel the growth of marine phytoplankton which, along with larger seaweeds, nourishes the incredible diversity of creatures found along the northern and central California coast.

Perkins, Lori; Feldman, Gene

2002-10-15

7

78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...130108020-3409-01] RIN 0648-XC738 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions...Commercial fisheries from the US/Canada Border to Cape...

2013-08-19

8

76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...110223162-1295-02] RIN 0648-XA184 Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction...Border.'' The area listed as ``Horse Mt. to US-Mexico Border'' is corrected to read...

2011-06-07

9

78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...industry sectors in the US, including fish harvesting...from operations in the West Coast groundfish fishery. The 127 vessels in the West Coast limited entry groundfish...101(a)(5)(E). West coast pot fisheries for...

2013-02-01

10

West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

2013-12-01

11

Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

NONE

1997-05-01

12

75 FR 78343 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...902 50 CFR Part 660 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...100212086-0532-05] RIN 0648-AY68 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...series of public workshops along the West Coast during the months of...

2010-12-15

13

75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...implementation of the FMP for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery is not expected...Also in 2005, new data from the West Coast Groundfish Observer Program became...follows: PART 660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 1. The authority...

2010-03-12

14

78 FR 68764 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...130528511-3935-02] RIN 0648-BD31 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...Jr., Regional Administrator, West Coast Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way...Compliance Guide are also available on the West Coast Region's Web site at...

2013-11-15

15

78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...130528511-3592-01] RIN 0648-BD31 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...have lenders that will work with the West Coast industry. In assessing various lenders...follows: PART 660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1. The authority...

2013-07-19

16

76 FR 59634 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...110908575-1573-01] RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...revenues by 3%, thereby providing the west coast economy with slightly lower ex-vessel...Also in 2005, new data from the West Coast Groundfish Observer Program...

2011-09-27

17

Traditional West Coast Native Medicine  

PubMed Central

An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

Deagle, George

1988-01-01

18

78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries...These inseason actions modified the commercial and recreational salmon fisheries in...May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and recreational fisheries in...

2013-11-26

19

77 FR 28497 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...continued operation of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery is likely to adversely...continued operation of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery is not likely to...follows: PART 660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1. The authority...

2012-05-15

20

77 FR 45508 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...industry sectors in the US, including fish harvesting...the effects of the Pacific Coast groundfish FMP fisheries...operation of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery is not...PART 660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1. The...

2012-08-01

21

77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Amendment 21 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish FMP; a notice...industry sectors in the US, including fish harvesting...operation of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery is not...PART 660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 1. The...

2012-05-21

22

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

2004-01-01

23

75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...indices from the Joint US- Canadian acoustic/midwater...were intended to allow West Coast commercial and recreational...intended to allow year-round West Coast groundfish landings, without...PART 660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1. The...

2010-05-04

24

West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunami warning center for Alaska and the west coast of the United States. Users can access current tsunami information through an interactive map that shows the latest events and information statements. Rolling over the map symbols provides the date and time, location, and preliminary magnitude of earthquakes. Clicking on them provides access to additional information, including a statement of whether a tsunami is expected. There are also links to previous warning messages, Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds with headlines, links to documents and brief information; publications; and links to related sites with additional information.

2010-11-12

25

77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...industry sectors in the US, including fish harvesting...distribution of whiting off the west coast. The whiting fishery has...the FMP for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery was not...PART 660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 1. The...

2012-02-22

26

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY...proposes regulations to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...and California (Salmon FMP). Amendment 17, which was transmitted by the Pacific...

2012-12-19

27

Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia & Climate Change: West Coast Region Introduction  

E-print Network

Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia & Climate Change: West Coast Region Introduction Harmful algal blooms species, and serious threats to human health posed by algal toxins. Just one harmful algal bloom event can and harmful algal blooms is a possibility under some West Coast climate change forecasts. The Problem

28

78 FR 36117 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...stock exists outside of US waters and can therefore...Pacific sardine off the West Coast. The commenter however...stock structure along the west coast; along with potential...vessels that compose the West Coast CPS small purse seine...

2013-06-17

29

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

30

76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management...to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish...sablefish by the open access fishery; prevent premature...exceeding the OY. West Coast Groundfish Observer...

2011-03-02

31

Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from\\u000a large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms,\\u000a and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable\\u000a shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds,

Robert Emmett; ROBERTO LLANSO ´; Jan Newton; Ron Thom; Michelle Hornberger; Cheryl Morgan; Colin Levings; Andrea Copping; Paul Fishman

2000-01-01

32

A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new article is available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast, discusses the "contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the U.S. West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise." Data published in this article is presented in ASCII text and/or can be read using a FORTRAN 77 data-retrieval routine

33

Sequestration Options for the West Coast States  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

Larry Myer

2006-04-30

34

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY...Management Act (MSA) to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...Salmon FMP). NMFS approved Amendment 17 on February 5, 2013. Among other...

2013-02-14

35

75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-AX98 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...Hurtado@state.or.us); and (3) California...vessel document (U.S. Coast Guard or state) as evidence...PART 660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1. The...

2010-01-29

36

76 FR 18709 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...meeting, NMFS, the states and the Quinault, Quileute...non-tribal citizens. (United States v. Washington, 384...due to the worldwide recession. For 2010, the preliminary...FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 1. The authority...

2011-04-05

37

Greenland: Full West Coast (2nd render)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

38

Gaining more access is focus on West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Beaufort Sea wildcat off the tantalizing Arctic National Wildlife Refuge highlights U.S. West Coast exploration\\/development action this year. Targeting the same structure tapped by the only wildcat drilled on ANWR's coastal Plain, the Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production offshore well may give more clues as to the potential of North America's most prospective and most controversial untapped petroleum province.

1988-01-01

39

Review of the twelfth West Coast retrovirus meeting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every year the Cancer Research Institute from University of California at Irvine organizes the West Coast Retrovirus Meeting where participants have a chance to discuss the latest progress in understanding the pathology of retroviruses. The 12th meeting was held at the Hyatt Regency Suites in Palm Springs, California from October 6th to October 9th 2005, with the major focus on

Sheila M Barry; Marta Melar; Philippe Gallay; Thomas J Hope

2005-01-01

40

The Correspondents Report: The Capital; Midwest; Northeast; South; West Coast  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on: turning back cuts in social services in Washington, D.C.; the movement of minorities toward construction trades in the Midwest; the possibilities of racial violence this year in the Northeast; the making of a black Congressman in the South; and, the making of a black Mayor in the West Coast. (RJ)

Race Relations Reporter, 1973

1973-01-01

41

North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

McIntosh, C. Barron

1974-01-01

42

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2012-07-01

43

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2010-07-01

44

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2014-07-01

45

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2011-07-01

46

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2013-07-01

47

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOOD OF SKIPJACK AND YELLOWFIN TUNAS OFF THE COAST OF WEST AFRICA'  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOOD OF SKIPJACK AND YELLOWFIN TUNAS OFF THE COAST OF WEST AFRICA' ALEXANDER yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) captured in 1968 by live bait and trolling off the coast of West Africa food studies off the coast of West Africa showed greater taxonomic similarity in tuna forage when

48

NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER ATLANTIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA  

E-print Network

NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER ATLANTIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA Paul Whitmore - NOAA/West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center - Palmer, Alaska Uri ten Brink ­ United States Geological/West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center - Palmer, Alaska William Sammler ­ NOAA/National Weather Service

ten Brink, Uri S.

49

78 FR 16828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review of the West Coast Distinct...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...throughout the range of its West Coast distinct population segment...analysis of whether the West Coast DPS of the fisher warrants...interested parties to provide us information regarding the...potential threats to, the West Coast DPS of the fisher....

2013-03-19

50

77 FR 67327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY...Council (Council) has transmitted Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management...FMP) for Secretarial review. Amendment 17 revises the maximum fishing mortality...

2012-11-09

51

THE OYSTER-GROUNDS OF THE WEST FLORIDA COAST: THEIR EXTENT, CONDITION, AND PECULIARITIES.  

E-print Network

THE OYSTER-GROUNDS OF THE WEST FLORIDA COAST: THEIR EXTENT, CONDITION, AND PECULIARITIES. By FRANKLIN SWIFT, U. S. NAVY, Commanding United States Fish Commission Steamer Fisl, Hawk. , The oyster-grounds of the west coast of Florida extend the whole length of the coast. Oysters are found growing in great

52

ARkStorm: A West Coast Storm Scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is preparing a new emergency-preparedness scenario, called ARkStorm, to address massive U.S. West Coast storms analogous to those that devastated California in 1861-62. Storms of this magnitude are projected to become more frequent and intense as a result of climate change. The MHDP has assembled experts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USGS, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, the State of California, California Geological Survey, the University of Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and other organizations to design the large, but scientifically plausible, hypothetical scenario storm that would provide emergency responders, resource managers, and the public a realistic assessment of what is historically possible. The ARkStorm patterns the 1861 - 1862 historical events but uses modern modeling methods and data from large storms in 1969 and 1986. The ARkStorm draws heat and moisture from the tropical Pacific, forming Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) that grow in size, gain speed, and with a ferocity equal to hurricanes, slam into the U.S. West Coast for several weeks. Using sophisticated weather models and expert analysis, precipitation, snowlines, wind, and pressure data the modelers will characterize the resulting floods, landslides, and coastal erosion and inundation. These hazards will then be translated into the infrastructural, environmental, agricultural, social, and economic impacts. Consideration will be given to catastrophic disruptions to water supplies resulting from impacts on groundwater pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence. Possible climate-change forces that could exacerbate the problems will also be evaluated. In contrast to the recent U.S. East and Gulf Coast hurricanes, only recently have scientific and technological advances documented the ferocity and strength of possible future West Coast storms. A task of ARkStorm is to elevate the visibility of the very real threats to human life, property, and ecosystems posed by extreme storms on the U.S. West Coast. This enhanced visibility will help increase the preparedness of the emergency management community and the public to such storms. ARkStorm is scheduled to be completed by September 2010 and will be the basis of a state-wide emergency response drill, Golden Guardian, led by the California Emergency Management Agency in 2011.

Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Ralph, F. M.; Dettinger, M. D.; Porter, K.; Perry, S. C.; Barnard, P. L.; Hoover, D.; Wills, C. J.; Stock, J. D.; Croyle, W.; Ferris, J. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Miller, M.; Wein, A.; Rose, A.; Done, J.; Topping, K.

2009-12-01

53

Gaining more access is focus on West Coast  

SciTech Connect

A Beaufort Sea wildcat off the tantalizing Arctic National Wildlife Refuge highlights U.S. West Coast exploration/development action this year. Targeting the same structure tapped by the only wildcat drilled on ANWR's coastal Plain, the Tenneco Oil Exploration and Production offshore well may give more clues as to the potential of North America's most prospective and most controversial untapped petroleum province. Elsewhere in Alaska, firming oil prices have spurred a modest revival in wildcatting. But a steep decline in Alaskan oil production will likely begin in the early 1990s. Burgeoning production from new platforms and expanded steamflood projects will boost California output in the next few years. Longer term prospects for Offshore California, however, remain clouded by environmental opposition to development and leasing. Elsewhere in the Far West, Shell Oil Co. has returned to Washington, ARCO is stepping up action in Oregon and independents' discovery of new pay in the Railroad Valley area is spurring renewed interest in Nevada.

Williams, B.

1988-03-14

54

Factors that influence coal mine drainage chemistry West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal mine drainage chemistry on the West Coast of the South Island is highly variable; pH ranges from about 2–8, and chemical concentrations vary by several orders of magnitude. Factors that influence mine drainage chemistry on the West Coast include regional geology, mine type, hydrogeology, and local geology. At a regional scale, mine drainage chemistry is bimodal and relates to

J Pope; N Newman; D Craw; D Trumm; R Rait

2010-01-01

55

Holocene Glacial Retreat at Walgreen Coast, West Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Walgreen Coast of West Antarctica represents one of the most rapidly changing sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). With the fastest ice streams in the whole Antarctic, the WAIS is characterised by rapid thinning and grounding line retreat. Airborne and satellite-based short-term observations show a doubling of the negative net mass balance between 1996-2006 (Rignot et al., 2008). Furthermore, because the WAIS is largely grounded below sea level, continued inland thinning and grounding line retreat could result in rapid ice sheet collapse, which would raise global sea level by between 3-5 m. However, due to remoteness and challenging accessibility, onshore data is limited to a few isolated nunataks making it difficult to assess the long-term evolution of the glacial dynamics along Walgreen Coast. To address this we present new data from two key areas of the Walgreen Coast; the Kohler Range and the Pine Island Bay. Our 10Be surface exposure ages from erratic boulders in the Kohler Range are the first and reveal that this area became ice-free between 8.3 and 12.3 ka. This implies a long-term thinning rate of 3.3 cm/yr and agrees with similar data published from glaciers eastward. Our ages are also consistent with recent deglaciation models which suggest strong thinning after 15 ka and off-shore sediments shows a concurrent lateral ice-shelf front retreat. Our results suggest an ice-cover at least 300 m thicker in the Kohler Range during the early Holocene and that subsequent average thinning occurred on rates one order of magnitude slower than recent satellite measurements show. This implies that the recent trend in ice-sheet thinning results from a recent dynamic changes rather than a response to long-term thinning. To further constrain the lateral deglaciation history along the eastern Walgreen Coast, namely the Pine Island Glacier, we collected additional samples from a chain of islands, located flow-parallel and downstream of the ice-shelf front. We will use this new 10Be surface exposure data to infer whether the uncovering of these islands results from glacial retreat and/or subsequent isostatic rebound. Together, our new data will contribute to a better understanding of long-term glacial thinning along the West Antarctic coast, and thus provides new constraints for ice sheet models helping to predict the future behaviour of the WAIS. Rignot, E., Bamber, J. L., Van den Broeke, M. R., Davis, C., Li, Y., Van de Berg, W. J., van Meijgaard, E., 2008: Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling. Nature Geoscience. 1, 106-110.

Lindow, J.; Johnson, J.; Castex, M.; Wittmann, H.; Smith, J.; Lisker, F.; Gohl, K.; Spiegel, C.

2012-12-01

56

The West Coast Picket Fence Experiment during STORM-FEST.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mesoscale weather systems that develop in the central United States are often forced by environmental features that have formed far upstream over the conventional data-sparse Pacific Ocean. Although remotely sensed observations, such as satellite retrievals, are becoming more numerous and accurate, they still may not have the resolution necessary to enhance global model-based analyses and forecasts over this region. These global model products are the primary source of lateral boundary conditions that have been found to have large impacts on the downstream forecast skill of regional mesoscale models over the United States. in addition, the temporal and spatial resolution of the current rawinsonde network along the West Coast may not be sufficient to detect and measure mososcale flow features as they move inland. During the STORM-FEST experiment in February-March 1992, a "Picket Fence" of seven special rawinsonde stations were interspersed among the seven regular rawinsonde sites from Port Hardy, British Columbia, to Sap Diego, California. All sites obtained observations every 3 h rather than the normal 12 h. The objective of the Picket Fence was to examine the feasibility of using extra observations in time and space to improve upstream boundary conditions for forecasts of mesoscale weather events in the central United States. As a first step in examining the potential boundary condition impact of the Picket Fence, fluxes of mass, beat, momentum, potential energy, kinetic energy, and moisture across the West Coast resolved with various spatial and temporal combinations of Picket Fence data are compared with the 12-h regular upper-air sites as the standard. When a wave system crossed the middle of the Picket Fence, significantly different fluxes were calculated with the full spatial and 3-h Picket Fence observations. For other systems that crossed near the margins of the Picket Fence, only small changes were detected by the additional observations.

Hirschberg, Paul A.; Lind, Richard J.; Bolduc, Steven J.; Eisberry, Russell L.

1995-10-01

57

78 FR 45288 - Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS Corporation--Intra-Corporate...Evergreen), Cabana Coaches, LLC (Cabana), TMS West Coast, Inc. (TMS), and FSCS Corporation (FSCS)...

2013-07-26

58

50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast....

2010-10-01

59

50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast....

2012-10-01

60

50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast....

2011-10-01

61

"Speaking a Secret Language:" West Coast Swing as a Community of Practice of Informal and Incidental Learners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non-profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community…

Callahan, Jamie L.

2005-01-01

62

‘Speaking a secret language’: West Coast Swing as a community of practice of informal and incidental learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non?profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community of practice in which nonformal and incidental learning

Jamie L. Callahan

2005-01-01

63

LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream  

SciTech Connect

The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

NONE

1997-01-01

64

Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM).

Larry Myer

2005-09-29

65

Dynamic Stability of Coral Reefs on the West Australian Coast  

PubMed Central

Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10–35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (?28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs. PMID:23922829

Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ C.; Bancroft, Kevin P.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Moore, James A. Y.; Nutt, Christopher D.; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

2013-01-01

66

77 FR 73005 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC263 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications...This rule is proposed according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management...Fishery Management Council's (Council) Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Management...

2012-12-07

67

77 FR 21958 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XB045 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications...This rule is proposed according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management...Fishery Management Council's (Council) Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Management...

2012-04-12

68

76 FR 3539 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XY51 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications...with the regulations implementing the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management...and Statistical Committee (SSC), the Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team...

2011-01-20

69

78 FR 57348 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XC772 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications...This rule is proposed according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management...Fishery Management Council's (Council) Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Management...

2013-09-18

70

77 FR 36192 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...120403254-2135-02] RIN 0648-XB045 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications AGENCY...the ACL, HG, and ACT under the regulations implementing the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP)...

2012-06-18

71

75 FR 56976 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XY51 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications...according to the regulations implementing the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management...Committee's (SSC) CPS Subcommittee, the Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team...

2010-09-17

72

75 FR 932 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-XR09 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications...according to the regulations implementing the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management...Management Council's (Pacific Council) Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team...

2010-01-07

73

77 FR 15973 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...limits for swordfish harvested in the U.S. West Coast-based deep-set tuna longline (DSLL) fishery. The DSLL fishery is managed...appendices are available on the Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at...

2012-03-19

74

Plummeting crude prices hurt West Coast work, but several projects start up  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. West Coast this year will see the nation's first commercial offshore arctic production and the start-up of oil flow from the controversial Santa Maria basin off California. An even bigger controversy involves the best remaining U.S. petroleum prospect-the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The collapse in oil prices in 1986 has crippled drilling on the West Coast. The

1987-01-01

75

Redescription of Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 (Crustacea: Branchiura) collected on the west coast of South Africa.  

PubMed

Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 was originally described from a single female found in a littoral sample from the east coast of South Africa. We present a redescription of this species based on light and scanning electron microscope studies of 25 females collected from the southern mullet Liza richardsonii (Smith) on the west coast of South Africa. PMID:15791403

Smit, Nico J; Van As, Liesl L; Van As, Jo G

2005-01-01

76

Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan faunas. ?? 1984.

Marincovich, L., Jr.

1984-01-01

77

West Coast Salmon and the Endangered Species Act: Extinction is NOT an Option  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northwest Regional Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has recently launched this Website on endangered species listings for Pacific Coast salmon. The site includes West Coast Salmon Listings, Fact Sheets, Species Maps, Federal Register Notices, Reports and Publications, and a What's New section, providing news updates, progress reports, and detailed maps. The site features the five salmon species (Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink, Sockeye), Steelhead, and Coastal Cutthroat Trout, with color images, international range maps (US and Canada), status/ descriptive text, critical habitat descriptions, and protective regulations for each Evolutionarily Significant Unit (distinctive group of fish). This is an excellent place to find current information on endangered West Coast salmon.

78

76 FR 67092 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...the commercial Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries...authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management...to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish...INFORMATION: Electronic Access This final rule is accessible...Background The Pacific Coast Groundfish FMP and...

2011-10-31

79

75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management...to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish...INFORMATION: Electronic Access This final rule is accessible...measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish...

2010-08-23

80

75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management...to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish...objectives of the Pacific Coast Groundfish FMP to allow...while allowing fishermen access to healthy stocks....

2010-10-04

81

Preliminary meteorological results for 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This memo documents preliminary meteorological results from the 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment, a joint US/UK radar ocean imaging experiment. Measurements of wind speed and direction are reported for both phases of the experiment covering the periods from June 7--13 and from June 19--25. The measurements were obtained using a Campbell Scientific CR10 Datalogger and R. M. Young model 03001-5 anemometer and wind wane. The anemometer has a resolution of 0.1 m/s and the wind vane 1{degree}, but motion of the ship platform reduces the precision of the direction measurements to {+-}10{degrees}. Data were downloaded to an IBM PC-AT for final storage and analysis. The anemometer was mounted at a height of 10 meters above the mean water surface on top of a mast located at the bow of the Royal Marine Auxiliary Service (R.M.A.S.) tug, {open_quotes}Cairn{close_quotes}. The Cairn was moored at the center of the experiment site at 57{degrees}7.13755` N, 5{degrees}44.88521` W in the Sound of Sleat, nominally 200 meters from the ship track. Wind velocity and direction were recorded at a sample rate of 0.2 Hz, and the averaged value was output every 10 minutes from approximately 2 hours before the start of the first run to 2 hours after the end of the last run. Data are plotted in the following pages in 2 formats for a quick visual summary of the daily wind conditions. The top plot gives wind velocity (m/s) and direction (degrees true) vs time given in minutes relative to the start of the first run which is designated as {open_quotes}T{close_quotes}. The lower plot gives a polar plot of the same data with velocity on the radial axis and direction on the azimuthal axis. The final two plots give a summary of the wind speed vs direction for phase 1 (June 7--13) and phase 2 (June 19--25).

Robey, H.F.

1993-01-04

82

Preliminary meteorological results for 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment  

SciTech Connect

This memo documents preliminary meteorological results from the 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment, a joint US/UK radar ocean imaging experiment. Measurements of wind speed and direction are reported for both phases of the experiment covering the periods from June 7--13 and from June 19--25. The measurements were obtained using a Campbell Scientific CR10 Datalogger and R. M. Young model 03001-5 anemometer and wind wane. The anemometer has a resolution of 0.1 m/s and the wind vane 1[degrees], but motion of the ship platform reduces the precision of the direction measurements to [+-]10[degrees]. Data were downloaded to an IBM PC-AT for final storage and analysis. The anemometer was mounted at a height of 10 meters above the mean water surface on top of a mast located at the bow of the Royal Marine Auxiliary Service (R.M.A.S.) tug, [open quotes]Cairn[close quotes]. The Cairn was moored at the center of the experiment site at 57[degrees]7.13755[close quote] N, 5[degrees]44.88521[close quote] W in the Sound of Sleat. nominally 200 meters from the ship track. Wind velocity and direction were recorded at a sample rate of 0.2 Hz, and the averaged value was output every 10 minutes from approximately 2 hours before the start of the first run to 2 hours after the end of the last run. Data are plotted in the following pages in 2 formats for a quick visual summary of the daily wind conditions. The top plot gives wind velocity (m/s) and direction (degrees true) vs. time given in minutes relative to the start of the first run which is designated as [open quotes]T[close quotes]. The lower plot gives a polar plot of the same data with velocity on the radial axis and direction on the azimuthal axis. The final two plots give a summary of the wind speed vs. direction for phase 1 (June 7--13) and phase 2 (June 19--25).

Robey, H.F.

1993-01-04

83

A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IN WEST COAST ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A probabalistic survey of coastal condition assessment was conducted in 1999 by participants in US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The survey targeted estuaries along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, including the lower Columbi...

84

Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives  

SciTech Connect

A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

Pietrafesa, L.J.

1983-06-01

85

Greenland: Pan to West Coast Area of Interest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Krabill, William; Manizade, Serdar

2000-06-25

86

Comparison of HIV infection risk behaviors among injection drug users from East and West Coast US cities.  

PubMed

This study assessed whether behavioral differences explained higher human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among injection drug users (IDUs) in three East Coast versus two West Coast cities in the United States. Sociodemographic, sexual, and injecting information were collected during semiannual face-to-face interviews. Baseline data from New York City; Baltimore, Maryland; and New Haven, Connecticut, were compared with data from Los Angeles, California, and San Jose, California. Among 1,528 East Coast and 1,149 West Coast participants, HIV sero-prevalence was 21.5% and 2.3%, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9-17.8). HIV risk behaviors were common among IDUs on both coasts, and several were more common among West Coast participants. Adjusting for potential risk factors, East (vs. West) Coast of residence remained highly associated with HIV status (adjusted OR 12.14; 95% CI 7.36-20.00). Differences in HIV sero-prevalence between East and West Coast cities did not reflect self-reported injection or sexual risk behavior differences. This suggests that other factors must be considered, such as the probability of having HIV-infected injection or sexual partners. Prevention efforts are needed on the West Coast to decrease HIV-associated risk behaviors among IDUs, and further efforts are also needed to reduce HIV incidence on the East Coast. PMID:15136659

Garfein, Richard S; Monterroso, Edgar R; Tong, Tony C; Vlahov, David; Des Jarlais, Don C; Selwyn, Peter; Kerndt, Peter R; Word, Carl; Fernando, M Daniel; Ouellet, Lawrence J; Holmberg, Scott D

2004-06-01

87

Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast  

E-print Network

Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast Rex K American west coast permit extensive comparisons between "contemporary" low frequency ship traf- fic noise traffic noise (duration 6 to 12þ years) show that recent levels are slightly increasing, holding steady

Frandsen, Jannette B.

88

Higher Educational Needs of the Lower West Coast [Florida].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the higher educational needs of the persons living in lower west Florida counties from Manatee to Collier, identifies the most feasible course of action to meet those needs and assesses the consequences ensuing from adding to the state university system. Chapters cover access to public higher education, expansion of the state…

Florida State Board of Regents, Tallahassee.

89

Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the coastal sand dunes of the west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

We exa mined the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhi- zal (AM) fungi associated with the dominant strand plant species, Ipomoea pes-caprae of the coastal sand dunes of west coast of India. The study reports the impact of rhizosphere edaphic features and distur- bance on the species richness and diversity of AM fungi in 10 geographical locations consisting of mod- erately disturbed

K. R. Beena; N. S. Raviraja; A. B. Arun; K. R. Sridhar

2000-01-01

90

THE OYSTER-BARS OF THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA: THEIR DEPLETION AND RESTORATION.  

E-print Network

THE OYSTER-BARS OF THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA: THEIR DEPLETION AND RESTORATION. By H. A. SMELTZ, A our people will not only know more about oysters and fishes and sponges, but they will realize out by nature's hand. The fact is, the natural oyster-bars 'are a magnificent inheritance that has

91

Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1992  

SciTech Connect

The joint US-UK 1992 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in the Sound of Sleat from June 6 to 25. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

Lehman, S.K.; Johnston, B.; Twogood, R.; Wieting, M.; Yorkey, T.; Robey, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Whelan, D.; Nagele, R. [Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1993-01-05

92

A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE US WEST COAST  

EPA Science Inventory

A probabilistic survey of environmental condition of the continental shelf of the US West Coast was conducted in 2003 by the US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA), with collaboration by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. Metals and organic contaminants were analyzed ...

93

Measurements of Short Ocean Waves during the MBL ARI West Coast Experiment  

E-print Network

. In order to gain deeper insight into the dynamics and the energy balance of ocean wind waves, i.e., the energy input by the wind, nonlinear wave-wave interaction, and energy dissipation, it is necessary165 Measurements of Short Ocean Waves during the MBL ARI West Coast Experiment Jochen Klinke 1

Jaehne, Bernd

94

Imposex in the whelks Buccinum undatum and Neptunea antiqua from the west coast of Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whelks, Buccinum undatum and Neptunea antiqua, collected from three sites on the west coast of Scotland during 1997 showed varying degrees of imposex. Both the incidence of imposex and the degree of imposex development in individuals was greater in N. antiqua than in B. undatum. The results probably reflect long-term contamination of sediments with tributyltin (TBT) originating from inputs prior

E. S Poloczanska; A. D Ansell

1999-01-01

95

76 FR 65155 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...harvested in the U.S. West Coast-based deep-set tuna longline (DSLL) fishery...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at http://www.pcouncil.org...shallow sets. Longline vessels that make deep sets with longline (DSLL) are...

2011-10-20

96

OCCURRENCE OF CANCER CRAB (C. MAGISTER AND C. OREGONENSIS) MEGAWPAE OFF THE WEST COAST OF  

E-print Network

,871 10 m-~ 56 Ian offshore in June. In May, some late stage megalopae were collected in coastal inlets. with their pattern of cross- shelfabundance basically similar to that of C. magister. However, in contrast to C the west coast of Vancouver Island, the abundance and distribution of larvae off Tofino, British Columbia

97

NUMBERS, BEHAVIOUR AND ORIGIN OF MEDITERRANEAN GULLS LARUS MELANOCEPHALUS WINTERING ALONG THE WEST COAST OF SOUTHERN PORTUGAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Several thousands of Mediterranean Gulls Larus melanocephalus were observed in the winters of 2004\\/2005 and 2005\\/2006 at two sites of the West coast of Southern Portugal. Along the Lisbon coast (Guincho-Cascais-Estoril-Parede, west of Lisbon) a maximum of 6,000 birds was observed and along the Alentejo coast at least 1,000 birds were present in the Mira river mouth, near

MARTIN POOT; RENAUD FLAMANT

98

Remote sensing of wetland conditions in West Coast salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the PEEIR (Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research Consortium) program is to develop new indicators for assessing wetland health or condition. As part of PEEIR program we are investigating the use of imaging spectrometry to map and characterize marsh vegetation of several estuarine systems in California. We obtained airborne Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, an instrument which measures a detailed reflectance spectrum (400-2500nm) for each pixel, over paired tidal marshes, having either a history of exposure to pollution or no known exposure. AVIRIS image data was analyzed based on comparison to field measurements and reflectance changes measured in hydroponic experiments. We report leaf and canopy reflectance measurements of several common plant species of Pacific coast salt marshes exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, V) and crude oil contaminants. Species exhibited differential sensitivities to specific contaminants, however in general, Salicornia virginica, the most salt tolerant species and the dominant species in these wetlands (70-90% cover) was most sensitive to metal and petroleum contaminants. Field measurements of canopy reflectance, biomass and vegetation structure were acquired across GPS-located transects at each field site. The AVIRIS data were calibrated to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiative transfer code and geometrically registered to coordinates using the 1m USGS digital orthophoto quads. AVIRIS results show spatial patterns of plant stress indicators (e.g., reduced chlorophyll and water contents) are consistent with known patterns of contamination in these tidal wetlands.

Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui C.; Li, Lin

2004-11-01

99

PTSD reactions and coping responses of East Coast and West Coast American Airlines flight attendants after September 11: a possible psychological contagion effect?  

PubMed

Psychological reactions and functional coping of East Coast and West Coast-based flight attendants were compared after the attacks on September 11. Demographics and standardized questionnaires were sent in June 2002 to approximately 26,000 flight attendants. The 2,050 returned surveys were separated into East Coast-based flight crews (513 from Boston, New York, and Washington, DC) and West Coast-based flight crews (353 from Los Angeles and San Francisco). Despite demographic differences between the flight crews, most notably that the East Coast members were more than twice as likely to know someone who perished in the wake of September 11, there was no difference between them regarding probable PTSD (19.1% and 18.3%, respectively) or life functioning. We suggest that a psychological contagion effect occurred in this at-risk group of workers in the war on terrorism. Public health implications, including multicomponent treatment interventions, are suggested. PMID:15583512

Lating, Jeffrey M; Sherman, Martin F; Lowry, Jenny L; Everly, George S; Peragine, Traci F

2004-12-01

100

75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard...permanent security zone in the Freeport LNG Basin. This security zone is needed to protect...entitled Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX in the Federal...

2010-03-10

101

Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

2011-12-01

102

Plummeting crude prices hurt West Coast work, but several projects start up  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. West Coast this year will see the nation's first commercial offshore arctic production and the start-up of oil flow from the controversial Santa Maria basin off California. An even bigger controversy involves the best remaining U.S. petroleum prospect-the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The collapse in oil prices in 1986 has crippled drilling on the West Coast. The region always has had to contend with lower prices for lesser quality crudes and some of the highest operating costs in the U.S. But as oil prices continue to show stability, action will rebound in the two states that furnish more than one third of U.S. oil production.

Williams, B.

1987-06-08

103

Volatility of aerosol at Mace Head, on the west coast of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile properties of maritime and modified maritime aerosol were measured at the remote site at Mace Head (53°19â²N, 9°54â²W) on the west coast of Ireland, located on the eastern edge of the North Atlantic Ocean. The volatility measurements were made with a light-scattering counter equipped with a temperature-controlled heated inlet. The work extends the temperature range from 300°C to 850°C

S. G. Jennings; C. D. ODowd

1990-01-01

104

Fog harvesting: An alternative source of water supply on the West Coast of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments conducted during the 1990s investigated the feasibility of using fog water to supplement existing water supplies\\u000a in the arid west coast region of South Africa. Based on these results, a project was initiated aimed at implementing an operational\\u000a fog water collection system to provide potable water to a small, water-poor rural community. A 70 m2 fog water collector was

Jana Olivier

2004-01-01

105

On the beaten track: a view of US West-Coast container port competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a century ago far-sighted railroad builders and steamship operators were seeking the shortest intermodal itineraries between the eastern United States and the Orient. A combination of locational fact and the factual outcomes of 19th century railroad building left Chicago roughly equidistant in railway mileage from what became the four great US West-Coast port complexes in the Los Angeles,

Douglas K. Fleming

1989-01-01

106

Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

Dettinger, Michael D.

2013-01-01

107

76 FR 37761 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Amendment 13 to the Coastal...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...0648-BA68 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Amendment 13 to the Coastal Pelagic Species Fishery Management Plan...proposed rule to implement Amendment 13 to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery...

2011-06-28

108

The 2010 Chilean Tsunami Off the West Coast of Canada and the Northwest Coast of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major ( M w = 8.8) Chilean earthquake of 27 February 2010 generated a trans-oceanic tsunami that was observed throughout the Pacific Ocean. Waves associated with this event had features similar to those of the 1960 tsunami generated in the same region by the Great ( M w = 9.5) 1960 Chilean Earthquake. Both tsunamis were clearly observed on the coast of British Columbia. The 1960 tsunami was measured by 17 analog pen-and-paper tide gauges, while the 2010 tsunami was measured by 11 modern digital coastal tide gauges, four NEPTUNE-Canada bottom pressure recorders located offshore from southern Vancouver Island, and two nearby open-ocean DART stations. The 2010 records were augmented by data from seven NOAA tide gauges on the coast of Washington State. This study examines the principal characteristics of the waves from the 2010 event (height, period, duration, and arrival and travel times) and compares these properties for the west coast of Canada with corresponding properties of the 1960 tsunami. Results show that the 2010 waves were approximately 3.5 times smaller than the 1960 waves and reached the British Columbia coast 1 h earlier. The maximum 2010 wave heights were observed at Port Alberni (98.4 cm) and Winter Harbour (68.3 cm); the observed periods ranged from 12 min at Port Hardy to 110-120 min at Prince Rupert and Port Alberni and 150 min at Bamfield. The open-ocean records had maximum wave heights of 6-11 cm and typical periods of 7 and 15 min. Coastal and open-ocean tsunami records revealed persistent oscillations that "rang" for 3-4 days. Tsunami energy occupied a broad band of periods from 3 to 300 min. Estimation of the inverse celerity vectors from cross-correlation analysis of the deep-sea tsunami records shows that the tsunami waves underwent refraction as they approached the coast of Vancouver Island with the direction of the incoming waves changing from an initial direction of 340° True to a direction of 15° True for the second train of waves that arrived 7 h later after possible reflection from the Marquesas and Hawaiian islands.

Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.; Fine, Isaac V.

2013-09-01

109

A springtime comparison of tropospheric ozone and transport pathways on the east and west coasts of the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have conducted a study to determine the influence of Asian pollution plumes on free tropospheric ozone above the west coast of the United States during spring. We also explored the additional impact of North American emissions on east coast free tropospheric ozone. Long-term ozone monitoring sites in the United States are few, but we obtained ozonesonde profiles from Trinidad

O. R. Cooper; A. Stohl; S. Eckhardt; D. D. Parrish; S. J. Oltmans; B. J. Johnson; P. Nédélec; F. J. Schmidlin; M. J. Newchurch; Y. Kondo; K. Kita

2005-01-01

110

Redescription of Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 (Crustacea: Branchiura) collected on the west coast of SouthAfrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argulus multipocula Barnard, 1955 was originally described from a single female found in a littoral sample from the east coast of South Africa. We present a redescription of this species based on light and scanning electron microscope studies of 25 females collected from the southern mullet Liza richardsonii (Smith) on the west coast of South Africa.

Nico J. Smit; Liesl L. Van As; Jo G. Van As

2005-01-01

111

West Coast  

E-print Network

1994) was designed to categorise threatened species according to their urgency for conservation action. Plants and animals were scored using five factors, encompassing 17 criteria. These factors were: 1. Distinctiveness: taxonomic distinctiveness. 2. Status: number of populations; mean population size; size of largest population; geographic distribution; condition of largest population; and the population decline rate. 3. Threats: legal protection of habitat; habitat loss rate; predator/harvest impact; competition; and other factors affecting survival. 4. Vulnerability: habitat and/or diet specificity; reproductive and/or behavioural specialisation; and cultivation/captive breeding potential. 5. Values: Maori cultural values; Pakeha cultural values. Invertebrates were then grouped into three categories depending on the score they received from the ranking exercise. The categories were:

East Coast/hawke’s Bay

112

Exploring geophysical processes influencing U.S. West Coast precipitation and water supply  

USGS Publications Warehouse

CalWater Science Workshop; La Jolla, California, 8-10 June 2011 CalWater is a multiyear, multiagency research project with two primary research themes: the effects of changing climate on atmospheric rivers (ARs) and associated extreme events, and the potential role of aerosols in modulating cloud properties and precipitation, especially regarding orographic precipitation and water supply. Advances made in CalWater have implications for both water supply and flood control in California and other West Coast areas, both in the near term and in a changing climate.

Ralph, F.M.; Prather, K.; Cayan, D.

2011-01-01

113

A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. West Coast (1997)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new data resource has recently been made available by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's CDIAC. A Coastal Hazards Database for the U.S. West Coast (1997), contains digital information for predicting effects on US western coastlines that are sensitive to rises in sea level. The data cover 0.25 degree by 0.25 degree grid cells and 1:2,000,000 line segments and include elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement, tidal ranges, and wave heights. Fortran source code is provided to examine the data.

114

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN THE HYDROMEDUSA GENUS POLYORCHIS ON THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA  

SciTech Connect

Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

Rees, John T.; Larson, R.J.

1980-12-01

115

Predicting seal efficiency and trapped hydrocarbon type in Gulf Coast hydrocarbon systems: Lessons learned from West Fulton Beach field, Mid-Texas Gulf Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Gulf Coast fields consist of multiple vertically stacked sandstones in which oil and gas are seemingly randomly distributed stratigraphically. Hydrocarbon entrapment is strongly affected by seal competency and possibly by formation pressure, and these factors are in turn controlled by the characteristics of the interbedded shales. In West Fulton Beach field, Arkansas County, Texas, the Oligocene Frio Formation shales

Paul R. Knox

1996-01-01

116

Climatology of Long-Range Transport of Asian Dust on the U.S. West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust aerosols affect climate by directly absorbing radiation and indirectly by forming cloud particles. Once incorporated into clouds, dust has been shown to enhance precipitation formation from in situ measurements, such as those during the CalWater field campaign (2009-2011) along the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. Large discrepancies exists between global aerosol models that simulate the dust in the atmosphere and its impact on climate. Further, about 25% of the global dust burden originates from Asia, thus a better understanding of where and how Asian dust is transported in the atmosphere is needed, particularly with projected increases in dust emissions in mind. Asian dust is typically transported to the U.S. in the spring, but not many long-term studies of this phenomenon exist. Our results show Asian dust transport varies significantly from year-to-year and at various locations along the U.S. west coast. Observations from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) LIDAR network in Japan and the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network along the U.S. West Coast were analyzed in the context of HYSPLIT trajectory analyses to investigate trans-Pacific Asian dust transport from 2002-2011. Similar to previous studies, the ratio of iron to calcium from IMPROVE soil was used to estimate Asian dust concentrations at multiple sites in California, Oregon, and Washington. Asian dust estimated from IMPROVE exhibited maximum concentrations in the spring (Apr-May) on the U.S. west coast, while non-Asian dust peaked late summer (Aug-Sep). Because Asian dust is typically transported in the mid-troposphere (2-4 km), the highest concentrations of Asian dust were typically observed at higher elevation sites, such as in the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. California experienced larger influences from Asian dust compared to Oregon or Washington, likely due to large-scale synoptic patterns and higher elevation IMPROVE sites. Dust extinction measured from 7 LIDAR sites on the east coast of Japan, located in the Asian dust outflow region, was compared to seasonal and interannual trends in IMPROVE Asian dust. The highest LIDAR-derived dust extinction coefficients were observed from 2-5 km, although distinct layers were not evident most of the years. Dust extinction peaked in the spring to early summer (Apr-Jun), consistent with the IMPROVE record and previous studies. Good agreement existed between the trends in relative amount of dust from LIDAR and IMPROVE measurements, even though they are located thousands of kilometers apart. Trajectory analyses indicate transport from the Asian outflow region to the U.S. was lowest in the summer/fall, and highest in the winter/spring. Air masses were either transported zonally across the Pacific, or traveled north and then south along the west coast in the large-scale undulating flow. This work presents a 10 year record of dust along the U.S. West Coast in an effort to study Asian dust transport to the western U.S.

Creamean, J.; Spackman, J.

2013-12-01

117

A review of sediment dynamical processes in the west coast of Korea, eastern Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment dynamical processes began to be systematically monitored in the west coast of Korea facing the eastern Yellow Sea in the 1990s. The early investigations were largely conducted aboard vessels that provided results where the resolution was highly restricted in both temporal and spatial aspects. However, full-fledged autonomous instruments introduced early in the 2000s allowed for a quantum leap in the level of this sub-field of sedimentology. The investigated sites include various environments such as estuaries, bays, tidal flats, beaches, and offshore deposits. Among them, a total of seven sites were selected for the review: Han estuary, Daeho tidal flats, Garolim Bay, Saemangeum Region, Byunsan Beach, Gomso Bay, and Huksan Mud Belt. The major results from each site were briefly summarized. The summary clearly demonstrates that wind-generated currents and waves particularly during winter should be carefully considered in interpreting sedimentary environments. This is because winter-season processes interrupt or actively displace much of the sediments worked by tidal currents in the remaining seasons. The summary hence suggests that seasonal investigations of sediment dynamics are necessary to understand shallow-water sedimentation in the west coast of Korea that is governed complicatedly by two major forcing agents: waves and tidal currents.

Lee, Hee Jun

2014-06-01

118

Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West Coast during winter storms and that these patterns vary substantially with latitude. These results should assist with future evaluations of flood plume formation and sediment fate along this coast. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Kniskern, T.A.; Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.

2011-01-01

119

Dynamics of the Katabatic Wind Confluence Zone near Siple Coast, West Antarctica.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface wind pattern over the ice sheets of Antarctica is irregular with marked areas of airflow confluence near the coastal margins. Where cold air from a large interior area of the ice sheet converges (a confluence zone), an anomalously large supply of air is available to feed the coastal katabatic winds, which, as a result, are intensified and more persistent. The confluence zone inland of Siple Coast, West Antarctica, differs from its East Antarctic counterparts in that the terrain slopes become gentler rather than steeper as the coast is approached. In addition, synoptic processes exert substantially more impact on the behavior of the surface winds.A month-long field program to study the dynamics of the springtime katabatic wind confluence zone has been carried out near Siple Coast. Two sites, Upstream B (83.5°S, 136.1°W) and South Camp (84.5°S, 134.3°W), were established roughly perpendicular to the downslope direction. The field program involved the use of the ground-based remote sensing equipment (sodar and RASS) along with conventional surface and balloon observations. Previous analyses revealed the cross-sectional structure of the confluence zone as consisting of a more buoyant West Antarctic katabatic airflow overlying a less buoyant katabatic airflow originating from East Antarctica.The force balances inside the confluence zone are here investigated for three situations: mean (all available wind profiles from balloon launches), and two extreme cases (light and strong winds). A linear regression method is used to estimate the mean vertical wind shears and horizontal temperature gradients. The vertical wind shears are used to examine whether or not the airflows are in geostrophic balance. The results are 1) the airflow above the surface at both sites is in geostrophic balance for the three situations; 2) inside the West Antarctic katabatic wind zone, there are three forces in the north-south direction-the restoring pressure gradient force associated with blocking of the katabatic and synoptic winds, the downslope buoyancy force, and the synoptic pressure gradient force associated with the time-averaged low in the South Pacific Ocean; 3) above the West Antarctic katabatic wind layer, the observed easterly wind is due to the synoptic pressure gradient force associated with the low; 4) inside the East Antarctic katabatic wind zone, in addition to the above three forces, there is the downslope buoyancy force associated with the inversion; and 5) large-scale transient synoptic systems strongly influence the downslope wind speed and the boundary layer depth, resulting in the light and strong wind cases.

Liu, Zhong; Bromwich, David H.

1997-02-01

120

NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

2009-01-01

121

Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

2006-10-01

122

Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

Shama, Ayman A.

2011-03-01

123

Extreme irgarol tolerance in an Ulva lactuca L. population on the Swedish west coast.  

PubMed

The herbicide irgarol 1051 is commonly used on ship hulls to prevent growth of algae, but as a component of self-eroding paints it can also spread in the surrounding waters and affect non-target organisms. The effect of irgarol on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macro algae Ulva lactuca from the Gullmar fjord on the Swedish west coast was investigated in the present study. The zoospores were allowed to settle and grow in the presence of irgarol, but neither settlement - nor growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of up to 2000 nmol l(-1). This is between 10 and 100 times higher than effect concentrations reported earlier for algae. Irgarol also induced the greening effect (4-fold increase in chlorophyll a content) in the settled zoospore/germling population, typical for photosystem II inhibitors like irgarol. This study support previous findings that irgarol constitutes a selection pressure in the marine environment. PMID:24054733

Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

2013-11-15

124

Climatic and Anthropogenic Controls on Correlated Discharge from US West Coast Rivers (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most river basins along the US West Coast are generally small, less than 15,000 km2, and tend to flood quickly following rain events. The storm systems that deliver rain to the coastal mountain ranges are considerably larger than the river basins such that multiple basins receive precipitation within hours of each other. Subsequently, these proximal rivers often disperse freshwater and sediment to the coastal ocean at relatively the same time. Many conceptual and numerical models of coastal processes may underestimate the delivery, dispersal and burial of sediment on the continental shelves as they often assume point source delivery of water and sediment from a single river. The reality seems to speak to the fact that a collection of smaller river basins may be synchronously delivering sediment all along a stretch of coastline. Hydrologic records from 62 coastal watersheds stretching along the US west coast from the Canadian to the Mexican border were acquired from the USGS river gauging network, this included over 100 gauging stations with records varying in length. This data mining effort allowed for a detailed analysis of the timing of flood peaks to the actual coastlines, rather than just correlation between gauging stations. Distinct coastal groupings were found that have rivers that deliver freshwater and sediment to the continental shelves at the same time, indicating plume mixing and different oceanic hydrodynamic regimes than would be indicated by traditional coastal sediment transport models. Also seen were larger scale climatic controls on the watershed relationships and alteration of the flood signals due to anthropogenic changes within the watershed. Extensive flood control networks, differences in population centers and floodplain modification within these basins all contributed to unexpected deviations from the correlation patterns.

Farnsworth, K. L.; Kniskern, T. A.

2013-12-01

125

The message, meteorology and myths of the historic West Coast winter flooding of 1861 - 62  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest known recorded flooding, ever to impact the West Coast of the United States, occurred during the winter of 1861-1862. In fact, the extraordinary flood flows on five major rivers, remain the record peaks to this day. The flooding was caused by a series of Pacific mid-latitude cyclones and several strong atmospheric rivers. The extreme rainy pattern initially strikes Oregon. The high water causes the flood of record on the Willamette River, with extensive devastation, wiping out several major towns along the river. Communications, food and supplies were cut off for much of the winter in Oregon.The intense wet weather, then redevelops, moves south and stalls - pummeling Northern California with major flooding. The runoff fills California's Central Valley with a huge inland lake. Sacramento is submerged, turned into what was described as a "frontier Venice". Flood damages eliminate a large part of the state's tax base.Finally the stormy pattern shifts into Southern California, producing major flooding. Most of lowland Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego Counties are flooded under several feet of water for weeks.The author researched limited weather data, historical accounts, maps and ship reports to reconstruct this series of storms and their effects along the West Coast. The extent and evolution of this series of flood events is unprecedented. Myths regarding the causes of this flooding are common, but its sheer magnitude is undisputable. This presentation will also demonstrate the nature and impacts of these consecutive major flood events, while revealing the lessons to be learned in light of advances in modern forecasting techniques.

Schick, L. J.

2012-12-01

126

Foraminiferal evidence for the amount of coseismic subsidence during a late holocene earthquake on Vancouver Island, West Coast of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraminiferal data from two sites, 6 km apart, on the shores of an inlet near Tofino on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, allow estimates to be made of the amount of coseismic subsidence during a large earthquake 100–400 years ago. The sampled sediment succession at the two sites is similar; peat representing a former marsh surface is

Jean-Pierre Guilbault; John J. Clague; Martine Lapointe

1996-01-01

127

Results of small-scale passive system trials to treat acid mine drainage, West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful passive treatment of acid mine drainage can be improved through the use of small-scale pilot treatment systems to confirm appropriate system selection. Small-scale reducing and alkalinity producing systems were tested at two acid mine drainage sites in the West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand: the Sullivan Mine and the Pike River Adit. A laboratory trial consisting of a

D Trumm; M Watts

2010-01-01

128

Subglacial sediments as a control on the onset and location of two Siple Coast ice streams, West Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laterally continuous subglacial sediments are a necessary component for ice streaming in the modern onset regions of the ice streams draining the Siple Coast of West Antarctica on the basis of new seismic data combined with previous results. We present geophysical results from seismic reflection and refraction experiments in the upper reaches of ice streams C and D that highlight

Leo E. Peters; Sridhar Anandakrishnan; Richard B. Alley; J. Paul Winberry; Donald E. Voigt; Andrew M. Smith; David L. Morse

2006-01-01

129

Trace metals in fish, sediment and water from the south west coast of the Arabian sea, Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of ten metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and Hg) in the edible muscle of Arius maculatus captured from eight different near?shore and off?shore sites off the south west coast of the Arabian Sea, Pakistan, were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Relevant water and sediment samples from the sites were also analysed for the metals.

M. Ashraf; Jaleel Tariq; M. Jaffar

1992-01-01

130

Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

131

Constraining regional scale carbon budgets at the US West Coast using a high-resolution atmospheric inverse modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented is embedded within the NACP (North American Carbon Program) West Coast project ORCA2, which aims at determining the regional carbon balance of the US states Oregon, California and Washington. Our work specifically focuses on the effect of disturbance history and climate variability, aiming at improving our understanding of e.g. drought stress and stand age on carbon sources

M. Goeckede; A. M. Michalak; D. Vickers; D. Turner; B. Law

2009-01-01

132

Anomalous behavior of thorium and uranium isotopes in the marine environment of the West Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemical behavior of thorium and uranium isotopes and their activity ; ratios have been studied in the coastal marine sediments of the West Coast region ; of the Indian sub-continent. Results of this study can be correlated with the ; transport and deposition of artificially introduced radioactivity or any run-off ; terrestrial pollutants in the region. In the southern part

L. U. Joshi; A. K. Ganguly

1975-01-01

133

50 CFR Table 2 to Part 660 - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

50 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? 9 ? 2010-10-01 ? 2010-10-01 ? false ? Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits ? 2 ? Table 2 to Part 660 ? Wildlife and Fisheries ? FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

2010-10-01

134

A Demographic Survey of Iu-Mien in West Coast States of the U.S., 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1975, Mien refugees migrated to the United States from the highlands of Southeast Asia, primarily but not exclusively from Laos. Reported here are 1993 data on the basic size and composition of the Iu-Mien population in the West Coast states (Washington, Oregon, and California), the most popular settlement destination for this group. Three-fourths of Mien in this region

Judith C. Barker; Kaochoy Saechao

2000-01-01

135

Combining sediment quality criteria and sediment bioassays with photoactivation for assessing sediment quality along the Swedish West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments from 48 sites along the Swedish West Coast were sampled for determination of priority pollutants (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons). Toxicity to two crustaceans (Daphnia magna and Nitocra spinipes) were also determined within 2 weeks and after 12 months of storage at 4°C. Since, according to earlier studies, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons may exhibit photoinduced toxicity, all test

Ann-Sofie Wernersson; Göran Dave; Eva Nilsson

1999-01-01

136

West Coast Physical Oceanography Program: (Annual technical progress report): A short report 3  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the DOE West Coast Basin Study (CaBS) is to understand the dispersion of potential contaminants from inshore waters, where they may primarily be generated, across the shelf out to deeper waters; in particular, the role of particulate fluxes, determination of general pathways of material removal, residence times, and water column/sediment exchanges. The long-term objectives of the present contract's component of CaBS are to investigate circulation in the California basin region, including both patterns and forcing mechanisms, and particle dynamics in this region; in particular, the relative importance of horizontal advection, wave/current resuspension processes, and intermediate depth nepheloid layers, in redistributing particles, on time scales of minutes to seasons. Our particular objectives during the first three years of the program are to determine the spatial scales and driving mechanisms for flow on the shelf and slope adjacent to the SM-SP basin (i.e., the relative contributions to the fluctuating flow by tidal currents, local wind stress, remotely generated coastal trapped waves, mesos-scale eddies, and deep-ocean boundary currents, are being assessed; the spatial and temporal scales of flow in the SM-SP basin; the relationship (if any) between basin circulation (both above and below sill depths) and shelf/slope circulation; and the relationship (if any) between basin and deep-ocean circulation.

Hickey, B.M.

1987-01-01

137

Brevetoxicosis in seabirds naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms along the central west coast of Florida.  

PubMed

Harmful algal bloom events caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occurred along the central west Florida, USA, coast from February 2005 through December 2005 and from August 2006 through December 2006. During these events, from 4 February 2005 through 28 November 2006, live, debilitated seabirds admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs that included disorientation, inability to stand, ataxia, and seizures. Testing of blood, biologic fluids, and tissues for brevetoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 69% (n=95) of rehabilitating seabirds. Twelve of the 19 species of birds had evidence of brevetoxin exposure. Commonly affected species included Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and Common Loons (Gavia immer). Serial blood and fecal samples taken from several live seabirds during rehabilitation showed that brevetoxin was cleared within 5-10 days after being admitted to the rehabilitation facility, depending on the species tested. Among seabirds that died or were euthanized, the highest brevetoxin concentrations were found in bile, stomach contents, and liver. Most dead birds had no significant pathologic findings at necropsy, thereby supporting brevetoxin-related mortality. PMID:23568900

Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer M; Keller, Martha; Kinsel, Michael J; Johnson, Christine K; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet G; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

2013-04-01

138

Poleward propagating subinertial alongshore surface currents off the U.S. West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The network comprising 61 high-frequency radar systems along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) provides a unique, high resolution, and broad scale view of ocean surface circulation. Subinertial alongshore surface currents show poleward propagating signals with phase speeds of O(10) and O(100-300) km d -1 that are consistent with historical in situ observations off the USWC and that can be possibly interpreted as coastally trapped waves (CTWs). The propagating signals in the slow mode are partly observed in southern California, which may result from scattering and reflection of higher-mode CTWs due to curvature of shoreline and bathymetry near Point Conception, California. On the other hand, considering the order of the phase speed in the slow mode, the poleward propagating signals may be attributed to alongshore advection or pressure-driven flows. A statistical regression of coastal winds at National Data Buoy Center buoys on the observed surface currents partitions locally and remotely wind-forced components, isolates footprints of the equatorward propagating storm events in winter off the USWC, and shows the poleward propagating signals year round.

Kim, Sung Yong; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Terrill, Eric J.; Jones, Burt; Washburn, Libe; Moline, Mark A.; Paduan, Jeffrey D.; Garfield, Newell; Largier, John L.; Crawford, Greg; Michael Kosro, P.

2013-12-01

139

Movement of adult edible crab ( Cancer pagurus L.) at the Swedish West Coast by mark-recapture and acoustic tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movements of the edible crab Cancer pagurus were investigated from mark-recaptures in the Skagerrak and Kattegat. Crabs were released in 1968–1973 and in 2003 from six main areas along the Swedish west coast, and from one offshore bank in the Kattegat. Recaptures were reported for up to 7 years after the release. Sex-specific differences in migration were found: females migrated

Anette Ungfors; Hans Hallbäck; Per G. Nilsson

2007-01-01

140

Estimation of atmospheric surface layer parameters and numerical simulation using MM5 at Mangalore, West Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atmospheric surface layer meteorological observations obtained from 20-m-high meteorological tower at Mangalore, situated\\u000a along the west coast of India are used to estimate the surface layer scaling parameters of roughness length (z\\u000a o) and drag coefficient (C\\u000a D), surface layer fluxes of sensible heat and momentum. These parameters are computed using the simple flux–profile relationships\\u000a under the framework of Monin–Obukhov

Anitha Kumari Hegde; R. Venkatesan; C. V. Srinivas; K. M. Balakrishna

2010-01-01

141

Migration Patterns of the Emerging Plant Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum on the West Coast of the United States of America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytophthora ramorum (oomycetes) is the causal agent of sudden oak death\\u000a and ramorum blight on trees, shrubs, and woody ornamentals in the\\u000a forests of coastal California and southwestern Oregon and in nurseries\\u000a of California, Oregon, and Washington. In this study, we investigated\\u000a the genetic structure of P. ramorum on the West Coast of the United\\u000a States, focusing particularly on population

S. Prospero; N. J. Gruenwald; L. M. Winton; E. M. Hansen; Niklaus J. Grunwald

2009-01-01

142

Plant succession and interaction between soil and plants after land reclamation on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant succession and the interaction between soil and plants after reclamation were investigated on the west coast of Korea.\\u000a Our study included one natural tidal flat site (Namdong, 3 km2), and five sites that differed in the number of years since being reclaimed: Hyundai A, 6 km2 (1 yr); Hyundai B, 5 km2 (2 yr); Jangdeog, 5 km2 (8 yr);

Byeong Mee Min; Joon-Ho Kim

2000-01-01

143

Stratigraphic architecture and depositional setting of the coarse-grained Upper Cambrian Owen Conglomerate, West Coast Range, western Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Cambrian Owen Conglomerate of the West Coast Range, western Tasmania, comprises two upward?fining successions of coarse?grained siliciclastic rocks that exhibit a characteristic wedge?shaped fill controlled by the basin?margin fault system. Stratigraphy is defined by the informally named basal lower conglomerate member, middle sandstone member, middle conglomerate member and upper sandstone member. The lower conglomerate member has a gradational

C. A. Noll; M. Hall

2003-01-01

144

Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

Not Available

1988-12-01

145

Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

Benson, A. J.; Marelli, D. C.; Frischer, M. E.; Danforth, J. M.; Williams, J. D.

2001-01-01

146

Operating history of Arun LNG Plant  

SciTech Connect

The Arun LNG plant is owned by PERTAMINA (The Oil And Gas State Enterprise Of The Republic Of Indonesia) and is located at Blang Lancang, North Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia. It is about 15 km west of the port of Lhokseumawe, or about 300 km north-west of the city of Medan. The plant is operated by PT Arun NGL Co. The Arun LNG plant receives gas and unstabilized hydrocarbon condensate from the Arun Field gas reservoir which is developed and operated by MOBIL OIL INDONESIA under Production Sharing Contract with PERTAMINA and is located about 30 km south-east of the plant. The gas and condensate are transported by pipeline to the plant. Operation of the condensate recovery unit began in April 1977 and the three LNG trains began producing LNG in August 1978, September 1978 and February 1979 respectively. The original three-train plant now produces 34000 m/sup 3//day of LNG and 85000 bbl/day of condensate. An additional two LNG trains have been constructed and recently began production.

Suyanto, J.R.O.

1984-02-01

147

78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries...authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management...to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish...INFORMATION: Electronic Access This final rule is accessible...Background The Pacific Coast Groundfish FMP and...

2013-05-06

148

77 FR 63758 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries...authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management...to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish...INFORMATION: Electronic Access This final rule is accessible...Background The Pacific Coast Groundfish FMP and...

2012-10-17

149

Mapping and assessing seagrass bed changes in Central Florida's west coast using multitemporal Landsat TM imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some seagrass meadows in coastal shallow waters have displayed large scale changes in seagrass spatial extent and hurricanes and/or tropical storms have been suggested as factors responsible for reduction in coverage. Taking advantage of the incidence of three tropical storms passing near a study site along the central west Florida coast within a two-month period in 2004, we evaluated whether satellite remote sensing techniques (Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery) are useful for assessing dynamics of seagrass (=submerged aquatic vegetation: SAV) cover/abundance in response to these multiple disturbances. We also examined whether an image preprocessing procedure, which included water column correction, applied to the Landsat TM images could further improve the classification and mapping of detailed SAV coverage. We compared a historical set of Landsat TM images, acquired in Fall 2003 and Fall and late Summer 2005, which were processed to classify %SAV cover into five classes using a maximum likelihood classifier. Importantly, our experimental results demonstrated that the application of the image preprocessing procedures led to an overall accuracy 2-14% improvement in SAV classification due to water column correction compared to that currently reported in the literature when similar Landsat TM data are utilized. Based upon the classification results mapped from the TM images and as well as a similar classification of SAV interpreted from aerial photographs collected before and after the passage of these same storms, SAV coverage over the study areas was found to increase about 6% (integrating SAV losses and gains) by 2005/2006 in comparison to cover levels present prior to the repeated storm activity. We conclude that heavy rains during 2004 along with physical disturbance from gale force winds from the tropical storms/hurricanes did not produce any SAV bed loss at the study site that was sustained for more than one year after multiple storm passage.

Pu, Ruiliang; Bell, Susan; Meyer, Cynthia

2014-08-01

150

Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

2014-09-01

151

Seasonal cycle and composition of background fine particles along the west coast of the US  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used aerosol data from 4 sites along the west coast of the U.S. to evaluate the role of transport, seasonal pattern, chemical composition and possible trends in the marine background aerosol for the Pacific Northwest. For the Crater Lake samples, the data have been segregated using 10 day back isentropic trajectories to evaluate the role of transport. Our analysis of the segregated data indicates that the trajectories can successfully separate "locally influenced" from "marine background" aerosol, but are not able to identify a significant difference in the mean concentrations during marine vs Asian transport pathways. The background marine aerosol has an annual mean and median concentrations of 2.0 and 1.5 ?g m -3, respectively, for particles less than 2.5 ?m diameter. There is a seasonal pattern in all components of the aerosol mass, with a summer maximum and winter minimum. This pattern is most likely due to the strong seasonal pattern in precipitation, which peaks in winter, combined with enhanced sources in summer. The Crater Lake marine aerosol composition is dominated by organics (˜40% by mass), with smaller contributions from sulfates, mineral dust and elemental carbon. Analysis of the background marine aerosol found no apparent trend since 1988. This is in contrast to results reported by Prospero et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 108 (2003) 4019) for nss-SO 42- samples from Midway Island in the North Pacific. Comparison of the mean concentrations for each site shows that the Midway samples are significantly more influenced by Asian industrial sources of sulfur, compared to Crater Lake, which implies a substantial loss of nss-SO 42- from Asian sources that occurs during transit across the Pacific to Crater Lake due to precipitation scavenging.

Jaffe, Dan; Tamura, Shihoko; Harris, Joyce

152

Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast  

PubMed Central

Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

153

Storm surge computations for the west coast of Britain using a finite element model (TELEMAC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unstructured mesh finite element model of the sea region off the west coast of Britain is used to examine the storm surge event of November 1977. This period is chosen because accurate meteorological data to drive the model and coastal observations for validation purposes are available. In addition, previous published results from a coarse-grid (resolution 7 km) finite difference model of the region and high-resolution (1 km) limited area (namely eastern Irish Sea) model are available for comparison purposes. To enable a “like with like” comparison to be made, the finite element model covers the same domain and has the same meteorological forcing as these earlier finite difference models. In addition, the mesh is based on an identical set of water depths. Calculations show that the finite element model can reproduce both the “external” and “internal” components of the surge in the region. This shows that the “far field” (external) component of the surge can accurately propagate through the irregular mesh, and the model responds accurately, without over- or under-damping, to local wind forcing. Calculations show significant temporal and spatial variability in the surge in close agreement with that found in earlier finite difference calculations. In addition, root mean square errors between computed and observed surge are comparable to those found in previous finite different calculations. The ability to vary the mesh in nearshore regions reveals appreciable small-scale variability that was not found in the previous finite difference solutions. However, the requirement to perform a “like with like” comparison using the same water depths means that the full potential of the unstructured grid model to improve resolution in the nearshore region is inhibited. This is clearly evident in the Mersey estuary region where a higher resolution unstructured mesh model, forced with uniform winds, had shown high topographic variability due to small-scale variations in topography that are not resolved here. Despite the lack of high resolution in the nearshore region, the model showed results that were consistent with the previous storm surge models of the region. Calculations suggest that to improve on these earlier results, a finer nearshore mesh is required based upon accurate nearshore topography.

Jones, John Eric; Davies, Alan M.

2008-12-01

154

Aerial Measurement of Radioxenon Concentration off the West Coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima Reactor Accident  

E-print Network

In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to Xe-133 was observed. Methods to extract Xe-133 count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding Xe-133 volumetric concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that Xe-133 concentrations on average lie in the range of 30 to 70 Bq/m3.

Sinclair, L E; Fortin, R; Carson, J M; Saull, P R B; Coyle, M J; Van Brabant, R A; Buckle, J L; Desjardins, S M; Hall, R M

2011-01-01

155

Aerial Measurement of Radioxenon Concentration off the West Coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima Reactor Accident  

E-print Network

In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to Xe-133 was observed. Methods to extract Xe-133 count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding Xe-133 volumetric concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that Xe-133 concentrations on average lie in the range of 30 to 70 Bq/m3.

L. E. Sinclair; H. C. J. Seywerd; R. Fortin; J. M. Carson; P. R. B. Saull; M. J. Coyle; R. A. Van Brabant; J. L. Buckle; S. M. Desjardins; R. M. Hall

2011-06-20

156

Modeling studies of impacts from the Guinea Highlands in relation to tropical cyclogenesis along the West African coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical simulations of three separate events of tropical cyclogenesis (TC-genesis) off the West African coast between the years of 2006 and 2008 were performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the processes that take place during the transition of an African easterly wave (AEW) and any associated mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) as they progress from continental West Africa into the maritime environment of the eastern Atlantic Ocean. Three tropical cyclones that were associated with AEWs and related MCSs over continental West Africa that progressed off the coast, later achieving at least tropical storm (TS) strength, were selected to be investigated. The three tropical cyclones were: TS Debby (2006), Hurricane Helene (2006), and TS Josephine (2008). The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was utilized to conduct numerical model simulations beginning 72 h prior to each system's AEW being classified as a tropical depression (TD). Results demonstrated that the model was able to recapture the evolution of each MCS in association with AEWs during all three events. The sensitivity experiments of the impact of topography (i.e., Guinea Highlands) suggested that the elevation of the Guinea Highlands plays a significant role in relation to TC-genesis, even though the highest peaks of the Guinea Highlands are only approximately 1,300 m. Simulation results supported that topographical blocking and northwest deflection of strong southwest winds from the Atlantic played an important role in the enhancement of low-level cyclonic circulation. Without the presence of the Highlands, wind speeds associated with each circulation by simulation's end were either weaker or the simulation failed to generate a circulation completely. As the MCSs developed along the coast, they became phase locked in the downstream flow of an AEW as it exited the West African coast. The MCS in each event acted as a catalyst for TC-genesis with the associated AEW. Without the Guinea Highlands, the MCS features were either weakened or failed to develop, thus hindering TC-genesis for these three cases.

Tompkins, C. Forbes; Chiao, Sen

2012-01-01

157

78 FR 49190 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...SUMMARY: This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish...fishery information and additional inseason management needs. Those changes to management measures are implemented in this...

2013-08-13

158

Distribution and abundance of anthropogenic marine debris along the shelf and slope of the US West Coast.  

PubMed

As marine debris levels continue to grow worldwide, defining sources, composition, and distribution of debris, as well as potential effects, becomes increasingly important. We investigated composition and abundance of man-made, benthic marine debris at 1347 randomly selected stations along the US West Coast during Groundfish Bottom Trawl Surveys in 2007 and 2008. Anthropogenic debris was observed in 469 tows at depths of 55-1280 m. Plastic and metallic debris occurred in the greatest number of hauls followed by fabric and glass. Mean density was 67.1 items km(-2) throughout the study area but was significantly higher south of 36 degrees 00'N latitude. Mean density significantly increased with depth, ranging from 30 items km(-2) in shallow (55-183 m) water to 128 items km(-2) in the deepest depth stratum (550-1280 m). Debris densities observed along the US West Coast were comparable to those seen elsewhere and provide a valuable backdrop for future comparisons. PMID:20092858

Keller, Aimee A; Fruh, Erica L; Johnson, Melanie M; Simon, Victor; McGourty, Catherine

2010-05-01

159

The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and geochemical biomarker composition of sediments from sea lochs on the west coast of Scotland.  

PubMed

Sediments from twelve sea lochs on the west coast of Scotland were analysed for parent and branched 2- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes and geochemical biomarkers (triterpanes). Where possible at least fourteen sediment samples were collected at random from each sea loch. All sea lochs were remote, most had limited industrial and urban inputs, although all had fish farms. Four lochs had moderate total PAH concentrations and eight lochs had high total PAH concentrations. Total PAH concentration was related to organic carbon content and particle size distribution, with sandier sediments having lower PAH concentrations. The highest total PAH concentrations, normalised for organic carbon, were in Loch Linnhe and Ballachulish Bay (Loch Leven), close to an aluminium smelter. PAH concentration ratios showed that pyrolysis was the main source of PAHs in most lochs. Only sediments from Loch Clash showed evidence of petrogenic input based on their geochemical biomarker (triterpane and sterane) and n-alkane profiles. PAH profiles were similar across lochs apart from Loch Linnhe and Ballachulish Bay, which had a greater proportion of heavy parent PAHs. West coast sediments had a smaller proportion of heavy PAHs than sediments collected from voes in Shetland and a smaller proportion of alkylated PAHs relative to sediments collected from coastal waters around Orkney. PMID:14999320

Webster, L; Fryer, R J; Megginson, C; Dalgarno, E J; McIntosh, A D; Moffat, C F

2004-03-01

160

New LNG process scheme  

SciTech Connect

A new LNG cycle has been developed for base load liquefaction facilities. This new design offers a different technical and economical solution comparing in efficiency with the classical technologies. The new LNG scheme could offer attractive business opportunities to oil and gas companies that are trying to find paths to monetize gas sources more effectively; particularly for remote or offshore locations where smaller scale LNG facilities might be applicable. This design offers also an alternative route to classic LNG projects, as well as alternative fuel sources. Conceived to offer simplicity and access to industry standard equipment, This design is a hybrid result of combining a standard refrigeration system and turboexpander technology.

Foglietta, J.H.

1999-07-01

161

The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

2007-01-01

162

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Pathogenicity Variation in Two West Coast  

E-print Network

, pathogen and environment, and leaf lesion area in detached bay leaves will be used as the proxy Coast Forest Phytophthoras, Phytophthora nemorosa and P. pseudosyringae, to Bay Laurel1 R.E. Linzer2 important host, bay laurel (Umbellularia californica). Experiments will account for variability in host

Standiford, Richard B.

163

76 FR 56327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Annual Catch Limits and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast, particularly during El Nino warming periods, these species...Procedure. (1) In June of each year, the HMSMT will deliver a preliminary...2) In September of each year, the HMSMT will deliver a final...review. (3) In November each year, the Council will take...

2011-09-13

164

A synoptic climatology of the near-surface wind along the west coast of South America  

E-print Network

network of in situ observations, so the high resolution (0.313°) NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis is used here to present a synoptic climatology of the coastal wind along the Chile/Peru coast. Covariability between the alongshore pressure gradient...

Rahn, David A.; Garreaud, René D.

2013-05-20

165

Plant distribution in relation to soil properties of reclaimed lands on the West Coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species distribution was studied on five reclaimed lands and one intertidal flat (control) on the western coast of Korea.\\u000a Nineteen soil properties were analyzed. Of these, soil moisture, electrical conductivity, and levels of Na and Cl had the\\u000a greatest effect on plant distribution. The plant species were divided into four groups, according to the amount of soil moisture\\u000a found

Byeong Mee Min; Joon-Ho Kim

1999-01-01

166

Ground-water quality of coastal aquifer systems in the West Coast Basin, Los Angeles County, California, 1999-2002  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The extensive use of ground water throughout the Central and West Coast Basins of Los Angeles County during the first half of the 20th century resulted in declining water levels, widespread seawater intrusion, and deterioration of water quality along most reaches of the coast. In order to control seawater intrusion in the West Coast Basin, freshwater is injected into a series of wells at two seawater barrier projects. In order to better understand the processes of seawater intrusion and the efficiency of current barrier operation, data were collected from multiple-well monitoring sites installed by the U.S. Geological Survey, from local observation wells, and from production wells. The occurrence and areal extent of native, saline, and recently injected ground water near the coast were defined through the collection and analysis of inorganic and isotopic water-quality data and geophysical logs. Most water in the West Coast Basin with a dissolved-solids concentration less than 500 milligrams per liter generally has a sodium-bicarbonate to sodium/calcium-bicarbonate character. Water with a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter also contains variable amounts of calcium and sodium, but chloride is predominant. Most of these high-dissolved-solids wells are perforated in the Upper aquifer systems; several have dissolved-chloride values near that of seawater. Elevated chloride concentrations were measured at many wells in both the Upper and Lower aquifer systems inland from the barrier projects. Although water levels have increased in many wells over the last 30 years, some of the wells do not show a corresponding decrease in dissolved chloride. A detailed assessment of saline ground water was provided by examining the ratios of chloride to bromide, iodide, and boron. Seawater-freshwater mixing lines were constructed using all three ratios. These ion ratios also identify water affected by mixing with injected imported water and oil-field brine water. Isotopic data -oxygen-18, deuterium, strontium-87, boron-11, tritium, and carbon-14-also were collected. The stable isotopes oxygen-18 and deuterium were used to distinguish between isotopically heavier water that originated in the Los Angeles Forebay, isotopically lighter water that originated in the Montebello Forebay, local recharge, and water containing a mixture of seawater and imported water. Tritium data were used to identify recent water (less than 50 years old) present in the Upper and Lower aquifer systems inland from the seawater barrier projects, and present locally near the Dominguez Gap. Carbon-14 data indicate that water with uncorrected ages ranging from about 4,000 years to more than 20,000 years before present occurs in the Lower aquifer systems and in the Pico unit. Borehole electromagnetic conductivity logs, combined with gamma-ray logs, were used to identify potential saline zones throughout the entire well depth; this provides an indicator of intrusion in zones that are not being monitored by a piezometer. Temperature logging was used to track the thermal effects of the cooler water used for injection. Specific-conductance logs provided a screening-level indicator of poor-quality water in monitoring wells.

Land, Michael; Reichard, Eric G.; Crawford, Steven M.; Everett, Rhett R.; Newhouse, Mark W.; Williams, Colin F.

2004-01-01

167

Developing erosion models for integrated coastal zone management: a case study of The New Caledonia west coast.  

PubMed

The tropical climate and human pressures (mining industry, forest fires) cause significant sediment inputs into the New Caledonia lagoon and are a major cause of degradation of the fringing reefs. The erosion process is spatially characterized on the west coast of New Caledonia to assess potential sediment inputs in the marine area. This paper describes the methodologies that are used to map soil sensitivity to erosion using remote sensing and a geographic information system tool. A cognitive approach, multi-criteria evaluation model and Universal Soil Loss Equation are implemented. This article compares the relevance of each model in order to spatialize and quantify potential erosion at catchment basin scale. These types of studies provide valuable results for focusing on areas subject to erosion and serve as a decision-making tool for the minimization of lagoon vulnerability to the natural and human dynamics on the level of the catchment basins. PMID:20673925

Dumas, Pascal; Printemps, Julia; Mangeas, Morgan; Luneau, Gaelle

2010-01-01

168

Baseline of organotin pollution in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from the west coast of India.  

PubMed

Organotins, especially tributyltins (TBT) are highly toxic to many marine organisms. These compounds are introduced in marine waters by ship trafficking, ship scrapping activities, as antifouling compounds and sewage disposal. Marine fishes, crustaceans and molluscans are easily prone to organotins contamination. In view of this, a baseline monitoring study was conducted in order to establish the levels of organotins in edible marine fishes, bivalves, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from Mumbai, Goa and Karwar on the west coast of India. At these locations average organotin concentration found in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs was 108, 852, 179, 70 and 89 ng Sn g(-1)dw, respectively. In all the samples butyltins dominated over phenyltins. The levels of organotins suggest that all the organisms were contaminated with organotins and their consumption may pose health problems to humans. PMID:21820681

Jadhav, Sangeeta; Bhosale, Darshana; Bhosle, Narayan

2011-10-01

169

An analysis of historical Mussel Watch Programme data from the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town.  

PubMed

The concentrations of metals in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) prevalent along the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town are presented. The mussels were sampled during the routine "Mussel Watch Programme" (MWP) between 1985 and 2008. Levels of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, Fe and Mn at Cape Point, Hout Bay, Sea Point, Milnerton and Bloubergstrand were analysed for autumn and spring and showed consistent similar mean values for the five sites. There was a highly significant temporal (annual and seasonal) difference between all metals as well as a significant difference in metal concentrations between the five sites. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb were higher than previous investigations and possibly indicative of anthropogenic sources of metals. The results provide a strong motivation to increase efforts in marine pollution research in the area. PMID:25127737

Sparks, Conrad; Odendaal, James; Snyman, Reinette

2014-10-15

170

Brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolic compounds in North American west coast bald eaglet (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma.  

PubMed

We report on the identity, characterization, and spatial trends of several brominated flame retardants and hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) organohalogen contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestling plasma collected from sites along the west coast of North America. Samples were from four southwestern British Columbia (BC) locations, a reference site in northern BC (Fort St. James; FSJ), and from Santa Catalina Island, CA (SCI), an area of high DDT and PCB contamination. Mean concentrations of sigma polybrominated diphenyl ether (sigma PBDE (8 congeners monitored); 1.78-8.49 ng/g), sigma OH-polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma OH-PCB (30 congeners monitored); 0.44-0.87 ng/g), and sigma OH-PBDE (14 congeners monitored; 0.31-0.92 ng/g) were similar in eaglets from southwestern BC yet lower than for SCl and significantly higher than for FSJ. Dominant PBDE congeners were BDE47, BDE99, and BDE100, but SCl eaglets also contained low levels of higher brominated congeners. 4-OH-CB187 and 4'-OH-CB202 accounted for 65-100% of sigma OH-PCB in all BC eaglets, with 4'-OH-CB202 as well as 3'-OH-CB138 and 4-OH-CB146 dominating in SCl eaglets. Ostensibly of biogenic origin, 6'-OH-BDE49 and 6-OH-BDE47 were found in BC nestlings. Only 4'-OH-BDE49 (2.10 ng/g) was found in SCl eaglets. MeO-PBDEs and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were not found in any birds, but the polybrominated biphenyl BB101 was detected in southwestern BC samples. This study demonstrates that west coast North American bald eagles contain previously unreported organohalogens, which have the potential to impact the health and survival of these raptors. PMID:17120553

McKinney, Melissa A; Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, John E; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Letcher, Robert J

2006-10-15

171

Distribution of Sargassum muticum on the North West coast of Spain: Relationships with urbanization and community diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasions are common in coastal marine environments where proximity to urban areas should influence the number of non-native organisms due to the likelihood of unintentional introductions from urban centers. Invasive species are widely recognised as important agents of global change, and can colonize new habitats and even cause local extinction of native species. This study was focused on the invasive marine macroalga Sargassum muticum, a problematic invasive species on the West coast of America and in European waters. An intensive survey was carried out along the Galician coast (North West of Spain) from March to August 2008 to determine the current distribution of this species, and its relationship with level of urbanization and native macroalgal diversity. We sampled the presence of S. muticum and native macroalgae in the mid and low intertidal zones of twenty rocky shores distributed along ten rias. Rias were grouped into high and scarcely urbanized based on their population density. Results indicated that S. muticum was present in nine out of the ten rias, confirming its presence in most of the intertidal rocky shores of Galicia twenty years after it was first observed. The presence of S. muticum was not related to the degree of urbanization of the rias, and its distribution and abundance did not seem to be influenced by diversity or functional groups of native algae. In addition, there was a great variability in the percentage cover, number and length of individuals amongst localities and rias suggesting that both large-scale and local processes may play a role in the distribution of this species. This study highlights the importance of future research into the distribution and impact of introduced algae and proves the urgent need for monitoring programmes and increasing efforts to prevent and control new introductions.

Incera, Mónica; Olabarria, Celia; Cacabelos, Eva; César, Javier; Troncoso, Jesús S.

2011-04-01

172

Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.  

PubMed

Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

2014-01-01

173

Year-round West Nile Virus Activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and Louisiana  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in 11 dead birds and two mosquito pools collected in east Texas and southern Louisiana during surveillance studies in the winter of 2003 to 2004. These findings suggest that WNV is active throughout the year in this region of the United States. PMID:15498169

Parsons, Ray; Siirin, Marina; Randle, Yvonne; Sargent, Chris; Guzman, Hilda; Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Bala, Adil A.; Haas, Keith; Zerinque, Brian

2004-01-01

174

Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

175

Feeding ecology of the Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis fulva) in the Sg. Labu River on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding ecology of the Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis fulva) in the Sg. Labu river near the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula was studied in March and April of 1994. The plovers had two foraging sites, a polychaete-feeding and a mussel-feeding site, which were located at a distance of about 1 km from

Kazuaki Kato; Koji Omori; Masaaki Yoneda

2000-01-01

176

Long-term variations in abundance and distribution of sewage pollution indicator and human pathogenic bacteria along the central west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe water quality criteria on the load and types of microbial populations are important for human use from fishery, tourism and navigational viewpoints. To understand the variations in sewage pollution indicator and certain human pathogenic bacteria, data collected from various locations along central west coast of India during 2002–2007 were analyzed. Water and sediment samples were examined for total viable

V. Rodrigues; N. Ramaiah; S. Kakti; D. Samant

2011-01-01

177

Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

Heneman, B.

1988-07-01

178

The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

1995-01-01

179

Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered subtidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction of the commercial sea urchinParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck) from contrasting habitats on the west coast of Ireland was examined from May 1986 through August 1988. Urchins were collected intertidally from an exposed rocky shore and subtidally from a protected bay. Monthly measurements of the gonad index and histological examination of the gonads demonstrated thatP. lividus has an annual reproductive cycle.

M. Byrne

1990-01-01

180

The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation  

E-print Network

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) hazards include LNG flammable vapor dispersion and LNG pool fire thermal radiation. A large LNG pool fire emits high thermal radiation thus preventing fire fighters from approaching and extinguishing the fire. One...

Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

2009-05-15

181

Assessment of contamination, distribution and chemical speciation of trace metals in water column in the Dakar coast and the Saint Louis estuary from Senegal, West Africa.  

PubMed

The water column from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa, was sampled in order to measure the contamination level by trace metals. The speciation of metals in water allowed performing a distribution between dissolved and particulate trace metals. For the dissolved metals, the metallic concentration and repartition between the organic fraction and the inorganic fraction were performed. The results show that the pollution of the estuary was more serious than in Dakar coast for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn; while, Cd and Cu were higher in Dakar coast. A strong affinity between metals and suspended particles has been revealed. Dissolved metals that have a tendency to form organic metal complexes are in decreasing order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Co=Cr=Mn, Cu and Ni. The results showed that the mobility of trace metals in estuary is controlled by dissolved organic carbon, while in coast it depends on chlorides. PMID:25038980

Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Diop, Mamadou; Touré, Aminata; Cabral, Mathilde; Cazier, Fabrice; Fall, Mamadou; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

2014-09-15

182

Continental microseismic intensity delineates oceanic upwelling timing along the west coast of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

biological productivity of coastal upwelling regions undergoes marked interannual variability as marine ecosystems respond to changes in the prevailing winds. Determination of the principal metrics that define the upwelling cycle—the spring transition, when ocean conditions switch from downwelling- to upwelling-favorable, and the Fall Transition, when conditions return to downwelling-favorable—is essential for understanding changes in coastal productivity. Here we demonstrate that upwelling in the northern California Current System may be delineated by changes in microseismic activity recorded at a broadband seismological station in southwestern British Columbia. Observed high correlation between microseismic intensity and offshore bottom pressure fluctuations at ~0.2 Hz confirms a direct link to regional wind-wave generation. Comparison of transition times derived from coincident 20 year records of microseismic intensity and alongshore wind stress for the British Columbia-Oregon coast suggests that seismically derived times may be more representative of coastal upwelling than times derived using traditional methods.

Thomson, Richard E.; Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Hourston, Roy A. S.

2014-10-01

183

The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño on West Coast beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring programs at a series of beaches in California, Oregon and Washington were used to evaluate beach evolution associated with the El Niño winter of 2009-10, and to relate the observed coastal change to past winters, including the last major El Niño in 1997-98. At the California study sites, analysis of Lidar (1997-98) and semi-annual or greater high-resolution beach and nearshore surveys (2004-10) shows that coastal change during the winter of 2009-10 broadly rivals that in 1997-98, and that the 2009-10 winter storms collectively forced the most beach erosion since high-resolution monitoring began in 2004. Along the Oregon and Washington coasts, many beaches exhibited classic El Niño shoreline responses, with significant shoreline retreat occurring immediately north of jetties and tidal inlets as well as the southern ends of pocket beaches and littoral cells. In Washington in particular, these areas eroded rapidly during the winter of 2009-10, comparable to the response seen in the El Niño winter of 1997-98. Wave buoy data from buoys in California and Washington that captured both the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Niño show that the two events were comparable in wave energy as measured by the mean wave year (1 July- 30 June) energy flux (Fig. 1). The increased wave energy in 2009-10 had significant impacts on coastal infrastructure throughout the region; for example, in San Francisco the Great Highway was severely undercut by wave action, resulting in a $5 million emergency remediation project. In Washington, approximately 195 m of road was eroded along the entrance to Willapa Bay and southern Grayland Plains. While the impacts of the 2009-10 winter were substantial, impacts on the coast were moderated by an unusually mild wave climate in 2008-9 (Fig. 1), which left beaches more accreted prior to the severe wave season of 2009-10. As climate change accelerates sea level rise and potentially increases the magnitude and frequency of storms in mid-latitudes, the beach erosion seen in 2009-10 will become less unusual, making it critical that we continue to monitor beach morphology to provide data for coastal managers and to improve our understanding of beach dynamics. Figure 1. Yearly mean wave energy flux relative to the mean since each buoy’s deployment offshore of Washington (Grays Harbor), San Francisco (Point Reyes), and Santa Barbara (Harvest, Anacapa Passage).

Barnard, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Hansen, J. E.; Allan, J. C.; Ruggiero, P.; Hoover, D. J.

2010-12-01

184

Thermal Impact of oceanic coastal Kelvin waves along West African coasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role of the intra-seasonal oceanic Kevin waves and their impacts on Sea Surface Temperature (SST) along the three West African coastal upwelling regions. 1/4° NEMO OGCM runs were carried out and analyzed to study the detailed of coastal wave impacts on SST. Idealized experiments support the altimetry results, and particularly the observed amplitude and velocity changes. SST impacts of up to 0.5°C/cm are visible in model runs, as well as in observations by regression of SSH on SST along coastlines. The experiments allow for a partition of lateral and vertical advection and mixing processes, and uncover their competing or constructive effects on the thermal stratification and the SST field, depending on location and mean circulation.

Wade, Malick; Lazar, Alban

2014-05-01

185

Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due to rock slope failures, onto glacier surfaces. The absence of any sediment that could be unequivocally classified as subglacial till reflects the dominance of debris flow and glacifluvial processes in latero-frontal moraine construction in this hyper-humid west coast setting.

Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

2010-12-01

186

Variability in growth, development and reproduction of the non-native seaweed Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyceae) on the Irish west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared seasonal growth, development and reproduction of the invasive brown macroalga Sargassum muticum in habitats with different wave exposure on the Irish west coast. Three field sites with different degrees of wave exposure were chosen for monthly observations to reflect different habitats that were characteristic of the Irish west coast. Growth and receptacle development differed considerably between sites. Growth and receptacle development was lower at the most sheltered site. Here, S. muticum showed signs of early fragmentation in April/May during the two years of investigation (2007 and 2008), whilst the population at an exposed site developed normally and plants grew to a maximum average length of 163 cm by July, with the onset of fragmentation in August. Sargassum muticum in a tide pool exhibited a similar seasonal growth cycle as plants at the exposed open shore site. Overall growth however was stunted, with plants reaching a maximum length of only 30-40 cm in July. Receptacle development was also inhibited at the sheltered site, with a maximum of only 10% of plants found to be fertile during spring and summer 2008, while plants at the exposed site and the tide pool exhibited 100% plant fertility by August. An extensive occurrence of the native epiphyte Pylaiella littoralis on S. muticum was noticed during field sampling at the sheltered study site which may have contributed to inhibited development of S. muticum observed in this area. Seasonal biomass production, photosynthetic activity and plant/frond ratio development were contrasted between Sargassum muticum at the open shore and the tide pool. Sargassum muticum biomass production in the tide pool was 3.5 times lower than that of plants on the open shore. Receptacle development and seasonal photosynthetic activity were similar for tide pool and open shore plants, irrespective of morphological differences. Highest photosynthetic rates (fluorescence yield, Yo) were measured during active growth in February and lowest values during development of reproductive tissue and senescence. Numbers of S. muticum plants on the open shore decreased significantly during the year, whilst frond number per plant increased, possibly suggesting self-thinning through shading processes. The high variability in Sargassum muticum productivity and reproductive development between habitats suggests that the degree of competition and impact on native flora could be site-specific, and their local effect on displacements will require further investigations.

Baer, Julia; Stengel, Dagmar B.

2010-12-01

187

Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

Svensson, Carl Johan

2012-07-01

188

Resonant Interaction between an Atmospheric Gravity Wave and Shallow Water Wave along Florida's West Coast.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 25 March 1995, a large solitary wave, seemingly from nowhere, washed ashore along the normally tranquil Gulf Coast of Florida from Tampa Bay to south of Naples. On this Saturday morning, many beachgoers and coastal residents saw either a large wave, a surge, or a seiche. The wave was typically described as 3 m or greater, breaking between 0.5 and 3 km offshore, and taking 120-180 s to arrive at the shore. Just prior to the wave's arrival at the beach, witnesses reported a rapid runout of water, then a huge 15-25-m runup of water onto the beach corresponding to a 2-3-m vertical run-up height. Some people reported several smaller waves. This was likely due to local effects. This wave was generated and amplified by a large-amplitude atmospheric gravity wave transiting southeastward over the eastern Gulf of Mexico. The atmospheric gravity wave and the water wave moved over a channel of water depth sufficient to maintain the waves in phase allowing resonation of the shallow water wave. Surface winds appeared to have a negligible affect, increasing only slightly (3-5 m s-1) along the path of the atmospheric gravity wave and opposing propagation of the water wave.

Paxton, Charles H.; Sobien, Daniel A.

1998-12-01

189

Distribution and character of upper mesozoic subduction complexes along the west coast of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structurally complex sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive igneous rocks characterize a nearly continuous narrow band along the Pacific coast of North America from Baja California, Mexico to southern Alaska. They occur in two modes: (1) as complexly folded but coherent sequences of graywacke and argillite that locally exhibit blueschist-grade metamorphism, and (2) as melanges containing large blocks of graywacke, chert, volcanic and plutonic rocks, high-grade schist, and limestone in a highly sheared pelitic, cherty, or sandstone matrix. Fossils from the coherent graywacke sequences range in age from late Jurassic to Eocene; fossils from limestone blocks in the melanges range in age from mid-Paleozoic to middle Cretaceous. Fossils from the matrix surrounding the blocks, however, are of Jurassic, Cretaceous, and rarely, Tertiary age, indicating that fossils from the blocks cannot be used to date the time of formation of the melanges. Both the deformation of the graywacke, with accompanying blueschist metamorphism, as well as the formation of the melanges, are believed to be the result of late Mesozoic and early Tertiary subduction. The origin of the melanges, particularly the emplacement of exotic tectonic blocks, is not understood. ?? 1978.

Jones, D.L.; Blake, M.C., Jr.; Bailey, E.H.; McLaughlin, R.J.

1978-01-01

190

Recent deformation along the offshore Malibu Coast, Dume, and related faults west of Point Dume, southern California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Offshore faults west of Point Dume, southern California, are part of an important regional fault system that extends for about 206 km, from near the city of Los Angeles westward along the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains and through the northern Channel Islands. This boundary fault system separates the western Transverse Ranges, on the north, from the California Continental Borderland, on the south. Previous research showed that the fault system includes many active fault strands; consequently, the entire system is considered a serious potential earthquake hazard to nearby Los Angeles. We present an integrated analysis of multichannel seismic- and high-resolution seismic-reflection data and multibeam-bathymetric information to focus on the central part of the fault system that lies west of Point Dume. We show that some of the main offshore faults have cumulative displacements of 3-5 km, and many faults are currently active because they deform the seafloor or very shallow sediment layers. The main offshore fault is the Dume fault, a large north-dipping reverse fault. In the eastern part of the study area, this fault offsets the seafloor, showing Holocene displacement. Onshore, the Malibu Coast fault dips steeply north, is active, and shows left-oblique slip. The probable offshore extension of this fault is a large fault that dips steeply in its upper part but flattens at depth. High-resolution seismic data show that this fault deforms shallow sediment making up the Hueneme fan complex, indicating Holocene activity. A structure near Sycamore knoll strikes transversely to the main faults and could be important to the analysis of the regional earthquake hazard because the structure might form a boundary between earthquake-rupture segments.

Fisher, M.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sorlien, C.C.; Dartnell, P.; Sliter, R.W.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wong, F.L.

2005-01-01

191

Disturbance, Climate, and Management Impacts on US West-Coast Forest Carbon Budgets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest net uptake of atmospheric CO2 (net ecosystem production, or NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. Accurate quantification of NEP and forest carbon budgets is necessary for validation of coupled carbon-climate models and monitoring state carbon budgets. To improve understanding of the influence of disturbance, climate, and management on forest carbon stocks and fluxes in the western U.S., federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon, Washington, and California from 2001-2006. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations and ecoregion-specific lookup tables were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), NEP, and mortality for different age classes. Natural and anthropogenic disturbance impacts on forest carbon accumulation and NPP varied by ecoregion, forest type, and ownership. In the semi-arid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C m-2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C m-2 yr-1, respectively. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (greater than 200 years) in some ecoregions. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically double if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase terrestrial carbon storage by decreasing anthropogenic disturbance through increased rotation age and reduction in harvest rates.

Tara, H. M.; Beverly, L. E.; Turner, D. P.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.; Donato, D.

2008-12-01

192

Annual Bacterioplankton Biomasses and Productivities in a Temperate West Coast Canadian Fjord  

PubMed Central

Bacterioplankton numbers, biomasses, and productivities, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton productivities, were assayed from 1 March 1984 to 12 August 1985 through a 250-m-deep seawater column in Howe Sound, a temperate fjord-sound on the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada. Primary production during this 18-month period was 845 g of C m?2. Bacterial production was assayed over this same period as 193 g of C m?2 (thymidine incorporation) and 77 g of C m?2 (frequency of dividing cells). Bacterial productivities per cubic meter were usually greater in the euphotic zone than in deeper aphotic water, but when integrated through the water column, approximately half of the bacterial production occurred in the deeper aphotic portion. Bacterial production occurred throughout the year, although at reduced rates in late fall and early winter; primary production almost ceased during late fall and early winter. Because of this heterotrophic bacterioplankton production was a very large portion of the microbial (bacterial plus phyto-plankton) production at this time. In mid-summer bacterial production was a small proportion of the microbial production. Because of this asynchrony in peaks and troughs of bacterial and phytoplankton production through the year, data comparison is best done over an annual cycle. On this basis the bacterial production in the Howe Sound water column was between 23 and 9% of the phytoplankton production when a bacterial C to biovolume ratio of 0.107 pg of C ?m?3 was assumed; the corresponding values were 64 and 29% when a ratio of 0.300 pg of bacterial C ?m?3 was assumed. PMID:16347360

Albright, L. J.; McCrae, S. K.

1987-01-01

193

Use of drift substrates to characterize marine fungal communities from the west coast of Portugal.  

PubMed

This survey reports the occurrence, diversity and similarity of marine fungi associated with five categories of drift substrates (Arundo donax, Phragmites australis, Spartina maritima, "other stems" and driftwood) collected on four sandy beaches of the western coast of Portugal. "Other stems" and driftwood are composite samples with a variety of identified and unidentified pieces of non-woody and woody substrates respectively. Fifty-six taxa were identified, including 38 Ascomycota and 18 anamorphic fungi. Twenty-six taxa were generalists; however several cases of "substrate recurrence" were identified. The very frequent fungi differed among the categories of studied substrates, with the exception of Corollospora maritima, very frequent on four categories. Except for S. maritima, P. australis and driftwood, cases of multiple fungal colonization were rare. S. maritima was the single substrate with five different marine fungi on one sample, as well as with the highest number of very frequent fungi, highest percentage of colonization and average number of fungi per sample. Driftwood presented the highest value of fungal richness (37 taxa) and A. donax the lowest (22 taxa). ANOSIM analysis of similarity showed that all substrates supported different fungal communities with the exception of the pair P. australis/"other stems". The effect of sample size on estimated fungal richness was tested, and the results let us conclude that, although most of the sporadic fungi (<1% occurrence) will be detected only in a very large number of samples, 60 samples of A. donax and "other stems" and 70 samples of all the other substrates may suffice to assess their respective representative marine mycota. PMID:22241614

Azevedo, Egidia; Rebelo, Rui; Caeiro, Maria Filomena; Barata, Margarida

2012-01-01

194

Zoogeography of the bottom Foraminifera of the West-African coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sediment samples from the continental shelf of West-Equatorial Africa (from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Niger estuary), depths ranging from 0 to 69 m were found to contain 176 bottom foraminiferal species. For the majority of them (126 species), their areas of occurrences were mapped and the peculiar features of the geographical range and distribution were studied. The species natural habitats were established based on the taxonomical revision of the species in study all over the World Ocean based on the collections of the Zoological Institute RAS and wide literary data. The method of perforated cards was used to mark the geographical locations of all of the species studied. In order to establish the species geographic zonal distribution (together with their depth habitat) the five characteristic groups of the species were separated: 1. pan-oceanic (cosmopolitan), 2. widely spread tropical-boreal, 3. tropical-law boreal, 4. tropical-subtropical, 5. tropical. The percent of the species of each group among the species composition was established for the fauna of each station and for the whole region.

Mikhalevich, V.

2008-03-01

195

An intercomparison between finite difference and finite element (TELEMAC) approaches to modelling west coast of Britain tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element model (namely TELEMAC) with a range of mesh refinements and assumptions of coastal water depths is used to determine an optimal mesh for computing the M 2 tide in a region of significant geographical extent. The region adopted is the west coast of Britain covering the Irish and Celtic Seas. The nature of the spatially varying topography and tidal distribution, together with a comprehensive set of measurements and existing accurate finite difference model makes it ideal for such a study. Calculations show that a water-depth dependent criterion for determining element size gives an optimal distribution over the majority of the region. However, local refinements in narrow channels such as the North Channel and Bristol Channel are required. Although the specification of a zero coastal water depth, leads to a fine near coastal grid, this does not yield the most accurate solution. In addition the computational cost is high. In practice in a large area model the use of a non-zero coastal water depth yields optimum accuracy at minimal computational cost. However, calculations show that accuracy is critically dependent upon nearshore water depths. Comparison with the finite difference model shows that the bias in elevation amplitude in the finite difference solution is removed in the finite element calculation.

Jones, J. Eric; Davies, Alan M.

2005-12-01

196

Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

Howe, John T.

1986-01-01

197

Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast.  

PubMed

Measurements (1994-2007) from four cabled-to-shore hydrophone systems located off the North American west coast permit extensive comparisons between "contemporary" low frequency ship traffic noise (25-50 Hz) collected in the past decade to measurements made over 1963-1965 with the same in-water equipment at the same sites. An increase of roughly 10 dB over the band 25-40 Hz at one site has already been reported [Andrew et al., Acoust. Res. Lett. Online 3(2), 65-70 (2002)]. Newly corrected data from the remaining three systems generally corroborate this increase. Simple linear trend lines of the contemporary traffic noise (duration 6 to 12+ years) show that recent levels are slightly increasing, holding steady, or decreasing. These results confirm the prediction by Ross that the rate of increase in traffic noise would be far less at the end of the 20th century compared to that observed in the 1950s and 1960s. PMID:21361423

Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M; Mercer, James A

2011-02-01

198

Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

2014-02-01

199

Environmental influences on the trawl catches in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The degree of relationship between trawl catch and environmental variables was assessed in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India using multivariate techniques. The demersal fish assemblage was dominated by the families, Leiognathidae, Sciaenidae, Clupeidae, Cynoglossidae and Stromateidae and were considered to be typical for the Indo-Pacific. Patterns in community-structure were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) which identified five major species-groups that explained 66% of the variation in absolute fish biomass. PCA was also performed using 13 environmental variables to reduce data set variability to four components which accounted for 75% of environmental variation. The model that best explained variation in absolute biomass based on maximum R2 (adjusted) and minimum Mallows' C p statistic was 71% and included six variables such as dissolved oxygen, macrobenthic density, sediment pH, photosynthetic pigment (Chl a), particulate organic carbon (POC) and seston. The regression coefficients were significant ( P<0.05) and small values of C p indicated the preciseness of the developed model. Path analysis was used to construct a hypothetical causal path diagram to depict the interaction between fish biomass and environmental variables. The study demonstrated the most important variables with regard to environmental-biotic interactions, although the measured variables did not account for all the variation in trawl catches. Further studies elucidating ecologically meaningful relationships should be helpful in bay-estuarine fisheries management.

Ansari, Z. A.; Sreepada, R. A.; Dalal, S. G.; Ingole, B. S.; Chatterji, A.

2003-03-01

200

Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with abundant tritium (greater than 8 tritium units) is found in and downgradient from the Montebello Forebay and near the seawater barrier projects, indicating recent recharge. Water with less than measurable tritium is present in, and downgradient from, the Los Angeles Forebay and in most wells in the West Coast Basin. Water from several deep wells was analyzed for carbon-14. Uncorrected estimates of age for these samples range from 600 to more than 20,000 years before present. Chemical and isotopic data are combined to evaluate changes in chemical character along flow paths emanating from the Montebello and Los Angeles Forebays. A four-layer ground-water flow model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water conditions representative of those in 1971 and transient conditions for the period 1971?2000. Model results indicate increases in ground-water storage in all parts of the study area over the simulated thirty-year period. The model was used to develop a three-dimensional ground-water budget and to assess impacts of two alternative future (2001?25) ground-water development scenarios?one that assumes continued pumping at average current rates and a second that assumes increasing pumping from most wells in the Central Basin. The model simulates stable or slightly increasing water levels for the first scenario and declining water levels (25 to 50 ft in the Central Basin) in the second scenario. Model sensitivity to parameter values and to the assumed Orange County boundary condition was evaluated. Particle tracking was applied to simulate advective transport of water from the spreading ponds, the coastline, and the seawater injection barriers. Particle tracking results indicate that most flow within the Upper San Pedro aquifer system occurs within about 20 percent of the total aquifer system thickness and that virtually all water injected into the seawater barrier projects has flowed inland. The simulation model was linked with optimizatio

Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler; Everett, Rhett R.; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

2003-01-01

201

Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 ?m), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

2009-03-01

202

Field survey of the occurrence and significance of regeneration in Amphiura chiajei (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from Killary Habrour, west coast of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boreo-Mediterranean amphiurid Amphiura chiajei Forbes occurs in high numbers (~700 individuals\\/m2) in Killary Harbour, a fjordic inlet on the west coast of Ireland. 99.1% of the adult individuals show signs of arm regeneration, while 0.5% show regeneration of the disc. A study of the phenomenon commenced in November 1987 and continued on a seasonal basis until July 1989. Specimens

B. W. Munday; Martin Ryan

1993-01-01

203

Purification and characterization of three ?2-antiplasmin and ?2-macroglobulin inactivating enzymes from the venom of the Mexican west coast rattlesnake ( Crotalus basiliscus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three distinct ?2PI (?2-antiplasmin) degrading and ?2M (?2-macroglobulin) inhibiting enzymes, named proteinase a, b and c, have been purified from the venom of Crotalus basiliscus (the Mexican west coast rattlesnake) by fast protein liquid chromatography (anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography). SDS-PAGE revealed that proteinase a and b had similar mol.wts (approximately 23,500), whereas proteinase c displayed a mol.wt of

P Svoboda; J Meier; T. A Freyvogel

1995-01-01

204

The identification, occurrence and importance of microreticulate dinoflagellate cysts in the latest Holocene sediments of the Skagerrak and Kattegat, west coast of Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microreticulate dinoflagellate cysts are a major component of latest Holocene (Subatlantic) sediments from the Skagerrak and Kattegat, off the west coast of Sweden. They first appear about 4000yearsBP, become more prominent from 2000yearsBP to about 300yearsBP, before they decline to their present minor occurrence in modern sediments. In particular they occur in at least two major pulses and one minor

Rex Harland; Kjell Nordberg

2011-01-01

205

Evaluation of MM5 mesoscale model at local scale for air quality applications over the Swedish west coast: Influence of PBL and LSM parameterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The performance of MM5 mesoscale model (Version 3.6.3) using different planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface model\\u000a (LSM) parameterizations is evaluated and compared using high temporal and spatial resolution GÖTE2001 campaign data at local\\u000a scale (a few kilometers) over the Greater Göteborg area along the Swedish west coast during 7–20 May 2001. The focus is on\\u000a impact of PBL

J.-F. Miao; D. Chen; K. Wyser; K. Borne; J. Lindgren; M. K. S. Strandevall; S. Thorsson; C. Achberger; E. Almkvist

2008-01-01

206

Sediment transport on macrotidal flats in Garolim Bay, west coast of Korea: significance of wind waves and asymmetry of tidal currents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A self-recording instrument, named Tidal Sediment Dynamics Observational System (TISDOS), was built to monitor transport characteristics of nearbed sediments on tidal flats. It was deployed on a tidal flat in the semi-enclosed Garolim Bay, west coast of Korea, over a 15-day period between 5 and 20 January 2002 to examine sediment-transport processes during winter seasons. The measurements involved brief durations

Hee J. Lee; Hyung R. Jo; Yong S. Chu; Kyung S. Bahk

2004-01-01

207

Spatial Changes in Trawl Fishing Effort in Response to Footrope Diameter Restrictions in the U.S. West Coast Bottom Trawl Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the spatial distribution of U.S. west coast bottom-trawl effort in relation to areas of prime habitat for rockfish Sebastes spp. were evaluated between 1992 and 2001. Prime trawlable rockfish habitat (PTRH) was defined based on the spatial distribution of high rockfish catches from logbook data for 1992-1995. Bottom-trawl effort was sharply reduced within PTRH after the establishment of

Robert W. Hannah

2003-01-01

208

Dioxin-like compounds in HPLC-fractionated extracts of marine samples from the east and west coast of Sweden: Bioassay and instrumentally-derived TCDD equivalents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipophilic extracts of sediment, settling particulate matter (SPM) and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) samples, collected at coastal locations on the east and west coast of Sweden, were HPLC-separated into three fractions containing 1. monoaromatic\\/aliphatic, 2. diaromatic (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs\\/Fs)), and 3. polyaromatic compounds (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). The fractions were tested for

Magnus Engwall; Dag Broman; Carina Näf; Yngve Zebühr; Björn Brunström

1997-01-01

209

Ground-water modeling and the installation of deep multiple-well monitoring sites in the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing regional study of the geohydrology and geochemistry of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California has iteratively combined the drilling of deep multiple-well monitoring sites with groundwater modeling. The monitoring sites are generally between 1,000 and 1,500 ft in depth and consist of 4-6 piezometers installed within a single borehole that provide depth-dependent geohydrologic

E. G. Reichard; T. A. Johnson; M. Land; R. R. Everett; D. J. Ponti; B. D. Edwards; S. M. Crawford; T. Kulshan

2002-01-01

210

Intra-coastal ballast water flux and the potential for secondary spread of non-native species on the US West Coast.  

PubMed

Ballast water is a dominant mechanism for the interoceanic and transoceanic dispersal of aquatic non-native species (ANS), but few studies have addressed ANS transfers via smaller scale vessel movements. We analyzed ballast water reporting records and ANS occurrence data from four US West Coast port systems to examine patterns of intra-coastal ballast water transfer, and assess how ballast transfers may have influenced the secondary spread of ANS. In 2005, one third of the vessels arriving to the US West Coast originated at one of four West Coast port systems (intra-coastal traffic). These vessels transported and discharged 27% (5,987,588 MT) of the total ballast water volume discharged at these ports that year. The overlap of ANS (shared species) among port systems varied between 3% and 80%, with the largest overlap occurring between San Francisco Bay and LA/Long Beach. Our results suggest that intra-coastal ballast water needs further consideration as an invasion pathway, especially as efforts to promote short-sea shipping are being developed. PMID:19108853

Simkanin, Christina; Davidson, Ian; Falkner, Maurya; Sytsma, Mark; Ruiz, Gregory

2009-08-01

211

Quantification of Coastal Macro Algae Iodine Emissions and its Spatial Variability at the West Coast of Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive iodine species are emitted by macro algae in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Due to the oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and thus reduction of ozone, they may have a significant influence on the local atmosphere. Further high iodine oxide levels may act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in previous field studies. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. An observation of the dominant sources, the spatial distribution and the impact on larger scales was not possible so far. To investigate these questions we performed intensive measurements at eight different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Therefore, we applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and a mobile Cavity Enhanced (CE)- DOAS instrument for in-situ IO measurements at different locations. Additionally, a static Long Path-DOAS system for IO, OIO and I2 measurements located at Mace Head was applied. This allows comparing directly different locations with the reference station Mace Head without the influence of locally varying meteorology and comparing results also to former observations. We could confirm previous results that the macro algae species Laminaria digitata is the strongest iodine emitting algae. However, we observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, iodine oxide concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site compared to Mace Head. IO reaching levels up to 40ppt observed with the LP-DOAS and 70ppt @ 1.2m height with the CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high abundance in the intertidal zone, is by far the strongest source. Third, we observed also high iodine oxide levels above 30ppt at rainy, cold and windy weather. Thus former observations that these emissions arise only at sunny and warm weather could not be confirmed. Fourth, we investigated that iodine oxide increase exponentially with decreasing distance to the emitting seaweed patches reaching concentrations much above 100ppt being sufficient to start particle nucleation events. We conclude that coastal macro algae emissions are thus much more relevant for the atmosphere than so far expected from previous observations performed at Mace Head which is rather characterized by low IO levels in comparison to other locations. Reasons and explanations for these findings will be presented. A review of the coastal macro algae iodine emissions and its influence on the atmosphere is thus urgently needed.

Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich

2014-05-01

212

Dependence of Wind Turbine Curves on Atmospheric Stability Regimes - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Tall Wind Farm  

SciTech Connect

Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, convective or neutral, mean wind speed (U) and turbulence ({sigma}{sub U}) may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 m to 120 m). This variation can cause a single turbine to produce difference amounts of power during time periods of identical hub height wind speeds. The study examines the influence that atmospheric mixing or stability has on power output at a West Coast North American wind farm. They first examine the accuracy and applicability of two, relatively simple stability parameters, the wind shear-exponent, {alpha}, and the turbulence intensity, I{sub u}, against the physically-based, Obukhov length, L, to describe the wind speed and turbulence profiles in the rotor area. In general, the on-site stability parameters {alpha} and I{sub u} are in high agreement with the off-site, L stability scale parameter. Next, they divide the measurement period into five stability classes (strongly stable, stable, neutral, convective, and strongly convective) to discern stability-effects on power output. When only the mean wind speed profile is taken into account, the dependency of power output on boundary layer stability is only subtly apparent. When turbulence intensity I{sub u} is considered, the power generated for a given wind speed is twenty percent higher during strongly stable conditions than during strongly convective conditions as observed in the spring and summer seasons at this North American wind farm.

Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Sharp, J; Zulauf, M

2009-08-24

213

Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos ranged from 235 ± 10.11 to 1,051 ± 38.42, 3.66 ± 0.89 to 7.55 ± 1.29, 76.8 ± 8.55 to 98.5 ± 6.49, 0.46 ± 0.11 to 0.859 ± 0.2 and 4.66 ± 1.17 to 6.77 ± 2.1 ?g/g, respectively. Significant variations (p???0.05) in heavy metal concentrations have been observed among the mud crab, mudskipper and gastropod. However, heavy metal burdens did not vary significantly among the hermit and horseshoe crabs. In mud crab, horseshoe crab and gastropod, heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the sequence: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. Hermit crab and mudskipper contained heavy metals in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Fe and Zn concentrations were found significantly (p???0.05) higher in macrobenthos. The lead (Pb) concentration found in the edible portion of macrobenthos exceeded the international permissible limits certified by the WHO. Bioconcentration factors >1.00 obtained for Fe (17.05 in mudskipper) and Cd (1.87 in gastropod) indicated that these metals were highly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in benthic fauna of Sundarbans. The findings of this study refer to the potential impact of heavy metals in the mangrove ecosystem of Bangladesh. PMID:20711859

Ahmed, Kawser; Mehedi, Yousuf; Haque, Rezaul; Mondol, Pulakesh

2011-06-01

214

Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play significant roles in flatfish distribution.

Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

2013-07-01

215

A comparative study of US EPA 1996 and 1999 emission inventories in the west Gulf of Mexico coast region, USA.  

PubMed

Emission inventory is one of the required inputs to air quality models. To assist in the urban and regional modeling efforts, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a National Emission Inventory (NEI) for criterion pollutants, and the precursors of ozone and particulate matter (PM). In December 2002, EPA released the 1999 NEI estimates (NEI99), which represent the most recent national emission data. However, the data sets are not in model-ready format for air quality simulations. This present work converts the NEI99 Final Version 2 data sets into Inventory Data Analyzer (IDA) format and processes the data using the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling system to generate a gridded emission inventory in a domain covering the west Gulf Coast Region, USA. The spatial and diurnal emission characteristics of the gridded emission inventories are then assessed and compared with those of the National Emission Trend 1996 (NET96). The NEI99 database contains more complete emission records in both area and point sources. It is also found that NEI99 data exhibit greater emissions with respect to point and mobile sources but smaller emissions with respect to area sources when compared to the corresponding gridded NET96 data in the same study domain. The most distinct differences between the NEI99 and NET96 databases are CO emission of mobile sources, SO2 emissions of point sources, and VOC/PM/NH3/NOx emissions of area and non-road sources. The gridded NEI99 data show low VOC/NOx ratios (<2-5) in the urban areas of the study domain. PMID:15945131

Lin, Che-Jen; Ho, Thomas C; Chu, Hsing-wei; Yang, Heng; Mojica, Martha J; Krishnarajanagar, Nagesh; Chiou, Paul; Hopper, Jack R

2005-06-01

216

Abundance and Size Distribution of the Sacoglossan Elysia viridis on Co-Occurring Algal Hosts on the Swedish West Coast  

PubMed Central

Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp.) at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host. PMID:24647524

Baumgartner, Finn A.; Toth, Gunilla B.

2014-01-01

217

A statistical description on the wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights off the US West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local and remote wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights (SSHs) off the US West Coast (USWC) are described with statistical and analytical models. The wind transfer functions are statistically derived from surface wind stress at National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys, located within 50 km from the shoreline, and detided SSHs (SSH anomalies; SSHAs) at shoreline tide gauges for 15 years (1995 to 2009) using linear regression in the frequency domain. A two-dimensional analytical model constrained by the coastal boundary provides a dynamical framework to interpret the data-derived statistical model. Although both transfer functions agree well at low frequency [ ? ? 0.4 cycles per day (cpd)], they appear to be inconsistent at high frequency ( ? ? 0.8 cpd; e.g., diurnal and its harmonic frequencies) because of incoherent signals between wind stress and SSHAs as well as their low signal-to-noise ratios. A multivariate regression analysis using wind stress at multiple wind buoys is implemented with a modified expectation maximization. The cross-validated skill increases and becomes saturated as the number of regression basis functions increases, demonstrating the influence of local and remote winds. The skill computed from all available winds off the USWC has a maximum as 0.1 in southern California, 0.2 to 0.3 in central California, and 0.3 to 0.5 in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The residual SSHAs, incoherent components with all available coastal wind stress off the USWC, still contain poleward propagating signals, considered as components forced by remote winds outside of the domain.

Kim, Sung Yong

2014-01-01

218

LNG infrastructure and equipment  

SciTech Connect

Sound engineering principals have been used by every company involved in the development of the LNG infrastructure, but there is very little that is new. The same cryogenic technology that is used in the manufacture and sale of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen infrastructure is used in LNG infrastructure. The key component of the refueling infrastructure is the LNG tank which should have a capacity of at least 15,000 gallons. These stainless steel tanks are actually a tank within a tank separated by an annular space that is void of air creating a vacuum between the inner and outer tank where superinsulation is applied. Dispensing can be accomplished by pressure or pump. Either works well and has been demonstrated in the field. Until work is complete on NFPA 57 or The Texas Railroad Commission Rules for LNG are complete, the industry is setting the standards for the safe installation of refueling infrastructure. As a new industry, the safety record to date has been outstanding.

Forgash, D.J.

1995-12-31

219

75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

In a final rule published May 26, 2010, the Coast Guard amended Letter of Intent (LOI) and Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities. The amendment triggered information collection requirements affecting these facilities. The Coast Guard now announces that the collection of information has been approved by the......

2010-09-03

220

West coast drilling; production  

Microsoft Academic Search

California's oil industry rounded out the past year with production near an all-time high. California's 40,500 wells are putting out 1,027,000 bpd, which is some 10,000 bpd less than a year earlier. The performance is good enough to keep California in a solid third place in the ranks of the nation's oil-producing states, runner-up only to Texas and Louisiana. Finishing

Rintoul

1971-01-01

221

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703...Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure...

2010-10-01

222

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703...Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure...

2013-10-01

223

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703...Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure...

2012-10-01

224

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703...Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure...

2011-10-01

225

Regional and global context of the Late Cenozoic Langebaanweg (LBW) palaeontological site: West Coast of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palaeontological site of Langebaanweg (LBW) is internationally renowned for its prolific, diverse and exceptionally well preserved Mio-Pliocene vertebrate faunas. The site is located on the southern West Coast of South Africa which represents a passive intraplate, trailing edge setting. The southern African subcontinent is also removed from glacial influence and has experienced no Cenozoic volcanic activity. Rates of vertical crustal motion are consequently low and Late Cenozoic shoreline datums at LBW chiefly reflect glacio-eustatic sea level history. The primary aim of this study is to clarify the chronology as well as the regional and global context of LBW and to review previous work on these aspects. LBW is ideally situated to document the complex interactions of ocean, atmosphere and land and their respective influence on climate evolution, given its location near the coast and mix of marine, estuarine and terrestrial faunas and depositional settings. This paper also provides a background to the study of the vast existing faunal collections and a guide to undiscovered fossil deposits. Towards these ends, the first detailed geological/topographic maps of the site and surrounds, accompanied by a summary stratigraphic column are provided. Virtual geological modelling using a subsurface database has clarified the spatial and temporal relationships of sedimentary facies, as well as their depositional settings. The geological and palaeontological record at LBW tracks and documents the major regional and global climatic/oceanographic events of the Late Cenozoic. During the Oligocene drawdown in sea levels, the landscape was etched by river incision. Fluctuating sea levels of the Neogene periodically reversed the trend from erosion to deposition, preserving contemporary faunas and floras in the Oligocene palaeovalleys. Earlier Miocene pollen from fluvial facies indicates a humid sub-tropical climate, reflecting a warm southern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt late Middle Miocene global cooling (Monterey Excursion) coincided with intensified cold upwelling in the Benguela Current and extensive phosphate authigenesis. A globally documented Early Pliocene highstand possibly related to the shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama reached ~ 90 m above sea level (asl), implying extensive melting of the cryosphere. Palaeomagnetic data in tandem with global sea level reconstructions suggested an age of ~ 5.15 ± 0.1 Ma for the faunas and a correlation with the earlier part of this transgression. A subtropical C3 vegetation is indicated by the faunas and floras, but with a significant contribution by sclerophytic fynbos pointing to a cooler and more seasonal climate than in the Miocene. A mid-Pliocene highstand to ~ 50 m asl truncated the Early Pliocene succession at LBW and the globally documented Late Pliocene highstand to ~ 30 m asl saw the Atlantic shoreline approaching LBW for the last time. With the progressive climatic cooling and instability of the terminal Pliocene, culminating in the growth of the Arctic ice cap, strengthening southerly winds driven by a tighter coiled South Atlantic Anticyclone deposited extensive coastal dune fields over the region.

Roberts, David L.; Matthews, Thalassa; Herries, Andrew I. R.; Boulter, Claire; Scott, Louis; Dondo, Chiedza; Mtembi, Ponani; Browning, Claire; Smith, Roger M. H.; Haarhoff, Pippa; Bateman, Mark D.

2011-06-01

226

Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and ridging over the Intermountain West, whereas the south-coast summer ARs coincide with relatively cold conditions and a near-coast trough. ARs have a much more profound impact on near-coast precipitation in winter than summer, because the terrain-normal vapor flux is stronger and the air more nearly saturated in winter. During winter, ARs produce roughly twice as much precipitation as all storms. In addition, wintertime ARs with the largest SSM/I IWV are tied to more intense storms with stronger flows and vapor fluxes, and more precipitation. ARs generally increase snow water equivalent (SWE) in autumn/winter and decrease SWE in spring. On average, wintertime SWE exhibits normal gains during north-coast AR storms and above-normal gains during the south-coast AR storms. The north-coast sites are mostly lower in altitude, where warmer-than-normal conditions more frequently yield rain. During those events when heavy rain from a warm AR storm falls on a preexisting snowpack, flooding is more likely to occur. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

2008-01-01

227

Sources of 21st century regional sea level rise along the coast of North-West Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in both global and regional mean sea level, and changes in the magnitude of extreme flood heights, are the result of a combination of several distinct contributions most, but not all, of which are associated with climate change. These contributions include effects in the solid earth, gravity field, changes in ocean mass due to ice-loss from ice sheets and glaciers, thermal expansion, alterations in ocean circulation driven by climate change and changing freshwater fluxes, and the intensity of surge tides. Due to the diverse range of models required to simulate these systems, the contributions to sea-level change have usually been discussed in isolation rather than as a fully-coupled system. Focusing on the coastline of Northwest Europe, we consider all these processes and their relative impact on 21st century regional mean sea levels and extreme flood height. As far as possible our projections of change are derived from process-based models forced by the A1B emissions scenario to provide a self-consistent comparison of the contributions. We address uncertainty by considering both a mid-range and an illustrative high-end combination of the different components. For our mid-range ice-loss scenario we find that thermal expansion of seawater is the dominant contributor to change in sea level by 2100. However, the projected contribution to extreme sea level, due to changes in storminess alone, is significant and in places is comparable to the global mean contribution of thermal expansion. For example, under the A1B emissions scenario, by 2100, change in storminess contributes around 15 cm to the increase in projected height of the 50 yr storm surge on the west coast of the Jutland Peninsula, compared with a contribution of around 22 cm due to thermal expansion. An illustrative combination of our high-end projections suggests increases in the 50 yr return level of 86 cm at Sheerness, 95 cm at Roscoff, 106 cm at Esbjerg, and 67 cm at Bergen. The notable regional differences between these locations arise from differences in rate of vertical land movement and changes in storminess.

Howard, T.; Pardaens, A. K.; Lowe, J. A.; Ridley, J.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Bamber, J. L.; Spada, G.; Vaughan, D.

2013-12-01

228

Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm  

SciTech Connect

Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts little impact on power output during the winter and autumn periods. During the spring and summer seasons, power output for a given wind speed was significantly higher during stable conditions and significantly lower during strongly convective conditions: power output differences approached 20% between stable and convective regimes. The dependency of stability on power output was apparent only when both turbulence and the shape of the wind speed profile were considered. Turbulence is one of the mechanisms by which atmospheric stability affects a turbine's power curve at this particular site, and measurements of turbulence can yield actionable insights into wind turbine behavior.

Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

2010-02-22

229

Circulation changes and teleconnections between glacial advances on the west coast of New Zealand and extended spells of drought years in South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twentieth century changes in the terminal position of the Franz Josef Glacier on the west coast of New Zealand are compared with an area-averaged mean annual rainfall series for the summer rainfall region of South Africa. Distinctive teleconnections are evident in an out-of-phase relationship between the two series, each of which exhibits an oscillation of 18-20 years. Periods of glacial advance are shown to coincide with extended dry spells in South Africa, when drought years are prevalent.Reconstructed pressure anomaly fields are presented for periods of advance and recession of the glacier and for the inter-decadal wet and dry spells in South Africa. In both cases major regional atmospheric circulation adjustments take place in a quasi-regular fashion over time to produce an enhancement in westerly airflow during the periods of drought in Africa and glacial advance on the west coast of New Zealand. Extended wet periods and glacial recession are likewise shown to be associated with an enhancement of easterly components of the circulation. Changes in precipitation, temperature and moisture transport are examined and associations with the Southern Oscillation Index are investigated.Franz Josef glacial advances are shown to occur 4-5 years after the onset of enhanced south-westerly airflow on to the west coast of New Zealand. Advances occur on average 4 years after the onset of extended dry spells in South Africa. Similar atmospheric circulation anomalies in the respective sectors of the Southern Hemisphere and adjustments in the locations of the positions of the ridges in standing wave three are responsible for this correspondence.

Tyson, P. D.; Sturman, A. P.; Fitzharris, B. B.; Mason, S. J.; Owens, I. F.

1997-11-01

230

Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.  

PubMed

Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies ?g(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock. PMID:24681359

Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

2014-06-01

231

The timing of early life events and growth rate estimates of age-0?year group brill Scophthalmus rhombus along the west coast of Ireland.  

PubMed

The timing of spawning and hatching, larval durations and growth exhibited by juvenile brill Scophthalmus rhombus captured along the Irish west coast were estimated using otolith microstructure analysis. Scophthalmus rhombus were estimated to have hatched between February and May, with fish settling onto nursery grounds between March and June. Fish collected later on in the season exhibited higher otolith growth rates in comparison to earlier collected fish. This is the first study to describe the early life history of a commercially valuable but understudied flatfish species. PMID:24383806

Haynes, P S; Brophy, D; McGrath, D

2014-01-01

232

Seasonal and regional variability in dissolved and particulate iron fluxes via glacial runoff along the West Greenland coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subglacial weathering, due to biogeochemical and physical weathering processes, can affect the chemical evolution of subglacial waters and release dissolved and particulate iron via glacial runoff. Iron is a growth limiting nutrient and plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycles of coastal and marine waters. More recently, dissolved and colloidal iron derived from subglacial sources have been considered an important contributor of Fe fluxes to the ocean; however, their dependency on lithology, grain size, and microbial activity is not well understood. This study characterizes the solute chemistry, in particular iron mineralogy and dissolved iron concentrations, released from beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), from two locations along the West Greenland coast, Thule (76°N, 68°W) and Kangerlussuaq (67°N, 50°W). We hypothesize that the subglacial lithology has a control on Fe fluxes from the GrIS to coastal and marine systems. The underlying bedrock in Thule is the Precambrian Dundas and Narssarssuk sedimentary formations which include sandstone, siltstone, and shale. The bedrock in Kangerlussuaq is dominated by Archean granodioritic gneiss and amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen. Supra and subglacial meltwater samples were collected directly in front of the Ice Sheet over an entire melt season in 2011 (North River, Thule) and 2012 (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River, Kangerlussuaq). In situ parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity were recorded in order to interpret meltwater chemistry. Dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) species were fixed immediately and analyzed within 24 hours after sampling in the field laboratory using a spectrophotometer and 10 cm cell. Total dissolved iron (FeT) of different size fractions (<0.22 and <0.05 ?m) of iron were determined back in the home laboratory using reaction cell ICP MS. Preliminary results demonstrate that subglacial meltwater of North River has average FeT concentrations of 200 nM and 10 nM in the <0.22 and <0.05 ?m size fraction, respectively, indicating that FeT in the <0.22 ?m fraction is mostly (95%) in form of colloidal iron. In comparison, data from Kangerlussuaq show an average FeT of 580 nM in the <0.22 ?m size fraction and 150 nM in the <0.05 ?m fraction. Suspended load in North River increased throughout the ablation period in concurrence with variation in discharge, from an average of 0.08 g/L in the early melt stages (June), 0.21 g/L during the high melt (July-August), and 0.15 g/L during the late melt (end of August-September). Initial estimates for the suspended load for subglacial flow in Kangerlussuaq are 0.30 g/L on average. The suspended load will be analyzed for iron by sequential extraction in order to characterize how iron partitions between oxide and (oxyhydr)oxide minerals in the sediment. This comprehensive study will allow us to identify biogeochemical processes involved in the mobilization of iron and to evaluate how increased melting of GrIS will affect Fe fluxes to coastal and marine environments.

Choquette, K.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Harrold, Z.; Liu, L.; Dieser, M.; Cameron, K. A.; Christner, B. C.; Junge, K.

2012-12-01

233

77 FR 19552 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as part of a west coast status review for...ESU boundaries for west coast coho salmon, NMFS...1994) requires us to solicit independent...explicitly prohibits us from considering non-scientific...ESU boundaries for west coast coho salmon,...

2012-04-02

234

The Longspine Thornyhead Fishery along the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada: Portrait of a Developing Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fishery for thornyhead Sebastolobus spp. started in the early 1990s along the Pacific coast of Canada, primarily in response to market demand from Japan. As the fishery evolved, the deepwater longspine thornyhead S. altivelis became a desirable species because it is easily targeted and commands high prices. Its congener, shortspine thornyhead S. alascanus, largely remained a bycatch species in

Rowan Haigh; Jon T. Schnute

2003-01-01

235

Younger Dryas environments and human adaptations on the West Coast of the United States and Baja California  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Pacific Coast of the United States and Baja California, the Younger Dryas was one component of dynamic Late Pleistocene and Holocene environmental changes. Changing climate, sea level rise, and shifting shorelines created ecological challenges for ancient coastal peoples and daunting challenges for archaeologists searching for early coastal sites. This paper reviews the evidence for ecological change in this

Leslie A. Reeder; Jon M. Erlandson; Torben C. Rick

2011-01-01

236

Storage metabolism in the Pacific oyster ( Crassostrea gigas) in relation to summer mortalities and reproductive cycle (West Coast of France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe seasonal changes in the biochemical composition of digestive gland, adductor muscle and gonad and surrounding mantle area in Crassostrea gigas from the Western Atlantic coast of France. Seasonality in histology of storage tissues and glycogen storage capacity in isolated vesicular cells were also studied. Proteins, the main muscle components did not contribute to the gametogenetic effort. Glycogen and

Clothilde Berthelin; Kristell Kellner; Michel Mathieu

2000-01-01

237

RENAL COCCIDIOSIS AND OTHER PARASITOLOGIC CONDITIONS IN LESSER SNOW GOOSE GOSLINGS AT THA-ANNE RIVER, WEST COAST HUDSON BAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goshings, approxinuateh: 5 weeks of age, were collected muear the mouthu of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, durimig mnid-Auugust 1991. Mamuy dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goshings from near the coast, where imabitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater

S. Gomis; A. B. Didiuk; J. Neufeld; G. Wobeser

238

Sources and Transport of Urban and Biomass Burning Aerosol Black Carbon at the SouthWest Atlantic Coast  

E-print Network

Coast H. Evangelista & J. Maldonado & R. H. M. Godoi & E. B. Pereira & D. Koch & K. Tanizaki-Fonseca & R.godoi@unicenp.edu.br E. B. Pereira :A. Setzer INPE ­ CPTEC, Brazilian National Space Institute (INPE), Center. B. Pereira e-mail: eniobp@cptec.inpe.br A. Setzer e-mail: asetzer@cptec.inpe.br D. Koch Center

239

CALWATER-2 An Experiment Exploring the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States are: 1) Atmospheric rivers (ARs), which deliver much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and 2) Aerosols--from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents--which can modulate western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. A set of science investigations, called CalWater 2, have been proposed over the next several years to fill these gaps including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data over regions offshore of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between December 2014 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period, including a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) that was proposed in the context of CalWater 2. A broad 5-year vision of an interagency effort to address these science gaps will be presented, and informal input into this planning is being solicited through this presentation, including consideration of potential synergistic connections to other relevant activities. The CalWater 2 white paper was prepared by a team of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers, reflecting the breadth of processes involved and the expertise needed to make new progress. The motivation is largely based upon findings that have emerged in the last few years from airborne and ground-based studies, including CalWater and the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT). The proposed observing strategy would build on these advances and employ airborne, ship-, and ground-based assets together with satellite observations to address the scientific objectives. The approach takes advantage of recent investments in new instrumentation, such as the new sophisticated instrumentation developed by UC San Diego to measure the chemical composition of nucleated aerosols, and also in observing systems, including HMT, the NASA Global Hawk, and relevant satellite and airborne remote sensing observing systems.

Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Spackman, J.; Waliser, D. E.

2013-12-01

240

New Tooth Enamel Isotopic Data from the West Coast of South Africa and a Comparison of Terrestrial and Marine Records of Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plio-Pleistocene transition marks a change in the Earth's climate from relative global warmth to colder temperatures with the initiation of glacial-interglacial cycles. Proxy records from marine cores off SW Africa archive changes in ocean upwelling and terrestrial vegetation that suggest increased aridity across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Today, the SW African coast has a Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ) and is dominated by C3 vegetation, which results from the regional high-pressure system and upwelling in the Benguela Current. While marine records provide an integrated perspective on regional responses to global climate change, terrestrial paleoclimate records are needed to assess the effects of these changes in a heterogeneous environment like southern Africa. Archeological and paleontological sites can provide useful proxies of paleoclimate, but many southern African sites are poorly dated or postdate the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Langebaanweg (LBW, ~5 Ma) and Elandsfontein (EFT, ~1.0-0.6 Ma) are sites on the SW coast of South Africa that are rich in fossil mammals and represent landscapes where surface water was more prevalent than it is in today's dry coastal environment. Fossil teeth of large herbivores (e.g. hippopotamids, giraffids, bovids, rhinocerotids, suids and equids) are preserved at both sites and enable isotopic studies of vegetation and climate across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotopic data are reported for 100 fossil teeth (11 herbivore taxa) at EFT and are compared to published isotopic data from early Pliocene teeth from LBW for many of the same genera. ?13C values of the EFT tooth enamel range from 13 to 8‰ (VPDB) and ?18O values range from -2 to +3‰ (VPDB). Among the EFT data, there are consistent differences in the distribution of both ?13C and ?18O values among the sampled taxa. When the EFT and LBW isotopic results are compared, ?13C values from the two sites are similar within each taxonomic group. However, ?18O values of the EFT teeth are more than 2‰ higher than ?18O values of LBW teeth for each herbivore family that was sampled. Enamel ?13C values from LBW and EFT indicate herbivore diets that were dominated by C3 vegetation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Mesowear studies of teeth suggest that the West Coast of South Africa was a forested environment with seasonal grasses during the Pliocene but that it supported trees, fynbos and grasses in the mid-Pleistocene. The isotopic indications of C3 diets among grazers from both sites suggest that a WRZ must have existed across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. The positive shift in ?18O values of fossil tooth enamel between the early Pliocene and the mid-Pleistocene on the West Coast of South Africa might suggest a change in the oxygen isotopic composition of rainfall and a decrease in the amount of rainfall across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Excluding diagenesis, these conclusions are consistent with marine records. This study indicates the potential for using the stable isotope records from fossil teeth from the West Coast of South Africa to evaluate how the intensification of the Benguela Upwelling System, which is well documented in the marine records, affected terrestrial ecosystems across the Plio-Pleistocene transition.

Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Stynder, D. D.; Bishop, L. C.; Forrest, F.; Braun, D. R.

2012-12-01

241

Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

2014-01-01

242

Distribution, biomass and size of grooved Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes tanneri) from annual bottom trawl surveys (2003-2010) along the U.S. west coast (Washington to California)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catch and distribution of grooved Tanner crab (Chionoecetes tanneri Rathbun, 1893) from the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey (55-1280 m) were examined along the U.S. west coast (lat. 32°30'N-48°30'N). Grooved Tanner crabs were present in 28% of tows and occurred primarily at depths from 300 to 1280 m. Annual biomass (metric tons, mt) indices and density (kg km-2) estimates for the population varied significantly throughout the study area and within five International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC) statistical areas. Highest estimates occurred in the Monterey INPFC area (lat. 36°N-40°30'N) and within the 601-800 m depth interval. Depth distribution varied by year and coast-wide catch-weighted average depths (m) were significantly correlated with average annual Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) indices (2003-2010), a measure of Pacific climate variability. Annual mean carapace widths (CW), measured from 2005 to 2010, were always greater for males (96.9-113.9 mm) relative to females (85.3-95.8 mm). Size frequency distributions varied by year with strong recruitment for both sexes apparent in 2010. Grooved Tanner crabs were partially segregated by depth and stage. Males and females were found in all depth intervals but the average depth of adult females was significantly shallower (756 m) than adult males (837 m); adults were significantly shallower than subadult female (907 m) and subadult male (927 m) crabs.

Keller, Aimee A.; Harms, John H.; Buchanan, John C.

2012-09-01

243

DOE West Coast environmental studies: Circulation and particle fluxes in the Southern California Bight: Report of progress, May 15, 1985--November 15, 1988  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of the DOE West Coast Basin study (CaBS) is to understand the dispersion of potential contaminants from inshore waters, where they may primarily be generated, across the shelf out to deeper waters; in particular, the role of particulate fluxes, determination of general pathways of material removal, residence times, and water column/sediment exchanges. The CaBS program differs significantly from the other DOE marine programs. In most East Coast regions, anthropogenic material is either swept away from the coastal zone by the high energy physical environment or, if it is sedimented out of the water column, is reworked by organisms to such an extent that accurate estimates of particulate fluxes cannot be obtained. The deep basins off the California coast, on the other hand, provide relatively efficient traps for anthropogenic material introduced into the coastal zone. Moreover, since the basins are anoxic, or nearly so, reworking of sediments by marine organisms is minimized, so that accurate estimates of sediment accumulation rates and recycling processes can be obtained. Specific questions to be addressed include (1) to what extent can the coastal basins safely absorb potentially harmful energy-related anthropogenic materials. and (2) to what extent do anthropogenic materials introduced into the basins find a pathway back to man. The long-term goals of the Hickey component of CaBS are to investigate (1) circulation in the Southern California Bight, including both patterns and forcing mechanisms, and (2) particle dynamics in this region; in particular, the relative importance of horizontal advection, wave/current resuspension processes, and intermediate-depth nepheloid layers, in redistributing particles, on time scales of minutes to seasons. 9 refs., 40 figs.

Hickey, B. (comp.)

1988-01-01

244

Late Quaternary glacial history of the Pennell Coast region, Antarctica, with implications for sea-level change and controls on ice sheet behavior; and, Late Quaternary statigraphic evolution of the west Louisiana continental shelf  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pennell Coast continental shelf is isolated from West Antarctic Ice Sheet drainage; for an ice sheet to ground in this region it must flow over the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. Features observed indicate that ice grounded on the Pennell shelf. Cores from the shelf sampled till, a pelletized unit, glacial-marine sediments, contourite deposits, and diatomaceous muds. The timing

Julia Smith Wellner

2001-01-01

245

Using Multi-Scenario Tsunami Modelling Results combined with Probabilistic Analyses to provide Hazard Information for the South-WestCoast of Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia is located at one of the most active geological subduction zones in the world. Following the most recent seaquakes and their subsequent tsunamis in December 2004 and July 2006 it is expected that also in the near future tsunamis are likely to occur due to increased tectonic tensions leading to abrupt vertical seafloor alterations after a century of relative tectonic silence. To face this devastating threat tsunami hazard maps are very important as base for evacuation planning and mitigation strategies. In terms of a tsunami impact the hazard assessment is mostly covered by numerical modelling because the model results normally offer the most precise database for a hazard analysis as they include spatially distributed data and their influence to the hydraulic dynamics. Generally a model result gives a probability for the intensity distribution of a tsunami at the coast (or run up) and the spatial distribution of the maximum inundation area depending on the location and magnitude of the tsunami source used. The boundary condition of the source used for the model is mostly chosen by a worst case approach. Hence the location and magnitude which are likely to occur and which are assumed to generate the worst impact are used to predict the impact at a specific area. But for a tsunami hazard assessment covering a large coastal area, as it is demanded in the GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project in which the present work is embedded, this approach is not practicable because a lot of tsunami sources can cause an impact at the coast and must be considered. Thus a multi-scenario tsunami model approach is developed to provide a reliable hazard assessment covering large areas. For the Indonesian Early Warning System many tsunami scenarios were modelled by the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) at different probable tsunami sources and with different magnitudes along the Sunda Trench. Every modelled scenario delivers the spatial distribution of the inundation for a specific area, the wave height at coast at this area and the estimated times of arrival (ETAs) of the waves, caused by one tsunamigenic source with a specific magnitude. These parameters from the several scenarios can overlap each other along the coast and must be combined to get one comprehensive hazard assessment for all possible future tsunamis at the region under observation. The simplest way to derive the inundation probability along the coast using the multiscenario approach is to overlay all scenario inundation results and to determine how often a point on land will be significantly inundated from the various scenarios. But this does not take into account that the used tsunamigenic sources for the modeled scenarios have different likelihoods of causing a tsunami. Hence a statistical analysis of historical data and geophysical investigation results based on numerical modelling results is added to the hazard assessment, which clearly improves the significance of the hazard assessment. For this purpose the present method is developed and contains a complex logical combination of the diverse probabilities assessed like probability of occurrence for different earthquake magnitudes at different localities, probability of occurrence for a specific wave height at the coast and the probability for every point on land likely to get hit by a tsunami. The values are combined by a logical tree technique and quantified by statistical analysis of historical data and of the tsunami modelling results as mentioned before. This results in a tsunami inundation probability map covering the South West Coast of Indonesia which nevertheless shows a significant spatial diversity offering a good base for evacuation planning and mitigation strategies. Keywords: tsunami hazard assessment, tsunami modelling, probabilistic analysis, early warning

Zosseder, K.; Post, J.; Steinmetz, T.; Wegscheider, S.; Strunz, G.

2009-04-01

246

Large Neighborhood Search for LNG Inventory Routing  

E-print Network

perspective. From an operations perspective, managing an LNG project involves negotiating ... This Annual Delivery Program. (ADP) is ... operational LNG inventory routing and test these models on a number of operational plan- ning cases ...

2011-12-15

247

Montoir terminal has latest LNG technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equipment is being added to increase capacity of France's Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal to about 10 billion cubic meters. The author gives a technical description of one of the world's most modern LNG facilities.

Goy

1983-01-01

248

Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

Manobianco, John

1989-01-01

249

Recommended research on LNG safety  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

1981-03-01

250

GFS water vapor forecast error evaluated over the 2009-2010 West Coast cool season using the MET/MODE object analyses package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research over the last decade and a half confirms that the vast majority of West Coast cool-season extreme precipitation events are due to the landfall of intense wind-driven streams of concentrated water vapor associated with extratropical cyclones called atmospheric rivers (ARs). Accurate prediction of the effects of ARs as they come ashore depends on accurate numeric modeling of integrated water vapor (IWV) over the Northeast Pacific (NEP). Quantifying the uncertainty in this forecast field is an important step toward understanding the causes of uncertainty in West Coast extreme event forecasts. To this end GFS (Global Forecast System) model output obtained in real time of the fields needed to calculate IWV were archived and analyzed. GFS was used because it is well known, it covers our area of interest, and the output is readily available to the community. To estimate forecast uncertainties we used an object-based method that allows quantitative comparisons of object location, size, shape, and intensity. In particular, we used MODE, the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation. MODE is an object-based verification tool from the MET (Model Evaluation Tools) package developed and supported by the Developmental Testbed Center (DTC). This package of verification tools is readily available and intended to provide the community with a common software package incorporating the latest advances in forecast verification. We describe results from two studies conducted as part of the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT)—DTC collaboration project. The studies are based upon Northeast Pacific (NEP) data collected during the 2009-2010 cool season. In the first study we focus on verifying GFS-analysis IWV against satellite-observed IWV throughout the NEP. Specifically, IWV GFS analysis objects are compared with 12-hour composite, satellite-derived Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) observational objects. Then we incorporate MODE object attributes related to object location, size, shape and intensity into metrics that quantify the degree of agreement between the analyses and the observations. The second study is carried out over a smaller domain partially covering the NEP but local to the United States West Coast to examine the way the uncertainty in forecast IWV object location, shape, and integrated water vapor intensity changes with forecast lead time. We use MODE analysis to compare the 24, 48, 72, and 96 hour GFS forecasts with the GFS analyses. As above, MODE object attributes are used to create metrics allowing estimates of the uncertainty. To date preliminary results with respect to location, based on analysis of the objects centroid (center of gravity), suggest small, if any, locational bias, but significant locational uncertainty. In particular, the interquartile range of the centroid displacement observed over the 2009-2010 cool season was about 70 km for the 24 hour forecasts, increasing to about 200 km for the 96 hour forecasts.

Clark, W. L.; Sukovich, E.; Tollerud, E. I.; Jensen, T.; Yuan, H.; Wick, G. A.; Bullock, R.; Hmt-Dtc Collaboration Project

2010-12-01

251

Evidence of Late Holocene Cyclic Events of Subsidence and Uplift from West Coast of Andaman Island, Andaman Islands, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area located about 2.0-2.5 km inland along the western coast of Andaman Island, experienced marginal subsidence during 2004 Sumatra-Andaman (Mw 9.3) earthquake, was found inundated during 2005. Near sub-surface sediment stratigraphy revealed signatures of land-level changes that occurred during 3000-1000 years BP. The bottom most thick layer of clayey silt (unit a) suggested a long term calm and stable deep environment spanned before the earliest event recorded from the study area. Event I caused major coseismic uplift in this region as indicated by the sharp basal contact of the overlying thick peaty horizon (unit b), afterwards there occurred coseismic subsidence followed by Event II, where subsidence prevailed for a long time span due to successive post-seismic subsidence as reflected by the fining upward sequence within the silty-sandy thick horizon (unit c, unit d, and unit e). During that period depositional environment had changed from shallow (silty sand) to deep (clayey silt) as a consequence of continuing subsidence after the probable Event II. Recurrence of Event I type earthquake as Event III caused major coseismic uplift in the region leading to the formation of the top thick peaty horizon (unit f) with a sharp basal contact that also remained stable for a long time span. Cycle repeated due to recurrence of Event II type earthquake as Event IV (2004), which caused coseismic as well as post-seismic subsidence and thus the area get converted into tidal-marsh leading to the deposition of top sandy soil (unit g). However it has been noticed that after 2005, the area again started rising from the subsidence as indicated by the GPS observations and the same also reflected in coastal geomorphology and sedimentology. AMS ages of rhizome/charcoal and OSL ages of the sediments suggest that the Event-II occurred during 3000-3500 years BP and a gradual subsidence had spanned during 1100-230 years BP. We report here the evidence of past land level changes observed until 2011 along the western coast of Andaman Island.

Khan, Afzal; Malik, Javed N.

2014-05-01

252

Food utilisation by coastal fish assemblages in rocky and soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Inference for identification of essential fish habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of essential fish habitats (EFHs) is widely accepted for conservational and management purposes. EFHs are often considered as high quality habitats for fisheries species and subsequently of high values for society. In this study, fish and Substrate-Associated Prey (SAP) were sampled during the productive summer season 1998 (fish) and 2003 and 2004 (SAP) in shallow coastal rocky- and soft-bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast. The aim was to study the spatial and monthly variation of SAP as well as abundance and biomass of fish, and to examine if food items found in the diet of the fish assemblage were derived from SAP. We also examined if the diet of Ctenolabrus rupestris, a resident and abundant fish species in the shallow coastal habitats, and the diet of four seasonally abundant and commercially important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Pleuronectes platessa, Salmo trutta and Scomber scombrus) were derived from SAP. There were significantly higher mean species number and abundance of the SAP assemblage on rocky compared to soft bottoms and the highest values were found on the rocky bottoms in August and in the shallowest (0-3 m) depth strata. There were no significant differences in number of fish species caught in the two habitats, although mean number of fish and mean biomass were significantly higher on rocky bottoms. Both habitats showed the same seasonal variation and the highest values of number of fish species, abundance and biomass were observed in June. On rocky bottoms, gastropods and amphipods were the most frequent food items in the diet of the entire fish assemblage and these items were also the most abundant SAP in this habitat. The dominant food items of the soft-bottom fish assemblage were decapods and fish, which were not common SAP. However, except for S. scombrus, the diet of the selected fish species showed a strong association to the SAP availability. Gadus morhua displayed the strongest association to SAP on rocky bottoms and P. platessa and C. rupestris to SAP on soft bottoms. Further, for C. rupestris, multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association to the SAP assemblage on both rocky and soft bottoms. These results provide vital new information for the management and conservation of Essential Fish Habitats on the Swedish west coast.

Stål, Johan; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

2007-02-01

253

Provenance of the heavy mineral-enriched alluvial deposits at the west coast of the Red Sea. Implications for evolution of Arabian-Nubian crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet, etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of (1) 824-733 Ma, (2) 730-705 Ma, (3) 646-608 Ma, (4) 516-500 Ma, and (5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ?500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (?Hf (t)) of both fans varies from +3.5 to +13.5. Our new U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition suggests that the detrital zircons were derived from the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust. This is consistent with the Neoproterozoic juvenile igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Eastern Desert and northern Sudan.

Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Ibrahim, Tarek M. M.; Goodell, Philip C.

2014-12-01

254

Renal coccidiosis and other parasitologic conditions in lesser snow goose goslings at Tha-anne River, west coast Hudson Bay.  

PubMed

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings, approximately 5 weeks of age, were collected near the mouth of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, during mid-August 1991. Many dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goslings from near the coast, where habitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater prevalence of renal coccidiosis (Eimeria truncata) and cecal nematode (Trichostrongylus spp.) infection than did goslings from inland areas, where habitat destruction was not evident. Prevalence of infection with intestinal cestodes was greater at inland than at coastal sites. Prevalences of gizzard nematodes (Epomidiostomum spp.) and Leucocytozoon spp. were not significantly different at the two sites. Histological examination of kidneys and examination of kidney homogenates for oocysts were more sensitive methods than gross examination of the kidneys for detecting renal coccidial infection. The number of oocysts present in droppings was not a good indicator of the severity of renal coccidial infection in individual birds; however, the average number of oocysts in droppings was indicative of the average severity of infection among groups of goslings. PMID:8827676

Gomis, S; Didiuk, A B; Neufeld, J; Wobeser, G

1996-07-01

255

Observations, Analysis and Modeling of the Tohoku Tsunami in the Far-Field: US West Coast and New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe observations, analysis and modeling of the March 11, 2001 Tohoku tsunami in the far field based on field surveys conducted immediately after the event. In California, significant damage occurred in Crescent City and Santa Cruz harbors with moderate to minor damage at maritime facilities throughout the state. The largest surges coincided with low tide, however, tsunami effects persisted through the day and the highest water levels were recorded at high tide 16 - 22 hours later. New Zealand experienced similar effects; several docks and boats were damaged at Tutukaka Marina with some significant overland flooding at Port Charles. Strong currents, surges and broken mooring lines were observed at other locations and persisted throughout the tide cycle. Tide gauge records from California and New Zealand were analyzed for spectral content. Spectral analysis of tide gauge records from the event showed the long duration of the tsunami in the far-field. Preliminary results show clearly the difference in tsunami duration for open coast versus locations in natural or man made harbors. The spectral content of the tsunami signal as recorded on opposite corners of the Pacific Ocean is compared for this event and the 2010 Chilean tsunami.

Borrero, J. C.; Greer, S. D.; Pickett, V.; Bell, R.; Lynett, P. J.; Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M. R.; Dengler, L.; Wilson, R. I.

2011-12-01

256

LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

1994-02-01

257

Comparison between the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and thermal balloon ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of endometrial thermal ablation and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the management of menorrhagia. Study design: Fifty women attending a gynaecology clinic at a District General Hospital in south-west England were randomised to either surgical treatment using thermal ablation (Thermochoice, Gynecare) or medical treatment using a LNG-IUS (Mirena, Schering Healthcare). A pictorial menstrual chart

Julian W. Barrington; Angamuthu S. Arunkalaivanan; Mohammed Abdel-Fattah

2003-01-01

258

LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen  

SciTech Connect

Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

NONE

1997-02-24

259

Changes in groundwater levels or pressures associated with the 2004 earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra (M9.0)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Associated with the 2004 earthquake off the west coast of northern Sumatra, changes in groundwater levels or pressures were observed at many observation stations in Japan which are more than 5000 km from the hypocenter. At 38 of the 45 observation stations, there were changes in groundwater levels or pressures. At the 10 observation stations in which the Ishii-type borehole strain instruments were established, changes in crustal strains were also observed. A major part of the changes in crustal strains and groundwater levels or pressures were dynamic oscillations due to a seismic wave. At some stations, coseismic or postseismic rises or drops were also observed. At five stations where both crustal stain and groundwater levels or pressures were observed, postseismic changes in groundwater levels or pressures were consistent with coseismic static steps in crustal strains. At the other five stations, postseismic changes in groundwater levels or pressures did not agree with the coseismic static steps. At two stations of these five stations, it is anticipated that the pore water pressure change in each aquifer locally occurred independently of the change in crustal strain. At another station, postseismic changes in groundwater level possessed the same characteristics as a model removing the temporary deposition. At the last two stations, the causes of the changes are unknown.

Kitagawa, Yuichi; Koizumi, Naoji; Takahashi, Makoto; Matsumoto, Norio; Sato, Tsutomu

2006-02-01

260

Assessing the health of the U.S. west coast with a regional-scale application of the Ocean Health Index.  

PubMed

Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment. PMID:24941007

Halpern, Benjamin S; Longo, Catherine; Scarborough, Courtney; Hardy, Darren; Best, Benjamin D; Doney, Scott C; Katona, Steven K; McLeod, Karen L; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Samhouri, Jameal F

2014-01-01

261

Assessing the Health of the U.S. West Coast with a Regional-Scale Application of the Ocean Health Index  

PubMed Central

Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment. PMID:24941007

Best, Benjamin D.; Doney, Scott C.; Katona, Steven K.; McLeod, Karen L.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Samhouri, Jameal F.

2014-01-01

262

Strong Endemism of Bloom-Forming Tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with Description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)  

PubMed Central

Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent. PMID:25329833

Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

2014-01-01

263

Potential Application of Floating LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes the efficiency of LNG and its contribution to world energy resources. It also examines the political, economical and technical drivers for successful realization of offshore liquefaction vessel development, main challenges and risks associated with it; it also reviews the current status of technology development and projects which are under development today. Objective: This paper seeks to identify

Elena Voskresenskaya

264

The Impact of the 2006 Java Tsunami on the Australian Coast: Post-tsunami Survey at Steep Point, West Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed assessment of the impact of a far-field tsunami on the Australian coastline was carried out in the Steep Point region, West Australia, following the July 17th 2006 Java tsunami. Tsunami impact was surveyed by collating eye-witness accounts, measuring run-up heights, local flow depths, inundation distances and examining tsunami deposit sedimentology. The tsunami inundated the Steep Point coastline close to low tide. It caused widespread erosion in the littoral zone, extensive vegetation damage and destroyed several campsites (including transporting a large vehicle ten metres inland. Eye-witnesses reported three waves in the tsunami wave train, the second being the biggest. Tsunami wave height, inundation and run-up were determined on the basis of eye-witness accounts, debris lines, vegetation damage and the occurrence of fish, starfish, corals and sea urchins well above high tide mark. A topographic survey was performed using a handheld global positioning system (GPS) receiver and a dumpy level with stadia capability to record the extent of the inundation and run-up. Maximum recorded run-up was approximately ten metres above mean sea level (the highest ever recorded for a tsunami in Australia), maximum wave height was three metres, whilst maximum inundation distance was approximately 200 m from the shoreline. The tsunami deposited up to 14 centimetres of sand over back beach dune systems. The deposits were studied in 25 trenches. In some cases, evidence for individual waves was preserved as normally graded sequences mantled by a layer of fine silts and organics. These data will be used to enhance our ability to interpret palaeotsunami deposits, improve the understanding of the tsunami hazard to Australia and to validate tsunami inundation models.

Prendergast, A. L.

2006-12-01

265

A high-resolution finite element model of the M 2, M 4 M 6, S 2, N 2, K 1 and O 1 tides off the west coast of Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element model of the west coast of Britain is used to determine the spatial distribution of the M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, M4 and M6 tides in the region. A sensitivity study of the influence of bottom friction upon the M2 tide and its higher harmonics, shows that increasing friction coefficient in an M2 tide only calculation, from

J. Eric Jones; Alan M. Davies

2007-01-01

266

A high-resolution finite element model of the M2, M4 M6, S2, N2, K1 and O1 tides off the west coast of Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element model of the west coast of Britain is used to determine the spatial distribution of the M2, S2, N2, K1, O1, M4 and M6 tides in the region. A sensitivity study of the influence of bottom friction upon the M2 tide and its higher harmonics, shows that increasing friction coefficient in an M2 tide only calculation, from

J. Eric Jones; Alan M. Davies

2007-01-01

267

Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ?185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ?100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous forearc units of the Transverse Ranges. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, geologic and petrographic relations, the Pescadero felsite and a capping, sheared metaconglomerate underlie the Pigeon Point Formation. We infer that the magma formed by anatexis of Franciscan or Great Valley clastic sedimentary rocks originating from a parental Mesozoic Sierran-Mojave-Salinian calc-alkaline arc. The felsite erupted during Late Cretaceous time, was metamorphosed to pumpellyite-prehnite grade within the subduction zone, and then was rapidly exhumed, weakly zeolitized, and exposed before Pigeon Point forearc deposition. Pescadero volcanism apparently reflects a previously unrecognized ca. 86–90 Ma felsic igneous event in the accretionary margin.

McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

2011-01-01

268

Annual and spatial variation in the abundance length and condition of juvenile turbot ( Psetta maxima L.) on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland: 2000-2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Turbot ( Psetta maxima Linnaeus) is a high value commercially exploited marine flatfish which occurs in European waters, from the Northeast Atlantic to the Arctic Circle, the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea. In Ireland, turbot are the most valuable commercial non-quota species. Very little is known about their population dynamics in the wild, in particular during the sandy beach nursery phase of the life history. In 2000, a survey was established to assess flatfish species on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland. Eleven sandy beaches were assessed for 0+ turbot by beach seining, over an eight year period (2000-2007) during the months of August and September. The objective of the study was to estimate juvenile turbot abundance and size structure to determine if any spatial and annual trends existed. Large scale variability in the recruitment of fish to nursery grounds may be indicative of fluctuations in the adult stock. Turbot were found to recruit to five beaches consistently over the eight year period. Temporal and spatial variability in the relative abundance and length of turbot was discerned, with no apparent overall trend. However, certain nursery grounds were shown in most of the years examined to support higher abundances of turbot in comparison to other areas over the eight year period. Turbot abundances on nursery grounds were significantly correlated with mean spring sea temperatures during the pelagic stage. The condition of turbot did not significantly differ on an annual or spatial scale. Mean densities of 0+ turbot along the Irish coast were found to be similar and at times higher than other areas in Europe, ranging from 0.1 (± 0.3) individuals 1000 m - 2 to 18.5 (± 6.9) individuals 1000 m - 2 . Mean turbot total length on beaches ranged from 3.8 cm (± 0.6) to 6.6 cm (± 4.3). The observed spatial and temporal variability in abundance and length highlights the need for long-term studies when assessing juvenile flatfish populations. Results from the present study have provided much needed baseline data on wild juvenile turbot populations which is severely lacking for this species both on an Irish and on a European scale.

Haynes, Paula S.; Brophy, Deirdre; McGrath, David; O'Callaghan, Roisin; Comerford, Stephen; Casburn, Paul

2010-11-01

269

Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.  

PubMed

The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO3 (-), and Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high vulnerable zones in the study area. The Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) ratio (7.13 to 12.18) of the high vulnerable zone obviously indicates deterioration of the aquifer contamination. Sensitivity analysis has also been performed to evaluate sensitivity of the individual DRASTIC parameters to aquifer vulnerability. This reveals the net recharge rate and groundwater table depth are becoming more sensitive to aquifer contamination. It is realized that the GIS is an effective platform for aquifer vulnerability mapping with reliable accuracy, and hence, the study is more useful for sustainable water resource management and the aquifer conservation. PMID:25407988

Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

2015-01-01

270

Environmental and Economical Evaluation of Integrating NGL Extraction and LNG Liquefaction Technology in Iran LNG Project  

E-print Network

The combination of changing global markets for natural gas liquids (NGL) with the simultaneous increase in global demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has stimulated an interest in the integration of NGL recovery technology with LNG liquefaction...

Manesh, M. H. K.; Mazhari, V.

271

Floating LNG terminal and LNG carrier interaction analysis for side-by-side offloading operation  

E-print Network

Floating LNG terminals are a relatively new concept with the first such terminal in the world installed this year. The hydrodynamic interaction effects between the terminal and a LNG carrier in a side-by-side offloading arrangement is investigated...

Kuriakose, Vinu P.

2005-11-01

272

MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding workshops to other regions, providing coverage in its newsletter, through columns and case studies in trade journals, and through coordinating presentations at association and professional society meetings. Combined, there were more than 800 participants. Applying ''application percentages'' from PTTC's total technology transfer program, more than 250 participants are likely to be applying technologies (39% of industry participants). Polymer gel water-shutoff (WSO) treatments and wellbore management were a focus in the Midcontinent area. A major provider of polymer gel WSO treatments has experienced a significant increase in treatment activity in Oklahoma, some of which can be logically attributed to this project. A provider of polylined tubing, a product related to wellbore management, has noted a 280% increase in their independent customer base and opening of a new market due to their involvement in PUMP-spinoff technology transfer. Detailed case studies on polymer gel WSO treatments and wellbore management, along with more global analyses, demonstrate the economic value of these technologies to producers. Among the many information sources that producers consider when applying technology, PTTC knows it is an important source in these technology areas.

Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

2004-12-01

273

Purification and characterization of three alpha 2-antiplasmin and alpha 2-macroglobulin inactivating enzymes from the venom of the Mexican west coast rattlesnake (Crotalus basiliscus).  

PubMed

Three distinct alpha 2PI (alpha 2-antiplasmin) degrading and alpha 2M (alpha 2-macroglobulin) inhibiting enzymes, named proteinase a, b and c, have been purified from the venom of Crotalus basiliscus (the Mexican west coast rattlesnake) by fast protein liquid chromatography (anion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration chromatography). SDS-PAGE revealed that proteinase a and b had similar mol. wts (approximately 23,500), whereas proteinase c displayed a mol.wt of approximately 24,200. Their isoelectric points were found to be acidic, ranging from pH 4.8 to 5.7. The proteinase activity of all three enzymes was inhibited in the presence of EDTA. Dependent on enzyme concentration, a progressive and catalytic inactivation of alpha 2PI was induced, leading to an almost complete loss of the plasmin inhibitory activity at a molar ratio of enzyme: alpha 2PI = 0.1 within 60 min. The ability of alpha 2M to protect the esterolytic activity of trypsin from inhibition by soybean trypsin inhibitor was only reduced at a molar ratio of enzyme: alpha 2M = 0.5, whereas no inactivation could be observed when the three venom proteinases were incubated with an excess of alpha 2M, suggesting that the inactivation occurred by complex formation but not by degradation of the intact alpha 2M molecule. In SDS-PAGE, inactivation of human alpha 2PI (mol. wt 68,000) correlated with the appearance of two cleavage products with an approximate mol. wt of 56,000 and 11,000, respectively. The three proteinases had no thrombin-like activity. Plasminogen and factor X were not activated and no platelet aggregation was induced. They degraded the A alpha- and B beta-chain of fibrinogen and showed plasma extravasation-inducing activity following intradermal injection into the abdominal skin. None of the enzymes showed any activity against a series of chromogenic p-nitroanilide substrates. PMID:8599184

Svoboda, P; Meier, J; Freyvogel, T A

1995-10-01

274

Assessment of topographic and drainage network controls on debris-flow travel distance along the west coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To better understand controls on debris-flow entrainment and travel distance, we examined topographic and drainage network characteristics of initiation locations in two separate debris-flow prone areas located 700 km apart along the west coast of the U.S. One area was located in northern California, the other in southern Oregon. In both areas, debris flows mobilized from slides during large storms, but, when stratified by number of contributing initiation locations, median debris-flow travel distances in Oregon were 5 to 8 times longer than median distances in California. Debris flows in Oregon readily entrained channel material; entrainment in California was minimal. To elucidate this difference, we registered initiation locations to high-resolution airborne LiDAR, and then examined travel distances with respect to values of slope, upslope contributing area, planform curvature, distance from initiation locations to the drainage network, and number of initiation areas that contributed to flows. Results show distinct differences in the topographic and drainage network characteristics of debris-flow initiation locations between the two study areas. Slope and planform curvature of initiation locations (landslide headscarps), commonly used to predict landslide-prone areas, were not useful for predicting debris-flow travel distances. However, a positive, power-law relation exists between median debris-flow travel distance and the number of contributing debris-flow initiation locations. Moreover, contributing area and the proximity of the initiation locations to the drainage network both influenced travel distances, but proximity to the drainage network was the better predictor of travel distance. In both study areas, flows that interacted with the drainage network flowed significantly farther than those that did not. In California, initiation sites within 60 m of the network were likely to reach the network and generate longtraveled flows; in Oregon, the threshold was 80 m.

Coe, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Mark E.; Brien, Dainne L.; Michael, John A.

2011-01-01

275

Sources and distribution of organic matter in thirty five tropical estuaries along the west coast of India-a preliminary assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies characterizing the sources of organic matter (OM) to the west coast of India (WCI) and its continental shelf are limited. This study examined sedimentary OM in 35 estuaries along the WCI using molecular biomarkers (lignin phenol), elemental ratio (C/N), and stable carbon isotope (?13C) values. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, identified similar sedimentary chemical properties among the estuaries and their distribution patterns highlight the strong control of geographical provenance on sedimentary OM composition from south to north along the WCI. Results of an end-member mixing model reveal that terrigenous sources (C3 plants, C4 plants, and soil) contribute ?80% of estuarine OM, with the remaining 20% derived from marine sources (marine plankton and estuarine macrophytes). In the estuaries of large rivers, such as the Narmada and Sabarmati rivers, C4 plants and soil OM were found to be the dominant contributors of OM, which is likely the result of an abundance of C4 vegetation and agriculture in their catchment areas. High OC (organic carbon content) of sediments (0.5-5%) from the WCI estuaries indicates that large amounts of OM are present in the sediments. The sources of OM (plant and soil) shift substantially throughout the study area, corresponding to changes in land use patterns along the Western Ghats. Sediments with low nitrogen contents (C/N > 15-20) and degraded lignin ((Ad/Al)V = 0.4-0.6 and DHBA/V = 0.16-0.34) were observed in all estuaries, indicating humification and/or degradation of OM originating from terrestrial plants (bio-degradation) and soil (de-mineralization). The collective results of this study illustrate the benefits of using biomarkers (lignin phenols) along with C/N and ?13C values for evaluating land use changes and the impacts of land use changes on aquatic ecosystems.

Pradhan, U. K.; Wu, Ying; Shirodkar, P. V.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

2014-12-01

276

Projection of Carbon Dynamics in the Marine West Coast Forests under Climate and Land Cover changes Using General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate and land cover changes may influence the capacity of the terrestrial ecosystems to be carbon sinks or sources. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential change of the carbon sequestration in the Marine West Coast Forests ecoregion in the Pacific Northwest United States using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). In GEMS, the underlying biogeochemical model, Erosion and Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), was used and calibrated using MODIS net primary production (NPP) and grain yield data during the baseline period from 2002 to 2005, and then validated with another four-year period from 2006 to 2009. GEMS-EDCM was driven using projected climate from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) under three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) and derived land cover data from the FORecasting SCEnarios (FORE-SCE) model under the same three IPCC scenarios for the period from 2006 to 2050. This ecoregion, two-thirds of which is covered by forest, was projected to continue to gain carbon from 2005 to 2050, with an annual carbon sequestration of about -3 Tg C. It was also predicted that live biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) would contain about 48% and 33% of the total carbon storage by 2050, respectively. In addition, forest carbon sequestration (-2 Tg C yr-1) demonstrated to be the largest sink among all ecosystems, accounting for 73% of the total, followed by grass/shrub and agriculture. Overall, results about predicted dynamics of carbon storage and sequestration can be informative to policy makers for seeking mitigation plans to reduce greenhouse gases emissions.

WU, Y.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Young, C.; Werner, J.; Dahal, D.; Liu, J.; Schmidt, G.

2012-12-01

277

Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.  

SciTech Connect

GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites, reanalysis meteorology and various remote sensing products to generate statewide estimates of biosphere carbon exchange from the atmospheric point of view.

B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

2010-06-01

278

LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu\\/lb. and Btu\\/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($\\/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses

Charles A. Powars; Carl B. Moyer; Douglas D. Lowell

1994-01-01

279

Optimizing PT Arun LNG main heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of a LNG liquefaction unit has been increased by upgrading the refrigeration system, without making changes to the main heat exchanger (MHE). It is interesting, that after all modifications were completed, a higher refrigerant circulation alone could not increase LNG production. However, by optimizing the refrigerant component ratio, the UA of the MHE increased and LNG production improved. This technical evaluation will provide recommendations and show how the evaluation of the internal temperature profile helped optimize the MHE operating conditions.

Irawan, B. [PT Arun NGL Co., Sumatra (Indonesia)

1995-12-01

280

COGAS propulsion for LNG ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propulsion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships is undergoing significant change. The traditional steam plant is losing favor because of its low cycle efficiency. Medium-speed diesel-electric and slow-speed diesel-mechanical drive ships are in service, and more are being built. Another attractive alternative is combined gas and steam turbine (COGAS) drive. This approach offers significant advantages over steam and diesel propulsion.

Edwin G. Wiggins

2011-01-01

281

COGAS propulsion for LNG ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propulsion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships is undergoing significant change. The traditional steam plant is losing favor because of its low cycle efficiency. Medium-speed diesel-electric and slow-speed diesel-mechanical drive ships are in service, and more are being built. Another attractive alternative is combined gas and steam turbine (COGAS) drive. This approach offers significant advantages over steam and diesel propulsion. This paper presents the case for the COGAS cycle.

Wiggins, Edwin G.

2011-06-01

282

COGAS propulsion for LNG ships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propulsion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships is undergoing significant change. The traditional steam plant is losing favor\\u000a because of its low cycle efficiency. Medium-speed diesel-electric and slow-speed diesel-mechanical drive ships are in service,\\u000a and more are being built. Another attractive alternative is combined gas and steam turbine (COGAS) drive. This approach offers\\u000a significant advantages over steam and diesel propulsion.

Edwin G. Wiggins

2011-01-01

283

LGM-extent of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet offshore from the Hobbs Coast, based on paleo-ice stream bed observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleo-ice stream beds that are exposed today on the West Antarctic continental shelf provide unique archives of conditions at the base of the past ice sheet, that are difficult to assess beneath its modern, extant counterpart. During the last decade, several of these paleo-ice stream beds have been studied in detail to reconstruct the extent of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the patterns of ice drainage, and the timing of grounding-line retreat during the last deglaciation. However, despite significant advances, such information still remains poorly constrained in numerous drainage sectors of the WAIS. In particular, the maximum extent of ice at the LGM remains ambiguous for key drainage basins of the ice sheet. Whether the WAIS extended to the shelf break around the continent, or advanced only partially across its sea bed, is a crucial piece of information required for reconstructing and modeling patterns of ice-sheet change from past to present. Here we present marine geological and geophysical data that we collected on R/V "Polarstern" expedition ANT-XXVI/3 in early 2010 to investigate the extent, flow, and retreat of the WAIS, from an especially poorly studied part of the West Antarctic shelf, offshore from the Hobbs Coast in the western Amundsen Sea. Here, a landward deepening paleo-ice stream trough is incised into the shelf. The seafloor within the western-central part of the trough is characterized by a large trough-wide grounding zone wedge, ~70 m thick and ~17 km long, which overlies a high of seaward dipping sedimentary strata. The back-slope of the GZW is characterized by highly elongate streamlined bedforms suggesting fast paleo-ice flow towards NW. The crest of the wedge has been cross-cutted by iceberg keels. In contrast, the outer shelf seafloor offshore the GZW is predominantly smooth and featureless, although there is some evidence locally for iceberg scouring. A radiocarbon age from calcareous microfossils in a core from the inner shelf shows that ice had retreated landward from the GZW before 12.967 cal 14C yrs. There are two possible interpretations for the GZW: either (1) that it formed during a significant stillstand as the WAIS retreated from the shelf edge following the LGM, or (2) it marks the maximum extent of grounded ice at the LGM. Preliminary data appears to support the latter hypothesis. Specifically we point to i) the size and geometry of the GZW which is comparable to other grounding-line features marking LGM-positions around Antarctica (e.g. in the Ross Sea and in Prydz Bay), and less similar to GZWs deposited during episodic ice-stream retreat (e.g. in Pine Island Trough and Marguerite Trough); and ii) the lack of subglacial bedforms on the outer shelf, which may be explained by a thick hemipelagic sediment cover deposited over tens of thousands of years. In order to test these two hypotheses and constrain the timing and duration of GZW formation, additional ages will be obtained from seasonal open-marine sediments overlying subglacial till in cores seaward of the GZW as well as from the outer shelf. We will present preliminary interpretations of these data, which will aim to resolve the extent of the WAIS in this sector and, at the same time, provide new information on the dynamics of paleo-ice streams, which drained the former ice sheet.

Klages, J.; Kuhn, G.; Hillenbrand, C.; Graham, A. G.; Smith, J.; Larter, R. D.; Gohl, K.

2012-12-01

284

Power generation from LNG vaporization. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of generating electrical power to take full advantage of the energy released in the vaporization of LNG is described. The process is one of many which might be used to recover energy from the cryogenic LNG-oil slurry pipeline. The process of cooling and liquefying natural gas consumes large amounts of energy which is, in a sense, stored in

Rennert

1975-01-01

285

Prospects good for LNG cold recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing emphasis is expected on more efficient use of increasing emphasis is expected on more efficient use of LNG's refrigeration potential. The continuing escalation in the cost of energy, together with a clearer understanding of the potential uses, should facilitate acceptance of LNG cold-recovery projects. A balance must be established between the quantity and level of potential refrigeration recovered and

DiNapoli

1975-01-01

286

Sediment transport on macrotidal flats in Garolim Bay, west coast of Korea: significance of wind waves and asymmetry of tidal currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A self-recording instrument, named Tidal Sediment Dynamics Observational System (TISDOS), was built to monitor transport characteristics of nearbed sediments on tidal flats. It was deployed on a tidal flat in the semi-enclosed Garolim Bay, west coast of Korea, over a 15-day period between 5 and 20 January 2002 to examine sediment-transport processes during winter seasons. The measurements involved brief durations of high waves allowing for observation of wave effects upon the sediment transport on the tidal flat. Time series of various hydrodynamic parameters (water depth, current velocities, wave height, suspended sediment concentration, and bed level) from point measurements show characteristic interrelationships between parameters on both temporal and spatial scales. The tidal flat is dominated by flooding currents up to 2 times stronger than ebb currents. The current speeds measured simultaneously at two stations along a cross-shore transect varied in harmony with water depth, reaching the maximum during spring tide that was steadily decreased onshore. The onshore decrease in current speed was compatible with a fining textural trend from sand on the lower flat to mud toward the upper flat. Both the maximum water depth and current speed during individual tidal cycles also show semi-diurnal asymmetry that was highlighted during spring tide. Waves were of critical importance in resuspending bed material and thus yielding higher suspended sediment concentrations. On the middle flat, the suspended sediment concentrations were highest, exceeding 400 mg/l at 0.5 m above the seabed during large waves (relative wave height, 0.33) under weakest neap currents. In this wavy climate, the suspended sediment concentration increased over time during ebb, in strong contrast with a gradual decrease through time after mid-flood peaks under tidal currents without waves. The daily vertical flux of suspended sediments trapped in a plastic bottle also indicates the significance of wave effects in terms of enhancing resuspension of bottom sediments. As a whole, the suspended silts as well as seabed sands should be transported onshore by dominant flooding currents despite occasional offshore increase in suspension load by waves.

Lee, Hee J.; Jo, Hyung R.; Chu, Yong S.; Bahk, Kyung S.

2004-05-01

287

Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some ecoregions, harvest reductions below current levels will sequester more carbon than additional harvest removals for bioenergy. References: Hudiburg, T., B. E. Law, D. P. Turner, J. Campbell, D. Donato, and M. Duane. 2009. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage. Ecological Applications 19:163-180. Waring, R. H., and J. F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen Coniferous Forests of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204:1380-1386.

Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

2012-12-01

288

Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India.  

PubMed

Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500 ?m and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500 ?m exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m(3) and 4.5 ?g/m(3), and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between -14.1 Wm(-2) and -35.6 Wm(-2), -6.7 Wm(-2) and -13.4 Wm(-2) and 5.5 Wm(-2) to 22.5 Wm(-2), respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. PMID:24012896

Menon, Harilal B; Shirodkar, Shilpa; Kedia, Sumita; S, Ramachandran; Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K Krishna

2014-01-15

289

Normal-mode frequency band view of the Off-the-West-Coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies with body-wave and long-period surface wave analyses on the Off-the-West-coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012, have already pointed out complexities of this event (e.g., Meng et al., 2012). A sequence of events with fairly wide spatial and temporal extent are clearly needed to explain many facets of seismic data. In this study, we attempt to summarize a few distinct features from the normal-mode frequency band (0.3-2.0 mHz) which are obviously much simpler by their long wavelength and long periods. We analyzed long-period seismic data from STS1 and KS54000 sensors for the first 12 hours of the main event using the time-domain waveform fitting technique (Tanimoto, et al., 2012). Adoption of this short time series is partly to avoid uncertain Q parameters on amplitudes but also to avoid the effects from two earthquakes in Oregon (Mw6.0) and Mexico (Mw6.7) that occurred about 23rd hour on the same day. These events are much smaller but their effects cannot be ignored in seismic stations in North America. Two major events reported by the Global CMT project, the Mw8.6 main shock and the Mw8.2 aftershock that occurred two hours later, are clearly not sufficient to explain the amplitude data at about 1 mHz (0.6-1.5 mHz). Synthetic seismograms for the two events under-predicts data by about 30 percent. Amplitudes also show two-theta azimuthal variation that indicates a necessity of at least one hidden event (if not rupture propagation). This necessity has already been pointed out by various groups (e.g., Duputel et al., 2012, Shao et al., 2012). Duputel et al. (2012), for example, reports that the Mw8.6 main event by GCMT should be split up by two large events, the Mw8.5 main event and Mw8.3 event that occurred 70 seconds later. Our analysis shows that their three-source solution, including the Mw8.2 event two hours later, satisfies overall amplitude data in the normal-mode frequency band. However, their solution still shows two-theta azimuthal variations with amplitudes about 10-15 percent. We therefore sought a solution that reduces total amplitude misfit as well as their azimuthal variations. Our preferred solution has two similar events to GCMT and an extra event about 70 seconds after the main shock with moment 2.7e28 (dyne cm). The moment, however, trades off with depth due to uncertain Mxz and Myz components. Our solution puts this event at depth 40 km but a solution at 30 km can almost equally explain the data but with moment 3.7e28 (dyne cm). Long wavelength nature also brings uncertainties to the source location but a location further to the north west of the Mw8.2 aftershock (2 hours later) tends to show a solution with smaller deviation from a double-couple solution. We will present the details of our analysis at the meeting.

Igarashi, M.; Tanimoto, T.

2012-12-01

290

Potential for BLEVE associated with marine LNG vessel fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent LNG marine shipping hazard studies have discounted BLEVE hazards associated with LNG vessels. This exclusion of a potential major hazard event has been queried, particularly since a recent LNG truck BLEVE-like event in Spain. This paper reviews the physical factors associated with the Spanish LNG truck event and accepts that this had features of a classical BLEVE event and

Robin Pitblado

2007-01-01

291

FLOATING LNG PLANTS - SCALE-UP OF FAMILIAR TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing costs of onshore base load LNG plants and technology developments in offshore LNG storage and transfer have resulted in offshore LNG production now being commercially viable, even at plant capacities of 1 to 2 million tonnes per annum. At these LNG production rates, floating plants will use liquefaction processes based on turbo-expanders to generate the refrigeration for liquefaction. This

Adrian J. Finn

292

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01

293

Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report  

SciTech Connect

Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

Battelle

1999-07-01

294

A review of the Arun field gas production/cycling and LNG export project. [Sumatra, Indonesia  

SciTech Connect

The Arun field was discovered by Mobil Oil Indonesia Inc. in late 1971 in its Bee block in the Aceh province on the north coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. Mobil's operations in this area are conducted under the terms of a production sharing agreement with Pertamina, the Indonesian state-owned oil and gas enterprise. The scope of operations covered by this paper is from production of gas and raw condensate in the field through stabilization and export of condensate and purification, liquefaction, and export of gas at the LNG plant at Blang Lancang, near Lho Seumawe (Sumatra) Indonesia. Mobil Oil Indonesia, Inc. is the field operator and P.T. Arun NGL Company operates the pipelines and LNG plant facilities. All the facilities which will be described are owned by Pertamina; P.T. Arun is owned by Pertamina, Mobil Oil Indonesia, and Japan Indonesia LNG company (JILCO). JILCO represents the five (5) original Japanese LNG purchasers. Brief descriptions are included of the geology, reservoir geometry, well producing characteristics, field producing and cycling facilities, and the treating, liquefaction and export facilities.

Alford, M.E.

1983-03-01

295

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

2011-07-01

296

Bayesian-lopa methodology for risk assessment of an LNG importation terminal  

E-print Network

LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is one of the fastest growing energy sources in the U.S. to fulfill the increasing energy demands. In order to meet the LNG demand, many LNG facilities including LNG importation terminals are operating currently...

Yun, Geun-Woong

2009-05-15

297

Regional extent of Great Valley basement west of the Great Valley, California: Implications for extensive tectonic wedging in the California Coast Ranges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpretation and modeling of the magnetic field of central California indicate that the magnetic basement of the forearc deposits of the Great Valley sequence extends westward beneath the coeval subduction-related rocks of the Franciscan Complex. The basement surface slopes gently to the west, reaching midcrustal depths (15-19 km) at distances of 50-100 km west of the Great Valley. This magnetic

Robert C. Jachens; Andrew Griscom; Carter W. Roberts

1995-01-01

298

76 FR 27288 - Port Access Route Study: The Atlantic Coast From Maine to Florida  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...measures off the Atlantic Coast between Maine and Florida. The goal of the Atlantic Coast PARS is to enhance navigational...Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room...Office of Navigation Systems, Coast Guard, telephone...

2011-05-11

299

76 FR 66239 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays Within the Fifth Coast Guard District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...be received by the Coast Guard on or before...of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor...line running east to west from points along...b.) Coast Guard Sector Baltimore...d.) Coast Guard Sector North...position located at the west end of Sugar...

2011-10-26

300

77 FR 16929 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays within the Fifth Coast Guard District  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor...Dennis Sens, Fifth Coast Guard District, Prevention...line running east to west from points along...b.) Coast Guard Sector Baltimore...d.) Coast Guard Sector North...position located at the west end of Sugar...

2012-03-23

301

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to verify that...structural integrity or safety of the tank: (a) Foundation and tank movement during normal operation...

2010-10-01

302

Direct application of west coast geothermal resources in a wet corn milling plant supplementary analyses and information dissemination. Final report, addendum  

SciTech Connect

In an extension to the scope of the previous studies, supplementary analyses were to be performed for both plants which would assess the economics of geothermal energy if coal had been the primary fuel rather than oil and gas. The studies include: supplementary analysis for a coal fired wet corn milling plant, supplementary analysis for an East Coast frozen food plant with coal fired boilers, and information dissemination activities.

Not Available

1982-03-19

303

West coast RFI survey, volume 1, volume 2 appendix E, volume 3 appendix F, volume 4 appendix G, and volume 5 appendix H  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities and data reported cover experimental design, mechanization onboard the aircraft, survey operations, quick look and automated data reduction, and a qualitative comparison of survey data with predicted values for the radio frequency survey. The survey was designed to measure amplitude, frequency and time of occurrence of terrestrial emissions in the VHF band during overflights of heavily populated metropolitan areas located on the Pacific Coast of the Continental United States by sensing and recording equipment installed in jet aircraft.

Deutsch, W. F.

1972-01-01

304

North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997-2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7??C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Park, W.; Douglas, D.C.; Shirley, T.C.

2007-01-01

305

A two-dimensional slice model of the shelf edge region off the west coast of Scotland: model response to realistic seasonal forcing and the role of the M 2 tide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high resolution, two-dimensional cross-shelf slice model, with a range of turbulence energy sub-models, is applied to the shelf and shelf-edge region off the west coast of Scotland. The model, based upon previous work in the region (Xing and Davies, 1996, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 26, 417-447), emphasises the need for high resolution in both vertical and horizontal directions to study processes over the shelf edge. Using realistic seasonal meterological forcing, a year long integration is performed to investigate the role of mixing upon the formation of seasonal stratification. Results show that, whilst the meteorological forcing is essential to the formation of seasonal stratification and the sub-tidal cross-shelf circulation, the tide (barotropic and associated internal tide) is an important process that enhances mixing and the sub-tidal energetic cross-shelf circulation over the shelf edge.

Xing, J.; Chen, F.; Proctor, R.

1999-08-01

306

A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LANDFALL OF THE 1979 RED TIDE OF KARENIA BREVIS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA. (R827085)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall o...

307

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG 1914 First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling/shipping.  

E-print Network

standards, NFPA 59A Standard for the Production, Storage, and Handling of LNG. 1969 United States exports, incorporating NFPA 59A standards. 1977 California enacts LNG Terminal Siting Act, allowing the California Public

308

33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile 1.2, at Osterville, shall operate as...

2012-07-01

309

Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

1982-07-01

310

Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

2005-04-01

311

Analysis of winter dust activity off the coast of West Africa using a new 24-year over-water advanced very high resolution radiometer satellite dust climatology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 24-year (1982–2005) winter daytime advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data set has been processed utilizing a new over-water dust detection algorithm. The dust data are for the oceanic regions surrounding West Africa and provide a long-term remotely sensed continuous record of dustiness in the region. These AVHRR dust observations are comparable to dust records produced via the Total

Amato T. Evan; Andrew K. Heidinger; Peter Knippertz

2006-01-01

312

ERC policy statement on LNG imports. [Energy Resources Council LNG policy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

USA energy policy considerations by the Energy Resources Council (ERC) are reviewed. The risks of dependence, supply disruption, and arbitrary price hikes should be minimized by the recommendation that LNG imports from a single country be limited to 0.8 to 1.0 Tcf\\/yr for national security reasons and total LNG imports to about 2 Tcf\\/yr. These recommendations are based on diversification

Zarb

1976-01-01

313

Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature and local topography effects on coastal fog: Case study of 21-22 January 2008 event on the west coast of Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life cycle of fog over coastal regions is very sensitive to the heterogeneity of the landform and to the vicinity to the Ocean. Thus, the influence of the sea surface temperature (SST) and local topography on the evolution of a coastal fog is assessed in this study by performing sensitivity experiments. To achieve this, the numerical simulations are performed with the three-dimensional research model Meso-NH. This fog event occurred at the Grand Casablanca region, in the northwest coast of Morocco, during the night of 21-22 January 2008 and last more than 12 hours. It was analyzed using standard meteorological observations from the two synoptic stations of the region, the observed radio-sounding at the coastal station, the MSG satellite imagery and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. The numerical simulation reproduced well the main features of this fog event since its formation to its dissipation. The numerical results demonstrated that this fog event was of a radiation type over land, due to the nocturnal radiative cooling and the turbulence. And one hour later near the coast, the fog was resulting from base lowering of Stratus low cloud, due to the cloud top cooling and the vertical turbulent mixing. The sensitivity experiments to SST demonstrate that varying SST in space and time affects the spatial distribution of the fog layer over an area of about 20km around the coast. Besides, the SST governs the thermodynamic fluxes at the air-sea interface, and then affects the life cycle of this fog event, in particular in the mature and dissipation phases. On the other hand, the sensitivity experiments to local coastal topography demonstrated its impact on the speed and direction of wind in the boundary layer during the different phases of the life cycle of this fog event. Then, it was found that the heterogeneities of terrain over the coastal regions affect the horizontal extension of this fog event during the mature phase and its evolution during the dissipation stage.

Bari, Driss; Bergot, Thierry; El Khlifi, Mohamed

2014-05-01

314

77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...non-free trade agreement (FTA) countries.\\1\\ The LNG Export Study...authority to export natural gas to countries with which the United States...of 5.6 billion cubic feet per day (Bcf/ day) of natural...opportunity to intervene in or protest those pending matters by...

2012-12-11

315

LNG slurry formation. Preliminary technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of forming particles of frozen crude oil by spraying oil into LNG was originally conceived by LeFever. Analyses by Coulter have shown that the particles formed for slurry transportation must be as small as possible, on the order of 30 micrometers (.001 inch). Such small pellets can be achieved by freezing oil spray, but direct spraying of crude

Coulter

1975-01-01

316

Identification and Frequency of Holocene Earthquakes from the Marine Sedimentary Records of Effingham Inlet and Other Pacific Ocean Fjords Along the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paleoseismic record preserved in fjords along the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone, on the west coast of Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada), will be a complement to the known turbidite chronology related to past great earthquakes, interpreted from the paleoseismic interpretation from offshore canyons along the central and southern Cascadia margin. These new paleoseismic marine sedimentary records will facilitate a regional interpretation of the paleoseismic record of the entire Cascadia subduction zone. At the primary coastal B.C. paleoseismic study site investigated to date, laminated sediments preserved in the anoxic inner basin of Effingham Inlet on the Pacific coast of Vancouver Island, B.C., yield a high-resolution 40 m long sediment deposition record spanning about 14ka 14C BP (17ka cal BP). Sedimentary, physical properties and geochemical criteria are used to interpret seismically triggered mass wasting events (seismites) intercalated within theannually laminated lithofacies. The high resolution age model is based on 68 radio-carbon dates from plant material, complemented with the presence of the Mazama Ash and varve counting, fit on a modified depth scale from which the instantaneous seismites have been removed. A Poisson-process deposition model is used, applying new methodology to choose the most realistic "k parameter". Bayesian analysis produces remarkably well constrained ages of the seismites (median sigma = 30 years). In total, 21 seismites are recognized back to 11 ka (cal years BP), which provide accurate correlations to some of the paleoseismic events observed in complementary offshore turbidite paleoseismic records. A Canadian research cruise in July 2012 collected marine sediment cores from four previously unstudied B.C. coastal fjords located to the north of Effingham Inlet, yielding the potential for a paleoseismic marine sedimentary record spanning the full length of the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone.

Dallimore, A.; Enkin, R. J.; Rogers, G. C.; Cassidy, J.

2012-12-01

317

Demonstration of a Real Time Capability to Produce Tidal Heights and Currents for Naval Operational Use: A Cast Study for the West Coast of Africa (Liberia)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents an existing capability to produce operationally relevant products on sea level and currents from a tides/storm surge model for any coastal region around the world within 48 hours from the time of the request. The model is ready for transition to the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) for potential contingency use anywhere around the world. A recent application to naval operations offshore Liberia illustrates this. Mississippi State University, in collaboration with the University of Colorado and NAVOCEANO, successfully deployed the Colorado University Rapidly Relocatable Nestable Tides and Storm Surge (CURReNTSS) model that predicts sea surface height, tidal currents and storm surge, and provided operational products on tidal sea level and currents in the littoral region off south-western coast of Africa. This report summarizes the results of this collaborative effort in an actual contingency use of the relocatable model, summarizes the lessons learned, and provides recommendations for further evaluation and transition of this modeling capability to operational use.

Mehra, Avichal; Anantharaj, Valentine; Payne, Steve; Kantha, Lakshmi

1996-01-01

318

USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey's Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) project, in collaboration with the California Geological Survey, the California Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other agencies and institutions are developing a Tsunami Scenario to describe in detail the impacts of a tsunami generated by a hypothetical, but realistic, M9 earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula. The overarching objective of SAFRR and its predecessor, the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project, is to help communities reduce losses from natural disasters. As requested by emergency managers and other community partners, a primary approach has been comprehensive, scientifically credible scenarios that start with a model of a geologic event and extend through estimates of damage, casualties, and societal consequences. The first product was the ShakeOut scenario, addressing a hypothetical earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, that spawned the successful Great California ShakeOut, an annual event and the nation's largest emergency preparedness exercise. That was followed by the ARkStorm scenario, which addresses California winter storms that surpass hurricanes in their destructive potential. Some of the Tsunami Scenario's goals include developing advanced models of currents and inundation for the event; spurring research related to Alaskan earthquake sources; engaging the port and harbor decision makers; understanding the economic impacts to local, regional and national economy in both the short and long term; understanding the ecological, environmental, and societal impacts of coastal inundation; and creating enhanced communication products for decision-making before, during, and after a tsunami event. The state of California, through CGS and Cal EMA, is using the Tsunami Scenario as an opportunity to evaluate policies regarding tsunami impact. The scenario will serve as a long-lasting resource to teach preparedness and inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

2012-12-01

319

Australian LNG plant debottlenecked to 7.5 million tons/year  

SciTech Connect

The North West Shelf gas project, Karratha, Western Australia, has successfully carried out a three-train LNG plant debottlenecking to increase capacity from 6.9 million metric tons/year (mty) to more than 7.5 mty. The two major constraints targeted by the project were the CO{sub 2}-removal column and the main refrigerant compressor drivers. Replacement of the original trays by structured packing in the Sulfinol absorber columns and a change of solvent composition has cured foaming problems and increased gas-treating capacity. Installation of a performance-improvement package known as Advanced Technology Parts (ATP) has effectively uprated the gas-turbine drivers of the refrigerant compressors from GE Frame 5B to 5C. An increase in turbine power of 9% has been achieved. Together with modifications to the precooling propane compressors and other plant equipment, the LNG capacity of the plant has increased to 118% of design, an increase of 10 LNG cargoes/year, while retaining the same operating flexibility for different ambient temperatures. This paper reviews these procedures.

Brehaut, W.J.; Concannon, M.J. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty., Karratha, Western Australia (Australia)

1996-01-08

320

The separate and combined effects of epibenthic predation and presence of macro-infauna on the recruitment success of bivalves in shallow soft-bottom areas on the Swedish west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies have shown a high year-to-year variability in recruitment success of bivalves. Especially after mild winters recruitment was generally low, but the lower egg production after mild winters in Macoma balthica could only explain 7% of its recruitment variance. In the present study, I tested the hypothesis that the combined effect of a high predation pressure together with a high abundance of adult macrofauna contributes to an explanation of the low recruitment success of bivalves after mild winters. In field experiments in shallow soft-bottom bays at the Swedish west coast, adult benthic fauna (mainly consisting of lugworms Arenicola marina and cockles Cerastoderma edule) was removed and predators (mainly shrimps Crangon crangon and crabs Carcinus maenas) were excluded in some plots/cages, whereas in other plots/cages high densities of adult lugworms or cockles and predators were present. Both the absence of adult macrofauna and the absence of predators increased recruitment success, but the effect of the combined absence of adult macrofauna and predators enhanced recruitment success even more. The combined presence of high macrofauna densities and high predation pressure reduced the recruitment success for Mya arenaria by about 80% compared to the situation in which adult macrofauna and predators were absent. For C. edule, spat densities the reduction was nearly 90% and for Tellinacea spat even about 95%. Thus failure in recruitment success after a mild winter can to a large extent be explained by the presence of high densities of adult macrofauna combined with high predation pressure.

Flach, E. C.

2003-02-01

321

Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

2011-01-01

322

Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west 2013 Environment Report RL 01/13 Cefas Report RL 01/13 Final report Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west Cumbrian coast, 2012 C.E., Rumney, P. and Papworth, G.P., 2013. Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west Cumbrian coast

323

Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence West (COSEE-West)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The COSEE center for ocean science integration and outreach for the west coast of the U.S. Site includes information on the COSEE West partners, its mission, goals, upcoming activities, including workshops, and additional resources. Site also links to three curriculum supplements.

324

Beauty of Simplicity: Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Liquefaction Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paper describes how use of single component refrigerants yields an LNG liquefaction process that is safe, simple to operate, easy to understand, and robust in reliability. The 34-year operating history of Kenai LNG has proven the inherent advantages of the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Process. The paper is written from an operational point of view, and describes basic design parameters and operation of the processes.

Andress, D. L.; Watkins, R. J.

2004-06-01

325

High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG  

DOEpatents

A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-18

326

LNG pump anti-slam device  

SciTech Connect

In pumping LNG (liquefied natural gas) from one receiver to another, eg., from a vessel's tank to a shore installation, it is conventional to use a submerged pump, a riser pipe connecting the pump to a stop valve and flexible joint connecting the stop valve to a header. If a pocket of gaseous lng is present in the riser pipe, when the pump commences its operation, the advancing column of liquid in the riser pipe slams against the stop valve and may damage it. The invention provides the improvement of a removable or bypassable flow restrictor incorporated between the pump and the riser pipe, permitting to ensure that the riser pipe is completely liquid-filled, before the pump commences to operate.

Tornay, E.G.

1980-05-27

327

Monitor terminal has latest LNG technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Montoir de Bretagne (France) methane terminal is the third one constructed by Gaz de France to receive Algerian LNG. Initially designed to handle 192 billion CF (5.15 billion m³)\\/yr of natural gas, the plant is now being enlarged to increase its regasification capacity to about 370 billion CF (10 billion m³). Descriptions of the unloading facilities, storage tanks, high-pressure

Goy

1983-01-01

328

Safety guided design of LNG terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety philosophy used by Southern Energy Co., at its Elba Island, Ga., LNG terminal was developed by Energy Analysis Inc., The terminal is surrounded by marshland, with no houses closer than two miles. Safety-related equipment at the terminal includes ultraviolet sensors to detect fires; cold sensors, set to alarm at -100°F, installed along pipeways and pump and vaporizer areas

J. Anderson; M. Smith

1979-01-01

329

Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous forearc units of the Transverse Ranges. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, geologic and petrographic relations, the Pescadero felsite and a capping, sheared metaconglomerate underlie the Pigeon Point Formation. We infer that the magma formed by anatexis of Franciscan or Great Valley clastic sedimentary rocks originating from a parental Mesozoic Sierran-Mojave-Salinian calcalkaline arc. The felsite erupted during Late Cretaceous time, was metamorphosed to pumpellyite-prehnite grade within the subduction zone, and then was rapidly exhumed, weakly zeolitized, and exposed before Pigeon Point forearc deposition. Pescadero vol canism apparently reflects a previously unrecognized ca. 86-90 Ma felsic igneous event in the accretionary margin. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, D.E.

2011-01-01

330

Lessons learned from LNG safety research.  

PubMed

During the period from 1977 to 1989, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a liquefied gaseous fuels spill effects program under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Gas Research Institute and others. The goal of this program was to develop and validate tools that could be used to predict the effects of a large liquefied gas spill through the execution of large scale field experiments and the development of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests could not be performed. Over the course of the program, three series of LNG spill experiments were performed to study cloud formation, dispersion, combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this program, the lessons learned from 12 years of research as well as some recommendations for the future. The general conclusion from this program is that cold, dense gas related phenomena can dominate the dispersion of a large volume, high release rate spill of LNG especially under low ambient wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions, and therefore, it is necessary to include a detailed and validated description of these phenomena in computer models to adequately predict the consequences of a release. Specific conclusions include: * LNG vapor clouds are lower and wider than trace gas clouds and tend to follow the downhill slope of terrain due to dampened vertical turbulence and gravity flow within the cloud. Under low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions, a bifurcated, two lobed structure develops. * Navier-Stokes models provide the most complete description of LNG dispersion, while more highly parameterized Lagrangian models were found to be well suited to emergency response applications. * The measured heat flux from LNG vapor cloud burns exceeded levels necessary for third degree burns and were large enough to ignite most flammable materials. * RPTs are of two types, source generated and enrichment generated, and were observed to increase the burn area by a factor of two and to extend the downwind burn distance by 65%. Additional large scale experiments and model development are recommended. PMID:17126482

Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

2007-02-20

331

33 CFR 165.506 - Safety Zones; Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Displays.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...near Essington, PA, west of Little Tinicum Island within...a line running east to west from points along the shoreline at...Franklin Bridge. (b) Coast Guard Sector Baltimore...Kingsmill Resort. (d) Coast Guard Sector North Carolina...position located at the west end of Sugar Loaf...

2010-07-01

332

76 FR 73609 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NGA) for authority to construct and operate a boil-off gas (BOG) liquefaction system at its LNG import terminal in Cameron Parish...a closed loop refrigeration system at the terminal to liquefy BOG and return such gas in the form of LNG to its storage...

2011-11-29

333

Project financing knits parts of costly LNG supply chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supply and distribution infrastructure of an LNG project requires project sponsors and LNG buyers to make large, interdependent capital investments. For a grassroots project, substantial investments may be necessary for each link in the supply chain: field development; liquefaction plant and storage; ports and utilities; ships; receiving terminal and related facilities; and end-user facilities such as power stations or

R. J. Minyard; M. O. Strode

1997-01-01

334

View west, pier D replacement (foreground), pier C, and wharf ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View west, pier D replacement (foreground), pier C, and wharf B - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

335

Liquefaction through expander for base load LNG  

SciTech Connect

New natural gas liquefaction process using turbo expander has been developed to improve process thermal efficiency. The new process consists of precooling section which uses refrigerant with shell and tube heat exchangers or brazed aluminum plate-fin exchangers or spool wound heat exchanger and liquefaction section by iso-entropic expander. As a result of design study, thermal efficiency of the new liquefaction process has been confirmed to be in the highest level compared with other liquefaction processes. Also, since the new liquefaction process is constructed with commonly available equipment in industry, it can be readily adapted to base load LNG plants of any capacity without requiring expensive and specially designed equipment.

Nakamura, Moritaka; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1998-12-31

336

Sandy Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waves play a major role in breaking down and building up coastline features. But other factors, including tides, currents, and sediment type, also determine how erosional and depositional processes shape coastlines. This interactive feature introduces viewers to the landforms and features associated with sandy coasts. Typically located on passive margins in areas characterized by low wave energy, a wide continental shelf, and high offshore sediment influence, they develop depositional features such as extensive beaches and dunes, barrier islands, and sand spits.

337

The Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the unique ecosystems and culture found along the Georgia coast and the Georgia barrier islands. Students are introduced to marine organisms and coastal ecology in class at school, then have the opportunity to see it all first hand on the trip to the University of Georgia Marine Station on Skidaway Island. Hands-on activities, simulations, inquiry labs, group learning, field trip, review and assessment through projects, tests, and a notebook are included.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Sharon Radford N:Radford;Sharon ORG:Paideia School REV:2005-04-16 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

338

Oceanography of West Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

John, Bemiasa

2014-05-01

339

Electric propulsion for LNG Carriers Full-size LNG carriers with dual fuel diesel engines and electric propulsion are now under construction in France. The authors present the benefits and design features of electric propulsion systems in LNG shipping applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

he current world usage of LNG is about 110 million tons per year and current analysis indicates this grow- ing in the next 10 years by 70 to 100 million tons. This may lead to demand for more than 80 new LNG carriers by 2010, in addi- tion to those already under construction. Traditionally LNG carriers have been pro- pelled

Jan Fredrik; Rune Lysebo

340

he West Coast energy crisis of  

E-print Network

, Bonneville Power Administra- tion, and Northwest utilities are working to develop a resource adequacy - Kootenai River 10 Sturgeon Recovery NW/Q&A: Terry Courtney, 12 Warm Springs Confederated Tribes Celebrating for securing the reliability of the power system. The Council, in concert with its partners, has been working

341

West Coast Earthquakes Ongoing, Scientists Discover  

NSF Publications Database

... the first scientists to use GPS (global positioning system) technology to study earthquakes. An ... instrumentation," Miller says. "Until we had GPS geodesy, we regarded earthquake deformation in two ...

342

OCEANOGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS IN WEST COAST FLORIDA WATERS,  

E-print Network

by measuring the length of cable ur wound from the drum No attempt was made to correct for wire angles caused of a 1/8 -inch hydrographic cable attached to an electrically -driven winch. Depths were determined

343

Four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development by JPL of a four band differential radiometer (FBDR) which is capable of providing a fast rate of response, accurate measurements of methane, ethane, and propane concentrations on the periphery of a dispersing LNG cloud. The FBDR is a small, low power, lightweight, portable instrument system that uses differential absorption of near infrared radiation by the LNG cloud as a technique for the determination of concentration of the three gases as the LNG cloud passes the instrument position. Instrument design and data analysis approaches are described. The data obtained from the FBDR prototype instrument system deployed in an instrument array during two 40 cubic meter spill tests are discussed.

Simmonds, J. J.

1981-01-01

344

New energy saving system for future LNG carriers  

SciTech Connect

Steam turbine plant, which burns BOG (Boil-Off Gas) as fuel, has bene installed for LNG carriers with the necessity of disposing BOG safely. Are other plants unpractical for LNG carriers? To answer to this question, this paper evaluates (1) dual fuel diesel, (2) diesel with reliquefaction plant, (3) diesel with auxiliary boiler and power assist motor, (4) gas turbine/steam turbine and (5) steam turbine with CRP (Contra Rotating Propeller) from several aspects, such as safety and reliability, maintainability and operability, economy and effect on environment. Based on the above studies, this paper proposes Steam turbine with CRP plant as a new energy saving system for future LNG carriers.

Kahara, Susumu; Suetake, Yoshihiro [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ishimaru, Junshiro; Hiraoka, Kazuyoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan)

1994-12-31

345

Quantifying the Growth History of an Ancient Border Fault System, and the Role of Normal Fault Growth on Sedimentation During Basin Formation: a Case Study from the Late Cambrian Owen Conglomerate, West Coast Range, western Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic and depositional architecture of evolving extensional basins is principally controlled by normal fault growth through the generation of accommodation space. The history of border fault systems therefore controls the evolution of internal drainage patterns and basin facies distributions. Despite recent advances in the understanding of present-day normal fault growth, quantifying the effect of normal fault evolution on the architecture of ancient sedimentary basins has been largely obscured by post-rift deformation and erosion. The Late Cambrian Owen Conglomerate along the West Coast Range of western Tasmania, Australia, includes thick fluvial sandstone and marine turbidite sequences, as well as fluvial and marine conglomerates. The accumulation of this formation provides excellent insights into the rift-fill history of an ancient extensional basin, due to rugged, glaciated topography and exceptional outcrops, and the typically overfilled nature of the basin, which preserves the fault displacement history. Structural traverses have delineated the geometry of the extensional fault system active during deposition of the Owen Conglomerate. The fault system comprises a segmented array of border faults with variable along-strike polarity. Minimum displacements were calculated from present-day stratigraphic thicknesses, and define a roughly symmetric displacement-length profile that resembles that of a single, isolated fault, with maximum displacement (Dmax) located at the centre of the fault array, and decreasing displacement toward the distal segments. Displacement along the fault system, however, indicates a varied growth history through time. Isolated faulting (Stage 1) occurred during the early stages of rifting, when small fault segments grew in isolation. Stage 1 faults exhibit a Dmax at the centre of each individual segment. Rapid propagation of fault segments to maximum strike length occurred early in the basin history, with only limited interaction and feedback between individual segments. Continued growth faulting (Stage 2) resulted in migration of the locus of maximum displacement as individual segments began to interact and link. Eventual linkage of fault segments (Stage 3) occurred during the final stages of rifting, where the overall system exhibits a characteristic, through-going, displacement-length profile. Integration of lithofacies distributions, isopach maps and palaeocurrent data with the structural dataset shows that the stratigraphic architecture is strongly coupled with the development of the border fault system, and offers a high resolution model for fault development. While the generation of accommodation space adjacent to footwall scarps facilitated the development of a hanging-wall, dip-slope fluvial catchment and axial-through drainage networks, tectonic subsidence also provided a crucial trigger for the onset of isolated marine sedimentation where accommodation space generated by the localised accumulation of displacement on individual segments outpaced sediment supply.

Noll, C. A.; Hall, M.

2003-12-01

346

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01...Section 127.319 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...discontinued— (i) Before electrical storms or uncontrolled fires are adjacent...

2014-07-01

347

Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

348

Conceptual Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal design for Kuwait  

E-print Network

This research study investigated a new conceptual design for a modular structural configuration incorporating storage for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) within the base of the platform structure. The structure, referred to as a modified gravity base...

Aljeeran, Fares

2006-08-16

349

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance during gas pipeline systems repair/alteration, or for other short term applications need not meet the requirements of this part...

2010-10-01

350

Parallel Large-Neighborhood Search Techniques for LNG Inventory ...  

E-print Network

For profitable operation of a capital intensive LNG project, it is necessary to optimally design ..... Parallel efficiency is a metric quantifying overall fraction ... Choice of static vs. dynamic resource allocation could have significant impact on the.

2014-04-17

351

LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th

Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

2005-01-01

352

The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

2010-12-01

353

75 FR 353 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Maryland for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project December 29, 2009...liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by...construction and operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline...

2010-01-05

354

LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power.  

PubMed

Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H2O and CO2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are burning in the LNG fire. The paper discusses the procedure by which the fire spectral data are used to predict the thermal emission from large LNG fires. Unfortunately, no direct measurements of the soot density or smoke characteristics were made in the tests. These parameters have significant effect on the thermal emission from large LNG fires. PMID:16920262

Raj, Phani K

2007-04-11

355

Simulated impacts of the South Atlantic Ocean Dipole on summer precipitation at the Guinea Coast  

E-print Network

Simulated impacts of the South Atlantic Ocean Dipole on summer precipitation at the Guinea Coast of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) dipole (SAOD) on summer precipitation over the Guinea Coast of West Africa modelling Á Atlantic Ocean Á West Africa 1 Introduction As the internal variability of the tropical

Kang, In-Sik

356

Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features Dr. Gary Griggs, scientist with the National Research Council (NRC) and professor at UCSC, reviewing highlights from the recently released report by the NRC about predictions for sea-level rise on the West Coast states. The video includes effective visualizations and animations of the effects of plate tectonics and sea-level rise on the West Coast.

Science, The N.

357

Improvisation in West African Musics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

Locke, David

1980-01-01

358

The diseconomics of long-haul LNG trading  

SciTech Connect

Long-haul liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports yield little or no economic rent. Trades, such as Borneo to Japan, are economical, but government takes otherwise are minimal. Today, the price of LNG is capped by the technical option of modifying gas turbines to bum liquid fuels. The maximum premium for LNG is less than 50 cents per thousand cubic feet (/Mcf), and buyers are resisting any price above oil parity. Costs of LNG are high and increase with distance. The netback value is zero or even negative for the longer-distance trades. The value of extracted co-products (natural gas liquids) is 50 cents to $1/Mcf. These credits are the principal source of profit, especially for foreign partners because natural gas liquids are taxed at low {open_quotes}industrial{close_quotes} rates. Returns are even less when the gas supply is nonassociated so that the project must {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} the production costs as well. Some exporting countries profit; but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries as a whole looses because low-revenue LNG energy displaces at the margin fully taxed oil.

Stauffer, T.R.

1995-12-31

359

Insulating polymer concrete for LNG impounding dikes. [Polymer concretes  

SciTech Connect

An insulating polymer concrete (IPC) composite has been developed under contract to the Gas Research Institute for possible use as a dike insulation material at Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities. In the advent of an LNG spill into the impounding dike area, the boiloff rate of the LNG can be substantially reduced if the surfaces of the dike are insulated. This increased safety at the LNG facility will tend to reduce the hazardous explosive mixture with atmospheric air in the surrounding region. The dike insulation material must have a low thermal conductivity and be unaffected by environmental conditions. The IPC composites developed consist of perlite or glass nodule aggregates bound together as a closed cell structure with a polyester resin. In addition to low thermal conductivity and porosity, these composites have correspondingly high strengths and, therefore, can carry transient loads of workmen and maintenance equipment. Prefabricated IPC panels have been installed experimentally and at least one utility is currently considering a complete installation at its LNG facility. 5 refs., 5 tabs.

Fontana, J.J.; Steinberg, M.

1986-03-01

360

Floating LNG plant will stress reliability and safety  

SciTech Connect

Mobil has developed a unique floating LNG plant design after extensive studies that set safety as the highest priority. The result is a production, storage and offloading platform designed to produce 6 million tons per year of LNG and up to 55,000 bpd of condensate from 1 Bcfd of feed gas. All production and off-loading equipment is supported by a square donut-shaped concrete hull, which is spread-moored. The hull contains storage tanks for 250,000 m{sup 3} of LNG, 6540,000 bbl of condensate and ballast water. Both LNG and condensate can be directly offloaded to shuttle tankers. Since the plant may be moved to produce from several different gas fields during its life, the plant and barge were designed to be generic. It can be used at any location in the Pacific Rim, with up to 15% CO{sub 2}, 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, 55 bbl/MMcf condensate and 650 ft water depth. It can be modified to handle other water depths, depending upon the environment. In addition, it is much more economical than an onshore grassroots LNG plant, with potential capital savings of 25% or more. The paper describes the machinery, meteorology and oceanography, and safety engineering.

Kinney, C.D.; Schulz, H.R.; Spring, W.

1997-07-01

361

Performance enhancement of propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant LNG plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and chemical processing are energy-intensive facilities, such that any enhancement of their efficiency will result in abundant reduction of energy consumption and green house gas emissions. To enhance LNG plant energy efficiency, the potential of various options for improving liquefaction cycle efficiency is investigated in this study. After developing models for the LNG process using ASPEN

A. Mortazavi; C. Somers; Y. Hwang; R. Radermacher; P. Rodgers; S. Al-Hashimi

2012-01-01

362

Hazards to nuclear power plants from large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spills on water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hazards to nuclear power plants arising from large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water transportation routes are treated by deterministic analytical procedures. Global models, which address the salient features of the LNG spill phenomena are used in the analysis. A coupled computational model for the combined LNG spill, spreading, and fire scenario is developed. To predict the

C. A. Kot; T. V. Eichler; A. H. Wiedermann; R. Pape; M. G. Srinivasan

1981-01-01

363

West African crude production diversifies  

SciTech Connect

Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

Aalund, L.

1983-06-01

364

Analysis of LNG peakshaving-facility release-prevention systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of release prevention systems for a reference LNG peakshaving facility. An overview assessment of the reference peakshaving facility, which preceeded this effort, identified 14 release scenarios which are typical of the potential hazards involved in the operation of LNG peakshaving facilities. These scenarios formed the basis for this more detailed study. Failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis were used to estimate the expected frequency of each release scenario for the reference peakshaving facility. In addition, the effectiveness of release prevention, release detection, and release control systems were evaluated.

Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Powers, T.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Hobbs, J.M.; Daling, P.M.

1982-05-01

365

Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators  

SciTech Connect

Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

True, W.R.

1998-11-16

366

Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

367

76 FR 17033 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...action 3 modified the recreational fishery in the area from Horse Mountain, California to Point Arena, California. Inseason...Inseason action 3 established a recreational fishery from Horse Mountain, California to Point Arena (Fort Bragg),...

2011-03-28

368

77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mountain to Oregon/California Border (Oregon KMZ) April 1 through May 31; June 1 through...Border to Humboldt South Jetty (California KMZ) May 1 through September 14. Closed except...identification samples noted above, see California KMZ (C.4). All salmon must be...

2012-05-02

369

75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Border to Humboldt South Jetty (California KMZ) Closed except for sufficient impacts to...definition of the Klamath Management Zone (KMZ) for the ocean salmon season shall be...OR/CA Border to Horse Mt. (California KMZ) May 29 through September 6...

2010-05-05

370

76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mountain to Oregon/California Border (Oregon KMZ) May 1-31; June 1 through earlier of...Border to Humboldt South Jetty (California KMZ) July 2 through the earlier of July 20...All fish caught in the area when the KMZ quota fisheries are open must be...

2011-05-04

371

78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Jetty, known as the California Klamath Management Zone (CA-KMZ). The quota for this fishery in the month of May was 3,000...action 3 closed the commercial salmon fisheries in the CA-KMZ effective 12 p.m. (noon), Friday, May 10, 2013,...

2013-05-23

372

78 FR 25865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Mountain to Oregon/California Border (Oregon KMZ) April 1 through May 31; June 1 through...Border to Humboldt South Jetty (California KMZ) May 1 through earlier of May 31, or...closure (C.6). When the California KMZ fishery is open, all fish caught in...

2013-05-03

373

76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...fishery in the Klamath Management Zone (KMZ). This fishery had a July quota of 1...border to Humboldt South Jetty (California KMZ) at 11:59 p.m. (midnight), July...commercial salmon fishery in the California KMZ and modified the season and landing...

2011-11-04

374

1West Coast Regional Marine Research and Information Needs West Coast Regional  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Cross-cutting Theme: Ocean Education and Environmental Literacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Topic 6: Ocean Health and Stressors

375

75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...expected due to poor weather conditions that...July 16, 2010. Modification of quota and...largely to poor weather conditions. Low...July 23, 2010. Modification of quota and...expected due to poor weather conditions that...July 30, 2010. Modification of quota...

2010-09-09

376

Drought in West Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

2007-01-01

377

Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use  

SciTech Connect

This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

1993-12-01

378

Supplying LNG markets using nitrogen rejection units at Exxon Shute Creek Facility  

SciTech Connect

Interest is growing in the United States for using Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) as an alternative transportation fuel for diesel and as a source of heating fuel. For gas producers, LNG offers a premium price opportunity versus conventional natural gas sales. To supply this developing market, two existing Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) at the Exxon Shute Creek Facility in Wyoming were modified allowing LNG extraction and truck loading for transport to customers. The modifications involved adding heat exchanger capacity to the NRUs to compensate for the refrigeration loss when LNG is removed. Besides allowing for LNG extraction, the modifications also debottlenecked the NRUs resulting in higher methane recovery and lower compression costs. With the modifications, the NRUs are capable of producing for sale 60,000 gpd (5 MMscfd gas equivalent) of high purity LNG. Total investment has been $5 million with initial sales of LNG occurring in September 1994.

Hanus, P.M.; Kimble, E.L. [Exxon Co. USA, Midland, TX (United States)

1995-11-01

379

Cours Titre Professeur Horaire Local examen LNG 1010 Langage et cognition Daniel Valois Jeudi 16 h 19 h  

E-print Network

16 h à 19 h LNG 1080 Lexicologie, sémantique et morphologie Mireille Tremblay Vendredi 8 h 30 à 11 h 30 LNG 1120 Histoire de la langue française Lundi 8 h 30 à 11 h 30 LNG 1125 Temps et espaces francophones Lundi 13 h à 16 h LNG 1400A Notions de phonétique et de phonologie Mercredi 13 h à 16 h LNG 1400B

Parrott, Lael

380

Non-contraceptive uses of levonorgestrel-releasing hormone system (LNG-IUS)—A systematic enquiry and overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine systems (LNG-IUS) were originally developed as a method of contraception in the mid 1970s. The only LNG-IUS approved for general public use is the Mirena® LNG-IUS, which releases 20mcg of levonorgestrel per day directly in to the uterine cavity. However, new lower dose (10 and 14mcg per day) and smaller sized LNG-IUS (MLS, FibroPlant-LNG) are currently under clinical

Rajesh Varma; Deepali Sinha; Janesh K. Gupta

2006-01-01

381

LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using

Phani K. Raj

2007-01-01

382

Gas turbines prove effective as drivers for LNG plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

For baseload LNG applications, gas turbines - particularly the modular, lightweight machines - are proven, efficient drivers for the large refrigeration compressors. The proper choice of a turbine and the careful integration of waste-heat recovery into the total plant energy balance can maximize the individual train throughputs while maintaining high overall thermal efficiencies. Because the capital investment associated with the

DiNapoli

1980-01-01

383

LSG 500/LNG 300 (607) 777-2400  

E-print Network

LSG 500/LNG 300 (607) 777-2400 http://cdc.binghamton.edu facebook.com/BinghamtonCDC Twitter in a team structure 2. ability to make decisions and solve problems 3. ability to plan, organize it anticipating problems creating images designing programs displaying creating images brainstorming new ideas

Suzuki, Masatsugu

384

LSG 500/LNG 300 (607) 777-2400  

E-print Network

LSG 500/LNG 300 (607) 777-2400 http://cdc.binghamton.edu facebook.com/BinghamtonCDC Twitter. Ability to make decisions and solve problems 4. Ability to obtain and process information 5. Ability it anticipating problems creating images designing programs displaying creating images brainstorming new ideas

Suzuki, Masatsugu

385

LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004. Activity during this period included preparation of a CD containing the FEM3a FORTRAN code for distribution and organization of an LNG safety workshop. Contract negotiation between GTI and University of Arkansas continued.

Iraj A. Salehi

2004-01-01

386

LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to

Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

2005-01-01

387

LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004. Activity during this period included preparation of a CD containing the FEM3a FORTRAN code for distribution and organization of an LNG safety workshop. Contract negotiation between GTI and University of Arkansas continued.

Iraj A. Salehi

2004-09-30

388

Rivers and Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about rivers, coasts, and the processes affecting them. Students can view an animation of the water cycle, read about how rivers and coasts change, learn about estuaries, and view information on how rivers, coasts, and other water features influence people's lives. Glossaries and a teacher's page offering lesson plans, worksheets, and links to additional sites are also provided.

389

Year of the Coast.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

1980-01-01

390

Analysis of LNG import terminal release prevention systems  

SciTech Connect

The release prevention systems of liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal were analyzed. A series of potential release scenarios were analyzed to determine the frequency of the release events, the probability these releases are not stopped or isolated by emergency shutdown systems, the estimated release quantities, and the critical components of the system. The two plant areas identified as being most significant with respect to safety are the unloading system and the storage system. Rupture of the main transfer line and gross failure of the storage tanks are the two release scenarios of primary safety interest. Reducing the rate of failure by improved design, better maintenance and testing, or adding redundancy of the critical system components for these plant areas and release scenarios will result in improved safety. Several design alternatives which have the potential to significantly reduce the probability of a large release of LNG occurring at an import terminal are identified. These design alternatives would reduce the probability of a large release of LNG by reducing the expected number of failures which could cause a release or by reducing the magnitude of releases that do occur. All of these alternatives are technically feasible and have been used or considered for use in at least one LNG facility. A more rigorous analysis of the absolute risk of LNG import terminal operation is necessary before the benefits of these design alternatives can be determined. In addition, an economic evaluation of these alternatives must be made so the costs and benefits can be compared. It is concludd that for remotely located facilities many of these alternatives are probably not justified; however, for facilities located in highly populated areas, these alternatives deserve serious consideration.

Baker, E G

1982-04-01

391

Red Tide off Texas Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

2002-01-01

392

Waterbird Migration Near the Yukon and Alaskan Coast of the Beaufort Sea: II. Moult Migration of Seaducks in Summer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Westward moult migrations of seaducks were studied in the summers of 1972 and 1975 (northern Yukon) and 1977-78 (west of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska). Methods used were visual observations from the coast, aerial surveys, and (in 1975) DEW radar. Many male Oldsquaws (Clangula hyemalis) fly west near the north coast of Alaska in early July. Most seem to travel only a

STEPHEN R. JOHNSON; W. JOHN RICHARDSON

393

75 FR 2557 - Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...information collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic...System (NAIS). The Coast Guard is also seeking...information in order to assist us in the development of...serve as guidance for Coast Guard program managers...Department of Transportation, West Building Ground...

2010-01-15

394

Economic and financial implications of shrimp farming in West Texas  

E-print Network

A research and demonstration shrimp producing facility was established at Imperial, Texas in 1991. The results showed technical feasibility. Using data collected from the facility in West Texas and commercial operations on the Southern coast...

Britt, David Westbrook

2012-06-07

395

Insulating LNG (liquified natural gas) storage tank containment dikes with a lightweight polymer concrete  

SciTech Connect

The natural gas industry has always been concerned ith accidental spills of liquified natural gas (LNG) from storage tanks into surrounding containment dikes. The LNG that is leaked to the dike area boils off and the vapors mix with the atmosphere forming a hazardous explsoive mixture within the dike walls. These hazardous mixtures can travel long distances into industrial or residential areas surroungind LNG storage facilities. Studies by the natural gas industry indicate that the hazards associated with accidental spills of LNG from storage tanks can be makedly reduced by insulating the diked areas surrounding these tanks. In this manner, the heat transfer from the dike surface to the LNG is reduced. The insulating composite is used to construct a thermal barrier between the walls and floor of the dike an the spilled LNG. The thermal conductivity, porosity, and compression strength of a concrete, polymer composite insulating material is discussed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tbs.

Fontana, J.J.

1987-08-01

396

Development of a simple 5-15 litre per hour LNG refueling system  

SciTech Connect

A variable capacity, small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) refueling system has been designed, built, and tested at the Cryofuel Systems` Laboratory, University of Victoria, Canada. The system, designed to continuously liquefy between 5 and 15 litres of NG, utilizes liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) as its cold source and contains most of the components found in a typical commercial refueling system; i.e. purification system, liquefier, LNG storage, automatic control and monitoring system. This paper describes the design of the system as well as the results of a set of LNG production trials. The performance of the system exceeded expected LNG production rates, but at levels of efficiency somewhat less than predicted. Cryofuel Systems expects to use this system to implement an LNG vehicle demonstration program and to gain experience in the integration of LNG refueling systems which exploit advanced liquefaction technology such as magnetic refrigeration.

Corless, A.J.; Sarangi, S.; Hall, J.L.; Barclay, J.A. [Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

1994-12-31

397

Lng vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment. Final report, April 1991June 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e. Btu\\/lb and Btu\\/gal), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($\\/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses

C. A. Powars; C. B. Moyer; D. D. Lowell

1994-01-01

398

Risk assessment of membrane type LNG storage tanks in Korea-based on fault tree analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tank, the greatest concern is for the release of a large amount of LNG or its vapor\\u000a due to the mechanical failures of main tank and its ancillary equipments or the malfunctions of various hardware components.\\u000a Nowadays two types of LNG storage tank design, that is, 9%-Ni full containment and membrane concepts, are

Hyo Kim; Jae-Sun Koh; Youngsoo Kim; Theofanius G. Theofanous

2005-01-01

399

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Forced Dispersion Modeling of LNG Vapor Clouds  

E-print Network

with valuable guidance as team leader. Special thanks to the previous LNG team members, Dr. Geunwoong Yun, Dr. Morshed Rana, Dr. Ruifeng Qi, and Ms. Carolina Herrera, for providing me with great support during the initial stage of my research. I want to thank... dispersion was investigated for different commercial spray nozzles. It was found that the conical spray 15 installed in upward direction was most effective in diluting LNG vapors at all elevations (Rana, Guo & Mannan, 2010). Fig. 8. LNG...

Kim, Byung-Kyu

2013-05-31

400

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

401

Radiation scanning aids tower diagnosis at Arun LNG plant  

SciTech Connect

Radiation scanning has been used effectively to troubleshoot the treating towers of the Arun LNG plant in Sumatra, Indonesia. The plant is one of the world's largest such facilities. The analysis was part of an investigation aimed at increasing the capacity of the treater section of the plant. Radiation scanning is a tool which, in addition to tower differential pressure and product purity, can aid in diagnosing tower performance.

Naklie, M.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Services Inc., Dallas, TX (US)); Pless, L. (Tru-Tec Inc., Houston, TX (US)); Gurning, T.P.; Hyasak, M. (P.T. Arun Natural Gas Liquefaction Co., Sumatera (USA))

1990-03-26

402

Users, utilities ask rejection of high-cost Algerian LNG  

SciTech Connect

Recent purchases of expensive Algerian liquefied natural gas (LNG) by the Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Co. will increase rates for industrial customers 8 to 25%. Four midwest utilities protested to federal regulatory agencies and expressed their concerns that the new rate increases will lead to additional fuel switching, and argued that the Algerian gas is not needed. While originally supportive of the Algerian purchase, the utilities argue that the timing is wrong now because of adequate supplies. (DCK)

Galvin, C.

1982-09-13

403

View north, showing western docking structure U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View north, showing western docking structure - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

404

LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

Kiani, B.

1990-01-01

405

33 CFR 117.511 - West Pearl River.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Pearl River. 117.511 Section...Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...Requirements Louisiana § 117.511 West Pearl River. (a) The...given. (b) The draw of the US 90 bridge, mile 7.9...

2010-07-01

406

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, circa 1977 aerial view looking north, detail of eastern docking structure travel lift, boat house and station - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

407

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, after 1978 aerial view looking northeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

408

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI) photographer unknown, 1977 Aerial view looking northeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

409

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, 1977 detail of ordnance wharf framing - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

410

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, 1977 detail of ordnance wharf decking - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

411

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI) photographer unknown, 1975 Aerial view directly above - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

412

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, 1977 north elevation, ordance wharf deck house - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

413

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, circa 1977 Aerial view looking southeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

414

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, 1975 Aerial view looking northeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

415

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of the U.S. Coast ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of the U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Sandy Hook, NJ), photographer unknown, circa 1970 Aerial view looking northeast - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

416

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of photograph (original in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwich, RI), photographer unknown, 1977 view south, showing western docking structure and ordnance wharf - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

417

Networking Urban Water Supplies in West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article characterizes the diversity among four West African water supply systems and outlines problems faced by managers of these kinds of utilities. After having interviewed municipal water system managers in the Ivory Coast, Ghana, Burkina Faso, and Liberia, the author describes physical facilities, monitoring and analysis operations, and the regulatory framework within which each system operates. Solutions to common

James A. Perry

1988-01-01

418

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2011-07-01

419

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2013-07-01

420

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2014-07-01

421

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2012-07-01

422

LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

C. J. Pera; C. B. Moyer

1993-01-01

423

Long-term outlook for LNG trade and regulation in the Unites States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the world's natural gas resources can be made available to major markets only by the transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Passage of the Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978 (NGPA), which improved the domestic gas supply outlook, will not favor LNG imports in the short term, but the prospects for future increases are enhanced by the three

G. H. Lawrence; D. J. Muchow; N. E. Hay

1983-01-01

424

Baseload LNG plants with spherical storage tanks, all built as very large modules  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moss Rosenberg's experience in building LNG tanker ships led the company to investigate barge-mounted LNG plants as well. A floating plant could represent an attractive option in situations where the gas fields to be exploited lie far offshore or where harbor conditions are extremely inhospitable. Probably the best way to construct the plant would be to complete the process section

J. Bakke; P. G. Andersen

1981-01-01

425

FEM3A simulations of selected LNG vapor barrier verification field tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate and eventually predict the possible mitigating effects of vapor fences on the dispersion of the vapor cloud resulting from an accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill in storage areas, a research program was initiated to evaluate methods for predicting LNG dispersion distances for realistic facility configurations. As part of the program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)

Chan

1990-01-01

426

Control of Vapor Dispersion and Pool Fire of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with Expansion Foam  

E-print Network

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is flammable when it forms a 5 – 15 percent volumetric concentration mixture with air at atmospheric conditions. When the LNG vapor comes in contact with an ignition source, it may result in fire and/or explosion. Because...

Yun, Geun Woong

2011-10-21

427

LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development  

SciTech Connect

During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

Liese Dallbauman

2004-06-30

428

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

2012-03-01

429

No SiNgle SupplemeNt for Solo travelers explore West Africa's  

E-print Network

No SiNgle SupplemeNt for Solo travelers explore West Africa's Hidden treasures on Voyages between Africa. It's ironic that West Africa, once busy with the ships of explorers, colonists, traders.TravelDynamicsInternational.com 800-257-5767 This page: West Africa's coast is lined with pristine waterways Cover: Red colobus

Aalberts, Daniel P.

430

78 FR 70901 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located south of Key West,...

2013-11-27

431

77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located south of Key West,...

2012-12-26

432

Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G1, G2, G3, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, and G-5 in view, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

433

Vapor burn analysis for the Coyote series LNG spill experiments  

SciTech Connect

A major purpose of the Coyote series of field experiments at China Lake, California, in 1981 was to study the burning of vapor clouds from spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on water. Extensive arrays of instrumentation were deployed to obtain micrometeorological, gas concentration, and fire-related data. The instrumentation included in situ sensors of various types, high-speed motion picture cameras, and infrared (IR) imagers. Five of the total of ten Coyote spill experiments investigated vapor burns. The first vapor-burn experiment, Coyote 2, was done with a small spill of LNG to assess instrument capability and survivability in vapor cloud fires. The emphasis in this report is on the other four vapor-burn experiments: Coyotes 3, 5, 6, and 7. The data are analyzed to determine fire spread, flame propagation, and heat flux - quantities that are related to the determination of the damage zone for vapor burns. The results of the analyses are given here. 20 references, 57 figures, 7 tables.

Rodean, H.C.; Hogan, W.J.; Urtiew, P.A.; Goldwire, H.C. Jr.; McRae, T.G.; Morgan, D.L. Jr.

1984-04-01

434

A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG  

SciTech Connect

This cooperative research project validates use of man made salt caverns to receive and store the cargoes of LNG ships in lieu of large liquid LNG tanks. Salt caverns will not tolerate direct injection of LNG because it is a cryogenic liquid, too cold for contact with salt. This research confirmed the technical processes and the economic benefits of pressuring the LNG up to dense phase, warming it to salt compatible temperatures and then directly injecting the dense phase gas into salt caverns for storage. The use of salt caverns to store natural gas sourced from LNG imports, particularly when located offshore, provides a highly secure, large scale and lower cost import facility as an alternative to tank based LNG import terminals. This design can unload a ship in the same time as unloading at a tank based terminal. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve uses man made salt caverns to securely store large quantities of crude oil. Similarly, this project describes a novel application of salt cavern gas storage technologies used for the first time in conjunction with LNG receiving. The energy industry uses man made salt caverns to store an array of gases and liquids but has never used man made salt caverns directly in the importation of LNG. This project has adapted and expanded the field of salt cavern storage technology and combined it with novel equipment and processes to accommodate LNG importation. The salt cavern based LNG receiving terminal described in the project can be located onshore or offshore, but the focus of the design and cost estimates has been on an offshore location, away from congested channels and ports. The salt cavern based terminal can provide large volumes of gas storage, high deliverability from storage, and is simplified in operation compared to tank based LNG terminals. Phase I of this project included mathematical modeling that proved a salt cavern based receiving terminal could be built at lower capital cost, and would have significantly higher delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. Operating costs of a salt cavern terminal are lower than tank based terminals because ''boil off'' is eliminated and maintenance costs of caverns are lower than LNG tanks. Phase II included the development of offshore mooring designs, wave tank tests, high pressure LNG pump field tests, heat exchanger field tests, and development of a model offshore LNG facility and cavern design. Engineers designed a model facility, prepared equipment lists, and confirmed capital and operating costs. In addition, vendors quoted fabrication and installation costs, confirming that an offshore salt cavern based LNG terminal would have lower capital and operating costs than a similarly sized offshore tank based terminal. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or purposeful damage, and much more acceptable to the community. More than thirty industry participants provided cost sharing, technical expertise, and guidance in the conduct and evaluation of the field tests, facility design and operating and cost estimates. Their close participation has accelerated the industry's acceptance of the conclusions of this research. The industry participants also developed and submitted several alternative designs for offshore mooring and for high pressure LNG heat exchangers in addition to those that were field tested in this project. HNG Storage, a developer, owner, and operator of natural gas storage facilities, and a participant in the DOE research has announced they will lead the development of the first offshore salt cavern based LNG import facility. Which will be called the Freedom LNG Terminal. It will be located offshore Louisiana, and is expected to be jointly developed with other members of the research group yet to be named. An offshore port license application is scheduled to be filed by fourth quarter 2005 and the terminal could be operational by 2009. This terminal allows the large volume importa

Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

2005-05-31

435

The effects of refueling system operating pressure on LNG and CNG economics  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas (NG) liquefaction and compression are energy intensive processes which make up a significant portion of the overall delivered price of liquefied NG (LNG) and compressed NG (CNG). Increases in system efficiency and/or process changes which reduce the required amount of work will improve the overall economics of NG as a vehicle fuel. This paper describes a method of reducing the delivered cost of LNG by liquefying the gas above ambient pressures. Higher pressure LNG is desirable because OEM NG engine manufacturers would like NG delivered to the engine intake manifold at elevated pressures to avoid compromising engine performance. Producing LNG at higher pressures reduces the amount of work required for liquefaction but it is only practical when the LNG is liquefied on-site. Using a thermo-economic approach, it is shown that NG fuel costs can be reduced by as much as 10% when producing LNG at higher pressures. A reduction in the delivered cost is also demonstrated for CNG produced on-site from high pressure LNG.

Corless, A.J.; Barclay, J.A. [Univ. of Victoria (Canada)

1996-12-31

436

Numerical evaluation of the wave energy resource along the Atlantic European coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper a hindcast system is applied to the analysis of the Atlantic European coast as a whole with specific nestings for sites of interest in each country. The areas included in this study were: Ireland west coast, UK South Western coast, France west coast, northern Spain and Canary Islands and Portugal's continental coast. Two contemporary spectral models were used: WaveWatch III for wave generation, covering almost the entire North Atlantic basin, which outputs are then used as boundary conditions for SWAN which simulates wave transformation in coastal areas. Wind fields were taken from the ERA Interim data base. Results are validated against buoy data. These validations allowed a reformulation, when needed, of the model's configurations in order to better tune its outcomes to the real data. Using the energy transport vectors given by SWAN, the wave power is afterwards calculated and an energy resource assessment is done for a period of several years.

Guedes Soares, C.; Bento, A. Rute; Gonçalves, Marta; Silva, Dina; Martinho, Paulo

2014-10-01

437

Office of Coast Survey  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Office of Coast Survey (OCS) within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration -- founded in 1807 by Thomas Jefferson -- is responsible for producing nautical charts for all the waters of the US and its territories. The OCS home page offers anyone in need of nautical maps lots of well-maintained and timely resources. Historical charts (from the 1700s onward), information on wreck and other dangerous obstructions, OCS's Coast Pilot publications, and Print on Demand sale of the most up-to-date charts and maps all are available here. This is a very useful resource for both commercial or recreational mariners in need of nautical maps.

438

International LNG trade : the emergence of a short-term market  

E-print Network

Natural gas is estimated to be the fastest growing component of world primary energy consumption. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply chain is a way of transporting natural gas over seas, by following a procedure of gas ...

Athanasopoulos, Panagiotis G

2006-01-01

439

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion Modeling with Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes  

E-print Network

Federal regulation 49 CFR 193 and standard NFPA 59A require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. For modeling purposes, the physical...

Qi, Ruifeng

2012-10-19

440

75 FR 2126 - Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...requesting: (1) Authorization to site, construct and operate a new liquefied natural gas (LNG) import, storage, and vaporization terminal and associated facilities on the St. Croix River in Calais, Maine and authority to utilize the terminal as...

2010-01-14

441

Opportunities for LNG supply infrastructure and demand growth in US and International markets  

E-print Network

Countries are looking beyond their borders for options to satiate a forecasted increase in natural gas consumption. A strong option for importing natural gas is by way of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply chain where ...

Connell, Richard Perry

2004-01-01

442

Study of the Effects of Obstacles in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion using CFD Modeling  

E-print Network

STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF OBSTACLES IN LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) VAPOR DISPERSION USING CFD MODELING A Thesis by ROBERTO EDUARDO RUIZ VASQUEZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2012 Major Subject: Safety Engineering 2 Study of the Effects of Obstacles in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion using...

Ruiz Vasquez, Roberto

2012-10-19

443

Columbia-Iran LNG project will have first commercial barge-mounted plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agreement of understanding signed by Columbia LNG Corp. and the National Iranian Gas Co. (NIGC) in Apr. 1978 provides for delivery of 300 million cu ft\\/day of gas as LNG to the Cove Point, Md., terminal for 20 yr beginning in 1982. A barge-mounted liquefaction plant is to be designed and built and 90% financed by Norway's Moss-Rosenberg Verft

1978-01-01

444

Computational fluid dynamics for LNG vapor dispersion modeling: a key parameters study  

E-print Network

?of?spreading?...............................................................?20? 2.1.6? Heat?transfer?and?turbulence?effect?on?evaporation?rate?.?23? 2.1.7? Estimation?of?the?mass?evaporated?at?any?given?time?......?25? 2.1.8? Other?parameter?considerations?.......................................?26? 2.1.9? Incorporation...?LNG?deliverability?growth?...........................................................................................?3? Figure?3.?Exclusion?zone?description?..............................................................................................?7? Figure?4.?Typical?representation?of?LNG?base?load...

Cormier, Benjamin Rodolphe

2009-05-15

445

URBAN EXTENTS Ivory Coast  

E-print Network

URBAN EXTENTS Benin Ivory Coast Ghana Mali Mauritania Niger Togo GRUMPv1 ´ 0 75 150 Km Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Urban Extent Administrative Units National Boundaries Note: National boundaries are derived from the population grids and thus may appear coarse. Urban extents illustrate

Columbia University

446

Coast Guard Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

1977-01-01