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1

West Coast Shipwrecks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this data activity, learners will explore shipwrecks from four National Marine Sanctuaries on the West Coast of the United States. Learners will practice map skills while exploring historical and modern ocean navigation technology.

Laura Rose

2013-01-04

2

West Coast Poverty Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

3

76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...submitted Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2011-09-19

4

77 FR 67327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...transmitted Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2012-11-09

5

77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...CONTACT: Peggy Mundy, Northwest Region Salmon Management Division, NMFS, 206-526-4323...regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of...

2012-09-25

6

76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2011-05-04

7

76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2011-06-07

8

OCEANOGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS IN WEST COAST FLORIDA WATERS,  

E-print Network

OCEANOGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS IN WEST COAST FLORIDA WATERS, 194952 By Kenneth T . Marvin U.S. Fish and Wildlile determinations were made according to the methods described by Robinson and Thompson (1948). Total phosphate

9

Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

NONE

1997-05-01

10

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2013-02-14

11

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2012-12-19

12

75 FR 44925 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-07-30

13

78 FR 24360 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2013-04-25

14

78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY...announces one inseason action in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-05-23

15

78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-06-12

16

77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15 through...announces 7 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-10-11

17

77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 through...announces 11 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-09-10

18

77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 22 through...announces 5 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-10-26

19

76 FR 17033 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...in effect until the opening of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011...

2011-03-28

20

77 FR 22682 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces 3 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2011 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (76 FR 25246, May 4,...

2012-04-17

21

78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through...announces six inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-08-19

22

Traditional West Coast Native Medicine  

PubMed Central

An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

Deagle, George

1988-01-01

23

PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA  

E-print Network

PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THF WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Herbert Wo Graham, Fishery Biologist, John Mo, 195U #12;ABSTRACT The distribution of inorganic and total phosphorus in the waters along the west

24

75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 12 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-12-06

25

75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 14 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-12-06

26

75 FR 75417 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...090428799-9802-01] RIN 0648-BA44 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service,...

2010-12-03

27

75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-AY40 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and Management...Inseason Adjustments AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

2010-02-26

28

1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

29

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

30

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

31

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

32

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

33

Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.

2011-01-01

34

Sequestration Options for the West Coast States  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

Larry Myer

2006-04-30

35

Dinoflagellate cysts in ballast sediments: differences between Canada's east coast, west coast and the Great Lakes  

E-print Network

including ship routes, BWE, ballast water age and sediment volume in ballast tanks. 3. The pattern.g. no light, low oxygen, and low temperature). Thus, cysts can be introduced in ship tanks during ballastDinoflagellate cysts in ballast sediments: differences between Canada's east coast, west coast

Long, Bernard

36

Greenland: Full West Coast (2nd render)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

37

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2012-07-01

38

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2010-07-01

39

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2014-07-01

40

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2013-07-01

41

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory...PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory...Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing...

2011-07-01

42

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2011-07-01

43

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2010-07-01

44

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2014-07-01

45

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2012-07-01

46

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2013-07-01

47

Sediment trace metal contamination in the Ivory Coast, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help expand our global perspective on trace metal contamination, concentrations of Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined for sediments from the Ebrie Lagoon in the Ivory Coast, a developing West African nation. Excess loading of several metals, especially Hg, Pb, and Zn was found at several sites. The maximum concentration of Hg measured in sediments

Issifou Kouadio; John H. Trefry

1987-01-01

48

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOOD OF SKIPJACK AND YELLOWFIN TUNAS OFF THE COAST OF WEST AFRICA'  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOOD OF SKIPJACK AND YELLOWFIN TUNAS OFF THE COAST OF WEST AFRICA' ALEXANDER yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) captured in 1968 by live bait and trolling off the coast of West Africa food studies off the coast of West Africa showed greater taxonomic similarity in tuna forage when

49

7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319...Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from...movement thereafter to be in accordance with § 301.52...

2012-01-01

50

7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319...Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from...movement thereafter to be in accordance with § 301.52...

2014-01-01

51

7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319...Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from...movement thereafter to be in accordance with § 301.52...

2013-01-01

52

NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER ATLANTIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA  

E-print Network

NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER ATLANTIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA Paul Whitmore - NOAA/West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center - Palmer, Alaska Uri ten Brink ­ United States Geological/West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center - Palmer, Alaska William Sammler ­ NOAA/National Weather Service

ten Brink, Uri S.

53

78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2013-0095] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals...Colorado River in Parker, Arizona for the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals...RPM Racing Enterprises is sponsoring the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast...

2013-04-18

54

US west coast revisited: An aeromagnetic perspective  

SciTech Connect

A new compilation of magnetic data for the western conterminous United States and offshore areas provides significant information about crustal units and structures in the region. Features shown on the compilation include a magnetic quiet zone along the coast and two lineaments inland. The magnetic quiet zone correlates with the accretionary prism at the western edge of the North American plate and overlies subducted ocean crust; abrupt termination of ocean-floor magnetic anomalies at, or a short distance east of, the toe of the accretionary prism is an inferred effect subduction-induced low-temperature metamorphism of the ocean crust. The Puget Lowlands-San Joaquin lineament is an alignment of high-intensity magnetic anomalies that in the south, and possibly also in the north, are cause by bodies of mafic-ultramafic rocks accreted to North America during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The lineup of the highs and the inferred lineup of the causative bodies may reflect fundamental structures that control Mesozoic and Tertiary evolution of the continental margin. The Mojave Desert lineament, a distinctive chain of short-wavelength magnetic anomalies in southern California, coincides partly with a zone of Mesozoic intrusions and the Cenozoic San Andreas fault system, but is likely to be older than both in origin and may reflect a Mesozoic or older crustal discontinuity.

Zietz, I.; Johnson, P.R. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (USA)); Bond, K.R. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

1990-04-01

55

78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...announces 23 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial and recreational salmon fisheries in the area from the...

2013-11-26

56

Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)  

E-print Network

Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast) M The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

57

Decadal Variability of West Coast Marine Stratus Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequency variability of West Coast summertime marine stratus clouds are investigated using six decades of observations at several coastal airport locations. The magnitude and direction of long-term trends in summertime marine stratus occurrence along the California coast depends strongly on the cloud base height threshold used to distinguish low clouds from higher clouds. In this study, marine stratus clouds are defined as having cloud base at or below 1000 meters. Using this threshold, a decreasing trend in marine stratus cloud frequency was found for Southern California during the 1950-2012 period. No significant trends were found in Northern California. When averaged over the summer season, the cloud data reveal that coastal stratus has substantial variation on multi-year time scales with typical changes of 10-15% from year to year and 5-7% from decade to decade. Low stratus cloud cover varies over long distances with coherent anomalies that extend from southern California to Oregon. The most important correlated modes of SST with cloud cover anomalies, via a canonical correlation analysis contains both local and remote SST linkages. The first mode is correlated with the PDO and also to Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns and coastal upwelling. There is also a linkage to sea surface temperature anomalies in the low latitude Pacific, suggesting that tropical-extratropical interactions may be involved in driving West Coast cloud cover.

Iacobellis, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Williams, P.

2013-12-01

58

7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8-12 ...Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of...

2011-01-01

59

7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8-12 ...Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of...

2010-01-01

60

The Necessity of Establishing a Regional Marine Research Program for the U.S. West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The welfare of the marine environment of the U.S. West Coast of California, Oregon, and Washington is hindered by insufficient understanding of ecosystem dynamics and human pressures. Greater coordination, integration, and support of mutually identified research priorities across research organizations on the West Coast are necessary. This level of collaboration is essential to responding to regional ecosystem threats, such as

Kary Coleman

2009-01-01

61

Increasing background ozone during spring on the west coast of North America  

E-print Network

increase of 2.5%/year in Asian continental air during the winter- spring period [Lee et al., 1998]. [4Increasing background ozone during spring on the west coast of North America Daniel Jaffe years from five U.S. west coast, marine boundary layer sites, we show that O3 in air arriving from

Silver, Whendee

62

LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream  

SciTech Connect

The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

NONE

1997-01-01

63

Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM).

Larry Myer

2005-09-29

64

75 FR 53379 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl...States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl...the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). Amendment 20 would...

2010-08-31

65

75 FR 78343 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl...States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl...the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which were...

2010-12-15

66

75 FR 32993 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl...States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl...the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). Amendment 20 would...

2010-06-10

67

75 FR 60867 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl...States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl...the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which were...

2010-10-01

68

Dynamic Stability of Coral Reefs on the West Australian Coast  

PubMed Central

Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10–35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (?28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs. PMID:23922829

Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ C.; Bancroft, Kevin P.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Moore, James A. Y.; Nutt, Christopher D.; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

2013-01-01

69

A synoptic climatology of the near-surface wind along the west coast of South America  

E-print Network

Prevailing wind along the west coast of South America is equatorward, driven by the southeast Pacific anticyclone. The wind induces strong coastal upwelling that supports one of the most important fisheries in the world. ...

Rahn, David A.; Garreaud, René D.

2013-05-20

70

78 FR 72586 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...local time) December 3, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gretchen Hanshew (West Coast Region, NMFS), phone: 206-526-6147, fax: 206-526-6736, gretchen.hanshew@noaa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Electronic...

2013-12-03

71

76 FR 13592 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Amendment 2  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species (HMS FMP) for Secretarial review. Amendment...modify the current suite of management unit species, establish a new category of ecosystem component species, modify the process for revising...

2011-03-14

72

Contrasting oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton communities on the east and west coasts of Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and dynamics of the phytoplankton communities and hydrographic factors that control them are described for eastern and western Australia with a focus on the Eastern Australian Current (EAC) and Leeuwin Current (LC) between 27.5° and 34.5°S latitude. A total of 1685 samples collected from 1996 to 2010 and analysed for pigments by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed the average TChl a (monovinyl+divinyl chlorophyll a) concentration on the west coast to be 0.28±0.16 ?g L -1 while it was 0.58±1.4 ?g L -1 on the east coast. Both coasts showed significant decreases in the proportions of picoplankton and relatively more nanoplankton and microplankton with increasing latitude. On both coasts the phytoplankton biomass (by SeaWiFS) increased with the onset of winter. At higher latitudes (>27.5°S) the southeast coast developed a spring bloom (September) when the mean monthly, surface chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration (by SeaWiFS) was 48% greater than on the south west coast. In this southern region (27.5-34.5°S) Synechococcus was the dominant taxon with 60% of the total biomass in the southeast (SE) and 43% in the southwest (SW). Both the SE and SW regions had similar proportions of haptophytes; ˜14% of the phytoplankton community. The SW coast had relatively more pelagophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes, chlorophytes and less bacillariophytes and dinophytes. These differences in phytoplankton biomass and community composition reflect the differences in seasonality of the 2 major boundary currents, the influence this has on the vertical stability of the water column and the average availability of nutrients in the euphotic zone. Seasonal variation in mixed layer depth and upwelling on the west coast appears to be suppressed by the Leeuwin Current. The long-term depth averaged (0-100 m) nitrate concentration on the west coast was only 14% of the average concentration on the east coast. Redfield ratios for NO 3:SiO 2:PO 4 were 6.5:11.9:1 on the east coast and 2.2:16.2:1 on the west coast. Thus new production (nitrate based) on the west coast was likely to be substantially more limited than on the eastcoast. Short term (hourly) rates of vertical mixing were greater on the east coast. The more stable water column on the west coast produced deeper subsurface chlorophyll a maxima with a 25% greater proportion of picoeukaryotes.

Thompson, P. A.; Bonham, P.; Waite, A. M.; Clementson, L. A.; Cherukuru, N.; Hassler, C.; Doblin, M. A.

2011-03-01

73

Real-time Tsunami Warning Operations at the NOAA West Coast\\/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Coast\\/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, provide tsunami warning services for a large portion of the world's coasts. The WCATWC has primary responsibility for providing tsunami detection, warnings, and forecasts to Canada, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and all U.S. States except Hawaii. WCATWC also acts

P. Whitmore; P. Huang; H. Crowley; J. Ferris; D. Hale; W. Knight; A. Medbery; D. Nyland; C. Preller; B. Turner; G. Urban

2007-01-01

74

Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan faunas. ?? 1984.

Marincovich, L., Jr.

1984-01-01

75

West Coast Salmon and the Endangered Species Act: Extinction is NOT an Option  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northwest Regional Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has recently launched this Website on endangered species listings for Pacific Coast salmon. The site includes West Coast Salmon Listings, Fact Sheets, Species Maps, Federal Register Notices, Reports and Publications, and a What's New section, providing news updates, progress reports, and detailed maps. The site features the five salmon species (Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink, Sockeye), Steelhead, and Coastal Cutthroat Trout, with color images, international range maps (US and Canada), status/ descriptive text, critical habitat descriptions, and protective regulations for each Evolutionarily Significant Unit (distinctive group of fish). This is an excellent place to find current information on endangered West Coast salmon.

76

77 FR 16048 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: “Harmonizing Trade for a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Coast Trade Symposium: ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department...the Trade Symposium is ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy.'' This document announces that the West Coast trade...

2012-03-19

77

Iron links river runoff and shelf width to phytoplankton biomass along the U.S. West Coast  

E-print Network

Iron links river runoff and shelf width to phytoplankton biomass along the U.S. West Coast Zanna to phytoplankton biomass along the U.S. West Coast, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L04607, doi:10.1029/2006GL028069. 1. Introduction [2] The upwelling system of the West Coast of the U.S. is an important site of air-sea CO2

Pierce, Stephen

78

A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IN WEST COAST ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A probabalistic survey of coastal condition assessment was conducted in 1999 by participants in US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The survey targeted estuaries along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, including the lower Columbi...

79

78 FR 68764 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of regulations that affect the limited entry trawl...Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). This...the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council...this litigation may affect existing quota share...inventory, credit, agricultural lending, and...

2013-11-15

80

NUMBERS, BEHAVIOUR AND ORIGIN OF MEDITERRANEAN GULLS LARUS MELANOCEPHALUS WINTERING ALONG THE WEST COAST OF SOUTHERN PORTUGAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Several thousands of Mediterranean Gulls Larus melanocephalus were observed in the winters of 2004\\/2005 and 2005\\/2006 at two sites of the West coast of Southern Portugal. Along the Lisbon coast (Guincho-Cascais-Estoril-Parede, west of Lisbon) a maximum of 6,000 birds was observed and along the Alentejo coast at least 1,000 birds were present in the Mira river mouth, near

MARTIN POOT; RENAUD FLAMANT

81

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America  

PubMed Central

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?13C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

2011-01-01

82

78 FR 16828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review of the West Coast Distinct...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FWS-R8-ES-2013-0054; 4500030113] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review of the West Coast Distinct Population Segment...Section 4 Deadline Litigation, Misc. Action No. 10-377 (EGS), MDL Docket No. 2165 (D.D.C.). The settlement...

2013-03-19

83

A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE US WEST COAST  

EPA Science Inventory

A probabilistic survey of environmental condition of the continental shelf of the US West Coast was conducted in 2003 by the US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA), with collaboration by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. Metals and organic contaminants were analyzed ...

84

VALUING FRESHWATER SALMON HABITAT AS A BENEFIT OF PROTECTED AREAS ON THE WEST COAST OF CANADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY This paper presents results from a valuation study of habitat used by salmon for spawning and rearing on Canada's west coast. Coho salmon making use of the Thompson River watershed are examined as a case study. Due to data limitations we concentrate on the historical commercial coho fishery in British Columbia's Strait of Georgia. Initially, optimal values for management

D. Knowler; B. MacGregot; M. Bradford; R. Peterman

85

Measurements of Short Ocean Waves during the MBL ARI West Coast Experiment  

E-print Network

165 Measurements of Short Ocean Waves during the MBL ARI West Coast Experiment Jochen Klinke 1 of the oceanic capillary waves. Estimates of the equilibrium spectra oceanic capillary-gravity and capillary. In order to gain deeper insight into the dynamics and the energy balance of ocean wind waves, i

Jaehne, Bernd

86

Optical characterization and age estimates of river plumes on the US West Coast  

E-print Network

Optical characterization and age estimates of river plumes on the US West Coast Raphael M. Kudelaa aging and dilution by surrounding waters. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify initial for juvenile salmon. Some constituents act as tracers of the plume as it flows from the river mouth. Plume

Hickey, Barbara

87

1994/1995 REGULATIONS FOR SEAWEED HARVESTING ON THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA**  

E-print Network

1994/1995 REGULATIONS FOR SEAWEED HARVESTING ON THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA** By Gayle I for the collection and/or harvest of marine plants. Since the jurisdiction over the biota of the intertidal and near list. It is organized first by region and then by the 3 major types of plant collecting: 1. Personal

California at Santa Cruz, University of

88

Size composition of Jack mackerel catches from the west coast of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catches of iack mackerel Trachurus declivis taken everv 2 months from the west coast of New Zealand show that this species attains lengths of approximately 11 cm and 24 cm at the completion of the first and second years of life respectively. Above these lengths, year classes overlap considerably. Juveniles were found from Westland to North Cape and were most

G. D. James

1975-01-01

89

COASTAL UPWELLING INDICES WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA 1946-95  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Long time series of ocean surface currents are not available, however reasonable estimates of surface transport and coastal upwelling may be made using planetary boundary layer theory and the geostrophic wind approximation. PFEG generates daily and monthly indices of coastal upwelling at 15 standard geographic points along the west coast of North America. The first set, beginning in 1967,

Franklin B. Schwing; Michael O'Farrell; John M. Steger; Kenneth Baltz

90

New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

2009-01-01

91

Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was

Gideon Mordecai; Paul A. Tyler; Douglas G. Masson; Veerle A. I. Huvenne

2011-01-01

92

Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

2006-12-01

93

Remote sensing of wetland conditions in West Coast salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the PEEIR (Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research Consortium) program is to develop new indicators for assessing wetland health or condition. As part of PEEIR program we are investigating the use of imaging spectrometry to map and characterize marsh vegetation of several estuarine systems in California. We obtained airborne Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, an instrument which measures a detailed reflectance spectrum (400-2500nm) for each pixel, over paired tidal marshes, having either a history of exposure to pollution or no known exposure. AVIRIS image data was analyzed based on comparison to field measurements and reflectance changes measured in hydroponic experiments. We report leaf and canopy reflectance measurements of several common plant species of Pacific coast salt marshes exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, V) and crude oil contaminants. Species exhibited differential sensitivities to specific contaminants, however in general, Salicornia virginica, the most salt tolerant species and the dominant species in these wetlands (70-90% cover) was most sensitive to metal and petroleum contaminants. Field measurements of canopy reflectance, biomass and vegetation structure were acquired across GPS-located transects at each field site. The AVIRIS data were calibrated to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiative transfer code and geometrically registered to coordinates using the 1m USGS digital orthophoto quads. AVIRIS results show spatial patterns of plant stress indicators (e.g., reduced chlorophyll and water contents) are consistent with known patterns of contamination in these tidal wetlands.

Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui C.; Li, Lin

2004-11-01

94

Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

2011-12-01

95

Sea level changes induced by local winds on the west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of atmospheric pressure and local wind to sea level variability at Goa (West coast of India) for the period\\u000a 2007–2008 is investigated. Sea level data from a tide gauge are compared with measured local surface meteorological as well\\u000a as oceanographic data. Multilinear regression analysis is used to resolve the dependence of sea level on various forcing parameters.\\u000a The

Prakash Mehra; Michael N. Tsimplis; R. G. Prabhudesai; Antony Joseph; Andrew G. P. Shaw; Y. K. Somayajulu; Paolo Cipollini

2010-01-01

96

Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

Warwick, William M.

2012-06-30

97

On the beaten track: a view of US West-Coast container port competition  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than a century ago far-sighted railroad builders and steamship operators were seeking the shortest intermodal itineraries between the eastern United States and the Orient. A combination of locational fact and the factual outcomes of 19th century railroad building left Chicago roughly equidistant in railway mileage from what became the four great US West-Coast port complexes in the Los Angeles,

Douglas K. Fleming

1989-01-01

98

75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...The West Coast Recycling Group (WCRG...operate a scrap metal shredding and recycling facility. The...being used as a concrete recycling facility. The...industrial land and a heavy equipment storage...include scrap metal sorting and...

2010-11-02

99

The 2010 Chilean Tsunami Off the West Coast of Canada and the Northwest Coast of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major ( M w = 8.8) Chilean earthquake of 27 February 2010 generated a trans-oceanic tsunami that was observed throughout the Pacific Ocean. Waves associated with this event had features similar to those of the 1960 tsunami generated in the same region by the Great ( M w = 9.5) 1960 Chilean Earthquake. Both tsunamis were clearly observed on the coast of British Columbia. The 1960 tsunami was measured by 17 analog pen-and-paper tide gauges, while the 2010 tsunami was measured by 11 modern digital coastal tide gauges, four NEPTUNE-Canada bottom pressure recorders located offshore from southern Vancouver Island, and two nearby open-ocean DART stations. The 2010 records were augmented by data from seven NOAA tide gauges on the coast of Washington State. This study examines the principal characteristics of the waves from the 2010 event (height, period, duration, and arrival and travel times) and compares these properties for the west coast of Canada with corresponding properties of the 1960 tsunami. Results show that the 2010 waves were approximately 3.5 times smaller than the 1960 waves and reached the British Columbia coast 1 h earlier. The maximum 2010 wave heights were observed at Port Alberni (98.4 cm) and Winter Harbour (68.3 cm); the observed periods ranged from 12 min at Port Hardy to 110-120 min at Prince Rupert and Port Alberni and 150 min at Bamfield. The open-ocean records had maximum wave heights of 6-11 cm and typical periods of 7 and 15 min. Coastal and open-ocean tsunami records revealed persistent oscillations that "rang" for 3-4 days. Tsunami energy occupied a broad band of periods from 3 to 300 min. Estimation of the inverse celerity vectors from cross-correlation analysis of the deep-sea tsunami records shows that the tsunami waves underwent refraction as they approached the coast of Vancouver Island with the direction of the incoming waves changing from an initial direction of 340° True to a direction of 15° True for the second train of waves that arrived 7 h later after possible reflection from the Marquesas and Hawaiian islands.

Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.; Fine, Isaac V.

2013-09-01

100

Journal of Coastal Research | 20 | 1 | 155-165 | West Palm Beach, Florida I Winter 2004 l Classification of Coasts  

E-print Network

Journal of Coastal Research | 20 | 1 | 155-165 | West Palm Beach, Florida I Winter 2004 l(1), 155-165. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. The simplest description of a given coast requires historians? Thirdly, the scale is critical: continent-wide? A single coastline? Or a pocket- beach

101

Land-use by immigrant Baoulé farmers in the Taï region, South-west Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the cropping system of immigrant Baoulé farmers in the rain-forest area of South-west Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast). The area harbours one of the last substantial rain-forest reserves of humid West Africa. Part of it is known as Taï National Park, and has been adopted as one of UNESCO's Man and Biosphere Programme areas.

Arnoud Budelman; Peter M. Zander

1990-01-01

102

Chlorinated pesticide residues in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the central west coast of India  

SciTech Connect

The problem of environmental contamination by persistent chlorinated pesticides still evokes major concern due to the presence of their residues in the environment and in human tissues. In developing countries like India organochlorine insecticides, especially DDT are extensively being used in agriculture and vector control programs. Few data are available on their levels of concentration from the seas around India. Persistent pesticides residues can be expected to accumulate in marine sediments. However, very little data on this are available along the Indian coast. An attempt has been made in the present communication to identify and quantify some of the chlorinated pesticides residues in the marine sediments collected from different region along the central west coast of India. This is a part of our ongoing project to monitor and map pollutants within the exclusive economic zone of India.

Sarkar, A.; Gupta, R.S.

1987-12-01

103

Atmospheric 210Pb changes during monsoon in east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

210Pb is widely used as an atmospheric tracer as its parent, 222Rn is continuously produced in the atmosphere from soil emanation. This study was conducted to observe the changes of 210Pb activity based on temporal and spatial factor using PM10 samples. PM10 were sampled by Malaysian Meteorological Department in four station consist of two station from both east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia in 2007. Activity level of 210Pb was determined using the Tennelec XLB-5 Gross Alpha-Beta Counter, Canberra, after the ingrowth of 210Pb by the outgrowth of 210Bi. Basically, the analysed result showed that three to four significant peaks during northeast monsoon, southwest monsoon and intermonsoon. For east coast which comprises Kuantan and Mersing stations, the highest 210Pb activity in Kuantan was in April and June with 45.73 ± 3.66 mBq/kg and 48.20 ± 3.33 mBq/kg, respectively. While in Mersing, 210Pb activity showed the highest in April and July with 45.77 ± 2.67 mBq/kg and 44.21 ± 2.42 mBq/kg, respectively. As for the west coast, it comprises Setiawan and Chuping stations. Setiawan station showed the highest 210Pb activity in October and July with 48.90 ± 2.52 mBq/kg and 44.09 ± 2.34 mBq/kg, respectively. Chuping showed the highest 210Pb activity in March and October with 39.96 ± 1.94 mBq/kg and 14.98 ± 0.80 mBq/kg, respectively. It shows that 210Pb activity in Chuping is much lower than in Setiawan because of its location is in a rural area. This study showed that during southwest monsoon from May to September, it clearly showed that 210Pb activity is higher in west coast than in east coast as wind sources come from southwest of Peninsular Malaysia.

Johari, Siti Munirah; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

2014-02-01

104

ShakeAlert: an earthquake early warning system for the United States West Coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with several partners has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a demonstration system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

2014-01-01

105

Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.  

PubMed

This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds. PMID:18583039

Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

2009-02-15

106

Climatology of Long-Range Transport of Asian Dust on the U.S. West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust aerosols affect climate by directly absorbing radiation and indirectly by forming cloud particles. Once incorporated into clouds, dust has been shown to enhance precipitation formation from in situ measurements, such as those during the CalWater field campaign (2009-2011) along the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. Large discrepancies exists between global aerosol models that simulate the dust in the atmosphere and its impact on climate. Further, about 25% of the global dust burden originates from Asia, thus a better understanding of where and how Asian dust is transported in the atmosphere is needed, particularly with projected increases in dust emissions in mind. Asian dust is typically transported to the U.S. in the spring, but not many long-term studies of this phenomenon exist. Our results show Asian dust transport varies significantly from year-to-year and at various locations along the U.S. west coast. Observations from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) LIDAR network in Japan and the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network along the U.S. West Coast were analyzed in the context of HYSPLIT trajectory analyses to investigate trans-Pacific Asian dust transport from 2002-2011. Similar to previous studies, the ratio of iron to calcium from IMPROVE soil was used to estimate Asian dust concentrations at multiple sites in California, Oregon, and Washington. Asian dust estimated from IMPROVE exhibited maximum concentrations in the spring (Apr-May) on the U.S. west coast, while non-Asian dust peaked late summer (Aug-Sep). Because Asian dust is typically transported in the mid-troposphere (2-4 km), the highest concentrations of Asian dust were typically observed at higher elevation sites, such as in the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. California experienced larger influences from Asian dust compared to Oregon or Washington, likely due to large-scale synoptic patterns and higher elevation IMPROVE sites. Dust extinction measured from 7 LIDAR sites on the east coast of Japan, located in the Asian dust outflow region, was compared to seasonal and interannual trends in IMPROVE Asian dust. The highest LIDAR-derived dust extinction coefficients were observed from 2-5 km, although distinct layers were not evident most of the years. Dust extinction peaked in the spring to early summer (Apr-Jun), consistent with the IMPROVE record and previous studies. Good agreement existed between the trends in relative amount of dust from LIDAR and IMPROVE measurements, even though they are located thousands of kilometers apart. Trajectory analyses indicate transport from the Asian outflow region to the U.S. was lowest in the summer/fall, and highest in the winter/spring. Air masses were either transported zonally across the Pacific, or traveled north and then south along the west coast in the large-scale undulating flow. This work presents a 10 year record of dust along the U.S. West Coast in an effort to study Asian dust transport to the western U.S.

Creamean, J.; Spackman, J.

2013-12-01

107

A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

Gornitz, V.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Beaty, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Daniels, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1997-12-01

108

The ecology of the seagrass meadows of the west coast of Florida: A community profile  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information on the ecology of seagrass meadows on the west coast of Florida, from south of Tampa Bay to Pensacola. This area contains more than 3500 ha of seagrass beds, dominated by three species, Thalasia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Beds occur both on the shallow, zero-energy Continental Shelf and in inshore bays and estuaries. Species ecology, distribution, biomass, and productivity of these dominant seagrass species are discussed. Seagrass beds support a very diverse and abundant algal flora and fauna, and these organisms, and seagrass detritus form the base of a productive food chain. Seagrass beds are important nursery areas providing both cover and food, for a number of commercial and sports fishery species. Along the west Florida coast, estuarine grass beds are noticeably more stressed and impacted by human activities than the more pristine nearshore beds. Urban development and dredging and filling are the major threates to seagrass beds in this region. 500 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

Zieman, J.C.; Zieman, R.T. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (USA). Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

1989-09-01

109

A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the West Coast of Canada.  

PubMed

Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg(-1), significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs and (137)Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ?2 Bq kg(-1). Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain (137)Cs exactly at the detection limit level and (134)Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of (134)Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. PMID:24795385

Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

2015-02-01

110

A review of sediment dynamical processes in the west coast of Korea, eastern Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment dynamical processes began to be systematically monitored in the west coast of Korea facing the eastern Yellow Sea in the 1990s. The early investigations were largely conducted aboard vessels that provided results where the resolution was highly restricted in both temporal and spatial aspects. However, full-fledged autonomous instruments introduced early in the 2000s allowed for a quantum leap in the level of this sub-field of sedimentology. The investigated sites include various environments such as estuaries, bays, tidal flats, beaches, and offshore deposits. Among them, a total of seven sites were selected for the review: Han estuary, Daeho tidal flats, Garolim Bay, Saemangeum Region, Byunsan Beach, Gomso Bay, and Huksan Mud Belt. The major results from each site were briefly summarized. The summary clearly demonstrates that wind-generated currents and waves particularly during winter should be carefully considered in interpreting sedimentary environments. This is because winter-season processes interrupt or actively displace much of the sediments worked by tidal currents in the remaining seasons. The summary hence suggests that seasonal investigations of sediment dynamics are necessary to understand shallow-water sedimentation in the west coast of Korea that is governed complicatedly by two major forcing agents: waves and tidal currents.

Lee, Hee Jun

2014-06-01

111

The West Coast Thermal Trough: Climatology, Evolution and Sensitivity to Terrain and Surface Fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the West Coast thermal trough (WCTT) is the most important mesoscale feature over the U.S. West Coast during the warm season, its initiation, evolution, and structure are not well understood. Originating in the southwest U.S., this inverted trough can extend northward into Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, with large impacts on temperature, wind, humidity, and air quality. Using NCEP's North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), annual and diurnal climatologies of WCTTs reaching the northwest U.S. were constructed. For the entire year, WCTTs are most frequent along the coast near the California/Oregon border, with weaker maxima west of the Cascade and coastal mountains. Over the coastal region, they occur most often during autumn, while east of the Cascade Mountains, the highest frequency is during summer. There is strong diurnal variability in WCTT frequency during the summer, with little diurnal variation in winter. Though compositing revealed important seasonal differences in WCTT evolution, some common features emerged. An upper-level ridge moves over the northwest U.S. and associated high pressure builds in the lower troposphere over southwest Canada, resulting in the development of near-surface easterlies and downslope flow over the western slopes of major terrain barriers of the region. Simultaneously, the WCTT extends northward from California into the Pacific Northwest. As the synoptic configuration changes, the WCTT either moves eastward and merges with the larger thermal low over the Great Basin region, which is most common in summer, or recedes back into California and dissipates, as often happens in winter. Another important question is the relative importance of terrain forcing, advection, and surface heating on its formation and evolution. To investigate this, the 13-16 May 2007 WCTT event was examined using observations and simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An analysis of the thermodynamic energy equation for these simulations was completed, as well as sensitivity experiments in which terrain or surface fluxes were removed or modified. For the May 2007 event, vertical advection of potential temperature is the primary driver of local warming and WCTT formation west of the Cascades. The downslope flow that drives this warming is forced by easterly flow associated with high pressure over British Columbia. When the terrain is removed from the model, the WCTT does not form, and high pressure builds over the northwest U.S. When the WCTT forms on the east side of the Cascades, diabatic heating dominates over the other terms in the thermodynamic energy equation, with warm advection playing a small role. If surface heat fluxes are turned off in the model, an area of low pressure remains east of the Cascades, though it is substantially attenuated.

Brewer, Matthew

112

Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

2006-10-01

113

An operational model for the West Iberian coast: products and services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the structure and application of a regional scale operational modelling tool for the West Iberian coast, and discusses its potential for products and services for both scientific and coastal management activities. The forecasting suite includes nested hydrodynamic models forced with up-to-date meteorological forecast data and large-scale model results. The present status of the system and its recent upgrades are reviewed, offering a general description of the main components of the system: the forcing data, the circulation model, the model outputs and the validation methodology of model results. Seasonal differences in temperature, salinity and current velocity fields are illustrated and show satisfactory reproduction of the top and deep layer thermodynamics. The system provides boundary forcing for a number of local-scale model applications via downscaling of the solution and enables potential products and services from which civil society will benefit.

Mateus, M.; Riflet, G.; Chambel, P.; Fernandes, L.; Fernandes, R.; Juliano, M.; Campuzano, F.; de Pablo, H.; Neves, R.

2012-08-01

114

An operational model for the West Iberian coast: products and services  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the structure and application of a regional scale operational modelling tool for the West Iberian coast. The forecasting suite includes nested hydrodynamic models forced with up-to-date meteorological forecast data and large scale model results as lateral boundary conditions. The present status of the system and its recent upgrades are reviewed, offering a general description of the main components of the system: circulation model, qualitative and quantitative validation methodology and type of results. Seasonal differences in temperature, salinity and current velocity fields are illustrated with model results, and the validation shows a satisfactory reproduction of the top and deep layers thermodynamics. The system provides boundary forcing for a number of local scale model applications via downscaling of the solution, and its potential for products and services for both scientific and coastal management activities is discussed here.

Mateus, M.; Riflet, G.; Chambel, P.; Fernandes, L.; Fernandes, R.; Juliano, M.; Campuzano, F.; de Pablo, H.; Neves, R.

2012-04-01

115

Atmospheric fluxes of persistent organic compounds to a forest ecosystem at the Swedish west coast  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this ongoing study is to investigate the importance of the atmospheric contribution of POP, such as PCB, HCH, HCB and PAH, to a forest at the Swedish west coast, Lake Gaardsjoen, and to get an idea about circulation and accumulation of these organic contaminants within a terrestrial ecosystem. The measurements include parallel sampling in air, deposition (artificial surface) and spruce needles. Recent sampling periods also include throughfall, runoff water, litterfall and soil. The amounts of POP deposited to the Gaardsjoen area were similar to those obtained during measurements at coastal and sea based sites at the Swedish west coast. Events with long range air transport did not significantly increase the atmospheric concentrations of PAH and PCB in the Gaardsjoen area. However, due to an increased particle concentration in the air, such episodes increased the deposition fluxes of PAH and PCB. Only small variations in the concentrations of POP occurred in the needles during different sampling periods and no accumulation was observed. The lowest PCB concentrations in the needles were found during a summer period in connection with the highest PCB concentrations in the air and with the highest ambient air temperature. The PAH and PCB found in spruce needles seemed to be due to uptake from both the gas and particle phases. Except for a relative increase of less volatile compounds, the distribution among individual PCB obtained in the soil agreed well with the PCB profile found in the deposition and throughfall. This supports the hypothesis that atmospheric deposition is the main source for PCB in this area.

Brorstroem-Lunden, E.; Loefgren, C.

1995-12-31

116

The message, meteorology and myths of the historic West Coast winter flooding of 1861 - 62  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest known recorded flooding, ever to impact the West Coast of the United States, occurred during the winter of 1861-1862. In fact, the extraordinary flood flows on five major rivers, remain the record peaks to this day. The flooding was caused by a series of Pacific mid-latitude cyclones and several strong atmospheric rivers. The extreme rainy pattern initially strikes Oregon. The high water causes the flood of record on the Willamette River, with extensive devastation, wiping out several major towns along the river. Communications, food and supplies were cut off for much of the winter in Oregon.The intense wet weather, then redevelops, moves south and stalls - pummeling Northern California with major flooding. The runoff fills California's Central Valley with a huge inland lake. Sacramento is submerged, turned into what was described as a "frontier Venice". Flood damages eliminate a large part of the state's tax base.Finally the stormy pattern shifts into Southern California, producing major flooding. Most of lowland Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego Counties are flooded under several feet of water for weeks.The author researched limited weather data, historical accounts, maps and ship reports to reconstruct this series of storms and their effects along the West Coast. The extent and evolution of this series of flood events is unprecedented. Myths regarding the causes of this flooding are common, but its sheer magnitude is undisputable. This presentation will also demonstrate the nature and impacts of these consecutive major flood events, while revealing the lessons to be learned in light of advances in modern forecasting techniques.

Schick, L. J.

2012-12-01

117

The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides is common along the west coast of North America. Death cap mushrooms are especially abundant in habitats around the San Francisco Bay, California, but the species grows as far south as Los Angeles County and north to Vancouver Island, Canada. At different times, various authors have considered the species as either native or introduced, and

ANNE PRINGLE; RACHEL I. ADAMS; HUGH B. CROSS; THOMAS D. BRUNS

2009-01-01

118

Distribution and abundance of anthropogenic marine debris along the shelf and slope of the US West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

As marine debris levels continue to grow worldwide, defining sources, composition, and distribution of debris, as well as potential effects, becomes increasingly important. We investigated composition and abundance of man-made, benthic marine debris at 1347 randomly selected stations along the US West Coast during Groundfish Bottom Trawl Surveys in 2007 and 2008. Anthropogenic debris was observed in 469 tows at

Aimee A. Keller; Erica L. Fruh; Melanie M. Johnson; Victor Simon; Catherine McGourty

2010-01-01

119

Active and Passive Management of the Recreational Fishery for Pacific Halibut off the U.S. West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the 1970s, the recreational fishery for Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis off the West Coast of the United States (Washington, Oregon, and California) has grown substantially, thereby reducing the amount of halibut available to other users. A catch sharing plan (CSP) was developed in 1988 to allocate the available yield among recreational fishers, commercial fishers, and treaty Indian tribes. The

Gregg H. Williams; Calvin L. Blood

2003-01-01

120

Foraminiferal evidence for the amount of coseismic subsidence during a late holocene earthquake on Vancouver Island, West Coast of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foraminiferal data from two sites, 6 km apart, on the shores of an inlet near Tofino on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, allow estimates to be made of the amount of coseismic subsidence during a large earthquake 100–400 years ago. The sampled sediment succession at the two sites is similar; peat representing a former marsh surface is

Jean-Pierre Guilbault; John J. Clague; Martine Lapointe

1996-01-01

121

TI: The West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Forecast Model Project Applied to an Operational Tsunami Threat-database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous improvement in the NOAA\\/West Coast & Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) forecast model has allowed the consideration of new uses for this model. These improvements include a finer propagation mesh, more model sources and magnitudes, runup boundary conditions, and continuous, unbroken fine coastal meshes. The focus of this report is on a new operational use of the model at

W. Knight; P. Huang; P. Whitmore; K. Sterling

2008-01-01

122

Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic “weak type” orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly constituted by TTG, greenstones, supracrustal rocks and leucogranites. A compilation of metamorphic and radiometric data highlights that: i) metamorphic conditions are rather homogeneous through the domain, without important metamorphic jumps, ii) HP-LT assemblages are absent and iii) important volumes of magmas emplaced during the overall Paleoproterozoic orogeny suggesting the occurrence of long-lived rather hot geotherms. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest that the deformation is homogeneous and distributed through the Paleoproterozoic domain. In details, results of this study point out the long-lived character of vertical movements during the Eburnean orogeny with a two folds evolution. The first stage is characterized by the development of "domes and basins" geometries without any boundary tectonic forces and the second stage is marked by coeval diapiric movements and horizontal regional-scale shortening. These features suggest that the crust is affected by vertical movements during the overall orogeny. The Eburnean orogen can then be considered as an example of long-lived Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogen.

Vidal, M.; Gumiaux, C.; Cagnard, F.; Pouclet, A.; Ouattara, G.; Pichon, M.

2009-11-01

123

Port Eliza cave: North American West Coast interstadial environment and implications for human migrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The timing of Late Pleistocene glacial advance, retreat, relative sea level and environmental viability between 25 and 12.5 ka ( 14C yrs BP) remain a key issue in the feasibility of a coastal migration route for the first North Americans. This is discussed on the basis of stratigraphic, radiometric and faunal data for Port Eliza cave, a raised sea cave, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ice cover is indicated by the occurrence of 2 m of laminated clay, representing deposition in a subglacial lake. From immediately below this clay a diverse vertebrate fauna of marmot, vole, marten, cervid and various species of birds and fish was recovered, yielding ages of 18-16 ka. These dates and others from the region show that ice cover on the outer coast was brief, from ca 15.5-14 ka. The fish species indicate that relative sea level was close to the cave and that salmon runs were likely present. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna is consistent with a cool, open parkland environment with maximum summer temperatures cooler than present; these conditions lasted until at least 16 ka. With a diverse fauna and favorable climate, humans could have survived here on a mixed marine-terrestrial diet, confirming the viability of the coastal migration hypothesis for this portion of the route.

Ward, B. C.; Wilson, M. C.; Nagorsen, D. W.; Nelson, D. E.; Driver, J. C.; Wigen, R. J.

2003-06-01

124

LNG tanker  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with LNG tankers installed with bottle-type tanks having diameter\\/height ratios of 1:15, the tanker design proposed by Naval Project Development Sarl, Luxembourg, uses a unique arrangement of cylindrical vessels with diameter\\/height ratios of 1:2 to 1:5. This configuration reduces the number of tanks required to more completely fill the hold, provides greater stability to the tank-support structure, and allows

Verolme

1978-01-01

125

Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.  

PubMed

Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes. PMID:25015225

Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

2014-07-01

126

Seasonal biomass and energy content in seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal collections were made over a 16 month period in seven seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida. The seagrass component accounted for at least 45% of the total biomass and Thalassia testudinum was the dominant species. The 15 month mean of total biomass at six sites that were dominated year around by T. testudinum from Tampa Bay to Cedar Key, Florida was 385 g dry weight m/sup 2/ or 1.42 tons dry weight/acre. The drift and attached seaweed components showed seasonal fluctuations in terms of species and biomass. Of the six open water sites, only one site, characterized by depressed salinity, showed significant differences in seasonal biomass for T. testudinum using a nested ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test for variance. Available kilocalories ranged from a 16 month low of 344 to a high of 1837 kcal/m/sup 2/ with the highest biomass and caloric values occurring in the late spring and summer.

Dawes, C.J.; Hall, M.O.; Riechert, R.K.

1985-01-01

127

Tracking the history of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in sediments from the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to trace the history of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and provide new insights in to Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) dynamics in monsoon-influenced tropical environments, sediment cores were collected from four different coastal locations along the west coast of India. The naturally occurring radionuclide 210Pb activity in the sediment samples were measured; and subsequently the sedimentation rates (SRs) and ages were modeled. The SRs ranged from 0.15 ± 0.01 to 2.80 ± 0.38 cm/yr and provided coverage of time period spanning between 21 and 145 yr. Cysts of potential harmful dinoflagellates (Gonyaulax spinifera, Lingulodinium polyedrum, Protoceratium reticulatum and Scrippsiella trochoidea) were observed to be present earlier than the 20th century. Among the four sediment cores, significant temporal variations in cyst abundance were observed in the sediment core, off Mangalore. Two of the cores from off Mangalore and Cannanore were dominated by autotrophic cyst assemblages (Gonyaulax membranacea and Gonyaulax spinifera) in the deeper sediment sections. However, the upper sediment sections were dominated by heterotrophic forms. Temporal shifts in cyst assemblages from autotrophic to heterotrophic dinoflagellates in the Mangalore core coincided with high deposition of shells; carbon analyses (?13Corg and Corg:N ratio) revealed shifts in organic matter type from terrestrial to marine source. The terrigenous input in this region, influenced by the monsoonal variations, can thus affect dinoflagellate assemblage structure and lead to changes in ecosystem functioning.

D'Silva, Maria Shamina; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Borole, Dnyandev Vaman; Nath, Bejugam Nagender; Singhal, Rakesh Kumar

2012-10-01

128

Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

Not Available

1988-12-01

129

Plant succession and interaction between soil and plants after land reclamation on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant succession and the interaction between soil and plants after reclamation were investigated on the west coast of Korea.\\u000a Our study included one natural tidal flat site (Namdong, 3 km2), and five sites that differed in the number of years since being reclaimed: Hyundai A, 6 km2 (1 yr); Hyundai B, 5 km2 (2 yr); Jangdeog, 5 km2 (8 yr);

Byeong Mee Min; Joon-Ho Kim

2000-01-01

130

Movement of adult edible crab ( Cancer pagurus L.) at the Swedish West Coast by mark-recapture and acoustic tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movements of the edible crab Cancer pagurus were investigated from mark-recaptures in the Skagerrak and Kattegat. Crabs were released in 1968–1973 and in 2003 from six main areas along the Swedish west coast, and from one offshore bank in the Kattegat. Recaptures were reported for up to 7 years after the release. Sex-specific differences in migration were found: females migrated

Anette Ungfors; Hans Hallbäck; Per G. Nilsson

2007-01-01

131

Genetic diversity of Gracilaria changii (Gracilariaceae, Rhodophyta) from west coast, Peninsular Malaysia based on mitochondrial cox 1 gene analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox1) was employed to investigate the intraspecific genetic diversity of Gracilaria changii collected from various localities distributed along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Gracilaria changii is an agarophyte with potential for commercialization in Malaysia as it has high yields of good quality agar with high gel\\u000a strength for the production of food grade

Yoon-Yen Yow; Phaik-Eem Lim; Siew-Moi Phang

2011-01-01

132

An intercomparison between finite difference and finite element (TELEMAC) approaches to modelling west coast of Britain tides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element model (namely TELEMAC) with a range of mesh refinements and assumptions of coastal water depths is used to\\u000a determine an optimal mesh for computing the M\\u000a 2 tide in a region of significant geographical extent. The region adopted is the west coast of Britain covering the Irish and\\u000a Celtic Seas. The nature of the spatially varying topography

J. Eric Jones; Alan M. Davies

2005-01-01

133

Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

2001-01-01

134

Distribution and growth dynamics of ephemeral macroalgae in shallow bays on the Swedish west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Distribution and growth dynamics of ephemeral macroalgae were investigated in some shallow (0-1 m) bays on the Swedish west coast during the period 1992 to 1994. Variation in cover and biomass was assessed in nine bays, and in one of them the seasonal dynamics of these algae was followed intensively over three years. Frequent measurements were taken of algal biomass, degree of cover, in situ growth, variable fluorescence and C/N-ratios. Irradiance and water nutrient concentrations were measured concurrently with the growth measurements. Ephemeral macroalgae were dominated by Cladophora and Enteromorpha species and occurred in all sampled bays, except one, covering 10 to 100% of the bottom sediment. Generally, a rapid biomass increase was recorded from mid-May, which peaked after six weeks at 400-600 g dwt·m -2. Later in the season, strong variations in biomass, cover and species composition were observed, suggesting that these opportunistic algae form a highly dynamic community. Initial growth rates estimated from biomass samples were similar to those recorded from in situ cage experiments, and also agreed with growth rates calculated from a model. For all species studied growth rate was within the range 10 to 30 g dwt·m -2·d -1, irrespective of method used. Low algal C/N-ratios (mean = 12.7) in 1993 (cold and rainy summer) indicated that growth was not limited by nutrients, but rather by light. In 1994 (warm and sunny summer), mean C/N-ratios were 20, reflecting the opposite situation. The appearance of these opportunistic algae in shallow bays which historically had been without macroalgal communities has changed the characteristics of these areas by altering habitat complexity. This could have important consequences for trophic interactions involving many species, thereby altering community structure and function.

Pihl, Leif; Magnusson, Gunilla; Isaksson, Ingela; Wallentinus, Inger

1996-02-01

135

Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast  

PubMed Central

Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

136

GLORIA mosaic of West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone, northern sector  

SciTech Connect

The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.

Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

1986-05-01

137

Mapping and assessing seagrass bed changes in Central Florida's west coast using multitemporal Landsat TM imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some seagrass meadows in coastal shallow waters have displayed large scale changes in seagrass spatial extent and hurricanes and/or tropical storms have been suggested as factors responsible for reduction in coverage. Taking advantage of the incidence of three tropical storms passing near a study site along the central west Florida coast within a two-month period in 2004, we evaluated whether satellite remote sensing techniques (Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery) are useful for assessing dynamics of seagrass (=submerged aquatic vegetation: SAV) cover/abundance in response to these multiple disturbances. We also examined whether an image preprocessing procedure, which included water column correction, applied to the Landsat TM images could further improve the classification and mapping of detailed SAV coverage. We compared a historical set of Landsat TM images, acquired in Fall 2003 and Fall and late Summer 2005, which were processed to classify %SAV cover into five classes using a maximum likelihood classifier. Importantly, our experimental results demonstrated that the application of the image preprocessing procedures led to an overall accuracy 2-14% improvement in SAV classification due to water column correction compared to that currently reported in the literature when similar Landsat TM data are utilized. Based upon the classification results mapped from the TM images and as well as a similar classification of SAV interpreted from aerial photographs collected before and after the passage of these same storms, SAV coverage over the study areas was found to increase about 6% (integrating SAV losses and gains) by 2005/2006 in comparison to cover levels present prior to the repeated storm activity. We conclude that heavy rains during 2004 along with physical disturbance from gale force winds from the tropical storms/hurricanes did not produce any SAV bed loss at the study site that was sustained for more than one year after multiple storm passage.

Pu, Ruiliang; Bell, Susan; Meyer, Cynthia

2014-08-01

138

Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the

Pietrafesa

1983-01-01

139

Novel octabrominated phenolic diphenyl ether identified in blue mussels from the Swedish West Coast.  

PubMed

Hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are compounds present in the marine environment and OH-PBDEs are of toxicological concern and are therefore of interest to monitor in the environment. A phenolic octaBDE was tentatively identified in the phenolic fraction of previously analyzed mussel samples after methylation of the halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs). The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of this compound in blue mussels and investigate whether the analyte is diOH- and/or OH-MeO-octaBDE. Two reference standards, 6,6'-dimethoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6,6'-diMeO-BDE194) and 6-ethoxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194) were prepared via O-arylation of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxyphenol and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-ethoxyphenol, respectively, with a novel unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salt, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxydiphenyliodonium triflate. The GC retention time and GC/MS spectrum of the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 correspond well with the analyte in the methylated phenolic fraction of a mussel extract from a previous study. Structural analysis performed in this study indicate that the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 and 6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194 correspond well with 6-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194) after methylation and ethylation, respectively, of the HPCs in the mussel extracts. The compound 6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194 was identified and quantified in new mussels, sampled in 2012 from two locations on the Swedish west coast, with geometric mean concentrations of 3700 and 410 ng/g fat, respectively. PMID:24559155

Winnberg, Ulrika; Rydén, Andreas; Löfstrand, Karin; Asplund, Lillemor; Bignert, Anders; Marsh, Göran

2014-03-18

140

Aerial Measurement of Radioxenon Concentration off the West Coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima Reactor Accident  

E-print Network

In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to Xe-133 was observed. Methods to extract Xe-133 count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding Xe-133 volumetric concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that Xe-133 concentrations on average lie in the range of 30 to 70 Bq/m3.

L. E. Sinclair; H. C. J. Seywerd; R. Fortin; J. M. Carson; P. R. B. Saull; M. J. Coyle; R. A. Van Brabant; J. L. Buckle; S. M. Desjardins; R. M. Hall

2011-06-20

141

Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched  

SciTech Connect

World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

NONE

1997-10-20

142

Equilibrium Beach Profiles on the East and West U.S. Coasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beach elevation change observations from the United States west and east coasts are used to identify statistically the dominant cross-shore patterns in sand level fluctuations, and these changes are related to equilibrium beach profile concepts. Three to seven years of observations at four beaches in Southern California include monthly surveys of the subaerial (near MSL) beach, and quarterly surveys from the backbeach to about 8m depth. At Duck, North Carolina, observations include 31 years of monthly surveys from the dunes to about 8m depth. On the Southern California beaches, the dominant seasonal pattern is subaerial erosion in winter and accretion in summer. Seasonal fluctuations of 3m in shoreline vertical sand levels, and 50m in subaerial beach width, are not uncommon. The sand eroded from the shoreline in winter is stored in an offshore sand bar and returns to the beach face in summer. Wave conditions in Southern California also vary seasonally, with energetic waves arriving from the north in winter, and lower energy, longer period southerly swell arriving in summer. A spectral refraction model, initialized with a regional network of directional wave buoys, is used to estimate hourly wave conditions, in 10m water depth. Using an equilibrium hypothesis, that the shoreline (defined as the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) change rate depends on the wave energy and the wave energy disequilibrium, Yates (2009) modeled the time-varying shoreline location at several Southern California beaches with significant skill. The four free model parameters were calibrated to fit observations. Following Yates (2009), we extend the equilibrium shoreline model to include the horizontal displacement of other elevation contours. At the Southern California sites, the modeled contour translation depends on the incident wave energy, the present contour configuration, and observation-based estimates of the contour behavior (based on EOF spatial amplitudes). At Duck, seasonal variations of the wave field (measured immediately offshore) are large, but shoreline changes (usually <30cm) are smaller than in Southern California. Maximum vertical variations occur just seaward of the shoreline and the nearshore bathymetry is often barred. Plant (1999) show that bar crest position at Duck has equilibrium-like behavior. We will present the results of equilibrium shoreline and profile modeling at Duck. At both sites, we diagnose sources (e.g. grain size and incident waves) of the sometimes strong observed alongshore variations in sand level change patterns. Funding was provided by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the California Department of Boating and Waterways. REFERENCES Plant, N. G., R. A. Holman, M. H. Freilich, and W. A. Birkemeier (1999), A simple model for interannual sandbar behavior, J. Geophys. Res., 104(C7), 15,755-15,776. Yates, M. L., R. T. Guza, and W. C. O'Reilly (2009), Equilibrium shoreline response: Observations and modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C09014.

Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; McNinch, J. E.; O'Reilly, W.

2012-12-01

143

The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

2007-01-01

144

Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, Isolated from the West Coast of India  

PubMed Central

We announce here the draft genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, a halophilic bacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It was isolated from the sea coast of Aadri, Veraval, Gujarat, India. Its genome contains genes for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a substitute for petroleum plastics. PMID:25593258

Bharadwaj SV, Vamsi; Shrivastav, Anupama; Dubey, Sonam; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar

2015-01-01

145

Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

1989-01-01

146

Assessment of IEC 61400-1 Normal Turbulence Model for Wind Conditions in Taiwan West Coast Areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper studies the applicability of Normal Turbulence Model (NTM) in IEC61400-1 for wind conditions in Taiwan west coast area where future offshore wind farms are planning in the nearby areas. The parameters for the standard deviation of wind fluctuating (\\bar ? / Iref) are presented and compared with IEC Normal Turbulence Model. It is found that the trend of turbulence standard deviation (\\bar ? /Iref) based on the observation data agreed qualitatively well with IEC Normal Turbulence Model. However, IEC Normal Turbulence Model results in rather small (? /{Iref}) compared to surveillance wind data in Taiwan. In this paper, model parameters for (\\bar ? / {Iref)} and (? /{Iref}) based on the two-year observation wind data are proposed. The proposed model parameters a, b, ? and ? are 0.9125, 2.4345, 0.097 and 2.1875.

Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Yo, Jui-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Miau, Jiu-Jih; Wang, Ta-Chung; Tseng, Chien-Chou

2014-11-01

147

An analysis of historical Mussel Watch Programme data from the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town.  

PubMed

The concentrations of metals in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) prevalent along the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town are presented. The mussels were sampled during the routine "Mussel Watch Programme" (MWP) between 1985 and 2008. Levels of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, Fe and Mn at Cape Point, Hout Bay, Sea Point, Milnerton and Bloubergstrand were analysed for autumn and spring and showed consistent similar mean values for the five sites. There was a highly significant temporal (annual and seasonal) difference between all metals as well as a significant difference in metal concentrations between the five sites. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb were higher than previous investigations and possibly indicative of anthropogenic sources of metals. The results provide a strong motivation to increase efforts in marine pollution research in the area. PMID:25127737

Sparks, Conrad; Odendaal, James; Snyman, Reinette

2014-10-15

148

Microdistribution within a population of Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in Little Killary, west coast of Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), like many other infaunal ophiuroids, has a penchant for gregariousness. In Little Killary, a small embayment on the west coast of Ireland, it colonises an extensive tract of sandy inshore ground (ca 7 m depth), at densities of 150-200 individuals/m2. In the course of a two-year study, variation in regular suction-sampling returns prompted a detailed study of the species distribution pattern. Towards this end, 256 contiguous and stratified core samples were taken along a line of transect, in May 1995. These showed randomness with respect to the population at large, but exposed an aggregated distribution for juveniles and adults separately, at different levels within the sediment. Juveniles formed wide, ‘loose’ patches in the surficial deposit, while adults formed smaller, denseer patches deeper within the sediment. It remains to be seen what this approach may expose, when applied in different seasons, or during different phases of the species life cycle.

Makra, A.; Keegan, B. F.

1998-03-01

149

Developing erosion models for integrated coastal zone management: a case study of The New Caledonia west coast.  

PubMed

The tropical climate and human pressures (mining industry, forest fires) cause significant sediment inputs into the New Caledonia lagoon and are a major cause of degradation of the fringing reefs. The erosion process is spatially characterized on the west coast of New Caledonia to assess potential sediment inputs in the marine area. This paper describes the methodologies that are used to map soil sensitivity to erosion using remote sensing and a geographic information system tool. A cognitive approach, multi-criteria evaluation model and Universal Soil Loss Equation are implemented. This article compares the relevance of each model in order to spatialize and quantify potential erosion at catchment basin scale. These types of studies provide valuable results for focusing on areas subject to erosion and serve as a decision-making tool for the minimization of lagoon vulnerability to the natural and human dynamics on the level of the catchment basins. PMID:20673925

Dumas, Pascal; Printemps, Julia; Mangeas, Morgan; Luneau, Gaelle

2010-01-01

150

Plant distribution in relation to soil properties of reclaimed lands on the West Coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species distribution was studied on five reclaimed lands and one intertidal flat (control) on the western coast of Korea.\\u000a Nineteen soil properties were analyzed. Of these, soil moisture, electrical conductivity, and levels of Na and Cl had the\\u000a greatest effect on plant distribution. The plant species were divided into four groups, according to the amount of soil moisture\\u000a found

Byeong Mee Min; Joon-Ho Kim

1999-01-01

151

The Future of Fisheries Science on Canada's West Coast Is Keeping up with the Changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A look back at the issues in fisheries management on Canada's Pacific coast identifies a history of surprises. “Expect the\\u000a unexpected,” was the advice of W.E. Ricker. Surprises will always occur, but fisheries science needs to be in a position to\\u000a minimize their economic impacts and explain the causes to the people who manage and care about fish and fisheries.

Richard J. Beamish; Brian E. Riddell

152

Towards a quantification of ocean wave heights off the west coast of Ireland using land based seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean gravity waves are driven by atmospheric pressure systems. Their interactions with one another and reflection off coastlines generate pressure changes at the sea floor. These pressure fluctuations are the cause of continuous background seismic noise known as microseisms. The levels of microseism activity vary as a function of the sea state and increase during periods of intensive ocean wave activity. In 2011 a seismic network was deployed along the west coast of Ireland to continuously record microseisms generated in the Atlantic Ocean, as part of the Wave Observation (WaveObs) project based in University College Dublin. This project aims to determine the characteristics of the causative ocean gravity waves through calibration of the microseism data with ocean buoy data. In initial tests we are using a Backpropagation Feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (BP ANN) to establish the underlying relationships between microseisms and ocean waves. ANNs were originally inspired by studies of the mammalian brain and nervous system and are designed to learn by example. If successful these tools could then be used to estimate ocean wave heights and wave periods using a land-based seismic network and complement current wave observations being made offshore by marine buoys. Preliminary ANN results are promising with the network successfully able to reconstruct trends in ocean wave heights and periods. Microseisms can provide significant information about oceanic processes. With a deeper understanding of how these processes work there is potential for 1) locating and tracking the evolution of the largest waves in the Atlantic and 2) reconstructing the wave climate off the west coast of Ireland using legacy seismic data on a longer time scale than is currently available using marine based observations.

Donne, S.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.; Lambkin, K.; Creamer, C.

2012-12-01

153

Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management  

PubMed Central

Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the ‘home range’ (HR) and ‘core areas’ (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

2014-01-01

154

Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.  

PubMed

Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

2014-01-01

155

Brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolic compounds in North American west coast bald eaglet (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma.  

PubMed

We report on the identity, characterization, and spatial trends of several brominated flame retardants and hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) organohalogen contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestling plasma collected from sites along the west coast of North America. Samples were from four southwestern British Columbia (BC) locations, a reference site in northern BC (Fort St. James; FSJ), and from Santa Catalina Island, CA (SCI), an area of high DDT and PCB contamination. Mean concentrations of sigma polybrominated diphenyl ether (sigma PBDE (8 congeners monitored); 1.78-8.49 ng/g), sigma OH-polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma OH-PCB (30 congeners monitored); 0.44-0.87 ng/g), and sigma OH-PBDE (14 congeners monitored; 0.31-0.92 ng/g) were similar in eaglets from southwestern BC yet lower than for SCl and significantly higher than for FSJ. Dominant PBDE congeners were BDE47, BDE99, and BDE100, but SCl eaglets also contained low levels of higher brominated congeners. 4-OH-CB187 and 4'-OH-CB202 accounted for 65-100% of sigma OH-PCB in all BC eaglets, with 4'-OH-CB202 as well as 3'-OH-CB138 and 4-OH-CB146 dominating in SCl eaglets. Ostensibly of biogenic origin, 6'-OH-BDE49 and 6-OH-BDE47 were found in BC nestlings. Only 4'-OH-BDE49 (2.10 ng/g) was found in SCl eaglets. MeO-PBDEs and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were not found in any birds, but the polybrominated biphenyl BB101 was detected in southwestern BC samples. This study demonstrates that west coast North American bald eagles contain previously unreported organohalogens, which have the potential to impact the health and survival of these raptors. PMID:17120553

McKinney, Melissa A; Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, John E; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Letcher, Robert J

2006-10-15

156

CarCharhinus limbatus (chondRichthyes: caRchaRhinidae) off West and noR th afRican coasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blacktip shark, Carcharhinus limbatus, is commonly captured along the west coast of Africa and rarely in the Mediterranean, where it was recorded in the Gulf of Gabès (southern Tunisia). Following competition pressure from its sympatric species, the sandbar shark, C. plumbeus and the spinner shark, C. brevipinna, it migrated northward into the Gulf of Tunis and off the Algerian

Christian CAPAPÉ; Amadou Abdoulaye SECK; Youssouph DIATTA; Christian REYNAUD; Farid HEMIDA; Jeanne ZAOUALI

157

PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN…

CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

158

The Gold Coast Nationalist Reaction to the Controversy over Higher Education in Anglophone West Africa and Its Impact on Decision Making in the Colonial Office, 1945-47.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates that nationalist pressure, especially from the Gold Coast (Ghana), was the crucial force behind the British Colonial Office's decision to promote higher education in Anglophone West Africa. It places the issues of establishing African universities into the context of an evolving colonial policy of neocolonialism. (SLD)

Emudong, Charles Peter

1997-01-01

159

The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

1995-01-01

160

Map of southern Florida peninsula. The localities indicated on the west coast have felt the effects of periodic Red-Tide outbreaks.  

E-print Network

indicated on the west coast have felt the effects of periodic Red-Tide outbreaks. COVER- -Masses of floating fish killed by the Florida Red Tide. 28' 27· 26· 25' 80' #12;THE FLORIDA RED TIDE In November 1946 and tide in reddis h- colored patches of sea water extending 10 to 14 miles offshore , fede r al and state

161

Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered subtidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction of the commercial sea urchinParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck) from contrasting habitats on the west coast of Ireland was examined from May 1986 through August 1988. Urchins were collected intertidally from an exposed rocky shore and subtidally from a protected bay. Monthly measurements of the gonad index and histological examination of the gonads demonstrated thatP. lividus has an annual reproductive cycle.

M. Byrne

1990-01-01

162

Seed dispersal mechanisms and the vegetation of forest islands in a West African forest-savanna mosaic (Comoé National Park, Ivory Coast)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition zone between forest and savanna is typically characterized by a dynamic patchwork of forest and savanna. We studied the woody plant species composition of 49 forest islands, 18 savanna, and 3 gallery forest plots in the Comoé National Park (Ivory Coast), West Africa's largest savanna reserve. TWINSPAN makes a clear distinction in vegetational composition between these three major habitat types but,

Thomas Hovestadt; Paul Yao; K. Eduard Linsenmair

1999-01-01

163

Trace element levels in adults from the west coast of Canada and associations with age, gender, diet, activities, and levels of other trace elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess trace element levels in whole blood, serum and urine of 61 non-smoking adults living on the west coast of Canada and to determine their association with the following variables: age, gender, diet, participation in certain hobby and\\/or occupational activities, and levels of other trace elements. Participants or their spouses were employed as

Nina A. Clark; Kay Teschke; Karen Rideout; Ray Copes

2007-01-01

164

Feeding ecology of the Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis fulva) in the Sg. Labu River on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding ecology of the Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis fulva) in the Sg. Labu river near the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula was studied in March and April of 1994. The plovers had two foraging sites, a polychaete-feeding and a mussel-feeding site, which were located at a distance of about 1 km from

Kazuaki Kato; Koji Omori; Masaaki Yoneda

2000-01-01

165

75 FR 78229 - Record of Decision for the U.S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...S. Marine Corps West Coast Basing of the F-35B Aircraft AGENCY: Department of the...decision to base and operate 11 operational F-35B Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) squadrons...squadron, for a total of 176 aircraft), and 1 F-35B Operational Test and Evaluation...

2010-12-15

166

Distribution of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata, Benthesicymidae) off the west coast of Mexico and notes on its morphology  

PubMed Central

Abstract A large series of specimens of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata; Benthesicymidae) was collected during an extensive survey of deep-water invertebrate fauna off western Mexico. In total, 61 males and 122 females (M:F ratio = 1:2) from 44 sampling stations were examined, considerably increasing the number of known specimens and sampling localities for this species which is widely distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The collection is the largest available for this species to date and presents first records from off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and a slight increase of the northernmost record within the Gulf of California. On the whole, females grew larger than males. The petasma of males of different sizes and the female thelycum of Benthesicymus tanneri are illustrated. The petasma of Benthesicymus tanneri presents a ventrolateral crescent-shape process otherwide found only in Benthesicymus tirmiziae Crosnier, 1978 and in Benthesicymus bartletti S.I. Smith, 1882. A key to the four species of Benthesicymus presently known from the eastern Pacific is presented. PMID:25632254

Hendrickx, Michel E.; Papiol, Vanesa

2015-01-01

167

communities associated with environmental factors along a latitudinal gradient on the south-west Atlantic coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To produce an inventory of south-west Atlantic saltmarshes (from latitude 31? 48¢ St o 43? 20¢ S) using remotely sensed images and field sampling; to quantify their total area; to describe the biogeographical variation of the main habitats characterized by dominant vascular plants, in relation to major environmental factors; to test the hypothesis of predominance of the reversal pattern

J. P. Isacch; C. S. B. Costa; L. Rodriguez-Gallego; D. Conde; M. Escapa; D. A. Gagliardini; O. O. Iribarne

168

Safety features on LNG ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technology to transport liquefied natural gas (LNG) safely by sea is well established and many variations of cargo containment systems have been tested and developed since the early 1950s. Examples of four current LNG ships incorporating different containment systems are briefly described. Safety features are examined, now considered standard practice on a modern LNG carrier, which have made a major contribution to the outstandingly good record of LNG ship operations. Examples are given of some LNG ship casualty incidents.

Harris, F. S.

169

First multi-site assessment of tropospheric baseline ozone along the U.S. west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of the full tropospheric (sea level to tropopause) baseline ozone flowing into the western United States from the North Pacific Ocean has been limited to the weekly ozonesondes launched from Trinidad Head in northern California since 1997. Profiles from other locations along the coast have been too sparse to indicate whether or not Trinidad Head is representative of baseline ozone at different latitudes. To explore this question, the IONS-2010 ozonesonde network was implemented during a six-week period (May 10 - June 19, 2010) of the CalNex experiment. Near-daily ozonesonde profiles from 4 sites spanning 870 km of the California coast show that in the lowest km of the atmosphere ozone arriving at Trinidad Head is similar to the rest of the California coast. But above this level the sites differ at many altitudes, with a prominent ozone enhancement that slopes from the mid-troposphere above northern California down to the lower free troposphere above southern California. FLEXPART retroplumes from every profile indicate the regions of the coastal troposphere that experience relatively strong influence from the stratosphere, the remote marine boundary layer or the industrialized regions of Asia. FLEXPART forward plumes reveal the surface regions of North America impacted by the greatest mixing ratios of baseline ozone. Finally, comparison of the coastal profiles to ozone measurements made from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and two inland ozonesonde sites shows that within California, the short-term (< 5 days) influence of western North America on tropospheric ozone extends from the surface to approximately 3 km above sea level.

Cooper, O. R.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Cullis, P.; Ives, M.; Tarasick, D. W.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Stajner, I.

2010-12-01

170

Assessment of contamination, distribution and chemical speciation of trace metals in water column in the Dakar coast and the Saint Louis estuary from Senegal, West Africa.  

PubMed

The water column from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa, was sampled in order to measure the contamination level by trace metals. The speciation of metals in water allowed performing a distribution between dissolved and particulate trace metals. For the dissolved metals, the metallic concentration and repartition between the organic fraction and the inorganic fraction were performed. The results show that the pollution of the estuary was more serious than in Dakar coast for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn; while, Cd and Cu were higher in Dakar coast. A strong affinity between metals and suspended particles has been revealed. Dissolved metals that have a tendency to form organic metal complexes are in decreasing order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Co=Cr=Mn, Cu and Ni. The results showed that the mobility of trace metals in estuary is controlled by dissolved organic carbon, while in coast it depends on chlorides. PMID:25038980

Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Diop, Mamadou; Touré, Aminata; Cabral, Mathilde; Cazier, Fabrice; Fall, Mamadou; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

2014-09-15

171

West African monsoon variability along the Guinea coast during the Holocene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in major element concentrations of anoxic sediments from Lake Bosumtwi, Ghana, are used to reconstruct changes in the West African monsoon during the Holocene with subdecadal to annual resolution. Low elemental concentrations occur during the early- to mid-Holocene, when lake level was high and the exposed catchment area contributing sediments to the lake basin was small. Late Holocene increases in elemental concentrations are consistent with enriched oxygen isotope values of authigenic carbonates, indicating decreasing lake level and enhanced erosional transport of terrigenous material to the basin following the onset of dry conditions. The highest elemental concentrations and the most enriched isotopic values are synchonous with paleolake lowstands in seismic data, supporting our interpretation of the proxy data as indicators of past hydrologic changes. The mid- to late-Holocene decline in West African monsoon strength commenced abruptly between 3.5 and 2.6 kyr, after which it continued to decrease gradually until ca. 0.8 kyr. This contrasts with dust records from North Africa, which indicate a single abrupt shift from wet to dry conditions at ca. 5.5 kyr, and with other monsoon systems (e.g. Indian, Asian), which indicate a gradual decline in monsoon strength throughout this period. This suggests that during the late Holocene, the West African monsoon underwent at least 2 abrupt reorganizations in response to gradually changing summer insolation. Superimposed on these low-frequency hydrologic changes is significant centennial-scale variability. Cross spectral correlation with the record of atmospheric carbon-14 indicates that at least some of this variability may be linked to changes in solar irradiance, as also suggested in records from the Asian and Indian monsoon systems.

Shanahan, T. M.; Overpeck, J. T.; Beck, J. W.; Cole, J. E.; Anchukaitis, K. J.; Peck, J. A.; Scholz, C. A.; King, J.

2007-12-01

172

Continental microseismic intensity delineates oceanic upwelling timing along the west coast of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

biological productivity of coastal upwelling regions undergoes marked interannual variability as marine ecosystems respond to changes in the prevailing winds. Determination of the principal metrics that define the upwelling cycle—the spring transition, when ocean conditions switch from downwelling- to upwelling-favorable, and the Fall Transition, when conditions return to downwelling-favorable—is essential for understanding changes in coastal productivity. Here we demonstrate that upwelling in the northern California Current System may be delineated by changes in microseismic activity recorded at a broadband seismological station in southwestern British Columbia. Observed high correlation between microseismic intensity and offshore bottom pressure fluctuations at ~0.2 Hz confirms a direct link to regional wind-wave generation. Comparison of transition times derived from coincident 20 year records of microseismic intensity and alongshore wind stress for the British Columbia-Oregon coast suggests that seismically derived times may be more representative of coastal upwelling than times derived using traditional methods.

Thomson, Richard E.; Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Hourston, Roy A. S.

2014-10-01

173

Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

Svensson, Carl Johan

2012-07-01

174

Rapid erosion of the coast of Sagar island, West Bengal - India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coastal zone of the Sagar island has been studied. The island has been subjected to erosion by natural processes and to a little extent by anthropogenic activities over a long period. Major landforms identified in the coastal area of the Sagar island are the mud flats/salt marshes, sandy beaches/dunes and mangroves. The foreshore sediments are characterized by silty, slightly sandy mud, slightly silty sand and silty sand. Samples 500 m inland from high waterline are silty slightly sandy mud, and by clayey slightly sandy mud. The extent of coastline changes are made by comparing the topographic maps of 1967 and satellite imageries of 1996, 1998 and 1999. Between 1967 and 1999 about 29.8 km2 of the island has been eroded and the accreted area is only 6.03 km2. Between 1996 and 1998 the area underwent erosion of 13.64 km2 while accretion was 0.48 km2. From 1998 to 1999, 3.26 km2 additional area was eroded with meager accretion. Erosion from 1997 to 1999 was estimated at 0.74 km2 /year; however, from 1996 to 1999, the erosion rate was calculated as 5.47 km2/year. The areas severely affected by erosion are the northeastern, southwestern and southeastern faces of the island. As a consequence of coastal erosion, the mud flats/salt marshes, sandy beaches/dunes and mangroves have been eroded considerably. Deposition is experienced mainly on the western and southern part of the island. The island is built primarily by silt and clay, which can more easily be eroded by the waves, tides and cyclonic activities than a sandy coast. Historic sea level rises accompanied by land subsidence lead to differing rates of erosion at several pockets, thus periodically establishing new erosion planes.

Gopinath, Girish; Seralathan, P.

2005-10-01

175

Long-range transport of Siberian forest fire smoke to Canada's west coast identified by Lidar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2012, forest fire smoke wasdetected by two CORALNet lidar systems operated by Environment Canada along Canada's west coast. Based on satellite, model and back trajectory analysis it is thought the smoke originated in Boreal Asia as a result of unusually large amounts of Siberian wildfire activity. The CORALNet lidar systems operate autonomously, measuring the vertical profile of aerosols from near ground to 18 km at a vertical resolution of 3 m and 7.5 m and a temporal resolution of 10 s and 60 s at 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths respectively. The lidar also measures the depolarization ratio at 532 nm: and indicator of particle shape. The lidars, located at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver and in the village of Whistler, British Columbia observed an increase in the aerosol backscatter ratio in the free troposphere as the Siberian forest fire smoke was transported across the Pacific Ocean into the region. Of particular importance was the increase in ground level particulate due to the mixing of the smoke into the boundary layer, impacting the air quality in southwestern British Columbia. Lidar depolarization ratios in the boundary layer and the free troposphere were consistent with high concentrations of smoke. Detailed lidar observations will be presented along with supporting satellite, model and ground observations revealing the magnitude of the impact on the region.

Strawbridge, Kevin; Cottle, Paul; McKendry, Ian

2014-05-01

176

Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

2014-02-01

177

An intercomparison between finite difference and finite element (TELEMAC) approaches to modelling west coast of Britain tides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A finite element model (namely TELEMAC) with a range of mesh refinements and assumptions of coastal water depths is used to determine an optimal mesh for computing the M 2 tide in a region of significant geographical extent. The region adopted is the west coast of Britain covering the Irish and Celtic Seas. The nature of the spatially varying topography and tidal distribution, together with a comprehensive set of measurements and existing accurate finite difference model makes it ideal for such a study. Calculations show that a water-depth dependent criterion for determining element size gives an optimal distribution over the majority of the region. However, local refinements in narrow channels such as the North Channel and Bristol Channel are required. Although the specification of a zero coastal water depth, leads to a fine near coastal grid, this does not yield the most accurate solution. In addition the computational cost is high. In practice in a large area model the use of a non-zero coastal water depth yields optimum accuracy at minimal computational cost. However, calculations show that accuracy is critically dependent upon nearshore water depths. Comparison with the finite difference model shows that the bias in elevation amplitude in the finite difference solution is removed in the finite element calculation.

Jones, J. Eric; Davies, Alan M.

2005-12-01

178

Spatio-temporal variability of tidal asymmetry due to multiple coastal constructions along the west coast of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least 19 remarkable dikes and land reclamations have been constructed since 1970 along the west coast of Korea, which resulted in a reduction in tidal flat area of almost 50%. Both the reduction in tidal flats and the artificially simplified coastal line have distorted the spatio-temporal tidal hydrodynamics; to quantify this, we analyzed and evaluated tidal asymmetry by phase differences of the principal semi-diurnal lunar constituent M2 and its first over-tide M4. Moreover, we applied the ADCIRC model to quantitatively investigate near- and far-field impacts on tidal variations using the gamma parameter, tidal energy flux, and dissipation rate. Through this study, we found that the tidal regime around the Incheon harbor area in Gyeonggi Bay has changed from ebb- to flood-dominant due to multiple nearby reclamations, in particular to the construction of the Siwha dike. The Saemangeum dike caused near-field de-amplification of M2 but far-field amplification in the Shandong area of China. In addition to allowing a traditional asymmetry approach using phase difference, analyses based on the gamma parameter and tidal energy variations could distinctly improve spatial understanding of anthropogenic impacts on coastal tidal hydrodynamics.

Suh, Seung Won; Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Hyeon Jeong

2014-12-01

179

North Pacific Marine Tropospheric Ozone Concentrations at the West Coast of North America: Evaluation of Long-Term Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activity 1 of the WCRP-SPARC and IGBP-IGAC initiative - Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate - comprises a 20- 25 year hindcast of tropospheric ozone and aerosols, This activity intends to address the following questions: Can we understand what has happened with tropospheric chemistry, and in particular ozone and aerosols? Can we replicate the observed changes over the past 20 years? For this activity to be successful, it is critical that the observed changes must be clearly and accurately defined. However, the observational record is not as extensive as would be desired, and some contradictory conclusions have been reached. These issues are particularly acute for the North Pacific region, which lies downwind of the Asian continent with its rapidly increasing emissions of ozone and aerosol precursors. This presentation will review the available data sets that can illuminate temporal trends of the tropospheric ozone concentrations in the marine air entering North America from the North Pacific, with a particular focus on springtime. The derived long-term temporal trends will be examined for confounding effects from North American influences, statistical significance, and consistency across the available data sets. The derived trends will be compared with those observed at the west coast of Europe, an analogous location that receives marine air from the North Atlantic, which is downwind from the large North American emission sources.

Parrish, D. D.

2007-12-01

180

Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.  

PubMed

Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress. PMID:23856298

Pawar, Prabhakar R

2013-10-15

181

Recent increase in Nybelinia surmenicola prevalence and intensity in Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) off the United States west coast.  

PubMed

A larval marine cestode was found in 82.0% of 834 Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) stomachs collected from 341 trawl stations along the United States west coast during the summers of 2008 and 2009. Morphology and DNA sequencing was used to identify the cestode as Nybelinia surmenicola. In an examination of 131 Pacific hake stomachs collected from the same region in 1999, N. surmenicola prevalence was 35.1%. The results from a general linear model suggested that their prevalence is influenced by year and latitude, Pacific hake size, and sex. Mean intensity of N. surmenicola in 2008-2009 was 20.22 (±1.13 SE) and was positively related to Pacific hake length and the latitude of collection. Year-1 Pacific hake (<27 cm length) had significantly lower prevalence and intensity of N. surmenicola compared to older and larger fish. Pacific hake collected south of Point Conception, California (32.5 to 35°N) had lower prevalence and intensity of N. surmenicola compared to those collected in northern latitudes (35.1 to 48.4°N). Higher N. surmenicola prevalence in Pacific hake in recent years suggests food-web fluctuations in the northern California current ecosystem caused by changes in ocean transport of zooplankton or pelagic fish distributions and warrants future monitoring as a metric for ecosystem change. PMID:21954870

Bryan, David R; Jacobson, Kym C; Buchanan, John C

2012-02-01

182

Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the West Coast OF India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO 2 and NO, emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and CI -) whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca 2+ from natural sources and NH 3 released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H + ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO 42- and N0 3-). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rainwater in the area maybe due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Pillai, A. G.; Safai, P. D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M. G.

183

Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

Howe, John T.

1986-01-01

184

Seasonal abundance of fish larvae in a subtropical lagoon in the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High diversity of fish along the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula is a consequence of strong climatic contrasts between the cool California Current and the warm subtropical California Countercurrent. This favors the distribution of biotas of temperate and tropical affinities belonging to the San Diegan and Panamic Provinces. This work analyzes the specific composition and abundance of fish larvae to characterize their assemblage and seasonal changes in Bah?´a Magdalena, Baja California Sur, during the first 10 months of the 1997-1998 El Niño event. For 46,229 fish larvae, 105 taxa were grouped into 84 genera of 45 families. During the study period, more than a twofold increase in the number of species with respect to other studies represents the largest collection to date. Species composition suggests that at least 40% of the 260 taxa reported as adults had reproductive activity. Two temporally distinct larval fish assemblages were characterized by dominant species with massive spawning, such as Pacific sardine in winter, and mojarras and thread herring in summer. The SST annual cycle, as an indicator of environmental variability, is consistent with the taxonomic change between cool and warm periods.

Avendaño-Ibarra, Raymundo; Funes-Rodríguez, René; Hinojosa-Medina, Alejandro; González-Armas, Rogelio; Aceves-Medina, Gerardo

2004-09-01

185

Introduction to LNG vehicle safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

1994-03-01

186

West Coast Physical Oceanography Program: (Annual technical progress report): A short report 2  

SciTech Connect

Ten current meter mooring (35 current meters, 4 sediment traps) were deployed in October 1985 on the R/V NEW HORIZON and recovered in February 1986 on the R/V SPROUL. Mooring location and array design are shown in the cruise report. Initial data processing has begun. The data set is remarkably error free and indicates large coherent signals over the continental slopes. Mean flow above 200 m was northwestward on the eastern side of the basin and southeastward on the west side of the basin. The total of 88 CTD stations alone 9 sections were taken during an October cruise. Rough sections have been made available to other investigators. Only 36 CTD stations along 6 sections were taken in February due to the loss of the CTD. A second CTD, borrowed from SIO, only operated for one station. The CTD was snagged on the undercut rock walls of Redondo submarine canyon. The CTD was subsequently recovered by the SNOOPER, a manned submersible. Damage was slight--a new cage was required and 3 bottles were lost. The CTD has been refurbished and recalibrated and a new cage has been built. The cage has been modified to accept the larger 30-I bottles utilized by Vic Noshkin, so that his sampling time can be drastically reduced--i.e., he can use the Rosette rather than hang bottles on a line. 2 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Hickey, B.M.

1986-01-01

187

Artificial Recharge Of Urban Wastewater, The Key Component In The Development Of An Industrial Town On The Arid West Coast Of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantis, an industrial town on the somewhat bleak and undeveloped west coast of South Africa, is entirely dependent on groundwater resources for its water supply. With a population of more than 67,000 people and about 140 factories, Atlantis requires a reliable supply of potable water of about 1.5쎺m3\\/a. The demand is met through artificial recharge of a local, shallow, sandy

A. Wright; I. du Toit

1996-01-01

188

Chemical composition of air masses transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT 2K2: Fossil fuel combustion versus biomass-burning signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft was used to study the long-range transport of Asian air masses toward the west coast of North America. During research flights on 5 and 17 May, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were

J. A. de Gouw; O. R. Cooper; C. Warneke; P. K. Hudson; F. C. Fehsenfeld; J. S. Holloway; G. Hübler; D. K. Nicks Jr.; J. B. Nowak; D. D. Parrish; T. B. Ryerson; E. L. Atlas; S. G. Donnelly; S. M. Schauffler; V. Stroud; K. Johnson; G. R. Carmichael; D. G. Streets

2004-01-01

189

Spatial Changes in Trawl Fishing Effort in Response to Footrope Diameter Restrictions in the U.S. West Coast Bottom Trawl Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the spatial distribution of U.S. west coast bottom-trawl effort in relation to areas of prime habitat for rockfish Sebastes spp. were evaluated between 1992 and 2001. Prime trawlable rockfish habitat (PTRH) was defined based on the spatial distribution of high rockfish catches from logbook data for 1992-1995. Bottom-trawl effort was sharply reduced within PTRH after the establishment of

Robert W. Hannah

2003-01-01

190

TEMPORAL PATTERNS OF POPULATION STRUCTURE OF HUMPBACK WHALES IN WEST COAST OF AFRICA (B1B2 SUB-STOCKS) BASED ON MITOCHONDRIAL DNA AND MICROSATELLITE VARIATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the eastern South Atlantic Ocean (Region B) humpback whales are distributed along the west coast of South Africa and wintering in the Gulf of Guinea. The most recent data available suggest that Breeding stock B is possible sub-structured, considering B1as a breeding ground and B2 as a summer feeding ground and a winter migration corridor. However questions regarding to

J Loo; M. C. Leslie; T. Collins; Oman Whale

191

Intra-coastal ballast water flux and the potential for secondary spread of non-native species on the US West Coast.  

PubMed

Ballast water is a dominant mechanism for the interoceanic and transoceanic dispersal of aquatic non-native species (ANS), but few studies have addressed ANS transfers via smaller scale vessel movements. We analyzed ballast water reporting records and ANS occurrence data from four US West Coast port systems to examine patterns of intra-coastal ballast water transfer, and assess how ballast transfers may have influenced the secondary spread of ANS. In 2005, one third of the vessels arriving to the US West Coast originated at one of four West Coast port systems (intra-coastal traffic). These vessels transported and discharged 27% (5,987,588 MT) of the total ballast water volume discharged at these ports that year. The overlap of ANS (shared species) among port systems varied between 3% and 80%, with the largest overlap occurring between San Francisco Bay and LA/Long Beach. Our results suggest that intra-coastal ballast water needs further consideration as an invasion pathway, especially as efforts to promote short-sea shipping are being developed. PMID:19108853

Simkanin, Christina; Davidson, Ian; Falkner, Maurya; Sytsma, Mark; Ruiz, Gregory

2009-08-01

192

Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. PMID:25339526

Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karaka?, Serpil

2014-10-23

193

Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 ?m), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

2009-03-01

194

LNG risk management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general methodology is presented for conducting an analysis of the various aspects of the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which should be considered during the planning stages of a typical LNG ship terminal. The procedure includes the performance of a hazards and system analysis of the proposed site, a probability analysis of accident scenarios and safety impacts, an analysis of the consequences of credible accidents such as tanker accidents, spills and fires, the assessment of risks and the design and evaluation of risk mitigation measures.

Martino, P.

1980-12-01

195

75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

In a final rule published May 26, 2010, the Coast Guard amended Letter of Intent (LOI) and Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities. The amendment triggered information collection requirements affecting these facilities. The Coast Guard now announces that the collection of information has been approved by the......

2010-09-03

196

Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

2009-04-01

197

Abundance and Size Distribution of the Sacoglossan Elysia viridis on Co-Occurring Algal Hosts on the Swedish West Coast  

PubMed Central

Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp.) at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host. PMID:24647524

Baumgartner, Finn A.; Toth, Gunilla B.

2014-01-01

198

Abundance and size distribution of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis on co-occurring algal hosts on the Swedish west coast.  

PubMed

Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp.) at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host. PMID:24647524

Baumgartner, Finn A; Toth, Gunilla B

2014-01-01

199

Assessment of well water quality in Tsunami affected regions of south-west coast of Kerala, India.  

PubMed

The quality of well waters, based on 23 parameters of water, at 12 stations of south-west coast of Kerala, India, was assessed during monsoon, 2009 and summer, 2010, to determine their suitability for drinking and other domestic purposes. The stations selected were grouped into four regions viz. least, slightly, moderately and severely affected ones based on the severity of 2004 Asian Tsunami at each station. The depths of wells showed variations depending on the seasons and on their distance from the seacoast. The average water temperatures during monsoon and summer seasons were 28.5 degrees C and 30.2 degrees C respectively. The pH of well waters were below 6.5 in least and slightly affected regions and above this value in moderately and severely affected regions. In all the four regions, the well water parameters of electrical conductivity, hardness, fluoride, free chlorine, copper, zinc, calcium and nickel were below, and phosphorus, lead, iron cadmium and manganese were above the standard permissible levels set for them in drinking water. The values of salinity, sodium and potassium in the well waters of moderately and severely affected regions, and the values of nitrate-nitrogen, nitrate and magnesium in the well waters of severely affected regions were above the permissible limits set for them in drinking water. Water quality index calculated on the basis of drinking water standards revealed that the well waters of least and slightly affected regions were moderately polluted in both monsoon and summer seasons and the same of moderately affected region were excessively polluted during monsoon and severely polluted during summer seasons, whereas the well waters of severely affected regions were severely polluted in both seasons. Suitable recommendations were made to improve the quality of well waters of least and slightly affected regions. PMID:24640255

Nair, G Achuthan; Chandran, R Pratap; Sukumar, B; Santhosh, S; Vijayamohanan; Sobha, V

2013-07-01

200

Dependence of Wind Turbine Curves on Atmospheric Stability Regimes - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Tall Wind Farm  

SciTech Connect

Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, convective or neutral, mean wind speed (U) and turbulence ({sigma}{sub U}) may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 m to 120 m). This variation can cause a single turbine to produce difference amounts of power during time periods of identical hub height wind speeds. The study examines the influence that atmospheric mixing or stability has on power output at a West Coast North American wind farm. They first examine the accuracy and applicability of two, relatively simple stability parameters, the wind shear-exponent, {alpha}, and the turbulence intensity, I{sub u}, against the physically-based, Obukhov length, L, to describe the wind speed and turbulence profiles in the rotor area. In general, the on-site stability parameters {alpha} and I{sub u} are in high agreement with the off-site, L stability scale parameter. Next, they divide the measurement period into five stability classes (strongly stable, stable, neutral, convective, and strongly convective) to discern stability-effects on power output. When only the mean wind speed profile is taken into account, the dependency of power output on boundary layer stability is only subtly apparent. When turbulence intensity I{sub u} is considered, the power generated for a given wind speed is twenty percent higher during strongly stable conditions than during strongly convective conditions as observed in the spring and summer seasons at this North American wind farm.

Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Sharp, J; Zulauf, M

2009-08-24

201

Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of suspended particulate organic matter in Zuari Estuary, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal variations of the ?13C and ?15N of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), along with ancillary chemical and hydrographic parameters, have been examined monthly for one year (October 2010 to September 2011) at a total of seven stations to refine the understanding of SPOM sources and biogeochemical pathways in the tropical Zuari Estuary, west coast of India. The dynamic nature of C and N cycling in estuaries is reflected in the isotopic variation of SPOM as a function of space and time. The results exhibit marked seasonality, with the autochthonous component and the terrestrial component being the major SPOM sources during periods of low and high river discharges, respectively. Spatially, enrichments of ?13C and ?15N from the head (?13C = - 29.6‰, ?15N = 1.78‰, C/N = 7.09) to the mouth (?13C = - 20.9‰, ?15N = 5.77‰, C/N = 6.12) of the estuary indicate downstream reduction of terrigenous influence. The mean C:N ratios varied between 4 and 9 over the study period with low values during the monsoon, in spite of large terrestrial input, which can be attributed to microbial modification of terrestrial SPOM. A significant positive correlation of ?13C with salinity suggests the reliability of ?13C as a biogeochemical tracer for organic matter provenance. Carbon:chlorophyll plots reveal suppressed autochthonous production during the southwest monsoon which may be attributed to the rapid flushing time, light-limitation due to cloud cover and high water-column turbidity.

Bardhan, Pratirupa; Karapurkar, S. G.; Shenoy, D. M.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; Maya, M. V.; Naik, H.; Varik, S.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

2015-01-01

202

Recent environmental changes and filamentous algal mats in shallow bays on the Swedish west coast — A result of climate change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last thirty years, many shallow estuarine bays, located in Scandinavian sheltered coastal environments, have been subject to the increased dominance of opportunistic species of filamentous green algae, oxygen deficiency in bottom waters and the alteration of flora and fauna. Human-induced eutrophication has been held responsible for these recent changes, but from this study the importance of climatic factors emerges. This research is based on the analysis of sediment cores from 8 shallow areas ( d < 50 cm) along the Bohuslän archipelago, Swedish west coast, and focuses on their recent (< 100 years) sedimentary evolution. Evidence of hydrodynamic change was observed in the sediments, where modern fining-upward sequences contrast with the expected coarsening upward model due to ongoing land uplift. Heavy metal concentrations from modern pollution and 14C dating of mollusk shells and eelgrass roots provided the age control, and allowed to place these changes within the last three decades. Data were compared with historical meteorological records (seasonal warming, modification of dominant winds and upwelling and reduction of sea-ice), and a clear connection emerged between the environmental changes and variations in the North Atlantic Ocean weather pattern. The increase of winter temperature and reduction of reworking winter sea-ice in these sheltered bays increased the storing of nutrients in the sediments and the turnover of organic matter, favoring the early growth stage of opportunistic algae in the most sheltered areas of the archipelago. This, together with human-induced modifications (overfishing and eutrophication), increased the possibility of opportunistic explosions, which in turn determined a reduced water exchange, the increased deposition of fine sediments and organic matter and evolving hypoxic conditions.

Cossellu, Michele; Nordberg, Kjell

2010-04-01

203

Bacterial production, glucosidase activity and particle-associated carbohydrates in Dona Paula bay, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size-fractionated bacterial production, abundance and ?- and ?- glucosidase enzyme activities were studied with respect to changes in hydrography, total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen ratio (POC:PON), 1.5 M NaCl-soluble and 10 mM EDTA-soluble carbohydrates (Sal-PCHO and CPCHO) and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) in the surface waters from July 1999-2000 at a shallow coastal station in Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India. The bulk of the total bacterial production and glucosidase activity were associated with particles (75% and >80%, respectively). Total bacterial production was linearly correlated to chlorophyll a ( r = 0.513; p < 0.05) whereas enzyme activity was significantly correlated to TSM (?-glucosidase: r = 0.721 ( p < 0.001); ?-glucosidase: r = 0.596 ( p < 0.01)). Both ?-glucosidase ( r = 0.514; p < 0.05) and ?-glucosidase enzymes ( r = 0.598; p < 0.01) appeared to be involved in the degradation of CPCHO and Sal-PCHO, respectively. Changes in ?-glucosidase/?-glucosidase ratios highlighted the varying composition of particulate organic matter. The bacterial uptake of 14C-labeled bacterial extracellular carbohydrate measured over 11 days showed a strong linear correlation between 14C-uptake and bacterial production using tritiated thymidine. The turnover rate of 14C-labeled carbohydrate-C was 0.52 d -1, higher than the estimated annual mean potential carbohydrate carbon turnover rate of 0.33 ± 0.2 d -1. Our study suggests that carbohydrates derived from sediments may serve as an important alternative carbon source sustaining the bacterial carbon demand in the surface waters of Dona Paula Bay.

Bhaskar, P. V.; Bhosle, N. B.

2008-11-01

204

LNG annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

1982-09-01

205

Study of gelled LNG  

SciTech Connect

This research included (1) further characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) rheological properties, (2) assessment of the relative leakage of GELNG vs LNG through a perforated wall, (3) relative spread and vaporization rates of unconfined spills on water, and (4) relative spread and vaporization rates of unconfined spills on land. Shear stress vs strain rate was determined for a range of gelant concentrations. The shear diagram was extended to cover shear rates in the range of 13 to 14,800 inverse seconds, expanding previous results at both low and high shear rates. Leakage tests of GELNG through a known geometry perforation were conducted along with comparative testing with LNG. Rapid cessation of flow through the perforated plate was observed for all tested concentrations of GELNG and at all driving pressures. This cessation of leakage was observed for both moist ambient air and dry helium isothermal environments. LNG showed no flow cessation tendencies under any of the test conditions. Land spills were found to give inconclusive results due to difficulties in measuring transient weight changes during the spill. Water spills were conducted in such a way that spread areas could be photographically recorded. Gelation increases total vaporization time significantly in water spills.

Rudnicki, M.I.; Cabeal, J.A.; Hoffman, L.C.; Newton, R.A.; Schaplowsky, R.K.; Vander Wall, E.M.

1981-05-01

206

A two-layer cavity flow model to study interactions beneath ice shelves off the coast of West Antarctica.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observational studies have shown that ice shelves off the coast of West Antarctica in the Amunsden Sea area have experienced rapid thinning during the 1990s (Shepherd et al., 2002; Shepherd et al., 2004). In particular, it is believed that oceanographic changes in the Amundsen Sea are responsible for the thinning and acceleration of Pine Island Glacier. An earlier study looking at melt rates generated by a plume model beneath the ice shelf in Pine Island Bay suggested that there was a strong feedback mechanism between the plume and topography of the ice shelf underside near the grounding line (Payne et al., 2007). The influence of ocean properties on the melt rates could not, however, be fully investigated by the simple plume model because it assumes that the ambient ocean is stationary and whose properties do not vary horizontally. We have modified the above 2D plume model to consist of two-layers; the upper one represents the buoyant, melt-water rich plume and the other represents the circulating ambient ocean water. The addition of an active ambient layer to the 2D model allows ocean properties at the ice shelf front to advect around the cavity. This new model will provide spatial patterns of basal melt rates that will include both the effects of the geometry of the cavity beneath an ice shelf and changes in ocean properties at the shelf's front. We have developed a simple 2D model so that it can be coupled to an ice sheet model. Momentum of the cavity flow is governed by geostrophic balance modified by a linear drag law and is solved using the rigid lid streamfunction method. Interactions between the layers are parameterised through the entrainmment rate, which depends on the relative velocities, thicknesses and densities of the layers and can be positive or negative. The model will be applied to the Pine Island Ice Shelf. Results from early simulations with realistic topography of the underside of the the shelf and a flat bedrock using parameter values used by Payne et al. (2007) suggested that melt rates are concentrated close to the grounding line where the slope of the underside of the shelf is greatest and they are around 50 m/yr. Payne, A. J., P. R. Holland, A. P. Shepherd, I. C. Rutt, A. Jenkins and I. Joughin. 2007. Numerical modeling of ocean-ice interactions under Pine Island Bay's ice shelf. J. Geophys. Res., 112, C10019, doi:10.1029/2006JC003733. Shepherd, A., D. J. Wingham and J. A. D. Mansley. 2002. Inland thinning of the Amundsen Sea sector, West Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(10), 1364, doi:10.1029/2001GL014183 Shepherd, A., D. Wingham and E. Rignot. 2004. Warm ocean is eroding West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23402, doi:10.1029/2004GL021106

Lee, Victoria; Payne, A. J.; Gladstone, R. M.; Holland, P. R.

2010-05-01

207

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703...Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure...

2010-10-01

208

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703...Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure...

2011-10-01

209

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703...Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure...

2013-10-01

210

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703...Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure...

2012-10-01

211

Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and ridging over the Intermountain West, whereas the south-coast summer ARs coincide with relatively cold conditions and a near-coast trough. ARs have a much more profound impact on near-coast precipitation in winter than summer, because the terrain-normal vapor flux is stronger and the air more nearly saturated in winter. During winter, ARs produce roughly twice as much precipitation as all storms. In addition, wintertime ARs with the largest SSM/I IWV are tied to more intense storms with stronger flows and vapor fluxes, and more precipitation. ARs generally increase snow water equivalent (SWE) in autumn/winter and decrease SWE in spring. On average, wintertime SWE exhibits normal gains during north-coast AR storms and above-normal gains during the south-coast AR storms. The north-coast sites are mostly lower in altitude, where warmer-than-normal conditions more frequently yield rain. During those events when heavy rain from a warm AR storm falls on a preexisting snowpack, flooding is more likely to occur. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

2008-01-01

212

Regional and global context of the Late Cenozoic Langebaanweg (LBW) palaeontological site: West Coast of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palaeontological site of Langebaanweg (LBW) is internationally renowned for its prolific, diverse and exceptionally well preserved Mio-Pliocene vertebrate faunas. The site is located on the southern West Coast of South Africa which represents a passive intraplate, trailing edge setting. The southern African subcontinent is also removed from glacial influence and has experienced no Cenozoic volcanic activity. Rates of vertical crustal motion are consequently low and Late Cenozoic shoreline datums at LBW chiefly reflect glacio-eustatic sea level history. The primary aim of this study is to clarify the chronology as well as the regional and global context of LBW and to review previous work on these aspects. LBW is ideally situated to document the complex interactions of ocean, atmosphere and land and their respective influence on climate evolution, given its location near the coast and mix of marine, estuarine and terrestrial faunas and depositional settings. This paper also provides a background to the study of the vast existing faunal collections and a guide to undiscovered fossil deposits. Towards these ends, the first detailed geological/topographic maps of the site and surrounds, accompanied by a summary stratigraphic column are provided. Virtual geological modelling using a subsurface database has clarified the spatial and temporal relationships of sedimentary facies, as well as their depositional settings. The geological and palaeontological record at LBW tracks and documents the major regional and global climatic/oceanographic events of the Late Cenozoic. During the Oligocene drawdown in sea levels, the landscape was etched by river incision. Fluctuating sea levels of the Neogene periodically reversed the trend from erosion to deposition, preserving contemporary faunas and floras in the Oligocene palaeovalleys. Earlier Miocene pollen from fluvial facies indicates a humid sub-tropical climate, reflecting a warm southern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt late Middle Miocene global cooling (Monterey Excursion) coincided with intensified cold upwelling in the Benguela Current and extensive phosphate authigenesis. A globally documented Early Pliocene highstand possibly related to the shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama reached ~ 90 m above sea level (asl), implying extensive melting of the cryosphere. Palaeomagnetic data in tandem with global sea level reconstructions suggested an age of ~ 5.15 ± 0.1 Ma for the faunas and a correlation with the earlier part of this transgression. A subtropical C3 vegetation is indicated by the faunas and floras, but with a significant contribution by sclerophytic fynbos pointing to a cooler and more seasonal climate than in the Miocene. A mid-Pliocene highstand to ~ 50 m asl truncated the Early Pliocene succession at LBW and the globally documented Late Pliocene highstand to ~ 30 m asl saw the Atlantic shoreline approaching LBW for the last time. With the progressive climatic cooling and instability of the terminal Pliocene, culminating in the growth of the Arctic ice cap, strengthening southerly winds driven by a tighter coiled South Atlantic Anticyclone deposited extensive coastal dune fields over the region.

Roberts, David L.; Matthews, Thalassa; Herries, Andrew I. R.; Boulter, Claire; Scott, Louis; Dondo, Chiedza; Mtembi, Ponani; Browning, Claire; Smith, Roger M. H.; Haarhoff, Pippa; Bateman, Mark D.

2011-06-01

213

United States West Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

214

Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm  

SciTech Connect

Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts little impact on power output during the winter and autumn periods. During the spring and summer seasons, power output for a given wind speed was significantly higher during stable conditions and significantly lower during strongly convective conditions: power output differences approached 20% between stable and convective regimes. The dependency of stability on power output was apparent only when both turbulence and the shape of the wind speed profile were considered. Turbulence is one of the mechanisms by which atmospheric stability affects a turbine's power curve at this particular site, and measurements of turbulence can yield actionable insights into wind turbine behavior.

Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

2010-02-22

215

Sources of 21st century regional sea level rise along the coast of North-West Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in both global and regional mean sea level, and changes in the magnitude of extreme flood heights, are the result of a combination of several distinct contributions most, but not all, of which are associated with climate change. These contributions include effects in the solid earth, gravity field, changes in ocean mass due to ice-loss from ice sheets and glaciers, thermal expansion, alterations in ocean circulation driven by climate change and changing freshwater fluxes, and the intensity of surge tides. Due to the diverse range of models required to simulate these systems, the contributions to sea-level change have usually been discussed in isolation rather than as a fully-coupled system. Focusing on the coastline of Northwest Europe, we consider all these processes and their relative impact on 21st century regional mean sea levels and extreme flood height. As far as possible our projections of change are derived from process-based models forced by the A1B emissions scenario to provide a self-consistent comparison of the contributions. We address uncertainty by considering both a mid-range and an illustrative high-end combination of the different components. For our mid-range ice-loss scenario we find that thermal expansion of seawater is the dominant contributor to change in sea level by 2100. However, the projected contribution to extreme sea level, due to changes in storminess alone, is significant and in places is comparable to the global mean contribution of thermal expansion. For example, under the A1B emissions scenario, by 2100, change in storminess contributes around 15 cm to the increase in projected height of the 50 yr storm surge on the west coast of the Jutland Peninsula, compared with a contribution of around 22 cm due to thermal expansion. An illustrative combination of our high-end projections suggests increases in the 50 yr return level of 86 cm at Sheerness, 95 cm at Roscoff, 106 cm at Esbjerg, and 67 cm at Bergen. The notable regional differences between these locations arise from differences in rate of vertical land movement and changes in storminess.

Howard, T.; Pardaens, A. K.; Lowe, J. A.; Ridley, J.; Hurkmans, R. T. W. L.; Bamber, J. L.; Spada, G.; Vaughan, D.

2013-12-01

216

Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the principal period of breeding activity, but there was no difference between the sexes in daily travel rate during the winter. The timing of seasonal migrations differed markedly between geographic regions. Most long-distance movements in the southern half of the study area occurred between November and March in response to changing temperatures, whereas most migrations in the northern region took place during the warmer, non-winter months. Manatees left their warm-season range in central Florida in response to cold fronts that dropped water temperatures by an average of 2.0??C over the 24-hr period preceding departure. Water temperature at departure from the warm-season range averaged 19??C, but varied among individuals (16-22??C) and was not related to body size or female reproductive status. The presence of industrial warm-water effluents permitted many manatees to overwinter north of their historic winter range, and for some migrants this delayed autumn migrations and facilitated earlier spring migrations. Southward autumn and northward spring migrations lasted an average of 10 and 15 days at mean rates of 33.5 (SD = 7.6) and 27.3 (SD = 10.5) km/day, respectively. The highest rate of travel during migration was 87 km/day (3.6 km/hr) during winter. Manatees overwintering in southeastern Florida often traveled north during mild weather - sometimes reaching their warm-season range - only to return south again with the next major cold front. Manatees were consistent in their seasonal movement patterns across years and showed strong fidelity, to warm-season and winter ranges. Within a season, individuals usually occupied only 1 or 2 core use areas that encompassed about 90% of daily locations. Most manatees returned faithfully to the same seasonal ranges year after year (median distance between range centers was <5 km between years). Seasonal movements of 4 immature manatees tracked as calves with their mothers

Deutsch, C.J.; Reid, J.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Easton, D.E.; Kochman, H.I.; O'Shea, T.J.

2003-01-01

217

Effectiveness of loess in rejuvenating soil and ecosystem properties in a high leaching environment, West Coast, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of major disturbances, humid terrestrial ecosystems tend over long time scales towards deficiency of biogeochemically accessible nutrients. This phenomenon has been implicated in ecosystem retrogression. Aeolian deposition has been shown to be an important mitigating effect on nutrient depletion in soils and ecosystems of old landsurfaces (e.g. Hawaii, Amazon Basin). Significant nutrient loss has been demonstrated on surfaces as young as Holocene age in very high leaching environments (>2,000 mm/a) and ecosystem retrogression has been reported for landsurfaces formed ca. 100 ka. The aim of this study is to quantify the capacity of actively accumulating loess to replenish nutrient pools in soils and ecosystems in a super-humid, temperate environment on the west coast of the South Island, New Zealand. The study area, a sequence of Holocene dune ridges under a conifer (podocarp) rainforest, combines a loess flux gradient downwind of a braided riverbed on a 6,500 y old dune ridge and, distal from the loess source, an adjacent chronosequence of dune ridges (170-6,500 y BP age range). Pedogenesis is very rapid with Spodosols developing after 1,000 y under a thick organic root mat. Our approach is based on the principle that if loess deposition has rejuvenating effects on soils or ecosystems, then it will result in soils or ecosystems of a given age having properties consistent with those on a younger, less leached landsurface. How much younger determines the strength of the rejuvenating effect. We sampled and analysed soils, to a depth of 1 m by standard methods to determine total profile masses of important macro nutrients, conducted a vegetation survey and sampled tree foliage of fully expanded, fresh leaves of sunlit branches. Along the loess gradient, foliar nutrient P concentrations in two main canopy species increased according to a power law towards the river, corresponding to an inverse logarithmic increase in loess flux rate from 0 at 1,000 m distance to 25 g m^-2 y^-1 adjacent to the river. For Prumnopitys ferruginea, foliar P concentration was described by: foliar P(%)=0.6194*[distance (m)]^-0.2812 (R^2=0.65, P<0.0001). A similar trend occurred with decreasing dune age across the chronosequence. We compared foliar P concentration along the loess gradient with foliar P concentration across the chronosequence and show that a loess flux rate of 25 g m^-2 y^-1 on a 6,500 y old dune produces foliar P concentrations comparable to that of a 390 y old dune. This is equivalent to a rejuvenation of >6,000 y, or more than 90%. By 500 m distance (8 g m^-2 y^-1) the rejuvenation effect is negligible. Soil total P concentrations in the top 30 cm of the mineral soil also respond to the loess flux with an up to ~3-fold increase at comparable soil depths when moving towards the river. We will present P fractionation data from the soils in order to determine how biogeochemically accessible the total P is, and explore the relative significance of the organic horizon versus the mineral soil as a pool and a pathway of the aeolian-derived nutrients to the ecosystem.

Eger, A.; Almond, P. C.; Condron, L. M.

2010-12-01

218

Seasonal and regional variability in dissolved and particulate iron fluxes via glacial runoff along the West Greenland coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subglacial weathering, due to biogeochemical and physical weathering processes, can affect the chemical evolution of subglacial waters and release dissolved and particulate iron via glacial runoff. Iron is a growth limiting nutrient and plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycles of coastal and marine waters. More recently, dissolved and colloidal iron derived from subglacial sources have been considered an important contributor of Fe fluxes to the ocean; however, their dependency on lithology, grain size, and microbial activity is not well understood. This study characterizes the solute chemistry, in particular iron mineralogy and dissolved iron concentrations, released from beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), from two locations along the West Greenland coast, Thule (76°N, 68°W) and Kangerlussuaq (67°N, 50°W). We hypothesize that the subglacial lithology has a control on Fe fluxes from the GrIS to coastal and marine systems. The underlying bedrock in Thule is the Precambrian Dundas and Narssarssuk sedimentary formations which include sandstone, siltstone, and shale. The bedrock in Kangerlussuaq is dominated by Archean granodioritic gneiss and amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen. Supra and subglacial meltwater samples were collected directly in front of the Ice Sheet over an entire melt season in 2011 (North River, Thule) and 2012 (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River, Kangerlussuaq). In situ parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity were recorded in order to interpret meltwater chemistry. Dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) species were fixed immediately and analyzed within 24 hours after sampling in the field laboratory using a spectrophotometer and 10 cm cell. Total dissolved iron (FeT) of different size fractions (<0.22 and <0.05 ?m) of iron were determined back in the home laboratory using reaction cell ICP MS. Preliminary results demonstrate that subglacial meltwater of North River has average FeT concentrations of 200 nM and 10 nM in the <0.22 and <0.05 ?m size fraction, respectively, indicating that FeT in the <0.22 ?m fraction is mostly (95%) in form of colloidal iron. In comparison, data from Kangerlussuaq show an average FeT of 580 nM in the <0.22 ?m size fraction and 150 nM in the <0.05 ?m fraction. Suspended load in North River increased throughout the ablation period in concurrence with variation in discharge, from an average of 0.08 g/L in the early melt stages (June), 0.21 g/L during the high melt (July-August), and 0.15 g/L during the late melt (end of August-September). Initial estimates for the suspended load for subglacial flow in Kangerlussuaq are 0.30 g/L on average. The suspended load will be analyzed for iron by sequential extraction in order to characterize how iron partitions between oxide and (oxyhydr)oxide minerals in the sediment. This comprehensive study will allow us to identify biogeochemical processes involved in the mobilization of iron and to evaluate how increased melting of GrIS will affect Fe fluxes to coastal and marine environments.

Choquette, K.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Harrold, Z.; Liu, L.; Dieser, M.; Cameron, K. A.; Christner, B. C.; Junge, K.

2012-12-01

219

Paleo-tsunami and land-level change evidence from the west coast of South Andaman, Andman Nicobar Island, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, Mw 9.3 provided an ideal opportunity to understand the pattern of paleoseismic event and paleo-tsunami deposition in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The present investigation carried out along the west coast of Andaman Island around Collinpur village (N11°39´56.9´´ and E92°44´31.3´´) revealed excellent evidences pointing towards land-level change and tsunami deposition during recent historic past. Sedimentary records studied from the geo-slicer and trench sections collected along transect across stable beach ridges and swales between the ridges (N11°41'38?, E92°35'52?) revealed distinct change in depositional environments which have been attributed to tectonic activity. In total we excavated 4 trenches and collected 9 geo-slicer sections. We present here our preliminary results and interpretations. Based on sedimentary structures, grain size and nature of contact and colour, sedimentary units from the trenches and geoslicers were classified into seven units (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) from bottom to top. The bottom most unit a is marked by poor laminations of fine silty-sand and peaty material suggestive of inter-tidal to marshy environment. This is overlain by 30 cm thick unit b - comprising coarse sand with gravel fragments (corals, shells, rock clasts etc.) in the swale and coarse sandy deposits along with broken shells, peaty material and rip-up clasts of underlying soil on the back-limb of the beach ridge. The sharp-erosive contact with the underlying and overlying sedimentary unit, distinct variation in grain marked assorted fragments, broken shell; peaty material suggests deposition by tsunami wave during recent geological past. Overlying unit c marked by partially developed peaty layer suggests marshy environment at or above mean sea level indicative of a probable uplift (?) which occurred during Event I accompanied with tsunami waves. Unit d with finer deposits comprised of silty-clay suggests deposition under sub-tidal environment; change of depositional environment from marshy to sub-tidal suggests subsidence - Event II. Thick silty-sand unit (unit e) and overlying humic soil (unit f) indicates land-level change. Based on the change in sediment grain size and well develop humic soil it is suggested that the uplift was gradual during inter-seismic period. Unit g shows yellowish medium to coarse sand with prominent laminations at the basal part and sharp contact with the underlying humic soil (unit f). This unit marks the deposition by recent tsunami generated by 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquakes. Marginal coseismic subsidence probably occurred during this event - Event II. AMS ages obtained from the peaty material, charcoal, wood from the geo-slice and trench sections suggests that Event I marked by tsunami deposits occurred at around 1200-1300 AD; Event II marked by subsidence occurred somewhere during 1300-1800 AD. It is inferred that the gradual uplift during inter-seismic period occurred between 1800 and 2000 AD. Finally the area marginally subsided during 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake along with deposition of tsunami sediments.

Malik, Javed; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Shishikura, M.

2010-05-01

220

RENAL COCCIDIOSIS AND OTHER PARASITOLOGIC CONDITIONS IN LESSER SNOW GOOSE GOSLINGS AT THA-ANNE RIVER, WEST COAST HUDSON BAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goshings, approxinuateh: 5 weeks of age, were collected muear the mouthu of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, durimig mnid-Auugust 1991. Mamuy dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goshings from near the coast, where imabitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater

S. Gomis; A. B. Didiuk; J. Neufeld; G. Wobeser

221

Three-Dimensional Model Simulations of Tides and Buoyancy Currents along the West Coast of Vancouver Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional finite element model is used to calculate the barotropic tides and seasonal buoyancy flows off the western and northern coasts of Vancouver Island. The model buoyancy currents and the harmonics of eight tidal constituents are compared with those from previous models, and those from tide gauge and current meter observations. The rms differences between observed and calculated sea

Michael G. G. Foreman; Richard E. Thomson

1997-01-01

222

CALWATER-2 An Experiment Exploring the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States are: 1) Atmospheric rivers (ARs), which deliver much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and 2) Aerosols--from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents--which can modulate western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. A set of science investigations, called CalWater 2, have been proposed over the next several years to fill these gaps including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data over regions offshore of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between December 2014 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period, including a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) that was proposed in the context of CalWater 2. A broad 5-year vision of an interagency effort to address these science gaps will be presented, and informal input into this planning is being solicited through this presentation, including consideration of potential synergistic connections to other relevant activities. The CalWater 2 white paper was prepared by a team of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers, reflecting the breadth of processes involved and the expertise needed to make new progress. The motivation is largely based upon findings that have emerged in the last few years from airborne and ground-based studies, including CalWater and the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT). The proposed observing strategy would build on these advances and employ airborne, ship-, and ground-based assets together with satellite observations to address the scientific objectives. The approach takes advantage of recent investments in new instrumentation, such as the new sophisticated instrumentation developed by UC San Diego to measure the chemical composition of nucleated aerosols, and also in observing systems, including HMT, the NASA Global Hawk, and relevant satellite and airborne remote sensing observing systems.

Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Spackman, J.; Waliser, D. E.

2013-12-01

223

New Tooth Enamel Isotopic Data from the West Coast of South Africa and a Comparison of Terrestrial and Marine Records of Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plio-Pleistocene transition marks a change in the Earth's climate from relative global warmth to colder temperatures with the initiation of glacial-interglacial cycles. Proxy records from marine cores off SW Africa archive changes in ocean upwelling and terrestrial vegetation that suggest increased aridity across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Today, the SW African coast has a Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ) and is dominated by C3 vegetation, which results from the regional high-pressure system and upwelling in the Benguela Current. While marine records provide an integrated perspective on regional responses to global climate change, terrestrial paleoclimate records are needed to assess the effects of these changes in a heterogeneous environment like southern Africa. Archeological and paleontological sites can provide useful proxies of paleoclimate, but many southern African sites are poorly dated or postdate the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Langebaanweg (LBW, ~5 Ma) and Elandsfontein (EFT, ~1.0-0.6 Ma) are sites on the SW coast of South Africa that are rich in fossil mammals and represent landscapes where surface water was more prevalent than it is in today's dry coastal environment. Fossil teeth of large herbivores (e.g. hippopotamids, giraffids, bovids, rhinocerotids, suids and equids) are preserved at both sites and enable isotopic studies of vegetation and climate across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotopic data are reported for 100 fossil teeth (11 herbivore taxa) at EFT and are compared to published isotopic data from early Pliocene teeth from LBW for many of the same genera. ?13C values of the EFT tooth enamel range from 13 to 8‰ (VPDB) and ?18O values range from -2 to +3‰ (VPDB). Among the EFT data, there are consistent differences in the distribution of both ?13C and ?18O values among the sampled taxa. When the EFT and LBW isotopic results are compared, ?13C values from the two sites are similar within each taxonomic group. However, ?18O values of the EFT teeth are more than 2‰ higher than ?18O values of LBW teeth for each herbivore family that was sampled. Enamel ?13C values from LBW and EFT indicate herbivore diets that were dominated by C3 vegetation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Mesowear studies of teeth suggest that the West Coast of South Africa was a forested environment with seasonal grasses during the Pliocene but that it supported trees, fynbos and grasses in the mid-Pleistocene. The isotopic indications of C3 diets among grazers from both sites suggest that a WRZ must have existed across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. The positive shift in ?18O values of fossil tooth enamel between the early Pliocene and the mid-Pleistocene on the West Coast of South Africa might suggest a change in the oxygen isotopic composition of rainfall and a decrease in the amount of rainfall across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Excluding diagenesis, these conclusions are consistent with marine records. This study indicates the potential for using the stable isotope records from fossil teeth from the West Coast of South Africa to evaluate how the intensification of the Benguela Upwelling System, which is well documented in the marine records, affected terrestrial ecosystems across the Plio-Pleistocene transition.

Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Stynder, D. D.; Bishop, L. C.; Forrest, F.; Braun, D. R.

2012-12-01

224

Determination of in situ biomass and energetics in seagrass beds on the west coast of Florida. Topical report, May 1982-January 1984  

SciTech Connect

The Gulf Coastal region of Florida supports extensive grass beds that almost continuously cover the shallow (1-5m) depths from Apalachicola Bay to Anclote Bay and in Tampa Bay. Attached and drift benthic seaweeds occur as well and may have higher energetic yields than the seagrasses. The shallow and continuous beds offer a possible source for plant biomass use in methane production, if sufficient material is available throughout the year and the energetics are high enough. Triweekly samplings at three sites around Tampa Bay and bimonthly samplings at four sites along the west coast of Florida showed highest biomass occurring during the spring through fall months. The available biomass of combined attached and drift seagrasses and seaweeds was lower than that predicted when compared with terrestrial crops. Naturally occurring seagrass and seaweed beds do not have sufficient biomass to justify harvesting for biogass production, although energetics levels are high.

Dawes, C.J.

1984-01-01

225

Applications of a new ecosystem model to study the dynamics of phytoplankton and nutrients in the Ariake Sea, west coast of Kyushu, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we present the development and application of a new ecosystem model coupled with a hydrodynamic model to describe the important physical, chemical and biological processes of an ecosystem in the marine environment, the Ariake Sea in the west coast of Kyushu, Japan. The model was calibrated and validated using in-situ field measurements from various monitoring stations in the sea. The presented results covered the period from January 1991 to December 2000. The results showed that chlorophyll- a, nutrients and dissolved oxygen levels varied seasonally in response to weather and boundary condition. Through this study, the model was shown to be able to handle the flooding and drying processes that usually exist and play an essential role over the estuarine-tidal flats of the sea.

Minh Hang, Nguyen Thi; Cao Don, Nguyen; Araki, Hiroyuki; Yamanishi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Kenichi

2009-01-01

226

Depositional record of trace metals and degree of contamination in core sediments from the Mandovi estuarine mangrove ecosystem, west coast of India.  

PubMed

The concentrations of seven trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn) in three sediment cores were analysed to assess the depositional trends of metals and their contamination level in the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India. All sediment cores showed enrichment of trace metals in the upper part of core sediments and decrease in concentration with depth, suggesting excess of anthropogenic loading (including mining activities) occurred during the recent past. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images distinguished the shape, size and structure of particles derived from lithogenic and anthropogenic sources in core sediments. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) values indicate that Mandovi estuary is 'moderately polluted' with Pb, whereas 'unpolluted to moderately polluted' with Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn. The comparative analysis of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn were highly enriched in the Mandovi estuary compared to all other Indian estuaries. PMID:25510546

Veerasingam, S; Vethamony, P; Mani Murali, R; Fernandes, B

2015-02-15

227

LNG plants in the US and abroad  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT`s LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

1992-12-31

228

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG 1914 First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling/shipping.  

E-print Network

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG 1914 First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling-shaving plant in Cleveland, an LNG storage tank with a low nickel- steel content (only 3.5%) fails. LNG spills

229

North American LNG Project Sourcebook  

SciTech Connect

The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

NONE

2007-06-15

230

33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

(1) Personnel who work at the waterfront facility handling LNG including persons assigned for transfer operations, vessel personnel, and delivery and service personnel in the course of their business; (2) Coast Guard personnel; and (3) Other persons authorized by the operator;...

2014-07-01

231

Field Signatures of the SE-Asian Mega-Tsunami along the West Coast of Thailand Compared to Holocene Paleo-Tsunami from the Atlantic Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Andaman-Sumatra Tsunami of Dec. 26, 2004, was by far the largest tsunami catastrophe in human history. An earthquake of 9 to 9.3 on the Richter scale, the extension of waves over more than 5000 km of ocean and run-ups up to 35 m are its key features. These characteristics suggest significant changes in coastal morphology and high sediment transport rates. A field survey along the west coast of Thailand (Phuket Island, Khao Lak region including some Similan Islands, Nang Pha mangrove areas and Phi Phi Don Islands) seven to nine weeks after the tsunami, however, discovered only small changes in coastal morphology and a limited amount of dislocated sediments, restricted to the lower meters of the tsunami waves. This is in striking contrast to many paleo-tsunami's events of the Atlantic region. Explanations for this discrepancy are sought in: a. Mechanics of the earthquake. A rather slow shock impulse on the water masses over the very long earthquake zone, b. Shallow water in the earthquake zone, and c. Bathymetry of the foreshore zone at the impacted sites. Shallow water west of Thailand has diminished wave energy significantly. The differences in geomorphological and sedimentological signatures of this tsunami compared with many paleo-tsunami worldwide makes it unsuitable to be used as a model for old and future tsunami imprints by an event of this extreme energy and extension.

Kelletat, Dieter; Scheffers, Sander R.; Scheffers, Anja

2007-03-01

232

Tracing the sources of water using stable isotopes: first results along the Mangalore-Udupi region, south-west coast of India.  

PubMed

The Mangalore and Udupi region on the south-west coast of India is characterized by small west-flowing rivers (150-250 km in length) originating in the Western Ghats (up to 1940 meters above sea level (m asl)) and joining the Arabian Sea. The area experiences a humid tropical climate with frequent, high-intensity rainfall (4000 mm annual average). Nevertheless, there is a shortage of water during the peak dry season immediately before the onset of monsoon because of a rapid fall in the groundwater level. From the humid high-altitude forests to the intense agriculture in the coastal area, there is an urgent need to understand the movement of water between evapotranspiration, rainfall, river systems and the groundwater compartments in order to achieve better water resource management. Demographic pressure on the area with over half a million inhabitants and industrial activity strongly influence this fragile ecosystem. The coastal area is characterized by shallow open wells, which are particularly sensitive to pollution and eutrophication. Stable water isotopes ((18)O and deuterium) were used for the first time in this region to determine the isotopic characteristics of the different waters. There is a clear seasonal difference in the isotopic ratios and d-excess values between the summer and winter monsoon periods, with a predominance of lighter isotopes in the latter period. No significant variations in isotopic ratios were observed in relation to altitude because of the possible role of mist formation at high altitude. Greater d-excess values were observed in the west-flowing streams than in rivers flowing east on account of the moist westerly oceanic winds and water vapour recycling. PMID:21913254

Lambs, L; Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K

2011-10-15

233

Using CHEMTAX to evaluate seasonal and interannual dynamics of the phytoplankton community off the South-west coast of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CHEMTAX was used to assess the relative contribution of the main phytoplankton classes to the total concentration of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) from the waters off SW coast of Portugal. Sampling campaigns were carried out during all seasons from 2008 to 2012, at three stations located 2, 10 and 18 km from the coast. Samples were taken from the surface, mid-Secchi and Secchi depth, for the determination of Chl a and other phytoplanktonic pigments by HPLC. Supporting data were also obtained including dissolved inorganic nutrients, salinity, transparency, temperature and upwelling indices. The CHEMTAX results were also related to microscopy counts and also spectral analysis of absorption of other samples from the same sampling campaigns. The pigment results showed that diatoms dominated from early spring to summer, coinciding with upwelling conditions, while cryptophytes, prymnesiophytes and prasinophytes dominated in autumn and winter, coinciding with seasonal stratification. Although the contribution of cyanobacteria to total Chl a was generally low, there were occasional sampling campaigns where it was exceptionally high, but these appeared not to be related to upwelling. Dinoflagellates and chrysophytes were minority groups although the pigment marker peridinin that was used to distinguish dinoflagellates was not adequate for distinguishing all the members of this group. CHEMTAX was particularly useful for discriminating between the smaller (0-20 ?m) classes of the microplankton that could not be easily identified by microscopy.

Goela, P. C.; Danchenko, S.; Icely, J. D.; Lubian, L. M.; Cristina, S.; Newton, A.

2014-12-01

234

The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation  

E-print Network

of the strategies used in the LNG industry and recommended by federal regulation National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 59A is to use expansion foam to suppress LNG vapors and to control LNG fire by reducing the fire size. In its application, expansion foam...

Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

2009-05-15

235

Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

Manobianco, John

1989-01-01

236

Recommended research on LNG safety  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

1981-03-01

237

Comparison between the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and thermal balloon ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of endometrial thermal ablation and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the management of menorrhagia. Study design: Fifty women attending a gynaecology clinic at a District General Hospital in south-west England were randomised to either surgical treatment using thermal ablation (Thermochoice, Gynecare) or medical treatment using a LNG-IUS (Mirena, Schering Healthcare). A pictorial menstrual chart

Julian W. Barrington; Angamuthu S. Arunkalaivanan; Mohammed Abdel-Fattah

2003-01-01

238

LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

1994-02-01

239

Renal coccidiosis and other parasitologic conditions in lesser snow goose goslings at Tha-anne River, west coast Hudson Bay.  

PubMed

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings, approximately 5 weeks of age, were collected near the mouth of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, during mid-August 1991. Many dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goslings from near the coast, where habitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater prevalence of renal coccidiosis (Eimeria truncata) and cecal nematode (Trichostrongylus spp.) infection than did goslings from inland areas, where habitat destruction was not evident. Prevalence of infection with intestinal cestodes was greater at inland than at coastal sites. Prevalences of gizzard nematodes (Epomidiostomum spp.) and Leucocytozoon spp. were not significantly different at the two sites. Histological examination of kidneys and examination of kidney homogenates for oocysts were more sensitive methods than gross examination of the kidneys for detecting renal coccidial infection. The number of oocysts present in droppings was not a good indicator of the severity of renal coccidial infection in individual birds; however, the average number of oocysts in droppings was indicative of the average severity of infection among groups of goslings. PMID:8827676

Gomis, S; Didiuk, A B; Neufeld, J; Wobeser, G

1996-07-01

240

LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen  

SciTech Connect

Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

NONE

1997-02-24

241

LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

1992-01-01

242

78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...the Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm...

2013-01-15

243

78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...the Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm...

2013-04-15

244

The impact of different hydrographic conditions and zooplankton communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composition and abundance of zooplankton were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks ( Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. Zooplankton was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Sørkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the abundance of prey preferred by Little Auks, Arctic Calanus glacialis copepodids stage V, among zooplankton was similar in both localities. However, there was much more of Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus on the shelf outside Magdalenefjorden compared to Hornsund, resulting in different abundance ratios of Arctic to Atlantic copepods in the two areas (1:14 and 1:1, respectively). Even greater differences between the two areas occurred in the ratio of C. glacialis CV to other zooplankters, amounting to 1:40 in Magdalenefjorden and 1:6 in Hornsund. In both Little Auk colonies food brought by parents to their chicks contained mainly C. glacialis CV, albeit the proportion of this copepod in meals was significantly higher in Hornsund. Meals delivered to Little Auk chicks in Hornsund had also higher zooplankton numbers, biomass and energy content. In Magdalenefjorden, on the other hand, a higher number of feedings and longer duration of foraging trips were recorded. These differences became more apparent with increasing energy requirements of the fast growing nestlings. This was probably a consequence of lower relative abundance of the Little Auks’ preferred prey in the sea adjacent to Magdalenefjorden colony. It seems that searching for the preferred food items, such as C. glacialis, among abundant but less favored C. finmarchicus, may require more time and energy demanding foraging behavior. As a consequence, foraging effort of the Little Auk parents from Magdalenefjorden was higher, and feeding efficiency lower, than those of birds from Hornsund. Increasing influx of warm Atlantic waters that bring boreal zooplankton to the Arctic Seas may have negative impacts on Little Auks’ time and energy budgets and eventually on their breeding success and range of breeding distribution.

Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Walkusz, Wojciech; Karnovsky, Nina; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Cisek, Malgorzata; Stempniewicz, Lech

2010-10-01

245

Phylogenetic study and barcoding of the blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, found on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia using the COI gene.  

PubMed

Blood cockles are among the most economically important brackish water invertebrates found in Malaysia. However, our knowledge of blood cockle phylogeny and systematics is rudimentary, especially for the species Tegillarca granosa. It is unclear, for instance, whether the cockles occurring on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia constitute a single species, or multiple, phylogenetically distinct species. We performed the first DNA molecular phylogenetic analysis of T. granosa to distinguish it from other related species found in other parts of the world and to create a DNA database for the species. An approximately 585-nucleotide fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome oxidase I, COI) was sequenced for 150 individual cockles, representing 10 populations: three from the north, four from the central part and three from the southern part of peninsular Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting dataset yielded tree topologies that not only showed the relationship between T. granosa and its closest relatives but its position in the evolutionary tree. Three mitochondrial clades were evident, each containing an individual genus. Using the mutation rate of the COI gene, the divergence time between T. granosa and its closest related species was estimated to be 460 thousand years ago. This study provides a phylogenetic framework for this ecologically prominent and commercially important cockle species. PMID:21732288

Chee, S Y; Devakie, M N; Siti Azizah, M N

2011-01-01

246

Distribution of the Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus during winter in the northern Sea of Japan, along the west coast of Hokkaido, based on aerial and land sighting surveys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aerial and land-based sighting surveys were conducted to clarify the distribution of Steller sea lions during winter in the\\u000a northern Sea of Japan, along the west coast of Hokkaido, from 2001 to 2003. Aerial surveys revealed that sea lions gathered\\u000a around the Rishiri-Rebun Islands in March 2002 and 2003, and between Iwanai and Cape Obana in February 2003. Higher numbers

Hiroshi Hoshino; Takeomi Isono; Takuma Takayama; Tsuyoshi Ishinazaka; Akihiko Wada; Yasunori Sakurai

2006-01-01

247

Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ?2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge of El Hierro. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

2014-12-01

248

Puerto Rico`s EcoElectrica LNG/power project marks a project financing first  

SciTech Connect

On Dec. 15, 1997, Enron International and Kenetech Energy Services achieved financial close on the $670 million EcoElectrica liquefied natural gas terminal and cogeneration project proposed for Puerto Rico. The project involves construction of a liquefied natural gas terminal, cogeneration plant, and desalination unit on the southern coast of Puerto Rico, in the Penuelas/Guayanilla area. EcoElectrica will include a 500-mw, combined-cycle cogeneration power plant fueled mainly by LNG imported from the 400 MMcfd Atlantic LNG project on the island of Trinidad. Achieving financial close on a project of this size is always a time-consuming matter and one with a number of challenges. These challenges were increased by the unique nature of both the project and its financing--no project financing had ever before been completed that combined an LNG terminal and power plant. The paper discusses the project, financing details and challenges, key investment considerations, and integrated project prospects.

Lammers, R. [Enron International, Houston, TX (United States); Taylor, S. [Kenetech Energy Systems Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-02-23

249

Thermal Hazard from LNG Fireballs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidents with many hydrocarbon materials such as propane, butane and gasoline frequently result in the formation of fireballs. The shipment of liquified natural gas (LNG) involves large quantities of fuel which, in the event of an accident, could ignite to form a fireball. Depending on atmospheric conditions, the thermal effects from such a fireball could produce third degree skin burns

H. C. HARDEE; D. O. LEE; W. B. BENEDICK

1978-01-01

250

Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanré, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

2013-04-01

251

[Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].  

PubMed

The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration for La Restinga; the polyunsaturated fatty acids were between 4.66 and 35.55% with lower values for Chacopata and higher values for Chaguaramas samples. P. viridis is recommended for human being consumption, according to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids found for this species. PMID:21516644

Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

2011-03-01

252

Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment  

PubMed Central

We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique – taken from the published literature – and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 104 cells L?1) varied considerably (sensitivity—Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity—Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)—improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%). PMID:22180667

Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A.

2011-01-01

253

MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding workshops to other regions, providing coverage in its newsletter, through columns and case studies in trade journals, and through coordinating presentations at association and professional society meetings. Combined, there were more than 800 participants. Applying ''application percentages'' from PTTC's total technology transfer program, more than 250 participants are likely to be applying technologies (39% of industry participants). Polymer gel water-shutoff (WSO) treatments and wellbore management were a focus in the Midcontinent area. A major provider of polymer gel WSO treatments has experienced a significant increase in treatment activity in Oklahoma, some of which can be logically attributed to this project. A provider of polylined tubing, a product related to wellbore management, has noted a 280% increase in their independent customer base and opening of a new market due to their involvement in PUMP-spinoff technology transfer. Detailed case studies on polymer gel WSO treatments and wellbore management, along with more global analyses, demonstrate the economic value of these technologies to producers. Among the many information sources that producers consider when applying technology, PTTC knows it is an important source in these technology areas.

Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

2004-12-01

254

Importance of organic and black carbon in atmospheric aerosols at Mace Head, on the West Coast of Ireland (53°19'N, 9°54'W)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mass concentrations of total organic carbon (TC) and its chemical fractions, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-insoluble organic carbon (WISOC), and black carbon (BC), were determined in marine aerosols, which were collected during the period July 1998-September 1999 at the Mace Head Atmospheric Research Station on the west coast of Ireland. In addition, mass concentrations of major inorganic ions, like non-sea-salt (NSS) sulphate, and mass concentrations of dicarboxylic acids have been measured separately within the water-soluble aerosol fraction. The aerosol samples were classified into 'clean marine aerosol samples' and 'modified marine aerosol samples' according to the origin of air masses arriving at Mace Head, and using BC as a tracer for anthropogenic pollution. Following this classification, the data set was further divided into samples taken during summertime and wintertime. An average TC mass concentration of 591±75 ng m -3 was determined for all aerosol samples taken at Mace Head. WSOC was found to be the dominating fraction in 'modified marine aerosol samples', followed by WISOC and BC, whereas in 'clean marine aerosol samples' WISOC was the main fraction, followed by WSOC, and BC. A comparison of the mass concentration of the water-soluble organic matter to the main water-soluble inorganic component, NSS sulphate, gave an average ratio of 0.72±0.10, which increased to 1.59±0.23 when considering solely 'clean marine aerosol samples'. The dominating dicarboxylic acid found in carbonaceous aerosols at Mace Head was oxalic acid, followed by malonic acid. Both diacids were responsible for about 14±2% of the WSOC (in terms of carbon).

Kleefeld, S.; Hoffer, A.; Krivácsy, Z.; Jennings, S. G.

255

Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.  

SciTech Connect

GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites, reanalysis meteorology and various remote sensing products to generate statewide estimates of biosphere carbon exchange from the atmospheric point of view.

B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

2010-06-01

256

Projection of Carbon Dynamics in the Marine West Coast Forests under Climate and Land Cover changes Using General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate and land cover changes may influence the capacity of the terrestrial ecosystems to be carbon sinks or sources. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential change of the carbon sequestration in the Marine West Coast Forests ecoregion in the Pacific Northwest United States using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). In GEMS, the underlying biogeochemical model, Erosion and Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), was used and calibrated using MODIS net primary production (NPP) and grain yield data during the baseline period from 2002 to 2005, and then validated with another four-year period from 2006 to 2009. GEMS-EDCM was driven using projected climate from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) under three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) and derived land cover data from the FORecasting SCEnarios (FORE-SCE) model under the same three IPCC scenarios for the period from 2006 to 2050. This ecoregion, two-thirds of which is covered by forest, was projected to continue to gain carbon from 2005 to 2050, with an annual carbon sequestration of about -3 Tg C. It was also predicted that live biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) would contain about 48% and 33% of the total carbon storage by 2050, respectively. In addition, forest carbon sequestration (-2 Tg C yr-1) demonstrated to be the largest sink among all ecosystems, accounting for 73% of the total, followed by grass/shrub and agriculture. Overall, results about predicted dynamics of carbon storage and sequestration can be informative to policy makers for seeking mitigation plans to reduce greenhouse gases emissions.

WU, Y.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Young, C.; Werner, J.; Dahal, D.; Liu, J.; Schmidt, G.

2012-12-01

257

77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...impact of LNG exports on the U.S. economy using a general equilibrium macroeconomic model of the U.S. economy with an emphasis on the energy sector...impact of LNG exports on the U.S. economy using a general equilibrium...

2012-12-11

258

LNG links remote supplies and markets  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas.

Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N. [Mobil LNG Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Rethore, T.J. [Arthur D. Little Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-06-02

259

Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks  

Microsoft Academic Search

LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and

B. A. Fecht; T. E. Gates; K. O. Nelson; G. D. Marr

1982-01-01

260

Future scenarios of land-use and land-cover change in the United States--the Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detecting, quantifying, and projecting historical and future changes in land use and land cover (LULC) has emerged as a core research area for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Changes in LULC are important drivers of changes to biogeochemical cycles, the exchange of energy between the Earth’s surface and atmosphere, biodiversity, water quality, and climate change. To quantify the rates of recent historical LULC change, the USGS Land Cover Trends project recently completed a unique ecoregion-based assessment of late 20th century LULC change for the western United States. To characterize present LULC, the USGS and partners have created the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) for the years 1992, 2001, and 2006. Both Land Cover Trends and NLCD projects continue to evolve in an effort to better characterize historical and present LULC conditions and are the foundation of the data presented in this report. Projecting future changes in LULC requires an understanding of the rates and patterns of change, the major driving forces, and the socioeconomic and biophysical determinants and capacities of regions. The data presented in this report is the result of an effort by USGS scientists to downscale the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) to ecoregions of the conterminous United States as part of the USGS Biological Carbon Sequestration Assessment. The USGS biological carbon assessment was mandated by Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. As part of the legislative mandate, the USGS is required to publish a methodology describing, in detail, the approach to be used for the assessment. The development of future LULC scenarios is described in chapter 3.2 and appendix A. Spatial modeling is described in chapter 3.3.2 and appendix B and in Sohl and others (2011). In this report, we briefly summarize the major components and methods used to downscale IPCC-SRES scenarios to ecoregions of the conterminous United States, followed by a description of the Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion, and lastly a description of the data being published as part of this report.

Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Griffith, Glenn; Acevedo, William; Bennett, Stacie; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan; Ryan, Christy; Sayler, Kristi L.; Sleeter, Rachel; Soulard, Christopher E.

2012-01-01

261

Partitioning of food resources amongst 18 abundant benthic carnivorous fish species in marine waters on the lower west coast of Australia.  

PubMed

The volumetric contributions made by prey and plant material to the diets of 4 elasmobranch and 14 teleost species, collected seasonally by trawling from waters along ca. 200 km of the lower west coast of Australia, have been compared. These benthic carnivores, which were all abundant and collectively contributed 83% to the total number of fish caught, represented nine families (Urolophidae, Scorpaenidae, Triglidae, Platycephalidae, Sillaginidae, Carangidae, Gerreidae, Mullidae and Pempherididae). Some species were numerous in both shallow (5-15 m) and deeper (20-35 m) waters and in both northern and southern regions, whereas others were largely confined to one of these water depths or regions. Comparisons between the diets of the different species, which utilised data collected from individuals throughout the study area, demonstrated that the dietary composition of any given species was almost invariably significantly different from that of every other species. This partly reflected the fact that, while errant polychaetes, gammarid amphipods and tanaids were ingested by all species, their contributions to the diets of the different species varied. Furthermore, echinoderms contributed to the diets of just nine species, and this was substantial only in the case of two sillaginid species, while teleosts were never consumed by six species and only made a marked contribution to the diets of the single species of platycephalid. The diet of each species underwent size-related changes, reflecting a shift from the consumption by smaller fish of prey such as amphipods, mysids and copepods, to the ingestion by larger fish of prey such as polychaetes, carid decapods, isopods and small teleosts. The interspecific and intraspecific differences in dietary compositions would spread the food resources amongst and within species, thereby reducing the potential for competition for those resources within the fish community. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) ordination plots emphasised that the dietary compositions of species within each family possessed some obvious similarities, reflecting similarities in body and mouth morphology and feeding behaviour. However, the extent to which the dietary compositions of the different families were similar or different was often not related to the phylogenetic relationships amongst those families. Furthermore, while differences in mouth size and morphology could sometimes be used to account for differences amongst the diets of the full suite of species, this was not always the case. Thus, the ways in which species feed and use their ancillary feeding structures were also employed to help elucidate the basis for variations in diets. PMID:11438104

Platell, M E.; Potter, I C.

2001-06-15

262

Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations.  

PubMed

A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (

Ullah, Shahid; Huber, Sandra; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

2014-04-01

263

Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some ecoregions, harvest reductions below current levels will sequester more carbon than additional harvest removals for bioenergy. References: Hudiburg, T., B. E. Law, D. P. Turner, J. Campbell, D. Donato, and M. Duane. 2009. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage. Ecological Applications 19:163-180. Waring, R. H., and J. F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen Coniferous Forests of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204:1380-1386.

Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

2012-12-01

264

Diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae) and geochemistry from annually laminated mid-Holocene sediments, west coast Canada: insights into abrupt climate change in the past  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 115-year record of annually laminated sediments from Effingham Inlet, a small anoxic fjord on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (49?N, 125?W), was analyzed for diatoms (species and abundances) and geochemistry (C and N isotopes, organic C and trace elements Ag, Cd, Re and Mo) from a piston core. The sediments were radiocarbon dated at approx. 4200-4400 years before present (yr BP) and show diatom enriched varves in the lower 70 years, with a sudden transition to diatom impoverished varves above. In the lower section, varves are thick (2-5 mm) and consist of well-defined Thalassiosira-Skeletonema-Chaetoceros spring bloom successions. Diatom concentrations average at 787 ± 733 million valves/g of dry sediment, del 15N at 7.0 ± 0.5 per mil, and organic C at 5.2 ± 0.5 wt. %. In the upper section, the varves are thinner (1-2 mm), do not clearly show the seasonal diatom succession, and contain increased terrigenous detritus. Diatom concentrations average at 388 ± 202 million valves/g with an increased relative abundance of benthic and freshwater taxa, del 15N at 7.3 ± 0.6 per mil and organic C at 5.7 ± 0.5 wt. %. Values of del 13C for both sections are similar, averaging at -24.0 ± 0.5 per mil. The trace element concentrations are quite variable throughout the section. However, several thin (<1 cm) nonlaminated intervals show decreased diatom abundances with concomitant increases in trace element concentrations, suggesting short-lived changes in surface productivity, upwelling and nutrient delivery, and/or anoxic conditions. The abrupt transition from diatom-rich to diatom-poor varves could reflect a shift in dominance of the North Pacific High and Aleutian Low atmospheric pressure systems over the northeast Pacific Ocean, not unlike the well-documented 1976/1977 climate regime shift which showed a change in upwelling and nutrient delivery. A transition between warm and sunny climates to cooler and wetter regimes at around 4000 yr BP has been noted in previous paleoenvironmental studies from British Columbia and the northern hemisphere in general. The Effingham Inlet sediment record data will also be compared with modern sediment trap data from the inlet.

Chang, A.; Pedersen, T. F.

2009-04-01

265

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

2011-07-01

266

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01

267

Study of gelled LNG. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Research involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and an examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigation included (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics as well as (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system. The safety-related criterion for successful application of gelled LNG is the substantial reduction of the Maximum Distance to the Lower Flammability Limit, MDLFL. This will be achieved by first, gel-inhibition of the hydrodynamic pooling and spreading of the spill, and second, the suppressed thermal transport properties of the GELNG relative to those of LNG. The industrial scale gelation study evaluated a design capable of producing 11,000 gallons (LNG tank truck) of gel in two hours. The increased cost of gelation using this equipment was estimated at $0.23/10/sup 6/ Btu for plants with liquefaction facilities. The technical results of this study are supportive of the conclusion that gelation of LNG will reduce, relative to ungelled LNG, the hazard associated with a given size spill. Parameters of interest to the LNG facility operator (such as pumpability) are not significantly affected by gelation, and the impact on LNG delivery cost appears to be small, about 5%. Thus, the initial assumption that gelation would provide a practical means to enhance safety is supported by the results of this study. Larger scale, comparative spill tests of LNG and GELNG are now required to confirm the safety aspects of use of the gelled material.

Rudnicki, M I; Cabeal, J A; Hoffman, L C; Newton, R A; Schaplowsky, R K; Vander Wall, E M

1980-01-01

268

Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report  

SciTech Connect

Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

Battelle

1999-07-01

269

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless...boil-off gas, and: (1) Maintains the stack exhaust temperature below 535 °C (995 °F); (2) Exhibits no visible...

2014-10-01

270

Damage-detection system for LNG carriers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System utilizes array of acoustical transducers to detect cracks and leaks in liquefied natural gas (LNG) containers onboard ships. In addition to detecting leaks, device indicates location and leak rate.

Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

1978-01-01

271

Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

Not Available

2004-07-01

272

LNG production for peak shaving operations  

SciTech Connect

LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

Price, B.C.

1999-07-01

273

Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

2014-01-01

274

Potential seen for doubling U. S. LNG imports  

SciTech Connect

According to a U.S. Office of Technology Assessment report, Nigeria, Indonesia, Australia, Malaysia, Trinidad, Colombia, and Chile are the most likely sources of U.S. imports of LNG, although the areas with the greatest amounts of exportable surplus LNG are the Persian Gulf, with > 231 trillion cu ft/yr, and the U.S.S.R., with 439 trillion cu ft/yr. The import of LNG would increase the U.S. balance of payments deficit, but LNG imports seem preferable to oil imports. LNG producers have a tendency to sell to Europe or Japan, since these areas are closer to the LNG sources. Maritime Administration and Export-Import Bank programs favor the use of domestic rather than foreign LNG tankers, which tends to reduce the financial stake of foreign suppliers in uninterrupted deliveries. Exportable LNG surpluses (in trillions of cu ft/yr) include: Algeria, 8; Nigeria, 33; Southeast Asia, 41; and Western Hemisphere, 19.

Not Available

1980-04-21

275

Potential for BLEVE associated with marine LNG vessel fires.  

PubMed

Recent LNG marine shipping hazard studies have discounted BLEVE hazards associated with LNG vessels. This exclusion of a potential major hazard event has been queried, particularly since a recent LNG truck BLEVE-like event in Spain. This paper reviews the physical factors associated with the Spanish LNG truck event and accepts that this had features of a classical BLEVE event and that there is no inherent property of LNG excluding BLEVE-like events, although US LNG trucks would be safer due to design features. Marine LNG vessels have differently designed tanks and it is demonstrated that the combination of physical barriers makes direct thermal input to the LNG inner tank more limited than hypothesized by some, but if it occurs these tanks cannot rise to a pressure sufficient to cause a large flash of liquid and consequent BLEVE event of a scale hypothesized in the literature. PMID:17137713

Pitblado, Robin

2007-02-20

276

Direct application of west coast geothermal resources in a wet corn milling plant supplementary analyses and information dissemination. Final report, addendum  

SciTech Connect

In an extension to the scope of the previous studies, supplementary analyses were to be performed for both plants which would assess the economics of geothermal energy if coal had been the primary fuel rather than oil and gas. The studies include: supplementary analysis for a coal fired wet corn milling plant, supplementary analysis for an East Coast frozen food plant with coal fired boilers, and information dissemination activities.

Not Available

1982-03-19

277

West coast RFI survey, volume 1, volume 2 appendix E, volume 3 appendix F, volume 4 appendix G, and volume 5 appendix H  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities and data reported cover experimental design, mechanization onboard the aircraft, survey operations, quick look and automated data reduction, and a qualitative comparison of survey data with predicted values for the radio frequency survey. The survey was designed to measure amplitude, frequency and time of occurrence of terrestrial emissions in the VHF band during overflights of heavily populated metropolitan areas located on the Pacific Coast of the Continental United States by sensing and recording equipment installed in jet aircraft.

Deutsch, W. F.

1972-01-01

278

North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997-2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7??C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Park, W.; Douglas, D.C.; Shirley, T.C.

2007-01-01

279

77 FR 43589 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Supplemental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...pipelines (boil-off gas, natural gas, natural gas liquids, nitrogen) and utility...Freeport LNG's Stratton Ridge underground gas storage facility, and interconnects...additional LNG vaporization and natural gas send-out facilities...

2012-07-25

280

Analysis of liquefied natural gas (LNG) release prevention systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is playing an important role in meeting the energy needs of the U.S. and other countries. Since one unit volume of LNG is equivalent to 600 unit volumes of natural gas, liquefaction permits large volumes of gas to be economically stored and transported. In the United States, LNG has a twenty-year record of safe handling and

P. J. Pelto; E. G. Baker

1984-01-01

281

International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?  

E-print Network

International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du and Sergey Paltsev Report No. 271;1 International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where

Gabrieli, John

282

The diseconomics of long-haul LNG trading  

Microsoft Academic Search

Long-haul liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports yield little or no economic rent. Trades, such as Borneo to Japan, are economical, but government takes otherwise are minimal. Today, the price of LNG is capped by the technical option of modifying gas turbines to bum liquid fuels. The maximum premium for LNG is less than 50 cents per thousand cubic feet (\\/Mcf),

Stauffer

1995-01-01

283

Duffy Negative Antigen Is No Longer a Barrier to Plasmodium vivax – Molecular Evidences from the African West Coast (Angola and Equatorial Guinea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPlasmodium vivax shows a small prevalence in West and Central Africa due to the high prevalence of Duffy negative people. However, Duffy negative individuals infected with P. vivax have been reported in areas of high prevalence of Duffy positive people who may serve as supply of P. vivax strains able to invade Duffy negative erythrocytes. We investigated the presence of

Cristina Mendes; Fernanda Dias; Joana Figueiredo; Vicenta Gonzalez Mora; Jorge Cano; Bruno de Sousa; Virgílio E. do Rosário; Agustin Benito; Pedro Berzosa; Ana Paula Arez

2011-01-01

284

A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LANDFALL OF THE 1979 RED TIDE OF KARENIA BREVIS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA. (R827085)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall o...

285

Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

2005-04-01

286

Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

1982-07-01

287

Amount of subsidence during a late Holocene earthquake—evidence from fossil tidal marsh foraminifera at Vancouver Island, west coast of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fossil foraminifera in intertidal deposits beneath a marsh near Tofino on west-central Vancouver Island, British Columbia, provide a basis for estimating the amount of subsidence during a large earthquake less than 400 years ago. We compared the fossil foraminiferal assemblages with present-day assemblages along a surveyed transect across the marsh, and we estimated paleo-elevation by means of both subjective and

Jean-Pierre Guilbault; John J. Clague; Martine Lapointe

1995-01-01

288

Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

2013-06-01

289

Status report on GELNG (gelled LNG)  

SciTech Connect

Over the past 2 years, Aerojet's research on characterizing the process, flow, and use properties of gelled LNG has covered (1) its safety-enhancement potential, (2) the economics and preliminary design of an industrial-scale gelation system, and (3) the design of a portable gelator for larger scale (40 m/sup 3/) spill tests. The technical results thus far continue to support the conclusion that GELNG would substantially reduce spill hazards. Operating parameters would not be significantly changed by gelation, and the cost impact on delivered LNG appears to be small (about 5%).

Rudnicki, M.; Hoffman, L.C.; Vander Wall, E.M.

1980-01-01

290

GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall - Duration: 0:37.  

NASA Video Gallery

A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

291

Investigation of sea level anomalies related with NAO along the west coasts of Turkey and their consistency with sea surface temperature trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is one of the large-scaled climate modes effective in the Northern Hemisphere, has a considerable affect on the water resources and climatic indicators especially in the Mediterranean basin. In recent years, also crucial studies about the sea level rise in relation to climate change have been accelerated. Turkey has about 20 modernized tide gauge stations equipped with permanent GPS receivers and targets to contribute to global sea level rise studies in the future. The aim of this study is to find out the effects of North Atlantic Oscillation on the national shores using the data of four tide-gauge stations located on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey. Implications from these four tide gauges would motivate researches to take into account the effect of NAO in calculating the true sea level rise at the national coasts. While studying the sea level changes, vertical crustal movement has been observed using the data of tide gauge GPS stations, and this situation has been taken into consideration in the evaluation of sea levels. Besides, in order to investigate the influences of thermal expansion on sea levels, sea surface temperature data of the meteorology stations near the tide gauges have been evaluated. The homogeneity of the data sets was analyzed using four statistical tests. As a result, all of the meteorology stations' temperature series and tide gauges' data are subjected to trend detection after the homogeneity analysis. Eventually, the effects of North Atlantic Oscillation on both sea levels and sea surface temperatures have been introduced. The study results indicate high correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation and the sea level and sea surface temperature events. It is seen that the linear correlation between the sea level trends of the considered stations and the sea surface temperature data of the related meteorology stations is considerably significant.

Dogan, Mustafa; Cigizoglu, H. Kerem; Sanli, D. Ugur; Ulke, Asli

2014-08-01

292

Geochemistry and age of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ivory Coast tektites were first reported in 1934 from a geographically restricted area at Ivory Coast, West Africa. Although some additional specimens have been found later, the total number remains small (a few hundred). The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana is most likely the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites, based on the finding that the tektites and the

Christian Koeberl; Richard Bottomley; Billy P. Glass; Dieter Storzer

1997-01-01

293

Coast Guard  

SciTech Connect

This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

Meed, R.M.

1991-10-01

294

Paleomagnetism in northern Alaska (and the career of David Symons), from displaced terranes on the west coast of North America to the age dating of base metal ores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleomagnetism of barren and mineralized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Red Dog Zn-Pb deposit in the Brooks Range Mountains of northern Alaska isolated several components. Mineralized and barren rocks with quartz alteration have a steep west-southwesterly magnetization retained by magnetite (N=16, D=247, I=73, k=73). Fluid inclusions indicate that the quartz formed during deep burial and Ar/Ar dating yielded an age of 126 Ma. Heavily mineralized rocks plus mineralized shales lacking quartz replacement have a shallower southwesterly magnetization carried by pyrrhotite (N=11, D=220, I=51, k=28). Geological features and Re/Os dating indicate that the ore formed in the late Paleozoic. A Mississippian igneous sill (344 Ma, Ar/Ar) in the mine has a southwest and shallow magnetization carried by magnetite (1 site). Ultramafic igneous intrusive rocks from Asik Mountain ~100 kms south of Red Dog, have been indirectly dated at about 150 Ma (K/Ar) and have a west-southwesterly magnetization carried by magnetite (N=11, D=255, I=82, k=19). Tectonic models for the Mesozoic origin of northern Alaska can be grouped into three categories: 1) contiguous to ancestral of North America; 2) peri-autochthonous with angular displacements; and, 3) allochthonous terranes accreted to ancestral North America. The combination of geologic, radiometric and paleomagnetic data from Red Dog allows for both testing of the models and paleomagnetic dating of the Red Dog ores. The data can only be collectively explained by Mississippian syngenetic mineralization and pyrrhotite magnetization, Mesozoic northward translation and counterclockwise rotation of a displaced terrane (aka "The Alaskan Terrane Wreck") and, finally, deep burial resulting in remagnetization of some of the ores associated with quartz replacement.

Lewchuk, M. T.; Leach, D.; Kelley, K.; Symons, D. T.; Elmore, R. D.; Foucher, J.

2004-05-01

295

Demonstration of a Real Time Capability to Produce Tidal Heights and Currents for Naval Operational Use: A Cast Study for the West Coast of Africa (Liberia)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents an existing capability to produce operationally relevant products on sea level and currents from a tides/storm surge model for any coastal region around the world within 48 hours from the time of the request. The model is ready for transition to the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) for potential contingency use anywhere around the world. A recent application to naval operations offshore Liberia illustrates this. Mississippi State University, in collaboration with the University of Colorado and NAVOCEANO, successfully deployed the Colorado University Rapidly Relocatable Nestable Tides and Storm Surge (CURReNTSS) model that predicts sea surface height, tidal currents and storm surge, and provided operational products on tidal sea level and currents in the littoral region off south-western coast of Africa. This report summarizes the results of this collaborative effort in an actual contingency use of the relocatable model, summarizes the lessons learned, and provides recommendations for further evaluation and transition of this modeling capability to operational use.

Mehra, Avichal; Anantharaj, Valentine; Payne, Steve; Kantha, Lakshmi

1996-01-01

296

Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west 2013 Environment Report RL 01/13 Cefas Report RL 01/13 Final report Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west Cumbrian coast, 2012 C.E., Rumney, P. and Papworth, G.P., 2013. Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west Cumbrian coast

297

A small-scale oceanic eddy off the coast of West Africa studied by multi-sensor satellite and surface drifter data, and by a numerical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution satellite images and oceanographic field measurements have revealed that oceanic eddies with diameters ranging from 1 to several hundred km are ubiquitous phenomena in the World's ocean. While eddies with horizontal scales above 100 km have been studied extensively using altimeter data, only few papers exist dealing with observations of eddies with horizontal scales below 50 km. These small-scale eddies cannot be resolved by conventional altimeters, but they can be observed from space by high-resolution optical/infrared sensors and by synthetic aperture radars (SARs). In this paper we report about a single small-scale cyclonic (cold) eddy which was generated at the headland of Cap-Vert off the coast of Senegal following a sudden freshening of the trade winds. Due to favorable cloud conditions, we were able to track the time evolution of the eddy for 31 days by satellite images acquired in the visible/ infrared band. Furthermore, the eddy was also imaged during this period by a space-borne SAR. Cold eddies become visible on SAR images via the change in the small-scale sea surface roughness caused by the damping of short surface waves by biogenic surface films or/and by the change of the stability of the air-sea interface. Biogenic surface films consist of surface-active material secreted by biota in the cold eddy. The satellite data we are using are from the MODIS sensor onboard the American Aqua satellite, the AVHHR sensor onboard the European MetOp satellite, and the Advanced SAR (ASAR) onboard the European Envisat satellite. The sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (CHL) maps derived from MODIS data show that the eddy propagated from its birth place at Cap-Vert in the Senegal upwelling region westward into the open North Atlantic. During the 31 days of satellite observations, the eddy moved 200 km westward thereby carrying nutrients from the upwelling region into the oligotrophic North Atlantic, where it caused enhanced CHL concentration. Maximum CHL concentration was encountered few days after the eddy generation, which is consistent with a delayed plankton growth following nutrient supply into the euphotic zone within the eddy. Furthermore, we recorded the movement of the eddy also by a satellite-tracked surface drifter. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a small-scale eddy has been tracked over such a long time period by high-resolution satellite images and simultaneously by a surface drifter. Model calculations carried out with the "Mercator" ocean circulation model show that the generation of the small-scale eddy was linked to a sudden increase of the trade winds. This wind event caused enhanced southward flow and upwelling at the coast of Senegal. The model calculations show further that the eddy was generated by flow separation at the headland of Cap-Vert.

Alpers, Werner; Brandt, Peter; Lazar, Alban; Dagorne, Dominique; Sow, Bamol; Faye, Saliou; Hansen, Morten; Rubino, Angelo; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Bremer, Patrice

2013-04-01

298

USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey's Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) project, in collaboration with the California Geological Survey, the California Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other agencies and institutions are developing a Tsunami Scenario to describe in detail the impacts of a tsunami generated by a hypothetical, but realistic, M9 earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula. The overarching objective of SAFRR and its predecessor, the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project, is to help communities reduce losses from natural disasters. As requested by emergency managers and other community partners, a primary approach has been comprehensive, scientifically credible scenarios that start with a model of a geologic event and extend through estimates of damage, casualties, and societal consequences. The first product was the ShakeOut scenario, addressing a hypothetical earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, that spawned the successful Great California ShakeOut, an annual event and the nation's largest emergency preparedness exercise. That was followed by the ARkStorm scenario, which addresses California winter storms that surpass hurricanes in their destructive potential. Some of the Tsunami Scenario's goals include developing advanced models of currents and inundation for the event; spurring research related to Alaskan earthquake sources; engaging the port and harbor decision makers; understanding the economic impacts to local, regional and national economy in both the short and long term; understanding the ecological, environmental, and societal impacts of coastal inundation; and creating enhanced communication products for decision-making before, during, and after a tsunami event. The state of California, through CGS and Cal EMA, is using the Tsunami Scenario as an opportunity to evaluate policies regarding tsunami impact. The scenario will serve as a long-lasting resource to teach preparedness and inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

2012-12-01

299

Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

2011-01-01

300

3 , LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) -165oC  

E-print Network

Temperature to be maintained Gravity Contents in 1 m3 solid liquid -20oC -162oC 0.85 ~ 0.95 0.42 ~ 0.47 Natural Gas : 170 Nm3 Water : 0.8 m3 Natural Gas : 600 Nm3 #12; . PNG LNG . . , . 170cc 1cc -20oC -162oC LNG , . #12; LNG Boil-Off Gas (BOG

Hong, Deog Ki

301

Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

2014-01-01

302

The National Ocean Service: america's oceans and coasts: safe, healthy, and productive Office of Coast Survey  

E-print Network

Strategy · Ocean Research Priorities Plan · Gulf of Mexico Regional Alliance · West Coast Governors mariners about a 600-pound World War II-era torpedo in the Gulf of Mexico to locating for removal 600 tons Improvement Act Amendments · Coast and Geodetic Survey Act · Coastal Zone Management Act · Coral Reef

303

7. DETAIL OF WINDOW AT WEST END OF SOUTH ELEVATION, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. DETAIL OF WINDOW AT WEST END OF SOUTH ELEVATION, CAMERA FACING NORTH. - U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Alameda, Warehouse, Spencer Road & Icarrus Drive, Coast Guard Island, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

304

High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG  

DOEpatents

A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-18

305

a Baseline Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters and Trace Metals in Waters of Manakudy, South-West Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of trace metals from the land to ocean has a number of different routes and efficiencies. The sources of toxic elements into the rivers to be debouched into the sea through estuaries are either weathered naturally from the soils and rocks or introduced anthropogenically from point or non-point sources, in labile form or in particulate form. However, recent studies indicate that the transport of trace elements to the aquatic environment is much more complex than what has been thought. The chemistry and ecology of an estuarine system are entirely different from the fluvial as well as the marine system. Estuarine environment is characterized by a constantly changing mixture of salt and freshwater. In the present study area Manakudy estuary is situated about 8 kilometres north west of Kanyakumari (Latitude N 08 05 21.8 and Longitude E 077 29 03.7). To gain a better understanding of the geochemical behavior of physico-chemical parameters and trace elements in the estuary and to examine variations in associated chemical changes, 20 water samples were collected throughout the Manakudy estuary, a minor river in south-western India. These samples, collected in typical dry season during 2012, were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, dissolved major and trace elements. Our results show that dissolved Na, Mg, Ca and Cl behave conservatively along the salinity gradient. The concentration of nutrients is normal and they are due to the higher organic activity in soils as well as faster rates of chemical weathering reaction in the source region. The concentration of major ions is due to tidal influence and it increases with salinity and the nutrients do behave non-conservatively due to biogenic removal. The conservative behaviour of the trace metals with salinity has been strongly affected by the introduction of these metals by external sources. Even though the trace metals in the contaminated water have been removed and incorporated in sediments due to flocculation, the concentration of these metals did not decrease. S.MUTHUSAMY M.sc.,M.phil., RESEARCH SCHOLAR UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS CHENNAI,TAMILNADU INDIA

Subramanian, M.; Muthumanikkam, J.

2013-05-01

306

A novel cryogenic power cycle for LNG cold energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel cryogenic cycle by using a binary mixture as working fluids and combined with a vapor absorption process was proposed to improve the energy recovery efficiency of an LNG (liquefied natural gas) cold power generation. The cycle was simulated with seawater as the heat source and LNG as the heat sink, and the optimization of the power generated per

Yanni Liu; Kaihua Guo

2011-01-01

307

Constraint Programming for LNG Ship Scheduling and Inventory ...  

E-print Network

also constructing the ships and the production-side terminals, berths and storage tanks. Operationally, a delivery .... In other words, LNG ships are always filled to their maximum capacity prior to departing an LNG ... ship requires one day of operation during which a berth has to be occupied. Ships are allowed to wait outside ...

2013-10-29

308

Optimal operation of a mixed fluid cascade LNG process  

E-print Network

Deparment of Chemical Engineering, NTNU Trondheim Norway Introduction Large amounts of natural gas (NG distances is to first produce liquefied natural gas (LNG) and then transport the LNG by ships pipelines or as compressed NG) to the customers. The most economic way of transport- ing NG over long

Skogestad, Sigurd

309

33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored or berthed at the waterfront facility handling LNG. (b) Each LNG loading flange must be located at least 300 meters...

2011-07-01

310

Union Pacific Railroad`s LNG locomotive test program  

SciTech Connect

Union Pacific Railroad is testing LNG in six locomotives through 1997 to determine if the liquefied natural gas technology is right for them. Two of the six LNG test locomotives are switch, or yard, locomotives. These 1,350 horsepower locomotives are the industry`s first locomotives totally fueled by natural gas. They`re being tested in the yard in the Los Angeles area. The other four locomotives are long-haul locomotives fueled by two tenders. These units are duel-fueled, operating on a mixture of LNG and diesel and are being tested primarily on the Los Angeles to North Platte, Nebraska corridor. All the information concerning locomotive emissions, locomotive performance, maintenance requirements, the overall LNG system design and the economic feasibility of the project will be analyzed to determine if UPR should expand, or abandon, the LNG technology.

Grimaila, B.

1995-12-31

311

Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

2014-12-01

312

Liquefaction through expander for base load LNG  

SciTech Connect

New natural gas liquefaction process using turbo expander has been developed to improve process thermal efficiency. The new process consists of precooling section which uses refrigerant with shell and tube heat exchangers or brazed aluminum plate-fin exchangers or spool wound heat exchanger and liquefaction section by iso-entropic expander. As a result of design study, thermal efficiency of the new liquefaction process has been confirmed to be in the highest level compared with other liquefaction processes. Also, since the new liquefaction process is constructed with commonly available equipment in industry, it can be readily adapted to base load LNG plants of any capacity without requiring expensive and specially designed equipment.

Nakamura, Moritaka; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1998-12-31

313

Oceanography of West Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

John, Bemiasa

2014-05-01

314

Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

315

Floating LNG terminal and LNG carrier interaction analysis for side-by-side offloading operation  

E-print Network

. KURIAKOSE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved by: Chair of Committee, M. H. Kim Committee Members, Robert Randall...) Vinu P. Kuriakose, B.Tech., Cochin University of Science and Technology Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. M. H. Kim Floating LNG terminals are a relatively new concept with the first such terminal in the world installed this year...

Kuriakose, Vinu P.

2005-11-01

316

Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Data Report  

SciTech Connect

U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final data.

Chandler, K.; Proc, K.

2005-02-01

317

Parallel Large-Neighborhood Search Techniques for LNG Inventory ...  

E-print Network

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is estimated to account for a growing portion of the ..... Eqs. (2)-(4) are network-flow conservation constraints for each ship. ... since it achieves better utilization of the computational resources which directly impacts.

2014-04-17

318

International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?  

E-print Network

The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where global prices may eventually be differentiated by the transportation costs between world ...

Du, Y.

319

Simulation and integration of liquefied natural gas (lng) processes  

E-print Network

Figure 1.2 World energy consumption by fuel.................................................. 3 Figure 1.3 Worldwide LNG exports in 2005..................................................... 8 Figure 1.4 Worldwide LNG imports in 2005... for exchanger E1_2_1 ..................... 84 Table 6.7 ICARUS fixed cost estimation for exchanger E1_3_1 ..................... 85 Table 6.8 ICARUS fixed cost estimation for exchanger E7_13_2 ................... 86 Table 6.9 ICARUS fixed cost...

Al-Sobhi, Saad Ali

2009-05-15

320

The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

2010-12-01

321

Offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) production and storage systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barge, outfitted with gas liquefaction processing equipment and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is suggested as a possible way to exploit remote offshore gas production. A similar study with a barge-mounted methanol plant was conducted several years ago, also using remote offshore feed gas. This barge-mounted, LNG system is bow-moored to a single point mooring through which feed

Barden

1982-01-01

322

33 CFR 334.783 - Arlington Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Mobile, Mobile, Alabama, Coast Guard restricted area.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arlington Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Mobile, Mobile...REGULATIONS § 334.783 Arlington Channel, U.S. Coast Guard Base Mobile, Mobile...The area. The waters of Arlington Channel west of a line from latitude...

2014-07-01

323

Rollover and Interfacial Studies in Lng Mixtures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. An experimental investigation into LNG rollover has been performed, using cryogenic liquids to simulate a two-layered LNG system. A vacuum insulated glass vessel was designed and constructed for rollover simulation experiments. Thin metal oxide coatings on the inner jacket of the vessel enabled the simultaneous heating and visualisation of the liquid in the vessel. Mixtures of liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen were successfully used to form two differing density layers. An oxygen analysing system with an accuracy of 0.01% by volume oxygen, and a fifteen junction copper -constantan thermocouple array were used for primary measurements of mass concentration and temperature. For a number of initial density differences between layers, various liquid layer heating configurations were used to obtain the variations in evaporation flowrate, and detailed temperature and concentration profiles during experiments. Convective flow patterns, in single and two -component liquid mixtures were obtained, using the Schlieren method. Results show that the mixing of layers is primarily due to entrainment of fluid from the intermediate layer separating the two convective layers. The intermediate layer can be described by Double-Diffusive convection theory, and controls the transport of heat and mass between layers. The measured peak flowrate is a function of the initial density difference between layers. The peak to equilibrium flowrate values are much lower than those reported in rollover incidents, due to the enhanced mixing processes occurring in the simulation mixture. A correlation between the evaporative mass flux and bulk fluid superheat fails during transient heating conditions, and cannot predict very high flowrates. Schlieren flow - visualisation studies clearly show various surface patterns for increasing surface evaporation mass fluxes.

Agbabi, Tom

1987-09-01

324

76 FR 53440 - Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Notice of Intent...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal...and export of domestic natural gas. In addition, A nonjurisdictional...near the Stratton Ridge underground storage and meter station sites...components: Three natural gas liquefaction...

2011-08-26

325

Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features Dr. Gary Griggs, scientist with the National Research Council (NRC) and professor at UCSC, reviewing highlights from the recently released report by the NRC about predictions for sea-level rise on the West Coast states. The video includes effective visualizations and animations of the effects of plate tectonics and sea-level rise on the West Coast.

Science, The N.

326

78 FR 20312 - Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...released the report ``Liquefied Natural Gas Safety Research Report to Congress'' detailing the results of research conducted by Sandia National Laboratories on intentional breaches of LNG carrier cargo tanks and the resulting LNG spills on water. Based on...

2013-04-04

327

Improvisation in West African Musics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

Locke, David

1980-01-01

328

75 FR 29420 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...handling liquefied natural gas (LNG) and...Waterway Safety, and the...hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter...transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has...pose similar risks to the waterway...applicant-prepared risk-based...

2010-05-26

329

Performance enhancement of propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant LNG plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and chemical processing are energy-intensive facilities, such that any enhancement of their efficiency will result in abundant reduction of energy consumption and green house gas emissions. To enhance LNG plant energy efficiency, the potential of various options for improving liquefaction cycle efficiency is investigated in this study. After developing models for the LNG process using ASPEN

A. Mortazavi; C. Somers; Y. Hwang; R. Radermacher; P. Rodgers; S. Al-Hashimi

2012-01-01

330

Analysis and optimization of a cascading power cycle with liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effective utilization of the cryogenic energy associated with LNG vaporization is quite important. In this paper a cascading power cycle with LNG directly expanding consisting of a Rankine cycle with ammonia–water as working fluid and a power cycle of combustion gas is proposed to recover cryogenic energy of LNG. Energy equilibrium equations and exergy equilibrium equations of each equipment

T. Lu

2009-01-01

331

Allen West gets significant support from Indian River County donors  

E-print Network

on the Treasure Coast by sending more than $100,000 West's way. St. Lucie, Martin and northern Palm Beach counties for Responsive Politics. West, a Plantation Republican who moved to Palm Beach Gardens to run locally, thinks stopped by Vero Beach a few times to greet supporters during his campaign -- one event at Pointe West

Belogay, Eugene A.

332

West African crude production diversifies  

SciTech Connect

Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

Aalund, L.

1983-06-01

333

75 FR 68347 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...authorization to export up to 16 million metric tons per annum (mtpa) of domestic natural gas as LNG for a 20-year period, commencing...the natural gas, store the LNG, and export approximately 16 mtpa of LNG via LNG carriers. According to Sabine Pass, its...

2010-11-05

334

Developments in the safe design of LNG tanks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this paper is to discuss how the gradual development of design concepts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage systems has helped to enhance storage safety and economy. The experience in the UK is compared with practice in other countries with similar LNG storage requirements. Emphasis is placed on the excellent record of safety and reliability exhibited by tanks with a primary metal container designed and constructed to approved standards. The work carried out to promote the development of new materials, fire protection, and monitoring systems for use in LNG storage is also summarized, and specific examples described from British Gas experience. Finally, the trends in storage tank design world-wide and options for future design concepts are discussed, bearing in mind planned legislation and design codes governing hazardous installations.

Fulford, N. J.; Slatter, M. D.

335

Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Final Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery. Work was done in the following areas: (1) production of natural gas pipeline methane for liquefaction at an existing LNG facility, (2) production of LNG from sewage digester gas, (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling in the production of LNG, liquid CO{sub 2} and pipeline methane, (4) cost estimates for an LNG production facility at the Arden Landfill in Washington PA.

Brown, W.R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L.A.

2000-10-20

336

Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

Sinor, J.E. (Sinor (J.E.) Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO (United States))

1992-01-01

337

75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries; Inseason Actions 9, 10, and 11 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...salmon fisheries. Inseason actions 9 and 11 modified the commercial fishery in the area...effective on July 23, 2010. Inseason action 11 was effective on July 30, 2010....

2010-09-09

338

76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...At the time of the follow-up consultation on July 28, the...Cape Alava to Queets River (La Push Subarea) to allow retention...Westport (+700 Chinook), La Push (+60 Chinook), and Neah Bay...remain open; one subarea, La Push, had almost exhausted its...

2011-11-04

339

75 FR 51183 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...area from U.S./Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Inseason action 8 modified...area from U.S./Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. DATES: Inseason action ...from the U.S./Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon for the five-day period...

2010-08-19

340

75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...dated March 2, 2010, that the stock is now considered ``overfished...conservation objective for this stock. NMFS consulted under ESA section...Vancouver Island (WCVI) troll and sport fishery and 15 percent in Alaska's...escapement of natural origin stocks. ESA-listed LCR tule...

2010-05-05

341

PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon  

E-print Network

to spawn and complete their life cycle. Coho salmon and most southern U.S. runs of Chinook salmon tend181 PACIFIC COAST SALMON UNIT 12 pacific Coast Salmon Unit 12 ROBERT G. KOPE NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon support important commercial

342

SETTLEMENT POINTS Ivory Coast  

E-print Network

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !! ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (( ! ! ! ! ! ( ( ( ( ( !( Benin Ivory Coast Ghana Mali Mauritania Niger Togo GRUMPv1 ´ 0 75 150 Km Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area

Columbia University

343

Rivers and Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about rivers, coasts, and the processes affecting them. Students can view an animation of the water cycle, read about how rivers and coasts change, learn about estuaries, and view information on how rivers, coasts, and other water features influence people's lives. Glossaries and a teacher's page offering lesson plans, worksheets, and links to additional sites are also provided.

344

Red Tide off Texas Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

2002-01-01

345

Soot-Free Combustion Of Methane And LNG  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neither methane nor liquefied natural gas (LNG) produces soot when burned in turbine simulator with liquid oxygen under conditions like those in gas-generator section of rocket engine. Experiments conducted to determine if these fuels behave similarly to other hydrocarbon fuels, which give off soot coating turbomachinery and reducing performance.

Bossard, John

1992-01-01

346

LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004. Activity during this period included preparation of a CD containing the FEM3a FORTRAN code for distribution and organization of an LNG safety workshop. Contract negotiation between GTI and University of Arkansas continued.

Iraj A. Salehi

2004-09-30

347

Development of mid-scale and floating LNG facilities  

SciTech Connect

The development of large-scale base load LNG facilities has dominated the process industry for decades. However, in many areas of the world, base load facilities are not feasible due to inadequate reserves. Mid-scale facilities can be economically attractive in certain locations and, in fact, have several advantages which aid in their development. The PRICO II LNG liquefaction process offers a process configuration which fits well with these developments. The process has been used in a range of facility sizes from base load to peak shaving applications. In addition to onshore facilities, floating liquefaction facilities can be developed on barges or tankers to handle mid-scale to large scale LNG production. Concepts for several sizes and configurations of floating facilities have been developed using the PRICO II process integrated into a total production, liquefaction, and load-out system. This paper covers the PRICO process concept, application areas and facility configurations which are currently being developed for mid-scale and floating LNG facilities.

Price, B.C.; Mortko, R.A. [Black and Veatch Pritchard, Inc., Overland Park, KS (United States)

1998-12-31

348

A predictive model for rollover in stratified LNG tanks  

SciTech Connect

The incubation period preceding ''rollover'' within a stratified LNG tank involves intensive heat and mass transfers between layers. Numerical integration of equations describing these processes leads to predicted time-history and boil-off characteristics which are in excellent agreement with Sarsten's (1972) documentation of the LaSpezia rollover incident.

Heestand, J.; Meader, J.W.; Shipman, C.W.

1983-03-01

349

Analysis of the Tsunami of December 26, 2004, on the Kerala Coast of India—Part I: Amplitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 26, 2004, not only affected the Bay of Bengal coast of India but also part of the Arabian Sea coast of India. In particular, the tsunami caused loss of life and heavy damage on some parts of the Kerala coast in southwest India. The tsunami traveled west, south of Sri Lanka, and some of

N. P. Kurian; M. Baba; K. Rajith; N. Nirupama; T. S. Murty

2006-01-01

350

West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

SciTech Connect

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class I Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The concept is being field tested in low pressure (350 to 800 pounds per square inch (psi)) reservoirs on the north flank of the field and high pressure reservoirs (2500 to 3300 psi) on the west flank of the field.

Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Kragas, T.

1997-04-08

351

Field experiments on high expansion (HEX) foam application for controlling LNG pool fire.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that high expansion foam with an expansion ratio of 500 to 1 is one of the best options for controlling liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire on land. However, its effectiveness heavily depends on the foam application rate, foam generator location, and the design of LNG spill containment dike. Examination of these factors is necessary to achieve the maximum benefit for applying HEX on LNG pool fires. While theoretical study of the effects of foam on LNG fires is important, the complicated phenomena involved in LNG pool fire and foam application increase the need for LNG field experimentation. Therefore, five LNG experiments were conducted at Texas A&M University's Brayton Fire Training Field. ANGUS FIRE provided Expandol solution to form 500 to 1 high expansion foam (HEX) and its latest LNG Turbex Fixed High Expansion Foam Generators. In this paper, data collected during five experiments are presented and analyzed. The effectiveness of high expansion foam for controlling LNG pool fires with various application rates at two different types of containment pits is discussed. LNG fire behaviors and the effects of dike wall height are also presented and discussed. PMID:19056175

Suardin, Jaffee A; Wang, Yanjun; Willson, Mike; Mannan, M Sam

2009-06-15

352

Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

2012-09-01

353

WEST ELEVATION. DWELLING AND FLAG TOWER ARE IN THE DISTANCE. ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST ELEVATION. DWELLING AND FLAG TOWER ARE IN THE DISTANCE. HAZARDOUS MATERIAL STORAGE SHED IS IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Lake Worth Inlet Station, Boathouse, Peanut Island, Riviera Beach, Palm Beach County, FL

354

78 FR 38703 - LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...two liquefaction trains of 4.5 million metric tons per annum each, for an overall nominal liquefaction rate of up to 9.0 MTPA; (iii) vaporization facilities with a base load natural gas send out capacity of 0.5 Bscf/d; (iv) LNG storage...

2013-06-27

355

40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table...GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

2014-07-01

356

West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

SciTech Connect

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer.

Gillham, Travis; Yannimaras, Demetrios

1999-11-03

357

Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues  

SciTech Connect

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1998-02-01

358

Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues  

SciTech Connect

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1997-07-01

359

A review of large-scale LNG spills: experiments and modeling.  

PubMed

The prediction of the possible hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by ship has motivated a substantial number of experimental and analytical studies. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to date on large-scale spills of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the dispersion of LNG, as well as experiments of LNG fires from spills on water and land are reviewed. Explosion, pool boiling, and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosion studies are described and discussed, as well as models used to predict dispersion and thermal hazard distances. Although there have been significant advances in understanding the behavior of LNG spills, technical knowledge gaps to improve hazard prediction are identified. Some of these gaps can be addressed with current modeling and testing capabilities. A discussion of the state of knowledge and recommendations to further improve the understanding of the behavior of LNG spills on water is provided. PMID:16271829

Luketa-Hanlin, Anay

2006-05-20

360

A review of large-scale LNG spills : experiment and modeling.  

SciTech Connect

The prediction of the possible hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by ship has motivated a substantial number of experimental and analytical studies. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to date on large-scale spills of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the dispersion of LNG, as well as experiments of LNG fires from spills on water and land are reviewed. Explosion, pool boiling, and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosion studies are described and discussed, as well as models used to predict dispersion and thermal hazard distances. Although there have been significant advances in understanding the behavior of LNG spills, technical knowledge gaps to improve hazard prediction are identified. Some of these gaps can be addressed with current modeling and testing capabilities. A discussion of the state of knowledge and recommendations to further improve the understanding of the behavior of LNG spills on water is provided.

Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

2005-04-01

361

Sedimentary rocks of the English Coast, eastern Ellsworth Land, Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nunataks scattered over 16,000 km2 of the western English Coast along the Bellingshausen Sea are the westernmost rock exposures of the Antarctic Peninsula tectonic province. The nunataks are composed of sedimentary rocks of probable Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and probable Mesozoic age, volcanic and plutonic rocks of probable Mesozoic age, and basaltic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of probable late Cenozoic age. Most rocks exposed on the English Coast are correlatable with Mesozoic and Cenozoic units which occur in the Orville Coast and the Lassiter Coast regions to the east. One outcrop in the English Coast consists of sedimentary rocks containing fossil plants including abundant Glossopteris leaves and fragments of Phyllotheca and Equisetum. The age of the rocks is probably Permian, significantly older than the oldest previously dated rocks (Middle Jurassic) from the southern Antarctic Peninsula. This is the first reported occurrence of Glossopteris from the Antarctic Peninsula province and the second reported occurrence from West Antarctica. Permian(?) sedimentary rocks suggest that the English Coast was probably near the Pacific Coast of Gondwana. Sandstone, shale, and conglomerate at several other localities in the English Coast are correlated with the Jurassic Latady Formation of the Orville Coast. Sedimentary rocks of unknown age at two other nunataks include metamorphosed quartz-sandstone and cross-bedded sandstone.

Laudon, T. S.; Lidke, D. J.; Delevoryas, T.; Gee, C. T.

362

Numerical modeling of alongshore sediment transport and shoreline change along the Galveston coast  

E-print Network

that beach nourishment is the best alternative to overcome/reduce the erosion problem on the Galveston coast. Constructing coastal structure (groins, offshore breakwater) on the West Beach does not resolve the problem of erosion, but instead shifts it further...

Sitanggang, Khairil Irfan

2005-02-17

363

The role of consequence modeling in LNG facility siting.  

PubMed

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) project modeling focuses on two primary issues, facility siting and the physical layout of element spacing. Modeling often begins with an analysis of these issues, while ensuring code compliance and sound engineering practice. The most commonly performed analysis involves verifying compliance with the siting provisions of NFPA 59A, which primarily concern property-line spacing (offsite hazard impacts). If the facility is located in the US, compliance with 49 CFR 193 is also required. Other consequence modeling is often performed to determine the spacing of elements within the facility (onsite hazard impacts). Often, many issues concerning in-plant spacing are addressed with the guidance provided in Europe's LNG standard, EN-1473. Spacing of plant buildings in relation to process areas is also a concern as analyzed using the approach given in API RP 752. Studies may also include probabilistic analysis, depending on the perceived risk and cost of mitigation. PMID:16934395

Taylor, Dennis W

2007-04-11

364

US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

Attanasi, E.D.

1994-01-01

365

Natural Gas Liquefaction Process for Small-scale LNG Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the field of natural gas liquefaction, the small-scale natural gas liquefier has been attracting more and more attentions home and abroad, thanks to its small volume, mobile transportation, easy start-up and shut-down, as well as skid-mounted package. A study was made to choose the optimum liquefaction process to improve the economy of small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant. The

Cao Wensheng

2012-01-01

366

77 FR 59603 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Oregon LNG Export...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the export of approximately 9 million metric tons per annum (MTPA) of LNG via LNG carriers. Specifically, the Export Project...each capable of a liquefaction capacity of approximately 4.5 MTPA; Refrigerant storage; New flare system; and New...

2012-09-28

367

75 FR 11169 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...within the LNG Terminal site; Dredging an approximate 118 acre area in the Patapsco River to 45 feet below mean lower low water to accommodate the LNG vessels and transport of the processed dredge material to its disposal location; and...

2010-03-10

368

76 FR 9573 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-72-000] Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 31, 2011, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG,...

2011-02-18

369

Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.  

PubMed

Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating. PMID:17184912

Woodward, John L

2007-02-20

370

United states regulations for siting LNG terminals: problems and potential.  

PubMed

The regulations being applied to liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal siting in the United States are reviewed. There are no requirements for exclusion zones to protect the public from LNG spills onto water. Serious problems with current practices used to determine exclusion zones on the land-based part of the facility are identified. Many of the questions that are considered relate to the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, which appear to offer the best potential for realistic modeling to determine vapor cloud exclusion zones that result from LNG spills into impounded areas with or without dispersion in the presence of other obstacles to the wind flow. Failure to use CFD models, which are already approved by the regulation, and continued use of practices which have been demonstrated to be in error, raises important questions of credibility as well as denies the applicant full use of scientific tools that are available to optimize the design of such facilities so as to best provide for safety of the public. PMID:17110028

Havens, Jerry; Spicer, Tom

2007-02-20

371

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI), U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering, third district, marine railway, Sandy Hook Station, Ft. Hancock, Sandy Hook, NJ, repairs, plan sections & framing details, wharf B - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

372

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI), U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering, third district, Sandy Hook L/B Station, Fort Hancock, NJ, boathouse, plot plan, floor plan, elevation. & section., November 8, 1963 Proposed boathouse wharf B, L.A.S. building shown on wharf A - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

373

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI), U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering, third district, Sandy Hook L/B Station, Sandy Hook N.J., buoy hoist installation and bldg alterations, January 3, 1952 Details of 4 ton hoist and building, wharf B - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

374

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI), U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering, third district, Sandy Hook L/B Station showing boat basin plan, circa 1945 Detail of western docking structure - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

375

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Photocopy of plan (in collection of U.S. Coast Guard Civil Engineering Unit Providence, Warwick, RI) U.S. Coast Guard, shore maintenance detachment, New York, mooring facilities for 110 WPB's Station Sandy Hook, Middletown Township, New Jersey, civil demolition of wharf & pier E December 22, 1988 detail of framing and decking wharf B - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

376

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2013-07-01

377

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2010-07-01

378

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2011-07-01

379

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2014-07-01

380

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40?43? N and...

2012-07-01

381

LNG as a fuel for railroads: Assessment of technology status and economics. Topical report, June-September 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research was to investigate the feasibility of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a fuel for railroads. The investigation included assessment of the status of relevant technologies (i.e., LNG-fueled locomotive engines, tender cars, refueling equipment), a review of current demonstration projects, and an analytical evaluation of LNG railroad economics.

Pera, C.J.; Moyer, C.B.

1993-01-06

382

Marine geodetic processes on the pacific coast of Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marine geodetic processes are occurring on the west coast of Canada, as in other places on the globe, with a wide range of time scales. To understand the causative forces, various geological, oceanographic, and ocean?atmosphere interaction problems have to be considered. In this brief review, the effects of tides, storm surges, tsunamis, and increases in atmospheric and ocean temperatures due

T. S. Murty; W. Rapatz

1986-01-01

383

Sloshing in the LNG shipping industry: risk modelling through multivariate heavy-tail analysis  

E-print Network

In the liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping industry, the phenomenon of slosh- ing can lead to the occurrence In the liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping industry, sloshing refers to an hydraulic phenomenon which arises when are effectively part of the ship. The gas in the cargo is liquefied and kept at a very low temperature (-163C

384

A combined power cycle utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper has proposed a combined power system, in which low-temperature waste heat can be efficiently recovered and cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) can be fully utilized as well. This system consists of an ammonia–water mixture Rankine cycle and an LNG power generation cycle, and it is modelled by considering mass, energy and species balances for every component

Xiaojun Shi; Defu Che

2009-01-01

385

75 FR 74029 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Commission [Docket No. CP11-32-000] Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application November 22, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston,...

2010-11-30

386

SORMA WEST 2008 June 2-5, 2008 Berkeley, California, USA  

E-print Network

SORMA WEST 2008 June 2-5, 2008 Berkeley, California, USA We invite you to the campus of the University of California, Berkeley June 2-5 for the first West Coast meeting of the Symposium on Radiation or San Francisco. SORMA West 2008 is hosted jointly by the University of California, Berkeley; Lawrence

387

Report on the Inauguration of the Astronomical Society of West Africa  

E-print Network

Report on the Inauguration of the Astronomical Society of West Africa (Nigeria Chapter) In the bid to foster the promotion and advancement of the study of astronomy across the west coast of Africa, the Astronomical Society of West Africa (ASWA) Nigerian Chapter was inaugurated on the 29th of Nov. 2005

Glass, Ian S.

388

78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide for the safety of...conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida. These operations will...

2013-02-15

389

The potential for LNG as a railroad fuel in the U.S.  

SciTech Connect

Freight railroad operations in the US represent a substantial opportunity for liquefied natural gas (LNG) to displace diesel fuel. With the promise of achieving an overwhelming economic advantage over diesel fuel, this paper presents some discussion to the question, ``Why is the application of LNG for railroad use in the US moving so slowly?'' A brief overview of the freight railroad operations in the US is given, along with a summary of several railroad LNG demonstration projects. US Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board exhaust emission regulations may cause the railroad industry to move from small-scale LNG demonstration projects to using LNG as a primary freight railroad transportation fuel in selected regions or route-specific applications.

Fritz, S.G.

2000-01-01

390

Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na ?wiecie powoduje, ?e produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje si? coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem zwi?zanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze oko?o 111K pod ci?nieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezb?dny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciek?ej w gazow? dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umo?liwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do ró?nych zastosowa?, mi?dzy innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znan? technik? analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na okre?lenie dystrybucji, ?ród?a i wielko?ci nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a wi?c ustali? wytyczne dotycz?ce efektywnego zu?ycia energii. Poniewa? zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego s? energoch?onne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezb?dny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

?aciak, Mariusz

2013-06-01

391

West Hackberry Tertiary Project  

SciTech Connect

The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. In previous field tests, the Double Displacement Process has proven successful in generating tertiary oil recovery. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery from the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs (such as Gulf Coast salt dome reservoirs) where any other tertiary process is presently uneconomic. Air injection on the West Hank began in November of 1994. Although West Flank air injection has increased reservoir pressure by 500 pounds per square inch (psi), production response has not yet occurred. The gas cap on the West Flank has not expanded sufficiently to push the oil rim down to the nearest down structure well. Cumulative injection to date is 1.6 BCF, only approximately 50% of the projected volume required to establish oil production response. Additional air injection is required to further expand the gas cap and thereby bring about oil production. Air injection rates have been restricted due to iron oxide plugging in the injectors. To spread risk among multiple reservoirs, the project was expanded in 1996 to include air injection in low pressure reservoirs on the North Flank of the field. The project reservoirs on the West Flank are much higher pressure (2500-3300 psi) than the project reservoirs on the North Flank (300-600 psi). Air injection began on the North Rank in July of 1996. While West Flank air injection has not yet yielded oil production, air injection has increased oil production in all three low pressure North Hank reservoirs. Production increased in the North Rank after only two months of air injection, much quicker than anticipated. Between July of 1996 and July of 1999, cumulative air injection of 0.9 BCF increased North Flank oil production by 224,000 barrels above the normal decline. As of July, 1999, air injection was generating 270 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) of incremental oil production from the three low pressure reservoirs on the North Flank of the field.

Kenneth Haley; Travis Gillham; Demetrios Yannimaras

1999-03-31

392

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

2012-03-01

393

Chrysler to race hybrid electric-LNG car  

SciTech Connect

Chrysler Corp. hopes to race a hybrid electric-liquefied natural gas car in the Le Mans in 1995. Preparing for a racing program will speed technological advances that could take years under a regular development program. The car converts LNG to electricity with a two-turbine alternator that powers an electric traction motor. Power not used immediately is placed in reserve in an ultra-high-speed carbon-fiber flywheel, which also captures kinetic energy at braking. Even with the accelerated race program, Chrysler says it will likely be the next century before hybrid technology will make it into production cars.

NONE

1994-03-07

394

Comparison of hypothetical LNG and fuel oil fires on water.  

PubMed

Large spills of refined petroleum products have been an occasional occurrence over the past few decades. This has not been true for large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper compares the likely similarities and differences between accidental releases from a ship of sizable quantities of these different hydrocarbon fuels, their subsequent spreading, and possible pool-fire behavior. Quantitative estimates are made of the spread rate and maximum slick size, burn rate, and duration; effective thermal radiation; and subsequent soot generation. PMID:15036638

Lehr, William; Simecek-Beatty, Debra

2004-02-27

395

Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water.  

PubMed

Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG. PMID:17112658

Johnson, David W; Cornwell, John B

2007-02-20

396

White paper: Preliminary assessment of LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues, revision 1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of liquified natural gas (LNG) as a vehicle fuel, to determine market inches, and to identify needed technology improvements. The white paper is being issued when the work is approximately 30 percent complete to preview the study direction, draw preliminary conclusions, and make initial recommendations. Interim findings relative to LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety are presented. It is important to decide if heavier hydrocarbons should be allowed in LNG vehicle fuel. Development of suitable refueling couplings and vehicle fuel supply pressure systems are recommended. Initial economics analyses considered transit buses and pickup and delivery trucks fueled via onsite liquefiers and imported LNG. Net user costs were more than (but in some cases close to) those for diesel fuel and gasoline. Lowering the cost of small-scale liquefiers would significantly improve the economics of LNG vehicles. New emissions regulations may introduce considerations beyond simple cost comparisons. LNG vehicle safety and available accident data are reviewed. Consistent codes for LNG vehicles and refueling facilities are needed.

Powars, Charles; Lucher, Dan; Moyer, Carl; Browning, Lou

1992-01-01

397

South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1998-05-01

398

United States East Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Snowy to the north and west and cloudy to the east, this MODIS image from February 28, 2002, shows the eastern U.S. Piedmont, a region of relatively low-lying, rolling plateau that runs between New Jersey to the north and Alabama to the south. Bounded on the west by the Appalachians and on the east by the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Piedmont is fertile agricultural land, and appears to be greening up in (from bottom left) Georgia, South Carolina, and parts of North Carolina, while winter has left its snowy mark on West Virginia (left of center), and to the northeast in Pennsylvania, New York, and New England.

2002-01-01

399

Modeling Tsunami Inundation and Assessing Tsunami Hazards for the U. S. East Coast NTHMP Semi-Annual Report  

E-print Network

Modeling Tsunami Inundation and Assessing Tsunami Hazards for the U. S. East Coast (Phase 2) NTHMP://chinacat.coastal.udel.edu/nthmp.html BACKGROUND In contrast to the long history of tsunami hazard assessment on the US West coast and Hawaii, tsunami hazard assessment along the eastern US coastline is still in its infancy, in part due to the lack

Kirby, James T.

400

Bayesian-lopa methodology for risk assessment of an LNG importation terminal  

E-print Network

than other methods. For LOPA application, failure data are essential to compute risk frequencies. However, the failure data from the LNG industry are very sparse. Bayesian estimation is identified as one method to compensate for its weaknesses. It can...

Yun, Geun-Woong

2009-05-15

401

International LNG trade : the emergence of a short-term market  

E-print Network

Natural gas is estimated to be the fastest growing component of world primary energy consumption. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) supply chain is a way of transporting natural gas over seas, by following a procedure of gas ...

Athanasopoulos, Panagiotis G

2006-01-01

402

77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port Application AGENCY: Maritime...construct, and operate a deepwater port for a liquefied natural gas deepwater port facility, located...

2012-06-26

403

49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2013-10-01

404

49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2012-10-01

405

49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2013-10-01

406

49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2011-10-01

407

49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2012-10-01

408

49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2011-10-01

409

Developments in non-utility uses of liquefied natural gas (LNG)  

SciTech Connect

The development uses, and market for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is addressed. Applications discussed include aircraft fuel, rocket fuel, diesel locomotive fuel, and as a refrigeration source for a shrimp boat in a demonstration program. 3 figs. (CBS)

Anderson, P.J.

1988-01-01

410

Lava Reaching the Coast  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

View looking south toward active flows on the coastal flats near Kalapana Gardens subdivision. The new flows entered the area from right center, crossing the end of Hwy 130, and burning through forest adjacent to the coast. The burned remains of trees and brush cover the surface of the new flows at ...

411

Honduras: Caribbean Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the

Alastair R. Harborne; Daniel C. Afzal; Mark J. Andrews

2001-01-01

412

Coast Guard Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

1977-01-01

413

Gulf Coast Wetlands  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...

2014-05-15

414

Video-based training program for LNG plant personnel  

SciTech Connect

The Industrial Education Group at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) has developed video-based training programs for LNG plant personnel under the guidance of an industry advisory panel. The programs consist of 39 video taped lessons with accompanying text for peakshaving plant personnel and 24 video taped lessons with accompanying text for satellite plant personnel. A computer-based testing/grading/record-keeping service is also provided as an option with either program. The training programs were developed in response to requirements of the ''Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities: Federal Safety Standards'' issued by the Department of Transportation, Material Transportation Bureau's Research and Special Programs. That standard, promulgated under the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, as amended, was issued in 1980 as a new Part 193 contained under Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Subpart H, ''Qualifications and Training,'' specifies the training requirements for operating and maintenance personnel. 5 tabs.

Bukacek, R.F.; Anderson, P.J.; Raines, J.T.

1986-04-01

415

Numerical simulations of LNG vapor dispersion in Brayton Fire Training Field tests with ANSYS CFX.  

PubMed

Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses the ANSYS CFX CFD code to model LNG vapor dispersion in the atmosphere. Discussed are important parameters that are essential inputs to the ANSYS CFX simulations, including the atmospheric conditions, LNG evaporation rate and pool area, turbulence in the source term, ground surface temperature and roughness height, and effects of obstacles. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to illustrate uncertainties in the simulation results arising from the mesh size and source term turbulence intensity. In addition, a set of medium-scale LNG spill tests were performed at the Brayton Fire Training Field to collect data for validating the ANSYS CFX prediction results. A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dense gas behavior of LNG vapor cloud, and its prediction results of downwind gas concentrations close to ground level were in approximate agreement with the test data. PMID:20692092

Qi, Ruifeng; Ng, Dedy; Cormier, Benjamin R; Mannan, M Sam

2010-11-15

416

Results of the evaluation and preliminary validation of a primary LNG mass flow standard  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LNG custody transfer measurements at large terminals have been based on ship tank level gauging for more than 50 years. Flow meter application has mainly been limited to process control in spite of the promise of simplified operations, potentially smaller uncertainties and better control over the measurements for buyers. The reason for this has been the lack of LNG flow calibration standards as well as written standards. In the framework of the EMRP1 ‘Metrology for LNG’ project, Van Swinden Laboratory (VSL) has developed a primary LNG mass flow standard. This standard is so far the only one in the world except for a liquid nitrogen flow standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The VSL standard is based on weighing and holds a Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) of 0.12% to 0.15%. This paper discusses the measurement principle, results of the uncertainty validation with LNG and the differences between water and LNG calibration results of four Coriolis mass flow meters. Most of the calibrated meters do not comply with their respective accuracy claims. Recommendations for further improvement of the measurement uncertainty will also be discussed.

van der Beek, Mijndert; Lucas, Peter; Kerkhof, Oswin; Mirzaei, Maria; Blom, Gerard

2014-10-01

417

76 FR 76044 - Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2011-0983] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City...waters during the replacement of overhead power lines. Entry into, transiting or anchoring...Coast Guard held a meeting with Gulf Coast Power Company on October 13, 2011 to...

2011-12-06

418

Zooplankton of West Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

2014-05-01

419

Gandhis West, the Wests Gandhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gandhi had a life-long engagement with “the West.” He was educated in Britain, had close Jewish friends in South Africa, and engaged in discussions with Christian clergymen for much of his life. In the midst of struggles against racism and colonialism, Gandhi never lacked friends and admirers in Britain, Europe, and the U.S. Thoreau, Tolstoy, and Ruskin—the “Holy Trinity”—are widely

Vinay Lal

2009-01-01

420

Harmful Algal Blooms, Hypoxia & Climate Change: West Coast Region Introduction  

E-print Network

and populations with cascading effects upon larger animal populations as salmon, smelt, and rockfish. Program with our Federal, State, and academic partners, CSCOR has investigated the factors that regulate

421

Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System  

SciTech Connect

Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

2014-02-01

422

Mapping The Pacific Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maps of the Pacific Coast from the earliest period of European exploration continue to interest cartographers, geographers, and antiquarians. The maps in the Quivira Collection date from 1540 to 1802 and include early depictions of California as an island, Russian cartographic interpretations of the Pacific Coast, and overland maps across the continent westward to the ocean. All told, this online collection includes forty-five maps, books, and illustrations organized into six thematic galleries. Visitors can start by listening to an audio introduction, and then look around through the thematic galleries, which include such intriguing headings as " In the Wake of Captain James Cook" and "Secret Russian Explorations in the Pacific". Of course, visitors must click their way into the "California as an Island" section, if not just for a taste of six examples of what is perhaps one of the best-known cartographic mistakes in the world.

423

OzCoasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those persons with a penchant for public policy, coastal erosion, and estuaries will sing the praises of the OzCoasts website. Formally launched in 2008, OzCoasts represents a collaborative effort between more than 100 coastal scientists from a range of government agencies and universities across Australia. The materials on the site are divided into six primary areas, including "Coastal Indicators", "Habitat Mapping", and "Landform & Stability Maps". Within each section, visitors will find graphs, maps, charts, and short essays that document a wide range of natural and man-made phenomena including beach erosion, beach geomorphic models, and sea level rise. Visitors can also make their way to the "Glossary" area to get caught up relevant terms and then wander around the "What's New" area for the latest and greatest updates to the website.

424

Maine coast winds  

SciTech Connect

The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

Avery, Richard

2000-01-28

425

Pilot Study on the Erosion and Rehabilitation of a Mangrove Mud Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

WINTERWERP, J.C.; BORST, W.G., and DE VRIES, M.B., 2005. Pilot study on the erosion and rehabilitation of a mangrove mud coast. Journal of Coastal Research, 21(2), 223-230. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. This pilot study describes an analysis of the erosion processes of the Bang Khun Thien mangrove mud coast situated at the Upper Gulf of Thailand, and discusses

Johan C. Winterwerp; William G. Borst; Mindert B. de Vries

2005-01-01

426

Impacts of Marine Aggregate Dredging on Benthic Macrofauna off the South Coast of the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

NEWELL, R.C.; SEIDERER, L.J.; SIMPSON, N.M., and ROBINSON, J.E., 2004. Impacts of marine aggregate dredg- ing on benthic macrofauna off the south coast of the United Kingdom. Journal of Coastal Research, 20(1), 115-125. West Palm Beach (Florida), ISSN 0749-0208. A survey of benthic macrofauna in the vicinity of a coastal marine aggregate dredging site off the south coast of UK

R. C. Newell; L. J. Seiderer; N. M. Simpson; J. E. Robinson

2004-01-01

427

Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

Beck, Douglas S.

2003-01-10

428

76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Conservation and Management Act (MSA...overfishing. This document also announces...Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council...org). These documents are also linked...the fishery management plan and Council...

2011-10-24

429

Diaspora and drug trafficking in West Africa: A case study of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article interrogates the emergence of drug trafficking in contemporary Ghana and West Africa within the context of a global political economy, situated within a deeper historical perspective. It examines the earlier traf- ficking of cannabis along the coast of West Africa in the colonial period, and the later transnational networks that have emerged to promote inter- national drug trafficking

EMMANUEL AKYEAMPONG

2005-01-01

430

Trends and Issues in Vocational Technical Education in Francophone West Africa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Francophone West Africa has committed itself to the goal of universal formal education as the most effective method of insuring rapid economic and national development. (Francophone West Africa is composed of Senegal, Mauritania, Guinea, Mali, Ivory Coast, Togo, Benin, Niger, and Burkina-Faso.) The costly investments of limited fiscal resources in…

Kogoe, Akrima

431

Mechanisms of L-NG nitroarginine/indomethacin-resistant relaxation in bovine and porcine coronary arteries.  

PubMed Central

1. Coronary arteries from bovines (BCA) and pigs (PCA) were used for measuring endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of L-NG nitroarginine and indomethacin. As some compounds tested have been found to have an inhibitory effect on autacoid-activated endothelial Ca2+ signalling, endothelium-dependent relaxation was initiated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. 2. The common compounds for modulating arachidonic acid release/pathway, mepacrine and econazole only inhibited L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in BCA not in PCA. In contrast, proadifen (SKF 525A) diminished relaxation in BCA and PCA. Mepacrine and proadifen inhibited Hoe-234-initiated relaxation in BCA and PCA, while econazole only inhibited Hoe 234-induced relaxation in PCA. Due to the multiple effects of these compounds, caution is necessary in the interpretation of results obtained with these compounds. 3. The inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, apamin, strongly attenuated A23187-induced L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in BCA while apamin did not affect L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in PCA. 4. Pertussis toxin blunted L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in BCA, while relaxation of PCA was not affected by pertussis toxin. 5. Thiopentone sodium inhibited endothelial cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (EPO) in PCA but not in BCA, while L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation of BCA and PCA were unchanged. Protoporphyrine IX inhibited EPO in BCA and PCA and abolished L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation of BCA not PCA. 6. An EPO-derived compound, 11,12-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) yielded significant relaxation in BCA and PCA in three out of six experiments. 7. These findings suggest that L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in BCA and PCA constitutes two distinct pathways. In BCA, activation of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels via a pertussis-toxin-sensitive G protein and EPO-derived compounds might be involved. In PCA, no selective inhibition of L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation was found. PMID:8937721

Graier, W. F.; Holzmann, S.; Hoebel, B. G.; Kukovetz, W. R.; Kostner, G. M.

1996-01-01

432

Closed-cycle gas turbines for power generation and LNG vaporization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cooling by LNG (liquefied nitrogen gas) in closed-cycle gas turbines results in double the electrical output of water cooled turbines. A circuit scheme of the LNG turbine is presented with the temperatures and pressures of the cycle. The turbine inlet temperature is limited to 720 C. Pressure level control and bypass control are the two basic types of control applied. The power station has an output of 4 x 100 MW, with four heaters arranged in series. The basic design of the heater, turbine, compressor, recuperator, and vaporizer is given. A cost comparison is made between the closed cycle gas turbine and steam turbine power stations with open rack vaporizer, submerged combustion vaporizer, or both. Using an LNG terminal with a closed-cycle gas turbine for the generation of electric power and LNG vaporization would mean a potential world-wide saving of 2,350 MW thermal power or 4.2 x 10(6) kg of LNG/day by 1985.

Weber, D.

1980-09-01

433

Women Artists of the American West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Women Artists of the American West (WAAW) website features the "vital contributions that women have made to the art and history of the American west." Visitors to the site can take in seventeen different collections, arranged according to four themes: community, identity, spirituality, and locality. The exhibits include works by Barbara Zaring and Alcye Frank, who painted the landscape of the American Southwest as a team. Moving on into the Identity area, visitors will find collections such as "Shaping a New Way: White Women and the Movement to Promote Pueblo Indian Arts and Crafts, 1900-1935" and "Lesbian Photography on the U.S. West Coast, 1972-1997." Visitors should also take the time to look through the beautiful work by Betty LaDuke, collected in the collection titled "An Artist's Journey from Oregon to Timbuktu."

434

78 FR 14259 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...around the catch history assignments of each...having two catch history assignments endorsed...fisheries on Chinook salmon (Puget Sound...Valley spring, California coastal), coho salmon (Central California coastal,...

2013-03-05

435

78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...River, Sacramento River winter, Central Valley spring, California coastal), coho salmon (Central California coastal, southern Oregon/northern California coastal), chum salmon (Hood Canal summer, Columbia River), sockeye...

2013-01-02

436

77 FR 45508 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...River, Sacramento River winter, Central Valley spring, California coastal), coho salmon (Central California coastal, southern Oregon/northern California coastal), chum salmon (Hood Canal summer, Columbia River), sockeye...

2012-08-01

437

78 FR 3848 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...IFQ fishery or catch history assignments on MS...permits and/or catch history assignments on MS...those permits or catch history assignments to the QS...fisheries on Chinook salmon (Puget Sound, Snake...Central Valley spring, California coastal), coho...

2013-01-17

438

76 FR 28897 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...River, Sacramento River winter, Central Valley spring, California coastal), coho salmon (Central California coastal, southern Oregon/northern California coastal), chum salmon (Hood Canal [[Page 28903

2011-05-19

439

78 FR 26526 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...one permit having two catch history assignments endorsed to it...groundfish FMP fisheries on Chinook salmon (Puget Sound, Snake River...Central Valley spring, California coastal), coho salmon (Central California coastal, southern...

2013-05-07

440

77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...River, Sacramento River winter, Central Valley spring, California coastal), coho salmon (Central California coastal, southern Oregon/northern California coastal), chum salmon (Hood Canal summer, Columbia River), sockeye...

2012-05-21

441

78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...rationalization. (Buyback history was equally divided among...Groundfish FMP fisheries on Chinook salmon (Puget Sound, Snake River...Central Valley spring, California coastal), coho salmon (Central California coastal, southern...

2013-02-01

442

76 FR 54887 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...groundfish and halibut (round weight, legal and sublegal-sized fish). The interim...mt set-aside for the at-sea trawl sectors and the shorebased sector south of 40[deg]10' N. lat was for legal and sublegal sized halibut, round...

2011-09-02

443

76 FR 74725 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...quota, harvest guideline, ACL or ACT or OY, if the vessel...quota, harvest guideline, ACL or ACT or OY applied.'' The...on an annual basis, to be deposited in the corresponding QS account...If there is a decline in the ACL between the base year and...

2011-12-01

444

77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Optimum Yield (OY) or Annual Catch Limit (ACL) prior to 2012) of Pacific whiting...ex-vessel revenues. As the U.S. OY/ACL has been highly variable during this...allocations. QP and IBQ pounds will be deposited into QS accounts annually. QS permit...

2012-02-22

445

78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...However, when making an allocation decision, the factors that must...recognize the factors required for consideration...allocation decisions. Response...recognize the factors required in consideration...allocation decision....

2013-03-28

446

75 FR 67809 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...physical and biological factors. The rebuilding...The long-term success of the trawl rationalization...existing CCAs, where sport and commercial...rockfish. Because sport...to be the deciding factor as to whether or not...all- depth'' sport halibut...

2010-11-03

447

76 FR 27507 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...local communities that are dependent on sport fishing. Washington's recreational...avoid overfished species. The long-term success of the trawl rationalization...habitat. Several other non-groundfish factors also affect fishing...

2011-05-11

448

76 FR 53833 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...flatfish complex are specified under the definition of ``groundfish'' at Sec. 660...22. In Sec. 660.211, remove the definition for ``Sablefish primary fishery or sablefish tier limit fishery '' and add a definition for ``Sablefish primary...

2011-08-30

449

76 FR 59634 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...California Central Valley, south/central California, northern California, southern California). These biological opinions have concluded...sturgeon, eulachon, marine mammals, and turtles. After reviewing the available...

2011-09-27

450

76 FR 77415 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Valley, south/central California, northern California, southern California). These biological opinions...mammals, sea birds, and turtles). NMFS will be completing...of the Marine Mammal Protection Act concurrent with...

2011-12-13

451

78 FR 579 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...adversely affect green sea turtles, olive ridley sea turtles, loggerhead sea turtles, sei whales, North Pacific...under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, incidental take...the marbled murrelet, California least tern,...

2013-01-03

452

75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...gov. Fax: 206-526-6736, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew Mail: William W. Stelle...Seattle, WA 98115- 0070, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew. Instructions: No comments...only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gretchen Hanshew (Northwest Region,...

2010-08-23

453

75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...gov. Fax: 206-526-6736, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew. Mail: William W. Stelle...Seattle, WA 98115- 0070, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew. Instructions: No comments...only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gretchen Hanshew (Northwest Region,...

2010-10-04

454

76 FR 42588 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...98115-0070; or by phone at 206- 526-6150. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gretchen A. Hanshew, 206-526-6147; (fax) 206-526-6736; Gretchen.Hanshew@noaa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December 30, 2010, NMFS...

2011-07-19

455

76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...gov. Fax: 206-526-6736, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew. Mail: William W. Stelle...Seattle, WA 98115- 0070, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew. Instructions: All comments...only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gretchen Hanshew (Northwest Region,...

2011-06-30

456

75 FR 41383 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...gov. Fax:206-526-6736, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew Mail: William W. Stelle...Seattle, WA 98115- 0070, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew. Instructions: No comments...only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gretchen Hanshew (Northwest Region,...

2010-07-16

457

76 FR 54713 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Effective September 2, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gretchen Hanshew (Northwest Region, NMFS), phone: 206-526-6147; fax: 206-526-6736 and; e-mail: gretchen.hanshew@noaa.gov. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

2011-09-02

458

76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...gov. Fax: 206-526-6736, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew. Mail: William W. Stelle...Seattle, WA 98115- 0070, Attn: Gretchen Hanshew. Instructions: All comments...only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Gretchen Hanshew (Northwest Region,...

2011-03-02

459

75 FR 82296 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and adjust the trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas...at http://www.regulations.gov. Fax: 206-526-6736...based upon current regulations, recommendations provided...consistent with current regulations at Sec. 660.140...calculation of yelloweye rockfish QP based on the...

2010-12-30

460

77 FR 2655 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Rules and Regulations] [Pages 2655-2656...of Darkblotched rockfish, 6.5 mt of Pacific...3 mt of Canary rockfish, and 48.3 mt of Widow rockfish from the mothership...http://www.regulations.gov. To...

2012-01-19

461

75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the 2010 groundfish regulations and management. This...are: darkblotched rockfish, 330 metric tons...limits are the basis for regulation of the fishery. Clarifying...table that the canary rockfish OY is 105 mt as opposed...mt does not affect regulation of the fishery....

2010-07-08

462

75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...deliveries of trawl groundfish. These proposed regulations are similar to regulations currently required for processors that...Alleutian Islands pollock, Gulf of Alaska rockfish). These regulations can be found at 50 CFR...

2010-03-18

463

75 FR 38030 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...2010)] [Rules and Regulations] [Pages 38030-38041...Specifications for Yelloweye Rockfish and In-Season Adjustments...guidelines for yelloweye rockfish to keep fishery impacts...the lowered yelloweye rockfish OY in accordance with...taken pursuant to the regulations implementing the...

2010-07-01

464

78 FR 76570 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle, WA 98115- 0070, Attn: Kevin C. Duffy...received are a part of the public record and will generally be posted for...available fish prior to the onset of weather conditions that would make...

2013-12-18

465

75 FR 23615 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the limited entry fixed gear primary sablefish fishery north of Pt. Chehalis, Washington (46[deg]53.30' N. lat.); and...3) * * * (iv) Incidental halibut retention north of Pt. Chehalis, WA (46[deg]53.30' N. lat.). No...

2010-05-04

466

78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...7371, p.7375), the Council's Cost Recovery Committee (CRC) is tasked...to identify specific incremental costs on a sector-by-sector basis, and to identify any opportunities for long-term cost efficiencies within the...

2013-12-11

467

76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...the rebuilding of overfished stocks by remaining within their rebuilding...increased interest from recreational sport and charter boat fleets targeting...assessed in 2007 as two separate stocks north and south of 45[deg...to harvest available healthy stocks, and meet the objective...

2011-12-21

468

78 FR 56641 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...non-groundfish with longline and pot gears and to other fishing and non-fishing...groundfish with bottom trawl gear. This rule affects the limited...regulations is to make short term reductions in the size of the trawl RCA...groundfish landed by bottom trawl gear was up slightly in 2012,...

2013-09-13

469

78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...rejoin the fishery as soon as the deficit is cured. Deficits greater than the carryover allowance...ii)(A) such that once a vessel has cured a deficit, it may rejoin the fishery...rejoin the fishery as soon as the deficit is cured. Deficits greater than the carryover...

2013-07-19

470

78 FR 13330 - Pangea LNG (North America) Holdings, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...natural gas), the equivalent of 8 million metric tons per annum (mtpa), from its proposed South Texas LNG Export Project (ST LNG...natural gas), the equivalent of 8 million metric tons per annum (mtpa), for a period of 25 years beginning on the earlier of...

2013-02-27

471

78 FR 35625 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...million metric tonnes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per annum (mtpa) via LNG carriers. Trains 5 and 6 would comprise Stage 3 of...of 4.0 Bcf/d of natural gas and to export about 27 million mtpa. The SPLE Project would be located within areas that have...

2013-06-13

472

77 FR 66454 - Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...export up to 11.5 million tons per annum (mtpa) of domestically produced liquefied natural...contract authorization to export up to 11.5 mtpa of domestically produced LNG for 25 years...facilities with a capacity of up to 11.5 mtpa of LNG, plus enhancements to the...

2012-11-05

473

Economics of the LNG Value Chain and Corporate Strategies An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration leading to an industry in which a small number of large and powerful players are active. Our hypothesis of high transaction costs along the LNG value chain inducing a

Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

474

Corporate Strategies along the LNG Value Added Chain An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global LNG market. In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration. Our hypothesis is that high transaction costs along the LNG value added chain induce a higher degree of vertical integration. This hypothesis is tested by implementing ordered response models. To explain determinants of

Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

475

An Analysis of the Risks of a Terrorist Attack on LNG Receiving Facilities in the United States  

E-print Network

miles long.] Graphic produced by Google Earth. Abstract: The placement of liquefied natural gas (LNG;2DRAFT #12;Introduction The renewed interest in establishing liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving, the continuing increase in demand for natural gas in the U.S., and the resurgence of U.S. natural gas prices

Wang, Hai

476

Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.  

PubMed

THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:2468