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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

West Coast Poverty Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

2

Imported LNG to serve east coast utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through the El Paso Natural Gas Co. project, Consolidated Natural Gas Co. and Columbia Gas System, Inc., expect to import Algerian LNG equivalent to 650 million ft³\\/day of natural gas by 1977, with initial deliveries to start in late 1976. The project will eventually cost $2 billion and involve LNG imports equivalent to 1 billion ft³\\/day of gas. Arriving from

1974-01-01

3

Greenland: Full West Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

4

Greenland full west coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

5

West Coast Chlorophyll Bloom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on board the Orbview 2 satellite captured the phytoplankton bloom October 6, 2002 . Red represents high concentration of chlorophyll, follow by orange, yellow and green. Land and cloud portions of the image are presented in natural color. SeaWiFS monitors ocean plant life by measuring the amount of chlorophyll in the ocean. Large phytoplankton blooms tend to coincide with natural phenomena that drive that nutrient-rich water to the surface. The process is called upwelling. Winds coming off principal land masses push surface layers of water away from the shore. Into the resulting wind-driven void deeper water underneath the surface layers rushes in toward the coast, bringing with it nutrients for life to bloom. This upwelling fuel the growth of marine phytoplankton which, along with larger seaweeds, nourishes the incredible diversity of creatures found along the northern and central California coast.

Perkins, Lori; Feldman, Gene

2002-10-15

6

77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...CONTACT: Peggy Mundy, Northwest Region Salmon Management Division, NMFS, 206-526-4323...regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of...

2012-09-25

7

76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...submitted Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2011-09-19

8

77 FR 67327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...transmitted Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2012-11-09

9

75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures...management measures for the 2010 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2011 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2010-05-05

10

77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures...management measures for the 2012 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2013 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2012-05-02

11

76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2011-06-07

12

76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2011-05-04

13

78 FR 25865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures...management measures for the 2013 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2014 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2013-05-03

14

Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

NONE

1997-05-01

15

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2013-02-14

16

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2012-12-19

17

Bio-Alpha off the West Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LONG-TERM GOALS: Develop quantitative models of the effects of fish with swim bladders on attenuation (bio-alpha), transmission loss, and scintillation index in the ocean. OBJECTIVES: Conduct an experiment off the west coast to determine the effects of ha...

O. Diachok

2012-01-01

18

Marine Harvest Refugia for West Coast Rockfish: A Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Marine Harvest Refugia for West Coast Rockfish: An Introduction to the Workshop; Concepts Relevant to the Design and Evaluation of Fishery Reserves; Design Principles for Rockfish Reserves on the U.S. West Coast; Evaluating Marine Harves...

M. Yoklavich

1998-01-01

19

78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY...announces one inseason action in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-05-23

20

77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 22 through...announces 5 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-10-26

21

76 FR 17033 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...in effect until the opening of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011...

2011-03-28

22

78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through...announces six inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-08-19

23

75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 9, 10...announces three inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason actions 9 and...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-09-09

24

77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 through...announces 11 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-09-10

25

77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15 through...announces 7 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-10-11

26

77 FR 22682 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces 3 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2011 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (76 FR 25246, May 4,...

2012-04-17

27

75 FR 44925 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-07-30

28

78 FR 24360 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2013-04-25

29

78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-06-12

30

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

2004-01-01

31

West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunami warning center for Alaska and the west coast of the United States. Users can access current tsunami information through an interactive map that shows the latest events and information statements. Rolling over the map symbols provides the date and time, location, and preliminary magnitude of earthquakes. Clicking on them provides access to additional information, including a statement of whether a tsunami is expected. There are also links to previous warning messages, Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds with headlines, links to documents and brief information; publications; and links to related sites with additional information.

2010-11-12

32

76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 5 Through...announces 22 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...effect until the closing date of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011 annual...

2011-11-04

33

75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 12 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-12-06

34

75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 14 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-12-06

35

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

36

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

37

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

38

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

39

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

40

Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

2002-01-01

41

A Selected Bibliography of the Nearshore Environment: Florida West Coast.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A collection of over 2,900 references on ecological and coastal engineering subjects related to the nearshore environment of the Florida west coast. References are grouped by subject and alphabetized by author within each subject heading.

C. H. Saloman

1975-01-01

42

A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new article is available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast, discusses the "contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the U.S. West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise." Data published in this article is presented in ASCII text and/or can be read using a FORTRAN 77 data-retrieval routine

43

Uptake and Elimination of Poliovirus by West Coast Oysters  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of poliovirus Lsc-2ab by West Coast oysters was determined by using a stationary seawater system, and depuration was determined by using both stationary and free-flow systems. Results indicate that these shellfish have the same pattern of accumulation and localization of viruses as do East Coast species. However, uptake appeared to occur more rapidly than described for East Coast shellfish. There appeared to be a gradual diffusion of virus from the digestive area into the body. Depuration was found to occur more rapidly and completely under free-flow conditions than in a stationary system.

Girolamo, Rudolph Di; Liston, John; Matches, J.

1975-01-01

44

Greenland: Full West Coast (2nd render)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Hall, Dorothy

2000-06-25

45

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

46

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

47

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

48

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

49

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

50

North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

McIntosh, C. Barron

1974-01-01

51

In Search of Optimal Harvest Rates for West Coast Groundfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I explore how patterns of compensatory mortality, as assessed through stock-recruitment relationships, may influence optimal harvest rates and relative yields for several West Coast groundfish stocks. To do this, I revisited Clark's (1991) groundfish life history model and maximin (i.e., maximize the minimum) yield approach to evaluate target harvest rates for five stocks (Dover sole Microstomus pacificus

Jon Brodziak

2002-01-01

52

In Search of Optimal Harvest Rates for West Coast Groundfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I explore how patterns of compensatory mortality, as assessed through stockrecruitment relationships, may influence optimal harvest rates and relative yields for several West Coast groundfish stocks. To do this, I revisited Clark's (1991) groundfish life history model and maximin (i.e., maximize the minimum) yield approach to evaluate target harvest rates for five stocks (Dover sole Microstomus pacificus,

Jon Brodziak

2002-01-01

53

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...1305 Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

2010-07-01

54

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...1305 Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

2009-07-01

55

78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...USCG-2013-0095] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals...Colorado River in Parker, Arizona for the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals...RPM Racing Enterprises is sponsoring the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast...

2013-04-18

56

78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...at-sea mothership fishery ``for further consideration.'' The order...those associated with office space. Revenues are from West Coast...340,000). A total of 41 out of 65 permits will see a change...share ($189,000). Twelve out of 17 processing plants...

2013-03-28

57

Two Fisheries Biology Problems in West Coast Groundfish Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two major fisheries biology problems currently confront managers of west coast groundfish. First, fisheries that develop while long-lived but low-production stocks such as rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) are fished up attain a harvesting potential that vastly exceeds the long-term productive capacity of the resource. The most effective and perhaps only way to manage these types of fish

Robert C. Francis

1986-01-01

58

78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...announces 23 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial and recreational salmon fisheries in the area from the...

2013-11-26

59

ARkStorm: A West Coast Storm Scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is preparing a new emergency-preparedness scenario, called ARkStorm, to address massive U.S. West Coast storms analogous to those that devastated California in 1861-62. Storms of this magnitude are projected to become more frequent and intense as a result of climate change. The MHDP has assembled experts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USGS, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, the State of California, California Geological Survey, the University of Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and other organizations to design the large, but scientifically plausible, hypothetical scenario storm that would provide emergency responders, resource managers, and the public a realistic assessment of what is historically possible. The ARkStorm patterns the 1861 - 1862 historical events but uses modern modeling methods and data from large storms in 1969 and 1986. The ARkStorm draws heat and moisture from the tropical Pacific, forming Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) that grow in size, gain speed, and with a ferocity equal to hurricanes, slam into the U.S. West Coast for several weeks. Using sophisticated weather models and expert analysis, precipitation, snowlines, wind, and pressure data the modelers will characterize the resulting floods, landslides, and coastal erosion and inundation. These hazards will then be translated into the infrastructural, environmental, agricultural, social, and economic impacts. Consideration will be given to catastrophic disruptions to water supplies resulting from impacts on groundwater pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence. Possible climate-change forces that could exacerbate the problems will also be evaluated. In contrast to the recent U.S. East and Gulf Coast hurricanes, only recently have scientific and technological advances documented the ferocity and strength of possible future West Coast storms. A task of ARkStorm is to elevate the visibility of the very real threats to human life, property, and ecosystems posed by extreme storms on the U.S. West Coast. This enhanced visibility will help increase the preparedness of the emergency management community and the public to such storms. ARkStorm is scheduled to be completed by September 2010 and will be the basis of a state-wide emergency response drill, Golden Guardian, led by the California Emergency Management Agency in 2011.

Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Ralph, F. M.; Dettinger, M. D.; Porter, K.; Perry, S. C.; Barnard, P. L.; Hoover, D.; Wills, C. J.; Stock, J. D.; Croyle, W.; Ferris, J. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Miller, M.; Wein, A.; Rose, A.; Done, J.; Topping, K.

2009-12-01

60

Decadal Variability of West Coast Marine Stratus Clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low frequency variability of West Coast summertime marine stratus clouds are investigated using six decades of observations at several coastal airport locations. The magnitude and direction of long-term trends in summertime marine stratus occurrence along the California coast depends strongly on the cloud base height threshold used to distinguish low clouds from higher clouds. In this study, marine stratus clouds are defined as having cloud base at or below 1000 meters. Using this threshold, a decreasing trend in marine stratus cloud frequency was found for Southern California during the 1950-2012 period. No significant trends were found in Northern California. When averaged over the summer season, the cloud data reveal that coastal stratus has substantial variation on multi-year time scales with typical changes of 10-15% from year to year and 5-7% from decade to decade. Low stratus cloud cover varies over long distances with coherent anomalies that extend from southern California to Oregon. The most important correlated modes of SST with cloud cover anomalies, via a canonical correlation analysis contains both local and remote SST linkages. The first mode is correlated with the PDO and also to Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns and coastal upwelling. There is also a linkage to sea surface temperature anomalies in the low latitude Pacific, suggesting that tropical-extratropical interactions may be involved in driving West Coast cloud cover.

Iacobellis, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Williams, P.

2013-12-01

61

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1305 Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro...

2013-07-01

62

77 FR 16048 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: Harmonizing Trade for a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection...theme for the Trade Symposium is ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy.'' This document announces that the West Coast...

2012-03-19

63

50 CFR Table 2 to Part 660 - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Groundfish Limited Entry Permits 2 Table 2 to Part 660 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Table 2 Table 2 to Part 660Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast...

2010-10-01

64

Comparative study on foraminifera of east and west coast of India.  

PubMed

The oceanographic conditions of west and east coasts of India provide variations in ecological conditions. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the geographic distribution and diversity of foraminifera (Protista) of west and east Coasts of India to gain insights in to ecological conditions that effect their distribution. The intertidal sediment samples, collected for a period of two years from October 2004 to September 2006 were analysed for foraminiferal diversity and sediment characteristics by standard methods. Relatively high densities (west coast--156 to 19,400 g(-1), east coast--37-214 g(-1)) and diversities were observed at all the sites of the West (74 species) compared to the east coast (57 species). Thirty three species were common to both the coasts. Forty one and 24 species were found to be unique to west and east coast, respectively. Foraminifera of west and east coasts form distinct clusters as revealed by Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, indicating distinctly different foraminiferal assemblages. The geographical and oceanographic conditions thus seem to influence a differential diversity of forams. PMID:23734457

Gadi, Subhadra Devi; Patil, Rajashekhar K

2012-09-01

65

Coastal processes and longshore sediment transport along Kundapura coast, central west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longshore sediment transport (LST) is one of the main factors influencing coastal geomorphology. This study examines the variation in the LST estimate using four well known formulae and the sensitivity of wave parameters on LST determination. The study was done along the Kundapura coast, central west coast of India. The Delft3D-wave module was used for obtaining the nearshore wave characteristics from the wave data measured using Datawell directional wave rider buoy at 12 m water depth for a period of one year. Diurnal change and seasonal variation in LST were examined. The study shows that the net LST was toward north for most of the time (non-monsoon period) during the year when predominant wave direction was between SWS and SW, whereas the LST was toward south during the monsoon season when the wave direction was from the west. It was found that the influence of breaker height was more during the non-monsoon period whereas during the monsoon period, breaker angle shows more influence on LST. Estimated annual net LSTR for the region is 3.6, 3.0, 1.6, and 2.6 105 m3 based on the CERC, Walton and Bruno, Kamphuis and Komar formulae. The LSTR estimate based on the Kamphuis formula, which also includes the wave period, beach slope, and sediment grain size, was found to be a reliable estimate for the study region. The variation in LSTR estimate considering different data intervals was also examined and found that the difference in monthly LSTR for data intervals of 6, 12 and 24 h with respect to the 3 h interval was up to 11, 13 and 24%. For better and more accurate estimates of LSTR, the data interval should be 3 h or less.

Shanas, P. R.; Sanil Kumar, V.

2014-06-01

66

Attenuation of Solar Radiation by Windborne Saharan Dust off the West Coast of Africa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In August 1972, solar radiation was measured aboard ship near the coast of West Africa, using an upfacing Eppley pyranometer and Volz type sunphotometers. A simple radiative transfer model for solar irradiance (the broadband measurements) was used to comp...

T. N. Carlson J. M. Prospero K. J. Hanson

1973-01-01

67

Chigger (Acarina: Trombiculidae) Surveys of the West Coast Beaches of Sabah and Sarawak.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Leptotrombidium (Leptotrombidium) arenicola Traub, a vector of scrub typhus, had previously been found to occur in the coastal vegetation behind the edge of open sand along the beaches of Peninsular Malaysia. Surveys of the west coast beaches of Sabah and...

A. L. Dohany O. W. Phang G. Rapmund

1977-01-01

68

Contrasting oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton communities on the east and west coasts of Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and dynamics of the phytoplankton communities and hydrographic factors that control them are described for eastern and western Australia with a focus on the Eastern Australian Current (EAC) and Leeuwin Current (LC) between 27.5 and 34.5S latitude. A total of 1685 samples collected from 1996 to 2010 and analysed for pigments by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed the average TChl a (monovinyl+divinyl chlorophyll a) concentration on the west coast to be 0.280.16 ?g L -1 while it was 0.581.4 ?g L -1 on the east coast. Both coasts showed significant decreases in the proportions of picoplankton and relatively more nanoplankton and microplankton with increasing latitude. On both coasts the phytoplankton biomass (by SeaWiFS) increased with the onset of winter. At higher latitudes (>27.5S) the southeast coast developed a spring bloom (September) when the mean monthly, surface chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration (by SeaWiFS) was 48% greater than on the south west coast. In this southern region (27.5-34.5S) Synechococcus was the dominant taxon with 60% of the total biomass in the southeast (SE) and 43% in the southwest (SW). Both the SE and SW regions had similar proportions of haptophytes; 14% of the phytoplankton community. The SW coast had relatively more pelagophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes, chlorophytes and less bacillariophytes and dinophytes. These differences in phytoplankton biomass and community composition reflect the differences in seasonality of the 2 major boundary currents, the influence this has on the vertical stability of the water column and the average availability of nutrients in the euphotic zone. Seasonal variation in mixed layer depth and upwelling on the west coast appears to be suppressed by the Leeuwin Current. The long-term depth averaged (0-100 m) nitrate concentration on the west coast was only 14% of the average concentration on the east coast. Redfield ratios for NO 3:SiO 2:PO 4 were 6.5:11.9:1 on the east coast and 2.2:16.2:1 on the west coast. Thus new production (nitrate based) on the west coast was likely to be substantially more limited than on the eastcoast. Short term (hourly) rates of vertical mixing were greater on the east coast. The more stable water column on the west coast produced deeper subsurface chlorophyll a maxima with a 25% greater proportion of picoeukaryotes.

Thompson, P. A.; Bonham, P.; Waite, A. M.; Clementson, L. A.; Cherukuru, N.; Hassler, C.; Doblin, M. A.

2011-03-01

69

West Coast Salmon and the Endangered Species Act: Extinction is NOT an Option  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northwest Regional Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has recently launched this Website on endangered species listings for Pacific Coast salmon. The site includes West Coast Salmon Listings, Fact Sheets, Species Maps, Federal Register Notices, Reports and Publications, and a What's New section, providing news updates, progress reports, and detailed maps. The site features the five salmon species (Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink, Sockeye), Steelhead, and Coastal Cutthroat Trout, with color images, international range maps (US and Canada), status/ descriptive text, critical habitat descriptions, and protective regulations for each Evolutionarily Significant Unit (distinctive group of fish). This is an excellent place to find current information on endangered West Coast salmon.

70

First US LNG base load trade from Algeria, the Cove Point Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Algeria 1 LNG project, by far the largest LNG-import project in the world, has proved a beneficial source of energy for the Atlantic Coast states, owing to extensive crew training, good terminal-operating procedures, and US Coast Guard monitoring procedures. Participating in the project with El Paso Marine Co. are Columbia LNG Corp. and Consolidated System LNG Co., which receive

J. W. Kime; J. W. Boylston; J. Van Dyke

1979-01-01

71

Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives  

SciTech Connect

A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

Pietrafesa, L.J.

1983-06-01

72

77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of technological advances, huge reserves of domestic shale gas that were previously infeasible or uneconomic to develop...Gulf Coast also states that large volumes of domestic shale gas reserves and continued low production costs will...

2012-06-04

73

Greenland: Pan to West Coast Area of Interest  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Perkins, Lori; Krabill, William; Manizade, Serdar

2000-06-25

74

76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...charter boat fleets targeting lingcod and bottomfish in deep water ocean areas off the Washington south coast and Columbia River...slightly increased for darkblotched rockfish, Pacific ocean perch, widow rockfish and yelloweye rockfish....

2011-12-21

75

75 FR 37744 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...rationalization program for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery. Amendment 21 would establish fixed allocations for limited entry (LE) trawl participants. DATES: Effective June 10, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jamie Goen,...

2010-06-30

76

Energy transfer through the shelf benthos off the west coast of South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon?flow pathways are proposed for the muddy?shelf benthos off the coast of West?land and north?west Nelson, New Zealand (southeastern Tasman Sea). They are largely from bio?mass estimates of sediment bacteria (adenosine triphosphate assay), meiofauna, macrofauna, and demersal fish, and literature values of production\\/ biomass ratios and energy transfer efficiencies. It is assumed that benthic secondary production (deposit?feeder dominated) is mediated

P. K. Probert

1986-01-01

77

Surf-zone Diatoms of the Coasts of Washington and New Zealand ('Chaetoceros armatum' T. West and 'Asterionella' spp.).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Surf-zone diatom populations occurring along the west coast of the Olympic Peninsula, state of Washington, are quite comparable to similar surf-zone populations along the west coast of North Island, New Zealand. In both locations, Chaetoceros armatum T. W...

J. Lewin R. E. Norris

1970-01-01

78

76 FR 65155 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...harvested in the U.S. West Coast-based deep-set tuna longline (DSLL) fishery...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at http://www.pcouncil.org...shallow sets. Longline vessels that make deep sets with longline (DSLL) are...

2011-10-20

79

Shamal swells in the Arabian Sea and their influence along the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave data collected off Ratnagiri, Goa and Dwarka along the west coast of India during winter season (NE monsoon and early pre-monsoon) present distinct wave characteristics with periodicity ranging between 2 and 5 days associated with shamal events. The notable wave characteristics during these events are: an increase in wave height, decrease in swell period and a common propagation direction (northwest) for wind sea and swell. IFREMER/CERSAT blended winds clearly show the presence of strong northwesterly winds in the Arabian Peninsula and northwestern Arabian Sea, which are associated with the winter shamal events. The winds during such events generate large northwesterly swells (shamal swells) in the northwestern Arabian Sea and propagate towards the west coast of India in the NW direction with mean periods ranging between 6 and 8 s. Numerical simulations reproduce the shamal swells over the Arabian Sea, and they can be traced all along the west coast of India, however, with lesser order of magnitude from north to south. Generation and propagation of shamal swells and their influence along the west coast of India have been described.

Aboobacker, V. M.; Vethamony, P.; Rashmi, R.

2011-02-01

80

Surface Water Temperatures at Shore Stations. United States West Coast 1973.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents sea surface temperature and salinity data observed during 1973 along the west coast of North America from the straight of Juan de Fuca, Washington to La Jolla, California. The data consist of monthly means, ranges and standard deviati...

1975-01-01

81

The tidal range energy potential of the West Coast of the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

With concerns mounting over the UKs energy future and the effects of climate change, it will soon become paramount that all viable sources of renewable energy are fully exploited. This study has examined the scope for reliable and fully predictable tidal electricity generation from the conjunctive operation of 5 major estuary barrages on the West Coast of the UK in

R. Burrows; I. A. Walkington; N. C. Yates; T. S. Hedges; J. Wolf; J. Holt

2009-01-01

82

Some limnological observations of a temporary West Coast pan in Southern Africa: Rocher Pan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mineral contents and some of the primary consumers of a temporary pan along the west coast of southern Africa are reported\\u000a on. Tendential evidence suggests a change in composition and abundance of the entomostraca which could probably be related\\u000a to floristic changes caused by the accumulation of salts.

A. Coetzer

1981-01-01

83

Updated Status of Federally Listed ESUs of West Coast Salmon and Steelhead.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During the 1990s, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS or NOAA Fisheries Service) conducted a series of reviews of the status of West Coast populations of Pacific salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) with respect to the U.S. Endangered Species ...

P. Adams R. S. Waples T. P. Good

2005-01-01

84

Exploitation Rate Reference Points for West Coast Rockfish: Are They Robust and Are There Better Alternatives?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We explore several aspects of the robustness of exploitation rate reference points as a management tool. The spawner?recruit curve is an important consideration when developing exploitation rate reference points. The spawner?recruit curves for West Coast rockfish Sebastes spp. suggest low productivity compared with other stocks, but our ability to produce reliable estimates of productivity is hindered by the scarcity of

Ray Hilborn; Ana Parma; Mark Maunder

2002-01-01

85

A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE US WEST COAST  

EPA Science Inventory

A probabilistic survey of environmental condition of the continental shelf of the US West Coast was conducted in 2003 by the US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA), with collaboration by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. Metals and organic contaminants were analyzed ...

86

Reproductive toxicity of seafood contaminants: Prospective comparisons of Swedish east and west coast fishermen's families  

PubMed Central

Cohorts comprising fishermen's families on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs). Their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. The rationale for this was that the cohorts residing on the east coast of Sweden have been found to have a high consumption of contaminated fish as well as high body burdens of POPs, whereas their west coast correspondents are socio-economically similar, but with considerably lower POP exposure since the fish caught on the west coast is far less contaminated. Among the reproductive outcomes investigated are included both male and female parameters, as well as couple fertility and effects on the fetus. A range of exposure measures, including both questionnaire assessments of fish consumption and biomarkers, have been used. The most consistent findings of the studies are those related to the fetus, where a decreased birth weight was found across all measures of exposure, which is in agreement with studies from other populations. Some markers for male reproduction function, i.e. sperm motility, sperm chromatin integrity, and Y:X chromosome ratio, were associated with POP exposure, whereas others, such as sperm concentration and semen volume, were not. With respect to couple fertility and female reproductive parameters, no support was given for associations with POP exposure. Although some associations may have been affected by beneficial effects of essential nutrients in seafood, the overall findings are meaningful in the context of reproductive toxicity and support the usefulness of the epidemiological design.

Axmon, Anna; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

2008-01-01

87

Characteristics of an open coast tidal flat: Example from Daman, west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study highlights lithofacies and biofacies characteristics of the open coast tidal flat near Daman on the eastern flank\\u000a of Gulf of Khambhat. Sedimentological and biological observation record six facies within the tidal flat area including older\\u000a beach, beach face, sand flat, mud flat\\/mixed flat, sand bar and beach rock. Distinct sedimentary structures, foraminiferal\\u000a assemblage and bioturbation intensity characterize each

Sourav Saha; Anupam Ghosh; Santanu Banerjee; Pratul K. Saraswati; Stuart D. Burley

2011-01-01

88

Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

2006-11-01

89

Rayleigh-Wave Multipathing along the West Coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have created a movie of surface ground motion for the 3 November 2002 Denali fault earthquake based on spectral-element simulations using crustal model CRUST2.0, mantle model S20RTS, topography and bathymetry model ETOPO5, and a finite-fault slip model. The movie features two anomalous wave packets that travel along the west coast of the North American plate following off- great-circle paths.

Chen Ji; Seiji Tsuboi; Dimitri Komatitsch; Jeroen Tromp

2005-01-01

90

Carnation Creek, Canada - review of a west coast fish\\/forestry watershed impact project  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carnation Creek is a small, rainforest salmon stream located on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. In 1970, a 16-year multi-agency and multi-disciplinary project was initiated to evaluate the effects of logging and silvicultural activities on the Carnation Creek watershed and communicate the results to managers of forests and fish. This paper reviews the nature and results of

E. D. HETHERINGTON

91

Fog harvesting: An alternative source of water supply on the West Coast of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments conducted during the 1990s investigated the feasibility of using fog water to supplement existing water supplies\\u000a in the arid west coast region of South Africa. Based on these results, a project was initiated aimed at implementing an operational\\u000a fog water collection system to provide potable water to a small, water-poor rural community. A 70 m2 fog water collector was

Jana Olivier

2004-01-01

92

Nutritional and antinutritional components of Canavalia spp. seeds from the west coast sand dunes of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of two coastal sand dune wild legumes, Canavalia cathartica and Canavalia maritima from the west coast of India were analyzed for their nutritional and antinutritional properties. The seeds contained 35.5 and 34.1% crude protein, 52.8 and 50.5% crude carbohydrates, 1.3 and 1.7% crude lipids and 3.1 and 3.5% ash content, respectively. Among the minerals, potassium was the highest followed

A. B. Arun; K. R. Sridhar; N. S. Raviraja; E. Schmidt; K. Jung

2003-01-01

93

Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

Warwick, William M.

2012-06-30

94

Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek\\u000a on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site,\\u000a including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system\\u000a between

Ayman A. Shama

2011-01-01

95

The 2010 Chilean Tsunami Off the West Coast of Canada and the Northwest Coast of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The major ( M w = 8.8) Chilean earthquake of 27 February 2010 generated a trans-oceanic tsunami that was observed throughout the Pacific Ocean. Waves associated with this event had features similar to those of the 1960 tsunami generated in the same region by the Great ( M w = 9.5) 1960 Chilean Earthquake. Both tsunamis were clearly observed on the coast of British Columbia. The 1960 tsunami was measured by 17 analog pen-and-paper tide gauges, while the 2010 tsunami was measured by 11 modern digital coastal tide gauges, four NEPTUNE-Canada bottom pressure recorders located offshore from southern Vancouver Island, and two nearby open-ocean DART stations. The 2010 records were augmented by data from seven NOAA tide gauges on the coast of Washington State. This study examines the principal characteristics of the waves from the 2010 event (height, period, duration, and arrival and travel times) and compares these properties for the west coast of Canada with corresponding properties of the 1960 tsunami. Results show that the 2010 waves were approximately 3.5 times smaller than the 1960 waves and reached the British Columbia coast 1 h earlier. The maximum 2010 wave heights were observed at Port Alberni (98.4 cm) and Winter Harbour (68.3 cm); the observed periods ranged from 12 min at Port Hardy to 110-120 min at Prince Rupert and Port Alberni and 150 min at Bamfield. The open-ocean records had maximum wave heights of 6-11 cm and typical periods of 7 and 15 min. Coastal and open-ocean tsunami records revealed persistent oscillations that "rang" for 3-4 days. Tsunami energy occupied a broad band of periods from 3 to 300 min. Estimation of the inverse celerity vectors from cross-correlation analysis of the deep-sea tsunami records shows that the tsunami waves underwent refraction as they approached the coast of Vancouver Island with the direction of the incoming waves changing from an initial direction of 340 True to a direction of 15 True for the second train of waves that arrived 7 h later after possible reflection from the Marquesas and Hawaiian islands.

Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.; Fine, Isaac V.

2013-09-01

96

Predicting seal efficiency and trapped hydrocarbon type in Gulf Coast hydrocarbon systems: Lessons learned from West Fulton Beach field, Mid-Texas Gulf Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many Gulf Coast fields consist of multiple vertically stacked sandstones in which oil and gas are seemingly randomly distributed stratigraphically. Hydrocarbon entrapment is strongly affected by seal competency and possibly by formation pressure, and these factors are in turn controlled by the characteristics of the interbedded shales. In West Fulton Beach field, Arkansas County, Texas, the Oligocene Frio Formation shales

Paul R. Knox

1996-01-01

97

Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis--vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches with seasonal morphological changes and annual cyclicity. The coastal zone in Goa is exposed to environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Some of the factors attributing to these pressures can be due to demographic settings and population growth, rapid urbanization, migration, recreation and tourism activities, fishery activities, transportation problems, socio-economic shift and transformation in occupation like, fishing, tourism, trade, salt industry; wetlands conversion, degradation of agriculture land and fallow lands. Shoreline changes observed overlapping the data after 32 years showed that all along the coast of Goa, from north to south, there is large variation in depositional and erosional processes. Deposition is specifically observed at Morjim, Baga, Campal, Miramar, Mobor and erosion is specifically observed at Kerim, Anjuna, Velsao. The present study reveals that all along the estuarine systems, there is net deposition. Further change detection study carried out overlapping the data after 38 years showed transformation of Khazan lands, conversion of marshy swampy and water logged areas, increase in Mangrove areas and decrease in salt pans. The present paper has succeeded in delineating various coastal ecosystems, coastal land forms, their resource potentials and transformation, if any. The study has helped earmarking the coastal region into conservation, development and utilization areas.

Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

2010-05-01

98

A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. West Coast (1997)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new data resource has recently been made available by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's CDIAC. A Coastal Hazards Database for the U.S. West Coast (1997), contains digital information for predicting effects on US western coastlines that are sensitive to rises in sea level. The data cover 0.25 degree by 0.25 degree grid cells and 1:2,000,000 line segments and include elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement, tidal ranges, and wave heights. Fortran source code is provided to examine the data.

99

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN THE HYDROMEDUSA GENUS POLYORCHIS ON THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA  

SciTech Connect

Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

Rees, John T.; Larson, R.J.

1980-12-01

100

Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden).  

PubMed

Offshore wave energy conversion is expected to develop, thus contributing to an increase in submerged constructions on the seabed. An essential concern related to the deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) is their possible impact on the surrounding soft-bottom habitats. In this study, the macrofaunal assemblages in the seabed around the wave energy converters in the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast and a neighbouring reference site were examined yearly during a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Macrobenthic communities living in the WECs' surrounding seabed were mainly composed by organisms typical for the area and depth off the Swedish west coast. At both sites the number of individuals, number of species and biodiversity were low, and were mostly small, juvenile organisms. The species assemblages during the first years of sampling were significantly different between the Lysekil research site and the nearby reference site with higher species abundance in the research site. The high contribution to dissimilarities was mostly due to polychaetes. Sparse macrofaunal densities can be explained by strong hydrodynamic forces and/or earlier trawling. WECs may alter the surrounding seabed with an accumulation of organic matter inside the research area. This indicates that the deployment of WECs in the Lysekil research site tends to have rather minor direct ecological impacts on the surrounding benthic community relative to the natural high variances. PMID:20138659

Langhamer, O

2010-06-01

101

A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

Gornitz, V.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Beaty, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Daniels, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1997-12-01

102

On the sensitivity of tidal residuals off the west coast of Britain to mesh resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An irregular mesh model of the west coast of Britain is used to examine the sensitivity of tidal residuals to mesh resolution in the region. Computed residuals are compared with earlier published results determined with a high resolution (1 km grid) finite difference model of the eastern Irish Sea. Initial calculations show that tidal residuals are largest in nearshore regions particularly in the vicinity of headlands. Local refinement of the mesh in these regions leads to a more detailed picture of the flow field, particularly adjacent to the coast. Although large scale offshore features of the flow can be resolved using the high resolution finite difference model, such an approach leads to a "stair case" representation of the coastal boundary with an adjacent near coastal region of spurious tidal residuals. By using an irregular mesh that follows the coast, this effect is removed. In the Mersey river region the tidal residual is resolved with a mesh resolution of 120 m, although calculations show that its distribution is particularly sensitive to small scale features of the topography. A variable mesh that can accurately represent the lateral variations in river width and details of topography in both the nearshore and estuarine environment appears essential in modelling the coastal spread of freshwater plumes from rivers and pollutants discharged into the near coastal environment.

Jones, J. Eric; Davies, Alan M.

2007-01-01

103

Potential for world trade in LNG  

SciTech Connect

Deliveries of LNG in 1978 in international trade amounted to about 24.77 billion cu m; of the actual deliveries, 9% were received by the U.S., 30% by West European countries, and 61% by Japan. For Spain, these deliveries represented 100% of its natural gas supply; for the U.S., they represented only 2% of natural gas demand. By the mid-1980's, the international LNG growth rate will slow to approx. 16%/yr, although projects totaling 130 million cu m/day may be completed. During the late 1980's, another 94.1 million cu m/day of LNG projects could be implemented. The over-all growth rate for the decade would then be approx. 11%/yr in LNG volumes. After 1990, several LNG export projects could be put into operation, possibly in the Middle East, West Africa, and the U.S.S.R. In 1980-2000, energy demand may increase by 2%/yr. Oil should retain its 65-70% of the primary energy supply; whether natural gas can increase its relative share depends on economic and political factors. Pipeline transport of gas costs twice as much as crude oil, and sea transport of LNG costs four to five times as much as crude oil. Wider use of the refrigeration available at LNG import terminals could affect project economics favorably. Tables.

Anderson, P.J.

1980-01-01

104

Carbon Consequences of Disturbance in the West Coast U.S. States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past 30 years, the West Coast states of California, Oregon and Washington have experienced many extreme events, changes in forest management, and climate anomalies that affect fire emissions, carbon stocks and net carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Results from inventories, intensive studies of fire effects, and integration of modeling and remote sensing data over the region indicate that management practices have had the largest effect on carbon balances compared with fire and direct effects of drought on carbon uptake. Fire emissions are primarily from fine surface fuels, and remaining material takes decades to decompose, particularly in the drier portion of the region. Biomass is about half the potential, primarily due to harvest. Fossil fuel emissions still far outweigh the net biome production of terrestrial ecosystems in each state, with CA emissions an order of magnitude higher than the other two states.

Law, B. E.; Turner, D. P.; Hudiburg, T. M.; Meigs, G. W.; Ritts, D. W.; Yang, Z.; Kennedy, R.

2009-12-01

105

MLR and ANN models of significant wave height on the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models are used in the present work to describe the significant wave height off Goa, located in the west Indian coast. A comparison study was carried out with the purpose of verifying when the artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models are appropriate for prediction of the significant wave height. Discussions of advantages and disadvantages are given in different point of view for both the methods. Several meteorological factors are used during the analysis and the ones affecting more to the model are kept. We concluded that non-linear models with wind speed and wind gust at a previous time step and air pressure, water temperature and air temperature at the same time step yield to better significant wave height models.

Asma, Senay; Sezer, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ozer

2012-12-01

106

Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

Shama, Ayman A.

2011-03-01

107

Upwelling off the west coast of Hainan Island in summer: Its detection and mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summertime upwelling off the west coast of Hainan Island is newly detected by satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature, and confirmed by both historical field observations and numerical modeling. Furthermore, numerical experiments are conducted to gain understanding of the upwelling mechanisms. A tidal mixing front (TMF) is identified as the vital factor triggering the formation of the upwelling. The baroclinic pressure gradient force, which stems from the intense density difference across the TMF, causes a frontal-scale circulation at the TMF. As a result, upwelling appears as a branch of this circulation. The southwest monsoon induces downwelling, which competes with the front-induced upwelling. Climatologically, the upwelling dominates and can reach about 5 m below the sea surface above the slope bottom. In calm weather with no or weak winds, it is expected that the upwelling can reach all the way to the sea surface.

L, Xingang; Qiao, Fangli; Wang, Guansuo; Xia, Changshui; Yuan, Yeli

2008-01-01

108

Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

2006-10-01

109

Soils developed from marine and moraine deposits on the Billefjord coast, West Spitsbergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Morphogenetic features of soils developed from noncalcareous and calcareous deposits of the marine and glacial origins on the coasts of Billefjord and Petunia Bay in West Spitsbergen are studied. Grayhumus (soddy) soils develop from noncalcareous deposits; they consist of the AO-AY-C horizons and differ from analogous soils in other locations in a higher bulk content of calcium, a close to neutral reaction, and a relatively high degree of base saturation. Gray-humus residually calcareous soils (AO-AYca-Cca) developed from calcareous deposits have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction; their exchange complex is almost completely saturated with bases. The soils that developed from both marine and moraine deposits are generally similar in their major genetic features. The profiles of all the soils are not differentiated with respect to the contents of major elements, including oxalate-soluble forms of aluminum and iron. Gley features are also absent in the profiles of these soils.

Pereverzev, V. N.

2012-11-01

110

NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

2009-01-01

111

The message, meteorology and myths of the historic West Coast winter flooding of 1861 - 62  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest known recorded flooding, ever to impact the West Coast of the United States, occurred during the winter of 1861-1862. In fact, the extraordinary flood flows on five major rivers, remain the record peaks to this day. The flooding was caused by a series of Pacific mid-latitude cyclones and several strong atmospheric rivers. The extreme rainy pattern initially strikes Oregon. The high water causes the flood of record on the Willamette River, with extensive devastation, wiping out several major towns along the river. Communications, food and supplies were cut off for much of the winter in Oregon.The intense wet weather, then redevelops, moves south and stalls - pummeling Northern California with major flooding. The runoff fills California's Central Valley with a huge inland lake. Sacramento is submerged, turned into what was described as a "frontier Venice". Flood damages eliminate a large part of the state's tax base.Finally the stormy pattern shifts into Southern California, producing major flooding. Most of lowland Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego Counties are flooded under several feet of water for weeks.The author researched limited weather data, historical accounts, maps and ship reports to reconstruct this series of storms and their effects along the West Coast. The extent and evolution of this series of flood events is unprecedented. Myths regarding the causes of this flooding are common, but its sheer magnitude is undisputable. This presentation will also demonstrate the nature and impacts of these consecutive major flood events, while revealing the lessons to be learned in light of advances in modern forecasting techniques.

Schick, L. J.

2012-12-01

112

NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, J.

2008-01-01

113

Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run-up levels) and erosion potentials (i.e. volume budget and beach planimetric dynamics).

Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

2010-05-01

114

Subglacial sediments as a control on the onset and location of two Siple Coast ice streams, West Antarctica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laterally continuous subglacial sediments are a necessary component for ice streaming in the modern onset regions of the ice streams draining the Siple Coast of West Antarctica on the basis of new seismic data combined with previous results. We present geophysical results from seismic reflection and refraction experiments in the upper reaches of ice streams C and D that highlight

Leo E. Peters; Sridhar Anandakrishnan; Richard B. Alley; J. Paul Winberry; Donald E. Voigt; Andrew M. Smith; David L. Morse

2006-01-01

115

On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave data collected off Goa along the west coast of India during February 1996-May 1997 has been subjected to spectral analysis, and swell and wind sea parameters have been estimated by separation frequency method. Dominance of swells and wind seas on monthly and seasonal basis has been estimated, and the analysis shows that swells dominate Goa coastal region not only

V. M. Aboobacker; R. Rashmi; P. Vethamony; H. B. Menon

2011-01-01

116

On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wave data collected off Goa along the west coast of India during February 1996May 1997 has been subjected to spectral analysis, and swell and wind sea parameters have been estimated by separation frequency method. Dominance of swells and wind seas on monthly and seasonal basis has been estimated, and the analysis shows that swells dominate Goa coastal region not only

V. M. Aboobacker; R. Rashmi; P. Vethamony; H. B. Menon

2011-01-01

117

Levels of organochlorine compounds, including PCDDS and PCDFS, in the blubber of cetaceans from the west coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of organochlorine compounds (PCDD, PCDF, PCB and organochlorine pesticides) were determined in cetaceans collected from the west coast of North America between 1986 and 1989. The samples included gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), killer whale (Orcinus orca), false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens), Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) and Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli) collected in British Columbia, and harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena)

W. M. Jarman; R. J. Norstrom; D. C. G. Muir; B. Rosenberg; M. Simon; R. W. Baird

1996-01-01

118

Constraining regional scale carbon budgets at the US West Coast using a high-resolution atmospheric inverse modeling approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented is embedded within the NACP (North American Carbon Program) West Coast project ORCA2, which aims at determining the regional carbon balance of the US states Oregon, California and Washington. Our work specifically focuses on the effect of disturbance history and climate variability, aiming at improving our understanding of e.g. drought stress and stand age on carbon sources

M. Goeckede; A. M. Michalak; D. Vickers; D. Turner; B. Law

2009-01-01

119

Community structure and seasonal variation of an inshore demersal fish community at Goa, West Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structure and seasonal variation of an inshore demersal fish assemblage have been described from 52 trawl samples collected between November 1988November 1989 from Aguada and Marmugao Bays at Goa (west coast of India). A total of 12 519 individuals belonging to 59 species were collected. There was a clear seasonal fluctuation in relative abundance, biomass, species occurrence and species dominance.

Z. A Ansari; A Chatterji; B. S Ingole; R. A Sreepada; C. U Rivonkar; A. H Parulekar

1995-01-01

120

Results of small-scale passive system trials to treat acid mine drainage, West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful passive treatment of acid mine drainage can be improved through the use of small-scale pilot treatment systems to confirm appropriate system selection. Small-scale reducing and alkalinity producing systems were tested at two acid mine drainage sites in the West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand: the Sullivan Mine and the Pike River Adit. A laboratory trial consisting of a

D Trumm; M Watts

2010-01-01

121

A Demographic Survey of Iu-Mien in West Coast States of the U.S., 1993  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning in 1975, Mien refugees migrated to the United States from the highlands of Southeast Asia, primarily but not exclusively from Laos. Reported here are 1993 data on the basic size and composition of the Iu-Mien population in the West Coast states (Washington, Oregon, and California), the most popular settlement destination for this group. Three-fourths of Mien in this region

Judith C. Barker; Kaochoy Saechao

2000-01-01

122

50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Groundfish Limited Entry Permits 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Subpt. C, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart CVessel Capacity Ratings for...

2013-10-01

123

Distribution of diatom surface sediment assemblages within Effingham Inlet, a temperate fjord on the west coast of Vancouver Island (Canada)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-nine surface sediment samples from Effingham Inlet, a small fjord on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, were analyzed for diatoms. This fjord has been selected for paleoceanographic investigation due to the presence of laminated sediments resulting from the dysoxic to anoxic bottom water conditions in the inner and outer basins of the inlet. Distributional patterns of the

Murray B Hay; Reinhard Pienitz; Richard E Thomson

2003-01-01

124

A numerical analysis of landfall of the 1979 red tide of Karenia brevis alongthe west coast of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf duringa fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall of these populations at the coast in our model matches shoreline data sets as well. The simulated vertical movement of K.

John J. Walsh; Kenneth D. Haddad; Dwight A. Dieterle; Robert H. Weisberg; Huijun Yang; Frank E. Muller-Karger; Cynthia A. Heil; W. Paul Bissett

125

Incorporating climate information into rebuilding plans for overfished groundfish species of the U.S. west coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rebuilding plans are required by the U.S. Sustainable Fisheries Act (1996) for stocks that are designated to be overfished, including several stocks of groundfish on the U.S. west coast. Despite evidence for climate effects on groundfish recruitment, the analyses that underlie rebuilding plans have not incorporated those effects. We extended the conventional approach used to conduct rebuilding analyses to evaluate

Carrie A. Holt; Andr E. Punt

2009-01-01

126

Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a portal for information pertaining to the coasts of the U.S. The coast page offers an introduction to the nature and importance of our coasts followed by a section that spells out their mission. The site contains a host of active links to other pages which include quick access to coastal information, immediate graphical and tabular water level and meteorological data from NOAA water level stations located at various U.S. coastal locations, real-time water levels, currents, and other oceanographic and meteorological data from bays and harbors, links to U.S. coastal observing systems, NOAA Restoration Center, and NOAA photo galleries. The site also has links to current topics, products such as publications and data bases, and seventeen organizations that are either a part of NOAA or closely aligned.

127

Modeling reactive halogen species based on measurements at the Irish West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed model studies based on measurements of reactive halogen species performed at Mace Head and Mweenish Bay at the Irish West Coast in summer 2007. The measurements were made using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and showed a strong heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of molecular iodine and iodine oxide. The model study was aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the trace gases, the mechanisms that lead to the formation of new particles and the impact of iodine emissions on atmospheric chemistry. We used the one-dimensional model MISTRA, which was initialized with the conditions encountered at the Irish West Coast. The iodine flux (from macro algae) was adjusted so that the model reproduces the observed IO mixing ratios. A number of different model runs were performed in order to quantify the impact of iodine chemistry on local and regional photochemistry under different meteorological conditions. The model suggests that inorganic iodine is rapidly mixed vertically: About 75% of the inorganic iodine is transported upwards, which is in good agreement with field measurements using multi-axis DOAS indicating a significant amount of IO in higher layers of the lower troposphere. Furthermore, the model was able to reproduce the field measurements of IO and molecular iodine during day and night. Not only the modeled mixing ratios, but also the spatial distribution of the iodine species was in good agreement with the field studies. The model also qualitatively reproduced the nucleation of aerosol particles that was observed during the field campaigns. The model results also suggest that IO2- in sulphate particles as well as in sea salt particles is oxidized to IO3- during the model runs. Most interestingly, the model showed strong indications for rapid multiphase cycling of halogen species as well as an exciting link between the chemistry of bromine and iodine: Iodine is taken up on the particles in the form of HOI, which acts as a source of I- to the aqueous phase. This then leads to the release of ICl, IBr and later Br2 into the gas phase. These species get photolysed quickly and yield bromine atoms, which then rapidly react with ozone to form bromine monoxide BrO. During this process a significant amount of ozone is destroyed, surprisingly not as a direct result of the iodine source, but as an indirect effect via bromine chemistry.

Seitz, K.; von Glasow, R.; Platt, U.; Sommariva, R.; Phler, D.; Buxmann, J.

2011-12-01

128

Modeling reactive halogen species based on measurements at the Irish West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed model studies based on measurements of reactive halogen species at Mace Head and Mweenish Bay at the Irish West Coast. The measurements were made using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and showed a strong heterogeneity for the spatial distribution of molecular iodine and iodine oxide. The model study was performed in order to get a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the trace gases, the mechanisms that lead to the formation of new particles and the impact of iodine emissions on atmospheric chemistry. We used the one-dimensional model MISTRA to obtain a better understanding of the related processes. The model was initialized based on the conditions for the Irish West Coast, the iodine flux (from macro algae) was adjusted so that the model reproduces the observed IO mixing ratios. A number of different model runs were performed to be able to quantify the impacts of iodine chemistry on local and regional photochemistry under different meteorological conditions. The model suggests that inorganic iodine is rapidly mixed vertically: About 75% of the inorganic iodine is transported upwards, which is in good agreement with field measurements using multi-axis DOAS that indicate a significant amount of IO in higher layers of the lower troposphere. Furthermore the model was able to reproduce the field measurements of IO and molecular iodine during day and night. Not only the modeled mixing ratios, but also the spatial distribution of the iodine species was in good agreement with the field studies. The model also reproduced qualitatively the nucleation of aerosol particles that was observed during the field campaigns. The model results also suggest that IO2- in sulphate as well as in sea salt particles gets oxidized to IO3- during the model runs. Most interestingly, the model showed strong indications of for rapid multiphase cycling of halogen species and an exciting link between the chemistry of bromine and iodine: Iodine is taken up on the particles in form of HOI, which acts as a source of I- to the aqueous phase. This then leads to the release of ICl, IBr and later Br2 into the gas phase. These species get photolysed quickly and yield bromine atoms, which then rapidly react with ozone to form bromine monoxide BrO. During this process a significant amount of ozone is destroyed (0.6ppt/h), surprisingly not as a direct result of the iodine source, but as an indirect effect via bromine chemistry.

Seitz, Katja; Buxmann, Joelle; Phler, Denis; Sommariva, Roberto; Platt, Ulrich; von Glasow, Roland

2010-05-01

129

Biomarkers of environmental contaminants in field population of green mussel (Perna viridis) from Karnataka-Kerala coast (South West coast of India).  

PubMed

The green mussel Perna viridis was sampled from relatively clean and contaminated sites along the Kartanata-Kerala coast (south west coast of India) to study the tissue concentration of trace metals and biological responses to stress (biomarkers) such as sister chromatid exchange (SCE), chromosomal aberration, micronucleus (MN) test, hemic neoplasia (HN), Chromotest (Ames test) and comet assay. In general, mean tissue concentrations of toxic trace metals collected from 25 sampling sites were found to be below the World Health Organisation (WHO) permissible concentration given for seafood. The digestive gland extract of mussels from all 25 sampling sites showed negative reaction for mutagenic activity (Ames test) in the absence of metabolic activation. Very low levels of chromosomal aberration, SCE, MN, HN and comet cells were observed in mussels collected from both the urban associated and relatively clean sites. This study seems to indicate that that the coastal waters of Karnataka and Kerala are minimally contaminated with genotoxic and carcinogenic chemicals. PMID:16703456

Krishnakumar, P K; Sasikumar, Geetha; Bhat, G S; Asokan, D P K

2006-05-01

130

A stochastic model to analyse pelagic fishery resource dominance along the Karnataka coast (west coast of India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic models are appropriate for the study of dynamics of fishery and prominent among them are Markov chain models. In this study, the dynamics of the pelagic fishery resource assemblage along the Karnataka coast is analyzed with reference to the change in resource composition and relative dominance using Markov chain. The transition probabilities of the species dominance with respect to

Somy Kuriakose; K. G. Mini

2006-01-01

131

Sea level changes induced by local winds on the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of atmospheric pressure and local wind to sea level variability at Goa (West coast of India) for the period 2007-2008 is investigated. Sea level data from a tide gauge are compared with measured local surface meteorological as well as oceanographic data. Multilinear regression analysis is used to resolve the dependence of sea level on various forcing parameters. The multilinear regression analysis performed over approx. 2-year data shows that the local surface meteorological data and water temperature account for the sea level variability only up to 6%. The accounted sea level variability increases to 25%, when the local wind and the surface currents obtained from satellite altimetry in the near vicinity of the study area are incorporated in the regression analysis. The contribution of local wind increases substantially when the regression is performed over a 2-month duration, and it is variable within the year. During the summer monsoon season (May-September), the sea level variability attributable to wind is up to 47% and 75%, respectively, for 2007 and 2008; however, it reduces to <20% during the winter monsoon (November-February) season. A significant part of the variability observed in sea level remains unaccounted for and is attributed to remote forcing.

Mehra, Prakash; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Prabhudesai, R. G.; Joseph, Antony; Shaw, Andrew G. P.; Somayajulu, Y. K.; Cipollini, Paolo

2010-08-01

132

Brevetoxicosis in seabirds naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms along the central west coast of Florida.  

PubMed

Harmful algal bloom events caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occurred along the central west Florida, USA, coast from February 2005 through December 2005 and from August 2006 through December 2006. During these events, from 4 February 2005 through 28 November 2006, live, debilitated seabirds admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs that included disorientation, inability to stand, ataxia, and seizures. Testing of blood, biologic fluids, and tissues for brevetoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 69% (n=95) of rehabilitating seabirds. Twelve of the 19 species of birds had evidence of brevetoxin exposure. Commonly affected species included Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and Common Loons (Gavia immer). Serial blood and fecal samples taken from several live seabirds during rehabilitation showed that brevetoxin was cleared within 5-10 days after being admitted to the rehabilitation facility, depending on the species tested. Among seabirds that died or were euthanized, the highest brevetoxin concentrations were found in bile, stomach contents, and liver. Most dead birds had no significant pathologic findings at necropsy, thereby supporting brevetoxin-related mortality. PMID:23568900

Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer M; Keller, Martha; Kinsel, Michael J; Johnson, Christine K; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet G; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

2013-04-01

133

Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note  

SciTech Connect

This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

NONE

1995-01-01

134

Hydrocarbons in seawater and sediment from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia  

SciTech Connect

The Straits of Malacca, along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, is one of the busiest waterways in the world with about 2000 vessels passing through it per month, of which about 25 percent are oil tankers of varying sizes. In the course of their passage, the practices of tanker ballasting and pumping of bilges by non-tanker vessels result in considerable pollution in these waters. Collisions and groundings also cause oil spills in Malaysian waters. Oil contaminants not only pollute the high seas but also affects the near-coastal waters. Marine oil pollution, in particular that of near-coastal waters, may also be attributed to land-based activities such as the utilisation of petroleum related products, the direct discharge of untreated municipal and industrial wastes containing refined and partly weathered oils to sewers and rivers, and the discharge of effluents from refineries and other similar sources. There is, at present, little information available on the total hydrocarbon concentrations (THCs) in water and sediments in these waters. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of hydrocarbons in water and sediments along the near-coastal areas of the Straits of Malacca. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Abdullah, A.R.; Tahir, N.M.; Wei, L.K. (Univ. of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia))

1994-10-01

135

Taxonomic diversity and structure of benthic macroinvertebrates in Aby Lagoon (Ivory Coast, West Africa).  

PubMed

The benthic macroinvertebrates of Aby lagoon (West Africa: Ivory coast) was studied during four seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season, respectively) from June 2006 to March 2007. The distribution of the benthic macroinvertebrates species was recorded at 13 stations on the whole of the lagoon. A total of 62 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belonging to 28 families and 10 orders were listed. The molluscs and crustaceans dominate qualitatively by adding up 51 and 24%, respectively of the total number of organisms. Five taxa (Corbula trigona (20%), Pachymelania aurita (12%), Clibernhardius cooki (7%), Oligochaeta (7%) and Crassostrea gasar (6%) accounted for 52% of total abundance. Classification analysis used to perform the characterisation of the lagoon on the basis of benthic macroinvertebrates showed the existence of four main clusters in which the seasonal pattern in benthic macroinvertebrates were very similar in the four seasons. In contrast the species richness and diversity indices were significantly different. Furthermore these indices where higher in the stations closer to the sea and surrounded by mangrove trees (southern area) compared to the inland ones. PMID:19137831

Kouadio, K N; Diomand, D; Ouattara, A; Kon, Y J M; Gourne, G

2008-09-15

136

Seasonal biomass and energy content in seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida  

SciTech Connect

Seasonal collections were made over a 16 month period in seven seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida. The seagrass component accounted for at least 45% of the total biomass and Thalassia testudinum was the dominant species. The 15 month mean of total biomass at six sites that were dominated year around by T. testudinum from Tampa Bay to Cedar Key, Florida was 385 g dry weight m/sup 2/ or 1.42 tons dry weight/acre. The drift and attached seaweed components showed seasonal fluctuations in terms of species and biomass. Of the six open water sites, only one site, characterized by depressed salinity, showed significant differences in seasonal biomass for T. testudinum using a nested ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test for variance. Available kilocalories ranged from a 16 month low of 344 to a high of 1837 kcal/m/sup 2/ with the highest biomass and caloric values occurring in the late spring and summer.

Dawes, C.J.; Hall, M.O.; Riechert, R.K.

1985-01-01

137

Adsorption of arsenic by iron rich precipitates from two coal mine drainage sites on the West Coast of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved As can be strongly adsorbed to fine grained Fe(III) minerals such as hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxysulphates. Therefore precipitates that form during neutralisation or treatment of acid mine drainage have potential to be useful for treatment of As-contaminated water because acid mine drainage is often Fe rich. We tested the adsorption properties of Fe(III) rich precipitates from two West Coast

R Rait; D Trumm; J Pope; D Craw; N Newman; H MacKenzie

2010-01-01

138

Environmental influences on the trawl catches in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

The degree of relationship between trawl catch and environmental variables was assessed in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India using multivariate techniques. The demersal fish assemblage was dominated by the families, Leiognathidae, Sciaenidae, Clupeidae, Cynoglossidae and Stromateidae and were considered to be typical for the Indo-Pacific. Patterns in community-structure were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) which

Z. A. Ansari; R. A. Sreepada; S. G. Dalal; B. S. Ingole; A. Chatterji

2003-01-01

139

Sources and Transport of Urban and Biomass Burning Aerosol Black Carbon at the SouthWest Atlantic Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The total extent of the atmospheric impacts associated to the aerosol black carbon (BC) emissions from South America is not\\u000a completed described. This work presents results of BC monitored during three scientific expeditions (2002, 2003 and 2004)\\u000a on board of a Brazilian oceanographic vessel Ary Rongel that covered the SouthWest Atlantic coast between 2262S. This latitudinal\\u000a band encloses major urban

H. Evangelista; J. Maldonado; R. H. M. Godoi; E. B. Pereira; D. Koch; K. Tanizaki-Fonseca; R. Van Grieken; M. Sampaio; A. Setzer; A. Alencar; S. C. Gonalves

2007-01-01

140

Advice on West Coast Rockfish Harvest Rates from Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Stock?Recruit Relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past two decades, populations of rockfish Sebastes spp. off the U.S. West Coast have declined sharply, leading to heightened concern about the sustainability of current harvest policies for these populations. In this paper, I develop a hierarchical Bayesian model to jointly estimate the stock?recruit relationships of rockfish stocks in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Stock?recruit curves for individual stocks

Martin W. Dorn

2002-01-01

141

Movement of adult edible crab ( Cancer pagurus L.) at the Swedish West Coast by mark-recapture and acoustic tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Movements of the edible crab Cancer pagurus were investigated from mark-recaptures in the Skagerrak and Kattegat. Crabs were released in 19681973 and in 2003 from six main areas along the Swedish west coast, and from one offshore bank in the Kattegat. Recaptures were reported for up to 7 years after the release. Sex-specific differences in migration were found: females migrated

Anette Ungfors; Hans Hallbck; Per G. Nilsson

2007-01-01

142

Surface Water Temperatures at Shore Stations, United States West Coast, 1968, Including Surface Salinities from Several Stations and Five-Meter Temperatures and Salinities at Scripps Pier.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents temperature and salinity data observed during 1968 at shoreline stations along the west coast of North America from the Strait of Juan de Fuca, Washington, to La Jolla, California. Also included are data from shore stations reporting ...

1969-01-01

143

Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast  

PubMed Central

Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled.

Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

144

Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

2013-10-01

145

Co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave data collected along the west coast of India (off Goa, Ratnagiri and Dwarka) during non-monsoon season have been analysed to study the co-existence of wind seas and swells. Diurnal variation in wind and wave parameters is noticeable along the central west coast of India (off Goa and Ratnagiri), and this is not present along the northwest coast of India (off Dwarka). Swells are predominantly mature (91%) and old (88%) during late pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Sea Swell Energy Ratio quantifies wind sea, swell and mixed seas prevailing in the regions during non-monsoon season. Intermodal Distance (ID) between the energy peaks is moderately separated during non-monsoon season, whereas, during the shamal events, energy peaks are very close to each other (ID ~ 0). However, pure wind seas (ID ~ 1) are found to co-exist with the swells during non-monsoon season. Wind seas are growing, when wind and wind seas are opposite to swell direction. Wind seas have minimum angular spreads in multimodal state. Under low winds, the interaction between wind sea and swell dominates and thereby the multimodal state reduces to unimodal state. The fetch available for the evolution of the wind sea spectrum has been estimated, and it is found to be less than 150 km. For the fetch limited condition, a non-dimensional empirical relation has been derived relating the significant wind sea height in terms of wind speed and peak wind sea period, and this relation fits for the west coast of India.

Rashmi, R.; Aboobacker, V. M.; Vethamony, P.; John, M. P.

2012-10-01

146

Observed tidal currents on the continental shelf off the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed currents from ADCPs, deployed at 100 m and 150 m depths, on the continental shelf at five different locations along the west coast of India, were used to study the characteristics of both barotropic and baroclinic tidal currents. The observations extended over a 6-month period (March-August), which includes two seasons, pre-monsoon (March-April) and southwest (SW) monsoon (May-August) during 2008, 2009 and 2011. Tidal ellipses, constructed for M2 and K1 constituents, show that barotropic tidal currents propagate in along-isobath direction at the southern shelf (off Kollam at about 9N) and they are oriented more or less in a cross-isobath direction at the northern shelf locations (off Jaigarh and Mumbai at about 17N and 20N, respectively). Maximum cross-isobath tidal current is found at northern shelf locations (for instance, about 32 cm s-1 off Mumbai) than those in south (about 10 cm s-1 off Bhatkal, at 13N). This could be due to the amplification of semidiurnal tidal currents from south to north of the shelf due to an increase in shelf widths towards north. The rotary spectra of baroclinic currents showed large peaks at semidiurnal and diurnal bands with a dominant clockwise rotation showing the presence of strong internal tidal currents. Semidiurnal variability occurs mainly in M2 and S2 and diurnal variability occurs mainly in K1 and O1. An increase in the amplitude of semidiurnal and diurnal internal tide is apparent when the stratification on the shelf increases from pre-monsoon to SW monsoon period. The presence of strong internal tide during May to August is attributed to increased seasonal stratification on the shelf. EOF analysis showed that the first three modes are sufficient to describe most of the variability in both semidiurnal and diurnal internal tides on the shelf, as they represent about 70-90% of total variance. The small scale vertical shear in the velocity field, induced by diurnal internal tide, is found to be larger than that induced by semidiurnal internal tide.

Subeesh, M. P.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Fernando, V.; Agarwadekar, Y.; Khalap, S. T.; Satelkar, N. P.; Shenoi, S. S. C.

2013-10-01

147

Storm surge computations for the west coast of Britain using a finite element model (TELEMAC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An unstructured mesh finite element model of the sea region off the west coast of Britain is used to examine the storm surge event of November 1977. This period is chosen because accurate meteorological data to drive the model and coastal observations for validation purposes are available. In addition, previous published results from a coarse-grid (resolution 7 km) finite difference model of the region and high-resolution (1 km) limited area (namely eastern Irish Sea) model are available for comparison purposes. To enable a like with like comparison to be made, the finite element model covers the same domain and has the same meteorological forcing as these earlier finite difference models. In addition, the mesh is based on an identical set of water depths. Calculations show that the finite element model can reproduce both the external and internal components of the surge in the region. This shows that the far field (external) component of the surge can accurately propagate through the irregular mesh, and the model responds accurately, without over- or under-damping, to local wind forcing. Calculations show significant temporal and spatial variability in the surge in close agreement with that found in earlier finite difference calculations. In addition, root mean square errors between computed and observed surge are comparable to those found in previous finite different calculations. The ability to vary the mesh in nearshore regions reveals appreciable small-scale variability that was not found in the previous finite difference solutions. However, the requirement to perform a like with like comparison using the same water depths means that the full potential of the unstructured grid model to improve resolution in the nearshore region is inhibited. This is clearly evident in the Mersey estuary region where a higher resolution unstructured mesh model, forced with uniform winds, had shown high topographic variability due to small-scale variations in topography that are not resolved here. Despite the lack of high resolution in the nearshore region, the model showed results that were consistent with the previous storm surge models of the region. Calculations suggest that to improve on these earlier results, a finer nearshore mesh is required based upon accurate nearshore topography.

Jones, John Eric; Davies, Alan M.

2008-12-01

148

Co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An attempt has been made to understand the co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season. Wave data were collected in different years during non-monsoon season (off Goa during May 2005, off Ratnagiri during January-February 2008 and off Dwarka during December 2007-January 2008), which is fairly a calm weather season along these regions. Diurnal variation in wave parameters is noticeable along the central west coast of India (off Goa and Ratnagiri), which is due to the interaction of multidirectional waves (both wind seas and swells) of varying magnitudes and frequencies. Swells are predominantly mature (91%) and old (88%) during late pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Sea Swell Energy Ratio quantifies wind sea, swell and mixed seas prevailing in these regions during non-monsoon season. Intermodal distance (ID) between the energy peaks is moderately separated during non-monsoon season, whereas, during the shamal events, energy peaks are very close to each other (ID ∼ 0). However, pure wind seas (ID ∼ 1) are weakly present and found to co-exist with the swells almost all the time during non-monsoon season. Wind sea growth has been found while the swell propagates opposite to the direction of the wind and wind sea. Wind seas have minimum angular spreads in multimodal state. Under low winds, the interaction between wind sea and swell dominates and thereby the multimodal state reduces to unimodal state. The fetch available for the evolution of the wind sea spectrum has been estimated, and it is found to be less than 150 km. For the fetch limited condition, a non-dimensional empirical relation has been derived relating the significant wind sea height in terms of wind speed and peak wind sea period, and this relation fits for the west coast of India.

Rashmi, R.; Aboobacker, V. M.; Vethamony, P.; John, M. P.

2013-03-01

149

Startup of El Paso's Algeria I LNG project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The project involves the importation of the LNG equivalent of 1 billion cu ft\\/day of Algerian natural gas from Sonatrach to the U.S. east coast: 650 million cu ft\\/day to Cove Point, Md., including 350 million cu ft\\/day to Consolidated System LNG Co., and another 350 million cu ft\\/day will be delivered to Southern Energy Corp.'s Elba Island (Ga.) terminal.

Schmitt

1978-01-01

150

On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wave data collected off Goa along the west coast of India during February 1996-May 1997 has been subjected to spectral analysis, and swell and wind sea parameters have been estimated by separation frequency method. Dominance of swells and wind seas on monthly and seasonal basis has been estimated, and the analysis shows that swells dominate Goa coastal region not only during southwest monsoon (93%), but also during the post-monsoon (67%) season. Wind seas are dominant during the pre-monsoon season (51%). The mean wave periods ( Tm) during southwest monsoon are generally above 5 s, whereas Tm is below 5 s during other seasons. Co-existence of multiple peaks (from NW and NE) was observed in the locally generated part of the wave spectrum, especially during the post-monsoon season. NCEP reanalysis winds have been used to analyse active fetch available in the Indian Ocean, from where the predominant swells propagate to the west coast of India. A numerical model was set up to simulate waves in the Indian Ocean using flexible mesh bathymetry. The correlation coefficients between measured and modelled significant wave heights and mean wave periods are 0.96 and 0.85, respectively. Numerical simulations reproduced the swell characteristics in the Indian Ocean, and from the model results potential swell generation areas are identified. The characteristics of swells associated with tropical storms that prevail off Goa during 1996 have also been analysed.

Aboobacker, V. M.; Rashmi, R.; Vethamony, P.; Menon, H. B.

2011-10-01

151

Equilibrium Beach Profiles on the East and West U.S. Coasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beach elevation change observations from the United States west and east coasts are used to identify statistically the dominant cross-shore patterns in sand level fluctuations, and these changes are related to equilibrium beach profile concepts. Three to seven years of observations at four beaches in Southern California include monthly surveys of the subaerial (near MSL) beach, and quarterly surveys from the backbeach to about 8m depth. At Duck, North Carolina, observations include 31 years of monthly surveys from the dunes to about 8m depth. On the Southern California beaches, the dominant seasonal pattern is subaerial erosion in winter and accretion in summer. Seasonal fluctuations of 3m in shoreline vertical sand levels, and 50m in subaerial beach width, are not uncommon. The sand eroded from the shoreline in winter is stored in an offshore sand bar and returns to the beach face in summer. Wave conditions in Southern California also vary seasonally, with energetic waves arriving from the north in winter, and lower energy, longer period southerly swell arriving in summer. A spectral refraction model, initialized with a regional network of directional wave buoys, is used to estimate hourly wave conditions, in 10m water depth. Using an equilibrium hypothesis, that the shoreline (defined as the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) change rate depends on the wave energy and the wave energy disequilibrium, Yates (2009) modeled the time-varying shoreline location at several Southern California beaches with significant skill. The four free model parameters were calibrated to fit observations. Following Yates (2009), we extend the equilibrium shoreline model to include the horizontal displacement of other elevation contours. At the Southern California sites, the modeled contour translation depends on the incident wave energy, the present contour configuration, and observation-based estimates of the contour behavior (based on EOF spatial amplitudes). At Duck, seasonal variations of the wave field (measured immediately offshore) are large, but shoreline changes (usually <30cm) are smaller than in Southern California. Maximum vertical variations occur just seaward of the shoreline and the nearshore bathymetry is often barred. Plant (1999) show that bar crest position at Duck has equilibrium-like behavior. We will present the results of equilibrium shoreline and profile modeling at Duck. At both sites, we diagnose sources (e.g. grain size and incident waves) of the sometimes strong observed alongshore variations in sand level change patterns. Funding was provided by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the California Department of Boating and Waterways. REFERENCES Plant, N. G., R. A. Holman, M. H. Freilich, and W. A. Birkemeier (1999), A simple model for interannual sandbar behavior, J. Geophys. Res., 104(C7), 15,755-15,776. Yates, M. L., R. T. Guza, and W. C. O'Reilly (2009), Equilibrium shoreline response: Observations and modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C09014.

Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; McNinch, J. E.; O'Reilly, W.

2012-12-01

152

LNG measurement at Hopkinton plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hopkinton LNG Corp. effectively uses turbine meters to measure the LNG vaporized from its LNG facility at Hopkinton, Mass., for peakshaving to serve customers of its parent companies, the New England Gas and Electric Association and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., as well as NEGEA subsidiary Commonwealth Gas Co. The joint venture also includes the 500 million cf LNG

R. C. Farmer; E. J. Cooney

1974-01-01

153

The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: Current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81??m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230??km2 area are 50-90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Bullard, S. G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M. R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R. B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R. J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P. C.; Collie, J. S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D. C.; Cohen, A. N.; Asch, R. G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

2007-01-01

154

An Effective Combination Trawl for West Coast Draggers: Atlantic-Western Trawls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The publication describes the modification, rigging, and fishing of effective combination otter trawls on the Pacific Northwest Coast by several Oregon otter trawlers. The trawls, the Atlantic-Western Model IV-A, IV-A-3/4, and Model II-A, are four seam bo...

R. B. Fisher

1974-01-01

155

On the Evolution of Marine Mammal Hunting on the West Coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recovery of seal and sea lion remains from archaeological sites has, traditionally, resulted in inferences of seaworthy canoes and sophisticated technology. But seals and sea lions are amphibious and during their breeding season can often be preyed upon by terrestrially bound predators. Hildebrandt and Jones (1992) recently suggested that prehistoric exploitation of seals and sea lions along the coast

R. Lee Lyman

1995-01-01

156

Variation of coastal atmospheric boundary layer characteristics with convective activity along the west coast of India during the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX) 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the characteristic features of the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL) along the west coast\\u000a of India during the south-west monsoon (SWM) 2002. Extensive surface and upper-air findings were obtained during the same\\u000a period from the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX; 15th June to 15th August 2002) 2002. The operational general circulation\\u000a model (GCM) of the National Centre

N. V. Sam; U. C. Mohanty; A. Routray; S. Basu

2007-01-01

157

Wind Estimates At The Norwegian West Coast From Modelling, In Situ and Satellite Observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a unique instrument for measuring wind along coasts, in estuaries, fjords and lakes due to the high spatial resolution (about 100m- by100m). SAR is measuring the sea surface roughness due to short gravity waves and these measurements can be translated into wind speed using empirical C-band models. Retrieved wind fields from SAR give an

B. R. Furevik; H. A. Espedal; C. B. Hasager; O. M. Johannessen; B. H. Jrgensen; O. Rathmann; S. Sandven

2002-01-01

158

Biological observations on the bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus from deep waters off the south-west coast of India.  

PubMed

Biological data are presented for the poorly known bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea at depths of 200-500?m off the south-west coast of India. One hundred and sixty-two individuals, which ranged from 120 to 366?mm total length (L(T)), were collected for this study. Size-at-maturity (L??) for females and males was estimated at 252 and 235?mm L(T), respectively. The reproductive mode of B. hispidus was aplacental viviparity, which is the rarest reproductive mode within the Scyliorhinidae and is considered to be the most advanced of the three reproductive modes occurring within this family. Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed B. hispidus feeds on a variety of prey, primarily fishes. PMID:23639155

Akhilesh, K V; White, W T; Bineesh, K K; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

2013-05-01

159

Towards a quantification of ocean wave heights off the west coast of Ireland using land based seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean gravity waves are driven by atmospheric pressure systems. Their interactions with one another and reflection off coastlines generate pressure changes at the sea floor. These pressure fluctuations are the cause of continuous background seismic noise known as microseisms. The levels of microseism activity vary as a function of the sea state and increase during periods of intensive ocean wave activity. In 2011 a seismic network was deployed along the west coast of Ireland to continuously record microseisms generated in the Atlantic Ocean, as part of the Wave Observation (WaveObs) project based in University College Dublin. This project aims to determine the characteristics of the causative ocean gravity waves through calibration of the microseism data with ocean buoy data. In initial tests we are using a Backpropagation Feed-forward Artificial Neural Network (BP ANN) to establish the underlying relationships between microseisms and ocean waves. ANNs were originally inspired by studies of the mammalian brain and nervous system and are designed to learn by example. If successful these tools could then be used to estimate ocean wave heights and wave periods using a land-based seismic network and complement current wave observations being made offshore by marine buoys. Preliminary ANN results are promising with the network successfully able to reconstruct trends in ocean wave heights and periods. Microseisms can provide significant information about oceanic processes. With a deeper understanding of how these processes work there is potential for 1) locating and tracking the evolution of the largest waves in the Atlantic and 2) reconstructing the wave climate off the west coast of Ireland using legacy seismic data on a longer time scale than is currently available using marine based observations.

Donne, S.; Bean, C. J.; Lokmer, I.; Lambkin, K.; Creamer, C.

2012-12-01

160

Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management.  

PubMed

Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Nio and La Nia conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

2014-01-01

161

The impact of the 2009-10 El Ni??o Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Nio. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Nio of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Nio did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Nio winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Nio is principally linked to the El Nio Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Nio), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Barnard, P. L.; Allan, J.; Hansen, J. E.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Ruggiero, P.; Doria, A.

2011-01-01

162

Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management  

PubMed Central

Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the home range (HR) and core areas (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Nio and La Nia conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels.

Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

2014-01-01

163

Radar-derived bed roughness characterization of Institute and Mller ice streams, West Antarctica, and comparison with Siple Coast ice streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subglacial bed conditions exert a significant control on ice stream behavior and evolution, and can be characterized by determining bed roughness from FFT analysis of radar-imaged basal reflectors. Here we assess bed roughness across Institute and Mller ice streams, West Antarctica, and compare our findings with bed roughness determined across the Siple Coast ice streams. We find that variations in

Robert G. Bingham; Martin J. Siegert

2007-01-01

164

The Gold Coast Nationalist Reaction to the Controversy over Higher Education in Anglophone West Africa and Its Impact on Decision Making in the Colonial Office, 1945-47.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates that nationalist pressure, especially from the Gold Coast (Ghana), was the crucial force behind the British Colonial Office's decision to promote higher education in Anglophone West Africa. It places the issues of establishing African universities into the context of an evolving colonial policy of neocolonialism. (SLD)

Emudong, Charles Peter

1997-01-01

165

Assemblage and distribution of pill millipedes and earthworms in relation to soil edaphic features in the Western Ghats and the west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abundance and biomass of pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera) and earthworms in the forests and plantations of nine study sites in the southwestern India (Western Ghats, foothill of\\u000a the Western Ghats and the west coast) were surveyed. Out of 10 morphospecies of pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera) recovered, four were identified, and the rest did not match with morphological and taxonomic descriptions. A maximum

Bombrana S. Kadamannaya; Kandikere R. Sridhar; Kanale S. Sreepada

2010-01-01

166

PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN

CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

167

76 FR 5144 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast Homebasing and To...Scoping Meetings AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION:...

2011-01-28

168

Selection of areas for protecting rare plants with integration of land use conflicts: A case study for the west coast of Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the west coast of Newfoundland (Canada) about 40% of the provincially rare plant species are not protected within the system of three national parks and two ecological reserves existing in the region. This study examines how heuristic algorithms can be used for selecting areas filling this gap while minimizing potential land use conflicts. One algorithm selected 78 areas of

Patrick Nantel; Andr Bouchard; Luc Brouillet; Stuart Hay

1998-01-01

169

Entanglements of marine mammals and seabirds in central California and the north-west coast of the United States 20012005  

Microsoft Academic Search

Entanglement records for seabirds and marine mammals were investigated for the period 20012005. The entanglement records were extracted from databases maintained by seven organizations operating along the west coast of the United States of America. Their programmes included beach monitoring surveys, rescue and rehabilitation and regional pinniped censuses. Records of 454 entanglements were documented in live animals and in carcasses

Emma Moore; Shannon Lyday; Jan Roletto; Kate Litle; Julia K. Parrish; Hannah Nevins; Jim Harvey; Joe Mortenson; Denise Greig; Melanie Piazza; Alison Hermance; Derek Lee; Dawn Adams; Sarah Allen; Shelagh Kell

2009-01-01

170

Late Quaternary uplift and subsidence of the west coast of Tanna, south Vanuatu, southwest Pacific: UTh ages of raised coral reefs in the Median Sedimentary Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Late Quaternary TIMS UTh ages are reported here from 10 coral samples collected in situ from five transgressive coral\\/algal raised reefs (height: max. 113 m, min. 8 m) and two raised lagoonal deposits (height: max. 18 m, min. 8 m) along and near the west coast of Tanna, which lies in the Median Sedimentary Basin of South Vanuatu, southwest

G. Neef; J. X. Zhao; K. D. Collerson; F. S. Zhang

2003-01-01

171

Comparative accumulation and composition of lipophilic marine biotoxins in passive samplers and in mussels ( M. edulis) on the West Coast of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring of lipophilic marine toxins was carried out in three shellfish production sites on the West Coast of Ireland. The toxins were monitored using passive samplers (solid phase adsorption toxin tracking; SPATT) and toxin-free mussels that were replaced weekly in the selected sampling stations. The toxin profiles and concentrations obtained in the SPATT and in the transplanted mussels were compared

Elie Fux; Ronel Bire; Philipp Hess

2009-01-01

172

Temporal Variations And Lateral Profiles Of Volatile Organic Compounds (voc) In The Breeze Front Of The Portugal West Coast During Summer Period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main goal of this study was the evaluation of diurnal variation and regional dis- tribution patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the breeze front of the Por- tugal West Coast aiming to access an air quality situation and to provide a database for regional biogenic\\/anthropogenic air pollution modelling. Simultaneously to hydro- carbons analysis, ozone and NOx concentrations were

M. Evtiouguina; T. Nunes; C. Pio

2002-01-01

173

Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of

C. K. Yap; A. Ismail; S. G. Tan; I. Abdul Rahim

2003-01-01

174

A PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF COASTAL RIVER SYSTEMS ON THE SOUTH AFRICAN WEST COAST, ORANGE RIVERGROOT BERG, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FISH FAUNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coastal river systems on the west coast of South Africa from the Orange River to the Groot Berg were surveyed during the period September to October 1993. The ichthyofaunal and physicochemical characteristics of each system are discussed in relation to their suitability as estuarine nursery areas. Of the fifteen systems sampled, only three appeared to exhibit any estuarine characteristics

T. D. Harrison

1998-01-01

175

The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

1995-01-01

176

Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

Heneman, B.

1988-07-01

177

Postglacial evolution of coastal barriers along the West Pomeranian coast, NE Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to present an evolutionary model of the coastal barriers in West Pomerania regarding both morphological development and chronostratigraphy. The study area is situated on the islands of Rgen and Usedom in the tideless SW Baltic. To reconstruct the geological setting, 250 cores were collected; 20 new radiocarbon dates allow a description of the Late

G. Hoffmann; R. Lampe; J. Barnasch

2005-01-01

178

First multi-site assessment of tropospheric baseline ozone along the U.S. west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring of the full tropospheric (sea level to tropopause) baseline ozone flowing into the western United States from the North Pacific Ocean has been limited to the weekly ozonesondes launched from Trinidad Head in northern California since 1997. Profiles from other locations along the coast have been too sparse to indicate whether or not Trinidad Head is representative of baseline ozone at different latitudes. To explore this question, the IONS-2010 ozonesonde network was implemented during a six-week period (May 10 - June 19, 2010) of the CalNex experiment. Near-daily ozonesonde profiles from 4 sites spanning 870 km of the California coast show that in the lowest km of the atmosphere ozone arriving at Trinidad Head is similar to the rest of the California coast. But above this level the sites differ at many altitudes, with a prominent ozone enhancement that slopes from the mid-troposphere above northern California down to the lower free troposphere above southern California. FLEXPART retroplumes from every profile indicate the regions of the coastal troposphere that experience relatively strong influence from the stratosphere, the remote marine boundary layer or the industrialized regions of Asia. FLEXPART forward plumes reveal the surface regions of North America impacted by the greatest mixing ratios of baseline ozone. Finally, comparison of the coastal profiles to ozone measurements made from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and two inland ozonesonde sites shows that within California, the short-term (< 5 days) influence of western North America on tropospheric ozone extends from the surface to approximately 3 km above sea level.

Cooper, O. R.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Cullis, P.; Ives, M.; Tarasick, D. W.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Stajner, I.

2010-12-01

179

Predicting seal efficiency and trapped hydrocarbon type in Gulf Coast hydrocarbon systems: Lessons learned from West Fulton Beach field, Mid-Texas Gulf Coast  

SciTech Connect

Many Gulf Coast fields consist of multiple vertically stacked sandstones in which oil and gas are seemingly randomly distributed stratigraphically. Hydrocarbon entrapment is strongly affected by seal competency and possibly by formation pressure, and these factors are in turn controlled by the characteristics of the interbedded shales. In West Fulton Beach field, Arkansas County, Texas, the Oligocene Frio Formation shales were deposited as shelf mudstones and represent flooding events id a barrier bar/standplain and inner shelf setting. Reservoirs were placed into a high-frequency genetic stratigraphic framework to test the theory that hydrocarbon entrapment is controlled by a hierarchy of maximum flooding surfaces. Cumulative oil and gas production and gas-to-oil ratios were tabulated for individual reservoirs, as well as for all reservoirs in each 5th-, 4th-, and 3rd-order genetic unit, as measures of entrapment. Total producible hydrocarbons (oil plus gas, in barrels of oil equivalent) increase in volume in successively shallower 3rd-order Frio units (each 800 to 1,000 ft thick), capped by the 600 ft-thick Miocene Anahuac Shale. Likewise, successively shallower 4th-order units (120 to 200 ft thick) within each 3rd-order unit contain greater volumes of total hydrocarbons, as well as greater percentages of gas. This pattern exists independent of shale thickness or reservoir porosity, and it is repeated at the 5th- and 6th-order levels, when viewed on a per-gross-ft-of-sandstone basis. Thus, although appearing random, when evaluated carefully within a stratigraphic framework, total hydrocarbon volumes and oil-versus-gas distributions follow a systematic pattern tied to their position within a stratigraphic hierarchy. This finding can be used to more accurately constrain seal risk in exploration or deeper-pool drilling and to evaluate hydrocarbon type ahead of the drill bit.

Knox, P.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-09-01

180

Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in ``West-to-east pipeline gas'' in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

2006-04-01

181

Variability in Sea Surface Temperature Fronts off the U.S. West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational sea surface temperature (SST) derived from NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) provides a temporal advantage over SST derived from polar-orbiting satellites: each location is observed 24 times per day. Regions with persistent cloud cover, such as off the coast of California, may benefit from increased observational frequency. Using hourly, cloud-masked SST from GOES-10, a daily-averaged SST product is produced that provides a large spatial SST field for use by an edge-detection algorithm. The near real-time daily frontal products produced at NESDIS/ORA, along with long-term analysis and composites, indicate preferential locations of frontal boundaries, especially upwelling fronts. Additionally, these locations and other products being produced by NESDIS provide information regarding regions of convergent flow, which may have important biological implications regarding fisheries management and the ocean environment.

Mavor, T. P.; Legeckis, R.; Breaker, L.

2002-12-01

182

[Abundance of sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) on North, East and West coasts of Margarita Island (Venezuela) ].  

PubMed

The sea urchin roe reach a very high price in the international fish product market favoring the increase in the catches of this resource and overfishing in some countries. In the Island of Margarita (Venezuela) some species, Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) among others, are consumed as food but studies to determine abundance of the resource are unknown. Nine sample stations (depth less than 2 m) on the North, East and West coast of Margarita Island were visited in six different occasions between February/1998 and February/1999 to study the population density (urchins/m2) of L. variegatus. Using a quadrat (0.25 m2) thrown 8 times over seagrasses (Thalassia testudinum) beds and over submerged rocks and the urchins removed by dive. The diameter of each specimen was measured and returned to the sea. The water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen of each site was measured. Were collected a total of 2,073 urchins with a diameter ranging from 11.0 to 84.5 mm and population density between 1 to 52 urchins/m2. The mean size of specimens collected in the stations was between 30.44 and 55.09 mm and average density fluctuated between 3.2 to 43.2 urchins/m2. The station where sea urchins were found to be most abundant was the North coast (Manzanillo fishing villae) where they live on rocks with a density (38 a 52/m2) far over the values previously cited for the Caribbean sea and Florida. PMID:12216495

Gmez Gaspar, Alfredo

2002-01-01

183

Variability in growth, development and reproduction of the non-native seaweed Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyceae) on the Irish west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared seasonal growth, development and reproduction of the invasive brown macroalga Sargassum muticum in habitats with different wave exposure on the Irish west coast. Three field sites with different degrees of wave exposure were chosen for monthly observations to reflect different habitats that were characteristic of the Irish west coast. Growth and receptacle development differed considerably between sites. Growth and receptacle development was lower at the most sheltered site. Here, S. muticum showed signs of early fragmentation in April/May during the two years of investigation (2007 and 2008), whilst the population at an exposed site developed normally and plants grew to a maximum average length of 163 cm by July, with the onset of fragmentation in August. Sargassum muticum in a tide pool exhibited a similar seasonal growth cycle as plants at the exposed open shore site. Overall growth however was stunted, with plants reaching a maximum length of only 30-40 cm in July. Receptacle development was also inhibited at the sheltered site, with a maximum of only 10% of plants found to be fertile during spring and summer 2008, while plants at the exposed site and the tide pool exhibited 100% plant fertility by August. An extensive occurrence of the native epiphyte Pylaiella littoralis on S. muticum was noticed during field sampling at the sheltered study site which may have contributed to inhibited development of S. muticum observed in this area. Seasonal biomass production, photosynthetic activity and plant/frond ratio development were contrasted between Sargassum muticum at the open shore and the tide pool. Sargassum muticum biomass production in the tide pool was 3.5 times lower than that of plants on the open shore. Receptacle development and seasonal photosynthetic activity were similar for tide pool and open shore plants, irrespective of morphological differences. Highest photosynthetic rates (fluorescence yield, Yo) were measured during active growth in February and lowest values during development of reproductive tissue and senescence. Numbers of S. muticum plants on the open shore decreased significantly during the year, whilst frond number per plant increased, possibly suggesting self-thinning through shading processes. The high variability in Sargassum muticum productivity and reproductive development between habitats suggests that the degree of competition and impact on native flora could be site-specific, and their local effect on displacements will require further investigations.

Baer, Julia; Stengel, Dagmar B.

2010-12-01

184

Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

Svensson, Carl Johan

2012-07-01

185

Thermal Impact of oceanic coastal Kelvin waves along West African coasts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the role of the intra-seasonal oceanic Kevin waves and their impacts on Sea Surface Temperature (SST) along the three West African coastal upwelling regions. 1/4 NEMO OGCM runs were carried out and analyzed to study the detailed of coastal wave impacts on SST. Idealized experiments support the altimetry results, and particularly the observed amplitude and velocity changes. SST impacts of up to 0.5C/cm are visible in model runs, as well as in observations by regression of SSH on SST along coastlines. The experiments allow for a partition of lateral and vertical advection and mixing processes, and uncover their competing or constructive effects on the thermal stratification and the SST field, depending on location and mean circulation.

Wade, Malick; Lazar, Alban

2014-05-01

186

Distribution and character of upper mesozoic subduction complexes along the west coast of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structurally complex sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive igneous rocks characterize a nearly continuous narrow band along the Pacific coast of North America from Baja California, Mexico to southern Alaska. They occur in two modes: (1) as complexly folded but coherent sequences of graywacke and argillite that locally exhibit blueschist-grade metamorphism, and (2) as melanges containing large blocks of graywacke, chert, volcanic and plutonic rocks, high-grade schist, and limestone in a highly sheared pelitic, cherty, or sandstone matrix. Fossils from the coherent graywacke sequences range in age from late Jurassic to Eocene; fossils from limestone blocks in the melanges range in age from mid-Paleozoic to middle Cretaceous. Fossils from the matrix surrounding the blocks, however, are of Jurassic, Cretaceous, and rarely, Tertiary age, indicating that fossils from the blocks cannot be used to date the time of formation of the melanges. Both the deformation of the graywacke, with accompanying blueschist metamorphism, as well as the formation of the melanges, are believed to be the result of late Mesozoic and early Tertiary subduction. The origin of the melanges, particularly the emplacement of exotic tectonic blocks, is not understood. ?? 1978.

Jones, D. L.; Blake, Jr. , M. C.; Bailey, E. H.; McLaughlin, R. J.

1978-01-01

187

Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with Special Reference to a Novel Clade from Japan  

PubMed Central

Background A dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is known as a potential producer of Palytoxin derivatives. Palytoxin is the most potent non-proteinaceous compound reported so far. There has been a growing number of reports on palytoxin-like poisonings in southern areas of Japan; however, the distribution of Ostreopsis has not been investigated so far. Morphological plasticity of Ostreopsis makes reliable microscopic identification difficult so the employment of molecular tools was desirable. Methods/Principal Finding In total 223 clones were examined from samples mainly collected from southern areas of Japan. The D8D10 region of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (D8D10) was selected as a genetic marker and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Although most of the clones were unable to be identified, there potentially 8 putative species established during this study. Among them, Ostreopsis sp. 15 did not belong to any known clade, and each of them formed its own clade. The dominant species was Ostreopsis sp. 1, which accounted for more than half of the clones and which was highly toxic and only distributed along the Japanese coast. Comparisons between the D8D10 and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, which has widely been used for phylogenetic/phylogeographic studies in Ostreopsis, revealed that the D8D10 was less variable than the ITS, making consistent and reliable phylogenetic reconstruction possible. Conclusions/Significance This study unveiled a surprisingly diverse and widespread distribution of Japanese Ostreopsis. Further study will be required to better understand the phylogeography of the genus. Our results posed the urgent need for the development of the early detection/warning systems for Ostreopsis, particularly for the widely distributed and strongly toxic Ostreopsis sp. 1. The D8D10 marker will be suitable for these purposes.

Sato, Shinya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Uehara, Keita; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Tawong, Wittaya; Hariganeya, Naohito; Smith, Kirsty; Rhodes, Lesley; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yosuke; Suda, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

2011-01-01

188

Simulation of coastal winds along the central west coast of India using the MM5 mesoscale model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high-resolution mesoscale numerical model (MM5) has been used to study the coastal atmospheric circulation of the central west coast of India, and Goa in particular. The model is employed with three nested domains. The innermost domain of 3 km mesh covers Goa and the surrounding region. Simulations have been carried out for three different seasonsnortheast (NE) monsoon, transition period and southwest (SW) monsoon with appropriate physics options to understand the coastal wind system. The simulated wind speed and direction match well with the observations. The model winds show the presence of a sea breeze during the NE monsoon season and transition period, and its absence during the SW monsoon season. In the winter period, the synoptic flow is northeasterly (offshore) and it weakens the sea breeze (onshore flow) resulting in less diurnal variation, while during the transition period, the synoptic flow is onshore and it intensifies the sea breeze. During the northeast monsoon at an altitude of above 750 m, the wind direction reverses, and this is the upper return current, indicating the vertical extent of the sea breeze. A well-developed land sea breeze circulation occurs during the transition period, with vertical extension of 300 and 1,100 m, respectively.

Pushpadas, Dhanya; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; George, Smitha; Babu, M. T.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.

2010-12-01

189

Abundance and Size Distribution of the Sacoglossan Elysia viridis on Co-Occurring Algal Hosts on the Swedish West Coast  

PubMed Central

Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp.) at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host.

Baumgartner, Finn A.; Toth, Gunilla B.

2014-01-01

190

Long-range transport of Siberian forest fire smoke to Canada's west coast identified by Lidar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the summer of 2012, forest fire smoke wasdetected by two CORALNet lidar systems operated by Environment Canada along Canada's west coast. Based on satellite, model and back trajectory analysis it is thought the smoke originated in Boreal Asia as a result of unusually large amounts of Siberian wildfire activity. The CORALNet lidar systems operate autonomously, measuring the vertical profile of aerosols from near ground to 18 km at a vertical resolution of 3 m and 7.5 m and a temporal resolution of 10 s and 60 s at 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths respectively. The lidar also measures the depolarization ratio at 532 nm: and indicator of particle shape. The lidars, located at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver and in the village of Whistler, British Columbia observed an increase in the aerosol backscatter ratio in the free troposphere as the Siberian forest fire smoke was transported across the Pacific Ocean into the region. Of particular importance was the increase in ground level particulate due to the mixing of the smoke into the boundary layer, impacting the air quality in southwestern British Columbia. Lidar depolarization ratios in the boundary layer and the free troposphere were consistent with high concentrations of smoke. Detailed lidar observations will be presented along with supporting satellite, model and ground observations revealing the magnitude of the impact on the region.

Strawbridge, Kevin; Cottle, Paul; McKendry, Ian

2014-05-01

191

Habitat characteristics promoting high density and condition of juvenile flatfish at nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal zones are essential nursery habitats for most juvenile flatfish species. Understanding the habitat requirements promoting high abundance and growth of juvenile flatfish is important for evaluating nursery habitat quality. The present study aimed to assess nursery ground quality for the most common flatfish species: dab (Limanda limanda) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), in Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland. Monthly surveys were carried out in the period after peak settlement over two years. Variability in flatfish density and Fulton's K condition was explained in relation to biotic and abiotic habitat characteristics, differing within and between distinct nursery grounds. Dab were concentrated in deeper waters, were negatively associated with shrimp densities and salinity and their abundance showed a decrease from June to September combined with interannual variation. Plaice densities were highly associated with shallower depths and high polychaete and shrimp densities and were negatively related with increased macroalgal cover and organic content. Most of the variability in Fulton's condition was explained by the same set of variables for both species; year and densities of crab and malacostracans. This analysis revealed important ecological mechanisms allowing the co-existence of two flatfish species in nursery grounds. However, high quality nursery grounds for dab and plaice differed and anthropogenic and climatic impacts on flatfish nurseries are likely to have a different impact on plaice and dab populations. Knowledge gained about the quality of nursery habitat for commercially important fish species provides a basis for mapping essential flatfish habitats to inform management plans for coastal areas.

De Raedemaecker, F.; Brophy, D.; O'Connor, I.; Comerford, S.

2012-10-01

192

Recent increase in Nybelinia surmenicola prevalence and intensity in Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) off the United States west coast.  

PubMed

A larval marine cestode was found in 82.0% of 834 Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) stomachs collected from 341 trawl stations along the United States west coast during the summers of 2008 and 2009. Morphology and DNA sequencing was used to identify the cestode as Nybelinia surmenicola. In an examination of 131 Pacific hake stomachs collected from the same region in 1999, N. surmenicola prevalence was 35.1%. The results from a general linear model suggested that their prevalence is influenced by year and latitude, Pacific hake size, and sex. Mean intensity of N. surmenicola in 2008-2009 was 20.22 (1.13 SE) and was positively related to Pacific hake length and the latitude of collection. Year-1 Pacific hake (<27 cm length) had significantly lower prevalence and intensity of N. surmenicola compared to older and larger fish. Pacific hake collected south of Point Conception, California (32.5 to 35N) had lower prevalence and intensity of N. surmenicola compared to those collected in northern latitudes (35.1 to 48.4N). Higher N. surmenicola prevalence in Pacific hake in recent years suggests food-web fluctuations in the northern California current ecosystem caused by changes in ocean transport of zooplankton or pelagic fish distributions and warrants future monitoring as a metric for ecosystem change. PMID:21954870

Bryan, David R; Jacobson, Kym C; Buchanan, John C

2012-02-01

193

Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

Howe, John T.

1986-01-01

194

Distribution and Physiology of Aerobic Bacteria Containing Bacteriochlorophyll a on the East and West Coasts of Australia  

PubMed Central

Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria containing bacteriochlorophyll were isolated from specimens from a wide variety of marine environments on the west (Shark Bay, Lake Clifton, Lake Heyward, and Perth) and east (near Townsville and Brisbane) coasts of Australia. The bacteria were found in a high proportion (10 to 30%) of the total heterotrophic bacterial strains isolated from marine algae, seagrasses, stromatolites, the epiphytes on stromatolites, seawater, and sands; in some cases they constituted up to 49% of the total. This is much higher than the previous report of 6% from Japan. A high percentage, 13%, was also found in the seawater of Hamelin Pool, at Shark Bay, where the salinity was 66%. The number of these bacteria was generally low in seawater and sands, with a few exceptions. There were no aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria on sponges or corals. The isolated strains were orange or pink, and most had absorption maxima around 800 and 850 to 870 nm, the latter range being the absorption of bacteriochlorophyll a in vivo. The maximum bacteriochlorophyll content was 1 nmol/mg (dry weight) of bacterial cells. Most of the bacteria did not grow phototrophically under anaerobic conditions in a broth medium containing succinate. Cells and cell extracts grown under aerobic conditions had photochemical activities such as reversible photooxidations of the reaction center and cytochrome(s). Some strains showed denitrifying activity. The optimal salinity for bacterial growth varied between strains.

Shiba, Tsuneo; Shioi, Yuzo; Takamiya, Ken-Ichiro; Sutton, David C.; Wilkinson, Clive R.

1991-01-01

195

Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast.  

PubMed

Measurements (1994-2007) from four cabled-to-shore hydrophone systems located off the North American west coast permit extensive comparisons between "contemporary" low frequency ship traffic noise (25-50 Hz) collected in the past decade to measurements made over 1963-1965 with the same in-water equipment at the same sites. An increase of roughly 10 dB over the band 25-40 Hz at one site has already been reported [Andrew et al., Acoust. Res. Lett. Online 3(2), 65-70 (2002)]. Newly corrected data from the remaining three systems generally corroborate this increase. Simple linear trend lines of the contemporary traffic noise (duration 6 to 12+ years) show that recent levels are slightly increasing, holding steady, or decreasing. These results confirm the prediction by Ross that the rate of increase in traffic noise would be far less at the end of the 20th century compared to that observed in the 1950s and 1960s. PMID:21361423

Andrew, Rex K; Howe, Bruce M; Mercer, James A

2011-02-01

196

LNG annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

1982-09-01

197

LNG Slurry Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process of forming particles of frozen crude oil by spraying oil into LNG was originally conceived by LeFever. Analyses by Coulter have shown that the particles formed for slurry transportation must be as small as possible, on the order of 30 micromet...

D. M. Coulter

1975-01-01

198

Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Westinghouse PWR plants. Volume 4. Pipe failure induced by crack growth in west coast plants  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in primary coolant piping warrants the current design requirements that safeguard against the effecs of such a break. This report assesses the reactor-coolant-loop piping system of west coast Westinghouse plants. The results indicate that directly induced DEGB is an unlikely event in the west coast Westinghouse plants. For the Trojan plant, leak is far more likely than a direct DEGB. Further, earthquakes have very little effect on the probabilities of leak and direct DEGB. At the Diablo Canyon plant, the increase in postulated seismic levels due to reevaluation of the site to account for the Hosgri Fault has caused directly induced DEGB failure probability to be dependent on earthquake occurrences. The resulting direct DEGB failure probability is still much lower than the indirect DEGB failure probability for Diablo Canyon.

Chinn, D.J.; Holman, G.S.; Lo, T.Y.; Mensing, R.W.

1985-07-01

199

Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with abundant tritium (greater than 8 tritium units) is found in and downgradient from the Montebello Forebay and near the seawater barrier projects, indicating recent recharge. Water with less than measurable tritium is present in, and downgradient from, the Los Angeles Forebay and in most wells in the West Coast Basin. Water from several deep wells was analyzed for carbon-14. Uncorrected estimates of age for these samples range from 600 to more than 20,000 years before present. Chemical and isotopic data are combined to evaluate changes in chemical character along flow paths emanating from the Montebello and Los Angeles Forebays. A four-layer ground-water flow model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water conditions representative of those in 1971 and transient conditions for the period 1971?2000. Model results indicate increases in ground-water storage in all parts of the study area over the simulated thirty-year period. The model was used to develop a three-dimensional ground-water budget and to assess impacts of two alternative future (2001?25) ground-water development scenarios?one that assumes continued pumping at average current rates and a second that assumes increasing pumping from most wells in the Central Basin. The model simulates stable or slightly increasing water levels for the first scenario and declining water levels (25 to 50 ft in the Central Basin) in the second scenario. Model sensitivity to parameter values and to the assumed Orange County boundary condition was evaluated. Particle tracking was applied to simulate advective transport of water from the spreading ponds, the coastline, and the seawater injection barriers. Particle tracking results indicate that most flow within the Upper San Pedro aquifer system occurs within about 20 percent of the total aquifer system thickness and that virtually all water injected into the seawater barrier projects has flowed inland. The simulation model was linked with optimizatio

Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler; Everett, Rhett R.; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

2003-01-01

200

Ground-water modeling and the installation of deep multiple-well monitoring sites in the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ongoing regional study of the geohydrology and geochemistry of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California has iteratively combined the drilling of deep multiple-well monitoring sites with groundwater modeling. The monitoring sites are generally between 1,000 and 1,500 ft in depth and consist of 4-6 piezometers installed within a single borehole that provide depth-dependent geohydrologic

E. G. Reichard; T. A. Johnson; M. Land; R. R. Everett; D. J. Ponti; B. D. Edwards; S. M. Crawford; T. Kulshan

2002-01-01

201

Chemical composition of air masses transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT 2K2: Fossil fuel combustion versus biomass-burning signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft was used to study the long-range transport of Asian air masses toward the west coast of North America. During research flights on 5 and 17 May, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were

J. A. de Gouw; O. R. Cooper; C. Warneke; P. K. Hudson; F. C. Fehsenfeld; J. S. Holloway; G. Hbler; D. K. Nicks Jr.; J. B. Nowak; D. D. Parrish; T. B. Ryerson; E. L. Atlas; S. G. Donnelly; S. M. Schauffler; V. Stroud; K. Johnson; G. R. Carmichael; D. G. Streets

2004-01-01

202

Evaluation of MM5 mesoscale model at local scale for air quality applications over the Swedish west coast: Influence of PBL and LSM parameterizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe performance of MM5 mesoscale model (Version 3.6.3) using different planetary boundary layer (PBL) and land surface model\\u000a (LSM) parameterizations is evaluated and compared using high temporal and spatial resolution GTE2001 campaign data at local\\u000a scale (a few kilometers) over the Greater Gteborg area along the Swedish west coast during 720 May 2001. The focus is on\\u000a impact of PBL

J.-F. Miao; D. Chen; K. Wyser; K. Borne; J. Lindgren; M. K. S. Strandevall; S. Thorsson; C. Achberger; E. Almkvist

2008-01-01

203

Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Westinghouse PWR plants. Volume 4. Pipe failure induced by crack growth in west coast plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in primary coolant piping warrants the current design requirements that safeguard against the effecs of such a break. This report assesses the reactor-coolant-loop piping system of west coast Westinghouse plants. The

D. J. Chinn; G. S. Holman; T. Y. Lo; R. W. Mensing

1985-01-01

204

Evaluation of a Selective Flatfish Trawl and Diel Variation in Rockfish Catchability as Bycatch Reduction Tools in the Deepwater Complex Fishery off the U.S. West Coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the potential of a selective flatfish trawl to reduce bycatch of slope rockfish in the upper continental slope bottom-trawl fishery (250500 m) on the U.S. West Coast. The trawl we tested differed from typical slope trawls in that it was a low-rise, two-seam trawl with a severely cut back headrope. We used an alternate haul, randomized block design

Robert W. Hannah; Steven J. Parker; Troy V. Buell

2005-01-01

205

Spatial Changes in Trawl Fishing Effort in Response to Footrope Diameter Restrictions in the U.S. West Coast Bottom Trawl Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the spatial distribution of U.S. west coast bottom-trawl effort in relation to areas of prime habitat for rockfish Sebastes spp. were evaluated between 1992 and 2001. Prime trawlable rockfish habitat (PTRH) was defined based on the spatial distribution of high rockfish catches from logbook data for 1992-1995. Bottom-trawl effort was sharply reduced within PTRH after the establishment of

Robert W. Hannah

2003-01-01

206

Artificial Recharge Of Urban Wastewater, The Key Component In The Development Of An Industrial Town On The Arid West Coast Of South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atlantis, an industrial town on the somewhat bleak and undeveloped west coast of South Africa, is entirely dependent on groundwater resources for its water supply. With a population of more than 67,000 people and about 140 factories, Atlantis requires a reliable supply of potable water of about 1.5쎺m3\\/a. The demand is met through artificial recharge of a local, shallow, sandy

A. Wright; I. du Toit

1996-01-01

207

Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 ?m), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

2009-03-01

208

Observational evidence from direct current measurements for propagation of remotely forced waves on the shelf off the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use data from six Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) moorings deployed during March-September 2008 on the continental shelf and slope off Bhatkal, Goa, and Jaigarh on the central west coast of India to present evidence for poleward propagation of shelf or coastal-trapped waves (CTWs). Wave propagation is seen on the shelf in the 20-40-day, 10-14-day, and 3-5-day-period bands. The lag from south to north indicates that remote forcing is important even at periods as short as 4 days. Using QuikSCAT wind data, we show that the contribution of remote forcing to the shelf West Indian Coastal Current (WICC) is significant even when the local alongshore wind is strong, as during the summer-monsoon onset during May-June, and forces a strong local response that masks the effect of remote forcing. Forced wave calculations using CTW theory show that remote forcing of the WICC is present at all times, but is most striking when the local winds are weak, as during March-April. The CTW calculations show that the source region for the remote forcing may extend beyond the west coast into the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka. On the slope, propagation is seen only at the 4-day period. At higher periods, the slope WICC decorrelates rapidly along the coast, but upward phase propagation, implying downward propagation of energy associated with poleward propagation, is evident even at these higher periods.

Amol, P.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, S. G.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Fernando, V.; Shetye, S. R.; Mukherjee, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Khalap, S.; Satelkar, N. P.

2012-05-01

209

High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2) fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway followed by photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16-25 W, 17-24 N). This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Islands towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled to cover differing oceanic regions such as upwelling and oligotrophic regimes. In 2007, additionally, four days were sampled at high resolution of one sample per hour to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2. Our results indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas oceanic N2 fixation could not be identified as a source for atmospheric H2 during these two cruises. The variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and also affected by a varying origin of air masses. This means for future investigations that only measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of an atmospheric diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. Nevertheless, measurements of atmospheric H2 mixing ratios, which are easy to conduct online during ship cruises, could be a useful indicator of production areas of biological precursors such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for further investigations.

Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Rckmann, T.

2013-05-01

210

Quantification of Coastal Macro Algae Iodine Emissions and its Spatial Variability at the West Coast of Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reactive iodine species are emitted by macro algae in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Due to the oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and thus reduction of ozone, they may have a significant influence on the local atmosphere. Further high iodine oxide levels may act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in previous field studies. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. An observation of the dominant sources, the spatial distribution and the impact on larger scales was not possible so far. To investigate these questions we performed intensive measurements at eight different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Therefore, we applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and a mobile Cavity Enhanced (CE)- DOAS instrument for in-situ IO measurements at different locations. Additionally, a static Long Path-DOAS system for IO, OIO and I2 measurements located at Mace Head was applied. This allows comparing directly different locations with the reference station Mace Head without the influence of locally varying meteorology and comparing results also to former observations. We could confirm previous results that the macro algae species Laminaria digitata is the strongest iodine emitting algae. However, we observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, iodine oxide concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site compared to Mace Head. IO reaching levels up to 40ppt observed with the LP-DOAS and 70ppt @ 1.2m height with the CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high abundance in the intertidal zone, is by far the strongest source. Third, we observed also high iodine oxide levels above 30ppt at rainy, cold and windy weather. Thus former observations that these emissions arise only at sunny and warm weather could not be confirmed. Fourth, we investigated that iodine oxide increase exponentially with decreasing distance to the emitting seaweed patches reaching concentrations much above 100ppt being sufficient to start particle nucleation events. We conclude that coastal macro algae emissions are thus much more relevant for the atmosphere than so far expected from previous observations performed at Mace Head which is rather characterized by low IO levels in comparison to other locations. Reasons and explanations for these findings will be presented. A review of the coastal macro algae iodine emissions and its influence on the atmosphere is thus urgently needed.

Phler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich

2014-05-01

211

Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Nio-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play significant roles in flatfish distribution.

Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

2013-07-01

212

Distributions and bioconcentration characteristics of perfluorinated compounds in environmental samples collected from the west coast of Korea.  

PubMed

As part of an ongoing study of the status and trends of contaminants in the Yellow Sea, during May of 2009, the concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in water (n=15), sediment (n=12), soil (n=13), and biota (n=74) from estuarine and coastal areas along the west coast of Korea. Of the 12PFCs monitored, PFOS and PFOA were the most frequently detected compounds in water. Greater concentrations of PFCs were found in waters from the inner regions of sea dikes in three artificial lakes, Shihwa, Asan, and Sapgyo, than outer regions. Concentrations were also comparable in two estuarine areas, which indicated that most PFCs in coastal areas originated from industrial and local regions and river water flowing through estuaries. Concentrations of PFCs in soils and sediments were generally less than limits of quantification and were generally less than those measured in biota. Compound-specific bioaccumulation of PFBS and PFOS had the greatest BCF values in crab, while in fish it was PFOS and PFDA, and in gastropods and bivalves it was PFHxS. Distributions of BCFs for PFOS in body-parts of crab showed the greatest values in soft tissues followed by shells and then legs. Distribution among tissues and organs of fishes was more variable than those observed for crab. When compared to a similar study conducted by our group in 2008, concentrations of PFCs in water samples were significantly less in 2009. However, there was little change in bioconcentration from sediments into benthic organisms. Finally, we conducted the assessment of potential adverse effects for PFCs on aquatic life by use of current and previous reported data. PMID:22955048

Naile, Jonathan E; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jong Seong; Hwang, Jin Hwan; Jones, Paul D; Giesy, John P

2013-01-01

213

Radium-226, 232Th, and 40K distribution in the environment of Kaiga of south west coast of India.  

PubMed

Systematic studies on gamma radiation level and the distribution of natural radionuclides were carried out under a pre-operational survey for the establishment of baseline data on background radiation level and the distribution of radio-nuclides in the environment of Kaiga, in the south west coast of India, where a nuclear power reactor of 235 MWe has just been commissioned. The external gamma absorbed dose rates prevailing in the region were measured using a portable plastic scintillometer. Soil samples from 18 stations were collected from depth intervals of 0-5, 5-10, and 10-25 cm and analyzed for their 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry employing a 90 cc PGT HpGe detector coupled to an EG&G ORTEC 8K multichannel analyzer. The activity of 226Ra was found to vary between 15.5-61.2 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 31.3 Bq kg(-1), that of 232Th varies between 11.4-41.9 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 27.5 Bq kg(-1) and of 40K between 78.3-254.8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 159.9 Bq kg(-1) in 0-5 cm soil profiles of the region. The contributions of 238U, 232Th, and 40K to the total gamma absorbed dose rate were 39.9%, 40.7%, and 16.0%, respectively. The gamma absorbed dose rate in air estimated using the results of activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K are found to compare well with that of the direct measurement. The results of the study were compared with the literature values reported for other environs of the country as well as the world, and conclusions are drawn. PMID:11316077

Karunakara, N; Somashekarappa, H M; Avadhani, D N; Mahesh, H M; Narayana, Y; Siddappa, K

2001-05-01

214

Bacterial production, glucosidase activity and particle-associated carbohydrates in Dona Paula bay, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size-fractionated bacterial production, abundance and ?- and ?- glucosidase enzyme activities were studied with respect to changes in hydrography, total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen ratio (POC:PON), 1.5 M NaCl-soluble and 10 mM EDTA-soluble carbohydrates (Sal-PCHO and CPCHO) and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) in the surface waters from July 1999-2000 at a shallow coastal station in Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India. The bulk of the total bacterial production and glucosidase activity were associated with particles (75% and >80%, respectively). Total bacterial production was linearly correlated to chlorophyll a ( r = 0.513; p < 0.05) whereas enzyme activity was significantly correlated to TSM (?-glucosidase: r = 0.721 ( p < 0.001); ?-glucosidase: r = 0.596 ( p < 0.01)). Both ?-glucosidase ( r = 0.514; p < 0.05) and ?-glucosidase enzymes ( r = 0.598; p < 0.01) appeared to be involved in the degradation of CPCHO and Sal-PCHO, respectively. Changes in ?-glucosidase/?-glucosidase ratios highlighted the varying composition of particulate organic matter. The bacterial uptake of 14C-labeled bacterial extracellular carbohydrate measured over 11 days showed a strong linear correlation between 14C-uptake and bacterial production using tritiated thymidine. The turnover rate of 14C-labeled carbohydrate-C was 0.52 d -1, higher than the estimated annual mean potential carbohydrate carbon turnover rate of 0.33 0.2 d -1. Our study suggests that carbohydrates derived from sediments may serve as an important alternative carbon source sustaining the bacterial carbon demand in the surface waters of Dona Paula Bay.

Bhaskar, P. V.; Bhosle, N. B.

2008-11-01

215

Recent environmental changes and filamentous algal mats in shallow bays on the Swedish west coast A result of climate change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last thirty years, many shallow estuarine bays, located in Scandinavian sheltered coastal environments, have been subject to the increased dominance of opportunistic species of filamentous green algae, oxygen deficiency in bottom waters and the alteration of flora and fauna. Human-induced eutrophication has been held responsible for these recent changes, but from this study the importance of climatic factors emerges. This research is based on the analysis of sediment cores from 8 shallow areas ( d < 50 cm) along the Bohusln archipelago, Swedish west coast, and focuses on their recent (< 100 years) sedimentary evolution. Evidence of hydrodynamic change was observed in the sediments, where modern fining-upward sequences contrast with the expected coarsening upward model due to ongoing land uplift. Heavy metal concentrations from modern pollution and 14C dating of mollusk shells and eelgrass roots provided the age control, and allowed to place these changes within the last three decades. Data were compared with historical meteorological records (seasonal warming, modification of dominant winds and upwelling and reduction of sea-ice), and a clear connection emerged between the environmental changes and variations in the North Atlantic Ocean weather pattern. The increase of winter temperature and reduction of reworking winter sea-ice in these sheltered bays increased the storing of nutrients in the sediments and the turnover of organic matter, favoring the early growth stage of opportunistic algae in the most sheltered areas of the archipelago. This, together with human-induced modifications (overfishing and eutrophication), increased the possibility of opportunistic explosions, which in turn determined a reduced water exchange, the increased deposition of fine sediments and organic matter and evolving hypoxic conditions.

Cossellu, Michele; Nordberg, Kjell

2010-04-01

216

Regional and global context of the Late Cenozoic Langebaanweg (LBW) palaeontological site: West Coast of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palaeontological site of Langebaanweg (LBW) is internationally renowned for its prolific, diverse and exceptionally well preserved Mio-Pliocene vertebrate faunas. The site is located on the southern West Coast of South Africa which represents a passive intraplate, trailing edge setting. The southern African subcontinent is also removed from glacial influence and has experienced no Cenozoic volcanic activity. Rates of vertical crustal motion are consequently low and Late Cenozoic shoreline datums at LBW chiefly reflect glacio-eustatic sea level history. The primary aim of this study is to clarify the chronology as well as the regional and global context of LBW and to review previous work on these aspects. LBW is ideally situated to document the complex interactions of ocean, atmosphere and land and their respective influence on climate evolution, given its location near the coast and mix of marine, estuarine and terrestrial faunas and depositional settings. This paper also provides a background to the study of the vast existing faunal collections and a guide to undiscovered fossil deposits. Towards these ends, the first detailed geological/topographic maps of the site and surrounds, accompanied by a summary stratigraphic column are provided. Virtual geological modelling using a subsurface database has clarified the spatial and temporal relationships of sedimentary facies, as well as their depositional settings. The geological and palaeontological record at LBW tracks and documents the major regional and global climatic/oceanographic events of the Late Cenozoic. During the Oligocene drawdown in sea levels, the landscape was etched by river incision. Fluctuating sea levels of the Neogene periodically reversed the trend from erosion to deposition, preserving contemporary faunas and floras in the Oligocene palaeovalleys. Earlier Miocene pollen from fluvial facies indicates a humid sub-tropical climate, reflecting a warm southern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt late Middle Miocene global cooling (Monterey Excursion) coincided with intensified cold upwelling in the Benguela Current and extensive phosphate authigenesis. A globally documented Early Pliocene highstand possibly related to the shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama reached ~ 90 m above sea level (asl), implying extensive melting of the cryosphere. Palaeomagnetic data in tandem with global sea level reconstructions suggested an age of ~ 5.15 0.1 Ma for the faunas and a correlation with the earlier part of this transgression. A subtropical C3 vegetation is indicated by the faunas and floras, but with a significant contribution by sclerophytic fynbos pointing to a cooler and more seasonal climate than in the Miocene. A mid-Pliocene highstand to ~ 50 m asl truncated the Early Pliocene succession at LBW and the globally documented Late Pliocene highstand to ~ 30 m asl saw the Atlantic shoreline approaching LBW for the last time. With the progressive climatic cooling and instability of the terminal Pliocene, culminating in the growth of the Arctic ice cap, strengthening southerly winds driven by a tighter coiled South Atlantic Anticyclone deposited extensive coastal dune fields over the region.

Roberts, David L.; Matthews, Thalassa; Herries, Andrew I. R.; Boulter, Claire; Scott, Louis; Dondo, Chiedza; Mtembi, Ponani; Browning, Claire; Smith, Roger M. H.; Haarhoff, Pippa; Bateman, Mark D.

2011-06-01

217

Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and ridging over the Intermountain West, whereas the south-coast summer ARs coincide with relatively cold conditions and a near-coast trough. ARs have a much more profound impact on near-coast precipitation in winter than summer, because the terrain-normal vapor flux is stronger and the air more nearly saturated in winter. During winter, ARs produce roughly twice as much precipitation as all storms. In addition, wintertime ARs with the largest SSM/I IWV are tied to more intense storms with stronger flows and vapor fluxes, and more precipitation. ARs generally increase snow water equivalent (SWE) in autumn/winter and decrease SWE in spring. On average, wintertime SWE exhibits normal gains during north-coast AR storms and above-normal gains during the south-coast AR storms. The north-coast sites are mostly lower in altitude, where warmer-than-normal conditions more frequently yield rain. During those events when heavy rain from a warm AR storm falls on a preexisting snowpack, flooding is more likely to occur. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

Neiman, P. J.; Ralph, F. M.; Wick, G. A.; Lundquist, J. D.; Dettinger, M. D.

2008-01-01

218

Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.  

PubMed

Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies ?g(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock. PMID:24681359

Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

2014-06-01

219

Trajectory analysis on the origin of air mass and moisture associated with Atmospheric Rivers over the west coast of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origins and pathways of air masses leading to heavy rainfall over the west coast of the United States are examined by computing the back-trajectories in a Lagrangian quasi-isentropic trajectory model. Extreme precipitation over the west coast of the United States often coincides with transport in a deep and narrow corridor of concentrated water vapor band from the ocean, commonly referred to as Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). They also occur in conjunction with moisture plumes emanating from the tropics, or along the mid-latitude storm track. However, the actual moisture sources and the dynamic and thermodynamic processes of the moisture transport, are still unclear. Trajectories are found to be insensitive to the reanalysis data set used; we examined NCEP, GMAO MERRA, and ECMWF ERA-Interim. Reconstructed water vapor mixing ratios along trajectories are in generally good agreement among the reanalysis datasets in most of the subtropics and extratropics, indicating that the large-scale circulation is a primary control for moisture transport over those regions. Clustering and pdf (probability density function) analyses illustrate that trajectories over the west coast of United States have different origins. One group of trajectories (cluster 1) originates in the warm part of extratropical cyclones in the low level. The other group of trajectories (cluster 2) originates in the cold and dry regions in the mid-level (pressures less than 600 hPa) over northeastern Asia, then cross the Pacific Ocean. This study demonstrates that the quasi-isentropic Lagrangian trajectory model and clustering analysis (that have been typically used to analyze trajectories in the upper troposphere and higher altitudes) can be used to examine sources of air masses and moisture, and also associated transport processes in the lower troposphere.

Ryoo, J.-M.; Waliser, D. E.; Fetzer, E. J.

2011-04-01

220

Aspects of the biology of the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei (Proscylliidae: Carcharhiniformes) from the south-west coast of India.  

PubMed

Biological data are presented for the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea off the south-west coast of India. A total of 549 individuals, from 101 to 257 mm total length (L(T)) and 22 to 56 g, were collected. The L(T) at first maturity (L(T50)) of females and males was estimated at 183 and 170 mm, respectively, and analysis of stomach contents revealed that E. radcliffei feeds primarily on crustaceans. PMID:22880745

Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Pillai, N G K

2012-08-01

221

The timing of early life events and growth rate estimates of age-0?year group brill Scophthalmus rhombus along the west coast of Ireland.  

PubMed

The timing of spawning and hatching, larval durations and growth exhibited by juvenile brill Scophthalmus rhombus captured along the Irish west coast were estimated using otolith microstructure analysis. Scophthalmus rhombus were estimated to have hatched between February and May, with fish settling onto nursery grounds between March and June. Fish collected later on in the season exhibited higher otolith growth rates in comparison to earlier collected fish. This is the first study to describe the early life history of a commercially valuable but understudied flatfish species. PMID:24383806

Haynes, P S; Brophy, D; McGrath, D

2014-01-01

222

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and

G. J. Konzek; K. M. Yasutake; A. L. Franklin

1982-01-01

223

Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the principal period of breeding activity, but there was no difference between the sexes in daily travel rate during the winter. The timing of seasonal migrations differed markedly between geographic regions. Most long-distance movements in the southern half of the study area occurred between November and March in response to changing temperatures, whereas most migrations in the northern region took place during the warmer, non-winter months. Manatees left their warm-season range in central Florida in response to cold fronts that dropped water temperatures by an average of 2.0??C over the 24-hr period preceding departure. Water temperature at departure from the warm-season range averaged 19??C, but varied among individuals (16-22??C) and was not related to body size or female reproductive status. The presence of industrial warm-water effluents permitted many manatees to overwinter north of their historic winter range, and for some migrants this delayed autumn migrations and facilitated earlier spring migrations. Southward autumn and northward spring migrations lasted an average of 10 and 15 days at mean rates of 33.5 (SD = 7.6) and 27.3 (SD = 10.5) km/day, respectively. The highest rate of travel during migration was 87 km/day (3.6 km/hr) during winter. Manatees overwintering in southeastern Florida often traveled north during mild weather - sometimes reaching their warm-season range - only to return south again with the next major cold front. Manatees were consistent in their seasonal movement patterns across years and showed strong fidelity, to warm-season and winter ranges. Within a season, individuals usually occupied only 1 or 2 core use areas that encompassed about 90% of daily locations. Most manatees returned faithfully to the same seasonal ranges year after year (median distance between range centers was <5 km between years). Seasonal movements of 4 immature manatees tracked as calves with their mothers

Deutsch, C. J.; Reid, J. P.; Bonde, R. K.; Easton, D. E.; Kochman, H. I.; O'Shea, T. J.

2003-01-01

224

Effectiveness of loess in rejuvenating soil and ecosystem properties in a high leaching environment, West Coast, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the absence of major disturbances, humid terrestrial ecosystems tend over long time scales towards deficiency of biogeochemically accessible nutrients. This phenomenon has been implicated in ecosystem retrogression. Aeolian deposition has been shown to be an important mitigating effect on nutrient depletion in soils and ecosystems of old landsurfaces (e.g. Hawaii, Amazon Basin). Significant nutrient loss has been demonstrated on surfaces as young as Holocene age in very high leaching environments (>2,000 mm/a) and ecosystem retrogression has been reported for landsurfaces formed ca. 100 ka. The aim of this study is to quantify the capacity of actively accumulating loess to replenish nutrient pools in soils and ecosystems in a super-humid, temperate environment on the west coast of the South Island, New Zealand. The study area, a sequence of Holocene dune ridges under a conifer (podocarp) rainforest, combines a loess flux gradient downwind of a braided riverbed on a 6,500 y old dune ridge and, distal from the loess source, an adjacent chronosequence of dune ridges (170-6,500 y BP age range). Pedogenesis is very rapid with Spodosols developing after 1,000 y under a thick organic root mat. Our approach is based on the principle that if loess deposition has rejuvenating effects on soils or ecosystems, then it will result in soils or ecosystems of a given age having properties consistent with those on a younger, less leached landsurface. How much younger determines the strength of the rejuvenating effect. We sampled and analysed soils, to a depth of 1 m by standard methods to determine total profile masses of important macro nutrients, conducted a vegetation survey and sampled tree foliage of fully expanded, fresh leaves of sunlit branches. Along the loess gradient, foliar nutrient P concentrations in two main canopy species increased according to a power law towards the river, corresponding to an inverse logarithmic increase in loess flux rate from 0 at 1,000 m distance to 25 g m^-2 y^-1 adjacent to the river. For Prumnopitys ferruginea, foliar P concentration was described by: foliar P(%)=0.6194*[distance (m)]^-0.2812 (R^2=0.65, P<0.0001). A similar trend occurred with decreasing dune age across the chronosequence. We compared foliar P concentration along the loess gradient with foliar P concentration across the chronosequence and show that a loess flux rate of 25 g m^-2 y^-1 on a 6,500 y old dune produces foliar P concentrations comparable to that of a 390 y old dune. This is equivalent to a rejuvenation of >6,000 y, or more than 90%. By 500 m distance (8 g m^-2 y^-1) the rejuvenation effect is negligible. Soil total P concentrations in the top 30 cm of the mineral soil also respond to the loess flux with an up to ~3-fold increase at comparable soil depths when moving towards the river. We will present P fractionation data from the soils in order to determine how biogeochemically accessible the total P is, and explore the relative significance of the organic horizon versus the mineral soil as a pool and a pathway of the aeolian-derived nutrients to the ecosystem.

Eger, A.; Almond, P. C.; Condron, L. M.

2010-12-01

225

Seasonal and regional variability in dissolved and particulate iron fluxes via glacial runoff along the West Greenland coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Subglacial weathering, due to biogeochemical and physical weathering processes, can affect the chemical evolution of subglacial waters and release dissolved and particulate iron via glacial runoff. Iron is a growth limiting nutrient and plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycles of coastal and marine waters. More recently, dissolved and colloidal iron derived from subglacial sources have been considered an important contributor of Fe fluxes to the ocean; however, their dependency on lithology, grain size, and microbial activity is not well understood. This study characterizes the solute chemistry, in particular iron mineralogy and dissolved iron concentrations, released from beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), from two locations along the West Greenland coast, Thule (76N, 68W) and Kangerlussuaq (67N, 50W). We hypothesize that the subglacial lithology has a control on Fe fluxes from the GrIS to coastal and marine systems. The underlying bedrock in Thule is the Precambrian Dundas and Narssarssuk sedimentary formations which include sandstone, siltstone, and shale. The bedrock in Kangerlussuaq is dominated by Archean granodioritic gneiss and amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen. Supra and subglacial meltwater samples were collected directly in front of the Ice Sheet over an entire melt season in 2011 (North River, Thule) and 2012 (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River, Kangerlussuaq). In situ parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity were recorded in order to interpret meltwater chemistry. Dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) species were fixed immediately and analyzed within 24 hours after sampling in the field laboratory using a spectrophotometer and 10 cm cell. Total dissolved iron (FeT) of different size fractions (<0.22 and <0.05 ?m) of iron were determined back in the home laboratory using reaction cell ICP MS. Preliminary results demonstrate that subglacial meltwater of North River has average FeT concentrations of 200 nM and 10 nM in the <0.22 and <0.05 ?m size fraction, respectively, indicating that FeT in the <0.22 ?m fraction is mostly (95%) in form of colloidal iron. In comparison, data from Kangerlussuaq show an average FeT of 580 nM in the <0.22 ?m size fraction and 150 nM in the <0.05 ?m fraction. Suspended load in North River increased throughout the ablation period in concurrence with variation in discharge, from an average of 0.08 g/L in the early melt stages (June), 0.21 g/L during the high melt (July-August), and 0.15 g/L during the late melt (end of August-September). Initial estimates for the suspended load for subglacial flow in Kangerlussuaq are 0.30 g/L on average. The suspended load will be analyzed for iron by sequential extraction in order to characterize how iron partitions between oxide and (oxyhydr)oxide minerals in the sediment. This comprehensive study will allow us to identify biogeochemical processes involved in the mobilization of iron and to evaluate how increased melting of GrIS will affect Fe fluxes to coastal and marine environments.

Choquette, K.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Harrold, Z.; Liu, L.; Dieser, M.; Cameron, K. A.; Christner, B. C.; Junge, K.

2012-12-01

226

Paleo-tsunami and land-level change evidence from the west coast of South Andaman, Andman Nicobar Island, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, Mw 9.3 provided an ideal opportunity to understand the pattern of paleoseismic event and paleo-tsunami deposition in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The present investigation carried out along the west coast of Andaman Island around Collinpur village (N113956.9 and E924431.3) revealed excellent evidences pointing towards land-level change and tsunami deposition during recent historic past. Sedimentary records studied from the geo-slicer and trench sections collected along transect across stable beach ridges and swales between the ridges (N1141'38?, E9235'52?) revealed distinct change in depositional environments which have been attributed to tectonic activity. In total we excavated 4 trenches and collected 9 geo-slicer sections. We present here our preliminary results and interpretations. Based on sedimentary structures, grain size and nature of contact and colour, sedimentary units from the trenches and geoslicers were classified into seven units (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) from bottom to top. The bottom most unit a is marked by poor laminations of fine silty-sand and peaty material suggestive of inter-tidal to marshy environment. This is overlain by 30 cm thick unit b - comprising coarse sand with gravel fragments (corals, shells, rock clasts etc.) in the swale and coarse sandy deposits along with broken shells, peaty material and rip-up clasts of underlying soil on the back-limb of the beach ridge. The sharp-erosive contact with the underlying and overlying sedimentary unit, distinct variation in grain marked assorted fragments, broken shell; peaty material suggests deposition by tsunami wave during recent geological past. Overlying unit c marked by partially developed peaty layer suggests marshy environment at or above mean sea level indicative of a probable uplift (?) which occurred during Event I accompanied with tsunami waves. Unit d with finer deposits comprised of silty-clay suggests deposition under sub-tidal environment; change of depositional environment from marshy to sub-tidal suggests subsidence - Event II. Thick silty-sand unit (unit e) and overlying humic soil (unit f) indicates land-level change. Based on the change in sediment grain size and well develop humic soil it is suggested that the uplift was gradual during inter-seismic period. Unit g shows yellowish medium to coarse sand with prominent laminations at the basal part and sharp contact with the underlying humic soil (unit f). This unit marks the deposition by recent tsunami generated by 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquakes. Marginal coseismic subsidence probably occurred during this event - Event II. AMS ages obtained from the peaty material, charcoal, wood from the geo-slice and trench sections suggests that Event I marked by tsunami deposits occurred at around 1200-1300 AD; Event II marked by subsidence occurred somewhere during 1300-1800 AD. It is inferred that the gradual uplift during inter-seismic period occurred between 1800 and 2000 AD. Finally the area marginally subsided during 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake along with deposition of tsunami sediments.

Malik, Javed; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Shishikura, M.

2010-05-01

227

Financing aspects of LNG trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion of key elements in developing a comprehensive financial plan for an LNG system covers the typical project involving a producing nation and a consuming plus a sea-transport element; two key documents: a contract between producer and consumer, and a sea-transport contract; the long life of an LNG project and the advantage of long-term financing for the life of

A. R. Batkin; R. H. Goodspeed

1977-01-01

228

East vs. West  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the methods of handling coal at East Coast and West Coast ports was presented. In general, West Coast ports are more efficient in terms of throughput on the basis of the amount of ground storage provided. Also, a dicussion of the Rio Grande Railroad single track rail system was included. Most western U.S. railroads have had little

Bennewitz; G. A. Jr

1983-01-01

229

The Longspine Thornyhead Fishery along the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada: Portrait of a Developing Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fishery for thornyhead Sebastolobus spp. started in the early 1990s along the Pacific coast of Canada, primarily in response to market demand from Japan. As the fishery evolved, the deepwater longspine thornyhead S. altivelis became a desirable species because it is easily targeted and commands high prices. Its congener, shortspine thornyhead S. alascanus, largely remained a bycatch species in

Rowan Haigh; Jon T. Schnute

2003-01-01

230

New Tooth Enamel Isotopic Data from the West Coast of South Africa and a Comparison of Terrestrial and Marine Records of Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plio-Pleistocene transition marks a change in the Earth's climate from relative global warmth to colder temperatures with the initiation of glacial-interglacial cycles. Proxy records from marine cores off SW Africa archive changes in ocean upwelling and terrestrial vegetation that suggest increased aridity across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Today, the SW African coast has a Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ) and is dominated by C3 vegetation, which results from the regional high-pressure system and upwelling in the Benguela Current. While marine records provide an integrated perspective on regional responses to global climate change, terrestrial paleoclimate records are needed to assess the effects of these changes in a heterogeneous environment like southern Africa. Archeological and paleontological sites can provide useful proxies of paleoclimate, but many southern African sites are poorly dated or postdate the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Langebaanweg (LBW, ~5 Ma) and Elandsfontein (EFT, ~1.0-0.6 Ma) are sites on the SW coast of South Africa that are rich in fossil mammals and represent landscapes where surface water was more prevalent than it is in today's dry coastal environment. Fossil teeth of large herbivores (e.g. hippopotamids, giraffids, bovids, rhinocerotids, suids and equids) are preserved at both sites and enable isotopic studies of vegetation and climate across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotopic data are reported for 100 fossil teeth (11 herbivore taxa) at EFT and are compared to published isotopic data from early Pliocene teeth from LBW for many of the same genera. ?13C values of the EFT tooth enamel range from 13 to 8 (VPDB) and ?18O values range from -2 to +3 (VPDB). Among the EFT data, there are consistent differences in the distribution of both ?13C and ?18O values among the sampled taxa. When the EFT and LBW isotopic results are compared, ?13C values from the two sites are similar within each taxonomic group. However, ?18O values of the EFT teeth are more than 2 higher than ?18O values of LBW teeth for each herbivore family that was sampled. Enamel ?13C values from LBW and EFT indicate herbivore diets that were dominated by C3 vegetation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Mesowear studies of teeth suggest that the West Coast of South Africa was a forested environment with seasonal grasses during the Pliocene but that it supported trees, fynbos and grasses in the mid-Pleistocene. The isotopic indications of C3 diets among grazers from both sites suggest that a WRZ must have existed across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. The positive shift in ?18O values of fossil tooth enamel between the early Pliocene and the mid-Pleistocene on the West Coast of South Africa might suggest a change in the oxygen isotopic composition of rainfall and a decrease in the amount of rainfall across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Excluding diagenesis, these conclusions are consistent with marine records. This study indicates the potential for using the stable isotope records from fossil teeth from the West Coast of South Africa to evaluate how the intensification of the Benguela Upwelling System, which is well documented in the marine records, affected terrestrial ecosystems across the Plio-Pleistocene transition.

Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Stynder, D. D.; Bishop, L. C.; Forrest, F.; Braun, D. R.

2012-12-01

231

Entanglements of marine mammals and seabirds in central California and the north-west coast of the United States 2001-2005.  

PubMed

Entanglement records for seabirds and marine mammals were investigated for the period 2001-2005. The entanglement records were extracted from databases maintained by seven organizations operating along the west coast of the United States of America. Their programmes included beach monitoring surveys, rescue and rehabilitation and regional pinniped censuses. Records of 454 entanglements were documented in live animals and in carcasses for 31 bird species and nine marine mammal species. The most frequently entangled species were Common Murres, Western Gulls and California sea lions. The entanglement materials identified were primarily fishing related. Entanglements were recorded every year suggesting that although the incidence level differs annually, entanglement is a persistent problem. It is recommended that each programme records details in standardized categories to determine entanglement material sources. Numbers of entanglements observed during these surveys are likely to be a conservative view of the actual entanglement rate taking place at sea. PMID:19344921

Moore, Emma; Lyday, Shannon; Roletto, Jan; Litle, Kate; Parrish, Julia K; Nevins, Hannah; Harvey, Jim; Mortenson, Joe; Greig, Denise; Piazza, Melanie; Hermance, Alison; Lee, Derek; Adams, Dawn; Allen, Sarah; Kell, Shelagh

2009-07-01

232

Chemical composition of air masses transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT 2K2: Fossil fuel combustion versus biomass-burning signatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT 2K2), a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WP-3D research aircraft was used to study the long-range transport of Asian air masses toward the west coast of North America. During research flights on 5 and 17 May, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were observed in air masses that had been transported from Asia. The hydrocarbon composition of the air masses indicated that the highest CO levels were related to fossil fuel use. During the flights on 5 and 17 May and other days, the levels of several biomass-burning indicators increased with altitude. This was true for acetonitrile (CH3CN), methyl chloride (CH3Cl), the ratio of acetylene (C2H2) to propane (C3H8), and, on May 5, the percentage of particles measured by the particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry (PALMS) instrument that were attributed to biomass burning based on their carbon and potassium content. An ensemble of back-trajectories, calculated from the U.S. west coast over a range of latitudes and altitudes for the entire ITCT 2K2 period, showed that air masses from Southeast Asia and China were generally observed at higher altitudes than air from Japan and Korea. Emission inventories estimate the contribution of biomass burning to the total emissions to be low for Japan and Korea, higher for China, and the highest for Southeast Asia. Combined with the origin of the air masses versus altitude, this qualitatively explains the increase with altitude, averaged over the whole ITCT 2K2 period, of the different biomass-burning indicators.

de Gouw, J. A.; Cooper, O. R.; Warneke, C.; Hudson, P. K.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Holloway, J. S.; Hbler, G.; Nicks, D. K., Jr.; Nowak, J. B.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Atlas, E. L.; Donnelly, S. G.; Schauffler, S. M.; Stroud, V.; Johnson, K.; Carmichael, G. R.; Streets, D. G.

2004-12-01

233

Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1Min addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

2014-01-01

234

Correlations between speciation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in sediment and their concentrations in total soft tissue of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total concentrations and speciation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in surface sediment samples were correlated with the respective metal measured in the total soft tissue of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, collected from water off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The aim of this study is to relate the possible differences in the accumulation

C. K. Yap; A. Ismail; S. G. Tan; H. Omar

2002-01-01

235

Can the byssus of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a biomonitoring organ for Cd, Pb and Zn? Field and laboratory studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in total soft tissues (ST) and byssus (BYS) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 11 different geographical locations off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The metal concentrations distributed between the BYS and ST were compared. The results of this study indicated that higher levels of Cd (1.31

C. K. Yap; A. Ismail; S. G. Tan

2003-01-01

236

Recommended research on LNG safety  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

1981-03-01

237

Tracing the sources of water using stable isotopes: first results along the Mangalore-Udupi region, south-west coast of India.  

PubMed

The Mangalore and Udupi region on the south-west coast of India is characterized by small west-flowing rivers (150-250 km in length) originating in the Western Ghats (up to 1940 meters above sea level (m asl)) and joining the Arabian Sea. The area experiences a humid tropical climate with frequent, high-intensity rainfall (4000 mm annual average). Nevertheless, there is a shortage of water during the peak dry season immediately before the onset of monsoon because of a rapid fall in the groundwater level. From the humid high-altitude forests to the intense agriculture in the coastal area, there is an urgent need to understand the movement of water between evapotranspiration, rainfall, river systems and the groundwater compartments in order to achieve better water resource management. Demographic pressure on the area with over half a million inhabitants and industrial activity strongly influence this fragile ecosystem. The coastal area is characterized by shallow open wells, which are particularly sensitive to pollution and eutrophication. Stable water isotopes ((18)O and deuterium) were used for the first time in this region to determine the isotopic characteristics of the different waters. There is a clear seasonal difference in the isotopic ratios and d-excess values between the summer and winter monsoon periods, with a predominance of lighter isotopes in the latter period. No significant variations in isotopic ratios were observed in relation to altitude because of the possible role of mist formation at high altitude. Greater d-excess values were observed in the west-flowing streams than in rivers flowing east on account of the moist westerly oceanic winds and water vapour recycling. PMID:21913254

Lambs, L; Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K

2011-10-15

238

Temporal Variations And Lateral Profiles Of Volatile Organic Compounds (voc) In The Breeze Front Of The Portugal West Coast During Summer Period  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this study was the evaluation of diurnal variation and regional dis- tribution patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the breeze front of the Por- tugal West Coast aiming to access an air quality situation and to provide a database for regional biogenic/anthropogenic air pollution modelling. Simultaneously to hydro- carbons analysis, ozone and NOx concentrations were determined in order to estimate the eventual contribution of photochemical oxidation to the variation of unstable VOC. The measurements of C2-C10 hydrocarbons were carried out from 9 a.m. to 7 p.m. at three locations along the wind direction (from coast to continental - about 70 km inside) in the period of June 25 U July 2, 2001.In some experiments in order to access the vertical concentration profile the simultaneous analysis of C5 U C10 hydrocar- bons have been carried out using a tethered balloon measurement system at 200 m altitude. Air samples for C2 U C5 hydrocarbons were collected in evacuated stainless steel electropolished canisters equipped with a single Nupro SS4H metal-below sealed shut-off valve. The canister samples were quantitatively analysed by a GC/FID. The hydrocarbons compounds in the C5 U C10 range were collected in stainless Tenax TA/Carbotrap multisorbent tubes. The thermal desorption/GC/FID detection method was used for the analysis. The identification of VOC was performed by GC/MS. It was observed out that the concentrations of biogenic hydrocarbons such as isoprene and terpenes increased gradually along the coast-to-continental direction reflecting the natural contribution of forest canopies. Maximal concentrations of these hydrocarbons were registered from 4 p.m. to 6 p.m. In contrast to isoprene and terpenes, the concen- tration variation of C2-C5 hydrocarbons showed clearly negative horizontal gradient distribution reaching minimal values at the farthest point from the coast. For these VOCs the maximal concentration levels were achieved within period from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. Very similar temporal and horizontal concentration profiles were registered for aromatic VOC (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes). The analysis of vertical variation of C5 U C10 hydrocarbon concentrations indicated increase with altitude (at least up to 200 m).

Evtiouguina, M.; Nunes, T.; Pio, C.

239

Storage and regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion covers the historical background of LNG; a description of Columbia LNG Corp.'s LNG terminal at Cove Point, Maryland, including physical plant layout; LNG unloading facilities; the primary vaporization system, which uses submerged combustion to vaporize approximately 75% of the LNG; waste heat LNG vaporizers; four 375,000 bbl aluminum, double-wall storage tanks; the centrifugal, single-stage, pot-mounted LNG pumps; safety

Litchfield

1980-01-01

240

Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

Manobianco, John

1989-01-01

241

Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast of Arabian Sea during Indian summer monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over the coast of Arabian Sea, Goa (1521'N, 7351'E) in India. These observations were collected, in association with the surface layer turbulent parameters for the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX). In the summer monsoon period, concentration of CO2 was in the range of 550-790 mg m - 3 whereas the water vapour was in the range of 17.5-24.5 g m - 3. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has been performed on these observations to investigate the spectral behaviour of CO2 and water vapour. The relation between CO2 and water vapour on various atmospheric scales has been proposed. CO2 and water vapour observations confirmed the existence of periodicities of large (11, 8 days), meso (5 days) and micrometeorological (20 min) scales.

Dharmaraj, T.; Patil, M. N.; Waghmare, R. T.; Ernest Raj, P.

2012-08-01

242

Cove point LNG receiving terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 1-billion-cfd base load LNG receiving and regasification terminal is being built at Cove Point, Maryland. It will handle 650 MMscfd of the gas initially. This article deals with the design and construction phases of this project, with emphasis on engineering for safety. (DLC)

Levy

1976-01-01

243

Liquid turbines improve LNG operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding a pair of cryogenic hydraulic turbines, often called liquid expanders, into an LNG processing train can increase plant annual revenues by 3--4%. The cooldown of a vapor phase by expansion through a gas turbine is widely used in such cryogenic processes as NGL and LPG recovery in the cold section of the steam cracking and in air or natural-gas

L. L. Johnson; G. Renaudin

1996-01-01

244

GFS water vapor forecast error evaluated over the 2009-2010 West Coast cool season using the MET/MODE object analyses package  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research over the last decade and a half confirms that the vast majority of West Coast cool-season extreme precipitation events are due to the landfall of intense wind-driven streams of concentrated water vapor associated with extratropical cyclones called atmospheric rivers (ARs). Accurate prediction of the effects of ARs as they come ashore depends on accurate numeric modeling of integrated water vapor (IWV) over the Northeast Pacific (NEP). Quantifying the uncertainty in this forecast field is an important step toward understanding the causes of uncertainty in West Coast extreme event forecasts. To this end GFS (Global Forecast System) model output obtained in real time of the fields needed to calculate IWV were archived and analyzed. GFS was used because it is well known, it covers our area of interest, and the output is readily available to the community. To estimate forecast uncertainties we used an object-based method that allows quantitative comparisons of object location, size, shape, and intensity. In particular, we used MODE, the Method for Object-based Diagnostic Evaluation. MODE is an object-based verification tool from the MET (Model Evaluation Tools) package developed and supported by the Developmental Testbed Center (DTC). This package of verification tools is readily available and intended to provide the community with a common software package incorporating the latest advances in forecast verification. We describe results from two studies conducted as part of the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT)DTC collaboration project. The studies are based upon Northeast Pacific (NEP) data collected during the 2009-2010 cool season. In the first study we focus on verifying GFS-analysis IWV against satellite-observed IWV throughout the NEP. Specifically, IWV GFS analysis objects are compared with 12-hour composite, satellite-derived Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) observational objects. Then we incorporate MODE object attributes related to object location, size, shape and intensity into metrics that quantify the degree of agreement between the analyses and the observations. The second study is carried out over a smaller domain partially covering the NEP but local to the United States West Coast to examine the way the uncertainty in forecast IWV object location, shape, and integrated water vapor intensity changes with forecast lead time. We use MODE analysis to compare the 24, 48, 72, and 96 hour GFS forecasts with the GFS analyses. As above, MODE object attributes are used to create metrics allowing estimates of the uncertainty. To date preliminary results with respect to location, based on analysis of the objects centroid (center of gravity), suggest small, if any, locational bias, but significant locational uncertainty. In particular, the interquartile range of the centroid displacement observed over the 2009-2010 cool season was about 70 km for the 24 hour forecasts, increasing to about 200 km for the 96 hour forecasts.

Clark, W. L.; Sukovich, E.; Tollerud, E. I.; Jensen, T.; Yuan, H.; Wick, G. A.; Bullock, R.; Hmt-Dtc Collaboration Project

2010-12-01

245

Evidence of Late Holocene Cyclic Events of Subsidence and Uplift from West Coast of Andaman Island, Andaman Islands, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area located about 2.0-2.5 km inland along the western coast of Andaman Island, experienced marginal subsidence during 2004 Sumatra-Andaman (Mw 9.3) earthquake, was found inundated during 2005. Near sub-surface sediment stratigraphy revealed signatures of land-level changes that occurred during 3000-1000 years BP. The bottom most thick layer of clayey silt (unit a) suggested a long term calm and stable deep environment spanned before the earliest event recorded from the study area. Event I caused major coseismic uplift in this region as indicated by the sharp basal contact of the overlying thick peaty horizon (unit b), afterwards there occurred coseismic subsidence followed by Event II, where subsidence prevailed for a long time span due to successive post-seismic subsidence as reflected by the fining upward sequence within the silty-sandy thick horizon (unit c, unit d, and unit e). During that period depositional environment had changed from shallow (silty sand) to deep (clayey silt) as a consequence of continuing subsidence after the probable Event II. Recurrence of Event I type earthquake as Event III caused major coseismic uplift in the region leading to the formation of the top thick peaty horizon (unit f) with a sharp basal contact that also remained stable for a long time span. Cycle repeated due to recurrence of Event II type earthquake as Event IV (2004), which caused coseismic as well as post-seismic subsidence and thus the area get converted into tidal-marsh leading to the deposition of top sandy soil (unit g). However it has been noticed that after 2005, the area again started rising from the subsidence as indicated by the GPS observations and the same also reflected in coastal geomorphology and sedimentology. AMS ages of rhizome/charcoal and OSL ages of the sediments suggest that the Event-II occurred during 3000-3500 years BP and a gradual subsidence had spanned during 1100-230 years BP. We report here the evidence of past land level changes observed until 2011 along the western coast of Andaman Island.

Khan, Afzal; Malik, Javed N.

2014-05-01

246

Albedo patterns and gypsum generation in the central Namib Desert - Land, sea and air interactions on an arid West Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the central Namib Desert, dune-free surfaces are separated abruptly from a sea of yellow and red sand dunes at the Kuiseb River canyon. The off-white hues of the dune-free area result from anomalously high surficial gypsum enrichment. Satellite imagery indicates that the gypsum surfaces are associated with lower surface maximum temperatures than those of the darker dune surfaces to the south. One of various sources of sulfate for the gypsum bodies is oceanic H2S, supplied to desert land-surfaces by regular fog incursions. Since fog events are widespread along the coast, the question of anomalous gypsum accumulations north of the dune sea arises. Satellite imagery, in conjunction with more detailed handheld photography from the space shuttle, indicates that the penetration of fog inland is significantly greater over the gypsum surfaces than it is over the dunes. It is postulated that the thermal gradient between these surfaces generates a heat low centered over the northern part of dune sea and that this enhances fog and H2S advection on its north side onto the nearby dune-free zone. In such a system, gypsum/caliche surfaces reinforce advection of fog over themselves in a positive feedback mode.

Wilkinson, M. J.; Helms, D. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

1992-01-01

247

Diabetes screening of children in a remote First Nations community on the west coast of Canada: challenges and solutions.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its precursor, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), are now reaching epidemic proportions among Aboriginal Canadians. Of particular concern is the appearance and increasing prevalence of T2D and IGT among Aboriginal youth. At the request of three communities in the Tsimshian nation on the northern coast of British Columbia (with which the Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, had a pre-existing partnership) a screening program was undertaken to determine the prevalence of T2D and IGT among the children. The long-term goal was the collaborative development of intervention programs for each community. The challenges of meeting this request included the sociological and ethical issues associated with research in First Nations communities, as well as the pragmatic issues of conducting complex research in remote communities. Three separate visits were undertaken to respect the cultural dynamics and capacity of the community to accommodate a project of this magnitude. The process began with dialogue, listening and presentations to the community. Only then began the planning of logistics and application for funding. Next, the team visited the communities to ensure understanding of exactly what was involved for the community, each child and family, and to be certain that consent was fully informed. For the diabetes screening visit, special arrangements including chartering a Beaver float plane were needed for the transport of the five-member team with all the necessary equipment, including a -20(o)C freezer to safeguard the integrity of blood samples. The 100% consent rate, successful conduct of study, and retention of community support achieved by the process, indicate that population-based clinical research is possible in remote First Nations communities. This is best achieved with appropriate dialogue, care, respect and planning to overcome the sociological, ethical and practical challenges. PMID:17896867

Panagiotopoulos, C; Rozmus, J; Gagnon, R E; Macnab, A J

2007-01-01

248

The impact of different hydrographic conditions and zooplankton communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composition and abundance of zooplankton were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks ( Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. Zooplankton was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Srkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the abundance of prey preferred by Little Auks, Arctic Calanus glacialis copepodids stage V, among zooplankton was similar in both localities. However, there was much more of Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus on the shelf outside Magdalenefjorden compared to Hornsund, resulting in different abundance ratios of Arctic to Atlantic copepods in the two areas (1:14 and 1:1, respectively). Even greater differences between the two areas occurred in the ratio of C. glacialis CV to other zooplankters, amounting to 1:40 in Magdalenefjorden and 1:6 in Hornsund. In both Little Auk colonies food brought by parents to their chicks contained mainly C. glacialis CV, albeit the proportion of this copepod in meals was significantly higher in Hornsund. Meals delivered to Little Auk chicks in Hornsund had also higher zooplankton numbers, biomass and energy content. In Magdalenefjorden, on the other hand, a higher number of feedings and longer duration of foraging trips were recorded. These differences became more apparent with increasing energy requirements of the fast growing nestlings. This was probably a consequence of lower relative abundance of the Little Auks preferred prey in the sea adjacent to Magdalenefjorden colony. It seems that searching for the preferred food items, such as C. glacialis, among abundant but less favored C. finmarchicus, may require more time and energy demanding foraging behavior. As a consequence, foraging effort of the Little Auk parents from Magdalenefjorden was higher, and feeding efficiency lower, than those of birds from Hornsund. Increasing influx of warm Atlantic waters that bring boreal zooplankton to the Arctic Seas may have negative impacts on Little Auks time and energy budgets and eventually on their breeding success and range of breeding distribution.

Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Walkusz, Wojciech; Karnovsky, Nina; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Cisek, Malgorzata; Stempniewicz, Lech

2010-10-01

249

Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15-3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50-60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150-1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50-60 m. Within 150-1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (>1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.

Mazumder, Abhijit; Nigam, Rajiv

2014-04-01

250

Assessing the Health of the U.S. West Coast with a Regional-Scale Application of the Ocean Health Index  

PubMed Central

Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment.

Best, Benjamin D.; Doney, Scott C.; Katona, Steven K.; McLeod, Karen L.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Samhouri, Jameal F.

2014-01-01

251

Metal concentrations in two bioindicator fish species, Merlangius merlangus, Mullus Barbatus, captured from the West Black Sea coasts (Bartin) of Turkey.  

PubMed

The Black Sea is very vulnerable to originating from land based human activities and its health is equally dependent on the coastal and non-coastal states of its basin. Total concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminum, iron, manganese, boron and chromium concentrations were determined in Merlangius merlangus (whiting) and Mullus barbatus found in Amasra in the West Coast of the Black Sea (Turkey). The metal contents that were measured in head and muscle was expressed in ?g g(-1) wet weight. On average, while the highest Fe (344.25 ?g g(-1)), Mn (10.35 ?g g(-1)), Cr (0.96 ?g g(-1)) and Al (76.77 ?g g(-1)) concentrations were measured in the heads of M. merlangus and the highest Zn (77.99 ?g g(-1)), Cu(8.53 ?g g(-1)), B (44.83 ?g g(-1)), Ni (1.96 ?g g(-1)), Cd (0.40 ?g g(-1)) and Pb (6.80 ?g g(-1)) concentrations were detected in the muscles of M. merlangus. There were significant differences between metal levels of muscles in these two species. In terms of permissible levels reported by WHO FAO and TSE, there is not any risk for human consumption for both M. merlangus and M. barbatus, for Pb. PMID:21785875

F?nd?k, ; iek, E

2011-10-01

252

Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous AllocladusBrachyphyllumPagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated WeichseliaOnychiopsisGleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two 'biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

2013-09-01

253

Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15-3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50-60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150-1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50-60 m. Within 150-1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (>1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.

Mazumder, Abhijit; Nigam, Rajiv

2014-05-01

254

Assessment of oxidative stress indices in a marine macro brown alga Padina tetrastromatica (Hauck) from comparable polluted coastal regions of the Arabian Sea, west coast of India.  

PubMed

Oxidative stress and antioxidant defence systems were assessed in a marine brown alga Padina tetrastromatica, commonly occurring from the tropics. Lipid peroxidation (LPX) and H2O2 were measured as oxidative stress markers, and antioxidant defences were measured as catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and ascorbic acid (AsA), in order to understand their dissimilarity with respect to pollution levels from selective locations along the central west coast of India. A significant increased levels of LPX, H2O2, CAT and GST were observed in samples from relatively polluted localities (Colaba and Karwar) when compared to less polluted locality (Anjuna), while AsA concentration was higher in algal samples from worst polluted region of Colaba. Heavy metals such as Cd and Pb were also higher in the vicinity of polluted areas compared to reference area. Variation of oxidative stress indices in response to accumulation of heavy metals within P. tetrastromatica could be used as molecular biomarkers in assessment and monitoring environmental quality of ecologically sensitive marine habitats. PMID:21174973

Maharana, Dusmant; Jena, Karmabeer; Pise, Navnath M; Jagtap, Tanaji G

2010-01-01

255

[Assessment of marine environmental stress based on the integrated biomarker response index model: a case study in west coast of Guangxi].  

PubMed

Meretrix meretrix were collected for 3 times from 2011 to 2012, at 5 stations along west coast of Guangxi and wild and used as a biological indicator for assessing the marine environmental stress. Six biomarkers at individual, cellular and molecular levels were selected, including time required to drill the sand, phagocytic ability, stability of lysosomal membrane, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), and comet rate. Utilizing the Integrated Biological Response Index (IBR) model, the above biomarkers were integratedly analyzed and the data were displayed by intuitionistic star plots to evaluate the environmental situation of the 5 stations. The results indicated that the biological response indices (IBR/n) of the 5 stations varied between 2.30 and 8.68. Maowei Sea had the highest environmental stress, whereas Beilun Estuary had the lowest. Although different biomarkers were different in response to pollution stress, IBR model could effectively distinguish environmental stress of a specific area. The results of biomarker monitoring were basically in agreement with those of chemical monitoring. PMID:24697082

Xing, Yong-Ze; Zhou, Hao-Lang; Wu, Bin; Yan, Bing

2013-12-01

256

50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660.518 Section 660.518 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION...OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights....

2013-10-01

257

Heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) concentrations in the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) collected from some wild and aquacultural sites in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (L.), collected from nine (four wild and five aquacultural) sites between 1999 and 2001, off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, were analysed for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The concentrations (?g\\/g dry weight) of these heavy metals ranged from 0.68 to 1.25 for Cd, 7.76 to 20.1 for Cu, 2.51

C. K Yap; A Ismail; S. G Tan

2004-01-01

258

Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19N in July and 6N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanr, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jrg; Cermak, Jan

2013-04-01

259

Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathered felsite is associated with the late CampanianMaastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San GregorioHosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ?185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite prehnite laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobereverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablationinductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 8690 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San GregorioHosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ?100 km to the east in the Diablo RangeSan Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous forearc units of the Transverse Ranges. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, geologic and petrographic relations, the Pescadero felsite and a capping, sheared metaconglomerate underlie the Pigeon Point Formation. We infer that the magma formed by anatexis of Franciscan or Great Valley clastic sedimentary rocks originating from a parental Mesozoic Sierran-Mojave-Salinian calc-alkaline arc. The felsite erupted during Late Cretaceous time, was metamorphosed to pumpellyite-prehnite grade within the subduction zone, and then was rapidly exhumed, weakly zeolitized, and exposed before Pigeon Point forearc deposition. Pescadero volcanism apparently reflects a previously unrecognized ca. 8690 Ma felsic igneous event in the accretionary margin.

Robert J McLaughlin;Diane E Moore;W.G. Ernst;UWE C. Martens;J.C. Clark

2011-01-01

260

Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment.  

PubMed

We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique - taken from the published literature - and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75N and 28.25N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 10(4) cells L(-1)) varied considerably (sensitivity-Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity-Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)-improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%). PMID:22180667

Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A

2011-01-17

261

MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS  

SciTech Connect

The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding workshops to other regions, providing coverage in its newsletter, through columns and case studies in trade journals, and through coordinating presentations at association and professional society meetings. Combined, there were more than 800 participants. Applying ''application percentages'' from PTTC's total technology transfer program, more than 250 participants are likely to be applying technologies (39% of industry participants). Polymer gel water-shutoff (WSO) treatments and wellbore management were a focus in the Midcontinent area. A major provider of polymer gel WSO treatments has experienced a significant increase in treatment activity in Oklahoma, some of which can be logically attributed to this project. A provider of polylined tubing, a product related to wellbore management, has noted a 280% increase in their independent customer base and opening of a new market due to their involvement in PUMP-spinoff technology transfer. Detailed case studies on polymer gel WSO treatments and wellbore management, along with more global analyses, demonstrate the economic value of these technologies to producers. Among the many information sources that producers consider when applying technology, PTTC knows it is an important source in these technology areas.

Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

2004-12-01

262

Biomass Burning versus Fossil Fuel Combustion Signatures of Air Masses Transported from Asia to the U.S. West Coast during ITCT2k2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in 2002 (ITCT2k2) was to study the transport of air pollution from Asia across the Pacific Ocean, and the implications for the background atmospheric composition at the surface in North America. During research flights of the NOAA WP-3 research aircraft on May 5 and 17, strong enhancements of carbon monoxide (CO) and other species were observed in air masses that had been transported from Asia in the free troposphere to North America. The hydrocarbon composition of the air masses indicated that the highest CO levels were related to fossil fuel use. During the flights on May 5, 17 and other days, the levels of several biomass-burning indicators increased with altitude. This was true for acetonitrile (CH3CN), methyl chloride (CH3Cl), the ratio of acetylene (C2H2) versus propane (C3H8), and the percentage of particles measured by the PALMS (particle analysis by laser mass spectrometry) instrument that were attributed to biomass burning based on their carbon and potassium content. An ensemble of back-trajectories, calculated from the U.S. west coast at various latitudes and pressures during the entire ITCT2k2 period, showed that air masses from South-East Asia and China were generally transported at higher altitudes than air from Japan and Korea. Emission inventories estimate the contribution of biomass burning to the total emissions to be low for Japan and Korea, higher for China, and the highest for South-East Asia. Combined with the origin of the air masses versus altitude determined by the back-trajectories, this explains the measured altitude profiles of the biomass burning indicators.

de Gouw, J.; Cooper, O.; Warneke, C.; Hudson, P.; Brock, C.; Fehsenfeld, F.; Holloway, J.; Huebler, G.; Murphy, D.; Nowak, J.; Parrish, D.; Ryerson, T.; Trainer, M.; Atlas, E.

2003-12-01

263

Projection of Carbon Dynamics in the Marine West Coast Forests under Climate and Land Cover changes Using General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate and land cover changes may influence the capacity of the terrestrial ecosystems to be carbon sinks or sources. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential change of the carbon sequestration in the Marine West Coast Forests ecoregion in the Pacific Northwest United States using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). In GEMS, the underlying biogeochemical model, Erosion and Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), was used and calibrated using MODIS net primary production (NPP) and grain yield data during the baseline period from 2002 to 2005, and then validated with another four-year period from 2006 to 2009. GEMS-EDCM was driven using projected climate from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) under three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) and derived land cover data from the FORecasting SCEnarios (FORE-SCE) model under the same three IPCC scenarios for the period from 2006 to 2050. This ecoregion, two-thirds of which is covered by forest, was projected to continue to gain carbon from 2005 to 2050, with an annual carbon sequestration of about -3 Tg C. It was also predicted that live biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) would contain about 48% and 33% of the total carbon storage by 2050, respectively. In addition, forest carbon sequestration (-2 Tg C yr-1) demonstrated to be the largest sink among all ecosystems, accounting for 73% of the total, followed by grass/shrub and agriculture. Overall, results about predicted dynamics of carbon storage and sequestration can be informative to policy makers for seeking mitigation plans to reduce greenhouse gases emissions.

WU, Y.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Young, C.; Werner, J.; Dahal, D.; Liu, J.; Schmidt, G.

2012-12-01

264

Assessment of topographic and drainage network controls on debris-flow travel distance along the west coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To better understand controls on debris-flow entrainment and travel distance, we examined topographic and drainage network characteristics of initiation locations in two separate debris-flow prone areas located 700 km apart along the west coast of the U.S. One area was located in northern California, the other in southern Oregon. In both areas, debris flows mobilized from slides during large storms, but, when stratified by number of contributing initiation locations, median debris-flow travel distances in Oregon were 5 to 8 times longer than median distances in California. Debris flows in Oregon readily entrained channel material; entrainment in California was minimal. To elucidate this difference, we registered initiation locations to high-resolution airborne LiDAR, and then examined travel distances with respect to values of slope, upslope contributing area, planform curvature, distance from initiation locations to the drainage network, and number of initiation areas that contributed to flows. Results show distinct differences in the topographic and drainage network characteristics of debris-flow initiation locations between the two study areas. Slope and planform curvature of initiation locations (landslide headscarps), commonly used to predict landslide-prone areas, were not useful for predicting debris-flow travel distances. However, a positive, power-law relation exists between median debris-flow travel distance and the number of contributing debris-flow initiation locations. Moreover, contributing area and the proximity of the initiation locations to the drainage network both influenced travel distances, but proximity to the drainage network was the better predictor of travel distance. In both study areas, flows that interacted with the drainage network flowed significantly farther than those that did not. In California, initiation sites within 60 m of the network were likely to reach the network and generate longtraveled flows; in Oregon, the threshold was 80 m.

Coe, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Mark E.; Brien, Dainne L.; Michael, John A.

2011-01-01

265

Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( P<0.05) correlation coefficients of Cd and Pb within the shells support the use of the mussel shell as a suitable biomonitoring material for the two metals rather than the soft tissue since this indicated that there is more precision (lower CV) in the determination of metal concentrations in the shell than in the soft tissue. Experimental work showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

2003-07-01

266

Analysing the risk of LNG carrier operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a generic, high-level risk assessment of the global operation of ocean-going liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers. The analysis collects and combines information from several sources such as an initial hazid, a thorough review of historic LNG accidents, review of previous studies, published damage statistics and expert judgement, and develops modular risk models for critical accident scenarios. In

Erik Vanem; Pedro Anto; Ivan stvik; Francisco Del Castillo de Comas

2008-01-01

267

Cove Point LNG receiving terminal control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The control systems installed to operate the Cove Point LNG receiving terminal have performed exceptionally well, reports Columbia LNG Corp. All major equipment at the terminal is operated locally from manned monitoring stations that are linked via telemetry to the computer in the terminal's main control room. An independent emergency system, activated by designated pushbuttons located throughout the plants, automatically

Kazinoff

1979-01-01

268

LGM-extent of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet offshore from the Hobbs Coast, based on paleo-ice stream bed observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleo-ice stream beds that are exposed today on the West Antarctic continental shelf provide unique archives of conditions at the base of the past ice sheet, that are difficult to assess beneath its modern, extant counterpart. During the last decade, several of these paleo-ice stream beds have been studied in detail to reconstruct the extent of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the patterns of ice drainage, and the timing of grounding-line retreat during the last deglaciation. However, despite significant advances, such information still remains poorly constrained in numerous drainage sectors of the WAIS. In particular, the maximum extent of ice at the LGM remains ambiguous for key drainage basins of the ice sheet. Whether the WAIS extended to the shelf break around the continent, or advanced only partially across its sea bed, is a crucial piece of information required for reconstructing and modeling patterns of ice-sheet change from past to present. Here we present marine geological and geophysical data that we collected on R/V "Polarstern" expedition ANT-XXVI/3 in early 2010 to investigate the extent, flow, and retreat of the WAIS, from an especially poorly studied part of the West Antarctic shelf, offshore from the Hobbs Coast in the western Amundsen Sea. Here, a landward deepening paleo-ice stream trough is incised into the shelf. The seafloor within the western-central part of the trough is characterized by a large trough-wide grounding zone wedge, ~70 m thick and ~17 km long, which overlies a high of seaward dipping sedimentary strata. The back-slope of the GZW is characterized by highly elongate streamlined bedforms suggesting fast paleo-ice flow towards NW. The crest of the wedge has been cross-cutted by iceberg keels. In contrast, the outer shelf seafloor offshore the GZW is predominantly smooth and featureless, although there is some evidence locally for iceberg scouring. A radiocarbon age from calcareous microfossils in a core from the inner shelf shows that ice had retreated landward from the GZW before 12.967 cal 14C yrs. There are two possible interpretations for the GZW: either (1) that it formed during a significant stillstand as the WAIS retreated from the shelf edge following the LGM, or (2) it marks the maximum extent of grounded ice at the LGM. Preliminary data appears to support the latter hypothesis. Specifically we point to i) the size and geometry of the GZW which is comparable to other grounding-line features marking LGM-positions around Antarctica (e.g. in the Ross Sea and in Prydz Bay), and less similar to GZWs deposited during episodic ice-stream retreat (e.g. in Pine Island Trough and Marguerite Trough); and ii) the lack of subglacial bedforms on the outer shelf, which may be explained by a thick hemipelagic sediment cover deposited over tens of thousands of years. In order to test these two hypotheses and constrain the timing and duration of GZW formation, additional ages will be obtained from seasonal open-marine sediments overlying subglacial till in cores seaward of the GZW as well as from the outer shelf. We will present preliminary interpretations of these data, which will aim to resolve the extent of the WAIS in this sector and, at the same time, provide new information on the dynamics of paleo-ice streams, which drained the former ice sheet.

Klages, J.; Kuhn, G.; Hillenbrand, C.; Graham, A. G.; Smith, J.; Larter, R. D.; Gohl, K.

2012-12-01

269

Cove Point LNG terminal: its first year of operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

As of mid-Nov. 1978, the Cove Point LNG terminal, jointly owned by Columbia LNG Corp. and Consolidated System LNG Co., has received 13 shiploads of LNG from Algeria, delivering 30 billion cu ft of gas to regional distribution systems without significant operating or safety problems. Although the terminal has not yet reached its design throughput, performance has been very satisfactory.

Levy

1979-01-01

270

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used...States. (b) When the methane (LNG) fuel supply is shut...to loss of ventilation or detection of gas, the master shall ensure that the methane (LNG) fuel supply is...

2009-10-01

271

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used...States. (b) When the methane (LNG) fuel supply is shut...to loss of ventilation or detection of gas, the master shall ensure that the methane (LNG) fuel supply is...

2010-10-01

272

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01

273

Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations.  

PubMed

A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (

Ullah, Shahid; Huber, Sandra; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

2014-04-01

274

Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some ecoregions, harvest reductions below current levels will sequester more carbon than additional harvest removals for bioenergy. References: Hudiburg, T., B. E. Law, D. P. Turner, J. Campbell, D. Donato, and M. Duane. 2009. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage. Ecological Applications 19:163-180. Waring, R. H., and J. F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen Coniferous Forests of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204:1380-1386.

Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

2012-12-01

275

Towards improving the reliability of future regional climate projections: A bias-correction method applied to precipitation over the west coast of Norway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The early winter of 2011/2012 in the city of Bergen, located on the west coast of Norway, was dominated by warm, wet and extreme weather. This might be a glimpse of future average climate conditions under continued atmospheric warming and an enhanced hydrological cycle. The extreme weather events have resulted in drainage/sewage problems, landslides, flooding property damage and even death. As the Municipality plans for the future they must contend with a growing population in a geographically complex area in addition to any effects attributable to climate change. While the scientific community is increasingly confident in the projections of large scale changes over the mid - high latitudes this confidence does not extend to the local - regional scale where the magnitude and even direction of change may be highly uncertain. Meanwhile it is precisely these scales that Municipalities such as Bergen require information if they are to plan effectively. Thus, there is a need for reliable, local climate projections, which can aid policy makers and planners in decision-making. Current state of the art regional climate models are capable of providing detailed simulations on the order of 1 or 10km. However, due to the increased computational demands of these simulations, large ensembles, such as those used for GCM experiments, are often not possible. Thus, greater detail, under these circumstances, does not necessarily correspond to greater reliability. One way to deal with this issue is to apply a statistical bias correction method where model results are fitted to observationally derived probability density functions (pdfs). In this way, a full distribution of potential changes may be generated which are constrained by known, observed data.This will result in a shifted model distribution with mean and spread that more closely follows observations. In short, the method temporarily removes the climate signals from the model run working on the different percentiles, fits the distribution to that of the observations and adds back the climate signal found in the model run. This bias-correction methodology is applied to the output of a four-member ensemble of a high resolution AGCM (30 km over Norway) plus a control simulation. Point observations from the Bergen area for the control period are used to build "ground truth" pdfs. After the bias-correction method is applied the future climate simulations (2031-2060) are compared to a 30-year control period (1961-1990). The results indicate that this method may lead to more reliable local scale projections for future precipitation change.

Valved, A.; Barstad, I.; Sobolowski, S.

2012-04-01

276

The ORCA West Coast Regional Project - Atmospheric Top-Down Modeling to constrain Regional Carbon Budgets at high Temporal and Spatial Resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ORCA project aims at determining the regional carbon balance of Oregon, California and Washington, with a special focus on the effect of disturbance history and climate variability on carbon sources and sinks. ORCA provides a regional test of the overall NACP strategy by demonstrating bottom-up and top-down modeling approaches to derive carbon balances at subregional to regional scales. The ORCA top-down modeling component has been set up to capture flux variability on the regional scale at high temporal and spatial resolution. Atmospheric transport is simulated coupling the mesoscale model WRF (Weather Research and Forecast) with the STILT (Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport) footprint model. This setup allows identifying sources and sinks that influence atmospheric observations with highly resolved mass transport fields and realistic turbulent mixing. High-precision atmospheric CO2 concentrations are monitored as continuous time series in hourly timesteps at 5 locations within the model domain, west to east from the Pacific Coast to the Great Basin, and include two flux sites for evaluation of computed fluxes. Terrestrial biosphere carbon fluxes are simulated at an effective spatial resolution of smaller than 1km and subdaily timesteps, considering effects of ecoregion, land cover type and disturbance regime on the carbon budgets. Flux computation assimilates high-resolution remote sensing products (e.g. LandSat, MODIS) and interpolated surface meteorology (DayMet, SOGS, PRISM). We present results on regional carbon budgets for the ORCA modeling domain that have been optimized using Bayesian inversion and the information provided by the network of high-precision CO2 observations. We address the influence of spatial and temporal resolution in the general modeling setup on the findings, and test the level of detail that can be resolved by top-down modeling on the regional scale, given the uncertainties introduced by various sources for model-data mismatch. Application of the approach highlights the strong regional variability in CO2 exchange rates on the regional scale. For Oregon, we found that this type of model must account for water availability and drought stress to avoid overestimating terrestrial sinks for CO2.

Goeckede, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Vickers, D.; Turner, D.; Law, B.

2008-12-01

277

An evaluation of the impact of forest biomass harvest for biofuels on carbon storage in the US west coast states under different management scenarios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mitigation strategies to reduce fossil fuel emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of fuels. National and state forest policies have been implemented to both reduce risk of wildfire and promote use of forest biomass as a secondary biofuels energy source. However, the cost and biomass availability have been estimated without quantifying the impact on current and future terrestrial carbon balances. This study uses a combination of Federal Inventory Analysis data (FIA) and supplementary plot data for Washington, Oregon and California to quantify the current forest carbon stocks, net ecosystem production (NEP), and net biome production (NBP = NEP - removals) for the period from 2001-2006. Varying management treatments were applied to determine the net cost, carbon debt, and biofuels energy potential. The treatments were designed to meet multiple objectives emphasizing carbon storage, economic gain, or energy production. The hazardous fuels reduction treatment minimizes carbon loss by only harvesting biomass in forested areas classified by moderate to high risk fire condition classes (FRCC class). This scenario assumes no additional harvest in ecoregions characterized by long fire return intervals (>100 years) such as the Coast Range and the West Cascades and limits removals to an 18 in diameter at breast height (DBH). The energy production treatment maximizes biomass removal by harvesting areas regardless of FRCC class and allows removals up to a 24 inch DBH. Statewide estimates of carbon for 2001-2006 prior to harvest scenarios for California, Oregon, and Washington respectively are as follows: 1) Total land-based carbon stocks (excluding soils) averages 1680, 1663, and 1278 Tg C; 2) NEP is positive in most ecoregions averaging 213, 180, and 191 g C m-2 yr-1; 3) Actual harvest removals averaged 2.7, 6.5, and 5.1 Tg C yr-1 for the same period. In Oregon, the amount of biomass available for biofuels varies from 128 g C m-2 in the hazardous fuels reduction treatment versus 185 g C m-2 in the energy production treatment. Removal of this biomass over the next 20 years is estimated to result in an additional 4 Tg C yr-1 (a 60% increase) in harvest removals for the hazardous fuels reduction treatment and an additional 14 Tg C yr-1 (216% increase) for the energy production treatment. Even in a minimal removals scenario and assuming no other disturbance losses (i.e. insects and fire), Oregon forest NBP will be significantly reduced with the potential to become a carbon source.

Hudiburg, T. M.; Law, B. E.

2009-12-01

278

Normal-mode frequency band view of the Off-the-West-Coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many studies with body-wave and long-period surface wave analyses on the Off-the-West-coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012, have already pointed out complexities of this event (e.g., Meng et al., 2012). A sequence of events with fairly wide spatial and temporal extent are clearly needed to explain many facets of seismic data. In this study, we attempt to summarize a few distinct features from the normal-mode frequency band (0.3-2.0 mHz) which are obviously much simpler by their long wavelength and long periods. We analyzed long-period seismic data from STS1 and KS54000 sensors for the first 12 hours of the main event using the time-domain waveform fitting technique (Tanimoto, et al., 2012). Adoption of this short time series is partly to avoid uncertain Q parameters on amplitudes but also to avoid the effects from two earthquakes in Oregon (Mw6.0) and Mexico (Mw6.7) that occurred about 23rd hour on the same day. These events are much smaller but their effects cannot be ignored in seismic stations in North America. Two major events reported by the Global CMT project, the Mw8.6 main shock and the Mw8.2 aftershock that occurred two hours later, are clearly not sufficient to explain the amplitude data at about 1 mHz (0.6-1.5 mHz). Synthetic seismograms for the two events under-predicts data by about 30 percent. Amplitudes also show two-theta azimuthal variation that indicates a necessity of at least one hidden event (if not rupture propagation). This necessity has already been pointed out by various groups (e.g., Duputel et al., 2012, Shao et al., 2012). Duputel et al. (2012), for example, reports that the Mw8.6 main event by GCMT should be split up by two large events, the Mw8.5 main event and Mw8.3 event that occurred 70 seconds later. Our analysis shows that their three-source solution, including the Mw8.2 event two hours later, satisfies overall amplitude data in the normal-mode frequency band. However, their solution still shows two-theta azimuthal variations with amplitudes about 10-15 percent. We therefore sought a solution that reduces total amplitude misfit as well as their azimuthal variations. Our preferred solution has two similar events to GCMT and an extra event about 70 seconds after the main shock with moment 2.7e28 (dyne cm). The moment, however, trades off with depth due to uncertain Mxz and Myz components. Our solution puts this event at depth 40 km but a solution at 30 km can almost equally explain the data but with moment 3.7e28 (dyne cm). Long wavelength nature also brings uncertainties to the source location but a location further to the north west of the Mw8.2 aftershock (2 hours later) tends to show a solution with smaller deviation from a double-couple solution. We will present the details of our analysis at the meeting.

Igarashi, M.; Tanimoto, T.

2012-12-01

279

Damage-detection system for LNG carriers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System utilizes array of acoustical transducers to detect cracks and leaks in liquefied natural gas (LNG) containers onboard ships. In addition to detecting leaks, device indicates location and leak rate.

Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

1978-01-01

280

Australian LNG plant debottlenecked to 7.5 million tons\\/year  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North West Shelf gas project, Karratha, Western Australia, has successfully carried out a three-train LNG plant debottlenecking to increase capacity from 6.9 million metric tons\\/year (mty) to more than 7.5 mty. The two major constraints targeted by the project were the CO-removal column and the main refrigerant compressor drivers. Replacement of the original trays by structured packing in the

W. J. Brehaut; M. J. Concannon

1996-01-01

281

78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: Comments and related...

2013-01-15

282

78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective...

2013-04-15

283

Keys to modeling LNG spills on water.  

PubMed

Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they are unconfined. Modeling of LNG spills onto water is much more difficult than for land spills because the phenomena are more complex and the experimental basis is more limited. The most prevalent practice in predicting pool sizes is to treat the release as instantaneous or constant-rate, and to calculate the pool size using an empirical evaporation or burn rate. The evaporation or burn rate is particularly difficult to estimate for LNG spills on water, because the available data are so limited, scattered, and difficult to extrapolate to the large releases of interest. A more effective modeling of possible spills of LNG onto water calculates, rather than estimating, the evaporation or burn rate. The keys to this approach are to: * Use rigorous multicomponent physical properties. * Use a time-varying analysis of spill and evaporation. * Use a material and energy balance approach. * Estimate the heat transfer from water to LNG in a way that reflects the turbulence. These keys are explained and demonstrated by predictions of a model that incorporates these features. The major challenges are describing the effects of the LNG-water turbulence and the heat transfer from the pool fire to the underlying LNG pool. The model includes a fundamentally based framework for these terms, and the current formulation is based on some of the largest tests to-date. The heat transfer coefficient between the water and LNG is obtained by applying a "turbulence factor" to the value from correlations for quiescent film and transition boiling. The turbulence factor is based on two of the largest unignited tests on water to-date. The heat transfer from the fire to the pool is based on the burning rate for the largest pool fire test on land to-date. PMID:17113709

Hissong, D W

2007-02-20

284

THERMOACOUSTIC LIQUEFACTION OF COAL MINE METHANE TO PRODUCE LNG FOR HEAVY VEHICLE APPLICAITONS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the activity undertaken by the project members under MORGANTOWN ENERGY TECHNOLOGY CENTER (METC) contract No. DE-AC21-95MC32185 to develop a project that will provide a commercial use for Coal Mine Methane (CMM). In particular, the report describes a project to convert CMM into Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and to market that LNG to the transportation sector in and around the I-79 corridor near Morgantown, West Virginia. The report discusses the sources of CMM and provides estimates of the extent of the resource specifically dedicated to the project. It discusses the novel refrigeration technology that will be employed to convert the CMM to LNG and the gas conditioning technology that will be used to bring the raw CMM up to cryogenic processing specifications. Summary capital and operating cost estimates are furnished for the project and specific monetary and schedule requirements are identified so the project can be examined in its entirety. The report discusses the immediate market potential for the successful commercial sale of LNG into the nearby market and provides estimates of future market penetration into local, regional and wider markets. Lastly, the report comments on the environmental effects of the project and extrapolates these benefits to future markets. One of the driving forces for the project is the reduction of environmentally harmful greenhouse gases currently escaping unchecked into the atmosphere. This final section analyzes the TASHER technology's potential net environmental benefits both in terms of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants.

Dr. Kashi Aminian; Dr. Lloyd English; Dr. Douglas Patchen; Dr. Hema Siriwardane; Charles D. Estes; Raymond L. Zahradnik

1999-10-29

285

The ChicagoEast Coast Corridor: Changing Intermodal Patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chicago–East Coast Corridor is a network of highways and railroad tracks connecting Chicago to cities on the East Coast. Cargos flow through it in both directions—Asian cargos flow from West Coast ports through Chicago for eastward delivery, and cargos from India and Europe flow from East Coast seaports to Chicago and beyond for westward delivery. This heavily used Corridor

Bradley Hull

2012-01-01

286

A comparison of growth and biochemical composition of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lmk.) and Mytilus edulis (L.) on the West coast of Cotentin, Normandy, France 19992000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blue mussel, Mytilus edulis has been reared along the Normandy coast line since the 1960s. The gonadal cycle of this mussel species shows a sharp decrease in meat quality during the winter period after spawning. This decline in meat quality is so severe that sales have to be suspended from December to July. Another species of mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis,

J. Kopp; F. Cornette; C. Simonne

2005-01-01

287

East vs. West  

SciTech Connect

A comparison of the methods of handling coal at East Coast and West Coast ports was presented. In general, West Coast ports are more efficient in terms of throughput on the basis of the amount of ground storage provided. Also, a dicussion of the Rio Grande Railroad single track rail system was included. Most western U.S. railroads have had little upgrading since the early 1900's. The Rio Grande Railroad was feasibly upgraded, including heavier rails with welded joints and new ties.

Bennewitz, G.A. Jr.

1983-02-01

288

Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

1982-07-01

289

Distribution of the introduced amphipod, Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 (Amphipoda: Caprellida: Caprellidae) on the west coast of Scotland and a review of its global distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caprella mutica Schurin, 1935 was first described from sub-boreal areas of northeast Asia. In less than 40 years C. mutica has spread throughout the northern hemisphere and the first recorded sighting in the southern hemisphere is reported here.\\u000a Caprella mutica has been introduced to temperate oceanic coasts between latitudes of 25 and 70 N. Outside its native range, C. mutica

Gail V. Ashton; Kate J. Willis; Elizabeth J. Cook; Michael Burrows

2007-01-01

290

West coast RFI survey, volume 1, volume 2 appendix E, volume 3 appendix F, volume 4 appendix G, and volume 5 appendix H  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Activities and data reported cover experimental design, mechanization onboard the aircraft, survey operations, quick look and automated data reduction, and a qualitative comparison of survey data with predicted values for the radio frequency survey. The survey was designed to measure amplitude, frequency and time of occurrence of terrestrial emissions in the VHF band during overflights of heavily populated metropolitan areas located on the Pacific Coast of the Continental United States by sensing and recording equipment installed in jet aircraft.

Deutsch, W. F.

1972-01-01

291

Direct application of west coast geothermal resources in a wet corn milling plant supplementary analyses and information dissemination. Final report, addendum  

SciTech Connect

In an extension to the scope of the previous studies, supplementary analyses were to be performed for both plants which would assess the economics of geothermal energy if coal had been the primary fuel rather than oil and gas. The studies include: supplementary analysis for a coal fired wet corn milling plant, supplementary analysis for an East Coast frozen food plant with coal fired boilers, and information dissemination activities.

Not Available

1982-03-19

292

North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997-2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7??C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Park, W.; Douglas, D. C.; Shirley, T. C.

2007-01-01

293

A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LANDFALL OF THE 1979 RED TIDE OF KARENIA BREVIS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA. (R827085)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall o...

294

Numerical Research on LNG Tank Leakage Effect on Environment for LNG Bus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study and analysis the fuel leakage security of current LNG alternative fuel bus. Do the simulation on surrounding concentration and temperature of LNG bus fuel tank leakage by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). By analyzing the influence of three different bus velocities, 0km\\/h, 30km\\/h and 80km\\/h, we have the conclusion from the simulation that when the bus gets faster, the influence

Lei Zhang; Ying Gao; Da-wen Liu; Peng Liu

2011-01-01

295

Electricity Generation by Utilization of LNG Cold.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

LNG has, after it has been raised to the usual pipeline pressures, a high useful energy (= technical work potential). With modern large terminals the energy potentials are of the order of 100 MW. In the light of the increase in the cost of energy the ques...

M. Streich A. W. D. Pocrnja

1977-01-01

296

77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...world demand for natural gas increases rapidly, and if LNG supplies from other regions are limited. If the promise of shale gas is not fulfilled and costs of producing gas in the U.S. rise substantially, or if there are ample supplies of...

2012-12-11

297

Accident at the Cove Point LNG facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

On October 6, 1979, an explosion occurred at the Cove Point, Md, liquefied natural gas receiving terminal when leaking LNG was ignited by an electrical arc. The explosion destroyed an electrical substation building containing switchgear and motor controllers. This paper briefly describes the accident itself, the source of the gas leakage and cause of the explosion. Details of the seal

Van Meerbeke

1982-01-01

298

A preliminary study on ambient levels of carbonyls, benzene, toluene and xylene in the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula (Huelva coast), Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the first observations of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, including aldehydes, in the coastal, industrial area of Huelva near the Doana National Park (south-west of the Iberian Peninsula). The periods studied were JulySeptember 2008 and FebruaryNovember 2009. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, benzene, toluene and m\\/p-xylenes were identified and quantified. Acetone and formaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyls, followed

Florentina Villanueva; Alberto Notario; Jos Antonio Adame; Mara Cruz Milln; Rosanna Mabilia; Jos Albaladejo

2012-01-01

299

U.S. LNG Imports - The Next Wave  

EIA Publications

U.S. LNG imports - The Next Wave, is now available as a special supplement to the January 2007 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports still account for less than 3% of total U.S. natural gas supplies, the global market is growing and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) foresees another wave of U.S. LNG import growth over the next two years. The supplement focuses on recent trends in global and U.S. LNG trade, and presents factors expected to influence LNG imports through 2008. EIA expects year-over-year increases in LNG imports of 34.5% and 38.5% in 2007 and 2008, respectively.

Information Center

2007-01-11

300

High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG  

DOEpatents

A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-18

301

Cove Point: A step back into the LNG business  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1978, ships began unloading LNG from Algeria at Cove Point`s berthing facilities 1.25 miles offshore. An underwater pipeline transported the LNG to land, where it was stored in the terminal`s four 140-foot-high cryogenic storage tanks. When the LNG was needed, the terminals 10 vaporizers converted it back to gas for send out via an 87-mile-long, 36-inch-diameter pipeline linking the

Katz

1995-01-01

302

Potential for long-term LNG supply. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited foreign liquefaction and U.S. LNG terminal capacity exists before 1993, after which time re-opening of the Cove Point and, later, Elba Island terminals, together with the refurbishment of inefficient Algerian liquefaction plant, permits a major expansion in U.S.-North African LNG trade. Towards 2000 expansion of all four U.S. LNG receiving terminals is technically possible, providing appropriate market, regulatory and

T. I. Moncrieff; D. P. Goldman; E. F. Jeffries; J. L. Sherff; J. C. Wood-Collins

1991-01-01

303

Submarine LNG tanker concept for the Arctic  

Microsoft Academic Search

If LNG tankers could travel underwater, they could transport natural gas from Arctic regions year-round. General Dynamics has designed just such a tanker - a 140,000-m³ submarine with a methane-fired steam-propulsion system that uses recirculated exhaust gas injected with oxygen to sustain combustion. (Nuclear power would be cheaper but might not be practical if new regulations are imposed.) Developed from

P. T. Veliotis; S. Reitz

1981-01-01

304

A preliminary study on ambient levels of carbonyls, benzene, toluene and xylene in the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula (Huelva coast), Spain.  

PubMed

We report the first observations of volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations, including aldehydes, in the coastal, industrial area of Huelva near the Doana National Park (south-west of the Iberian Peninsula). The periods studied were July-September 2008 and February-November 2009. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, benzene, toluene and m/p-xylenes were identified and quantified. Acetone and formaldehyde were the most abundant carbonyls, followed by acetaldehyde and propanal. Maximum and minimum values for all these compounds in the period of measurement, and their relationship with meteorological parameters or influence of anthropogenic or biogenic emissions, are analysed. Finally, different concentration ratios and correlations were calculated to assess the effect of the anthropogenic or biogenic processes on the observed VOC levels. PMID:23530343

Villanueva, Florentina; Notario, Alberto; Adame, Jos Antonio; Milln, Mara Cruz; Mabilia, Rosanna; Albaladejo, Jos

2013-01-01

305

Demonstration of a Real Time Capability to Produce Tidal Heights and Currents for Naval Operational Use: A Cast Study for the West Coast of Africa (Liberia)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents an existing capability to produce operationally relevant products on sea level and currents from a tides/storm surge model for any coastal region around the world within 48 hours from the time of the request. The model is ready for transition to the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) for potential contingency use anywhere around the world. A recent application to naval operations offshore Liberia illustrates this. Mississippi State University, in collaboration with the University of Colorado and NAVOCEANO, successfully deployed the Colorado University Rapidly Relocatable Nestable Tides and Storm Surge (CURReNTSS) model that predicts sea surface height, tidal currents and storm surge, and provided operational products on tidal sea level and currents in the littoral region off south-western coast of Africa. This report summarizes the results of this collaborative effort in an actual contingency use of the relocatable model, summarizes the lessons learned, and provides recommendations for further evaluation and transition of this modeling capability to operational use.

Mehra, Avichal; Anantharaj, Valentine; Payne, Steve; Kantha, Lakshmi

1996-01-01

306

33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island; naval restricted areas. 334.1480...coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island; naval restricted areas. (a) The...shoreline along the west end of Vieques Island extending from Caballo Point on...

2013-07-01

307

A small-scale oceanic eddy off the coast of West Africa studied by multi-sensor satellite and surface drifter data, and by a numerical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution satellite images and oceanographic field measurements have revealed that oceanic eddies with diameters ranging from 1 to several hundred km are ubiquitous phenomena in the World's ocean. While eddies with horizontal scales above 100 km have been studied extensively using altimeter data, only few papers exist dealing with observations of eddies with horizontal scales below 50 km. These small-scale eddies cannot be resolved by conventional altimeters, but they can be observed from space by high-resolution optical/infrared sensors and by synthetic aperture radars (SARs). In this paper we report about a single small-scale cyclonic (cold) eddy which was generated at the headland of Cap-Vert off the coast of Senegal following a sudden freshening of the trade winds. Due to favorable cloud conditions, we were able to track the time evolution of the eddy for 31 days by satellite images acquired in the visible/ infrared band. Furthermore, the eddy was also imaged during this period by a space-borne SAR. Cold eddies become visible on SAR images via the change in the small-scale sea surface roughness caused by the damping of short surface waves by biogenic surface films or/and by the change of the stability of the air-sea interface. Biogenic surface films consist of surface-active material secreted by biota in the cold eddy. The satellite data we are using are from the MODIS sensor onboard the American Aqua satellite, the AVHHR sensor onboard the European MetOp satellite, and the Advanced SAR (ASAR) onboard the European Envisat satellite. The sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (CHL) maps derived from MODIS data show that the eddy propagated from its birth place at Cap-Vert in the Senegal upwelling region westward into the open North Atlantic. During the 31 days of satellite observations, the eddy moved 200 km westward thereby carrying nutrients from the upwelling region into the oligotrophic North Atlantic, where it caused enhanced CHL concentration. Maximum CHL concentration was encountered few days after the eddy generation, which is consistent with a delayed plankton growth following nutrient supply into the euphotic zone within the eddy. Furthermore, we recorded the movement of the eddy also by a satellite-tracked surface drifter. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a small-scale eddy has been tracked over such a long time period by high-resolution satellite images and simultaneously by a surface drifter. Model calculations carried out with the "Mercator" ocean circulation model show that the generation of the small-scale eddy was linked to a sudden increase of the trade winds. This wind event caused enhanced southward flow and upwelling at the coast of Senegal. The model calculations show further that the eddy was generated by flow separation at the headland of Cap-Vert.

Alpers, Werner; Brandt, Peter; Lazar, Alban; Dagorne, Dominique; Sow, Bamol; Faye, Saliou; Hansen, Morten; Rubino, Angelo; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Bremer, Patrice

2013-04-01

308

USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey's Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) project, in collaboration with the California Geological Survey, the California Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other agencies and institutions are developing a Tsunami Scenario to describe in detail the impacts of a tsunami generated by a hypothetical, but realistic, M9 earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula. The overarching objective of SAFRR and its predecessor, the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project, is to help communities reduce losses from natural disasters. As requested by emergency managers and other community partners, a primary approach has been comprehensive, scientifically credible scenarios that start with a model of a geologic event and extend through estimates of damage, casualties, and societal consequences. The first product was the ShakeOut scenario, addressing a hypothetical earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, that spawned the successful Great California ShakeOut, an annual event and the nation's largest emergency preparedness exercise. That was followed by the ARkStorm scenario, which addresses California winter storms that surpass hurricanes in their destructive potential. Some of the Tsunami Scenario's goals include developing advanced models of currents and inundation for the event; spurring research related to Alaskan earthquake sources; engaging the port and harbor decision makers; understanding the economic impacts to local, regional and national economy in both the short and long term; understanding the ecological, environmental, and societal impacts of coastal inundation; and creating enhanced communication products for decision-making before, during, and after a tsunami event. The state of California, through CGS and Cal EMA, is using the Tsunami Scenario as an opportunity to evaluate policies regarding tsunami impact. The scenario will serve as a long-lasting resource to teach preparedness and inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

2012-12-01

309

Correlations between speciation of Cd, Cu, Pb And Zn in sediment and their concentrations in total soft tissue of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

Total concentrations and speciation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in surface sediment samples were correlated with the respective metal measured in the total soft tissue of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis, collected from water off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The aim of this study is to relate the possible differences in the accumulation patterns of the heavy metals in P. viridis to those in the surface sediment. The sequential extraction technique was employed to fractionate the sediment into 'freely leachable and exchangeable' (EFLE), 'acid-reducible,' 'oxidisable-organic' and 'resistant' fractions. The results showed that significant (P<.05) correlations were observed between Cd in P. viridis and Cd in the sediment (EFLE fraction and total Cd), Cu in P viridis and Cu in the sediment (EFLE and 'acid-reducible' fractions and total Cu) and Pb in P viridis and Pb in the sediment ('oxidisable-organic' fraction and total Pb). No significant correlation (P > .05) was found between Zn in P viridis and all the sediment geochemical fractions of Zn and total Zn in the sediment. This indicated that Zn was possibly regulated from the soft tissue of P. viridis. The present results supported the use of P viridis as a suitable biomonitoring agent for Cd, Cu and Pb. PMID:12046948

Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Tan, S G; Omar, H

2002-04-01

310

Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century  

PubMed Central

The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 20012002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century.

Teixeira, Antonio; Venancio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

2014-01-01

311

Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

2011-01-01

312

Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

2014-01-01

313

Geologic setting and gas reserves of the Venezuelan LNG project  

SciTech Connect

Four gas fields, Mejillones, Patao, Dragon, and Rio Caribe, were discovered by Lagoven, a subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., during an exploratory campaign during 1978-1982, offshore northeastern Venezuela. Thirteen wells drilled in the four fields discovered 13.9 tcf of gas, including 1.2 tcf of gas and condensate in the Rio Caribe field. In February 1991, Lagoven entered into an agreement with Shell, Exxon, and Mitsubishi to assess the viability of producing and exporting gas from the four offshore gas fields in the form of liquified natural gas. This is the Venezuelan LNG Project, otherwise called the Cristobal Colon Project. As part of the agreement the participants established a Project Team in Caracas and undertook the acquisition of 1600 km[sup 2] of 3D seismic data over the four fields to evaluate the geological model of the area. In addition, interpretation of the 3D data has led to a preliminary geological model for the gas bearing sands which envisages deposition in a regional setting varying from bathyal turbidites in the Rio Caribe and Mejillones fields in the west to shelf deposits over the Patao and Dragon fields in the east. In addition to the geological setting this paper will discuss preliminary results of the reserves evaluation for the Rio Caribe, Patao, and Dragon fields.

Prieto, R.; Van der Molen, I.; Ramirez de Arellano, R. (Lagoven, Caracas (Venezuela))

1993-02-01

314

Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence West (COSEE-West)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The COSEE center for ocean science integration and outreach for the west coast of the U.S. Site includes information on the COSEE West partners, its mission, goals, upcoming activities, including workshops, and additional resources. Site also links to three curriculum supplements.

315

Fire performance of LNG carriers insulated with polystyrene foam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the response of a liquid-full Moss Sphere LNG tank insulated with polystyrene foam to an engulfing LNG fire indicates that current regulatory requirements for pressure relief capacity sufficient to prevent tank rupture are inadequate. The inadequacy of the current requirements stems primarily from two factors. Firstly, the area of the Moss Sphere protruding above what would be the

Jerry Havens; James Venart

2008-01-01

316

Performance of cryogenic thermoelectric generators in LNG cold energy utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally wasted when the LNG is extracted for utilization. This paper proposes cryogenic thermoelectric generators to recover this cold energy. The theoretical performance of the generator has been analyzed. An analytical method and numerical method of calculation of the optimum parameters of the generator have been demonstrated.

Wei Sun; Peng Hu; Zeshao Chen; Lei Jia

2005-01-01

317

Do we or don't we want LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promise and performance of LNG was discussed previously when the Cove Point, Maryland terminal was under construction. Now that it is operational (the first LNG ship arrived and unloaded the equivalent of 2.5 billion cubic feet of natural gas March 13, 1978), the price and safety debate continues. These issues are discussed in detail. Some comments from industrialists are

Crull

2009-01-01

318

Imported LNG (liquid natural gas) as an alternative fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) first arrived in the United States in 1972 at the rate of one billion cubic feet (Bcf) per year. By 1979, they had reached 252 Bcf\\/year. However, as US as demand declined and domestic deliverability grew, inflexible LNG prices led to the complete collapse of trade during the 1980s. In 1987, all four US

1990-01-01

319

LNG report\\/Dryout, cooldown keyed Cove Point commissioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Columbia LNG Corp.'s experiences in commissioning its Cove Point, Md., terminal are described in some detail, including the dryout of all cryogenic vessels, piping, and equipment after field pressure testing, with nitrogen as the dryout medium; the initial cooldown to test and inspect the 14 and 32 in. dia vapor and LNG lines, pipe supports, and bellow-type expansion joints for

Venendaal

1979-01-01

320

A novel cryogenic power cycle for LNG cold energy recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel cryogenic cycle by using a binary mixture as working fluids and combined with a vapor absorption process was proposed to improve the energy recovery efficiency of an LNG (liquefied natural gas) cold power generation. The cycle was simulated with seawater as the heat source and LNG as the heat sink, and the optimization of the power generated per

Yanni Liu; Kaihua Guo

2011-01-01

321

a Baseline Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters and Trace Metals in Waters of Manakudy, South-West Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of trace metals from the land to ocean has a number of different routes and efficiencies. The sources of toxic elements into the rivers to be debouched into the sea through estuaries are either weathered naturally from the soils and rocks or introduced anthropogenically from point or non-point sources, in labile form or in particulate form. However, recent studies indicate that the transport of trace elements to the aquatic environment is much more complex than what has been thought. The chemistry and ecology of an estuarine system are entirely different from the fluvial as well as the marine system. Estuarine environment is characterized by a constantly changing mixture of salt and freshwater. In the present study area Manakudy estuary is situated about 8 kilometres north west of Kanyakumari (Latitude N 08 05 21.8 and Longitude E 077 29 03.7). To gain a better understanding of the geochemical behavior of physico-chemical parameters and trace elements in the estuary and to examine variations in associated chemical changes, 20 water samples were collected throughout the Manakudy estuary, a minor river in south-western India. These samples, collected in typical dry season during 2012, were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, dissolved major and trace elements. Our results show that dissolved Na, Mg, Ca and Cl behave conservatively along the salinity gradient. The concentration of nutrients is normal and they are due to the higher organic activity in soils as well as faster rates of chemical weathering reaction in the source region. The concentration of major ions is due to tidal influence and it increases with salinity and the nutrients do behave non-conservatively due to biogenic removal. The conservative behaviour of the trace metals with salinity has been strongly affected by the introduction of these metals by external sources. Even though the trace metals in the contaminated water have been removed and incorporated in sediments due to flocculation, the concentration of these metals did not decrease. S.MUTHUSAMY M.sc.,M.phil., RESEARCH SCHOLAR UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS CHENNAI,TAMILNADU INDIA

Subramanian, M.; Muthumanikkam, J.

2013-05-01

322

Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous forearc units of the Transverse Ranges. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, geologic and petrographic relations, the Pescadero felsite and a capping, sheared metaconglomerate underlie the Pigeon Point Formation. We infer that the magma formed by anatexis of Franciscan or Great Valley clastic sedimentary rocks originating from a parental Mesozoic Sierran-Mojave-Salinian calcalkaline arc. The felsite erupted during Late Cretaceous time, was metamorphosed to pumpellyite-prehnite grade within the subduction zone, and then was rapidly exhumed, weakly zeolitized, and exposed before Pigeon Point forearc deposition. Pescadero vol canism apparently reflects a previously unrecognized ca. 86-90 Ma felsic igneous event in the accretionary margin. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

Ernst, W. G.; Martens, U. C.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Clark, J. C.; Moore, D. E.

2011-01-01

323

Submarine LNG tanker concept for the Arctic  

SciTech Connect

If LNG tankers could travel underwater, they could transport natural gas from Arctic regions year-round. General Dynamics has designed just such a tanker - a 140,000-m/sup 3/ submarine with a methane-fired steam-propulsion system that uses recirculated exhaust gas injected with oxygen to sustain combustion. (Nuclear power would be cheaper but might not be practical if new regulations are imposed.) Developed from parametric variations in cargo capacity, hull material, and ballasting, the design identifies such ship characteristics as length, beam, depth, cargo-system arrangement, speed, and ship control. An economic analysis indicates the concept's competitiveness with both pipelines and icebreaking tankers.

Veliotis, P.T.; Reitz, S.

1981-01-01

324

Energy assessment of Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report is an overview of the energy market in four West African countries: The Ivory Coast, Morocco, Nigeria, and Senegal. We feel these countries are representative of the West African region. Together they account for 75% of the total energy use in West Africa, 78% of GDP, and 76% of population. The purpose of the study is to analyze

A. Ghirardi; J. Sathaye; P. Goering

1986-01-01

325

Biological Recovery Criteria for the Oregon Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document outlines biological recovery criteria (also called viability criteria) for the Oregon Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) as identified in the NOAA Fisheries Service status review for West Coast coho salmon (Oncorhynchus ...

M. W. Chilcote P. W. Lawson T. C. Wainwright

2008-01-01

326

50 CFR 622.372 - Limited access system for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west coast subzone. 622.372 Section 622.372 Wildlife...for king mackerel gillnet permits applicable in the southern Florida west coast subzone. (a) Except for applications...

2013-10-01

327

Sandy Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waves play a major role in breaking down and building up coastline features. But other factors, including tides, currents, and sediment type, also determine how erosional and depositional processes shape coastlines. This interactive feature introduces viewers to the landforms and features associated with sandy coasts. Typically located on passive margins in areas characterized by low wave energy, a wide continental shelf, and high offshore sediment influence, they develop depositional features such as extensive beaches and dunes, barrier islands, and sand spits.

2011-02-17

328

Coast Guard  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

Not Available

1991-06-01

329

Electric propulsion for LNG Carriers Full-size LNG carriers with dual fuel diesel engines and electric propulsion are now under construction in France. The authors present the benefits and design features of electric propulsion systems in LNG shipping applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

he current world usage of LNG is about 110 million tons per year and current analysis indicates this grow- ing in the next 10 years by 70 to 100 million tons. This may lead to demand for more than 80 new LNG carriers by 2010, in addi- tion to those already under construction. Traditionally LNG carriers have been pro- pelled

Jan Fredrik; Rune Lysebo

330

Four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development by JPL of a four band differential radiometer (FBDR) which is capable of providing a fast rate of response, accurate measurements of methane, ethane, and propane concentrations on the periphery of a dispersing LNG cloud. The FBDR is a small, low power, lightweight, portable instrument system that uses differential absorption of near infrared radiation by the LNG cloud as a technique for the determination of concentration of the three gases as the LNG cloud passes the instrument position. Instrument design and data analysis approaches are described. The data obtained from the FBDR prototype instrument system deployed in an instrument array during two 40 cubic meter spill tests are discussed.

Simmonds, J. J.

1981-01-01

331

Lng weathering effects: Theoretical and empirical. Topical report, March-August 1992. [LNG (Liquified Natural Gas)  

SciTech Connect

The report details the composition change of LNG as it weathers in a vehicle size tank. The composition methane number and stoichiometric air-fuel ratios each change with composition. The results show that the factor controlling weathering is the tank heat leak rate. Weathering occurs at a constant rate when plotted against tank volume, that is composition change is primarily a function of tank volume and the percentage of initial fill boiled off. Heat leak defines the rate at which weathering occurs.

Acker, G.H.; Moulton, S.D.

1992-12-01

332

Dynamic Simulation of the Liquefaction Section in Baseload LNG Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis demonstrates modeling and simulation of a cryogenic heat exchangers in a baseload Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) plant. The work comprises two main areas. The first concerns the development and description of the transient liquefaction models. Th...

E. Melaaen

1994-01-01

333

Dynamic simulation of the liquefaction section in baseload LNG plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis demonstrates modelling and simulation of a cryogenic heat exchanger in a baseload LNG plant within two main areas. The first one concerns the development and description of the transient liquefaction models. The second one looks at the verifica...

E. Melaaen

1994-01-01

334

The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

2010-12-01

335

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of

J A Nikkel; T Gozani; C Brown; J Kwong; D N McKinsey; Y Shin; S Kane; C Gary; M Firestone

2012-01-01

336

LNG terminal will ease gas shortage. [Cove Point, Maryland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Columbia LNG Corp., a subsidiary of the Columbia Gas System, Wilmington, Del., is nearing completion of a 1-billion-cfd base-load LNG receiving and regasification terminal at Cove Point, Md. Initially, the terminal will handle 650 MMscfd of gas with Columbia receiving 300 MMscfd and the remainder (350 MMscfd) going to Consolidated Natural Gas System, co-owner of the terminal. Importation of the

Levy

1976-01-01

337

Oceanography of West Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 g/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22C in the south to 26C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

John, Bemiasa

2014-05-01

338

Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

339

Quantifying the Growth History of an Ancient Border Fault System, and the Role of Normal Fault Growth on Sedimentation During Basin Formation: a Case Study from the Late Cambrian Owen Conglomerate, West Coast Range, western Tasmania, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stratigraphic and depositional architecture of evolving extensional basins is principally controlled by normal fault growth through the generation of accommodation space. The history of border fault systems therefore controls the evolution of internal drainage patterns and basin facies distributions. Despite recent advances in the understanding of present-day normal fault growth, quantifying the effect of normal fault evolution on the architecture of ancient sedimentary basins has been largely obscured by post-rift deformation and erosion. The Late Cambrian Owen Conglomerate along the West Coast Range of western Tasmania, Australia, includes thick fluvial sandstone and marine turbidite sequences, as well as fluvial and marine conglomerates. The accumulation of this formation provides excellent insights into the rift-fill history of an ancient extensional basin, due to rugged, glaciated topography and exceptional outcrops, and the typically overfilled nature of the basin, which preserves the fault displacement history. Structural traverses have delineated the geometry of the extensional fault system active during deposition of the Owen Conglomerate. The fault system comprises a segmented array of border faults with variable along-strike polarity. Minimum displacements were calculated from present-day stratigraphic thicknesses, and define a roughly symmetric displacement-length profile that resembles that of a single, isolated fault, with maximum displacement (Dmax) located at the centre of the fault array, and decreasing displacement toward the distal segments. Displacement along the fault system, however, indicates a varied growth history through time. Isolated faulting (Stage 1) occurred during the early stages of rifting, when small fault segments grew in isolation. Stage 1 faults exhibit a Dmax at the centre of each individual segment. Rapid propagation of fault segments to maximum strike length occurred early in the basin history, with only limited interaction and feedback between individual segments. Continued growth faulting (Stage 2) resulted in migration of the locus of maximum displacement as individual segments began to interact and link. Eventual linkage of fault segments (Stage 3) occurred during the final stages of rifting, where the overall system exhibits a characteristic, through-going, displacement-length profile. Integration of lithofacies distributions, isopach maps and palaeocurrent data with the structural dataset shows that the stratigraphic architecture is strongly coupled with the development of the border fault system, and offers a high resolution model for fault development. While the generation of accommodation space adjacent to footwall scarps facilitated the development of a hanging-wall, dip-slope fluvial catchment and axial-through drainage networks, tectonic subsidence also provided a crucial trigger for the onset of isolated marine sedimentation where accommodation space generated by the localised accumulation of displacement on individual segments outpaced sediment supply.

Noll, C. A.; Hall, M.

2003-12-01

340

LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power.  

PubMed

Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H2O and CO2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are burning in the LNG fire. The paper discusses the procedure by which the fire spectral data are used to predict the thermal emission from large LNG fires. Unfortunately, no direct measurements of the soot density or smoke characteristics were made in the tests. These parameters have significant effect on the thermal emission from large LNG fires. PMID:16920262

Raj, Phani K

2007-04-11

341

LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.  

SciTech Connect

As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

2011-12-01

342

Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video features Dr. Gary Griggs, scientist with the National Research Council (NRC) and professor at UCSC, reviewing highlights from the recently released report by the NRC about predictions for sea-level rise on the West Coast states. The video includes effective visualizations and animations of the effects of plate tectonics and sea-level rise on the West Coast.

Science, The N.

343

Impacts of offshore liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals on local fish populations in Mass Bay  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the effect of offshore liquid natural gas (LNG) terminals on local fish populations. Two LNG sites and two control sites in Massachusetts Bay were surveyed using hydroacoustics during June 2009. Each LNG site contains an identical subsurface structure, and is at the center of an 800 m radius zone where fishing is prohibited. Control sites do not

Catherine Caruso; J. Idjadi; K. Lagueux; J. Mandelman

2010-01-01

344

Analysis of LNG peakshaving-facility release-prevention systems  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of release prevention systems for a reference LNG peakshaving facility. An overview assessment of the reference peakshaving facility, which preceeded this effort, identified 14 release scenarios which are typical of the potential hazards involved in the operation of LNG peakshaving facilities. These scenarios formed the basis for this more detailed study. Failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis were used to estimate the expected frequency of each release scenario for the reference peakshaving facility. In addition, the effectiveness of release prevention, release detection, and release control systems were evaluated.

Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Powers, T.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Hobbs, J.M.; Daling, P.M.

1982-05-01

345

Improvisation in West African Musics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

Locke, David

1980-01-01

346

Long-term variability in the deposition of marine ions at west coast sites in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network: impacts on surface water chemistry and significance for trend determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight lake sites in central and south-west Scotland, north-west England and north Wales, forming part of the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (UKAWMN), have been studied with regard to the influence of marine ions on surface water chemistry. Since monitoring began in 1988 these sites have exhibited large and long-term variation in Cl concentration, which are consistent between regions and

C. D Evans; D. T Monteith; R Harriman

2001-01-01

347

Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use  

SciTech Connect

This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

Breazeale, K. [ed.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

1993-12-01

348

Fire performance of LNG carriers insulated with polystyrene foam.  

PubMed

Analysis of the response of a liquid-full Moss Sphere LNG tank insulated with polystyrene foam to an engulfing LNG fire indicates that current regulatory requirements for pressure relief capacity sufficient to prevent tank rupture are inadequate. The inadequacy of the current requirements stems primarily from two factors. Firstly, the area of the Moss Sphere protruding above what would be the nominal deck on a conventional carrier, which is protected only by a steel weather cover from exposure to heat from a tank-engulfing fire, is being underestimated. Secondly, aluminum foil-covered polystyrene foam insulation applied to the exterior of the LNG tank is protected above the deck only by the steel weather cover under which the insulation could begin to melt in as little as 1-3 min, and could completely liquefy in as few as 10 min. U.S. and International Regulations require that the insulations on the above-deck portion of tanks have approved fire proofing and stability under fire exposure. Polystyrene foam, as currently installed on LNG carriers, does not appear to meet these criteria. As a result of these findings, but giving no consideration to the significant potential for further damage if the polystyrene should burn, the boil-off rate is predicted to be an order-of-magnitude higher than provided for by current PRV sizing requirements. PMID:18372107

Havens, Jerry; Venart, James

2008-10-30

349

LNG insurance bill seen hiking cost, cutting supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opponents to a House bill requiring importers of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to guarantee up to $100 million liability for an accident claim it will raise costs and restrict supplies to users if enacted. Sponsored by the House subcommittee on commerce energy and power, the bill's chances are unknown. It is designed to coordinate licensing procedures, but its safety rules

OBrien

1978-01-01

350

First big LNG unit seen boosting East's gas supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

A liquefied natural gas (LNG) importation project, scheduled to begin operating at Cove Pt., Maryland in mid-March, will provide seven eastern states with one million cubic feet of gas per day for 25 years. Seven southern states will be served by a second terminal at Savannah, Georgia. Three pipelines will buy the Algerian gas. The project has enabled gas utilities

Ruth

1978-01-01

351

Peak shaving with LNG from Cove Point Terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The differing calorific values of US gas and regasified Algerian LNG posed thermodynamic problems in BG and E's gas-liquefaction peakshaving plant. The fluctuating US\\/imported gas mix entering the liquefiers required the pretreatment system to operate at all times. Removal of the excess hydrocarbons carried in the imported gas resulted in refrigeration losses amounting to 20% of the plant capacity. To

1981-01-01

352

LNG Plant Optimization Tool CryoPro: A Joint Venture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A base-load LNG plant is planned for the 'Snohvit' field in northern Norway. A design optimization tool, CryoPro, was developed by Statoil R&D and the Division of Refrigeration Engineering, NTH-SINTEF, to be used in concept evaluations. The conditions in ...

G. Owren E. Brendeng R. S. Heiersted A. Fredheim

1992-01-01

353

Soot-Free Combustion Of Methane And LNG  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neither methane nor liquefied natural gas (LNG) produces soot when burned in turbine simulator with liquid oxygen under conditions like those in gas-generator section of rocket engine. Experiments conducted to determine if these fuels behave similarly to other hydrocarbon fuels, which give off soot coating turbomachinery and reducing performance.

Bossard, John

1992-01-01

354

West African crude production diversifies  

SciTech Connect

Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

Aalund, L.

1983-06-01

355

Analysis of LNG import terminal release prevention systems  

SciTech Connect

The release prevention systems of liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal were analyzed. A series of potential release scenarios were analyzed to determine the frequency of the release events, the probability these releases are not stopped or isolated by emergency shutdown systems, the estimated release quantities, and the critical components of the system. The two plant areas identified as being most significant with respect to safety are the unloading system and the storage system. Rupture of the main transfer line and gross failure of the storage tanks are the two release scenarios of primary safety interest. Reducing the rate of failure by improved design, better maintenance and testing, or adding redundancy of the critical system components for these plant areas and release scenarios will result in improved safety. Several design alternatives which have the potential to significantly reduce the probability of a large release of LNG occurring at an import terminal are identified. These design alternatives would reduce the probability of a large release of LNG by reducing the expected number of failures which could cause a release or by reducing the magnitude of releases that do occur. All of these alternatives are technically feasible and have been used or considered for use in at least one LNG facility. A more rigorous analysis of the absolute risk of LNG import terminal operation is necessary before the benefits of these design alternatives can be determined. In addition, an economic evaluation of these alternatives must be made so the costs and benefits can be compared. It is concludd that for remotely located facilities many of these alternatives are probably not justified; however, for facilities located in highly populated areas, these alternatives deserve serious consideration.

Baker, E G

1982-04-01

356

75 FR 51183 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 100218107-0199-01] RIN...fishing seasons is authorized by 50 CFR 660.409 (b)(1)(i). The RA consulted...fishing seasons is authorized by 50 CFR 660.409 (b)(1)(i) . Inseason...

2010-08-19

357

Genetic and morphological variation of Synaptura lusitanica Capello, 1868, along the Portuguese coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Portuguese sole, Synaptura lusitanica Capello, 1868, is distributed from Portugal to Angola. In Portugal, it occurs on the west coast and on the south-eastern coast. The genetic and morphological variation of S. lusitanica was studied based on protein electrophoresis and morphometric and meristic analyses of samples collected in four areas along the Portuguese coast. The genetic analysis was based on 12 loci, 10 of which were polymorphic. The morphological analysis included 12 morphometric measurements and 7 meristic counts. Both analyses indicated divergence between the west coast sample (Setbal) and the other samples collected in the south-eastern coast (Olho, Tavira and Vila Real de Santo Antnio). Although the discreteness of the west coast individuals of S. lusitanica was not completely evident, a conservative approach to the fisheries management of this species would consider two independent stocks.

Cabral, Henrique N.; Marques, Joana F.; Rego, Ana Lusa; Catarino, Ana Isabel; Figueiredo, Joana; Garcia, Joana

2003-11-01

358

Rivers and Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information about rivers, coasts, and the processes affecting them. Students can view an animation of the water cycle, read about how rivers and coasts change, learn about estuaries, and view information on how rivers, coasts, and other water features influence people's lives. Glossaries and a teacher's page offering lesson plans, worksheets, and links to additional sites are also provided.

359

Controlling the hazards from LNG spills on the ground; LNG firefighting methods and their effects; application to Gaz de France terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gaz de France has developed a mathematical model to calculate vapor dispersion from accidental LNG spills on land. This model was applied to make clear the influence of certain parameters in reducing the extension of the plumes. Based on the results of calculations -provided that basic safety features were included in the design and building of the LNG facilities -

F. Bellus; H. Cochard; R. Vincent; J. Mauger

1978-01-01

360

Red Tide off Texas Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

2002-01-01

361

North-Central California Coast Recovery Domain 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation of California Coastal Chinook Salmon ESU, Central California Coast Coho Salmon ESU.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Many West Coast salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus sp.) stocks have declined substantially from their historic numbers and now are at a fraction of their historical abundance. There are several factors that contribute to these declines, including: overfis...

B. C. Spence D. A. Boughton S. T. Lindley T. H. Williams

2012-01-01

362

Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues  

SciTech Connect

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1997-07-01

363

Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues  

SciTech Connect

This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

1998-02-01

364

40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

2013-07-01

365

Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field.

Suharmoko, G.R. (Total Indonesie, Balikpapan (ID))

1991-10-14

366

The role of consequence modeling in LNG facility siting.  

PubMed

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) project modeling focuses on two primary issues, facility siting and the physical layout of element spacing. Modeling often begins with an analysis of these issues, while ensuring code compliance and sound engineering practice. The most commonly performed analysis involves verifying compliance with the siting provisions of NFPA 59A, which primarily concern property-line spacing (offsite hazard impacts). If the facility is located in the US, compliance with 49 CFR 193 is also required. Other consequence modeling is often performed to determine the spacing of elements within the facility (onsite hazard impacts). Often, many issues concerning in-plant spacing are addressed with the guidance provided in Europe's LNG standard, EN-1473. Spacing of plant buildings in relation to process areas is also a concern as analyzed using the approach given in API RP 752. Studies may also include probabilistic analysis, depending on the perceived risk and cost of mitigation. PMID:16934395

Taylor, Dennis W

2007-04-11

367

Dual fuel development for an LNG marine engine  

SciTech Connect

A dual-fuel conversion for the 3406-B Caterpillar marine diesel engine has been developed. The purpose of this conversion is to use lower priced natural gas as a fuel, thus providing substantial cost savings for large fuel consumers. Details of the conversion system are given. Data is presented showing fuel consumption, conditions leading to engine knock, conditions promoting methane flame propagation, and air-fuel ratios required for efficient combustion. The system resulting from this study will use Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) to power a dual-fuel conversion of a shrimp boat's main engine and generator set. The cold temperatures of the LNG will also be used as a heat sink to refrigerate the fish-hold area of the boat.

Acker, G.H.

1988-01-01

368

Boil-off gas vapors are recovered by reliquefaction in LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although great care is taken to prevent heat leaks into cryogenic equipment in LNG terminals, boil-off vapors evolve from LNG stored at thermodynamic equilibrium. The quantities of boil-off vapors may be quite considerable. They account for about 1% of the total gas quantity received and sent out at the monitor-de-bretagne LNG terminal of Gaz de France. A novel process has

M. Levay; P. Petit; H. Paradowski

1986-01-01

369

LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system

Charles A. powers; T. Craig Derbidge

2001-01-01

370

Phytoplankton bloom all along the coast of Southeast United States  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All along the eastern and southern coasts of the United States, marine plants seem impervious to the onslaught of winter weather further north. In this true-color image from January 9, 2002, phytoplankton can be seen growing in the nation's coastal waters; their characteristic blue-green swirls are especially visible off the west coast of Florida. Fire locations are marked with red dots. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

371

Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.  

PubMed

Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating. PMID:17184912

Woodward, John L

2007-02-20

372

Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The catalogue enumerates all taxa of Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons, and Monocotyledons occurring in the West Indies archipelago excluding the islands off the coast of Venezuela (Netherlands Antilles, Venezuelan Antilles, Tobago, and Trinidad). For each accept...

M. T. Strong P. Acevedo-Rodriguez

2012-01-01

373

76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...LNG states that traditional domestic natural gas production has been supplemented by unconventional sources, such as shale gas formations, which new technologies have made economically recoverable. Freeport LNG asserts that as a result of...

2011-06-09

374

LNG (liquefied natural gas) in the Asia-Pacific region: Twenty years of trade and outlook for the future  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: the current status of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region; present structure and projected demand in the Asia-Pacific region; prospective and tentative projects; and LNG contracts: stability versus flexibility.

Kiani, B.

1990-01-01

375

78 FR 48044 - Safety Zone; San Diego International Airport Terminal Two West Grand Opening Fireworks; San Diego...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part...Diego International Airport Terminal Two West Grand...recordkeeping requirements, Security Measures, Waterways...Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170...Diego International Airport Terminal Two West...

2013-08-07

376

33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165...Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a...Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°4043 N and...

2013-07-01

377

Thermal design of coil-wound LNG heat exchangers. Shell-side heat transfer and pressure drop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The main objectives for the work presented in this thesis have been to develop calculation models for LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) heat exchangers and LNG liquefaction cycles, in order to do realistic simulations of LNG plants. The thesis consists of three...

A. O. Fredheim

1994-01-01

378

Tests at the FOS Terminal on the LNG Behavior in Large Tanks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The determination of the recovery process of the evaporation gases of the LNG tanks and the setting of rational operating methods imply the exact knowledge of the LNG behavior during its storage. The theoretical studies carried out in this direction did n...

C. Bonnaure F. Bellus L. Chevalier Y. Reveillard

1978-01-01

379

Effects of high expansion foam dispersed onto leaked LNG on the atmospheric diffusion of vaporized gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

When LNG leaks from a storage tank, the LNG vapourizes vigorously above the adiabatic concrete floor inside the safety dike and the cryogenic methane diffuses in the atmosphere. It is well known that as the density of a vapourized gas drops, the atmospheric diffusion is enhanced due to buoyancy, and the concentration of vapourized gas along the ground decreases. The

K. Yoshida; K. Ogura

1996-01-01

380

Development of an improved LNG plant failure rate data base. Final report March 1980June 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questionnaires were sent to LNG plant operators requesting data on failures of gas pretreatment systems, vaporizers, compressors, valves, piping, storage tanks, fire and leak detection systems, etc. The responses were combined to broaden the failure rate data base for major LNG plant equipment. The results generally agree with data found in an earlier survey. The results will be useful for

D. W. Johnson; J. R. Welker

1981-01-01

381

LNG dilemma: the need is great but so are the risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dr. Edward Teller cites the hazards of LNG, but at the moment there are no alternatives. According to the American Gas Association, imported LNG offers that potential of providing 3 trillion cubic feet of natural gas by 1985. This represents 3 percent of total U.S. energy needs forecast for that year by the Federal Energy Administration and 12 to 15

Beiser

1976-01-01

382

Research for developing the program(II) of Estimating LNG/NG physical properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After liquefied natural gas(LNG) has been imported since 1986 to reduce our national primary energy dependence on petroleum and to give variety utilization, the annual demand of LNG has been getting increased due to its convenience and absence of air poll...

H. Kim S. Y. Kim

1994-01-01

383

Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na ?wiecie powoduje, ?e produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje si? coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem zwi?zanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze oko?o 111K pod ci?nieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezb?dny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciek?ej w gazow? dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umo?liwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do r?nych zastosowa?, mi?dzy innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znan? technik? analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na okre?lenie dystrybucji, ?rd?a i wielko?ci nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a wi?c ustali? wytyczne dotycz?ce efektywnego zu?ycia energii. Poniewa? zarwno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego s? energoch?onne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezb?dny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

?aciak, Mariusz

2013-06-01

384

Comparison of hypothetical LNG and fuel oil fires on water.  

PubMed

Large spills of refined petroleum products have been an occasional occurrence over the past few decades. This has not been true for large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper compares the likely similarities and differences between accidental releases from a ship of sizable quantities of these different hydrocarbon fuels, their subsequent spreading, and possible pool-fire behavior. Quantitative estimates are made of the spread rate and maximum slick size, burn rate, and duration; effective thermal radiation; and subsequent soot generation. PMID:15036638

Lehr, William; Simecek-Beatty, Debra

2004-02-27

385

Tidal flexure of Jakobshavns Glacier, West Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jakobshavns Glacier, a floating outlet glacier on the West Greenland coast, was surveyed during July 1976. The vertical displacements of targets along two profiles perpendicular to the fjord wall bounding the north margin of the glacier were analyzed to determine the effect of flexure caused by tidal oscillations within the fjord. An analysis based on the assumption that vertical displacements

Craig S. Lingle; Terence J. Hughes; Ronald C. Kollmeyer

1981-01-01

386

Tidal Flexure of Jakobshavns Glacier, West Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jakobshavns Glacier, a floating outlet glacier on the West Greenland coast, was surveyed during July 1976. The vertical displacements of targets along two profiles perpendicular to the fjord wall bounding the north margin of the glacier were analyzed to determine the effect of flexure caused by tidal oscillations within the fjord. An analysis based on the assumption that vertical displacements

Craig S. Lingle; Terence J. Hughes; Ronald C. Kollmeyer

1981-01-01

387

Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G1, G2, G3, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, and G-5 in view, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

388

Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water.  

PubMed

Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG. PMID:17112658

Johnson, David W; Cornwell, John B

2007-02-20

389

78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast...Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide...designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective...delay in the effective date of this rule would be...Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida....

2013-02-15

390

78 FR 70901 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located south of Key West,...

2013-11-27

391

77 FR 75853 - Safety Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; Bone Island Triathlon, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast...safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Key West, Florida, during...will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located south of Key West,...

2012-12-26

392

Central and North Gulf Coast, Texas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this view of the central and north Gulf Coast of Texas (30.0N, 96.0W), San Antonio Bay, Matagorda Bay and Galveston/Trinity Bay are clearly seen though small sediment plumes at the tidal passes are visible. The large field patterns of irrigated agriculture highlights an ancient deltaic plain formed by the Colorado and Brazos Rivers. Many manmade lakes and reservoirs, as far west as Lake Belton and Lake Waco and as far east as Toledo Bend are visible.

1992-01-01

393

49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

2013-10-01

394

49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

2013-10-01

395

75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the application...

2010-11-17

396

75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy...of foreign sourced liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a two-year period...was filed under section 3 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended by...

2010-09-29

397

78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Export Previously Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on a Short-Term Basis AGENCY...authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been...24 billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas on a short-term or spot...

2013-06-12

398

South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.  

SciTech Connect

The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

1998-05-01

399

Coasts under pressure.  

PubMed

In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection. PMID:12287493

Hinrichsen, D

1994-01-01

400

Columbia-Iran LNG project will have first commercial barge-mounted plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An agreement of understanding signed by Columbia LNG Corp. and the National Iranian Gas Co. (NIGC) in Apr. 1978 provides for delivery of 300 million cu ft\\/day of gas as LNG to the Cove Point, Md., terminal for 20 yr beginning in 1982. A barge-mounted liquefaction plant is to be designed and built and 90% financed by Norway's Moss-Rosenberg Verft

1978-01-01

401

Pipeline transportation of natural gas from the Gulf Coast to the Northeast  

SciTech Connect

Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp.'s national gas pipeline system from the Gulf Coast producing area (where 75% of its supply lies offshore) extends for 1832 mi along the Gulf Coast through the southeastern Piedmont and north to terminate in New York City. It serves high-priority markets in 11 southern and Atlantic seaboard states with a daily flowing capacity of 3.0 billion cu ft/day and an additional 1.5 billion cu ft/day available from storage. Also discussed are gas conditioning for the removal of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water vapor and entrained salt water and solids, and measurement of gas volume with a meter and gravitometer and of heating value with a calorimeter; gas transmission through 9,295 mi of pipeline, made up mostly of four, 30-42 in. dia parallel pipelines with 1,062,452 hp of compression capacity; LNG storage, including unique facilities at the Eminence, Miss., Salt Dome Storage facility and the Carlstadt, N.J., LNG plant; odorization; operations; and pipeline protection against third-party damage and against corrosion.

Boehm, J.C.

1980-01-01

402

Coast Guard Firefighting Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

1977-01-01

403

Quantifying tsunami risk at the Pisco, Peru LNG terminal project  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine and quantify the tsunami risk near Pisco, Peru, where a major Liquefied Natural Gas facility is in project at Playa Loberia. We re-assess the historical record of tsunami damage along the coast of Central and Southern Peru, from 9 deg. S (Chimbote) to 19 deg. S (Arica), building seismic models of the events involved, and conducting numerical simulations

C. E. Synolakis; E. A. Okal; J. C. Borrero

2004-01-01

404

Controlling the Hazards from LNG Spills on the Ground, LNG Firefighting Methods and Their Effects Application to Gas de France Terminals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Gaz de France has developed a mathematical model to calculate vapor dispersion from accidental LNG spills on land. This model has been applied to make clear the influence of certain parameters in reducing the extension of the plumes. Based on the results ...

F. Bellus H. Cochard J. Mauger R. Vincent

1978-01-01

405

OzCoasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those persons with a penchant for public policy, coastal erosion, and estuaries will sing the praises of the OzCoasts website. Formally launched in 2008, OzCoasts represents a collaborative effort between more than 100 coastal scientists from a range of government agencies and universities across Australia. The materials on the site are divided into six primary areas, including "Coastal Indicators", "Habitat Mapping", and "Landform & Stability Maps". Within each section, visitors will find graphs, maps, charts, and short essays that document a wide range of natural and man-made phenomena including beach erosion, beach geomorphic models, and sea level rise. Visitors can also make their way to the "Glossary" area to get caught up relevant terms and then wander around the "What's New" area for the latest and greatest updates to the website.

406

Northeast Coast, Hokkaido, Japan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The northeast coast of Hokkaido and Kunashir Island, Japan (44.0N, 143.0E) are seen bordered by drifting sea ice. The sea ice has formed a complex pattern of eddies in response to surface water currents and winds. Photos of this kind aid researchers in describing local ocean current patterns and the effects of wind speed and direction on the drift of surface material, such as ice floes or oil. Kunashir is the southernmost of the Kuril Islands.

1992-01-01

407

Zero-Emission Combined Power Cycle Using LNG Cold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A potential zero emission combined power generation plant fired by liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been investigated. A mixture of carbon dioxide (CO2)-steam is used as the working fluid of a gas turbine cycle, which replaces the normal combustion-in-air products and air, notably as the thermal ballast for the control of flame temperature. Oxygen (O2) is used as the fuel oxidant and is obtained from an air separation unit (ASU). The excess CO2 due to combustion is extracted by a simple flow separator and liquefied ready to be reused and/or sequestered. The plant configuration and thermodynamics of the cycle are discussed first and then the optimised overall efficiency of the plant is calculated with a comparison of 100% and 120% stoichiometric combustion. The overall net efficiency, optimised to pressure and temperature levels complying with the material and cooling techniques currently available, is around 56% (LHV basis), including the energy penalty of the ASU and the CO2 separation.

Velautham, Sanjayan; Ito, Takehiro; Takata, Yasuyuki

408

Henry B. Plant (1819-1899): Florida's west coast entrepreneur  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose Entrepreneurship is increasingly recognized as vital for economies to grow and survive in an increasingly competitive world. Studying the critical success factors of entrepreneurial activity is and will continue to be a primary scholarly interest. Factors that have been identified in current times as critical to the success of entrepreneurs can even be seen in the actions of

Robert C. Ford; Peter B. Petersen

2011-01-01

409

AN UPWELLING CASE STUDY ON FLORIDA'S WEST COAST. (R827085)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

410

Description of the West Coast Aerial Sardine Survey. Document 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Advisory bodies of the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council), including the Coastal Pelagic Species Advisory Subpanel (CPSAS), the Coastal Pelagic Species Management Team (CPSMT), and the Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC), have recommended...

D. Hanan T. Jagielo

2010-01-01

411

Ships on Hero Stones from the West Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hero stones were raised to honour the memory of those who lost their lives either in a battle (sea or land) or in some other untoward accident. This practice has been continued since the early times and varieties of hero stones have been reported from various provinces of India. Maximum number of hero stones so far reported from India has

Sila Tripati

2006-01-01

412

Yoga Big on West Coast, Chiropractors Popular in Midwest  

MedlinePLUS

... supplements like ginseng, Echinacea, ginkgo biloba and St. John's Wort. Those are just some of the findings ... medicine better focus their efforts, said Dr. Molly Roberts, president of the American Holistic Medical Association (AHMA). " ...

413

Eocene-Oligocene boundary problems, west coast, North America  

SciTech Connect

Correlation of the international Eocene-Oligocene boundary with the provincial biostratigraphic framework of the northeast Pacific margin has been and continues to be controversial. The controversy centers about historical nomenclature and correlations, and current correlations based on planktonic fossil group. The Geological Society of America's C.E. Weaver Committee published the first interdisciplinary correlation chart for the Cenozoic rocks of the western United States in 1944. The committee placed the Eocene-Oligocene boundary at the base of the Keasey Molluscan Stage and Refugian Benthic Foraminiferal Stage. The most useful provincial boundaries of Late Eocene to Oligocene age are the Narizian-Refugian and Refugian-Zemorrian Benthic Foraminiferal Stage boundaries. Reevaluation of the Refugian Stage has recently been completed. The stage boundaries have been correlated to the international geologic time scale using planktonic microfossils. Planktonic assemblages are rare in samples from above and below the Refugian-Zemorrian Benthic Foraminiferal Stage boundary. In California this boundary is commonly at an unconformity or without superposition of diagnostic faunas. In southwestern Washington the Refugian-Zemorrian boundary occurs in continuously deposited and foraminiferally rich sections. Radiometric calibration of the provincial boundaries is not yet possible. Whole rock potassium-argon and fission track dates are available but both have very large error bars or lack adequate biostratigraphic control to be useful. Fossiliferous stratigraphic sections have rocks with sufficient remanent magnetism for magnetostratigraphic studies but to date only reconnaissance data are available.

Armentrout, J.M.

1983-03-01

414

New species and records of Armadilloniscus Uljanin 1875 (Crustacea Isopoda Oniscidea) from the coasts of the Indian and Pacific oceans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten species of Armadilloniscus Uljanin 1875 collected from the coasts of the Indian and Pacric oceans are recorded. Six species, namely A. lamellatus from Somalia, West and East Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, A. malaccensis from West Malaysia, A. iliffei from New Caledonia, A. hatoaiianus from the Hawaiian Islands, A. cong'obator from New Caledonia, and A. bilioni from Indonesia, are

S. Taiti; F. Ferrara

1989-01-01

415

Zooplankton of West Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 m mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annlidae Polychtes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

2014-05-01

416

Submerged platform of marine abrasion around the coasts of south-western Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENT studies at Aberystwyth have shown that Palaeozoic rocks extend as a gently sloping platform (below a cover of sediment or drift) 16 km seawards of the coast of south-western Wales, up to 18 km to the south of the coast of Ireland, and some 15 km north-west of Cornwall. Sparker traverses1 show this platform to be, in general, smoothly

Alan Wood

1974-01-01

417

Dispersal of Platorchestia platensis (Kryer) (Amphipoda: Talitridae) along Swedish coasts: A Slow but Successful Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas) and Platorchestia platensis (Kryer) (Amphipoda: Talitridae) along the Swedish coast was studied in 199596. The latter species had expanded its distribution since the 1960s both on the Swedish west coast and in the Baltic Sea. The survival of the two species in salinities between 05 and 51 was investigated at 12C. Platorchestia platensis was

L.-E. Persson

2001-01-01

418

71 FR 30134 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Trunkline LNG seeks authority to construct and operate the following: 64 Potassium Formate (KF)-Air heaters (64 forced convection, three-fan air exchangers, 17.9 million Btu per hour (MMBtu/ hr)/Air Heater; Four KF-LNG Vaporizers...

2006-05-25

419

75 FR 11169 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...CP07-63-000] AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised Draft Final General...proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC, collectively referred to as AES, in the...

2010-03-10

420

76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...double the number that participated in 2009 (313), and nearly triple the number in 2008. However the 2010 total was down 36...allocation priorities in paragraphs (d)(1)(ix) and (x) of this section. Total allowable ocean harvest will be...

2011-10-24

421

West Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

2002-01-01

422

Field observation of the generation of edge waves by moving pressure waves on a continental shelf off Makurazaki coast, Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteotsunamis ; atmospherically induced destructive ocean waves in the tsunami frequency band frequently occur in bays and harbors along west coast of Kyushu, Japan during winter and early spring time. Makurazaki coast is located not along west coast but southern coast of Kyushu, however meteotsunamis are sometimes observed. In an meteotsunami event occurred 24 February 2009, a maximum seiche height 300cm was observed at a small bay named Urauchi along the west coast of Kyushu (Asano et al., 2012). At least 18 boats capsized and eight houses were flooded. At the same event, a seiche of 141cm maximum height was observed at Makurazaki coast which is located 80km south-east from Urauchi-bay. The coast is formed by a straight and pretty uniform continental shelf geometry with a length of 30km and a width of 10km. Thus, the authors supposed that the generation mechanism of the meteotsunami would be the resonant coupling between atmospheric disturbance and geometric edge waves trapped on the continental shelf. To investigate the generation mechanism of the meteotsunami there, a field observation was conducted by deploying three tidal gauges and a barometer along the coast. The spectral structures of the observed ocean wave fluctuations are analyzed. The results on the peak frequencies are compared with the analytical results on the eigenmodes of the oscillations for the trapping edge waves on the shelf.

Asano, T.

2013-12-01

423

Coasts in Crisis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This book describes the varied coastal environments of the United States and the natural processes and human actions that are constantly modifying them. Ignorance of these processes exacerbates the tragic collisions between people and nature, such as Hurricane Hugo in South Carolina, which left thousands homeless and destroyed billions of dollars of property. Topics include types of coasts; coastal change, including natural processes, local conditions, and human intervention; case studies of coastal conflicts in Ocean City, Isles Dernieres, Boston Harbor, and the effects of Hurricane Hugo. A summary overview of challenges and opportunities, and suggestions for further reading are also provided.

Williams, S.

424

LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development  

SciTech Connect

The initial scope of work for this project included: (1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, (2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and (3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL's FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI's technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

2006-09-30

425

Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A. [Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab.

1998-02-01

426

75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...been prepared by Stewart & Hamel (Stock Synthesis III model, 2010) and the second had...Martell (TINSS, 2010). The Stock Synthesis III model is an age-structured stock...whiting since the early 1980s. The Stock Synthesis III model uses data on total...

2010-05-04

427

77 FR 67973 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...NE., Seattle, WA 98115-0070, Attn: Sarah Williams. Fax: 206-526-6736, Attn: Sarah Williams. Instructions: Comments must be...Council. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sarah Williams, phone: 206-526-4646,...

2012-11-14

428

75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...gov. Fax: 206-526-6736, Attn: Sarah Williams. Mail: William Stelle...Seattle, WA 98115-0070, Attn: Sarah Williams. Instructions: All comments...Council. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sarah Williams, phone: 206-526-4646,...

2010-12-03

429

76 FR 59634 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...gov. Fax: 206-526-6736, Attn: Sarah Williams. Mail: William W. Stelle...Seattle, WA 98115- 0070, Attn: Sarah Williams. Instructions: All comments...Council). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sarah Williams, phone: 206-526-4646,...

2011-09-27

430

76 FR 50449 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council...Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for review...information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web...submit any FMP or plan amendment it...

2011-08-15

431

78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...history is the best reflection of dependence on the fishery. There is no NMFS guidance on the measurement of dependence. Equating dependence solely to recent fishing history could be in a sense ``double counting'' as the MSA already indicates...

2013-01-02

432

75 FR 53379 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...anthropology, law enforcement/police science, criminal justice, public administration, behavioral sciences, environmental sociology, or other closely related subjects pertinent to the management and protection of natural resources, or; (B) One...

2010-08-31

433

75 FR 78343 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...anthropology, law enforcement/police science, criminal justice, public administration, behavioral sciences, environmental sociology, or other closely related subjects pertinent to the management and protection of natural resources, or; (B) One...

2010-12-15

434

75 FR 32993 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...shoreside first receiver landings data in the dataset extracted from PacFIN by NMFS on July...extraction, aggregation, or expansion of the dataset that was extracted from NORPAC by NMFS...limited to: The accuracy of data in the dataset extracted from NORPAC by NMFS on...

2010-06-10

435

75 FR 60867 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...be based on the relevant ``PacFIN dataset on July 1, 2010,'' and as appropriate, the relevant ``NORPAC dataset on August 1, 2010.'' NMFS has removed...determined that the July 1, 2010, dataset in PacFIN and the August 1,...

2010-10-01

436

76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 090428799-9802-01] RIN...management measures are found at 50 CFR part 660, subparts C through G. In June 2010...Table 2 (North) and 2 (South) to part 660, subpart E. Based on the...

2011-03-02

437

75 FR 67032 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 100212086-0354-04] RIN...Table 1 North and Table 1 South to Part 660, Subpart D) consistent with the October...deg] N. lat. (Table 2 South to Part 660, Subpart E) and open access...

2010-11-01

438

75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 090428799-9802-01] RIN...and management measures are at 50 CFR part 660, subpart G. Changes to the groundfish...are taken under the authority of 50 CFR 660.370(c) and are exempt from review...

2010-10-04

439

75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 100122041-0118-01] RIN...Background The regulations at 50 CFR 660.324(d) establish the process by which...following the process established in 50 CFR 660.324(d). The tribal allocation...

2010-03-12

440

76 FR 67092 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 [Docket No. 100804324-1265-02] RIN...Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), part 660, subparts C through G, regulate fishing...measures are codified in the CFR (50 CFR part 660, subparts C through G). Changes...

2011-10-31