Sample records for west coast lng

  1. FERC (U. S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission) judge approves West Coast LNG project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1979-01-01

    In mid-Aug. 1979, FERC Judge S. Gordon approved Western LNG Terminal Associate's proposed southern California LNG terminal subject to final approval by FERC and by the U.S. Economic Regulatory Administration. The terminal would be located at Little Cojo, near Point Conception. Gordon noted that the California Public Utilities Commission decided in favor of the Point Conception site, and dismissed two

  2. West Coast Fog

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2000-09-29

    This is part of the Physical Processes Professional Competency Unit of the Forecasting Low-Altitude Clouds and Fog for Aviation Operations Professional Development Series. West Coast Fog discusses the climatology, physical processes, and evolution of hot spell fogs along the U.S. West Coast.

  3. West Coast Poverty Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

  4. Greenland: Full West Coast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lori Perkins

    2000-06-25

    This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

  5. Greenland full west coast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lori Perkins

    2000-06-25

    This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

  6. 76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...submitted Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

  7. 77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...CONTACT: Peggy Mundy, Northwest Region Salmon Management Division, NMFS, 206-526-4323...regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of...

  8. 77 FR 67327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...transmitted Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

  9. West Coast Chlorophyll Bloom

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lori Perkins

    2002-10-15

    Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on board the Orbview 2 satellite captured the phytoplankton bloom October 6, 2002 . Red represents high concentration of chlorophyll, follow by orange, yellow and green. Land and cloud portions of the image are presented in natural color. SeaWiFS monitors ocean plant life by measuring the amount of chlorophyll in the ocean. Large phytoplankton blooms tend to coincide with natural phenomena that drive that nutrient-rich water to the surface. The process is called upwelling. Winds coming off principal land masses push surface layers of water away from the shore. Into the resulting wind-driven void deeper water underneath the surface layers rushes in toward the coast, bringing with it nutrients for life to bloom. This upwelling fuel the growth of marine phytoplankton which, along with larger seaweeds, nourishes the incredible diversity of creatures found along the northern and central California coast.

  10. 76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

  11. 75 FR 24482 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2010 Management Measures...management measures for the 2010 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2011 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

  12. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

  13. 77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  14. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  15. 78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

  16. Pipeline problems exacerbate west coast oil surplus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. J. CARTER

    1978-01-01

    A discussion showed that Alaskan sour crude has displaced imported sour crude used by west coast refiners, but not the 600,000 bbl\\/day of imported sweet crude. In the absence of pipelines, the 550,000 bbl\\/day excess of Alaskan crude oil must be moved to the Gulf Coast by tankers. Atlantic Richfield Co. already has been forced to abandon its plans to

  17. ENIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT WEST COAST PILOT 2002 INTERTIDAL ASSESSMENT

    E-print Network

    QAPP FOR ENIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM WEST COAST PILOT 2002 INTERTIDAL ASSESSMENT ENIRONMENTAL MONITORING AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM WEST COAST PILOT 2002 INTERTIDAL ASSESSMENT: CALIFORNIA Institute Larry Cooper Southern California Coastal Water Research Project Roslynn Dunn Moss Landing Marine

  18. THREAD HERRING DISTRIBUTION OFF FLORIDA'S WEST COAST

    E-print Network

    THREAD HERRING DISTRIBUTION OFF FLORIDA'S WEST COAST Brian S. Kinne a r and Charles M. Fuss Jr. The thread herring (Opisthonema oglinum) is essentially a coastal pelagic species. Data suggest a seasonal concentrations of thread herring occur near Ft. Myers. Florida. during the winter. The prospects for a commer

  19. 75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 9, 10...announces three inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason actions 9 and...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

  20. 76 FR 17033 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...in effect until the opening of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011...

  1. 78 FR 24360 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

  2. 77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 through...announces 11 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

  3. 77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15 through...announces 7 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

  4. 77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 22 through...announces 5 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

  5. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

  6. 78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY...announces one inseason action in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

  7. 77 FR 22682 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces 3 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2011 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (76 FR 25246, May 4,...

  8. 78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through...announces six inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

  9. 75 FR 44925 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

  10. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

  11. PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA

    E-print Network

    PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Marine Biological Laboratory WOODS PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF WATERS ALONG THF WEST COAST OF FLORIDA Herbert Wo Graham, Fishery Biologist, John Mo, 195U #12;ABSTRACT The distribution of inorganic and total phosphorus in the waters along the west

  12. 76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 5 Through...announces 22 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...effect until the closing date of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011 annual...

  13. 75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 12 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

  14. 75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 14 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

  15. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  16. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  17. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  18. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  19. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

  20. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  2. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  3. Glaciations of the West Coast Range, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colhoun, Eric A.

    1985-07-01

    Geomorphic, stratigraphic, palynologic and 14C evidence indicates that the West Coast Range, Tasmania, was glaciated at least three times during the late Cenozoic. The last or Margaret Glaciation commenced after 30,000 yr B.P., culminated about 19,000 yr B.P., and ended by 10,000 yr B.P. During this period a small ice cap, ca. 250 m thick, and cirque and valley glaciers covered 108 km 2. The glacial deposits show little chemical weathering or erosional dissection. The snow line ranged from 690 to 1000 m with an average of 830 m for the ice cap. Mean temperature was 6.5°C below the present temperature. During the preceding Henty Glaciation a 300- to 400-m-thick ice cap and outlet glaciers exceeded 1000 km 2. The glacial deposits are beyond 14C assay. They are more weathered chemically and more dissected than Margaret age deposits, and the degree suggests a pre-last interglaciation age (> 130,000 yr B.P.). The snow line of the ice cap lay at 740 m, and annual temperature was reduced by 7°C. Ice of the earliest Linda Glaciation slightly exceeded that of the Henty Glaciation but had a similar distribution. The glacial deposits are intensely weathered, have reversed magnetization, and overlie a paleosol containing pollen of Tertiary type. An early Pleistocene or Tertiary age is indicated.

  4. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Emmett; ROBERTO LLANSO ´; Jan Newton; Ron Thom; Michelle Hornberger; Cheryl Morgan; Colin Levings; Andrea Copping; Paul Fishman

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from\\u000a large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms,\\u000a and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable\\u000a shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds,

  5. Learning about geological events in Vendée (west coast of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretaudeau, Florence; Lavigne, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Our 70 pupils, aged from 17 to 18 had discovered an area of the west coast of France : Vendée. We studied rocks in order to tell the geological story of this area. Several characteristics were looked at : sedimentary and metamorphics rocks, minerals, fault, folding, unconformability... We took advantage of this geological journey to look at biodiversity in different ecosystems : rocky coast, dune, wood.

  6. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

  7. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  8. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  9. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  10. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  11. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

  12. Sediment trace metal contamination in the Ivory Coast, West Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Issifou Kouadio; John H. Trefry

    1987-01-01

    To help expand our global perspective on trace metal contamination, concentrations of Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined for sediments from the Ebrie Lagoon in the Ivory Coast, a developing West African nation. Excess loading of several metals, especially Hg, Pb, and Zn was found at several sites. The maximum concentration of Hg measured in sediments

  13. US west coast revisited: An aeromagnetic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zietz, I.; Johnson, P.R. (George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (USA)); Bond, K.R. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    A new compilation of magnetic data for the western conterminous United States and offshore areas provides significant information about crustal units and structures in the region. Features shown on the compilation include a magnetic quiet zone along the coast and two lineaments inland. The magnetic quiet zone correlates with the accretionary prism at the western edge of the North American plate and overlies subducted ocean crust; abrupt termination of ocean-floor magnetic anomalies at, or a short distance east of, the toe of the accretionary prism is an inferred effect subduction-induced low-temperature metamorphism of the ocean crust. The Puget Lowlands-San Joaquin lineament is an alignment of high-intensity magnetic anomalies that in the south, and possibly also in the north, are cause by bodies of mafic-ultramafic rocks accreted to North America during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The lineup of the highs and the inferred lineup of the causative bodies may reflect fundamental structures that control Mesozoic and Tertiary evolution of the continental margin. The Mojave Desert lineament, a distinctive chain of short-wavelength magnetic anomalies in southern California, coincides partly with a zone of Mesozoic intrusions and the Cenozoic San Andreas fault system, but is likely to be older than both in origin and may reflect a Mesozoic or older crustal discontinuity.

  14. Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast) M The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest

  15. 78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ...Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...announces 23 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial and recreational salmon fisheries in the area from the...

  16. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  17. Single-Tree and Group Selection Harvesting in an Old-Growth Forest on the West Coast of

    E-print Network

    Single-Tree and Group Selection Harvesting in an Old-Growth Forest on the West Coast of Vancouver. Single-Tree and Group Selection Harvesting in an Old-Growth Forest on the West Coast of Vancouver Island

  18. Holocene Glacial Retreat at Walgreen Coast, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, J.; Johnson, J.; Castex, M.; Wittmann, H.; Smith, J.; Lisker, F.; Gohl, K.; Spiegel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Walgreen Coast of West Antarctica represents one of the most rapidly changing sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). With the fastest ice streams in the whole Antarctic, the WAIS is characterised by rapid thinning and grounding line retreat. Airborne and satellite-based short-term observations show a doubling of the negative net mass balance between 1996-2006 (Rignot et al., 2008). Furthermore, because the WAIS is largely grounded below sea level, continued inland thinning and grounding line retreat could result in rapid ice sheet collapse, which would raise global sea level by between 3-5 m. However, due to remoteness and challenging accessibility, onshore data is limited to a few isolated nunataks making it difficult to assess the long-term evolution of the glacial dynamics along Walgreen Coast. To address this we present new data from two key areas of the Walgreen Coast; the Kohler Range and the Pine Island Bay. Our 10Be surface exposure ages from erratic boulders in the Kohler Range are the first and reveal that this area became ice-free between 8.3 and 12.3 ka. This implies a long-term thinning rate of 3.3 cm/yr and agrees with similar data published from glaciers eastward. Our ages are also consistent with recent deglaciation models which suggest strong thinning after 15 ka and off-shore sediments shows a concurrent lateral ice-shelf front retreat. Our results suggest an ice-cover at least 300 m thicker in the Kohler Range during the early Holocene and that subsequent average thinning occurred on rates one order of magnitude slower than recent satellite measurements show. This implies that the recent trend in ice-sheet thinning results from a recent dynamic changes rather than a response to long-term thinning. To further constrain the lateral deglaciation history along the eastern Walgreen Coast, namely the Pine Island Glacier, we collected additional samples from a chain of islands, located flow-parallel and downstream of the ice-shelf front. We will use this new 10Be surface exposure data to infer whether the uncovering of these islands results from glacial retreat and/or subsequent isostatic rebound. Together, our new data will contribute to a better understanding of long-term glacial thinning along the West Antarctic coast, and thus provides new constraints for ice sheet models helping to predict the future behaviour of the WAIS. Rignot, E., Bamber, J. L., Van den Broeke, M. R., Davis, C., Li, Y., Van de Berg, W. J., van Meijgaard, E., 2008: Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling. Nature Geoscience. 1, 106-110.

  19. The West Coast Picket Fence Experiment during STORM-FEST.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Paul A.; Lind, Richard J.; Bolduc, Steven J.; Eisberry, Russell L.

    1995-10-01

    Mesoscale weather systems that develop in the central United States are often forced by environmental features that have formed far upstream over the conventional data-sparse Pacific Ocean. Although remotely sensed observations, such as satellite retrievals, are becoming more numerous and accurate, they still may not have the resolution necessary to enhance global model-based analyses and forecasts over this region. These global model products are the primary source of lateral boundary conditions that have been found to have large impacts on the downstream forecast skill of regional mesoscale models over the United States. in addition, the temporal and spatial resolution of the current rawinsonde network along the West Coast may not be sufficient to detect and measure mososcale flow features as they move inland. During the STORM-FEST experiment in February-March 1992, a "Picket Fence" of seven special rawinsonde stations were interspersed among the seven regular rawinsonde sites from Port Hardy, British Columbia, to Sap Diego, California. All sites obtained observations every 3 h rather than the normal 12 h. The objective of the Picket Fence was to examine the feasibility of using extra observations in time and space to improve upstream boundary conditions for forecasts of mesoscale weather events in the central United States. As a first step in examining the potential boundary condition impact of the Picket Fence, fluxes of mass, beat, momentum, potential energy, kinetic energy, and moisture across the West Coast resolved with various spatial and temporal combinations of Picket Fence data are compared with the 12-h regular upper-air sites as the standard. When a wave system crossed the middle of the Picket Fence, significantly different fluxes were calculated with the full spatial and 3-h Picket Fence observations. For other systems that crossed near the margins of the Picket Fence, only small changes were detected by the additional observations.

  20. History of petroleum exploration in California and the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.E.

    1991-03-01

    California's main oil and gas basins consist of the inland Sacramento and San Joaquin and the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Maria basins adjacent to the coast and extending offshore. The state's total oil production to 1991 is approximately 22.8 billion bbls. Producing formations range in age from basement Jurassic to Pleistocene, but production is mainly from thick multiple sand zones of Miocene and Pliocene age. The first oil discovery was in the eastern Ventura basin in 1875. By the turn of the century, 22 fields, including several giants in the San Joaquin Valley, had been discovered by drilling near oil seepages. The most important event of the 1920s was the discovery of several giant oil fields in the Los Angeles basin, drilled on topographic highs suggestive of underlying anticlines. State production rapidly increased to 850,000 BOPD, or 40% of all US production. The 1930s saw the advent of the reflection seismograph, responsible for the state's largest oil field (Wilmington) in the Lost Angeles basin and the state's largest gas field (Rio Vista) in the Sacramento basin. A number of important fields were found under the San Joaquin Valley floor. Geological thinking in the late 1930s and 1940s resulted in the discovery of large stratigraphic traps in the San Joaquin Valley (e.g., East Coalinga) and at Santa Maria from fractured shale, plus two new small producing basins, the Cuyama and the Salinas. Offshore exploration, consisting of seismic work, ocean-bottom sampling, and coreholing, revealed the presence of a number of anticlines in the Ventura basin, paralleling the Santa Barbara coast. The first offshore discovery was made in 1959 on state lands followed by several major fields on federal lands in the late 1960s. Elsewhere along the West Coast, exploration in Oregon and Washington has yielded only minor gas.

  1. 77 FR 15973 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ...limits for swordfish harvested in the U.S. West Coast-based deep-set tuna longline (DSLL) fishery. The DSLL fishery is managed...appendices are available on the Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at...

  2. A Site on Stepping Stones Island Along the West Coast of the Antarctic Peninsula

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thomas A. Day (Arizona State University; Department of Plant Biology and The Photosynthesis ADR; POSTAL)

    2004-03-09

    A site on Stepping Stones Island along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula where plants were collected for field and environmental chamber experiments examining the influence of temperature on the growth of flowering plants.

  3. Dynamic Stability of Coral Reefs on the West Australian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ C.; Bancroft, Kevin P.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Moore, James A. Y.; Nutt, Christopher D.; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10–35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (?28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs. PMID:23922829

  4. West Coast Salmon and the Endangered Species Act: Extinction is NOT an Option

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Northwest Regional Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has recently launched this Website on endangered species listings for Pacific Coast salmon. The site includes West Coast Salmon Listings, Fact Sheets, Species Maps, Federal Register Notices, Reports and Publications, and a What's New section, providing news updates, progress reports, and detailed maps. The site features the five salmon species (Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink, Sockeye), Steelhead, and Coastal Cutthroat Trout, with color images, international range maps (US and Canada), status/ descriptive text, critical habitat descriptions, and protective regulations for each Evolutionarily Significant Unit (distinctive group of fish). This is an excellent place to find current information on endangered West Coast salmon.

  5. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IN WEST COAST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabalistic survey of coastal condition assessment was conducted in 1999 by participants in US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The survey targeted estuaries along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, including the lower Columbi...

  6. History of petroleum exploration in California and the West Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    California's main oil and gas basins consist of the inland Sacramento and San Joaquin and the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Maria basins adjacent to the coast and extending offshore. The state's total oil production to 1991 is approximately 22.8 billion bbls. Producing formations range in age from basement Jurassic to Pleistocene, but production is mainly from thick multiple sand

  7. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  8. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?13C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  9. 76 FR 65155 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Species Fisheries; Swordfish Retention Limits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ...harvested in the U.S. West Coast-based deep-set tuna longline (DSLL) fishery...Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at http://www.pcouncil.org...shallow sets. Longline vessels that make deep sets with longline (DSLL) are...

  10. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  11. East-West Coast differences in total electron content over the continental US

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shun-Rong Zhang; John C. Foster; Anthea J. Coster; Philip J. Erickson

    2011-01-01

    Total electron content (TEC) measurements made by a network of dense GPS receivers over the continental US are used to investigate ionospheric longitudinal differences. We find that the evening TEC is substantially higher on the US east coast than on the west, and vice versa for the morning TEC; the longitudinal difference displays a clear diurnal variation. Through an analysis

  12. Time and space variations of monsoonal upwelling along the west and east coasts of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Divakar Naidu; M. R. Ramesh Kumar; V. Ramesh Babu

    1999-01-01

    The study of monthly mean local temperature anomaly (LTA defined as the difference between coastal and mid-ocean sea surface temperatures), and Ekman transport along the west and east coasts of India based on 60-year data set of Hastenrath and Lamb (1979) reveals that both LTA and Ekman transport (ME) are found to be high during the summer monsoon. The LTAs

  13. 77 FR 73005 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...associated annual reference points for Pacific mackerel in the U.S. exclusive economic zone...2012-2013 ACL or maximum HG for Pacific mackerel is 40,514 metric tons (mt). The...intended to conserve and manage the Pacific mackerel stock off the U.S. West Coast....

  14. Characterisation of kaolinitic clays from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sei; A. Abba Touré; J. Olivier-Fourcade; H. Quiquampoix; S. Staunton; J. C. Jumas; M. Womes

    2004-01-01

    Clays from different deposits in the Ivory Coast (Adattié (ADA), Nieki (NIE), Grand-Bassam (BAS), Nigui-Saff (NS)) were studied using various techniques. Their chemical compositions were determined by X-ray fluorescence and the most important crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction. Kaolinite is the dominant mineral phase with minor amounts of other minerals including quartz, haematite, goethite, lepidocrocite and illite. The

  15. Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

  16. 75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard...permanent security zone in the Freeport LNG Basin. This security zone is needed to...NPRM) entitled Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX in the Federal...

  17. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in consumable fishes from Digha coast, West Bengal, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koushik Ghosh; Sudipta Mandal

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria from the commercial marine catch of the pelagic fishes in the Bay of Bengal at Digha coast (21°37?N,\\u000a 87°33?E), West Bengal, India were evaluated. Aerobic heterotrophic and gram negative, along with the enteric bacteria were\\u000a enumerated from gill and intestinal homogenates. Media supplemented with the antibiotics were used to evaluate the antibiotic\\u000a resistant bacterial load. Viable counts

  18. Radiometric characteristics of heavy mineral deposits along the west coast of South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Macdonald; A. Rozendaal; R. J. de Meijer

    1997-01-01

    During the last decade, exploration and mining of modern-Tertiary heavy mineral beach and raised beach sands along the west\\u000a coast of South Africa has developed into a major industry. High resolution radiometric techniques have demonstrated their\\u000a use as a quantitative indicator of total heavy mineral concentration (THM) and also have the ability to discriminate between\\u000a sediments derived from different provenance

  19. Nutritional and antinutritional components of Canavalia spp. seeds from the west coast sand dunes of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. B. Arun; K. R. Sridhar; N. S. Raviraja; E. Schmidt; K. Jung

    2003-01-01

    Seeds of two coastal sand dune wild legumes, Canavalia cathartica and Canavalia maritima from the west coast of India were analyzed for their nutritional and antinutritional properties. The seeds contained 35.5 and 34.1% crude protein, 52.8 and 50.5% crude carbohydrates, 1.3 and 1.7% crude lipids and 3.1 and 3.5% ash content, respectively. Among the minerals, potassium was the highest followed

  20. Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, S K; Johnston, B; Twogood, R; Wieting, M; Yorkey, T; Robey, H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Whelan, D; Nagele, R [Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1993-01-05

    The joint US -- UK 1991 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in two locations. From July 5 to 12, 1991, in Upper Loch Linnhe, and from July 18 to July 26, 1991, in the Sound of Sleat. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

  1. Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2012-06-30

    Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

  2. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayman A. Shama

    2011-01-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek\\u000a on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site,\\u000a including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system\\u000a between

  3. Near?shore distribution and abundance of dolphins along the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Brager; Karsten Schneider

    1998-01-01

    Compared to other stretches of the New Zealand coast, very little is known about the cetacean fauna off the West Coast of the South Island. The purpose of this paper is to describe the near?shore distribution and abundance of dolphins in that area by summarising the results of two major studies. Between February 1995 and February 1997, 97 day trips

  4. Climatic Controls on Summertime fog Patterns Along the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. P.; Still, C.; Husak, G.; Michaelsen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Summertime fog and stratus overcast along the U.S. west coast significantly impact aviation, marine travel, agriculture, and biodiversity. However, an understanding of the climatic mechanisms that drive variability in fog formation and dissolution in this region, particularly on interannual time scales, is lacking, in part because fog data are collected at only a handful of coastal sites. Furthermore, fog is quite spatially variable and depends in part on local-scale features such as coastal topography and coastline orientation. As a result, accurate predictions of relative fogginess from one summer to the next have been elusive. This means that we do not know how coastal fogginess may change in response to global climate change. In this study, we treated all low stratus clouds as fog and used hourly records of summertime cloud height from 12 coastal stations along with daily satellite imagery to develop the first spatially continuous record of summertime fog occurrence along the California coast. Using statistical techniques to compare records of summer fog frequency to global gridded climate data, we created a statistical model that utilizes the organization of global sea surface temperatures and atmospheric pressures to estimate relative summer fogginess along California's coast. We then used GCM outputs based upon several climate change scenarios to predict how summer fog frequency may be expected to change during the 21st century. Finally, we used ecological niche modeling to predict how future changes in coastal fogginess might impact the range boundaries of several endemic plant species, including coast redwood.

  5. Diseases and environmental contaminants in seals from the Baltic and the Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Olsson, M; Karlsson, B; Ahnland, E

    1994-09-16

    Investigations have shown that Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) and ringed seal (Phoca hispida) suffer from a disease complex described as a primary lesion in the adrenals causing secondary reactions in various other organs. Studies on historical Baltic grey seal skull bone material show that the prevalence of affected animals started to increase after World War II. The disease complex explains the dramatic decrease in the Baltic grey and ringed seal population during the 1960s and 1970s and is believed to be caused by environmental pollutants. In 1988, about 60% of the harbor seal population (Phoca vitulina) along the Swedish west coast and in the southwestern part of the Baltic died in the PDV epizootic (Phocine Distemper Virus). Whether the course of the epizootic was altered by environmental pollutants is still an open question. Studies on historical harbor seal skull bone material from both the Baltic and the Swedish west coast show that the incidence of skull bone lesions has also increased in these populations since World War II, indicating the presence of unnatural stress factors. After the epizootic, the harbor seal populations both in the Baltic and along the Swedish west coast have increased in number. Chemical analysis of tissues has been performed on the three seal species collected in various areas of the Baltic and the Swedish west coast. The concentrations of 17 metals and non-metal elements, sDDT and PCBs, DDE and PCB methylsulfones, toxaphene, chlordanes, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PCDDs and PCDFs have been determined in selected groups of seals in order to determine spatial, species and age variations in concentrations. Furthermore, healthy animals have been compared to diseased animals. Spatial variation was found mostly within the group of organohalogenated compounds, a group of contaminants where a strong covariation between the various compounds was also found. On the basis of the analytical results as well as the pathological findings on Baltic seals, the group of DDE and PCB methyl sulfones is tentatively suggested to be more important in explaining the disease complex than coplanar structures including dioxins. PMID:7973608

  6. ShakeAlert: an earthquake early warning system for the United States West Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with several partners has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a demonstration system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN THE HYDROMEDUSA GENUS POLYORCHIS ON THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, John T.; Larson, R.J.

    1980-12-01

    Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

  8. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Dignes, T.W. (Chevron USA, Inc., San Francisco, CA); Woltz, D.

    1981-10-01

    In the onshore area of California, 403 exploratory wells were drilled during 1980; 133 were successfully completed as producers. Five new gas fields and 4 new oil fields can be called significant new discoveries found by exploratory drilling during 1980. In the onshore area of California, 1757 development wells were drilled during 1980; 97% were successfully completed as producers. For the California offshore, just 7 exploratory well completions were reported for 1980; only 2 were successful. Seventy-two development wells were drilled; 65 of these (90%) were successful. For both the California onshore and offshore, the total exploratory footage drilled in 1980 was higher, but the total number of successful exploratory wells was down 9.4% from 1979. Notable industry activity in the California onshore area during 1980 included Shell's operations and plans for properties acquired from Belridge Oil Company, the experimental recovery project being conducted by Barber Heavy Oil Process, Inc., in Kern River field, Gulf's planned fire flood in Fruitvale field, and Getty's mining program in McKittrick field. Geothermal activity during 1980 in California included the new pool discovery made by Occidental Geothermal Inc. in the Geysers and development programs carried out by operators in several proven field areas. In Oregon, development of the Mist gas field, discovered in 1979, continued through 1980. The field, located in Columbia County in the northwestern corner of the state was producing 13.1 mmcf gas/d by June 1980. Another major test is being drilled by Texaco in Crook County. Shell spudded an important deep wildcat on the Columbia Plateau in Washington during 1980. At last report, the well was below 11,740 ft and still being drilled. 5 figures, 6 tables.

  9. West Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Dignes; D. Woltz

    1981-01-01

    In the onshore area of California, 403 exploratory wells were drilled during 1980; 133 were successfully completed as producers. Five new gas fields and 4 new oil fields can be called significant new discoveries found by exploratory drilling during 1980. In the onshore area of California, 1757 development wells were drilled during 1980; 97% were successfully completed as producers. For

  10. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches with seasonal morphological changes and annual cyclicity. The coastal zone in Goa is exposed to environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Some of the factors attributing to these pressures can be due to demographic settings and population growth, rapid urbanization, migration, recreation and tourism activities, fishery activities, transportation problems, socio-economic shift and transformation in occupation like, fishing, tourism, trade, salt industry; wetlands conversion, degradation of agriculture land and fallow lands. Shoreline changes observed overlapping the data after 32 years showed that all along the coast of Goa, from north to south, there is large variation in depositional and erosional processes. Deposition is specifically observed at Morjim, Baga, Campal, Miramar, Mobor and erosion is specifically observed at Kerim, Anjuna, Velsao. The present study reveals that all along the estuarine systems, there is net deposition. Further change detection study carried out overlapping the data after 38 years showed transformation of Khazan lands, conversion of marshy swampy and water logged areas, increase in Mangrove areas and decrease in salt pans. The present paper has succeeded in delineating various coastal ecosystems, coastal land forms, their resource potentials and transformation, if any. The study has helped earmarking the coastal region into conservation, development and utilization areas.

  11. A review of sediment dynamical processes in the west coast of Korea, eastern Yellow Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee Jun

    2014-06-01

    Sediment dynamical processes began to be systematically monitored in the west coast of Korea facing the eastern Yellow Sea in the 1990s. The early investigations were largely conducted aboard vessels that provided results where the resolution was highly restricted in both temporal and spatial aspects. However, full-fledged autonomous instruments introduced early in the 2000s allowed for a quantum leap in the level of this sub-field of sedimentology. The investigated sites include various environments such as estuaries, bays, tidal flats, beaches, and offshore deposits. Among them, a total of seven sites were selected for the review: Han estuary, Daeho tidal flats, Garolim Bay, Saemangeum Region, Byunsan Beach, Gomso Bay, and Huksan Mud Belt. The major results from each site were briefly summarized. The summary clearly demonstrates that wind-generated currents and waves particularly during winter should be carefully considered in interpreting sedimentary environments. This is because winter-season processes interrupt or actively displace much of the sediments worked by tidal currents in the remaining seasons. The summary hence suggests that seasonal investigations of sediment dynamics are necessary to understand shallow-water sedimentation in the west coast of Korea that is governed complicatedly by two major forcing agents: waves and tidal currents.

  12. Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden).

    PubMed

    Langhamer, O

    2010-06-01

    Offshore wave energy conversion is expected to develop, thus contributing to an increase in submerged constructions on the seabed. An essential concern related to the deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) is their possible impact on the surrounding soft-bottom habitats. In this study, the macrofaunal assemblages in the seabed around the wave energy converters in the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast and a neighbouring reference site were examined yearly during a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Macrobenthic communities living in the WECs' surrounding seabed were mainly composed by organisms typical for the area and depth off the Swedish west coast. At both sites the number of individuals, number of species and biodiversity were low, and were mostly small, juvenile organisms. The species assemblages during the first years of sampling were significantly different between the Lysekil research site and the nearby reference site with higher species abundance in the research site. The high contribution to dissimilarities was mostly due to polychaetes. Sparse macrofaunal densities can be explained by strong hydrodynamic forces and/or earlier trawling. WECs may alter the surrounding seabed with an accumulation of organic matter inside the research area. This indicates that the deployment of WECs in the Lysekil research site tends to have rather minor direct ecological impacts on the surrounding benthic community relative to the natural high variances. PMID:20138659

  13. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the West Coast of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W.; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg?1, significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of 134Cs and 137Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ?2 Bq kg?1. Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain 137Cs exactly at the detection limit level and 134Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of 134Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. PMID:24795385

  14. Classification of atmospheric river events on the U.S. west coast using a trajectory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, J. M.; Waliser, D. E.; Waugh, D. W.; Wong, S.; Fetzer, E. J.; Fung, I. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate transport pathways of water vapor associated with landfalling atmospheric river (AR) events that result in precipitation along the west coast of the U.S. for winter of 1997-2010. The water vapor transport pathways are determined by computing back-trajectories with a trajectory model using the MERRA reanalysis dataset. The majority of AR events (about 86%) over the west coast of the U.S. are associated with three trajectory types. We designate the first type as Ascending near landfall and of Tropical Origin (AT), the second type as Ascending near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (AE), and the third type as Descending or parallel near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (DE). The magnitude and spatial distribution of precipitation of a given AR event are found to be strongly determined by the mixture of its type of trajectories. AR events composed of both AT and AE trajectories have more frequent and intense precipitation over a broad region of the western U.S. (particularly in the northern California) than AR events dominated by a single trajectory type (AT) or other combinations (e.g. AT and DE). In addition, different patterns of trajectory types among AR events are closely linked to the location and the shape of potential vorticity intrusions near the tropopause, which emphasizes that lower tropospheric air is interacting with upper tropospheric air during the developing rainfall system.

  15. Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kniskern, T.A.; Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West Coast during winter storms and that these patterns vary substantially with latitude. These results should assist with future evaluations of flood plume formation and sediment fate along this coast. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Orographic shaping of US West Coast wind profiles during the upwelling season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, Lionel; Hall, Alex; McWilliams, James C.

    2015-04-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of nearshore winds in eastern boundary current systems is affected by orography, coastline shape, and air-sea interaction. These lead to a weakening of the wind close to the coast: the so-called wind drop-off. In this study, regional atmospheric simulations over the US West Coast are used to demonstrate monthly characteristics of the wind drop-off and assess the mechanisms controlling it. Using a long-term simulation, we show the wind drop-off has spatial and seasonal variability in both its offshore extent and intensity. The offshore extent varies from around 10 to 80 km from the coast and the wind reduction from 10 to 80 %. We show that when the mountain orography is combined with the coastline shape of a cape, it has the biggest influence on wind drop-off. The primary associated processes are the orographically-induced vortex stretching and the surface drag related to turbulent momentum flux divergence that has an enhanced drag coefficient over land. Orographically-induced tilting/twisting can also be locally significant in the vicinity of capes. The land-sea drag difference acts as a barrier to encroachment of the wind onto the land through turbulent momentum flux divergence. It turns the wind parallel to the shore and slightly reduces it close to the coast. Another minor factor is the sharp coastal sea surface temperature front associated with upwelling. This can weaken the surface wind in the coastal strip by shallowing the marine boundary layer and decoupling it from the overlying troposphere.

  17. Developing a commercial-vessel-based stock assessment survey methodology for monitoring the U.S. west coast widow rockfish ( Sebastes entomelas) stock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick H. Ressler; Guy W. Fleischer; Vidar G. Wespestad; John Harms

    2009-01-01

    The widow rockfish (Sebastes entomelas) inhabits the continental shelf and upper slope of the west coast of North America. The U.S. west coast widow rockfish stock has declined since the mid-1980s, leading to implementation of increasingly stringent management restrictions upon the commercial fishery. The low numbers, patchy distribution, and preference for rocky habitats of the widow rockfish make this stock

  18. The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNE PRINGLE; RACHEL I. ADAMS; HUGH B. CROSS; THOMAS D. BRUNS

    2009-01-01

    The deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides is common along the west coast of North America. Death cap mushrooms are especially abundant in habitats around the San Francisco Bay, California, but the species grows as far south as Los Angeles County and north to Vancouver Island, Canada. At different times, various authors have considered the species as either native or introduced, and

  19. Diamond provenance studies from 40Ar\\/ 39Ar dating of clinopyroxene inclusions: An example from the west coast of Namibia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Phillips; J. W. Harris

    2009-01-01

    The west coast of Namibia is host to substantive detrital diamond deposits located in onshore and offshore beach gravels, desert deflation deposits and lower Orange river terraces. The origin of the Namibian diamonds is controversial, with some studies favouring derivation from distal Cretaceous\\/Jurassic kimberlites on the Kaapvaal craton, and others arguing that most diamonds originated from proximal Dwyka glacial deposits

  20. Iron links river runoff and shelf width to phytoplankton biomass along the U.S. West Coast

    E-print Network

    Pierce, Stephen

    . Citation: Chase, Z., P. G. Strutton, and B. Hales (2007), Iron links river runoff and shelf width and Columbia Rivers, the discharge latitude was taken as the latitude of the FDGS. The Sacramento's FDGSIron links river runoff and shelf width to phytoplankton biomass along the U.S. West Coast Zanna

  1. Results of small-scale passive system trials to treat acid mine drainage, West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Trumm; M Watts

    2010-01-01

    Successful passive treatment of acid mine drainage can be improved through the use of small-scale pilot treatment systems to confirm appropriate system selection. Small-scale reducing and alkalinity producing systems were tested at two acid mine drainage sites in the West Coast Region, South Island, New Zealand: the Sullivan Mine and the Pike River Adit. A laboratory trial consisting of a

  2. Foraminiferal evidence for the amount of coseismic subsidence during a late holocene earthquake on Vancouver Island, West Coast of Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Guilbault; John J. Clague; Martine Lapointe

    1996-01-01

    Foraminiferal data from two sites, 6 km apart, on the shores of an inlet near Tofino on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, allow estimates to be made of the amount of coseismic subsidence during a large earthquake 100–400 years ago. The sampled sediment succession at the two sites is similar; peat representing a former marsh surface is

  3. Report on the occurrence of brown ring disease (BRD) in Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, on the west coast of Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung-Il Park; Christine Paillard; Patrick Le Chevalier; Kwang-Sik Choi

    2006-01-01

    This is the first report on the occurrence of Vibrio tapetis, the brown ring disease (BRD) agent in Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum, in Asian waters. Brown conchiolin deposits, a distinct sign of BRD, were observed on the inner shells of clams collected from Anmyeondo Island, on the west coast of Korea. The infection intensity, based on the appearance of conchiolin

  4. Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

  5. IIFET 2010 Montpellier Proceedings1 Eco-labelling in Fisheries along West African Coast: the Potentials and Pitfalls.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IIFET 2010 Montpellier Proceedings1 Eco-labelling in Fisheries along West African Coast/MNHN, Dakar, Senegal ** ISRA, Dakar, Senegal Abstract Eco-labelling is considered with increased interest and socio-economical contexts, leads to assess the constraints and opportunities attached to eco- labelling

  6. Properties and Distributions of Aerosol Particles Transported from Asia to the West Coast of the United States During ITCT 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Reeves; C. A. Brock; D. Murphy; D. Cziczo; J. Holloway; P. Hudson; B. Lafleur; J. C. Wilson; D. Parrish; T. Ryerson; D. Nicks; J. Degouw; C. Warneke

    2002-01-01

    During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformations experiment in April and May, 2002, airborne measurements were made of particle microphysical and chemical properties and of trace gases. Layers of air containing enhanced number and mass concentrations of particles transported from Asia were encountered near the West Coast of the United States on several flights. During the most concentrated events, the

  7. Vertical propagation of extratropical Rossby waves during the 19971998 El Nin~o off the west coast of South America

    E-print Network

    Vertical propagation of extratropical Rossby waves during the 1997­1998 El Nin~o off the west coast displacement variability associated with extratropical Rossby waves (ETRW) and their connection with equatorial. Garric (2008), Vertical propagation of extratropical Rossby waves during the 1997­1998 El Nin~o off

  8. Extreme irgarol tolerance in an Ulva lactuca L. population on the Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

    2013-11-15

    The herbicide irgarol 1051 is commonly used on ship hulls to prevent growth of algae, but as a component of self-eroding paints it can also spread in the surrounding waters and affect non-target organisms. The effect of irgarol on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macro algae Ulva lactuca from the Gullmar fjord on the Swedish west coast was investigated in the present study. The zoospores were allowed to settle and grow in the presence of irgarol, but neither settlement - nor growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of up to 2000 nmol l(-1). This is between 10 and 100 times higher than effect concentrations reported earlier for algae. Irgarol also induced the greening effect (4-fold increase in chlorophyll a content) in the settled zoospore/germling population, typical for photosystem II inhibitors like irgarol. This study support previous findings that irgarol constitutes a selection pressure in the marine environment. PMID:24054733

  9. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  10. Soils developed from marine and moraine deposits on the Billefjord coast, West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.

    2012-11-01

    Morphogenetic features of soils developed from noncalcareous and calcareous deposits of the marine and glacial origins on the coasts of Billefjord and Petunia Bay in West Spitsbergen are studied. Grayhumus (soddy) soils develop from noncalcareous deposits; they consist of the AO-AY-C horizons and differ from analogous soils in other locations in a higher bulk content of calcium, a close to neutral reaction, and a relatively high degree of base saturation. Gray-humus residually calcareous soils (AO-AYca-Cca) developed from calcareous deposits have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction; their exchange complex is almost completely saturated with bases. The soils that developed from both marine and moraine deposits are generally similar in their major genetic features. The profiles of all the soils are not differentiated with respect to the contents of major elements, including oxalate-soluble forms of aluminum and iron. Gley features are also absent in the profiles of these soils.

  11. Climatic and Anthropogenic Controls on Correlated Discharge from US West Coast Rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; Kniskern, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Most river basins along the US West Coast are generally small, less than 15,000 km2, and tend to flood quickly following rain events. The storm systems that deliver rain to the coastal mountain ranges are considerably larger than the river basins such that multiple basins receive precipitation within hours of each other. Subsequently, these proximal rivers often disperse freshwater and sediment to the coastal ocean at relatively the same time. Many conceptual and numerical models of coastal processes may underestimate the delivery, dispersal and burial of sediment on the continental shelves as they often assume point source delivery of water and sediment from a single river. The reality seems to speak to the fact that a collection of smaller river basins may be synchronously delivering sediment all along a stretch of coastline. Hydrologic records from 62 coastal watersheds stretching along the US west coast from the Canadian to the Mexican border were acquired from the USGS river gauging network, this included over 100 gauging stations with records varying in length. This data mining effort allowed for a detailed analysis of the timing of flood peaks to the actual coastlines, rather than just correlation between gauging stations. Distinct coastal groupings were found that have rivers that deliver freshwater and sediment to the continental shelves at the same time, indicating plume mixing and different oceanic hydrodynamic regimes than would be indicated by traditional coastal sediment transport models. Also seen were larger scale climatic controls on the watershed relationships and alteration of the flood signals due to anthropogenic changes within the watershed. Extensive flood control networks, differences in population centers and floodplain modification within these basins all contributed to unexpected deviations from the correlation patterns.

  12. Classification of atmospheric river events on the U.S. West Coast using a trajectory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Waliser, Duane E.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wong, Sun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fung, Inez

    2015-04-01

    We investigate transport pathways of water vapor associated with landfalling atmospheric river (AR) events that result in precipitation along the West Coast of the U.S. for winters of 1997-2010. The water vapor transport pathways are determined by computing back trajectories with a trajectory model using the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis data set. The majority of AR events (86%) over the West Coast of the U.S. are grouped into three trajectory types, and two of them are closely associated with the AR events. We designate the first type as Ascending near landfall and of Tropical Origin (AT), the second type as Ascending near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (AE), and the third type as Descending or parallel near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (DE), which is accompanied but not directly associated with the AR events. The magnitude and spatial distribution of precipitation of a given AR event are found to be strongly determined by the type of trajectories. In general, AR events composed of both AT and AE trajectories have more frequent precipitation over a broad region of the western U.S. and AR events composed of both AT and DE trajectories have intense precipitation over the southwestern U.S. due to AT trajectories. AR events of AT-only trajectories have intense precipitation, especially over the northwestern U.S., but are less frequent compared to those of AT + AE trajectories. In addition, different patterns of trajectory types among AR events are closely linked to upper level potential vorticity (PV) anomalies; 66% of AR events are associated with anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking events.

  13. The message, meteorology and myths of the historic West Coast winter flooding of 1861 - 62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    The greatest known recorded flooding, ever to impact the West Coast of the United States, occurred during the winter of 1861-1862. In fact, the extraordinary flood flows on five major rivers, remain the record peaks to this day. The flooding was caused by a series of Pacific mid-latitude cyclones and several strong atmospheric rivers. The extreme rainy pattern initially strikes Oregon. The high water causes the flood of record on the Willamette River, with extensive devastation, wiping out several major towns along the river. Communications, food and supplies were cut off for much of the winter in Oregon.The intense wet weather, then redevelops, moves south and stalls - pummeling Northern California with major flooding. The runoff fills California's Central Valley with a huge inland lake. Sacramento is submerged, turned into what was described as a "frontier Venice". Flood damages eliminate a large part of the state's tax base.Finally the stormy pattern shifts into Southern California, producing major flooding. Most of lowland Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego Counties are flooded under several feet of water for weeks.The author researched limited weather data, historical accounts, maps and ship reports to reconstruct this series of storms and their effects along the West Coast. The extent and evolution of this series of flood events is unprecedented. Myths regarding the causes of this flooding are common, but its sheer magnitude is undisputable. This presentation will also demonstrate the nature and impacts of these consecutive major flood events, while revealing the lessons to be learned in light of advances in modern forecasting techniques.

  14. What determines the spatial pattern in summer upwelling trends on the U.S. West Coast?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hyodae; Brink, Kenneth H.; Dorman, Clive E.; Koracin, Darko; Edwards, Christopher A.

    Analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) from coastal buoys suggests that the summertime over-shelf water temperature off the U.S. West Coast has been declining during the past 30 years at an average rate of -0.19°C decade-1. This cooling trend manifests itself more strongly off south-central California than off Oregon and northern California. The variability and trend in the upwelling north of off San Francisco are positively correlated with those of the equatorward wind, indicating a role of offshore Ekman transport in the north. In contrast, Ekman pumping associated with wind stress curls better explains the stronger and statistically more significant cooling trend in the south. While the coast-wide variability and trend in SST are strongly correlated with those of large-scale modes of climate variability, they in general fail to explain the southward intensification of the trend in SST and wind stress curl. This result suggests that the local wind stress curl, often topographically forced, may have played a role in the upwelling trend pattern.

  15. Port Eliza cave: North American West Coast interstadial environment and implications for human migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. C.; Wilson, M. C.; Nagorsen, D. W.; Nelson, D. E.; Driver, J. C.; Wigen, R. J.

    2003-06-01

    The timing of Late Pleistocene glacial advance, retreat, relative sea level and environmental viability between 25 and 12.5 ka ( 14C yrs BP) remain a key issue in the feasibility of a coastal migration route for the first North Americans. This is discussed on the basis of stratigraphic, radiometric and faunal data for Port Eliza cave, a raised sea cave, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ice cover is indicated by the occurrence of 2 m of laminated clay, representing deposition in a subglacial lake. From immediately below this clay a diverse vertebrate fauna of marmot, vole, marten, cervid and various species of birds and fish was recovered, yielding ages of 18-16 ka. These dates and others from the region show that ice cover on the outer coast was brief, from ca 15.5-14 ka. The fish species indicate that relative sea level was close to the cave and that salmon runs were likely present. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna is consistent with a cool, open parkland environment with maximum summer temperatures cooler than present; these conditions lasted until at least 16 ka. With a diverse fauna and favorable climate, humans could have survived here on a mixed marine-terrestrial diet, confirming the viability of the coastal migration hypothesis for this portion of the route.

  16. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  17. Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic “weak type” orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, M.; Gumiaux, C.; Cagnard, F.; Pouclet, A.; Ouattara, G.; Pichon, M.

    2009-11-01

    The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly constituted by TTG, greenstones, supracrustal rocks and leucogranites. A compilation of metamorphic and radiometric data highlights that: i) metamorphic conditions are rather homogeneous through the domain, without important metamorphic jumps, ii) HP-LT assemblages are absent and iii) important volumes of magmas emplaced during the overall Paleoproterozoic orogeny suggesting the occurrence of long-lived rather hot geotherms. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest that the deformation is homogeneous and distributed through the Paleoproterozoic domain. In details, results of this study point out the long-lived character of vertical movements during the Eburnean orogeny with a two folds evolution. The first stage is characterized by the development of "domes and basins" geometries without any boundary tectonic forces and the second stage is marked by coeval diapiric movements and horizontal regional-scale shortening. These features suggest that the crust is affected by vertical movements during the overall orogeny. The Eburnean orogen can then be considered as an example of long-lived Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogen.

  18. Beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Case studies in the west coast of Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, Jorge; Ramos-Pereira, Ana

    2010-05-01

    Hydrodynamic forces over the beach sediments are the main driving factors affecting the frequency and magnitude of morphological changes in beach systems. In most of the time, this driving factors act in a foreseeable way and don't represent any danger to the coastal systems nor to its populations. However, hydrodynamic forces are also capable of induce high morphodynamic behavior on the beach profiles and very often in a short period of time which endangers people and property and leads to system retreat. The most common consequences of the occurrence of this type of phenomena over the coastal landforms are costal inundation and erosion. Still, many coastal systems, and specially beach systems, have recovery mechanisms and resilience levels have a very important role in the beach morphodynamic state and exposure to potential damaging events assessments. The wave dominated Portuguese West coast is an high energetic environment during winter, with 2.5m mean offshore significant wave height. Waves with 5 year recurrence period can reach 9.2m and storms are frequent. Beach systems are frequently associated with rocky coasts. In these cases, the subsystems present are beach-dune, beach-cliff and beach-estuary subsystems exposed to NW Atlantic wave climate. This research aim is to access beach hazard and susceptibility to inundation and erosion. Three beach systems were selected and monitored applying sequential profiling methodology over a three year period (2004-2007). Sta. Rita, Azul and Foz do Lizandro beaches are representative systems of the coastal stretch between Peniche and Cascais, which is a cliff dominate coast. Results from the monitoring campaigns are presented, including volume budgets, beach face slope changes, berm occurrence and heights and planimetric coastline dynamics. A hazard and susceptibility assessment schema and zonation are proposed, including the parameterization of local flood (i.e. mean sea, maximum spring tide, and storm surge and run-up levels) and erosion potentials (i.e. volume budget and beach planimetric dynamics).

  19. 76 FR 78188 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ...Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...of a waterway for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) marine...Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOR Letter of...

  20. Rain- vapour isotopic interaction over the south-west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palliyil Ravisankar, Lekshmy; Madhavan, Midhun; Rengaswamy, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Boundary layer water vapor isotopic composition (?v) is an important factor that controls the isotopic composition of evaporation flux and modulating the ?18O of tree ring cellulose through plant physiological cycle. But due to the difficult sampling procedure for water vapor, ?v has rarely been quantified. Since many simple isotopic models require ?vas an input, mostly we assume that the water vapor is in isotopic equilibrium with ?of monthly rain (?r). Here we present simultaneous observations of water vapour (~ 300 samples) and rainfall (~200 samples) isotopic ratios from two stations in the south-west coast of India (both the stations are located in the west of Western Ghats), sampled during April- October, 2012. Daily rain water and water vapour (cryogenic trapping method) were collected according to the IAEA protocol and the isotopic analyses (D and 18O) were done using a Thermo Fisher Delta V+ Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. We observe that, water vapour and rain are close to the equilibrium values during pre monsoon (April-May, É? = ?r - ?v= 8.9 ± 1.4 ), summer monsoon (June-September, É? = 9.0 ± 1.8 ) and North- East (NE) monsoon (October, É? = 7.9 ± 2.9 ) seasons. However, some individual rain events show more deviations from the equilibrium values. NE monsoon rainfall and water vapour are isotopically more depleted in 18O compared to the pre monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, in which the depletion is more in rain (~4 ) compared to water vapour (~2 ). This is because of the 18O enrichment of ground level vapour due to local evapo- transpiration (stations are at the leeward side of the Ghats), while rainfall is directly formed from the NE monsoon clouds which is more depleted in 18O. These results will be useful for the interpretation of ?18O of tree rings from south west.

  1. Modeling reactive halogen species based on measurements at the Irish West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Katja; Buxmann, Joelle; Pöhler, Denis; Sommariva, Roberto; Platt, Ulrich; von Glasow, Roland

    2010-05-01

    We performed model studies based on measurements of reactive halogen species at Mace Head and Mweenish Bay at the Irish West Coast. The measurements were made using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and showed a strong heterogeneity for the spatial distribution of molecular iodine and iodine oxide. The model study was performed in order to get a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the trace gases, the mechanisms that lead to the formation of new particles and the impact of iodine emissions on atmospheric chemistry. We used the one-dimensional model MISTRA to obtain a better understanding of the related processes. The model was initialized based on the conditions for the Irish West Coast, the iodine flux (from macro algae) was adjusted so that the model reproduces the observed IO mixing ratios. A number of different model runs were performed to be able to quantify the impacts of iodine chemistry on local and regional photochemistry under different meteorological conditions. The model suggests that inorganic iodine is rapidly mixed vertically: About 75% of the inorganic iodine is transported upwards, which is in good agreement with field measurements using multi-axis DOAS that indicate a significant amount of IO in higher layers of the lower troposphere. Furthermore the model was able to reproduce the field measurements of IO and molecular iodine during day and night. Not only the modeled mixing ratios, but also the spatial distribution of the iodine species was in good agreement with the field studies. The model also reproduced qualitatively the nucleation of aerosol particles that was observed during the field campaigns. The model results also suggest that IO2- in sulphate as well as in sea salt particles gets oxidized to IO3- during the model runs. Most interestingly, the model showed strong indications of for rapid multiphase cycling of halogen species and an exciting link between the chemistry of bromine and iodine: Iodine is taken up on the particles in form of HOI, which acts as a source of I- to the aqueous phase. This then leads to the release of ICl, IBr and later Br2 into the gas phase. These species get photolysed quickly and yield bromine atoms, which then rapidly react with ozone to form bromine monoxide BrO. During this process a significant amount of ozone is destroyed (0.6ppt/h), surprisingly not as a direct result of the iodine source, but as an indirect effect via bromine chemistry.

  2. Modeling reactive halogen species based on measurements at the Irish West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, K.; von Glasow, R.; Platt, U.; Sommariva, R.; Pöhler, D.; Buxmann, J.

    2011-12-01

    We performed model studies based on measurements of reactive halogen species performed at Mace Head and Mweenish Bay at the Irish West Coast in summer 2007. The measurements were made using Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) and showed a strong heterogeneity of the spatial distribution of molecular iodine and iodine oxide. The model study was aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the trace gases, the mechanisms that lead to the formation of new particles and the impact of iodine emissions on atmospheric chemistry. We used the one-dimensional model MISTRA, which was initialized with the conditions encountered at the Irish West Coast. The iodine flux (from macro algae) was adjusted so that the model reproduces the observed IO mixing ratios. A number of different model runs were performed in order to quantify the impact of iodine chemistry on local and regional photochemistry under different meteorological conditions. The model suggests that inorganic iodine is rapidly mixed vertically: About 75% of the inorganic iodine is transported upwards, which is in good agreement with field measurements using multi-axis DOAS indicating a significant amount of IO in higher layers of the lower troposphere. Furthermore, the model was able to reproduce the field measurements of IO and molecular iodine during day and night. Not only the modeled mixing ratios, but also the spatial distribution of the iodine species was in good agreement with the field studies. The model also qualitatively reproduced the nucleation of aerosol particles that was observed during the field campaigns. The model results also suggest that IO2- in sulphate particles as well as in sea salt particles is oxidized to IO3- during the model runs. Most interestingly, the model showed strong indications for rapid multiphase cycling of halogen species as well as an exciting link between the chemistry of bromine and iodine: Iodine is taken up on the particles in the form of HOI, which acts as a source of I- to the aqueous phase. This then leads to the release of ICl, IBr and later Br2 into the gas phase. These species get photolysed quickly and yield bromine atoms, which then rapidly react with ozone to form bromine monoxide BrO. During this process a significant amount of ozone is destroyed, surprisingly not as a direct result of the iodine source, but as an indirect effect via bromine chemistry.

  3. Micrometeorological characteristics of sea fogs off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. K.; Yum, S. S.

    2010-07-01

    Incheon International Airport (hereafter IIA) is located on a partly reclaimed island off the west coast of Korea and aircraft operation at IIA often suffers from visibility degradation due to sea fogs. The number of sea fogs that influenced the IIA area is 35 from 2002 to 2006. They are classified into cold sea fogs (27) and warm sea fogs (8), based on the temperature difference between the sea surface and the air above, i.e., the SST and the air temperature at the buoy near IIA. However, clear physical mechanisms that lead to the formation of both cold and warm sea fogs have not been identified yet. For that task, various analyses of meteorological data from micrometeorological to synoptic scales including vertical soundings must be examined. In addition, numerical modeling should be supplemented because of the temporal and spatial limitation of observation. Many scientists studying the physical processes of fog with numerical models emphasize that it is important to fully understand the effects of radiative cooling, turbulent mixing, aerosols and vegetations. In this study, micrometeorological effects of turbulence and radiation on sea fogs are examined using both observed meteorological data at the buoy, vertical sounding measured at an island to the west of IIA, and numerical simulation results with the Weather Research and Forecast version 3 (WRFV3) model. Among the analyzed observational data, are sensible and latent heat fluxes, calculated with the meteorological data at the buoy. These are examined in association with the bulk Richardson number for each sea fog case. WRFV3 supports the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for small grid spacing. Five nested domains of 18 km, 6 km, 2 km, 500 m and 100 m are used along with 65 vertically stretched layers. The LES is carried out only for the finest horizontal resolution. Detailed results will be shown at the conference.

  4. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion. PMID:25828676

  5. Adsorption of arsenic by iron rich precipitates from two coal mine drainage sites on the West Coast of New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Rait; D Trumm; J Pope; D Craw; N Newman; H MacKenzie

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved As can be strongly adsorbed to fine grained Fe(III) minerals such as hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxysulphates. Therefore precipitates that form during neutralisation or treatment of acid mine drainage have potential to be useful for treatment of As-contaminated water because acid mine drainage is often Fe rich. We tested the adsorption properties of Fe(III) rich precipitates from two West Coast

  6. Advice on West Coast Rockfish Harvest Rates from Bayesian Meta-Analysis of Stock?Recruit Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin W. Dorn

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two decades, populations of rockfish Sebastes spp. off the U.S. West Coast have declined sharply, leading to heightened concern about the sustainability of current harvest policies for these populations. In this paper, I develop a hierarchical Bayesian model to jointly estimate the stock?recruit relationships of rockfish stocks in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Stock?recruit curves for individual stocks

  7. Brevetoxicosis in seabirds naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms along the central west coast of Florida.

    PubMed

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer M; Keller, Martha; Kinsel, Michael J; Johnson, Christine K; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet G; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-04-01

    Harmful algal bloom events caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occurred along the central west Florida, USA, coast from February 2005 through December 2005 and from August 2006 through December 2006. During these events, from 4 February 2005 through 28 November 2006, live, debilitated seabirds admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs that included disorientation, inability to stand, ataxia, and seizures. Testing of blood, biologic fluids, and tissues for brevetoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 69% (n=95) of rehabilitating seabirds. Twelve of the 19 species of birds had evidence of brevetoxin exposure. Commonly affected species included Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and Common Loons (Gavia immer). Serial blood and fecal samples taken from several live seabirds during rehabilitation showed that brevetoxin was cleared within 5-10 days after being admitted to the rehabilitation facility, depending on the species tested. Among seabirds that died or were euthanized, the highest brevetoxin concentrations were found in bile, stomach contents, and liver. Most dead birds had no significant pathologic findings at necropsy, thereby supporting brevetoxin-related mortality. PMID:23568900

  8. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments. PMID:18774643

  9. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  10. On the effects of the remote waves in the seasonal variability off Mexican west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Morales, A.; Pares-Sierra, A.; Gómez-Valdivia, F.

    2013-05-01

    The sea level variability off the Mexican west coast greatly contributes to the seasonal variability of the North-eastern Tropical Pacific (NeTP). Although the wind is the most important forcing mechanism for the seasonal circulation, remote forcing by coastal trapped waves (e.g. Kelvin waves, shelf waves) also contribute to the seasonal variability of the NeTP. In this study we analyze these effects using a numerical model with idealized geometry. Some experiments, with flat bottom and without wind, show that remote Kelvin waves generate eddies both, in the Cabo Corrientes (CC) zone as well as inside the Gulf of California (GC), which contribute significantly to the mesoscale variability in the NeTP. The eddy generation mechanisms in CC and in the GC are different. W found that in CC, when the forcing period of the KW is lower than 90 days, the mechanism is related with to the momentum imbalance process described by Pichevin y Noff, (1996), whereas for forcing period greater than 90 days the eddy release mechanism is more associated to the passage of the opposite phase of the KW. While, inside the GC, the eddy generation mechanism is related to the horizontal shear current associated to the KW, i.e. due to barotropic instability process.

  11. 64 FR 51079 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-09-21

    ...Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Fixed Gear Sablefish Mop-Up AGENCY: National Marine...Commerce. ACTION: Announcement of fixed gear sablefish mop-up fishery; fishing restrictions...mop-up portion of the limited entry, fixed gear sablefish fishery. These actions are...

  12. 65 FR 54178 - Fisheries off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-09-07

    ...Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Fixed Gear Sablefish Mop-Up AGENCY: National Marine...Commerce. ACTION: Announcement of fixed gear sablefish mop-up fishery; fishing restrictions...mop-up portion of the limited entry, fixed gear sablefish fishery. These actions are...

  13. 63 FR 45764 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1998-08-27

    ...Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Fixed Gear Sablefish Mop-Up AGENCY: National Marine...Commerce. ACTION: Announcement of fixed gear sablefish mop-up fishery; fishing restrictions...mop-up portion of the limited entry, fixed gear sablefish fishery. These actions are...

  14. The Contribution of Occult Precipitation to Nutrient Deposition on the West Coast of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3-, NH4+ and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation. PMID:26017747

  15. The West Coast Earthquake Early Warning Global Navigation Satellite System Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Minson, S. E.; Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Johanson, I. A.; Grapenthin, R.; Crowell, B. W.; Schmidt, D. A.; Murray, J. R.; Lisowski, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Smith, D.; Determan, D.; Thomas, V. I.; Melbourne, T. I.

    2014-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data permit rapid and accurate measurement of large static displacements and, as such, could be used to improve the performance of earthquake early warning (EEW) systems in the event of large to great earthquakes by providing an effective complement to seismic data. We are working to formally incorporate real-time GNSS data into existing seismic-based EEW systems. The West Coast EEW GNSS Working Group (WC-EEW GNSS WG) was formed to "develop, test and integrate GNSS data into the ShakeAlert system" (USGS OFR 2014-1097). ShakeAlert is the EEW system recognized by the USGS, the federal agency responsible for issuing earthquake alerts. The WC-EEW GNSS WG establishes geodetic standards and coordinates the activities of WC-EEW collaborators that are focused on research and development aspects of real-time GNSS processing and analysis. The long-term objective is to improve accuracy and robustness and to reduce data latency and overall system resource demands. These efforts will ensure the rapid availability of precise input data for the EEW algorithms, the research and development of which is coordinated by WC-EEW Science Coordination Working Group. The WC-EEW GNSS WG activities will carry out comparisons to assess performance of existing and new methods for real-time processing of GNSS data. Subcommittees within the working group are being formed to address requirements of the ShakeAlert production system as follows: 1) define interface specification documents and data format standards, 2) coordinate and specify plans for physical testing of equipment (for example on shake tables), and 3) assess performance of real-time GNSS processing options and define acceptable data specifications. Finally, the working group interfaces with other organizations, such as the IGS Real-Time Working Group, UNAVCO, Inc., and READI, on the incorporation of GNSS into the WC-EEW ShakeAlert production system.

  16. Predicted deep-sea coral habitat suitability for the U.S. West coast.

    PubMed

    Guinotte, John M; Davies, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

  17. The contribution of occult precipitation to nutrient deposition on the west coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyaga, Justine M; Neff, Jason C; Cramer, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3-, NH4+ and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation. PMID:26017747

  18. Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

  19. Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

  20. Mapping and assessing seagrass bed changes in Central Florida's west coast using multitemporal Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Ruiliang; Bell, Susan; Meyer, Cynthia

    2014-08-01

    Some seagrass meadows in coastal shallow waters have displayed large scale changes in seagrass spatial extent and hurricanes and/or tropical storms have been suggested as factors responsible for reduction in coverage. Taking advantage of the incidence of three tropical storms passing near a study site along the central west Florida coast within a two-month period in 2004, we evaluated whether satellite remote sensing techniques (Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery) are useful for assessing dynamics of seagrass (=submerged aquatic vegetation: SAV) cover/abundance in response to these multiple disturbances. We also examined whether an image preprocessing procedure, which included water column correction, applied to the Landsat TM images could further improve the classification and mapping of detailed SAV coverage. We compared a historical set of Landsat TM images, acquired in Fall 2003 and Fall and late Summer 2005, which were processed to classify %SAV cover into five classes using a maximum likelihood classifier. Importantly, our experimental results demonstrated that the application of the image preprocessing procedures led to an overall accuracy 2-14% improvement in SAV classification due to water column correction compared to that currently reported in the literature when similar Landsat TM data are utilized. Based upon the classification results mapped from the TM images and as well as a similar classification of SAV interpreted from aerial photographs collected before and after the passage of these same storms, SAV coverage over the study areas was found to increase about 6% (integrating SAV losses and gains) by 2005/2006 in comparison to cover levels present prior to the repeated storm activity. We conclude that heavy rains during 2004 along with physical disturbance from gale force winds from the tropical storms/hurricanes did not produce any SAV bed loss at the study site that was sustained for more than one year after multiple storm passage.

  1. Aerial Measurement of Radioxenon Concentration off the West Coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima Reactor Accident

    E-print Network

    L. E. Sinclair; H. C. J. Seywerd; R. Fortin; J. M. Carson; P. R. B. Saull; M. J. Coyle; R. A. Van Brabant; J. L. Buckle; S. M. Desjardins; R. M. Hall

    2011-06-20

    In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to Xe-133 was observed. Methods to extract Xe-133 count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding Xe-133 volumetric concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that Xe-133 concentrations on average lie in the range of 30 to 70 Bq/m3.

  2. A Statistical Investigation of Traveling Convection Vortices Observed by the West Coast Greenland Magnetometer Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauer, C. R.; Petrov, V. G.

    2001-05-01

    We report results from a statistical study of high latitude traveling convection vortices measured by the West Coast Greenland Magnetometer chain during the year 1996. Events for the study were selected from 20-second data using a data fitting procedure which identifies mesoscale vortex-like structures in the ionospheric current distribution measured by the magnetometer chain. For an event to be selected, we required 8 continuous measurements where the variations of the fit parameters between two successive time points are small (variations of the field-aligned current I do not exceed 50 kA, and variations of the x and y positions of the vortex center do not exceed 200 km). To ensure that the ionospheric current forms a vortex-like structure, the additional requirement is imposed that stations to the north and south of the vortex center must have H-component variations of opposite sign. For each vortex, the average value of the field-aligned current and vortex speed (northward and eastward) are computed. We have obtained a list of about 22000 vortices with average field-aligned current greater than 20 kA, corresponding to magnetic variations greater than 10 nT observed between 06 and 18 MLT. If we restrict the analysis to vortices with current greater than 50 kA, we have 3900 events. Our analysis investigates the dependence of vortex occurrence and motion on Local Time, solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field parameters. Among our results, we find the best correlation between TCV occurrence and solar wind speed. A strong relationship between occurrence and negative IMF Bz as well as the variance of the IMF is also found. In the noon sector, positive IMF By is associated with westward TCV motion and negative IMF By is associated with eastward TCV motion. Negative IMF Bz appears to slow the northward TCV speed, however positive IMF Bz shows no affect on TCV speed. We interpret the results in terms of Kelvin-Helmholtz generation mechanisms, magnetic reconnection generation mechanisms, and pressure change generation mechanisms.

  3. 75 FR 932 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ...harvest guideline (HG) for Pacific mackerel in the U.S. exclusive economic zone...allowable harvest levels for Pacific mackerel off the Pacific coast. The total HG...ADDRESSES: Copies of the report Pacific Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Stock...

  4. 77 FR 36192 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...annual reference points for Pacific mackerel in the U.S. exclusive economic...Management Plan (FMP) for Pacific mackerel off the Pacific coast. The ACL...HG) for the 2011- 2012 Pacific mackerel fishing year is 40,514...

  5. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  6. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  7. Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-10-20

    World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

  8. WEST COAST DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELSCoastal Models Supporting our Nation's Needs through Science and Technology All of the coastal digital elevation models (DEMs) in this presentation were created by scientists

    E-print Network

    boasts many attractions such as the Puget Sound, the Pacific Coast Highway, the Redwood National ForestWEST COAST DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELSCoastal Models Supporting our Nation's Needs through Science of U.S. coasts in support of NOAA's role in protecting life and property and conserving and protecting

  9. Association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with plants of coastal sand dunes of west coast of India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. R. BEENA; A. B. ARUN; N. S. RAVIRAJA; K. R. SRIDHAR

    An inventory of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal status of 28 plant species belonging to 14 families established on the coastal sand dunes of southwest coast of India was performed. Roots of 23 plant species were colonized by AM fungi, whereas the rhizosphere of only 20 plant species possessed AM fungal spores. Canavalia cathartica had the highest root colonization (83%) by

  10. Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Pathogenicity Variation in Two West Coast

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    , pathogen and environment, and leaf lesion area in detached bay leaves will be used as the proxy Coast Forest Phytophthoras, Phytophthora nemorosa and P. pseudosyringae, to Bay Laurel1 R.E. Linzer2 important host, bay laurel (Umbellularia californica). Experiments will account for variability in host

  11. Metamorphic Waters from the Pacific Tectonic Belt of the West Coast of the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Barnes

    1970-01-01

    Waters unusually rich in ammonia, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrocarbons are found in more than 100 localities along the Pacific coast of the United States. The waters are believed to be products of low-grade metamorphism of marine sediments. The marine sedimentary rocks would have to be tectonically emplaced below crystalline rocks in many places. Mercury ore deposits are

  12. NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER ATLANTIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA

    E-print Network

    ten Brink, Uri S.

    of Mexico states, and Puerto Rico/Virgin Islands. Criteria are proposed for tsunamis generated both inside to the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts as well as to eastern Canada. A rudimentary system was already in place for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (PR/VI) thanks to a cooperative effort between

  13. The Gold Coast Nationalist Reaction to the Controversy over Higher Education in Anglophone West Africa and Its Impact on Decision Making in the Colonial Office, 1945-47.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emudong, Charles Peter

    1997-01-01

    Demonstrates that nationalist pressure, especially from the Gold Coast (Ghana), was the crucial force behind the British Colonial Office's decision to promote higher education in Anglophone West Africa. It places the issues of establishing African universities into the context of an evolving colonial policy of neocolonialism. (SLD)

  14. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  15. Entanglements of marine mammals and seabirds in central California and the north-west coast of the United States 2001–2005

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emma Moore; Shannon Lyday; Jan Roletto; Kate Litle; Julia K. Parrish; Hannah Nevins; Jim Harvey; Joe Mortenson; Denise Greig; Melanie Piazza; Alison Hermance; Derek Lee; Dawn Adams; Sarah Allen; Shelagh Kell

    2009-01-01

    Entanglement records for seabirds and marine mammals were investigated for the period 2001–2005. The entanglement records were extracted from databases maintained by seven organizations operating along the west coast of the United States of America. Their programmes included beach monitoring surveys, rescue and rehabilitation and regional pinniped censuses. Records of 454 entanglements were documented in live animals and in carcasses

  16. The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

    1995-01-01

    Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

  17. Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered subtidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Byrne

    1990-01-01

    Reproduction of the commercial sea urchinParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck) from contrasting habitats on the west coast of Ireland was examined from May 1986 through August 1988. Urchins were collected intertidally from an exposed rocky shore and subtidally from a protected bay. Monthly measurements of the gonad index and histological examination of the gonads demonstrated thatP. lividus has an annual reproductive cycle.

  18. Selection of areas for protecting rare plants with integration of land use conflicts: A case study for the west coast of Newfoundland, Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Nantel; André Bouchard; Luc Brouillet; Stuart Hay

    1998-01-01

    On the west coast of Newfoundland (Canada) about 40% of the provincially rare plant species are not protected within the system of three national parks and two ecological reserves existing in the region. This study examines how heuristic algorithms can be used for selecting areas filling this gap while minimizing potential land use conflicts. One algorithm selected 78 areas of

  19. Map of southern Florida peninsula. The localities indicated on the west coast have felt the effects of periodic Red-Tide outbreaks.

    E-print Network

    indicated on the west coast have felt the effects of periodic Red-Tide outbreaks. COVER- -Masses of floating fish killed by the Florida Red Tide. 28' 27· 26· 25' 80' #12;THE FLORIDA RED TIDE In November 1946 and tide in reddis h- colored patches of sea water extending 10 to 14 miles offshore , fede r al and state

  20. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN…

  1. Developing erosion models for integrated coastal zone management: a case study of The New Caledonia west coast.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Pascal; Printemps, Julia; Mangeas, Morgan; Luneau, Gaelle

    2010-01-01

    The tropical climate and human pressures (mining industry, forest fires) cause significant sediment inputs into the New Caledonia lagoon and are a major cause of degradation of the fringing reefs. The erosion process is spatially characterized on the west coast of New Caledonia to assess potential sediment inputs in the marine area. This paper describes the methodologies that are used to map soil sensitivity to erosion using remote sensing and a geographic information system tool. A cognitive approach, multi-criteria evaluation model and Universal Soil Loss Equation are implemented. This article compares the relevance of each model in order to spatialize and quantify potential erosion at catchment basin scale. These types of studies provide valuable results for focusing on areas subject to erosion and serve as a decision-making tool for the minimization of lagoon vulnerability to the natural and human dynamics on the level of the catchment basins. PMID:20673925

  2. Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

  3. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  4. Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the ‘home range’ (HR) and ‘core areas’ (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  5. Brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolic compounds in North American west coast bald eaglet (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, John E; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-10-15

    We report on the identity, characterization, and spatial trends of several brominated flame retardants and hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) organohalogen contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestling plasma collected from sites along the west coast of North America. Samples were from four southwestern British Columbia (BC) locations, a reference site in northern BC (Fort St. James; FSJ), and from Santa Catalina Island, CA (SCI), an area of high DDT and PCB contamination. Mean concentrations of sigma polybrominated diphenyl ether (sigma PBDE (8 congeners monitored); 1.78-8.49 ng/g), sigma OH-polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma OH-PCB (30 congeners monitored); 0.44-0.87 ng/g), and sigma OH-PBDE (14 congeners monitored; 0.31-0.92 ng/g) were similar in eaglets from southwestern BC yet lower than for SCl and significantly higher than for FSJ. Dominant PBDE congeners were BDE47, BDE99, and BDE100, but SCl eaglets also contained low levels of higher brominated congeners. 4-OH-CB187 and 4'-OH-CB202 accounted for 65-100% of sigma OH-PCB in all BC eaglets, with 4'-OH-CB202 as well as 3'-OH-CB138 and 4-OH-CB146 dominating in SCl eaglets. Ostensibly of biogenic origin, 6'-OH-BDE49 and 6-OH-BDE47 were found in BC nestlings. Only 4'-OH-BDE49 (2.10 ng/g) was found in SCl eaglets. MeO-PBDEs and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were not found in any birds, but the polybrominated biphenyl BB101 was detected in southwestern BC samples. This study demonstrates that west coast North American bald eagles contain previously unreported organohalogens, which have the potential to impact the health and survival of these raptors. PMID:17120553

  6. Year-round West Nile Virus Activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and Louisiana

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Ray; Siirin, Marina; Randle, Yvonne; Sargent, Chris; Guzman, Hilda; Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Bala, Adil A.; Haas, Keith; Zerinque, Brian

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in 11 dead birds and two mosquito pools collected in east Texas and southern Louisiana during surveillance studies in the winter of 2003 to 2004. These findings suggest that WNV is active throughout the year in this region of the United States. PMID:15498169

  7. Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

  8. Assessment of contamination, distribution and chemical speciation of trace metals in water column in the Dakar coast and the Saint Louis estuary from Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Diop, Mamadou; Touré, Aminata; Cabral, Mathilde; Cazier, Fabrice; Fall, Mamadou; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2014-09-15

    The water column from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa, was sampled in order to measure the contamination level by trace metals. The speciation of metals in water allowed performing a distribution between dissolved and particulate trace metals. For the dissolved metals, the metallic concentration and repartition between the organic fraction and the inorganic fraction were performed. The results show that the pollution of the estuary was more serious than in Dakar coast for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn; while, Cd and Cu were higher in Dakar coast. A strong affinity between metals and suspended particles has been revealed. Dissolved metals that have a tendency to form organic metal complexes are in decreasing order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Co=Cr=Mn, Cu and Ni. The results showed that the mobility of trace metals in estuary is controlled by dissolved organic carbon, while in coast it depends on chlorides. PMID:25038980

  9. LNG measurement at Hopkinton plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Farmer; E. J. Cooney

    1974-01-01

    The Hopkinton LNG Corp. effectively uses turbine meters to measure the LNG vaporized from its LNG facility at Hopkinton, Mass., for peakshaving to serve customers of its parent companies, the New England Gas and Electric Association and Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., as well as NEGEA subsidiary Commonwealth Gas Co. The joint venture also includes the 500 million cf LNG

  10. First multi-site assessment of tropospheric baseline ozone along the U.S. west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, O. R.; Oltmans, S. J.; Johnson, B. J.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Pollack, I. B.; Cullis, P.; Ives, M.; Tarasick, D. W.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Stajner, I.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring of the full tropospheric (sea level to tropopause) baseline ozone flowing into the western United States from the North Pacific Ocean has been limited to the weekly ozonesondes launched from Trinidad Head in northern California since 1997. Profiles from other locations along the coast have been too sparse to indicate whether or not Trinidad Head is representative of baseline ozone at different latitudes. To explore this question, the IONS-2010 ozonesonde network was implemented during a six-week period (May 10 - June 19, 2010) of the CalNex experiment. Near-daily ozonesonde profiles from 4 sites spanning 870 km of the California coast show that in the lowest km of the atmosphere ozone arriving at Trinidad Head is similar to the rest of the California coast. But above this level the sites differ at many altitudes, with a prominent ozone enhancement that slopes from the mid-troposphere above northern California down to the lower free troposphere above southern California. FLEXPART retroplumes from every profile indicate the regions of the coastal troposphere that experience relatively strong influence from the stratosphere, the remote marine boundary layer or the industrialized regions of Asia. FLEXPART forward plumes reveal the surface regions of North America impacted by the greatest mixing ratios of baseline ozone. Finally, comparison of the coastal profiles to ozone measurements made from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft and two inland ozonesonde sites shows that within California, the short-term (< 5 days) influence of western North America on tropospheric ozone extends from the surface to approximately 3 km above sea level.

  11. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ?650km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. PMID:25965045

  12. Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

    2010-12-01

    Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due to rock slope failures, onto glacier surfaces. The absence of any sediment that could be unequivocally classified as subglacial till reflects the dominance of debris flow and glacifluvial processes in latero-frontal moraine construction in this hyper-humid west coast setting.

  13. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño on West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Hansen, J. E.; Allan, J. C.; Ruggiero, P.; Hoover, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term monitoring programs at a series of beaches in California, Oregon and Washington were used to evaluate beach evolution associated with the El Niño winter of 2009-10, and to relate the observed coastal change to past winters, including the last major El Niño in 1997-98. At the California study sites, analysis of Lidar (1997-98) and semi-annual or greater high-resolution beach and nearshore surveys (2004-10) shows that coastal change during the winter of 2009-10 broadly rivals that in 1997-98, and that the 2009-10 winter storms collectively forced the most beach erosion since high-resolution monitoring began in 2004. Along the Oregon and Washington coasts, many beaches exhibited classic El Niño shoreline responses, with significant shoreline retreat occurring immediately north of jetties and tidal inlets as well as the southern ends of pocket beaches and littoral cells. In Washington in particular, these areas eroded rapidly during the winter of 2009-10, comparable to the response seen in the El Niño winter of 1997-98. Wave buoy data from buoys in California and Washington that captured both the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Niño show that the two events were comparable in wave energy as measured by the mean wave year (1 July- 30 June) energy flux (Fig. 1). The increased wave energy in 2009-10 had significant impacts on coastal infrastructure throughout the region; for example, in San Francisco the Great Highway was severely undercut by wave action, resulting in a $5 million emergency remediation project. In Washington, approximately 195 m of road was eroded along the entrance to Willapa Bay and southern Grayland Plains. While the impacts of the 2009-10 winter were substantial, impacts on the coast were moderated by an unusually mild wave climate in 2008-9 (Fig. 1), which left beaches more accreted prior to the severe wave season of 2009-10. As climate change accelerates sea level rise and potentially increases the magnitude and frequency of storms in mid-latitudes, the beach erosion seen in 2009-10 will become less unusual, making it critical that we continue to monitor beach morphology to provide data for coastal managers and to improve our understanding of beach dynamics. Figure 1. Yearly mean wave energy flux relative to the mean since each buoy’s deployment offshore of Washington (Grays Harbor), San Francisco (Point Reyes), and Santa Barbara (Harvest, Anacapa Passage).

  14. Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

    2006-04-01

    The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in "West-to-east pipeline gas" in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

  15. Environmental life cycle assessment of Norway lobster ( Nephrops norvegicus ) caught along the Swedish west coast by creels and conventional trawls—LCA methodology with case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Friederike Ziegler; Daniel Valentinsson

    2008-01-01

    Background, aim, and scope  Two fishing methods, creeling and conventional trawling, are used to target Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus), economically the second most important species in Swedish west coast fisheries. The goal was to evaluate overall resource\\u000a use and environmental impact caused by production of this seafood with the two different fishing methods using life cycle\\u000a assessment (LCA) methodology.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and

  16. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Westinghouse PWR plants. Volume 4. Pipe failure induced by crack growth in west coast plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Chinn; G. S. Holman; T. Y. Lo; R. W. Mensing

    1985-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in primary coolant piping warrants the current design requirements that safeguard against the effecs of such a break. This report assesses the reactor-coolant-loop piping system of west coast Westinghouse plants. The

  17. The contributions of geometallurgy to the recovery of lithified heavy mineral resources at the Namakwa Sands mine, West Coast of South Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Philander; A. Rozendaal

    2011-01-01

    The Namakwa Sands heavy mineral deposit is located at Brand-se-Baai along the West Coast of South Africa and is a world class producer of premium quality zircon (ZrSiO4), ilmenite (FeTiO3) and rutile (TiO2) concentrates from mainly aeolian sands. Superimposed on the coastal clastic Cainozoic ore-bearing sequence is a calcium–magnesium-rich pseudo-stratigraphy locally referred to as cemented hard layers that effectively lithify

  18. Long-range transport of gas-phase species to the west coast of the United States during ITCT 2K2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Parrish

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of trace gases were made from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation experiment in April and May of 2002 (ITCT 2K2). These measurements characterize the influence of the long-range transport of Asian anthropogenic emissions on the troposphere at the West coast of the United States. During three of thirteen flights over the eastern North

  19. Diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae) and geochemistry from annually laminated mid-Holocene sediments, west coast Canada: insights into abrupt climate change in the past

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Chang; T. F. Pedersen

    2009-01-01

    A 115-year record of annually laminated sediments from Effingham Inlet, a small anoxic fjord on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (49˚N, 125˚W), was analyzed for diatoms (species and abundances) and geochemistry (C and N isotopes, organic C and trace elements Ag, Cd, Re and Mo) from a piston core. The sediments were radiocarbon dated at approx. 4200-4400

  20. Population structure of the black seabream Spondyliosoma cantharus along the south-west Portuguese coast inferred from otolith chemistry.

    PubMed

    Correia, A T; Gomes, P; Gonçalves, J M S; Erzini, K; Hamer, P A

    2012-02-01

    The chemistry of black seabream Spondyliosoma cantharus otoliths from three main fishery grounds (Olhão, Sagres and Sesimbra) located along c. 400 km of the Portuguese south and west coasts was examined. Element:Ca ratios were determined in whole otoliths and otolith cores of young adult specimens of 2-3 years of age. Using the data from whole otoliths, it was possible to discriminate among S. cantharus from the three fishing grounds with an average accuracy of 91%. Differences among fishing grounds were significant for all element:Ca ratios, and otoliths from Sagres had significantly higher levels of all ratios compared to the other fishing grounds. In contrast, the chemical composition of the otolith core, representative of the larval stage, showed limited variation among the fishing grounds, with an average discrimination accuracy of only 44%, although the Mg:Ca ratio of the otolith cores was also significantly higher for the Sagres samples. The data suggest that larval stages experienced a homogenous environment consistent with an offshore oceanic spawning. Juveniles appeared to display local residency on the inshore fishing grounds, areas probably characterized by greater environmental heterogeneity. Spondyliosoma cantharus population structure is consistent with distinct local population units that share a spawning ground providing recruits to different coastal fishery areas. PMID:22268439

  1. Prevalence of human pathogenic enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and cultured shrimp in south west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Umesha, Kanasinakatte R; Bhavani, Naniah C; Venugopal, Moleyur N; Karunasagar, Indrani; Krohne, Georg; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2008-03-20

    The prevalence of human enteric viruses in bivalve molluscan shellfish and shrimp collected off the south west coast of India was studied to assess the extent of fecal pollution of coastal environment. Out of 194 samples analyzed, 37% of oyster, 46% of clam and 15% of shrimp samples were positive for enteroviruses (EV). Adenoviruses (ADV) were detected in 17% of oyster and 27% of clam samples. However, other enteric viruses such as noroviruses (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) were not detected in any of the samples. High prevalence of EV and ADV was noticed between May to December. Thirty four percent of oyster and 49% of clam samples showed fecal coliform values higher than the limit. MS-2 phage was detected in 57% of oyster and 73% of clam samples. The presence of MS-2 phage and human enteric viruses showed association while fecal coliforms and enteric viruses showed no association. However, 17 samples, which were positive for enteric viruses (EV and ADV), were negative for MS-2 phage. PMID:18279989

  2. Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

  3. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

    2014-02-01

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

  4. Simulation of coastal winds along the central west coast of India using the MM5 mesoscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushpadas, Dhanya; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; George, Smitha; Babu, M. T.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    A high-resolution mesoscale numerical model (MM5) has been used to study the coastal atmospheric circulation of the central west coast of India, and Goa in particular. The model is employed with three nested domains. The innermost domain of 3 km mesh covers Goa and the surrounding region. Simulations have been carried out for three different seasons—northeast (NE) monsoon, transition period and southwest (SW) monsoon with appropriate physics options to understand the coastal wind system. The simulated wind speed and direction match well with the observations. The model winds show the presence of a sea breeze during the NE monsoon season and transition period, and its absence during the SW monsoon season. In the winter period, the synoptic flow is northeasterly (offshore) and it weakens the sea breeze (onshore flow) resulting in less diurnal variation, while during the transition period, the synoptic flow is onshore and it intensifies the sea breeze. During the northeast monsoon at an altitude of above 750 m, the wind direction reverses, and this is the upper return current, indicating the vertical extent of the sea breeze. A well-developed land sea breeze circulation occurs during the transition period, with vertical extension of 300 and 1,100 m, respectively.

  5. Long-range transport of Siberian forest fire smoke to Canada's west coast identified by Lidar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, Kevin; Cottle, Paul; McKendry, Ian

    2014-05-01

    During the summer of 2012, forest fire smoke wasdetected by two CORALNet lidar systems operated by Environment Canada along Canada's west coast. Based on satellite, model and back trajectory analysis it is thought the smoke originated in Boreal Asia as a result of unusually large amounts of Siberian wildfire activity. The CORALNet lidar systems operate autonomously, measuring the vertical profile of aerosols from near ground to 18 km at a vertical resolution of 3 m and 7.5 m and a temporal resolution of 10 s and 60 s at 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths respectively. The lidar also measures the depolarization ratio at 532 nm: and indicator of particle shape. The lidars, located at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver and in the village of Whistler, British Columbia observed an increase in the aerosol backscatter ratio in the free troposphere as the Siberian forest fire smoke was transported across the Pacific Ocean into the region. Of particular importance was the increase in ground level particulate due to the mixing of the smoke into the boundary layer, impacting the air quality in southwestern British Columbia. Lidar depolarization ratios in the boundary layer and the free troposphere were consistent with high concentrations of smoke. Detailed lidar observations will be presented along with supporting satellite, model and ground observations revealing the magnitude of the impact on the region.

  6. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2015-09-15

    Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found. PMID:25863629

  7. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler; Everett, Rhett R.; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with abundant tritium (greater than 8 tritium units) is found in and downgradient from the Montebello Forebay and near the seawater barrier projects, indicating recent recharge. Water with less than measurable tritium is present in, and downgradient from, the Los Angeles Forebay and in most wells in the West Coast Basin. Water from several deep wells was analyzed for carbon-14. Uncorrected estimates of age for these samples range from 600 to more than 20,000 years before present. Chemical and isotopic data are combined to evaluate changes in chemical character along flow paths emanating from the Montebello and Los Angeles Forebays. A four-layer ground-water flow model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water conditions representative of those in 1971 and transient conditions for the period 1971?2000. Model results indicate increases in ground-water storage in all parts of the study area over the simulated thirty-year period. The model was used to develop a three-dimensional ground-water budget and to assess impacts of two alternative future (2001?25) ground-water development scenarios?one that assumes continued pumping at average current rates and a second that assumes increasing pumping from most wells in the Central Basin. The model simulates stable or slightly increasing water levels for the first scenario and declining water levels (25 to 50 ft in the Central Basin) in the second scenario. Model sensitivity to parameter values and to the assumed Orange County boundary condition was evaluated. Particle tracking was applied to simulate advective transport of water from the spreading ponds, the coastline, and the seawater injection barriers. Particle tracking results indicate that most flow within the Upper San Pedro aquifer system occurs within about 20 percent of the total aquifer system thickness and that virtually all water injected into the seawater barrier projects has flowed inland. The simulation model was linked with optimizatio

  8. West Coast Physical Oceanography Program: (Annual technical progress report): A short report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten current meter mooring (35 current meters, 4 sediment traps) were deployed in October 1985 on the R/V NEW HORIZON and recovered in February 1986 on the R/V SPROUL. Mooring location and array design are shown in the cruise report. Initial data processing has begun. The data set is remarkably error free and indicates large coherent signals over the continental slopes. Mean flow above 200 m was northwestward on the eastern side of the basin and southeastward on the west side of the basin. The total of 88 CTD stations alone 9 sections were taken during an October cruise. Rough sections have been made available to other investigators. Only 36 CTD stations along 6 sections were taken in February due to the loss of the CTD. A second CTD, borrowed from SIO, only operated for one station. The CTD was snagged on the undercut rock walls of Redondo submarine canyon. The CTD was subsequently recovered by the SNOOPER, a manned submersible. Damage was slight--a new cage was required and 3 bottles were lost. The CTD has been refurbished and recalibrated and a new cage has been built. The cage has been modified to accept the larger 30-I bottles utilized by Vic Noshkin, so that his sampling time can be drastically reduced--i.e., he can use the Rosette rather than hang bottles on a line. 2 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-03-01

    The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 ?m), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

  10. The feeding ecology of 0 year-group turbot Scophthalmus maximus and brill Scophthalmus rhombus on Irish west coast nursery grounds.

    PubMed

    Haynes, P S; Brophy, D; De Raedemaecker, F; McGrath, D

    2011-12-01

    On sandy beach nursery grounds along the west coast of Ireland, 0 year-group turbot Scophthalmus maximus were found to consume six types of crustaceans, in addition to polychaetes. The 0 year-group brill Scophthalmus rhombus fed almost exclusively on mysids, even though nine taxonomic prey groups were identified in the sediment across the investigated beaches. Both species avoided non-motile organisms such as gastropods and bivalves, which were present in high abundances in the sediment and their growth and condition was not significantly related to the quantity or type of prey consumed, temperature or salinity. A high incidence of feeding was detected for both species over the duration of the study, suggesting that food was not limiting on west of Ireland nursery grounds. Temporal partitioning of settlement was detected between S. maximus and S. rhombus, indicating that inter-specific competition for food does not occur between these two flatfish species on west of Ireland nursery grounds. PMID:22141892

  11. Diamond provenance studies from 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of clinopyroxene inclusions: An example from the west coast of Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, D.; Harris, J. W.

    2009-11-01

    The west coast of Namibia is host to substantive detrital diamond deposits located in onshore and offshore beach gravels, desert deflation deposits and lower Orange river terraces. The origin of the Namibian diamonds is controversial, with some studies favouring derivation from distal Cretaceous/Jurassic kimberlites on the Kaapvaal craton, and others arguing that most diamonds originated from proximal Dwyka glacial deposits (~ 300 Ma), which incorporated diamonds from older (? 500 Ma), pre-Karoo kimberlites. Previous studies have demonstrated that clinopyroxene inclusions extracted from their host diamonds give 40Ar/ 39Ar ages approaching the time of source kimberlite eruption. This behaviour is attributed to diffusion of argon to lattice defect sites and the diamond/inclusion interface region during mantle residence, with subsequent loss of the latter component on cleaving of the diamond to release the inclusion(s). In this study, we measured 40Ar/ 39Ar ages of extracted clinopyroxene inclusions from Namibian detrital diamonds, in order to determine potential kimberlite sources, craton erosion histories and palaeo-drainage evolution in southern Africa. 40Ar/ 39Ar step-heating data were obtained for eclogitic and peridotitic clinopyroxene inclusions from 50 Namibian diamonds. Low temperature steps produced older apparent ages than high temperature (fusion) steps, consistent with partial retention of pre-eruption argon in defect sites. With one exception, fusion steps yielded younger ages, ranging from 62 ± 30 Ma to 1441 ± 700 Ma. The majority (80%) of inclusions have fusion ages < 300 Ma, indicating that most Namibian detrital diamonds originated from post-Dwyka (< 300 Ma) kimberlites. Six inclusion aliquots (13%) produced ages unique to Cretaceous Group I kimberlites, confirming erosion of diamonds from these sources. The proportion of diamonds sourced from Group II kimberlites is uncertain, although forward modelling suggests roughly equal quantities from Group I and Group II localities. A lesser population of ages close to ~ 240 Ma could indicate minor contributions from syn-Karoo kimberlites (e.g., Jwaneng cluster, Botswana); however derivation from younger kimberlites is considered equally plausible. Based on the ages of known southern African kimberlites, the current results suggest that very few (< 11%), if any, Namibian diamonds were sourced from Dwyka glacial deposits or older sediments. Estimates of erosion levels for southern African kimberlites suggest that Cretaceous Group I and Group II kimberlites in South Africa are the most likely sources of the Namibian diamond deposits. Palaeo-drainage reconstructions are consistent with diamond transport to the Namibian coast by the palaeo-Karoo and modern Orange river systems. If the ~ 240 Ma inclusion ages represent contributions from the Jwaneng kimberlites, this would support models for an earlier Kalahari river with headwaters in southern Botswana.

  12. Introduction to LNG vehicle safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

    1994-03-01

    Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

  13. Quantification of Coastal Macro Algae Iodine Emissions and its Spatial Variability at the West Coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Reactive iodine species are emitted by macro algae in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Due to the oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and thus reduction of ozone, they may have a significant influence on the local atmosphere. Further high iodine oxide levels may act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in previous field studies. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. An observation of the dominant sources, the spatial distribution and the impact on larger scales was not possible so far. To investigate these questions we performed intensive measurements at eight different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Therefore, we applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and a mobile Cavity Enhanced (CE)- DOAS instrument for in-situ IO measurements at different locations. Additionally, a static Long Path-DOAS system for IO, OIO and I2 measurements located at Mace Head was applied. This allows comparing directly different locations with the reference station Mace Head without the influence of locally varying meteorology and comparing results also to former observations. We could confirm previous results that the macro algae species Laminaria digitata is the strongest iodine emitting algae. However, we observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, iodine oxide concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site compared to Mace Head. IO reaching levels up to 40ppt observed with the LP-DOAS and 70ppt @ 1.2m height with the CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high abundance in the intertidal zone, is by far the strongest source. Third, we observed also high iodine oxide levels above 30ppt at rainy, cold and windy weather. Thus former observations that these emissions arise only at sunny and warm weather could not be confirmed. Fourth, we investigated that iodine oxide increase exponentially with decreasing distance to the emitting seaweed patches reaching concentrations much above 100ppt being sufficient to start particle nucleation events. We conclude that coastal macro algae emissions are thus much more relevant for the atmosphere than so far expected from previous observations performed at Mace Head which is rather characterized by low IO levels in comparison to other locations. Reasons and explanations for these findings will be presented. A review of the coastal macro algae iodine emissions and its influence on the atmosphere is thus urgently needed.

  14. Local meteorological and synoptic characteristics of fogs formed over Incheon international airport in the west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Yum, Seong Soo

    2010-07-01

    Fogs observed over Incheon international airport (IIA) in the west coast of Korea from January 2002 to August 2006 are classified into categories of coastal fog, cold sea fog, and warm sea fog based on the areal extent of the fogs and the difference between the air temperature ( T) and the SST, i.e., cold sea fog if TSST = T-SST > 0°C and warm sea fog if TSST < 0°C. The numbers of coastal, cold, and warm sea fog cases are 64, 26, and 9. Coastal fogs form most frequently in winter, while cold sea fogs occur mostly in summer and warm sea fogs are observed from January to May but not in November and December. On average the air gets colder by 1.6°C during the three hours leading up to the coastal fog formation, and an additional cooling of 1.1°C occurs during the fog. The change in the dew point temperature ( T d) is minimal except during the fog (0.6°C). Decreases in T for the cold and warm sea fogs are relatively smaller. The average T d is higher than SST during the cold sea fog periods but this T d is more than 4°C higher than that for the corresponding non-fog days, suggesting that cold sea fogs be formed by the cooling of already humid air (i.e., T d>SST). Increases of T d are significant during the warm sea fog periods (1.4°C), implying that efficient moisture supply is essential to warm sea fog formation. Four major synoptic patterns are identified in association with the observed fogs. The most frequent is a north Pacific high that accounts for 38% of cases. Surface or upper inversions are present in 77%, 69%, and 81% of the fog periods for coastal, cold, and warm sea fogs, respectively.

  15. A statistical description on the wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights off the US West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2014-01-01

    Local and remote wind-coherent responses of sea surface heights (SSHs) off the US West Coast (USWC) are described with statistical and analytical models. The wind transfer functions are statistically derived from surface wind stress at National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) buoys, located within 50 km from the shoreline, and detided SSHs (SSH anomalies; SSHAs) at shoreline tide gauges for 15 years (1995 to 2009) using linear regression in the frequency domain. A two-dimensional analytical model constrained by the coastal boundary provides a dynamical framework to interpret the data-derived statistical model. Although both transfer functions agree well at low frequency [ ? ? 0.4 cycles per day (cpd)], they appear to be inconsistent at high frequency ( ? ? 0.8 cpd; e.g., diurnal and its harmonic frequencies) because of incoherent signals between wind stress and SSHAs as well as their low signal-to-noise ratios. A multivariate regression analysis using wind stress at multiple wind buoys is implemented with a modified expectation maximization. The cross-validated skill increases and becomes saturated as the number of regression basis functions increases, demonstrating the influence of local and remote winds. The skill computed from all available winds off the USWC has a maximum as 0.1 in southern California, 0.2 to 0.3 in central California, and 0.3 to 0.5 in northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The residual SSHAs, incoherent components with all available coastal wind stress off the USWC, still contain poleward propagating signals, considered as components forced by remote winds outside of the domain.

  16. Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

    2009-04-01

    We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

  17. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of suspended particulate organic matter in Zuari Estuary, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Pratirupa; Karapurkar, S. G.; Shenoy, D. M.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; Maya, M. V.; Naik, H.; Varik, S.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The spatio-temporal variations of the ?13C and ?15N of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), along with ancillary chemical and hydrographic parameters, have been examined monthly for one year (October 2010 to September 2011) at a total of seven stations to refine the understanding of SPOM sources and biogeochemical pathways in the tropical Zuari Estuary, west coast of India. The dynamic nature of C and N cycling in estuaries is reflected in the isotopic variation of SPOM as a function of space and time. The results exhibit marked seasonality, with the autochthonous component and the terrestrial component being the major SPOM sources during periods of low and high river discharges, respectively. Spatially, enrichments of ?13C and ?15N from the head (?13C = - 29.6‰, ?15N = 1.78‰, C/N = 7.09) to the mouth (?13C = - 20.9‰, ?15N = 5.77‰, C/N = 6.12) of the estuary indicate downstream reduction of terrigenous influence. The mean C:N ratios varied between 4 and 9 over the study period with low values during the monsoon, in spite of large terrestrial input, which can be attributed to microbial modification of terrestrial SPOM. A significant positive correlation of ?13C with salinity suggests the reliability of ?13C as a biogeochemical tracer for organic matter provenance. Carbon:chlorophyll plots reveal suppressed autochthonous production during the southwest monsoon which may be attributed to the rapid flushing time, light-limitation due to cloud cover and high water-column turbidity.

  18. Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kawser; Mehedi, Yousuf; Haque, Rezaul; Mondol, Pulakesh

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos ranged from 235 ± 10.11 to 1,051 ± 38.42, 3.66 ± 0.89 to 7.55 ± 1.29, 76.8 ± 8.55 to 98.5 ± 6.49, 0.46 ± 0.11 to 0.859 ± 0.2 and 4.66 ± 1.17 to 6.77 ± 2.1 ?g/g, respectively. Significant variations (p???0.05) in heavy metal concentrations have been observed among the mud crab, mudskipper and gastropod. However, heavy metal burdens did not vary significantly among the hermit and horseshoe crabs. In mud crab, horseshoe crab and gastropod, heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the sequence: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. Hermit crab and mudskipper contained heavy metals in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Fe and Zn concentrations were found significantly (p???0.05) higher in macrobenthos. The lead (Pb) concentration found in the edible portion of macrobenthos exceeded the international permissible limits certified by the WHO. Bioconcentration factors >1.00 obtained for Fe (17.05 in mudskipper) and Cd (1.87 in gastropod) indicated that these metals were highly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in benthic fauna of Sundarbans. The findings of this study refer to the potential impact of heavy metals in the mangrove ecosystem of Bangladesh. PMID:20711859

  19. Recent environmental changes and filamentous algal mats in shallow bays on the Swedish west coast — A result of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossellu, Michele; Nordberg, Kjell

    2010-04-01

    Over the last thirty years, many shallow estuarine bays, located in Scandinavian sheltered coastal environments, have been subject to the increased dominance of opportunistic species of filamentous green algae, oxygen deficiency in bottom waters and the alteration of flora and fauna. Human-induced eutrophication has been held responsible for these recent changes, but from this study the importance of climatic factors emerges. This research is based on the analysis of sediment cores from 8 shallow areas ( d < 50 cm) along the Bohuslän archipelago, Swedish west coast, and focuses on their recent (< 100 years) sedimentary evolution. Evidence of hydrodynamic change was observed in the sediments, where modern fining-upward sequences contrast with the expected coarsening upward model due to ongoing land uplift. Heavy metal concentrations from modern pollution and 14C dating of mollusk shells and eelgrass roots provided the age control, and allowed to place these changes within the last three decades. Data were compared with historical meteorological records (seasonal warming, modification of dominant winds and upwelling and reduction of sea-ice), and a clear connection emerged between the environmental changes and variations in the North Atlantic Ocean weather pattern. The increase of winter temperature and reduction of reworking winter sea-ice in these sheltered bays increased the storing of nutrients in the sediments and the turnover of organic matter, favoring the early growth stage of opportunistic algae in the most sheltered areas of the archipelago. This, together with human-induced modifications (overfishing and eutrophication), increased the possibility of opportunistic explosions, which in turn determined a reduced water exchange, the increased deposition of fine sediments and organic matter and evolving hypoxic conditions.

  20. Late Pleistocene coastal loess deposits of the central west coast of North America: Terrestrial facies indicators for marine low-stand intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Grathoff, Georg H.; Reckendorf, Frank; Percy, David; Price, David M.

    2014-03-01

    Coastal loess deposits measured in sea cliffs, bay cliffs, road cuts and boreholes (62 sites) are compiled for the states of Washington, Oregon, and California in the central west coast of North America (1700 km in length). The loess-enriched deposits are recognized by (1) substantial abundances of silt (30-90% by weight) and (2) depositional settings in uplifted marine terraces or dune fields that are situated well above alluvial floodplains at the coast. Total loess thickness above the MIS5a marine terrace, or 80 ± 20 ka basal TL age, ranges from 0.1 to 8.0 m in 46 dated sites. Loess deposits reach maximum thickness (5-8 m) in the vicinities of glacial outwash plains in the highest latitudes. Loess thickness in the middle and lower latitudes increases with proximity to 1) large river mouths (>3 × 106 mt yr-1 modern suspended sediment discharge) and 2) broad shelf widths (>10 km distance from 0 to -100 m depth). Coastal loess deposits dated by TL or radiocarbon (37 samples) range from ˜250 to 11 ka in age, but generally fall into the MIS4-2 marine low-stand intervals (32 dates between 77-15 ka). The coastal loess facies represent marine low-stand intervals in coastal Quaternary sequences from the central west coast of North America.

  1. Regional and global context of the Late Cenozoic Langebaanweg (LBW) palaeontological site: West Coast of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, David L.; Matthews, Thalassa; Herries, Andrew I. R.; Boulter, Claire; Scott, Louis; Dondo, Chiedza; Mtembi, Ponani; Browning, Claire; Smith, Roger M. H.; Haarhoff, Pippa; Bateman, Mark D.

    2011-06-01

    The palaeontological site of Langebaanweg (LBW) is internationally renowned for its prolific, diverse and exceptionally well preserved Mio-Pliocene vertebrate faunas. The site is located on the southern West Coast of South Africa which represents a passive intraplate, trailing edge setting. The southern African subcontinent is also removed from glacial influence and has experienced no Cenozoic volcanic activity. Rates of vertical crustal motion are consequently low and Late Cenozoic shoreline datums at LBW chiefly reflect glacio-eustatic sea level history. The primary aim of this study is to clarify the chronology as well as the regional and global context of LBW and to review previous work on these aspects. LBW is ideally situated to document the complex interactions of ocean, atmosphere and land and their respective influence on climate evolution, given its location near the coast and mix of marine, estuarine and terrestrial faunas and depositional settings. This paper also provides a background to the study of the vast existing faunal collections and a guide to undiscovered fossil deposits. Towards these ends, the first detailed geological/topographic maps of the site and surrounds, accompanied by a summary stratigraphic column are provided. Virtual geological modelling using a subsurface database has clarified the spatial and temporal relationships of sedimentary facies, as well as their depositional settings. The geological and palaeontological record at LBW tracks and documents the major regional and global climatic/oceanographic events of the Late Cenozoic. During the Oligocene drawdown in sea levels, the landscape was etched by river incision. Fluctuating sea levels of the Neogene periodically reversed the trend from erosion to deposition, preserving contemporary faunas and floras in the Oligocene palaeovalleys. Earlier Miocene pollen from fluvial facies indicates a humid sub-tropical climate, reflecting a warm southern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt late Middle Miocene global cooling (Monterey Excursion) coincided with intensified cold upwelling in the Benguela Current and extensive phosphate authigenesis. A globally documented Early Pliocene highstand possibly related to the shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama reached ~ 90 m above sea level (asl), implying extensive melting of the cryosphere. Palaeomagnetic data in tandem with global sea level reconstructions suggested an age of ~ 5.15 ± 0.1 Ma for the faunas and a correlation with the earlier part of this transgression. A subtropical C3 vegetation is indicated by the faunas and floras, but with a significant contribution by sclerophytic fynbos pointing to a cooler and more seasonal climate than in the Miocene. A mid-Pliocene highstand to ~ 50 m asl truncated the Early Pliocene succession at LBW and the globally documented Late Pliocene highstand to ~ 30 m asl saw the Atlantic shoreline approaching LBW for the last time. With the progressive climatic cooling and instability of the terminal Pliocene, culminating in the growth of the Arctic ice cap, strengthening southerly winds driven by a tighter coiled South Atlantic Anticyclone deposited extensive coastal dune fields over the region.

  2. The timing of early life events and growth rate estimates of age-0?year group brill Scophthalmus rhombus along the west coast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Haynes, P S; Brophy, D; McGrath, D

    2014-01-01

    The timing of spawning and hatching, larval durations and growth exhibited by juvenile brill Scophthalmus rhombus captured along the Irish west coast were estimated using otolith microstructure analysis. Scophthalmus rhombus were estimated to have hatched between February and May, with fish settling onto nursery grounds between March and June. Fish collected later on in the season exhibited higher otolith growth rates in comparison to earlier collected fish. This is the first study to describe the early life history of a commercially valuable but understudied flatfish species. PMID:24383806

  3. LNG annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

    1982-09-01

    This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

  4. Study of gelled LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, M.I.; Cabeal, J.A.; Hoffman, L.C.; Newton, R.A.; Schaplowsky, R.K.; Vander Wall, E.M.

    1981-05-01

    This research included (1) further characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) rheological properties, (2) assessment of the relative leakage of GELNG vs LNG through a perforated wall, (3) relative spread and vaporization rates of unconfined spills on water, and (4) relative spread and vaporization rates of unconfined spills on land. Shear stress vs strain rate was determined for a range of gelant concentrations. The shear diagram was extended to cover shear rates in the range of 13 to 14,800 inverse seconds, expanding previous results at both low and high shear rates. Leakage tests of GELNG through a known geometry perforation were conducted along with comparative testing with LNG. Rapid cessation of flow through the perforated plate was observed for all tested concentrations of GELNG and at all driving pressures. This cessation of leakage was observed for both moist ambient air and dry helium isothermal environments. LNG showed no flow cessation tendencies under any of the test conditions. Land spills were found to give inconclusive results due to difficulties in measuring transient weight changes during the spill. Water spills were conducted in such a way that spread areas could be photographically recorded. Gelation increases total vaporization time significantly in water spills.

  5. West Coast drilling, production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rintoul

    1966-01-01

    Oil production in California in 1965 rose from an average of 830,015 bpd at the beginning of the year to a peak of more than 900,000 bpd. Sometime within the next 5 yr, no later than 1970, oil producers will post an all-time high for California production in excess of the 1,000,013 bpd record set in 1953. On the national

  6. United States West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127.319 Navigation...Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be...

  8. Effectiveness of loess in rejuvenating soil and ecosystem properties in a high leaching environment, West Coast, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, A.; Almond, P. C.; Condron, L. M.

    2010-12-01

    In the absence of major disturbances, humid terrestrial ecosystems tend over long time scales towards deficiency of biogeochemically accessible nutrients. This phenomenon has been implicated in ecosystem retrogression. Aeolian deposition has been shown to be an important mitigating effect on nutrient depletion in soils and ecosystems of old landsurfaces (e.g. Hawaii, Amazon Basin). Significant nutrient loss has been demonstrated on surfaces as young as Holocene age in very high leaching environments (>2,000 mm/a) and ecosystem retrogression has been reported for landsurfaces formed ca. 100 ka. The aim of this study is to quantify the capacity of actively accumulating loess to replenish nutrient pools in soils and ecosystems in a super-humid, temperate environment on the west coast of the South Island, New Zealand. The study area, a sequence of Holocene dune ridges under a conifer (podocarp) rainforest, combines a loess flux gradient downwind of a braided riverbed on a 6,500 y old dune ridge and, distal from the loess source, an adjacent chronosequence of dune ridges (170-6,500 y BP age range). Pedogenesis is very rapid with Spodosols developing after 1,000 y under a thick organic root mat. Our approach is based on the principle that if loess deposition has rejuvenating effects on soils or ecosystems, then it will result in soils or ecosystems of a given age having properties consistent with those on a younger, less leached landsurface. How much younger determines the strength of the rejuvenating effect. We sampled and analysed soils, to a depth of 1 m by standard methods to determine total profile masses of important macro nutrients, conducted a vegetation survey and sampled tree foliage of fully expanded, fresh leaves of sunlit branches. Along the loess gradient, foliar nutrient P concentrations in two main canopy species increased according to a power law towards the river, corresponding to an inverse logarithmic increase in loess flux rate from 0 at 1,000 m distance to 25 g m^-2 y^-1 adjacent to the river. For Prumnopitys ferruginea, foliar P concentration was described by: foliar P(%)=0.6194*[distance (m)]^-0.2812 (R^2=0.65, P<0.0001). A similar trend occurred with decreasing dune age across the chronosequence. We compared foliar P concentration along the loess gradient with foliar P concentration across the chronosequence and show that a loess flux rate of 25 g m^-2 y^-1 on a 6,500 y old dune produces foliar P concentrations comparable to that of a 390 y old dune. This is equivalent to a rejuvenation of >6,000 y, or more than 90%. By 500 m distance (8 g m^-2 y^-1) the rejuvenation effect is negligible. Soil total P concentrations in the top 30 cm of the mineral soil also respond to the loess flux with an up to ~3-fold increase at comparable soil depths when moving towards the river. We will present P fractionation data from the soils in order to determine how biogeochemically accessible the total P is, and explore the relative significance of the organic horizon versus the mineral soil as a pool and a pathway of the aeolian-derived nutrients to the ecosystem.

  9. Paleo-tsunami and land-level change evidence from the west coast of South Andaman, Andman Nicobar Island, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Shishikura, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, Mw 9.3 provided an ideal opportunity to understand the pattern of paleoseismic event and paleo-tsunami deposition in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The present investigation carried out along the west coast of Andaman Island around Collinpur village (N11°39´56.9´´ and E92°44´31.3´´) revealed excellent evidences pointing towards land-level change and tsunami deposition during recent historic past. Sedimentary records studied from the geo-slicer and trench sections collected along transect across stable beach ridges and swales between the ridges (N11°41'38?, E92°35'52?) revealed distinct change in depositional environments which have been attributed to tectonic activity. In total we excavated 4 trenches and collected 9 geo-slicer sections. We present here our preliminary results and interpretations. Based on sedimentary structures, grain size and nature of contact and colour, sedimentary units from the trenches and geoslicers were classified into seven units (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) from bottom to top. The bottom most unit a is marked by poor laminations of fine silty-sand and peaty material suggestive of inter-tidal to marshy environment. This is overlain by 30 cm thick unit b - comprising coarse sand with gravel fragments (corals, shells, rock clasts etc.) in the swale and coarse sandy deposits along with broken shells, peaty material and rip-up clasts of underlying soil on the back-limb of the beach ridge. The sharp-erosive contact with the underlying and overlying sedimentary unit, distinct variation in grain marked assorted fragments, broken shell; peaty material suggests deposition by tsunami wave during recent geological past. Overlying unit c marked by partially developed peaty layer suggests marshy environment at or above mean sea level indicative of a probable uplift (?) which occurred during Event I accompanied with tsunami waves. Unit d with finer deposits comprised of silty-clay suggests deposition under sub-tidal environment; change of depositional environment from marshy to sub-tidal suggests subsidence - Event II. Thick silty-sand unit (unit e) and overlying humic soil (unit f) indicates land-level change. Based on the change in sediment grain size and well develop humic soil it is suggested that the uplift was gradual during inter-seismic period. Unit g shows yellowish medium to coarse sand with prominent laminations at the basal part and sharp contact with the underlying humic soil (unit f). This unit marks the deposition by recent tsunami generated by 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquakes. Marginal coseismic subsidence probably occurred during this event - Event II. AMS ages obtained from the peaty material, charcoal, wood from the geo-slice and trench sections suggests that Event I marked by tsunami deposits occurred at around 1200-1300 AD; Event II marked by subsidence occurred somewhere during 1300-1800 AD. It is inferred that the gradual uplift during inter-seismic period occurred between 1800 and 2000 AD. Finally the area marginally subsided during 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake along with deposition of tsunami sediments.

  10. The role of land use change on the development and evolution of the west coast trough, convective clouds, and precipitation in southwest Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Udaysankar S.; Wu, Y.; Kala, J.; Lyons, T. J.; Pielke, R. A., Sr.; Hacker, J. M.

    2011-04-01

    Land clearing for agricultural purposes in southwest Australia has created a landscape where a 750 km rabbit-proof fence separates 13 million hectares of croplands from the remnant native vegetation to the east. The Bunny Fence Experiment (BuFex) was conducted in the vicinity of the intended vermin-proof boundary in December 2005 and August 2007. The experiment examined the role of land cover change (LCC) on the preferential formation of clouds over the native vegetation that often terminates along the vermin-proof fence as well as the regional rainfall reduction observed in this region. Observations and numerical model analysis show that the formation and development of the west coast trough (WCT), which is a synoptic-scale feature that initiates spring and summertime convection, is impacted by land cover change and that the cloud fields induced by the WCT would extend farther west in the absence of the LCC. The surface convergence patterns associated with the wintertime WCT circulation are substantially altered by LCC, due to changes in both WCT dynamics and surface aerodynamic roughness, leading to a rainfall decrease to the west of the rabbit fence. Although this study focuses on only two events, it further illustrates that LCC has significant regional impacts in southwest Western Australia regardless of large-scale shifts in the climate system.

  11. On the warm bias along the South-West African Coast in coupled models : an oceanic perspective

    E-print Network

    Wang, Jinbo, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01

    Coupled ocean/atmosphere simulations exhibit systematic warm biases over the South West African (SWA) coastal region. Recent investigations indicate that coastal ocean dynamics may play an important role in determining the ...

  12. The effects of marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations on ambient PM2.5 along the west coast of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2015-02-01

    This work uses PM2.5 data and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) modeling to explore the effects of two marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations along the west coast of the United States (US); California's (CA) Ocean-Going Vessel Clean Fuel Regulation (CA-CFR) implemented in July 2009 and the North American Emissions Control Area (NA-ECA) implemented in August 2012. Data from 31 chemically speciated PM2.5 monitors along the US west coast were analyzed and 9 sites with strong linear correlations between vanadium and nickel were selected for PMF modeling. The 9 sites were modeled independently and for 8 sites, 3 in CA and 5 in Washington State (WA), a well-defined factor linked to marine vessel residual fuel oil (RFO) combustion was identified. For these 8 sites, model results were subdivided into three time periods; a three year period prior to implementation of the CA-CFR, a three year period after the CA-CFR but prior to the NA-ECA, and a one year period after implementation of the NA-ECA. Marine vessel PM2.5 distributions were compared between the three time periods to determine if statistically significant reductions had occurred. Comparing marine vessel PM2.5 for the three years before and after CA-CFR implementation, all CA sites indicated statistically significant reductions, with reductions in annualized average marine vessel PM2.5 from 30 to 52% (0.09-0.78 ?g/m3). Comparing marine vessel PM2.5 for the three years before NA-ECA implementation and the 1 year after, 2 of 5 WA sites indicated statistically significant reductions in annualized average impacts (45-50%, 0.12-0.23 ?g/m3) and 1 of 3 sites in CA (46%, 0.04 ?g/m3). These results demonstrate that marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations on the west coast of the US have been effective at reducing PM2.5 impacts from marine vessel RFO combustion at some locations, with the implementation of the CA-CFR showing more success than the NA-ECA. The greater observed success of the CA-CFR is, to some extent, probably the result of a longer 3-year implementation time compared to only 1 year for the NA-ECA.

  13. Spatial patterns in mass balance of the Siple Coast and Amundsen Sea sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Gordon; Spikes, V. Blue; Stearns, Leigh

    2005-06-01

    located ?100–200 km apart along US ITASE traverse routes, and at several isolated locations. All but one of the sites are distributed in the Siple Coast and the Amundsen Sea basin along contours of constant elevation, along flowlines, across ice divides...

  14. Three-Dimensional Model Simulations of Tides and Buoyancy Currents along the West Coast of Vancouver Island

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael G. G. Foreman; Richard E. Thomson

    1997-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model is used to calculate the barotropic tides and seasonal buoyancy flows off the western and northern coasts of Vancouver Island. The model buoyancy currents and the harmonics of eight tidal constituents are compared with those from previous models, and those from tide gauge and current meter observations. The rms differences between observed and calculated sea

  15. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  16. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 94, No. 6B, pp. S348S359, December 2004 Remotely Triggered Seismicity on the United States West Coast following

    E-print Network

    Brodsky, Emily

    2004 Remotely Triggered Seismicity on the United States West Coast following the Mw 7.9 Denali Fault. Oppenheimer, A. M. Pitt, and K. B. Richards-Dinger Abstract The Mw 7.9 Denali fault earthquake in central hours to days after the Denali fault earthquake. These swarms seem to represent a delayed response

  17. Interaction of the Marine Atmosphere, Coastal Topography and Sea Surface Temperature on Marine Fog Distribution Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, C. E.; Mejia, J.; Koracin, D. R.; McEvoy, D.

    2014-12-01

    ICOADS ship observations for 1950-2007 were used to examine the distribution of marine fog along the West Coast of North America between 20°N and 50°N. Quarterly (June-August, JJA; Sept-Nov, SON; Dec-Feb, DJF; March-May, MAM) long-term means were obtained and gridded using a 1°x 1° degree-arc mesh. The ship observation includes a subjective assessment of the weather that is codified into 100 categories. The most important and relevant are deep fog at the time of observation with the visibility less than or equal to 1 km. The most frequent deep fog is during JJA, with the highest values in the grid points closest to shore. There is a general fog frequency maximum along the coast between 34°N - 44°N that decreases offshore. More frequent occurrences tend to occur at major capes. The maximum JJA occurrences are at Cape Blanco and Pt Arena. In contrast, deep fog is infrequent along Baja California. In SON, deep fog occurrences are lowest with a narrower coastal maximum. In DJF, there is a broad, uneven fog maximum along the coast between 35°N-39°N. The frequency of deep fog occurrence is intermediate in MAM, with a weak, broad area north of 35°N. The distribution of the occurrence of deep fog in JJA is determined by a three way interaction between the atmosphere, the land and the ocean. The southbound marine layer is channeled by the coastal mountains and interacts with land topography via hydraulic dynamics. The marine layer flow accelerates on the downwind side of major capes, forces greater wind driven upwelling and colder sea surface temperatures along the coast of Southern Oregon and Northern California. However, the fast southbound winds are largely free of marine fog. Marine fog tends to occur along the inner coast when the southbound winds decay or reverse direction for 1-3 days, with the densest fog downwind of a major cape where the sea surface temperatures are lowest.

  18. Depositional record of trace metals and degree of contamination in core sediments from the Mandovi estuarine mangrove ecosystem, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Vethamony, P; Mani Murali, R; Fernandes, B

    2015-02-15

    The concentrations of seven trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn) in three sediment cores were analysed to assess the depositional trends of metals and their contamination level in the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India. All sediment cores showed enrichment of trace metals in the upper part of core sediments and decrease in concentration with depth, suggesting excess of anthropogenic loading (including mining activities) occurred during the recent past. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images distinguished the shape, size and structure of particles derived from lithogenic and anthropogenic sources in core sediments. The geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) values indicate that Mandovi estuary is 'moderately polluted' with Pb, whereas 'unpolluted to moderately polluted' with Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn. The comparative analysis of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn were highly enriched in the Mandovi estuary compared to all other Indian estuaries. PMID:25510546

  19. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  20. Tracing the sources of water using stable isotopes: first results along the Mangalore-Udupi region, south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Lambs, L; Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K

    2011-10-15

    The Mangalore and Udupi region on the south-west coast of India is characterized by small west-flowing rivers (150-250 km in length) originating in the Western Ghats (up to 1940 meters above sea level (m asl)) and joining the Arabian Sea. The area experiences a humid tropical climate with frequent, high-intensity rainfall (4000 mm annual average). Nevertheless, there is a shortage of water during the peak dry season immediately before the onset of monsoon because of a rapid fall in the groundwater level. From the humid high-altitude forests to the intense agriculture in the coastal area, there is an urgent need to understand the movement of water between evapotranspiration, rainfall, river systems and the groundwater compartments in order to achieve better water resource management. Demographic pressure on the area with over half a million inhabitants and industrial activity strongly influence this fragile ecosystem. The coastal area is characterized by shallow open wells, which are particularly sensitive to pollution and eutrophication. Stable water isotopes ((18)O and deuterium) were used for the first time in this region to determine the isotopic characteristics of the different waters. There is a clear seasonal difference in the isotopic ratios and d-excess values between the summer and winter monsoon periods, with a predominance of lighter isotopes in the latter period. No significant variations in isotopic ratios were observed in relation to altitude because of the possible role of mist formation at high altitude. Greater d-excess values were observed in the west-flowing streams than in rivers flowing east on account of the moist westerly oceanic winds and water vapour recycling. PMID:21913254

  1. 76 FR 2677 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ...Docket No. CP10-477-000] Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project January 7, 2011...to the environmental analysis of Southern LNG Company, LLC's (Southern) LNG...

  2. 77 FR 70886 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ...hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter of Intent LOR Letter of Recommendation...facility, must submit a Letter of Intent (LOI) to the Captain of the Port (COTP) of...Coast Guard issues an LOR in response to an LOI received from an owner or operator...

  3. The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation 

    E-print Network

    Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

    2009-05-15

    effectiveness heavily depends on application rate, generator location, and LNG containment pit design. Complicated phenomena involved and previous studies have not completely filled the gaps increases the needs for LNG field experiments involving expansion foam...

  4. Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

  5. The coastal mosaic of ocean acidification: The influence of upwelling, riverine input, and geography along the US West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. M.; Gaylord, B.; Miller, S. H.; Russell, A. D.; Sanford, E.

    2011-12-01

    Ocean acidification shows clear potential to decrease calcification in a wide range of marine organisms. However, many questions remain about the natural temporal and spatial variability of the carbonate system, particularly in coastal systems. To understand the natural variability of the carbonate system in the California Current, we have developed a broad scale coastal transect (47 sites) from the US-Canada border to San Diego. These sites are sampled from the shore, where waters are interacting with rocky intertidal and sandy beach ecosystems. Our "coast wide" transect is sampled twice per year for a suite of water chemistry parameters (T, S, O2, pH, DIC, TA, oxygen isotopes). We observe seasonal differences in water chemistry, for example an overall decrease in pH during upwelling (May) vs. non-upwelling conditions (September). Additionally, the influence of riverine input is very apparent at the coast, with plumes of fresh, high pH, low alkalinity water observed at the San Francisco Bay and Columbia River mouths. We also observed a wide range of pH (7.6-8.6), with the most acidic waters found in the Northern California-Southern Oregon upwelling region (38N-45N). At individual sites along this transect, we are collecting carbonate system data at higher resolution. For example, an oceanographic mooring located 1 km offshore of BML has been monitoring pH and pCO2 on an hourly basis since November 2010. This mooring is coupled with intertidal pH and water chemistry measurements at the shore on Bodega Head. These linked mooring and shore-based investigations allow for direct comparisons of offshore water to intertidal conditions.

  6. Food utilisation by coastal fish assemblages in rocky and soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Inference for identification of essential fish habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stål, Johan; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

    2007-02-01

    The concept of essential fish habitats (EFHs) is widely accepted for conservational and management purposes. EFHs are often considered as high quality habitats for fisheries species and subsequently of high values for society. In this study, fish and Substrate-Associated Prey (SAP) were sampled during the productive summer season 1998 (fish) and 2003 and 2004 (SAP) in shallow coastal rocky- and soft-bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast. The aim was to study the spatial and monthly variation of SAP as well as abundance and biomass of fish, and to examine if food items found in the diet of the fish assemblage were derived from SAP. We also examined if the diet of Ctenolabrus rupestris, a resident and abundant fish species in the shallow coastal habitats, and the diet of four seasonally abundant and commercially important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Pleuronectes platessa, Salmo trutta and Scomber scombrus) were derived from SAP. There were significantly higher mean species number and abundance of the SAP assemblage on rocky compared to soft bottoms and the highest values were found on the rocky bottoms in August and in the shallowest (0-3 m) depth strata. There were no significant differences in number of fish species caught in the two habitats, although mean number of fish and mean biomass were significantly higher on rocky bottoms. Both habitats showed the same seasonal variation and the highest values of number of fish species, abundance and biomass were observed in June. On rocky bottoms, gastropods and amphipods were the most frequent food items in the diet of the entire fish assemblage and these items were also the most abundant SAP in this habitat. The dominant food items of the soft-bottom fish assemblage were decapods and fish, which were not common SAP. However, except for S. scombrus, the diet of the selected fish species showed a strong association to the SAP availability. Gadus morhua displayed the strongest association to SAP on rocky bottoms and P. platessa and C. rupestris to SAP on soft bottoms. Further, for C. rupestris, multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association to the SAP assemblage on both rocky and soft bottoms. These results provide vital new information for the management and conservation of Essential Fish Habitats on the Swedish west coast.

  7. Provenance of the heavy mineral-enriched alluvial deposits at the west coast of the Red Sea. Implications for evolution of Arabian-Nubian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Ibrahim, Tarek M. M.; Goodell, Philip C.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet, etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of (1) 824-733 Ma, (2) 730-705 Ma, (3) 646-608 Ma, (4) 516-500 Ma, and (5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ?500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (?Hf (t)) of both fans varies from +3.5 to +13.5. Our new U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition suggests that the detrital zircons were derived from the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust. This is consistent with the Neoproterozoic juvenile igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Eastern Desert and northern Sudan.

  8. Provenance of the Heavy Mineral-enriched Alluvial Deposits at the West Coast of Red Sea. Implications to the Evolution of Arabian-Nubian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar, M. A.; Ibrahim, T.; Goodell, P.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of 1) 824-733 Ma, 2) 730-705 Ma, 3) 646-608 Ma, 4) 516-500 Ma, and 5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ~500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (?Hf (t)) of both fans varies from +3.5 to +13.5. Our new U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition suggests that the detrital zircons were derived from the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust. This is consistent with the Neoproterozoic juvenile igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Eastern Desert and northern Sudan.

  9. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154...Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure build up due to boil-off for 21 days, the pressure...

  10. Concrete LNG GBS Terminal Ship Collision Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuqiang Wu; Frank Puskar

    2008-01-01

    A Concrete Gravity Based Structure (GBS) provides an opportunity for the storage of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and represents one of the key elements of an LNG receiving and regasification terminal. The impact resistance of an offshore LNG GBS against accidental ship collision needs to be evaluated. Nonlinear elasto-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA) provides a useful numerical tool to assess

  11. Optimization of Compressor Networks in LNG Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Faruque Hasan; I. A. Karimi

    2009-01-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is the most economic way of transporting natural gas (NG) over long distances. Although LNG is an attractive source of clean fossil fuel, it involves energy intensive liquefaction of NG using refrigeration. Often the compressors that run the refrigerant cycles in an LNG plant operate in suboptimal fashion, which results in higher fuel and energy consumption.

  12. Strong Endemism of Bloom-Forming Tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with Description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

    2014-01-01

    Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent. PMID:25329833

  13. Hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas a year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jun, Je-Cheon; Park, Young-Je; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-12-01

    In marine bivalves, hemocytes support various physiological functions, including immune defense, nutrient transport, shell repair, and homeostatic maintenance. Although the effects of marine contaminants on the immunological functions of bivalves have been extensively investigated, the impacts of oil spills are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas 13 months after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (December 2007) off the west coast of Korea. The parameters studied included hemocyte concentration and mortality, relative proportion of hemocyte populations, and immunological functions such as phagocytosis and oxidative activity using flow cytometry. These immune-related parameters in oysters damaged by the oil spill were also compared to control oysters that were collected from an area unaffected by the spill. The flow cytometry study indicated that granulocyte population, phagocytic capacity, and reactive oxygen species production in oysters exposed to crude oil 13 months prior were depressed compared to the unexposed control oysters. Our data suggest that immunocompetence in oysters affected by the oil spill had not fully recovered 1 year after the accident, although more detailed studies on the physiology and disease resistance should be performed.

  14. Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

    2013-09-01

    A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous Allocladus-Brachyphyllum-Pagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated Weichselia-Onychiopsis-Gleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two ‘biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

  15. Ground-water modeling and the installation of deep multiple-well monitoring sites in the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichard, E. G.; Johnson, T. A.; Land, M.; Everett, R. R.; Ponti, D. J.; Edwards, B. D.; Crawford, S. M.; Kulshan, T.

    2002-12-01

    An ongoing regional study of the geohydrology and geochemistry of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California has iteratively combined the drilling of deep multiple-well monitoring sites with groundwater modeling. The monitoring sites are generally between 1,000 and 1,500 ft in depth and consist of 4-6 piezometers installed within a single borehole that provide depth-dependent geohydrologic data. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRDSC) drilled four monitoring sites at the beginning of the cooperative study. The data from these sites, along with data compiled from existing wells, formed the basis for developing a preliminary multi-aquifer ground-water simulation model. Initial model simulations were then used to help prioritize new drilling locations where additional geohydrologic data were needed to more accurately simulate the complex system. Additional drilling, updating the regional simulation model, and new modeling-including development of particle tracking, simulation-optimization, and solute transport models-have proceeded iteratively. As of September, 2002, 34 multiple-well monitoring sites (162 piezometers) have been constructed. The new modeling, which focuses on seawater intrusion, has identified the need for more detailed data on sequence stratigraphy, geometries of confining beds and high permeability zones, and pore-water chemistry. In response to this need, continuous coring has been conducted cooperatively by the USGS, WRDSC, and Los Angeles County Department of Public Works at six of the monitoring sites completed thus far.

  16. Assessing the Health of the U.S. West Coast with a Regional-Scale Application of the Ocean Health Index

    PubMed Central

    Best, Benjamin D.; Doney, Scott C.; Katona, Steven K.; McLeod, Karen L.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Samhouri, Jameal F.

    2014-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment. PMID:24941007

  17. Assessing the health of the U.S. west coast with a regional-scale application of the Ocean Health Index.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Longo, Catherine; Scarborough, Courtney; Hardy, Darren; Best, Benjamin D; Doney, Scott C; Katona, Steven K; McLeod, Karen L; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Samhouri, Jameal F

    2014-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment. PMID:24941007

  18. [Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].

    PubMed

    Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

    2011-03-01

    The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration for La Restinga; the polyunsaturated fatty acids were between 4.66 and 35.55% with lower values for Chacopata and higher values for Chaguaramas samples. P. viridis is recommended for human being consumption, according to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids found for this species. PMID:21516644

  19. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanré, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

  20. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique – taken from the published literature – and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 104 cells L?1) varied considerably (sensitivity—Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity—Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)—improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%). PMID:22180667

  1. Bio-physical model provides insight into dispersal of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) from putative spawning grounds to nursery areas on the west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zölck, Melanie; Brophy, Deirdre; Mohn, Christian; Minto, Cóilín; McGrath, David

    2015-05-01

    In this study we use an individual-based coupled physical biological model (ICPBM) to reconstruct the dispersal pathways of 0-group juveniles (young of the year) collected from nursery grounds in Galway Bay and to identify probable spawning ground locations for plaice on the west coast of Ireland. The relative importance of passive transport, behaviour and individual growth rates on successful larval delivery, from three putative spawning grounds to suitable nursery areas, was also investigated. Using a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), combined with a particle tracking model, three model scenarios were tested: a passive tracer scenario (PTS), a linear growth scenario (LGS) and a temperature-dependent growth scenario (TDS). Hydrodynamic conditions were modelled and biological information (pelagic larval durations and size at settlement) incorporated. The LGS and TDS included vertical migration and tidally synchronised behaviour. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) comparisons showed that incorporation of behaviour and temperature-dependent growth, resulted in approximately two to three times more particles being delivered to sites of suitable depth for settlement (? 10 m), compared to passive transport alone (p < 0.001, LGS 19-78%; TDS 40-81%). The probability of successful delivery also varied significantly depending on the location, year and week of release (p < 0.05). A comparison of temperature histories between particles that were delivered to shallow inshore areas and those that failed to reach depths suitable for settlement indicated that dispersal to coastal nursery areas is facilitated by entrainment into a cool coastal current system. This study identifies a probable plaice spawning area in western Ireland and reconfirms the importance of including behaviour and growth in dispersal simulations. The model results suggest that differences in growth can influence larval delivery to potentially suitable nursery areas.

  2. Projection of Carbon Dynamics in the Marine West Coast Forests under Climate and Land Cover changes Using General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, Y.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Young, C.; Werner, J.; Dahal, D.; Liu, J.; Schmidt, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate and land cover changes may influence the capacity of the terrestrial ecosystems to be carbon sinks or sources. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential change of the carbon sequestration in the Marine West Coast Forests ecoregion in the Pacific Northwest United States using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). In GEMS, the underlying biogeochemical model, Erosion and Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), was used and calibrated using MODIS net primary production (NPP) and grain yield data during the baseline period from 2002 to 2005, and then validated with another four-year period from 2006 to 2009. GEMS-EDCM was driven using projected climate from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) under three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) and derived land cover data from the FORecasting SCEnarios (FORE-SCE) model under the same three IPCC scenarios for the period from 2006 to 2050. This ecoregion, two-thirds of which is covered by forest, was projected to continue to gain carbon from 2005 to 2050, with an annual carbon sequestration of about -3 Tg C. It was also predicted that live biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) would contain about 48% and 33% of the total carbon storage by 2050, respectively. In addition, forest carbon sequestration (-2 Tg C yr-1) demonstrated to be the largest sink among all ecosystems, accounting for 73% of the total, followed by grass/shrub and agriculture. Overall, results about predicted dynamics of carbon storage and sequestration can be informative to policy makers for seeking mitigation plans to reduce greenhouse gases emissions.

  3. Can the shell of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a potential biomonitoring material for Cd, Pb and Zn?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yap, C. K.; Ismail, A.; Tan, S. G.; Abdul Rahim, I.

    2003-07-01

    The distributions of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total soft tissues and total shells of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis were studied in field collected samples as well as from laboratory experimental samples. The results showed that Cd, Pb and Zn were readily accumulated in the whole shells. In mussels sampled from 12 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, the ratios of the shell metals to the soft tissue metals were different at each sampling site. Nevertheless, the Cd and Pb levels in the shells were always higher than those in the soft tissues, while the Zn level was higher in the soft tissues than in the shells. In comparison with soft tissues, the degrees of variability for Pb and Cd concentrations in the shells were lower. The lower degrees of variability and significant ( P<0.05) correlation coefficients of Cd and Pb within the shells support the use of the mussel shell as a suitable biomonitoring material for the two metals rather than the soft tissue since this indicated that there is more precision (lower CV) in the determination of metal concentrations in the shell than in the soft tissue. Experimental work showed that the pattern of depuration in the shell was not similar to that of the soft tissue although their patterns of accumulation were similar. This indicated that the depuration of heavy metals in the shell was not affected by the physiological conditions of the mussels. Although Zn could be regulated by the soft tissue, the incorporated Cd, Pb and Zn remained in the shell matrices. The present results support the use of the total shell of P. viridis as a potential biomonitoring material for long-term contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn.

  4. Numerical study of sea fogs off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula using a Single Column Model coupled with WRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C.; Yum, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Sea fog is a weather phenomenon that usually occurs below a marine boundary layer. Over the past several decades, efforts have been made to understand clearly the physical mechanisms of formation, evolution and dissipation of sea fogs using numerical modeling. Recently, 3D numerical simulations with a very high horizontal and vertical resolution have been carried out using mesoscale models to identify the influences of the turbulent mixing within PBL, radiative cooling at the fog top, even aerosols, on the formation of sea fogs. However, expensive computation cost is a big concern for these 3D model simulations with high resolution. Alternatively approach is to use a 1D model, i.e., single column model. However, a typical 1D model does not resolve the horizontal advection and pressure gradient force and therefore it is limited to radiation fog studies. More recent approach is to couple a 1D model with a 3D model to compensate for the limitation of a 1D model. In this study, WRFV3.1.1 is used as a 3D model and Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) is employed as a 1D model. For the 3D simulation, three nested domains of 18 km, 6 km, 2 km are used along with 64 layers in the vertical. Horizontal advections of heat and moisture, geostrophic winds and vertical motion produced every hour from WRFV3.1.1 are provided as an external forcing into the 1D model, CLUBB. CLUBB is designed for studying stable boundary layer as well as convective boundary layer and also supports sophisticated double moment microphysics (e.g., Khairoutdinov and Kogan scheme, and Morrison scheme). Several sea fog events observed in the eastern part of the Yellow Sea near the west coast of Korea are simulated and the effects of radiative cooling and turbulence are examined and a sensitivity tests of microphysics are done using CLUBB. Detailed results will be presented in the conference.

  5. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities...STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service maintenance...

  6. Simulation and integration of liquefied natural gas (lng) processes

    E-print Network

    Al-Sobhi, Saad Ali

    2009-05-15

    gas (LNG). When there is a considerable distance involved in transporting natural gas, LNG is becoming the preferred method of supply because of technical, economic, and political reasons. Thus, LNG is expected to play a major role in meeting...

  7. 76 FR 53425 - Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ...Docket No. CP11-532-000] Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 8, 2011, Pivotal LNG, Inc. (Pivotal), Ten Peachtree Place...non-jurisdictional liquefied natural gas (LNG) liquefaction and storage facility in...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to...

  10. Environmental and Economical Evaluation of Integrating NGL Extraction and LNG Liquefaction Technology in Iran LNG Project 

    E-print Network

    Manesh, M. H. K.; Mazhari, V.

    2009-01-01

    The combination of changing global markets for natural gas liquids (NGL) with the simultaneous increase in global demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has stimulated an interest in the integration of NGL recovery technology with LNG liquefaction...

  11. Floating LNG terminal and LNG carrier interaction analysis for side-by-side offloading operation 

    E-print Network

    Kuriakose, Vinu P.

    2005-11-01

    Floating LNG terminals are a relatively new concept with the first such terminal in the world installed this year. The hydrodynamic interaction effects between the terminal and a LNG carrier in a side-by-side offloading ...

  12. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard...Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship...designated representative. DATES: This rule is effective...

  13. Towards improving the reliability of future regional climate projections: A bias-correction method applied to precipitation over the west coast of Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valved, A.; Barstad, I.; Sobolowski, S.

    2012-04-01

    The early winter of 2011/2012 in the city of Bergen, located on the west coast of Norway, was dominated by warm, wet and extreme weather. This might be a glimpse of future average climate conditions under continued atmospheric warming and an enhanced hydrological cycle. The extreme weather events have resulted in drainage/sewage problems, landslides, flooding property damage and even death. As the Municipality plans for the future they must contend with a growing population in a geographically complex area in addition to any effects attributable to climate change. While the scientific community is increasingly confident in the projections of large scale changes over the mid - high latitudes this confidence does not extend to the local - regional scale where the magnitude and even direction of change may be highly uncertain. Meanwhile it is precisely these scales that Municipalities such as Bergen require information if they are to plan effectively. Thus, there is a need for reliable, local climate projections, which can aid policy makers and planners in decision-making. Current state of the art regional climate models are capable of providing detailed simulations on the order of 1 or 10km. However, due to the increased computational demands of these simulations, large ensembles, such as those used for GCM experiments, are often not possible. Thus, greater detail, under these circumstances, does not necessarily correspond to greater reliability. One way to deal with this issue is to apply a statistical bias correction method where model results are fitted to observationally derived probability density functions (pdfs). In this way, a full distribution of potential changes may be generated which are constrained by known, observed data.This will result in a shifted model distribution with mean and spread that more closely follows observations. In short, the method temporarily removes the climate signals from the model run working on the different percentiles, fits the distribution to that of the observations and adds back the climate signal found in the model run. This bias-correction methodology is applied to the output of a four-member ensemble of a high resolution AGCM (30 km over Norway) plus a control simulation. Point observations from the Bergen area for the control period are used to build "ground truth" pdfs. After the bias-correction method is applied the future climate simulations (2031-2060) are compared to a 30-year control period (1961-1990). The results indicate that this method may lead to more reliable local scale projections for future precipitation change.

  14. Diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae) and geochemistry from annually laminated mid-Holocene sediments, west coast Canada: insights into abrupt climate change in the past

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, A.; Pedersen, T. F.

    2009-04-01

    A 115-year record of annually laminated sediments from Effingham Inlet, a small anoxic fjord on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (49?N, 125?W), was analyzed for diatoms (species and abundances) and geochemistry (C and N isotopes, organic C and trace elements Ag, Cd, Re and Mo) from a piston core. The sediments were radiocarbon dated at approx. 4200-4400 years before present (yr BP) and show diatom enriched varves in the lower 70 years, with a sudden transition to diatom impoverished varves above. In the lower section, varves are thick (2-5 mm) and consist of well-defined Thalassiosira-Skeletonema-Chaetoceros spring bloom successions. Diatom concentrations average at 787 ± 733 million valves/g of dry sediment, del 15N at 7.0 ± 0.5 per mil, and organic C at 5.2 ± 0.5 wt. %. In the upper section, the varves are thinner (1-2 mm), do not clearly show the seasonal diatom succession, and contain increased terrigenous detritus. Diatom concentrations average at 388 ± 202 million valves/g with an increased relative abundance of benthic and freshwater taxa, del 15N at 7.3 ± 0.6 per mil and organic C at 5.7 ± 0.5 wt. %. Values of del 13C for both sections are similar, averaging at -24.0 ± 0.5 per mil. The trace element concentrations are quite variable throughout the section. However, several thin (<1 cm) nonlaminated intervals show decreased diatom abundances with concomitant increases in trace element concentrations, suggesting short-lived changes in surface productivity, upwelling and nutrient delivery, and/or anoxic conditions. The abrupt transition from diatom-rich to diatom-poor varves could reflect a shift in dominance of the North Pacific High and Aleutian Low atmospheric pressure systems over the northeast Pacific Ocean, not unlike the well-documented 1976/1977 climate regime shift which showed a change in upwelling and nutrient delivery. A transition between warm and sunny climates to cooler and wetter regimes at around 4000 yr BP has been noted in previous paleoenvironmental studies from British Columbia and the northern hemisphere in general. The Effingham Inlet sediment record data will also be compared with modern sediment trap data from the inlet.

  15. An evaluation of the impact of forest biomass harvest for biofuels on carbon storage in the US west coast states under different management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. M.; Law, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    Mitigation strategies to reduce fossil fuel emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of fuels. National and state forest policies have been implemented to both reduce risk of wildfire and promote use of forest biomass as a secondary biofuels energy source. However, the cost and biomass availability have been estimated without quantifying the impact on current and future terrestrial carbon balances. This study uses a combination of Federal Inventory Analysis data (FIA) and supplementary plot data for Washington, Oregon and California to quantify the current forest carbon stocks, net ecosystem production (NEP), and net biome production (NBP = NEP - removals) for the period from 2001-2006. Varying management treatments were applied to determine the net cost, carbon debt, and biofuels energy potential. The treatments were designed to meet multiple objectives emphasizing carbon storage, economic gain, or energy production. The hazardous fuels reduction treatment minimizes carbon loss by only harvesting biomass in forested areas classified by moderate to high risk fire condition classes (FRCC class). This scenario assumes no additional harvest in ecoregions characterized by long fire return intervals (>100 years) such as the Coast Range and the West Cascades and limits removals to an 18 in diameter at breast height (DBH). The energy production treatment maximizes biomass removal by harvesting areas regardless of FRCC class and allows removals up to a 24 inch DBH. Statewide estimates of carbon for 2001-2006 prior to harvest scenarios for California, Oregon, and Washington respectively are as follows: 1) Total land-based carbon stocks (excluding soils) averages 1680, 1663, and 1278 Tg C; 2) NEP is positive in most ecoregions averaging 213, 180, and 191 g C m-2 yr-1; 3) Actual harvest removals averaged 2.7, 6.5, and 5.1 Tg C yr-1 for the same period. In Oregon, the amount of biomass available for biofuels varies from 128 g C m-2 in the hazardous fuels reduction treatment versus 185 g C m-2 in the energy production treatment. Removal of this biomass over the next 20 years is estimated to result in an additional 4 Tg C yr-1 (a 60% increase) in harvest removals for the hazardous fuels reduction treatment and an additional 14 Tg C yr-1 (216% increase) for the energy production treatment. Even in a minimal removals scenario and assuming no other disturbance losses (i.e. insects and fire), Oregon forest NBP will be significantly reduced with the potential to become a carbon source.

  16. Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-12-01

    US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some ecoregions, harvest reductions below current levels will sequester more carbon than additional harvest removals for bioenergy. References: Hudiburg, T., B. E. Law, D. P. Turner, J. Campbell, D. Donato, and M. Duane. 2009. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage. Ecological Applications 19:163-180. Waring, R. H., and J. F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen Coniferous Forests of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204:1380-1386.

  17. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Huber, Sandra; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2014-04-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (

  18. COGAS propulsion for LNG ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Edwin G.

    2011-06-01

    Propulsion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships is undergoing significant change. The traditional steam plant is losing favor because of its low cycle efficiency. Medium-speed diesel-electric and slow-speed diesel-mechanical drive ships are in service, and more are being built. Another attractive alternative is combined gas and steam turbine (COGAS) drive. This approach offers significant advantages over steam and diesel propulsion. This paper presents the case for the COGAS cycle.

  19. Means for maintaining the substitutability of LNG

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Proctor; R. W. Parrish

    1967-01-01

    Substitutability as applied to liquid natural gas (LNG) is a method of reducing vaporization of the more volatile components and thus maintaining the heating value at a desirable level. A continuous process is described for cooling LNG below the boiling point of its most volatile component. A large-scale storage tank is provided with adequate space in the top for a

  20. SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG 1914 First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling/shipping.

    E-print Network

    SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG 1914 First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling/shipping commercial LNG shipping. 1960 Conch International Methane conducts pioneering series of experiments involving Utilities Commission to approve one terminal. Indonesia begins shipping LNG to Japan. 1978 Cove Point, MD

  1. Elemental geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic fingerprinting of sediments in monsoon dominated river systems along the west coast of India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S. U.; Zhang, J.; Baskaran, M. M.; Shirodkar, P.; Wu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Strontium-Neodymium isotopes have been widely utilized as provenance tracers of major global river basins. Using HR-ICPMS (elements) and MC-ICPMS (isotopes), we measured a suite of trace elements, 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios from silicate (Si) and carbonate (CO32-) fractions of 37 bottom sediment samples during 3 seasons along a transect from the estuary upstream in Narmada (ND) and Netravati (NT), the two large rivers along the west coast of India, discharge into the Arabian Sea. Strontium isotopic values ranged from 0.70910 to 0.71778 (NR CO32-), 0.71014 to 0.72427 (NT CO32-) and 0.71085 to 0.72825 (NR Si), and 0.71025 to 0.73349 (NT Si). The ?Nd(0) values ranged from -22.1 to -0.8 (NR CO32-), and -32.2 to -24.3 (NT, CO32-), and -23.7 to -6.2 (NR Si) and -37.4 to -21.2 (NT Si). Variable extents of seasonal and spatial variations on the isotopic compositions of Sr and Nd (both in CO32- and Si fractions), were observed in both rivers. A comparison of the 'model age' of the sediments calculated from the time-depleted-mantle (TDM) model using the concentrations of Nd and Sm and isotopic composition of Nd indicate the following: i) For NT, the TDM-based 'model age', 2.8 to 3.3 Ga, agrees with the age of Peninsular Gneiss, an older gneissic complex (3.2-3.4 Ga) found in this watershed; ii) For NR, there is discordance between the TDM-based 'model age' (1.3-2.4 Ga) and the age of the rocks in this watershed (Deccan basalt, ~65 Ma). We attribute this discordance to mixing of older material from the Precambrian rocks derived by weathering at the head waters of NR. From the observed differences in the Sr isotopes in the main stream and tributaries, we estimate that ~90% of the sediments are derived from main stream and ~10% is derived from tributaries using binary mixing equation in NT and additional sediment source(s) in NR. The Sr isotopic signatures of carbonate fractions in both rivers are close to the global average modern seawater (0.7092) and river water (0.7160) values, suggesting dominant authigenic origin representing the isotopic signatures of the dissolved phase of these rivers. Among the two rivers studied, the NR seems to be dominated by carbonate weathering and whereas silicate weathering dominates the NT. The contrasting differences between these two river systems serve as model for other large and small Indian rivers.

  2. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  3. Bayesian-lopa methodology for risk assessment of an LNG importation terminal

    E-print Network

    Yun, Geun-Woong

    2009-05-15

    LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) is one of the fastest growing energy sources in the U.S. to fulfill the increasing energy demands. In order to meet the LNG demand, many LNG facilities including LNG importation terminals are operating currently...

  4. Study of gelled LNG. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, M I; Cabeal, J A; Hoffman, L C; Newton, R A; Schaplowsky, R K; Vander Wall, E M

    1980-01-01

    Research involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and an examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigation included (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics as well as (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system. The safety-related criterion for successful application of gelled LNG is the substantial reduction of the Maximum Distance to the Lower Flammability Limit, MDLFL. This will be achieved by first, gel-inhibition of the hydrodynamic pooling and spreading of the spill, and second, the suppressed thermal transport properties of the GELNG relative to those of LNG. The industrial scale gelation study evaluated a design capable of producing 11,000 gallons (LNG tank truck) of gel in two hours. The increased cost of gelation using this equipment was estimated at $0.23/10/sup 6/ Btu for plants with liquefaction facilities. The technical results of this study are supportive of the conclusion that gelation of LNG will reduce, relative to ungelled LNG, the hazard associated with a given size spill. Parameters of interest to the LNG facility operator (such as pumpability) are not significantly affected by gelation, and the impact on LNG delivery cost appears to be small, about 5%. Thus, the initial assumption that gelation would provide a practical means to enhance safety is supported by the results of this study. Larger scale, comparative spill tests of LNG and GELNG are now required to confirm the safety aspects of use of the gelled material.

  5. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  6. Damage-detection system for LNG carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

    1978-01-01

    System utilizes array of acoustical transducers to detect cracks and leaks in liquefied natural gas (LNG) containers onboard ships. In addition to detecting leaks, device indicates location and leak rate.

  7. Modeling of LNG Pool Spreading and Vaporization 

    E-print Network

    Basha, Omar 1988-

    2012-11-20

    In this work, a source term model for estimating the rate of spreading and vaporization of LNG on land and sea is introduced. The model takes into account the composition changes of the boiling mixture, the varying thermodynamic properties due...

  8. West coast RFI survey, volume 1, volume 2 appendix E, volume 3 appendix F, volume 4 appendix G, and volume 5 appendix H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Activities and data reported cover experimental design, mechanization onboard the aircraft, survey operations, quick look and automated data reduction, and a qualitative comparison of survey data with predicted values for the radio frequency survey. The survey was designed to measure amplitude, frequency and time of occurrence of terrestrial emissions in the VHF band during overflights of heavily populated metropolitan areas located on the Pacific Coast of the Continental United States by sensing and recording equipment installed in jet aircraft.

  9. North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, W.; Douglas, D.C.; Shirley, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997-2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7??C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  10. Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

  11. 76 FR 5144 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ...aircraft by 2025. The Navy will evaluate two basing options (plus a no action alternative) to efficiently and economically...F-35C aircraft (seven squadrons of 10 aircraft each, plus up to 30 aircraft in the FRS) at the selected West...

  12. A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LANDFALL OF THE 1979 RED TIDE OF KARENIA BREVIS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA. (R827085)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall o...

  13. GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall - Duration: 37 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

  14. International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG?

    E-print Network

    Gabrieli, John

    International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du and Sergey Paltsev Report No. 271;1 International Trade in Natural Gas: Golden Age of LNG? Yichen Du* and Sergey Paltsev* Abstract The introduction of liquefied natural gas (LNG) as an option for international trade has created a market for natural gas where

  15. 78 FR 41047 - UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-504-000] UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application On June 17, 2013, UGI LNG, Inc. (UGI LNG) filed a request pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act, and...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

  17. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

  18. 75 FR 26744 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...Docket No. CP10-165-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application May 5, 2010. On April 22, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory...Senior Regulatory Counsel at Cameron LNG, LLC, 101 Ash Street, HQ-12,...

  19. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

    2013-06-01

    In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

  20. Modeling of LNG spills into trenches.

    PubMed

    Gavelli, Filippo; Chernovsky, Melissa K; Bullister, Edward; Kytomaa, Harri K

    2010-08-15

    A new method for the analysis of LNG spills into trenches has been developed to quantify vapor dispersion hazard distances. The model uses three steps to capture the behavior of an LNG spill into a trench. The first is to analytically calculate the evolving LNG flow, the second to calculate the vaporization rate along the trench, and the third is to calculate the dispersion of the vapors using a CFD model that has been validated for this application in the presence of complex geometries. This paper presents case studies that show the effect of wind perpendicular and parallel to the large aspect ratio trenches on vapor dispersion. The case studies also demonstrate the effect of complex terrain and obstacles such as vapor fences on vapor dispersion. The simulations show that wind direction relative to the trench has a significant effect on cloud shape, height, and maximum downwind distance. The addition of vapor fences to mitigate vapor dispersion hazards from an LNG spill into the LNG containment trench is shown to be effective. PMID:20447763

  1. Geochemistry and age of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Koeberl; Richard Bottomley; Billy P. Glass; Dieter Storzer

    1997-01-01

    Ivory Coast tektites were first reported in 1934 from a geographically restricted area at Ivory Coast, West Africa. Although some additional specimens have been found later, the total number remains small (a few hundred). The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana is most likely the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites, based on the finding that the tektites and the

  2. 78 FR 38703 - LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...PF12-7-000; Docket No. CP09-7-001] LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 7, 2013, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/ b/a Oregon...

  3. Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west

    E-print Network

    Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west 2013 Environment Report RL 01/13 Cefas Report RL 01/13 Final report Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west Cumbrian coast, 2012 C.E., Rumney, P. and Papworth, G.P., 2013. Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west Cumbrian coast

  4. Seismic design criteria for LNG tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Devanna, L.R.; Blackman, J.

    1980-01-01

    According to this review of the various factors considered in revising the seismic design criteria in the National Fire Protection Association's LNG standards (NFPA 59A), the new criteria reflect the state-of-the-art and represent a rational, straightforward approach that will provide the same level of safety for LNG tanks across the country without restricting the exercise of good judgment and the incorporation of new developments. When properly applied, the approach evaluates all factors that could be relevant to seismic design, then specifies the safe-shut-down and operating-basis earthquake levels (SSE and OBE); the use of two sets of specifications avoids the need for an LNG-tank safety system designed for extremely high earthquake levels while assuring a tank's structural integrity during the worst earthquake that could reasonably be expected to occur over the facility's operating life.

  5. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  6. Seasonal cycle of sedimentary process on mesotidal flats in the semienclosed Muan Bay, southern west coast of Korea: culminating summertime erosion [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Sang Ock; Lee, Hee Jun; Chang, Jin Ho

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation of surficial tidal mud was observed in Muan Bay, Korea, to examine seasonal sedimentary cycles typical of semienclosed bays in contrast with open coast in the southeastern Yellow Sea. One-year monitoring of accumulation rates on the tidal flats indicates that patterns of deposition/erosion can be diverse according to both physiographic setting and seasons. During winter, tidal flats undergo slight deposition to moderate erosion depending on localities. In summer, however, the tidal flats are all consistently subject to stronger erosion. Meteorological data suggest that the erosional effect on the tidal flat might come from heavy rainfall during flooding seasons and possibly typhoon. The enduring rainfall could cause the exposed surface of the tidal flat to be sufficiently weakened for tidal currents alone to strip surficial mud off.

  7. Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence West (COSEE-West)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The COSEE center for ocean science integration and outreach for the west coast of the U.S. Site includes information on the COSEE West partners, its mission, goals, upcoming activities, including workshops, and additional resources. Site also links to three curriculum supplements.

  8. Status report on GELNG (gelled LNG)

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, M.; Hoffman, L.C.; Vander Wall, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Over the past 2 years, Aerojet's research on characterizing the process, flow, and use properties of gelled LNG has covered (1) its safety-enhancement potential, (2) the economics and preliminary design of an industrial-scale gelation system, and (3) the design of a portable gelator for larger scale (40 m/sup 3/) spill tests. The technical results thus far continue to support the conclusion that GELNG would substantially reduce spill hazards. Operating parameters would not be significantly changed by gelation, and the cost impact on delivered LNG appears to be small (about 5%).

  9. 7. DETAIL OF WINDOW AT WEST END OF SOUTH ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF WINDOW AT WEST END OF SOUTH ELEVATION, CAMERA FACING NORTH. - U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Alameda, Warehouse, Spencer Road & Icarrus Drive, Coast Guard Island, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  10. The effects of LNG-sloshing on the global responses of LNG-carriers

    E-print Network

    Lee, Seung Jae

    2008-10-10

    are coupled in frequency and time domain, similar to the method in the MARIN-FPSO case. Sloshing effect on LNG-carrier motion is investigated with respect to different tank filling levels including various conditions such as gap distance between two bodies... of roll restoring coefficient. ....................................................... 67  Fig. 5.1 General sketch of MARIN-FPSO and LNG tanks arrangement. .................... 70  Fig. 5.2 Grid generation of hull for 3D panel method (Number of panels=2300...

  11. The National Ocean Service: america's oceans and coasts: safe, healthy, and productive Office of Coast Survey

    E-print Network

    Improvement Act Amendments · Coast and Geodetic Survey Act · Coastal Zone Management Act · Coral Reef and to make sound decisions in U.S. coastal and ocean waters. Products and Services · Navigation services Strategy · Ocean Research Priorities Plan · Gulf of Mexico Regional Alliance · West Coast Governors

  12. Demonstration of a Real Time Capability to Produce Tidal Heights and Currents for Naval Operational Use: A Cast Study for the West Coast of Africa (Liberia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Avichal; Anantharaj, Valentine; Payne, Steve; Kantha, Lakshmi

    1996-01-01

    This report documents an existing capability to produce operationally relevant products on sea level and currents from a tides/storm surge model for any coastal region around the world within 48 hours from the time of the request. The model is ready for transition to the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) for potential contingency use anywhere around the world. A recent application to naval operations offshore Liberia illustrates this. Mississippi State University, in collaboration with the University of Colorado and NAVOCEANO, successfully deployed the Colorado University Rapidly Relocatable Nestable Tides and Storm Surge (CURReNTSS) model that predicts sea surface height, tidal currents and storm surge, and provided operational products on tidal sea level and currents in the littoral region off south-western coast of Africa. This report summarizes the results of this collaborative effort in an actual contingency use of the relocatable model, summarizes the lessons learned, and provides recommendations for further evaluation and transition of this modeling capability to operational use.

  13. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Fault on the south and the Garlock Fault on the north. To the northwest are the Sierra Nevada mountains and the agricultural fields of ... MISR category:  gallery date:  Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast ...

  14. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  15. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  16. Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  17. 77 FR 10732 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...seeks authorization to export LNG from the Cameron LNG Terminal, owned by Cameron, in Cameron Parish, Louisiana...corporation. Cameron owns and operates the Cameron LNG Terminal (Terminal) in Cameron Parish Louisiana. In 2003, the...

  18. 78 FR 933 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...27-000 and Docket No. PF12-12-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of...Applications Take notice that on December 7, 2012, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron LNG), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California...

  19. 76 FR 81925 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...Commission [Docket No. CP12-29-000] Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), filed an application pursuant to Section...

  20. 75 FR 2126 - Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...PF08-24-000] Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application January...Take notice that on December 18, 2009, Calais LNG Project Company, LLC (Calais LNG) and Calais Pipeline Company, LLC (Calais...

  1. Developments at COAST Peter J. Warner, John E. Baldwin, Roger C. Boysen, David Burns,

    E-print Network

    Young, John

    Developments at COAST Peter J. Warner, John E. Baldwin, Roger C. Boysen, David Burns, Christopher A. COAST The instrument, located at the Lord's Bridge Observatory 5 miles west of Cambridge, comprises four

  2. Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

  3. Beauty of Simplicity: Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Liquefaction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andress, D. L.; Watkins, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    Paper describes how use of single component refrigerants yields an LNG liquefaction process that is safe, simple to operate, easy to understand, and robust in reliability. The 34-year operating history of Kenai LNG has proven the inherent advantages of the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Process. The paper is written from an operational point of view, and describes basic design parameters and operation of the processes.

  4. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous forearc units of the Transverse Ranges. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, geologic and petrographic relations, the Pescadero felsite and a capping, sheared metaconglomerate underlie the Pigeon Point Formation. We infer that the magma formed by anatexis of Franciscan or Great Valley clastic sedimentary rocks originating from a parental Mesozoic Sierran-Mojave-Salinian calcalkaline arc. The felsite erupted during Late Cretaceous time, was metamorphosed to pumpellyite-prehnite grade within the subduction zone, and then was rapidly exhumed, weakly zeolitized, and exposed before Pigeon Point forearc deposition. Pescadero vol canism apparently reflects a previously unrecognized ca. 86-90 Ma felsic igneous event in the accretionary margin. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  5. LNG safety, safety regulations and public perception

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.P.; Outtrim, P.A. [Project Technical Liaison Associates, Inc., Spring, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although the subjects of safety, safety regulations and public perception are relatively separate, they should be discussed within the context of their total impact on the owner`s operation. The safety of LNG is a major issue both on an absolute safety basis and perceived safety basis. Public and regulatory perception are the dominant factors in the development of regulations and issue of permits. A safe operation includes protection of the public, plant personnel, investment in facilities and continued operation. In addition, protection of the company from litigation and regulatory restraint are also considerations. The paper discusses general safety considerations, safety regulation considerations, storage and impoundment, transport, odorization, personnel training, recent OSHA and EPA rule making activities, and recent research and progress in LNG safety.

  6. High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-18

    A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

  7. LNG ship tank inert gas generation system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1974-01-01

    Chicago Bridge and Iron Co.'s new inert-gas system, designed for safely emptying LNG from storage tanks and avoiding potentially explosive gas\\/air mixtures in case of catastrophic ship collision, does not require the usual additional machinery such as an internal-combustion engine and a compressor. The inert-gas system consists of a supply tank for a liquefied inert gas such as nitrogen, an

  8. Oceanography of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Bemiasa

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

  9. Lessons learned from LNG safety research.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    During the period from 1977 to 1989, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a liquefied gaseous fuels spill effects program under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Gas Research Institute and others. The goal of this program was to develop and validate tools that could be used to predict the effects of a large liquefied gas spill through the execution of large scale field experiments and the development of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests could not be performed. Over the course of the program, three series of LNG spill experiments were performed to study cloud formation, dispersion, combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this program, the lessons learned from 12 years of research as well as some recommendations for the future. The general conclusion from this program is that cold, dense gas related phenomena can dominate the dispersion of a large volume, high release rate spill of LNG especially under low ambient wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions, and therefore, it is necessary to include a detailed and validated description of these phenomena in computer models to adequately predict the consequences of a release. Specific conclusions include: * LNG vapor clouds are lower and wider than trace gas clouds and tend to follow the downhill slope of terrain due to dampened vertical turbulence and gravity flow within the cloud. Under low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions, a bifurcated, two lobed structure develops. * Navier-Stokes models provide the most complete description of LNG dispersion, while more highly parameterized Lagrangian models were found to be well suited to emergency response applications. * The measured heat flux from LNG vapor cloud burns exceeded levels necessary for third degree burns and were large enough to ignite most flammable materials. * RPTs are of two types, source generated and enrichment generated, and were observed to increase the burn area by a factor of two and to extend the downwind burn distance by 65%. Additional large scale experiments and model development are recommended. PMID:17126482

  10. Visual Simulation of Offshore Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Terminals

    E-print Network

    Standiford, Richard B.

    Visual Simulation of Offshore Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Terminals in a Decision-Making Context1, Berkeley. 3/ Liquified Natural Gas Act Stats, 1977, Chap. 855, Page 2506 (effective Sept. 17, 1977 potential offshore Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) sites and the types of terminals that might occupy those

  11. 76 FR 73609 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ...NGA) for authority to construct and operate a boil-off gas (BOG) liquefaction system at its LNG import terminal in Cameron Parish...a closed loop refrigeration system at the terminal to liquefy BOG and return such gas in the form of LNG to its storage...

  12. A critique of offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal policy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William D. Whitmore; Vern K. Baxter; Shirley L. Laska

    2009-01-01

    The Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 amended the Deepwater Port Act of 1974 to permit the construction of offshore liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals. Terminals with environmentally destructive open-loop regasification systems were quickly approved in the Gulf of Mexico. This study analyzed the political methods of the George W. Bush administration to determine how it developed offshore LNG. Findings

  13. Performance of cryogenic thermoelectric generators in LNG cold energy utilization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Sun; Peng Hu; Zeshao Chen; Lei Jia

    2005-01-01

    The cold energy of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is generally wasted when the LNG is extracted for utilization. This paper proposes cryogenic thermoelectric generators to recover this cold energy. The theoretical performance of the generator has been analyzed. An analytical method and numerical method of calculation of the optimum parameters of the generator have been demonstrated.

  14. 78 FR 20312 - Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...CP07-53-000; CP07-53-001] Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice...Impact Statement for the Proposed Downeast LNG Project The staff of the Federal Energy...Impact Statement (EIS) for the Downeast LNG Project, proposed by Downeast LNG,...

  15. 77 FR 66830 - LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ...PF12-18-000; Docket No. PF12-20-000] LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline...Extension of Comment Period for the Oregon LNG Export and Washington Expansion Projects...process and comment period for the Oregon LNG Export Project proposed by LNG...

  16. Sandy Coasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Waves play a major role in breaking down and building up coastline features. But other factors, including tides, currents, and sediment type, also determine how erosional and depositional processes shape coastlines. This interactive feature introduces viewers to the landforms and features associated with sandy coasts. Typically located on passive margins in areas characterized by low wave energy, a wide continental shelf, and high offshore sediment influence, they develop depositional features such as extensive beaches and dunes, barrier islands, and sand spits.

  17. Simulated impacts of the South Atlantic Ocean Dipole on summer precipitation at the Guinea Coast

    E-print Network

    Kang, In-Sik

    Simulated impacts of the South Atlantic Ocean Dipole on summer precipitation at the Guinea Coast of the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) dipole (SAOD) on summer precipitation over the Guinea Coast of West Africa modelling Á Atlantic Ocean Á West Africa 1 Introduction As the internal variability of the tropical

  18. Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The National Academy of Science

    This video features Dr. Gary Griggs, scientist with the National Research Council (NRC) and professor at UCSC, reviewing highlights from the recently released report by the NRC about predictions for sea-level rise on the West Coast states. The video includes effective visualizations and animations of the effects of plate tectonics and sea-level rise on the West Coast.

  19. Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone. PMID:12314235

  20. New energy saving system for future LNG carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Kahara, Susumu; Suetake, Yoshihiro [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Ishimaru, Junshiro; Hiraoka, Kazuyoshi [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Nagasaki (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    Steam turbine plant, which burns BOG (Boil-Off Gas) as fuel, has bene installed for LNG carriers with the necessity of disposing BOG safely. Are other plants unpractical for LNG carriers? To answer to this question, this paper evaluates (1) dual fuel diesel, (2) diesel with reliquefaction plant, (3) diesel with auxiliary boiler and power assist motor, (4) gas turbine/steam turbine and (5) steam turbine with CRP (Contra Rotating Propeller) from several aspects, such as safety and reliability, maintainability and operability, economy and effect on environment. Based on the above studies, this paper proposes Steam turbine with CRP plant as a new energy saving system for future LNG carriers.

  1. Thermoelectric Power Conversion System Combined with LNG Vaporizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Morita, Ryo; Omoto, Kazuyuki; Koji, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Tatsuo; Noishiki, Koji

    A conceptual design of the thermoelectric power conversion system combined with open rack type LNG (liquefied natural gas) vaporizer to make use of cold heat of LNG is presented. The system performance analysis has been made based on the thermoelectric module performance data obtained at the cryogenic thermoelectric (CTE) test rig which could realize temperature and fluid dynamic condition of the open rack type LNG vaporizer. Conventional bismuth-telluride thermoelectric modules were tested, however, each module is encapsulated in the stainless steel container to achieve water proof. Electricity production cost evaluation of the system is also discussed.

  2. 75 FR 11169 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...Pennsylvania for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project March 1, 2010...liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by...construction and operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline...

  3. 76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...authorization to export LNG from the Cove Point LNG Terminal, owned by DCP, in Calvert County, Maryland, to...Richmond, Virginia. DCP owns the Cove Point LNG Terminal (Terminal), as well as the 88- mile Cove Point Pipeline...

  4. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...Pennsylvania for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project April 13, 2010...liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by...construction and operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline...

  5. 75 FR 353 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...Maryland for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project December 29, 2009...liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by...construction and operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline...

  6. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

  7. 78 FR 42587 - Deepwater Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ...Deepwater Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and...Temporary Suspension of Operations at the Neptune LNG Deepwater Port AGENCY: Maritime...decision to approve the request of Neptune LNG LLC (Neptune) for a...

  8. Conceptual Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal design for Kuwait

    E-print Network

    Aljeeran, Fares

    2006-08-16

    This research study investigated a new conceptual design for a modular structural configuration incorporating storage for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) within the base of the platform structure. The structure, referred to as a modified gravity base...

  9. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  10. Fitness for service applications in LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnoli, D.L.; Polk, C.J.; Yin, H. [Mobil Research and Development Corp., Princeton, NJ (United States); Gordon, J.R. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Fitness-for-service assessments can provide information regarding operational reliability of equipment. However, to be meaningful, such assessments require an analytical procedure to determine the ability of engineering structures to tolerate the presence of weld flaws. In recent years, there has been a significant interest in this technology by the refining and petrochemical industries for predicting and avoiding fracture in pressurized components. Most applications have covered pressure vessel and piping where carbon and low alloy steels are the traditional materials of construction. More recently, fitness for service questions have developed for equipment with highly ductile materials such as aluminum alloys. In order to handle these questions ductile tearing resistance must be considered and R curve methods are required. In this paper examples are cited where fitness for service assessments were required for an aluminum heat exchanger in LNG service. Suitable R curve data were developed in order to establish flaw tolerance following UT inspections of this equipment.

  11. Liquid dynamic loads in LNG cargo tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, R.L. III; Bowles, E.B.; Cox, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    To evaluate the dynamic sloshing loads in LNG cargo tanks, marine engineers comprehensively reviewed the worldwide scale-model sloshing data and, for the purposes of defining the design load coefficients, reduced the data to a common format. Additional scale-model laboratory experiments established the pressure-time histories needed to perform a structural response analysis. The analytical methods presented provide techniques for determining the wall's structural response to the dynamic slosh loads. Applicable to membrane, semimembrane, gravity, and pressure tanks, the design methodology sequence consists of (1) comparing ship periods with resonant sloshing periods, (2) establishing loads based on the load coefficients, and (3) designing the tank structures by specifically delineated methods that vary with tank type.

  12. Prediction of sloshing loads in LNG ships

    SciTech Connect

    Peck, J.C.; Jean, P.

    1981-01-01

    To improve LNG-sloshing prediction methodology, researchers studied high-fill-ratio sloshing phenomena via computer models and developed the MDC 2D slosh code, which accounts for large-amplitude sloshing, interaction with tank ceiling and chamfers, and liquid compressibility. Application of the MDC code showed that computer programs based on the marker-and-cell technique can serve as practical design and research tools. The analytical results demonstrated that (1) for realistic random ship motions, increasing the chamfer size is beneficial and (2) under pure vacuum ullage conditions, the inability to properly scale liquid compressibility in model tests requires the use of compressible pressure scaling laws. The good correlation between liquid surface motion and code predictions verified the accuracy of both the code and Froude scaling for liquid motions.

  13. Control of Vapor Dispersion and Pool Fire of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) with Expansion Foam 

    E-print Network

    Yun, Geun Woong

    2011-10-21

    in outdoor field tests. Thus, this research focused on experimental determination of the effect of expansion foam application on LNG vapor dispersion and pool fire. Specifically, for evaluating the use of foam to control the vapor hazard from spilled LNG...

  14. Long-term variability in the deposition of marine ions at west coast sites in the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network: impacts on surface water chemistry and significance for trend determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D Evans; D. T Monteith; R Harriman

    2001-01-01

    Eight lake sites in central and south-west Scotland, north-west England and north Wales, forming part of the UK Acid Waters Monitoring Network (UKAWMN), have been studied with regard to the influence of marine ions on surface water chemistry. Since monitoring began in 1988 these sites have exhibited large and long-term variation in Cl concentration, which are consistent between regions and

  15. Building relationships through multi-disciplinary education in the North West Tasmania Rural Palliative Care Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judi Walker; Heidi Behrens; Anita Dow

    Background This paper reports a multi-disciplinary educational intervention developed to improve palliative care delivery in a rural and remote area. The North West Rural Palliative Care Project commenced in 2004 on the North West Coast of Tasmania as a result of an innovative three-way partnership between the North West Tasmania Division of General Practice, Palliative Care Service North West and

  16. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  17. 75 FR 74029 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...CP11-32-000] Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application...November 12, 2010, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (Sabine Pass...operate a redundant high pressure boil off gas compressor at its existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal, located in...

  18. 77 FR 788 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ...December 15, 2011, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (SLNG...its liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal located at Elba...adequate compression to allow boil-off gas generated naturally within...need to regasify additional LNG as is required with the...

  19. Development of an FBG-based low temperature measurement system for cargo containment of LNG tankers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Kim; W. Yoo; P. Swinehart; B. Jiang; T. Haber; A. Mendez

    2007-01-01

    Given the growing demand for oil and natural gas to meet the world's energy needs, there is nowadays renewed interest in the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems. For LNG to remain in its liquid phase, the gas has to be kept at cryogenic temperatures (< 160°C). And, as part of the LNG supply process, it becomes necessary to

  20. 78 FR 23552 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ...PF12-16-000] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 1, 2013, Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Dominion Cove Point), 120 Tredegar...for the export at its existing Cove Point LNG terminal in Calvert County,...

  1. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...Commission [Docket No. CP10-477-000] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August...Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563, Birmingham,...

  2. 75 FR 53688 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...Commission [Docket No. RP10-829-000] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference...Washington, DC 20426. On June 7, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG) filed a tariff sheet to revise its tariff...

  3. 76 FR 31326 - Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...Commission [Docket No. CP11-486-000 ] Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under...Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC (GLNG Pipeline), Colonial...to Margaret G. Coffman, Counsel, Gulf LNG Pipeline Company, LLC, Colonial...

  4. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1480 - Vieques Passage and Atlantic Ocean, off east coast of Puerto Rico and coast of Vieques Island...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters ...Section 334.1480 Navigation and Navigable Waters ...off the naval reservation shoreline along the east coast...off the naval reservation shoreline along the west end...

  6. The diseconomics of long-haul LNG trading

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    Long-haul liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports yield little or no economic rent. Trades, such as Borneo to Japan, are economical, but government takes otherwise are minimal. Today, the price of LNG is capped by the technical option of modifying gas turbines to bum liquid fuels. The maximum premium for LNG is less than 50 cents per thousand cubic feet (/Mcf), and buyers are resisting any price above oil parity. Costs of LNG are high and increase with distance. The netback value is zero or even negative for the longer-distance trades. The value of extracted co-products (natural gas liquids) is 50 cents to $1/Mcf. These credits are the principal source of profit, especially for foreign partners because natural gas liquids are taxed at low {open_quotes}industrial{close_quotes} rates. Returns are even less when the gas supply is nonassociated so that the project must {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} the production costs as well. Some exporting countries profit; but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries as a whole looses because low-revenue LNG energy displaces at the margin fully taxed oil.

  7. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  8. Floating LNG plant will stress reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, C.D.; Schulz, H.R.; Spring, W.

    1997-07-01

    Mobil has developed a unique floating LNG plant design after extensive studies that set safety as the highest priority. The result is a production, storage and offloading platform designed to produce 6 million tons per year of LNG and up to 55,000 bpd of condensate from 1 Bcfd of feed gas. All production and off-loading equipment is supported by a square donut-shaped concrete hull, which is spread-moored. The hull contains storage tanks for 250,000 m{sup 3} of LNG, 6540,000 bbl of condensate and ballast water. Both LNG and condensate can be directly offloaded to shuttle tankers. Since the plant may be moved to produce from several different gas fields during its life, the plant and barge were designed to be generic. It can be used at any location in the Pacific Rim, with up to 15% CO{sub 2}, 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, 55 bbl/MMcf condensate and 650 ft water depth. It can be modified to handle other water depths, depending upon the environment. In addition, it is much more economical than an onshore grassroots LNG plant, with potential capital savings of 25% or more. The paper describes the machinery, meteorology and oceanography, and safety engineering.

  9. PACIFIC COAST SALMON pacific Coast Salmon

    E-print Network

    181 PACIFIC COAST SALMON UNIT 12 pacific Coast Salmon Unit 12 ROBERT G. KOPE NMFS Northwest Fisheries Science Center Seattle Washington INTRODUCTION Pacific salmon support important commercial and recreational fisheries in Washington, Oregon, and California. Salmon are a vital part of the cul- ture

  10. 16. INTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOWS ABOVE MAIN ENTRANCE ON WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW OF WINDOWS ABOVE MAIN ENTRANCE ON WEST ELEVATION. THE WINDOWS ARE HINGED AT THE BOTTOM AND OPEN INWARD - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  11. 78 FR 25865 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2013 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ...March 2014 meeting. --Point Arena to Pigeon Point (San Francisco) May 1 through...must be landed between Point Arena and Pigeon Point (C.6). See compliance requirements...and definitions (C.2, C.3). --Pigeon Point to U.S./Mexico...

  12. 76 FR 25246 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ...Code Sec. 8226). --Point Arena to Pigeon Point (San Francisco) May 1-31 seven...deliver all fish between Point Arena and Pigeon Point (C.1, C.6). See gear restrictions...Fish and Game Code Sec. 8226). --Pigeon Point to Point Sur (Monterey)...

  13. 77 FR 25915 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2012 Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ...March 2013 meeting. --Point Arena to Pigeon Point (San Francisco) May 1 through...deliver all fish between Point Arena and Pigeon Point (C.1). See gear restrictions and definitions (C.2, C.3). --Pigeon Point to Point Sur (Monterey) Same...

  14. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  15. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, T.; Cerveny, B.; Kragas, T.

    1997-04-08

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air`s low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE`s Class I Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. The goal of the West Hackberry Tertiary Project is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of combining air injection with the Double Displacement Process for tertiary oil recovery. The concept is being field tested in low pressure (350 to 800 pounds per square inch (psi)) reservoirs on the north flank of the field and high pressure reservoirs (2500 to 3300 psi) on the west flank of the field.

  16. Rivers and Coasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site provides information about rivers, coasts, and the processes affecting them. Students can view an animation of the water cycle, read about how rivers and coasts change, learn about estuaries, and view information on how rivers, coasts, and other water features influence people's lives. Glossaries and a teacher's page offering lesson plans, worksheets, and links to additional sites are also provided.

  17. Non-contraceptive uses of levonorgestrel-releasing hormone system (LNG-IUS)—A systematic enquiry and overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Varma; Deepali Sinha; Janesh K. Gupta

    2006-01-01

    Levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine systems (LNG-IUS) were originally developed as a method of contraception in the mid 1970s. The only LNG-IUS approved for general public use is the Mirena® LNG-IUS, which releases 20mcg of levonorgestrel per day directly in to the uterine cavity. However, new lower dose (10 and 14mcg per day) and smaller sized LNG-IUS (MLS, FibroPlant-LNG) are currently under clinical

  18. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  19. Fire performance of LNG carriers insulated with polystyrene foam.

    PubMed

    Havens, Jerry; Venart, James

    2008-10-30

    Analysis of the response of a liquid-full Moss Sphere LNG tank insulated with polystyrene foam to an engulfing LNG fire indicates that current regulatory requirements for pressure relief capacity sufficient to prevent tank rupture are inadequate. The inadequacy of the current requirements stems primarily from two factors. Firstly, the area of the Moss Sphere protruding above what would be the nominal deck on a conventional carrier, which is protected only by a steel weather cover from exposure to heat from a tank-engulfing fire, is being underestimated. Secondly, aluminum foil-covered polystyrene foam insulation applied to the exterior of the LNG tank is protected above the deck only by the steel weather cover under which the insulation could begin to melt in as little as 1-3 min, and could completely liquefy in as few as 10 min. U.S. and International Regulations require that the insulations on the above-deck portion of tanks have approved fire proofing and stability under fire exposure. Polystyrene foam, as currently installed on LNG carriers, does not appear to meet these criteria. As a result of these findings, but giving no consideration to the significant potential for further damage if the polystyrene should burn, the boil-off rate is predicted to be an order-of-magnitude higher than provided for by current PRV sizing requirements. PMID:18372107

  20. Comparison of hypothetical LNG and fuel oil fires on water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Lehr; Debra Simecek-Beatty

    2004-01-01

    Large spills of refined petroleum products have been an occasional occurrence over the past few decades. This has not been true for large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper compares the likely similarities and differences between accidental releases from a ship of sizable quantities of these different hydrocarbon fuels, their subsequent spreading, and possible pool-fire behavior. Quantitative estimates

  1. Evaluation of liquid dynamic loads in slack LNG cargo tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, P.A.; Bowles, E.B.; Bass, R.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report provides an evaluation of dynamic sloshing loads in slack LNG cargo tanks. A comprehensive review of worldwide scale model sloshing data is presented. The design methodology presented in this article is based on a thorough review of the literature supplemented by additional experiments and analytical studies. 101 refs.

  2. Soot-Free Combustion Of Methane And LNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossard, John

    1992-01-01

    Neither methane nor liquefied natural gas (LNG) produces soot when burned in turbine simulator with liquid oxygen under conditions like those in gas-generator section of rocket engine. Experiments conducted to determine if these fuels behave similarly to other hydrocarbon fuels, which give off soot coating turbomachinery and reducing performance.

  3. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

  4. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W...GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt...Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG...

  5. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

    2012-09-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  6. Integrated coastal zone management plan for Udupi Coast using RS, GIS and GPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. Dwarakish; S. A. Vinay; S. M. Dinakar; Pai. B. Jagadeesha; K. Mahaganesha; Usha Natesan

    2007-01-01

    Coastal areas are under great pressure due to increase in human population and industrialization\\/commercialization and hence these areas are vulnerable to environmental degradation, resource reduction and user conflicts. In the present study an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Udupi Coast in Karnataka, along West Coast of India. The various data products used in the present

  7. Available power generation cycles to be coupled with the liquid natural gas (LNG) vaporization process in a Spanish LNG terminal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Querol; B. Gonzalez-Regueral; J. García-Torrent; Alberto Ramos

    2011-01-01

    The boil off gas in Spanish LNG terminals is managed using recondensers. The electricity consumed by these terminals is bought in the Spanish wholesale market. Several power generating options using current available equipment and assuring the availability of the current terminal process have been analyzed thermoeconomically. A new combined cycle using a gas turbine and a pure NH3 Rankine cycle

  8. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  9. A review of large-scale LNG spills: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay

    2006-05-20

    The prediction of the possible hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by ship has motivated a substantial number of experimental and analytical studies. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to date on large-scale spills of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the dispersion of LNG, as well as experiments of LNG fires from spills on water and land are reviewed. Explosion, pool boiling, and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosion studies are described and discussed, as well as models used to predict dispersion and thermal hazard distances. Although there have been significant advances in understanding the behavior of LNG spills, technical knowledge gaps to improve hazard prediction are identified. Some of these gaps can be addressed with current modeling and testing capabilities. A discussion of the state of knowledge and recommendations to further improve the understanding of the behavior of LNG spills on water is provided. PMID:16271829

  10. No SiNgle SupplemeNt for Solo travelers explore West Africa's

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    No SiNgle SupplemeNt for Solo travelers explore West Africa's Hidden treasures on Voyages between Africa. It's ironic that West Africa, once busy with the ships of explorers, colonists, traders.TravelDynamicsInternational.com 800-257-5767 This page: West Africa's coast is lined with pristine waterways Cover: Red colobus

  11. Knowledge-Guided Classification of Coastal Zone Color Images Off the West Florida Shelf

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingrui Zhang; Lawrence O. Hall; Dmitry B. Goldgof; Frank E. Müller-karger

    2000-01-01

    A knowledge-guided approach to automatic classication of Coastal Zone Color im- ages of the West Florida Shelf is described. The approach is used to identify red tides on the West Florida Shelf, as well as areas with high concentration of dissolved organic matter such as a river plume found seasonally along the West Florida coast over the middle of the

  12. Variation of wave directional spread parameters along the Indian coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Sanil Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Directional spreading of wave energy is popularly modeled with the help of the Cosine Power model and it mainly depends on the spreading parameter. This paper describes the variation of the spreading parameter estimated based on the wave data collected at four locations along the East as well as the West side of the Indian coast. The directional spreading parameter

  13. Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G1, G2, G3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, and G-5 in view, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Wilson, Laurie K; Lee, Sandi; Idrissi, Abde

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ?PBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003-2012). Dietary tracers (?(13)C and ?(15)N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ?PBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given. PMID:25241209

  15. Kalimantan field development hikes gas supply for LNG export

    SciTech Connect

    Suharmoko, G.R. (Total Indonesie, Balikpapan (ID))

    1991-10-14

    This paper reports on the development of Tambora and Tunu gas fields in Kalimantan that have increased available gas supply for the export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Indonesia. The demand for LNG is increasing in the energy thirsty Far East market. And Indonesia, the world's largest exporter, is keeping pace by expanding the Bontang liquefaction plant in East Kalimantan. A fifth train, with a capacity of around 2.5 million tons/year, began operating in January 1990. Start-up of a sixth train, of identical capacity, is planned for January 1994. The Bontang plant is operated by PT Badak on behalf of Pertamina, the Indonesian state oil and gas mining company. The feed to the fifth train comes primarily from the first-phase development of Total Indonesie's two gas fields, Tambora and Tunu. The sixth train will be fed by a second-phase development of the Tunu field.

  16. Using LNG as a Fuel in Heavy-Duty Tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Liquid Carbonic, Inc. and Trucking Research Institute

    1999-08-09

    Recognizing the lack of operational data on alternative fuel heavy-truck trucks, NREL contracted with the Trucking Research Institute (TRI) in 1994 to obtain a cooperative agreement with Liquid Carbonic. The purpose of this agreement was to (1) purchase and operate liquid natural gas- (LNG-) powered heavy-duty tractor-trailers with prototype Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) Series 60 natural gas (S60G) engines in over-the-road commercial service applications; and (2) collect and provide operational data to DDC to facilitate the on-road prototype development of the engine and to NREL for the Alternative Fuels Data Center. The vehicles operated from August 1994 through April of 1997 and led to a commercially available, emissions-certified S60G in 1998. This report briefly documents the engine development, the operational characteristics of LNG, and the lessons learned during the project.

  17. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ...Bcf/day of natural gas), from the LNG terminal in Lake Charles, Louisiana (Lake Charles Terminal). TLNG Export requests this authorization...owns and operates the Lake Charles LNG Terminal. TLNG Export will own the proposed...

  18. United states regulations for siting LNG terminals: problems and potential.

    PubMed

    Havens, Jerry; Spicer, Tom

    2007-02-20

    The regulations being applied to liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal siting in the United States are reviewed. There are no requirements for exclusion zones to protect the public from LNG spills onto water. Serious problems with current practices used to determine exclusion zones on the land-based part of the facility are identified. Many of the questions that are considered relate to the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, which appear to offer the best potential for realistic modeling to determine vapor cloud exclusion zones that result from LNG spills into impounded areas with or without dispersion in the presence of other obstacles to the wind flow. Failure to use CFD models, which are already approved by the regulation, and continued use of practices which have been demonstrated to be in error, raises important questions of credibility as well as denies the applicant full use of scientific tools that are available to optimize the design of such facilities so as to best provide for safety of the public. PMID:17110028

  19. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  20. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Haley; Travis Gillham; Demetrios Yannimaras

    1999-03-31

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. In previous field tests, the Double Displacement Process has proven successful in generating tertiary oil recovery. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery from the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs (such as Gulf Coast salt dome reservoirs) where any other tertiary process is presently uneconomic. Air injection on the West Hank began in November of 1994. Although West Flank air injection has increased reservoir pressure by 500 pounds per square inch (psi), production response has not yet occurred. The gas cap on the West Flank has not expanded sufficiently to push the oil rim down to the nearest down structure well. Cumulative injection to date is 1.6 BCF, only approximately 50% of the projected volume required to establish oil production response. Additional air injection is required to further expand the gas cap and thereby bring about oil production. Air injection rates have been restricted due to iron oxide plugging in the injectors. To spread risk among multiple reservoirs, the project was expanded in 1996 to include air injection in low pressure reservoirs on the North Flank of the field. The project reservoirs on the West Flank are much higher pressure (2500-3300 psi) than the project reservoirs on the North Flank (300-600 psi). Air injection began on the North Rank in July of 1996. While West Flank air injection has not yet yielded oil production, air injection has increased oil production in all three low pressure North Hank reservoirs. Production increased in the North Rank after only two months of air injection, much quicker than anticipated. Between July of 1996 and July of 1999, cumulative air injection of 0.9 BCF increased North Flank oil production by 224,000 barrels above the normal decline. As of July, 1999, air injection was generating 270 barrels of oil per day (BOPD) of incremental oil production from the three low pressure reservoirs on the North Flank of the field.

  1. 75 FR 57766 - Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San...operate its existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal facility located in Cameron...

  2. 77 FR 58118 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...CP12-509-000; PF11-2-000] Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction...notice that on August 31, 2012, Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction...constructed adjacent to the existing Freeport LNG Development, L.P.'s liquefied...

  3. 78 FR 66909 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application to Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ...Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application to Amend...Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass...2013, in order to increase the total LNG production capacity of the...

  4. 77 FR 65546 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ...Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To Amend...Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass...Modification Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal, located in Cameron Parish,...

  5. 76 FR 9573 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ...Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice...Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass...Liquefaction Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal, located in Cameron Parish,...

  6. 78 FR 62344 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ...Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline...Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively referred to as...operate additional liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facilities at the Sabine Pass...

  7. 75 FR 61475 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ...Docket No. CP10-496-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Cameron LNG Export Project and Request for Comments...the environmental impacts of the Cameron LNG Export Project involving the export of...

  8. Numerical Simulation of Sloshing in LNG Tanks with a Compressible Two-Phase Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rik Wemmenhove; Roel Luppes; Arthur E. P. Veldman; Tim Bunnik

    2007-01-01

    The study of liquid dynamics in LNG tanks is getting more and more important with the actual trend of LNG tankers sailing with partially filled tanks. The effect of sloshing liquid in the tanks on pressure levels at the tank walls and on the overall ship motion indicates the relevance of an accurate simulation of the fluid behaviour. This paper

  9. Computational fluid dynamics for LNG vapor dispersion modeling: a key parameters study

    E-print Network

    Cormier, Benjamin Rodolphe

    2009-05-15

    The increased demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has led to the construction of several new LNG terminals in the United States (US) and around the world. To ensure the safety of the public, consequence modeling is used to estimate the exclusion...

  10. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion Modeling with Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes 

    E-print Network

    Qi, Ruifeng

    2012-10-19

    .......................................... 12 1.3 LNG Hazards ................................................................................................... 12 1.3.1 Cryogenic Hazards .............................................................................. 13 ix Page 1... ....................................................................................... 18 1.5 LNG Hazard Consequence Modeling ............................................................. 19 1.5.1 Source Term Modeling ........................................................................ 19 1.5.1.1 Release Rate...

  11. Sloshing in the LNG shipping industry: risk modelling through multivariate heavy-tail analysis

    E-print Network

    Sloshing in the LNG shipping industry: risk modelling through multivariate heavy-tail analysis In the liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping industry, the phenomenon of slosh- ing can lead to the occurrence and corresponding to a worst-case risk analysis, is applied to the study of sloshing. Multivariate heavy

  12. Risk-based siting considerations for LNG terminals – Comparative perspectives of United States & Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Licari; C. David Weimer

    2011-01-01

    Siting regulations and industrial standards for liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals are evolving along different paths within Europe and the United States (U.S.). The 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 190 continues to delineate the United States process to adopt and revise safety regulations pertaining to LNG terminals and peak shaving plant sitting.11Title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, Part

  13. 76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ...RP11-2136-000; RP11-2137-000] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference On May 27, 2011, pursuant...section 4 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed revised tariff records in Docket...

  14. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 ...Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas § 127.105 Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a)...

  15. COAST Arbeitspapier Study Programme

    E-print Network

    Damm, Werner

    general overview of careers in the field of Sustainability. Inhalt A. BackgroundDatum: Autoren: COAST Arbeitspapier 004 Study Programme Sustainable Development A Cross Programme Sustainable Development 1 Study Programme Sustainable Development A Cross-Cutting agenda

  16. 78 FR 53750 - EcoEléctrica, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...LNG to a proposed adjacent LNG truck loading facility that...long, 4-inch-diameter LNG transfer pipeline; an approximately...foot-long, 6-inch-diameter boil-off gas return pipeline; an...1.5-inch-diameter LNG recirculation...

  17. Fundamental Study on Coking Inhibition for Regenerative Cooled LNG Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??; ??, ??

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is lower cost, higher density and easier handling than Liquefied hydrogen (LH2), therefore, is expected as the most promising candidate for the next generation rocket propellant. For LNG propellant, a full expander or an expander cycle rocket engine with regenerative cooling system is expected because its molecular weight is middle value between LH2 and Kerosene. Temperature of turbopump driven LNG gas should be higher to improve the specific impulse or combustion pressure for these rocket engine. In this case, coking of LNG in heat exchanger or regenerative cooling system becomes a significant problem. In the present study, two coking inhibition methods, n-C6H14 coating and graphite coating, are presented and their effects are evaluated. Contrary to our expectation, the former method is accelerated the LNG pyrolysis, resulting of coking promotion. On the other hand graphite coating can successfully inhibit coking up to 973K.

  18. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?aciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na ?wiecie powoduje, ?e produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje si? coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem zwi?zanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze oko?o 111K pod ci?nieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezb?dny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciek?ej w gazow? dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umo?liwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do ró?nych zastosowa?, mi?dzy innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znan? technik? analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na okre?lenie dystrybucji, ?ród?a i wielko?ci nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a wi?c ustali? wytyczne dotycz?ce efektywnego zu?ycia energii. Poniewa? zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego s? energoch?onne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezb?dny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  19. Modeling Tsunami Inundation and Assessing Tsunami Hazards for the U. S. East Coast NTHMP Semi-Annual Report

    E-print Network

    Kirby, James T.

    Modeling Tsunami Inundation and Assessing Tsunami Hazards for the U. S. East Coast (Phase 2) NTHMP://chinacat.coastal.udel.edu/nthmp.html BACKGROUND In contrast to the long history of tsunami hazard assessment on the US West coast and Hawaii, tsunami hazard assessment along the eastern US coastline is still in its infancy, in part due to the lack

  20. Pipeline transportation of natural gas from the Gulf Coast to the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp.'s national gas pipeline system from the Gulf Coast producing area (where 75% of its supply lies offshore) extends for 1832 mi along the Gulf Coast through the southeastern Piedmont and north to terminate in New York City. It serves high-priority markets in 11 southern and Atlantic seaboard states with a daily flowing capacity of 3.0 billion cu ft/day and an additional 1.5 billion cu ft/day available from storage. Also discussed are gas conditioning for the removal of hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, water vapor and entrained salt water and solids, and measurement of gas volume with a meter and gravitometer and of heating value with a calorimeter; gas transmission through 9,295 mi of pipeline, made up mostly of four, 30-42 in. dia parallel pipelines with 1,062,452 hp of compression capacity; LNG storage, including unique facilities at the Eminence, Miss., Salt Dome Storage facility and the Carlstadt, N.J., LNG plant; odorization; operations; and pipeline protection against third-party damage and against corrosion.

  1. Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

    2012-03-01

    Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

  2. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-05-10

    The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to application for dispersion over smooth, level terrain free of obstacles (such as buildings, tanks, or dikes). There is a need for a dispersion model that allows consideration of the effects of terrain features and obstacles on the dispersion of LNG vapor clouds. Project milestones are: (1) Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Milestones Conditions; (2) Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces, With And Without Obstacles; and (3) Adapting the FEM3A Model for General Application. Results for this quarter are work continues to underway to address numerical problems during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, we have been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A. The present effort is directed to describing the ground surface temperature decrease as a function of time.

  3. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liese Dallbauman

    2004-06-30

    During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

  4. Chrysler to race hybrid electric-LNG car

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1994-03-07

    Chrysler Corp. hopes to race a hybrid electric-liquefied natural gas car in the Le Mans in 1995. Preparing for a racing program will speed technological advances that could take years under a regular development program. The car converts LNG to electricity with a two-turbine alternator that powers an electric traction motor. Power not used immediately is placed in reserve in an ultra-high-speed carbon-fiber flywheel, which also captures kinetic energy at braking. Even with the accelerated race program, Chrysler says it will likely be the next century before hybrid technology will make it into production cars.

  5. Ride West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Kinder-artists at Oakhurst Elementary love rodeo time, which is an annual event in Fort Worth, Texas. The spirit of the Old West pervades as children don jeans, hats, boots, and bandannas to be a cowboy or cowgirl for the day. Furthermore, Fort Worth is a city that celebrates not only its history as "Cowtown" but also the fine arts! An amazing…

  6. Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Cornwell, John B

    2007-02-20

    Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG. PMID:17112658

  7. Office of Coast Survey

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Office of Coast Survey (OCS) within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration -- founded in 1807 by Thomas Jefferson -- is responsible for producing nautical charts for all the waters of the US and its territories. The OCS home page offers anyone in need of nautical maps lots of well-maintained and timely resources. Historical charts (from the 1700s onward), information on wreck and other dangerous obstructions, OCS's Coast Pilot publications, and Print on Demand sale of the most up-to-date charts and maps all are available here. This is a very useful resource for both commercial or recreational mariners in need of nautical maps.

  8. WEST AFRICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALHAJI M S BAH

    2005-01-01

    In the post-Cold World era, West Africa, like most other regions of the world, experienced significant shifts in its approach to, and understanding of security. The outbreak of brutal domestic conflicts in the sub-region and ECOWAS's subsequent deployment of its peacekeeping force, ECOMOG, marked a turning point in the sub-region's attempt to develop a security architecture that began in the

  9. URBAN EXTENTS Ivory Coast

    E-print Network

    Columbia University

    URBAN EXTENTS Benin Ivory Coast Ghana Mali Mauritania Niger Togo GRUMPv1 ´ 0 75 150 Km Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area Projection Urban Extent Administrative Units National Boundaries Note: National boundaries are derived from the population grids and thus may appear coarse. Urban extents illustrate

  10. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     ... coastal areas of four states along the Gulf of Mexico: Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and part of the Florida panhandle. The images ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ...

  11. Coast Salish Canoe Journey

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Coast Salish Canoe Journey 2009 landing in Pillar Point, WA.  Each year Northwest Indian tribes collaborate with USGS to measure salinity, temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen in the Salish Sea.  The Swinomish Tribe was recently awarded national recognition for their leadership in buildin...

  12. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend. Characteristics of…

  13. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  14. Honduras: Caribbean Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alastair R. Harborne; Daniel C. Afzal; Mark J. Andrews

    2001-01-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the

  15. Trends and interventions in large whale entanglement along the South African coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MA Meÿer; PB Best; G Cliff; SFJ Dudley; SP Kirkman

    2011-01-01

    The major causes of large whale entanglement in South Africa are static fishing gear, especially the type associated with the West Coast rock lobster Jasus lalandii industry, and large-mesh gillnets that are set off the coast of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) to reduce shark attacks (shark nets). The prevalence of entanglements is seasonal with the peaks in activity coinciding with the breeding

  16. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  17. Geochemistry and age of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Bottomley, Richard; Glass, Billy P.; Storzer, Dieter

    1997-04-01

    Ivory Coast tektites were first reported in 1934 from a geographically restricted area at Ivory Coast, West Africa. Although some additional specimens have been found later, the total number remains small (a few hundred). The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana is most likely the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites, based on the finding that the tektites and the crater have the same age as well as similar isotopic and chemical compositions. In addition to tektites on land, microtektites were found in (so far) eleven deep-sea cores off the West African coast, between about 9°N and 11°S and 0° and 23°W, defining the extent of the Ivory Coast tektite strewn field. In this study we analyzed eleven Ivory Coast tektites for their major and trace element composition, studied their petrographical characteristics, provided major element data for 111 microtektites, and major and trace element data for four microtektites. We determined the 40Ar sbnd 39Ar step-heating age of five Ivory Coast tektites and four microtektites and obtained fission-track dates for ten tektites and one Bosumtwi impact glass. The tektites have very small intersample and intrasample variations of their major and trace element composition. 111 Ivory Coast microtektites from eleven cores were analyzed for their major element compositional range. Their compositional range is significantly wider than that of the Ivory Coast tektites, but the majority of all microtektites have compositions very similar to those of the tektites (within a factor of 1.2). Trace element compositions of the tektites also show little variation between samples. The samples do not show any distinct Eu anomaly in the REE patterns. This characteristic, as well as the high absolute REE abundances and La NYb N ratios of about 8, indicate that Archean rocks are plausible source rocks. The major and trace element contents of four individually analyzed Ivory Coast microtektites show compositions that are very similar to those of the Ivory Coast tektites. However, the microtektites contain >20 rel% higher abundances of some of the lithophile and siderophile trace elements, such as Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Sr, Zr, Ba, Hf, Ta, Th, and the REEs. These differences are probably due to incorporation of a higher abundance of accessory trace minerals with the microtektite-forming melt. The Ivory Coast microtektites also have a uniform internal composition. Duplicate 40Ar sbnd 39Ar step-heating age analyses were performed on five tektites. The best age estimate for the formation age of the tektites was calculated by taking a weighted average of the ages from the plateau portions of the runs, resulting in an age of 1.1 ± 0.05 Ma. We also tried to date four microtektites by 40Ar sbnd 39Ar age analyses, but their young age and small sample size makes it impossible to assign a reliable age to the microtektites. One run yielded satisfactory results that were similar to the tektite age. In addition, we determined the fission-track ages for ten individual Ivory Coast tektite samples and for one impact glass sample from the Bosumtwi crater. The track-size corrected ages for the Ivory Coast tektites ranged from 0.91 to 1.18 Ma, resulting in an average fission-track age of 1.05 ± 0.11 Ma. This age is, within errors, identical to that of the Bosumtwi impact glass at 1.03 ± 0.11 Ma, and to the 40Ar sbnd 39Ar age of 1.1 ± 0.05 Ma. The preferred age of the Ivory Coast tektite event is 1.07 Ma.

  18. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  19. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  20. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  1. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  2. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  3. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  4. Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Forced Dispersion Modeling of LNG Vapor Clouds 

    E-print Network

    Kim, Byung-Kyu

    2013-05-31

    of instruments and spray nozzle sites ..................................................... 31 Fig. 17. Crosswind vapor concentrations near ground at x = 90 m .................................. 32 Fig. 18. Experimental setup of Nov 2007 MKOPSC LNG spill test...

  5. 77 FR 38128 - Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ...USCG-2006-24644] Withdrawal of TORP Terminal LP, Bienville Offshore Energy Terminal Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port...Maritime Administration (MARAD) announces TORP Terminal LP's (TORP) withdrawal of the...

  6. Study of the Effects of Obstacles in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion using CFD Modeling

    E-print Network

    Ruiz Vasquez, Roberto

    2012-10-19

    The evaluation of the potential hazards related with the operation of an LNG terminal includes possible release scenarios with the consequent flammable vapor dispersion within the facility; therefore, it is important to know the behavior...

  7. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Vapor Dispersion Modeling with Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes

    E-print Network

    Qi, Ruifeng

    2012-10-19

    Federal regulation 49 CFR 193 and standard NFPA 59A require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. For modeling purposes, the physical...

  8. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ...Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY...received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the application...

  9. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. 195.64 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF...

  10. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. 191.22 Section...Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL...

  11. 76 FR 76044 - Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final...T08-0983 Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City, FL (a) Location. The following area is a safety...

  12. Leeuwin current observations on the Australian North West Shelf, May–June 1993

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter E. Holloway

    1995-01-01

    Observations of the Leeuwin Current, the poleward flow of warm, low salinity water off the west coast of Australia, are described from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), temperature and salinity (CTD) and moored current meter measurements from the Australian North West Shelf made in May and June 1993. Two cross-shelf and slope transects of ADCP and CTD measurements were completed

  13. Computational fluid dynamics for LNG vapor dispersion modeling: a key parameters study 

    E-print Network

    Cormier, Benjamin Rodolphe

    2009-05-15

    COMPUTATIONAL?FLUID?DYNAMICS?FOR?LNG?VAPOR?DISPERSION?MODELING:?A?KEY? PARAMETERS?STUDY? ? ? A?Dissertation? by? BENJAMIN?R.?CORMIER? ? ? Submitted?to?the?Office?of?Graduate?Studies?of? Texas?A&M?University? in...?partial?fulfillment?of?the?requirements?for?the?degree?of?? ? DOCTOR?OF?PHILOSOPHY? ? ? August?2008? ? ? Major?Subject:?Chemical?Engineering? ? ? COMPUTATIONAL?FLUID?DYNAMICS?FOR?LNG?VAPOR?DISPERSION?MODELING:?A?KEY? PARAMETERS?STUDY? ? ? A?Dissertation? by? BENJAMIN?R.?CORMIER? ? ? Submitted?to...

  14. Mesoporous Nickel–Alumina Catalysts for Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeong Gil Seo; Min Hye Youn; In Kyu Song

    2010-01-01

    Recent progress on the mesoporous nickel–alumina catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural\\u000a gas (LNG) was reported in this review. A number of mesoporous nickel–alumina composite catalysts were prepared by a single-step\\u000a surfactant-templating method using cationic, anionic, and non-ionic surfactant as structure-directing agents for use in hydrogen\\u000a production by steam reforming of LNG. For comparison, nickel catalysts

  15. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  16. Numerical simulations of LNG vapor dispersion in Brayton Fire Training Field tests with ANSYS CFX.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ruifeng; Ng, Dedy; Cormier, Benjamin R; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-11-15

    Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses the ANSYS CFX CFD code to model LNG vapor dispersion in the atmosphere. Discussed are important parameters that are essential inputs to the ANSYS CFX simulations, including the atmospheric conditions, LNG evaporation rate and pool area, turbulence in the source term, ground surface temperature and roughness height, and effects of obstacles. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to illustrate uncertainties in the simulation results arising from the mesh size and source term turbulence intensity. In addition, a set of medium-scale LNG spill tests were performed at the Brayton Fire Training Field to collect data for validating the ANSYS CFX prediction results. A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dense gas behavior of LNG vapor cloud, and its prediction results of downwind gas concentrations close to ground level were in approximate agreement with the test data. PMID:20692092

  17. OzCoasts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Those persons with a penchant for public policy, coastal erosion, and estuaries will sing the praises of the OzCoasts website. Formally launched in 2008, OzCoasts represents a collaborative effort between more than 100 coastal scientists from a range of government agencies and universities across Australia. The materials on the site are divided into six primary areas, including "Coastal Indicators", "Habitat Mapping", and "Landform & Stability Maps". Within each section, visitors will find graphs, maps, charts, and short essays that document a wide range of natural and man-made phenomena including beach erosion, beach geomorphic models, and sea level rise. Visitors can also make their way to the "Glossary" area to get caught up relevant terms and then wander around the "What's New" area for the latest and greatest updates to the website.

  18. Mapping The Pacific Coast

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maps of the Pacific Coast from the earliest period of European exploration continue to interest cartographers, geographers, and antiquarians. The maps in the Quivira Collection date from 1540 to 1802 and include early depictions of California as an island, Russian cartographic interpretations of the Pacific Coast, and overland maps across the continent westward to the ocean. All told, this online collection includes forty-five maps, books, and illustrations organized into six thematic galleries. Visitors can start by listening to an audio introduction, and then look around through the thematic galleries, which include such intriguing headings as " In the Wake of Captain James Cook" and "Secret Russian Explorations in the Pacific". Of course, visitors must click their way into the "California as an Island" section, if not just for a taste of six examples of what is perhaps one of the best-known cartographic mistakes in the world.

  19. Analysis of the sloshing flows of a LNG cargo tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doh, Deog Hee; Jo, Hyo Je; Shin, Byeong Rog; Ryu, Min Cheol; Hwang, Yoon Sik

    2011-10-01

    The sloshing flows in a LNG cargo tank model (1/50 scale) of a ship are measured by an embedded panoramicPIV system. The measurement system consists of a Nd-Yag laser(120mJ, 15Hz), two cameras(1k x 1k) and a host computer. Four experimental cases were tested for the tank model, in which swaying motions are made by a 6 DOF-motion platform. The amplitudes of swaying are 9.76mm and 29.29mm, and the swaying frequencies are 0.633Hz and 0.828Hz. The measurement regions are the vertical plane 50mm away from the front wall of the tank where a pump tower is installed. It was verified that the flow patterns of the sloshing are similar to each other when the swaying amplitudes are similar.

  20. Variations in Sea Level on the West Trinidad Coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith M. Miller

    2005-01-01

    Concern over the impact of change in sea level is of topical interest internationally, but for the small island states of the Caribbean, a significant increase would prove to be catastrophic. The potential problem is being addressed as part of the much larger issue of climate change, and just this year a regional Climate Change Centre was established in Belize.

  1. Cargo Containerization in the West Coast-Hawaiian Trade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward V. Lewis

    1959-01-01

    The question posed is a complex one, and in order to clarify it the author describes the present shipping system operated by Matson. Fifteen cargo ships operate to Hawaii on a schedule of two sailings a week out of San Francisco, one sailing a week out of Los Angeles, and somewhat less frequent sailings out of Pacific Northwest ports –

  2. Hygrothermal Performance of West Coast Wood Deck Roofing System

    SciTech Connect

    Pallin, Simon B [ORNL; Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Desjarlais, Andre Omer [ORNL

    2014-02-01

    Simulations of roofing assemblies are necessary in order to understand and adequately predict actual the hygrothermal performance. At the request of GAF, simulations have been setup to verify the difference in performance between white and black roofing membrane colors in relation to critical moisture accumulation for traditional low slope wood deck roofing systems typically deployed in various western U.S. Climate Zones. The performance of these roof assemblies has been simulated in the hygrothermal calculation tool of WUFI, from which the result was evaluated based on a defined criterion for moisture safety. The criterion was defined as the maximum accepted water content for wood materials and the highest acceptable moisture accumulation rate in relation to the risk of rot. Based on the criterion, the roof assemblies were certified as being either safe, risky or assumed to fail. The roof assemblies were simulated in different western climates, with varying insulation thicknesses, two different types of wooden decking, applied with varying interior moisture load and with either a high or low solar absorptivity at the roof surface (black or white surface color). The results show that the performance of the studied roof assemblies differs with regard to all of the varying parameters, especially the climate and the indoor moisture load.

  3. Key to West Coast Spartina Species Based on Vegetative Characters

    E-print Network

    Daehler (University of Hawai'i) who was a guide to Spartina sites in San Francisco Bay; to Lisa Lantz (WA Solid Rank of leaves Two Three Two or leafless Leaf sheath Open Closed Open or closed Ligule Present

  4. Role of inertial instability in the West African monsoon jump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kerry H.

    2015-04-01

    The West African monsoon jump is a sudden shift in the latitude of the West African precipitation maximum from the Guinean coast near 4°N into Sahel near 12°N in late June or early July. An examination of reanalyses and observations indicates that the Sahel rainy season develops smoothly and the monsoon jump occurs because of an abrupt decrease in Guinean coast rainfall. We show that this abrupt end of the coastal rainy season occurs when inertial instability develops over the region, 1 month later than it develops in the vicinity of the marine Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone. The reason for this delay is the presence of the African easterly jet, which places strong negative meridional zonal wind gradients over the coast to preserve the inertially stable environment. When the African easterly jet moves farther north due to the seasonal solar forcing, these gradients weaken and then reverse to satisfy the threshold condition for inertial instability; the rapid end of the Guinean coast rainy season follows. The northward movement and intensity of the African easterly jet are controlled by the seasonal development of strong meridional land surface temperature gradients and are independent of the formation of the Atlantic cold tongue. This explanation for the West African monsoon jump relates the phenomenon to the shape and location of the African continent, including the low-latitude position of the Guinean coast and the large expanse of the continent to the north.

  5. Women Artists of the American West

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Women Artists of the American West (WAAW) website features the "vital contributions that women have made to the art and history of the American west." Visitors to the site can take in seventeen different collections, arranged according to four themes: community, identity, spirituality, and locality. The exhibits include works by Barbara Zaring and Alcye Frank, who painted the landscape of the American Southwest as a team. Moving on into the Identity area, visitors will find collections such as "Shaping a New Way: White Women and the Movement to Promote Pueblo Indian Arts and Crafts, 1900-1935" and "Lesbian Photography on the U.S. West Coast, 1972-1997." Visitors should also take the time to look through the beautiful work by Betty LaDuke, collected in the collection titled "An Artist's Journey from Oregon to Timbuktu."

  6. Missionary education in West Africa: a study of pedagogical ambition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Ustorf

    2011-01-01

    The history of the North German Mission Society (established 1836 in Hamburg) and its activity on the West African coast (from 1847 onwards among the Ewe, in what is now Ghana and Togo where it was and still is known as the ‘Bremen Mission’) mirrors neatly the various phases of the idea of ‘mission’: its composite motivation (Enlightenment, humanism and

  7. Missionary Education in West Africa: A Study of Pedagogical Ambition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ustorf, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The history of the North German Mission Society (established 1836 in Hamburg) and its activity on the West African coast (from 1847 onwards among the Ewe, in what is now Ghana and Togo where it was and still is known as the "Bremen Mission") mirrors neatly the various phases of the idea of "mission": its composite motivation (Enlightenment,…

  8. 2. WEST ELEVATION SHOWING WHAT IS NOW THE CLASSROOM WING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST ELEVATION SHOWING WHAT IS NOW THE CLASSROOM WING. A CONCRETE STAIRWELL AND WOOD PERSONNEL DOOE IS LOCATED NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FRAME - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  9. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  10. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...OFLs), acceptable biological catch (ABC), and annual catch limits (ACLs). Amendment...OFL), acceptable biological catch (ABC), and annual catch limits (ACLs), and...criteria including definitions of overfishing, ABC, and ACL reference points; and...

  11. East Coast -Suez Canal 15 East Coast -Strait of Hormuz 24

    E-print Network

    Bases Places Crossroads East Coast - Suez Canal 15 East Coast - Strait of Hormuz 24 East Coast deployed (Avg Last 90 Days) 8 Sep 14 ~190 ships #12;Bases Places Crossroads East Coast - Suez Canal 15 East

  12. Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Douglas S.

    2003-01-10

    Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

  13. 78 FR 14259 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...U.S. Total Allowable Catch)] plus 16,000 metric tons (mt), for determining...of the coastwide TAC (United States plus Canada) and corresponding U.S...be 17.5 percent of the U.S. TAC plus 16,000 mt. * * * * * [FR Doc....

  14. 75 FR 32993 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ...Subpart D (whiting) fishery management. Pacific Whiting Fishery Management Measures. (j) Additional...participants in the Pacific Equipment Requirements. Whiting Shoreside...130 Trawl Fishery fishery management measures. Management...

  15. 75 FR 78343 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ...Sec. 660.15 Equipment requirements...Specifications and management measures, Sec...Sec. 660.15 Equipment requirements...Specifications and management measures, Sec...Sec. 660.15 Equipment requirements...Specifications and management measures,...

  16. 75 FR 53379 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...Sec. 660.15 Equipment requirements...Specifications and management measures, Sec...Sec. 660.15 Equipment requirements...Specifications and management measures, Sec...Sec. 660.15 Equipment requirements...Specifications and management measures,...

  17. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Harvest Specifications and Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...Harvest Specifications and Management Measures for the Remainder...Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) will remain in effect for the remainder of the...harvest specifications and management measures for most...

  18. 76 FR 18709 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ...The proposed rule, based on communications to date with the tribes, proposes...information. NMFS will accept anonymous comments. Attachments to...U.S. OY. NMFS is still in communication with the tribes on the 2011...

  19. 77 FR 55153 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ...140 to specify that an observer must be on the vessel while in port unless the observer provides a form to the catch...that a vessel must carry an observer in port any time the vessel...season restrictions. The effects of the change to...

  20. 75 FR 67809 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ...possible, taking into account the status and biology of the stock, the needs of fishing communities...current status (a.k.a, ``status and biology''), and the allowable harvest associated...possible, taking into account the status and biology of any overfished stocks of fish,...

  1. 75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...level of the acceptable biological catch (ABC), optimum yield (OY), and allocations...class). Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC)/OY Recommendations From these stock...The final Acceptable Biological Catch (ABC) \\b\\ and OY values recommended by...

  2. 75 FR 82296 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ...mortality of longnose skate in 2009 was well below the ABC (only 48 percent of the ABC), therefore the risk of overfishing in 2011 if...percent of its unfished biomass coastwide in 2005. The ABC of 4,829 mt was calculated using an FMSY proxy...

  3. 76 FR 53833 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-30

    ...otherwise specified in this section or Sec. 660.130, within the EEZ in the following areas (defined at Sec. 660.79): Eel River Canyon, Blunts Reef, Mendocino Ridge, Delgada Canyon, Tolo Bank, Point Arena North, Point Arena South Biogenic...

  4. 79 FR 71340 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-12-02

    ...Plan; Trawl Rationalization Program; Chafing Gear Modifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...SUMMARY: This action modifies the existing chafing gear regulations for midwater trawl gear. This action includes regulations that...

  5. 79 FR 21639 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-04-17

    ...Boundaries for Vessels Using Bottom Trawl Gear AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...vessels fishing groundfish with bottom trawl gear. This rule will affect the limited entry...stocks to the extent possible. RCAs are gear specific closures, and apply to...

  6. 79 FR 15296 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2014-03-19

    ...Plan; Trawl Rationalization Program; Chafing Gear Modifications AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...The proposed action modifies the existing chafing gear regulations for midwater trawl gear. This action includes regulations that...

  7. 76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...in part to poor weather conditions and the impacts of the tsunami on infrastructure and fishing vessels. Some vessels have not been able to resume full time operations since the tsunami and other vessels which sustained damage are taking...

  8. 76 FR 42588 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...provisions for the Pacific halibut trawl mortality bycatch limit and for calculation of...actions, revised the Pacific halibut trawl mortality bycatch limit, specified at Sec. 660...to address the Pacific halibut trawl mortality bycatch limit and calculation of...

  9. 76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ...harvest specifications, including acceptable biological catches (ABCs), optimum yields (OYs), and harvest guidelines (HGs) are made by this inseason action. Limited Entry Fixed Gear Sablefish Primary Fishery North of 36[deg] N. Lat. As...

  10. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ...y\\/Cowcod in the Conception area was assessed in 2007...The ABC for the Monterey and Conception areas is 14 mt and is based...rebuilding analysis in which the Conception area stock assessment projection...to the Court's Order in Natural Resources Defense...

  11. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...time) August 18, 2010. Comments on this...on September 22, 2010. ADDRESSES: You...electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect...INFORMATION: Electronic Access This final rule is...the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's...implement the 2009-2010 specifications...

  12. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...participate in the 2010 Pacific whiting fishery...Pacific whiting for the 2010 season only, based...time on April 2, 2010. ADDRESSES: You...electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect...INFORMATION: Electronic Access This proposed rule...the Internet at the Office of the...

  13. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ...time) October 1, 2010. Comments on this...time on November 3, 2010. ADDRESSES: You...electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect...INFORMATION: Electronic Access This final rule is...the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's...implement the 2009-2010 specifications...

  14. 76 FR 34910 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ...the limited entry fixed gear primary fishery from attaining...specified in regulation could face difficulty returning to...the limited entry fixed gear primary fishery from...231 Limited entry fixed gear sablefish primary fishery...permits registered for use with that vessel....

  15. 75 FR 33196 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ...at 8 p.m. local time (l.t.) May 16, 2010. ``Per trip'' limits for whiting...183-m) contour at any time during a fishing trip. This smaller limit...N. lat.) at any time during a fishing trip, the...

  16. 78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...the C/P Coop Program to determine...value of the aggregate pounds of all...the C/P Coop Program, the ex-vessel...value of the aggregate pounds of all...the C/P Coop Program, the value as determined by the aggregate pounds of...

  17. 78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...For the C/P Coop Program, the ex-vessel...determined by the aggregate pounds of all groundfish...multiplied by the MS Coop Program average price per...For the C/P Coop Program, the value as determined by the aggregate pounds of all...

  18. 77 FR 45508 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...allow limited entry permit transfers (i.e., changes in permit ownership) for all...North Pacific Right whales (Eubalaena japonica); Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus...taking under MMPA section 101(a)(5)(E). List of Subjects in 50 CFR Part...

  19. 77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...ownership) or between vessels (i.e., change in permit registered...entry permit transfers (i.e., changes in permit ownership...Pacific Right whales (Eubalaena japonica); Blue whales (Balaenoptera...MMPA section 101(a)(5)(E). List of Subjects in 50...

  20. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...California workshop will be held at the Humboldt Bay Aquatic Center, 921 Waterfront Drive. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lori Jesse, 503-230-5429. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has been developing a...

  1. Process simulation for a new conceptual design of LNG terminal coupling NGL recovery and LNG re-gasification for maximum energy savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muqeet, Mohammed A.

    With the high demands of shale gas and promising development of LNG terminals, a lot of research has focused towards the process development for effective recovery of C2+ hydrocarbons (NGL). Shale gas requires a large amount of cold energy to cool down and recover the NGL; and the LNG re-gasification process requires a lot of heat energy to evaporate for NGL recovery. Thus, coupling the shale gas NGL recovery process and LNG re-gasification process, for utilizing the cold energy from LNG re-gasification process to assist NGL recovery from shale gas has significant economic benefits on both energy saving and high value product recovery. Wang et al. developed new conceptual design of such coupled process in 2013 and later Wang and Xu developed an optimal design considering uncertainties in 2014. This work deals with process simulation of both these designs and the feasibility of the process is verified. A steady state model is developed based on the plant design proposed by Wang et al. using Aspen plusRTM and then a dynamic model of the process is developed using Aspen dynamicsRTM. An effective control strategy is developed and the flexibility of the dynamic model is examined by giving disturbances in the shale gas feed. A comparison is made between the two proposed design and the prospects of the design for real plant scenario is discussed.

  2. Source assessment of particulate air pollutants measured at the southwest european coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Casimiro A. Pio; Luis M. Castro; Mario A. Cerqueira; Isabel M. Santos; Filipa Belchior; Maria L. Salgueiro

    1996-01-01

    Aerosol particles and gaseous species were measured in air masses transported to the west coast of Portugal, between November 1993 and August 1994. Samples were taken during four monitoring campaigns distributed along the various seasons of the year, integrated in the EC Project: BMCAPE. Aerosol particles were collected with separation in two size fractions and analysed in relation to total

  3. SUMMER STREAM TEMPERATURES, JUVENILE COHO CONDITION FACTORS AND BLACK SPOT INFECTION IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We monitored stream temperatures at 35 locations throughout the West Fork Smith River watershed in the Oregon Coast Range during the summer of 2002. Between July 24 and August 24, maximum seven-day moving average high daily temperatures ranged from 21.8 C near the catchment's mo...

  4. Heavy mineral rich beach sands of the Waitakere coast, Auckland, New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL F. Hamill; PETER F. Ballance

    1985-01-01

    Heavy mineral rich beach sands of the Tasman Sea coast of the Waitakere Ranges, west of Auckland City, include major minerals plagioclase, augite, titanomagnetite, and quartz, with minor ilmenite, hypersthene, hornblende, biotite, and potassium feldspar, and accessory zircon and apatite. Major sources for the sands are Taupo Volcanic Zone rhyolitic volcanics, delivered via the Waikato River, and Taranaki andesitic volcanics,

  5. Oil and gas fields in East Coast and Arctic basins of Canada

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meneley

    1984-01-01

    The East Coast and Arctic basins of Canada have been under serious hydrocarbon exploration for over 20 years. Although the density of drilling is low, extensive seismic control has outlined a high proportion of the structures in these basins and the stratigraphic framework of the basins is known. From west to east, the basins include the Beaufort basin, the Sverdrup

  6. Barrier island evolution and reworking by inlet migration along the Mississippi-Alabama gulf coast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. B. Rucker; J. O. Snowden

    1990-01-01

    The five barrier islands along the Mississippi-Alabama coast are located 10 to 14 mi (16 to 23 km) offshore and separate Mississippi Sound from the Gulf of Mexico. The barrier islands in the chain are, from east to west: Dauphin Island, Petit Bois Island, Horn Island, Ship Island, and Cat Island. The islands are low sand bodies situated on a

  7. WEST VIRGINIA ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    WEST VIRGINIA ECONOMIC OUTLOOK 2009 BUREAU OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH College of Business and Economics West Virginia University #12;West Virginia Economic Outlook 2009 George W. Hammond, Associate Director, BBER, and Associate Professor of Economics West Virginia Economic Outlook 2009 is published

  8. Mechanisms of L-NG nitroarginine/indomethacin-resistant relaxation in bovine and porcine coronary arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Graier, W. F.; Holzmann, S.; Hoebel, B. G.; Kukovetz, W. R.; Kostner, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. Coronary arteries from bovines (BCA) and pigs (PCA) were used for measuring endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of L-NG nitroarginine and indomethacin. As some compounds tested have been found to have an inhibitory effect on autacoid-activated endothelial Ca2+ signalling, endothelium-dependent relaxation was initiated with the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. 2. The common compounds for modulating arachidonic acid release/pathway, mepacrine and econazole only inhibited L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in BCA not in PCA. In contrast, proadifen (SKF 525A) diminished relaxation in BCA and PCA. Mepacrine and proadifen inhibited Hoe-234-initiated relaxation in BCA and PCA, while econazole only inhibited Hoe 234-induced relaxation in PCA. Due to the multiple effects of these compounds, caution is necessary in the interpretation of results obtained with these compounds. 3. The inhibitor of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, apamin, strongly attenuated A23187-induced L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in BCA while apamin did not affect L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in PCA. 4. Pertussis toxin blunted L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in BCA, while relaxation of PCA was not affected by pertussis toxin. 5. Thiopentone sodium inhibited endothelial cytochrome P450 epoxygenase (EPO) in PCA but not in BCA, while L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation of BCA and PCA were unchanged. Protoporphyrine IX inhibited EPO in BCA and PCA and abolished L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation of BCA not PCA. 6. An EPO-derived compound, 11,12-epoxy-eicosatrienoic acid (11,12-EET) yielded significant relaxation in BCA and PCA in three out of six experiments. 7. These findings suggest that L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation in BCA and PCA constitutes two distinct pathways. In BCA, activation of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels via a pertussis-toxin-sensitive G protein and EPO-derived compounds might be involved. In PCA, no selective inhibition of L-NG nitroarginine-resistant relaxation was found. PMID:8937721

  9. Flexible LNG supply, storage and price formation in a global natural gas market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Mark Hanley

    The body of work included in this dissertation explores the interaction of the growing, flexible liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade with the fundamentals of pipeline gas supply, gas storage, and gas consumption. By nature of its uses---largely for residential heating and electric power generation---the consumption of natural gas is highly variable both seasonally and on less predictable daily and weekly timescales. Flexible LNG trade will interconnect previously isolated regional gas markets, each with non-correlated variability in gas demand, differing gas storage costs, and heterogeneous institutional structures. The dissertation employs a series of analytical models to address key issues that will affect the expansion of the LNG trade and the implications for gas prices, investment and energy policy. First, I employ an optimization model to evaluate the fundamentals of seasonal LNG swing between markets with non-correlated gas demand (the U.S. and Europe). The model provides insights about the interaction of LNG trade with gas storage and price formation in interconnected regional markets. I then explore how random (stochastic) variability in gas demand will drive spot cargo movements and covariation in regional gas prices. Finally, I analyze the different institutional structures of the gas markets in the U.S. and Europe and consider how managed gas markets in Europe---without a competitive wholesale gas market---may effectively "export" supply and price volatility to countries with more competitive gas markets, such as the U.S.

  10. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

    2011-06-01

    The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

  11. Strategic petroleum reserve and liquefied natural gas supplies. Final report. [Impact of LNG and\\/or oil embargo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Fink; B. A. Bancroft; T. M. Palmieri

    1977-01-01

    The United States is planning to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) to offset the effects of our apparent dwindling natural gas supply. These imports would begin by the 1980s and would come from Algeria, Indonesia, Pakistan, Iran, Nigeria, and possibly the Soviet Union. If a disruption in LNG supplies were to occur, the impact to the nation could be eased

  12. Thermodynamic analysis of an LNG fuelled combined cycle power plant with waste heat recovery and utilization system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaojun Shi; Defu Che

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper has proposed an improved liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuelled combined cycle power plant with a waste heat recovery and utilization system. The proposed combined cycle, which provides power outputs and thermal energy, consists of the gas\\/steam combined cycle, the subsystem utilizing the latent heat of spent steam from the steam turbine to vaporize LNG, the subsystem that

  13. Corporate Strategies along the LNG Value Added Chain An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

    This study analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global LNG market. In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration. Our hypothesis is that high transaction costs along the LNG value added chain induce a higher degree of vertical integration. This hypothesis is tested by implementing ordered response models. To explain determinants of

  14. Economics of the LNG Value Chain and Corporate Strategies An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of Vertical Integration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophia Ruester; Anne Neumann

    This paper analyzes corporate strategies in the emerging global market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). In particular, we provide an empirical analysis of the determinants driving companies towards increasing vertical integration leading to an industry in which a small number of large and powerful players are active. Our hypothesis of high transaction costs along the LNG value chain inducing a

  15. DYNAMIC SIMULATION FOR IMPROVING THE PERFORMANCE OF BOIL-OFF GAS RECONDENSATION SYSTEM AT LNG RECEIVING TERMINALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yajun Li; Xingshui Chen

    2012-01-01

    The boil-off gas (BOG) recondensation system is one of the most important facilities at liquefied natural gas (LNG) storing and receiving terminals, whose failure may cause BOG loss and\\/or severe accidents. Operation of a BOG recondensation system requires sufficient care under various situations, especially when LNG load and BOG load fluctuate. This study improves the control algorithm for a BOG

  16. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  17. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  18. North and South Carolina Coasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL A. MALLIN; JOANN M. BURKHOLDER; LAWRENCE B. CAHOON; MARTIN H. POSEY

    2000-01-01

    This coastal region of North and South Carolina is a gently sloping plain, containing large riverine estuaries, sounds, lagoons, and salt marshes. The most striking feature is the large, enclosed sound known as the Albemarle–Pamlico Estuarine System, covering approximately 7530 km2. The coast also has numerous tidal creek estuaries ranging from 1 to 10 km in length. This coast has

  19. Motion analysis of parallelly connected FPSO unit and LNG carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki; Self, M.S. [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan); Asada, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Seiya [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Nowadays, the floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) units are used to marginal oil fields and deep seas, because of mobility and reduced lead time from discovery to first production. One of the methods for offloading is to moor a tanker alongside the FPSO unit. In this case motion response of the system becomes highly complex, and will be affected by many factors such as hydrodynamic interaction and mechanical connections between the vessels. In this study, a quite general method is developed which has taken into account the hydrodynamic interaction as well as the effects of connectors and mooring lines, in motion response analysis of a multi-body floating system. For this purpose, 3-D source distribution method is applied for hydrodynamic analysis, and linear stiffness matrices are introduced to represent the effect of connectors and mooring lines on the motion equations. The method has been used for motion analysis of a practical problem in which an LNG carrier is connected alongside of an FPSO unit. The results of simulation are wave exciting forces, absolute motions and relative motions in frequency domain. Furthermore, some nonlinear behavior of connecting systems are discussed on the basis of the numerical results.

  20. A "Freely Coasting" Universe

    E-print Network

    Savita Gehlaut; A. Mukherjee; S. Mahajan; D. Lohiya

    2002-12-09

    A strictly linear evolution of the cosmological scale factor is surprisingly an excellent fit to a host of cosmological observations. Any model that can support such a coasting presents itself as a falsifiable model as far as classical cosmological tests are concerned. This article discusses the concordance of such an evolution in relation to several standard observations. Such evolution is known to be comfortably concordant with the Hubble diagram as deduced from current supernovae 1a data, it passes constraints arising from the age and gravitational lensing statistics and just about clears basic constraints on nucleosynthesis. Such an evolution exhibits distinguishable and verifiable features for the recombination era. The overall viability of such models is discussed.