Science.gov

Sample records for west coast lng

  1. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

  2. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  3. Traditional West Coast Native Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Deagle, George

    1988-01-01

    An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of devil's club plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

  4. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

  5. West Coast, United States and Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

  6. 75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the 2010 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5..., inseason action 11 (75 FR 54791, September, 9, 2010) imposed an open period landing and possession limit of... fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5, 2010), the West Coast Salmon Plan, and regulations implementing the...

  7. 75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the 2010 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5... the annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5, 2010), the West Coast... Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Inseason action 15 modified the commercial and recreational fisheries...

  8. 78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and... announced for the 2013 Ocean Salmon Fisheries and 2014 fisheries opening prior to May 1, 2014 (78 FR 25865... ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), the West Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan...

  9. 78 FR 24360 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In the 2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR... the 2012 Ocean Salmon Fisheries and 2012 fisheries opening prior to May 1, 2013 (77 FR 25915, May 2... management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2, 2012), the West Coast Salmon Plan,...

  10. 75 FR 51183 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In the 2010 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5... the annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (75 FR 24482, May 5, 2010), the West Coast..../Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Inseason action 8 modified the recreational fishery in the...

  11. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and recreational... the annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), the West Coast...,700 Chinook guideline is not exceeded (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013). NMFS is authorized to...

  12. 78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), NMFS announced the commercial and recreational fisheries in... the 2013 ocean salmon fisheries and 2014 fisheries opening prior to May 1, 2014 (78 FR 25865, May 3... management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3, 2013), the West Coast Salmon...

  13. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  14. Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

  15. Roots and Branches: Contemporary Essays by West Coast Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junker, Howard, Ed.

    Celebrating the vitality and diversity of West Coast writing, this book is a collection of 35 essays by writers based in California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska. Loosely organized around the ideas that West Coast writers often look to their roots elsewhere and that they pursue new directions as varied as their roots, the collection presents a

  16. 1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW TO WEST OF COAST GUARD AIR STATION SAN FRANCISCO, SHOWING ALL MAJOR BUILDINGS. 8X10 black and white silver gelatin print. United States Coast Guard, February 1962. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. Glaciations of the West Coast Range, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colhoun, Eric A.

    1985-07-01

    Geomorphic, stratigraphic, palynologic and 14C evidence indicates that the West Coast Range, Tasmania, was glaciated at least three times during the late Cenozoic. The last or Margaret Glaciation commenced after 30,000 yr B.P., culminated about 19,000 yr B.P., and ended by 10,000 yr B.P. During this period a small ice cap, ca. 250 m thick, and cirque and valley glaciers covered 108 km 2. The glacial deposits show little chemical weathering or erosional dissection. The snow line ranged from 690 to 1000 m with an average of 830 m for the ice cap. Mean temperature was 6.5C below the present temperature. During the preceding Henty Glaciation a 300- to 400-m-thick ice cap and outlet glaciers exceeded 1000 km 2. The glacial deposits are beyond 14C assay. They are more weathered chemically and more dissected than Margaret age deposits, and the degree suggests a pre-last interglaciation age (> 130,000 yr B.P.). The snow line of the ice cap lay at 740 m, and annual temperature was reduced by 7C. Ice of the earliest Linda Glaciation slightly exceeded that of the Henty Glaciation but had a similar distribution. The glacial deposits are intensely weathered, have reversed magnetization, and overlie a paleosol containing pollen of Tertiary type. An early Pleistocene or Tertiary age is indicated.

  18. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

  19. Learning about geological events in Vende (west coast of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretaudeau, Florence; Lavigne, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Our 70 pupils, aged from 17 to 18 had discovered an area of the west coast of France : Vende. We studied rocks in order to tell the geological story of this area. Several characteristics were looked at : sedimentary and metamorphics rocks, minerals, fault, folding, unconformability... We took advantage of this geological journey to look at biodiversity in different ecosystems : rocky coast, dune, wood.

  20. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  1. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  2. US west coast revisited: An aeromagnetic perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Zietz, I.; Johnson, P.R. ); Bond, K.R. )

    1990-04-01

    A new compilation of magnetic data for the western conterminous United States and offshore areas provides significant information about crustal units and structures in the region. Features shown on the compilation include a magnetic quiet zone along the coast and two lineaments inland. The magnetic quiet zone correlates with the accretionary prism at the western edge of the North American plate and overlies subducted ocean crust; abrupt termination of ocean-floor magnetic anomalies at, or a short distance east of, the toe of the accretionary prism is an inferred effect subduction-induced low-temperature metamorphism of the ocean crust. The Puget Lowlands-San Joaquin lineament is an alignment of high-intensity magnetic anomalies that in the south, and possibly also in the north, are cause by bodies of mafic-ultramafic rocks accreted to North America during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The lineup of the highs and the inferred lineup of the causative bodies may reflect fundamental structures that control Mesozoic and Tertiary evolution of the continental margin. The Mojave Desert lineament, a distinctive chain of short-wavelength magnetic anomalies in southern California, coincides partly with a zone of Mesozoic intrusions and the Cenozoic San Andreas fault system, but is likely to be older than both in origin and may reflect a Mesozoic or older crustal discontinuity.

  3. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  7. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  8. 78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast... River in Parker, Arizona for the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals. This temporary...

  9. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  10. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190 Section 408.190 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.190 Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  14. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  15. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  16. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  17. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  18. 33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this...

  19. 77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... INFORMATION: Background In the 2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2... to May 1, 2013 (77 FR 25915, May 2, 2012). The RA determined that the best available information... the annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2, 2012), the West...

  20. 77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2, 2012), NMFS announced the commercial and... regulations remain in effect as announced for the 2012 Ocean Salmon Fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2, 2012) and... the annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2, 2012), the West...

  1. Tohoku, Japan Tsunami Sets us West Coast Into Ringing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M. R.; Gica, E.; Legg, G.

    2011-12-01

    Tsunamis can last a long time compared to the geophysical events that generate them. The Tohoku, Japan tsunami of March 11, 2011 was an extreme event that continued to disturb the Pacific Ocean for many days following its initiation. Historically Japan was considered a source of low tsunami wave energy for the US West Coast. However, damage in California from the last great Japan tsunami was second to that suffered during the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Computer animations of the catastrophic Japan tsunami and other recent significant tsunamis combined with seismological techniques help to identify multiple paths of tsunami waves refracted and reflected by complex bathymetry across the Pacific Ocean basin. Using recent large tsunamigenic earthquakes we demonstrate that the long duration and damage noticed during the last great Japan tsunami in the farfield is a result of several factors. Waveguides acting as tsunami lenses and mirrors, including continental margins, direct the tsunami wave energy to diverse locations around the ocean basin; directionality affected by islands and seamounts, large reflections off of South America, bathymetric features far and near the area of impact and shelf geometry may delay and further amplify the main tsunami energy. This has direct implications on the prediction of tsunami impacts since the US West Coast appears to receive maximum waves much later than first wave arrivals.

  2. Size and Age Characteristics for West Coast Tsunamigenic Landslides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. J.; Normark, W. R.; Fisher, M. A.; Greene, H. G.; Kayen, R. E.; Dartnell, P.; Locat, J.

    2004-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetric imagery is now available for a number of well-defined submarine landslide deposits along the west coast of the United States. Several of these landslides are known to have caused damaging tsunamis and others are of sufficient size to have generated tsunamis when they occurred, assuming that their motion was rapid. These failures are located off Palos Verdes Peninsula, California, and within Santa Barbara Channel, California, Commencement Bay, Washington, Resurrection Bay, Alaska, and Port Valdez, Alaska. For two of these failures, ages were determined by identifying acoustic reflectors in the vicinity of the failed masses that either clearly postdate or predate the landslide events. The ages of the reflectors are determined by tracing them to the locations of nearby ODP borings or to piston cores dated using radiocarbon methods. Three of the landslides produced tsunamis during historic time (post 1750 AD) so the ages are well constrained. High-resolution subbottom reflection profiles also allow us to estimate the dimensions of the failed masses. Although the examples selected clearly do not represent all scales of tsunamigenic west coast landslides, this information is useful in providing input to statistically based models of landslide-induced tsunamis.

  3. Holocene Glacial Retreat at Walgreen Coast, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindow, J.; Johnson, J.; Castex, M.; Wittmann, H.; Smith, J.; Lisker, F.; Gohl, K.; Spiegel, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Walgreen Coast of West Antarctica represents one of the most rapidly changing sectors of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). With the fastest ice streams in the whole Antarctic, the WAIS is characterised by rapid thinning and grounding line retreat. Airborne and satellite-based short-term observations show a doubling of the negative net mass balance between 1996-2006 (Rignot et al., 2008). Furthermore, because the WAIS is largely grounded below sea level, continued inland thinning and grounding line retreat could result in rapid ice sheet collapse, which would raise global sea level by between 3-5 m. However, due to remoteness and challenging accessibility, onshore data is limited to a few isolated nunataks making it difficult to assess the long-term evolution of the glacial dynamics along Walgreen Coast. To address this we present new data from two key areas of the Walgreen Coast; the Kohler Range and the Pine Island Bay. Our 10Be surface exposure ages from erratic boulders in the Kohler Range are the first and reveal that this area became ice-free between 8.3 and 12.3 ka. This implies a long-term thinning rate of 3.3 cm/yr and agrees with similar data published from glaciers eastward. Our ages are also consistent with recent deglaciation models which suggest strong thinning after 15 ka and off-shore sediments shows a concurrent lateral ice-shelf front retreat. Our results suggest an ice-cover at least 300 m thicker in the Kohler Range during the early Holocene and that subsequent average thinning occurred on rates one order of magnitude slower than recent satellite measurements show. This implies that the recent trend in ice-sheet thinning results from a recent dynamic changes rather than a response to long-term thinning. To further constrain the lateral deglaciation history along the eastern Walgreen Coast, namely the Pine Island Glacier, we collected additional samples from a chain of islands, located flow-parallel and downstream of the ice-shelf front. We will use this new 10Be surface exposure data to infer whether the uncovering of these islands results from glacial retreat and/or subsequent isostatic rebound. Together, our new data will contribute to a better understanding of long-term glacial thinning along the West Antarctic coast, and thus provides new constraints for ice sheet models helping to predict the future behaviour of the WAIS. Rignot, E., Bamber, J. L., Van den Broeke, M. R., Davis, C., Li, Y., Van de Berg, W. J., van Meijgaard, E., 2008: Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling. Nature Geoscience. 1, 106-110.

  4. Winter extreme precipitation along the North American west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Michael D.

    Most extreme precipitation events that occur along the North American west coast are associated with winter atmospheric river (AR) events, causing flooding, landslides, extensive property damage, and loss of life. The studies contained within this dissertation use a combination of NCDC precipitation observations, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, a 10-model ensemble of historical and future CMIP5 climate model simulations, and an NCEP-NCAR reanalysis driven regionally downscaled WRF model simulation to characterize the synoptic evolution of AR events along the North American west coast, the spatial variability of precipitation along the coast and inland, and changes in AR intensity and frequency that are expected by the end of the 21st century. Most regional flooding events are associated with precipitation periods of 24 hours or less, and two-day precipitation totals identify nearly all major events. Precipitation areas of major events are generally narrow, roughly 200 km in width, and most are associated with ARs. Composite evolutions indicate negative anomalies in sea-level pressure and upper-level height in the central Pacific, high-pressure anomalies over the southwest U.S., large positive 850-hPa temperature anomalies along the coast and offshore, and enhanced precipitable water and integrated water vapor fluxes in southwest- to northeast-oriented swaths. A small subset of extreme precipitation events over the southern portion of the domain is associated with a very different synoptic evolution: a sharp trough in northwesterly flow and post-cold-frontal convection. High precipitable water values are more frequent during the summer but are not associated with heavy precipitation because of upper-level ridging over the eastern Pacific and weak onshore flow that limits upward vertical velocities. Global climate models have sufficient resolution to simulate synoptic features associated with AR events, such as high values of vertically integrated vapor transport (IVT) approaching the coast. Ten CMIP5 simulations are used to identify changes in ARs impacting the west coast of North America between historical (1970-1999) and end-of-century (2070-2099) representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 runs. The most extreme ARs are identified in both time periods by the 99th percentile of IVT days along a north-south transect offshore of the coast. Integrated water vapor (IWV) and IVT are predicted to increase, while lower-tropospheric winds change little. Winter-mean precipitation along the West Coast increases by 11-18% (4-6% C--1) while precipitation on extreme IVT days increases by 15-39% (5-19% C --1). The frequency of IVT days above the historical 99 th percentile threshold increases as much as 290% by the end of this century. There appear to be only very slight changes in annual AR climatology from historical to future time periods when considering the most extreme events (99th percentile). However, when evaluating by the number of future days exceeding the historical threshold, there are significant increases in extreme IVT events in all months, especially when the majority of events take place. The peaks in historical and future frequency occur in similar months given the amount of model variability. Extreme IVT events appear to be occurring slightly earlier in the season, particularly in the northern part of the domain, and these results are similar to other studies. Spatially, 10-model mean historical composites of IVT reveal canonical AR conditions. At locations farther south, there is less model agreement on what AR events should look like, both in spatial extent and intensity; whereas farther north, the various models agree more. The future composites indicate very little spatial change. The models behave similarly in both the historical and future runs, suggesting little change in dynamics. The future-historical difference plots highlight the largest changes expected in the future, namely increases in IVT intensity which are primarily associated with thermodynamic changes related to future IWV increases due to warming.

  5. History of petroleum exploration in California and the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Kilkenny, J.E.

    1991-03-01

    California's main oil and gas basins consist of the inland Sacramento and San Joaquin and the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Santa Maria basins adjacent to the coast and extending offshore. The state's total oil production to 1991 is approximately 22.8 billion bbls. Producing formations range in age from basement Jurassic to Pleistocene, but production is mainly from thick multiple sand zones of Miocene and Pliocene age. The first oil discovery was in the eastern Ventura basin in 1875. By the turn of the century, 22 fields, including several giants in the San Joaquin Valley, had been discovered by drilling near oil seepages. The most important event of the 1920s was the discovery of several giant oil fields in the Los Angeles basin, drilled on topographic highs suggestive of underlying anticlines. State production rapidly increased to 850,000 BOPD, or 40% of all US production. The 1930s saw the advent of the reflection seismograph, responsible for the state's largest oil field (Wilmington) in the Lost Angeles basin and the state's largest gas field (Rio Vista) in the Sacramento basin. A number of important fields were found under the San Joaquin Valley floor. Geological thinking in the late 1930s and 1940s resulted in the discovery of large stratigraphic traps in the San Joaquin Valley (e.g., East Coalinga) and at Santa Maria from fractured shale, plus two new small producing basins, the Cuyama and the Salinas. Offshore exploration, consisting of seismic work, ocean-bottom sampling, and coreholing, revealed the presence of a number of anticlines in the Ventura basin, paralleling the Santa Barbara coast. The first offshore discovery was made in 1959 on state lands followed by several major fields on federal lands in the late 1960s. Elsewhere along the West Coast, exploration in Oregon and Washington has yielded only minor gas.

  6. Hydrodynamic accumulation of Karenia off the west coast of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, Richard P.; Litaker, R. Wayne; Lanerolle, Lyon; Tester, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellates, Karenia spp. occur nearly annually in the eastern Gulf of Mexico with cell abundances typically >10 5 cells L -1. Thermal and ocean color satellite imagery shows sea surface temperature patterns indicative of upwelling events and the concentration of chlorophyll at fronts along the west Florida continental shelf. Daily cell counts of Karenia show greater increases in cell concentrations at fronts than can be explained by Karenia's maximum specific growth rate. This is observed in satellite images as up to a 10-fold greater increase in chlorophyll biomass over 1-2 d periods than can be explained by in situ growth. In this study, we propose a model that explains why surface blooms of Karenia may develop even when nutrients on the west Florida shelf are low. In the summer, northward winds produce a net flow east and southeast bringing water and nutrients from the Mississippi River plume onto the west Florida shelf at depths of 20-50 m. This water mass supplies utilizable inorganic and organic forms of nitrogen that promote the growth of Karenia to pre-bloom concentrations in sub-surface waters in the mid-shelf region. In the fall, a change to upwelling favorable winds produces onshore transport. This transport, coupled with the swimming behavior of Karenia, leads to physical accumulation at frontal regions near the coast, resulting in fall blooms. Strong thermal fronts during the winter provide a mechanism for re-intensification of the blooms, if Karenia cells are located north of the fronts. This conceptual model leads to testable hypotheses on bloom development throughout the Gulf of Mexico.

  7. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM).

  8. "Speaking a Secret Language:" West Coast Swing as a Community of Practice of Informal and Incidental Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Jamie L.

    2005-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a qualitative study of competitive West Coast Swing dancers that incorporated both ethnographic and phenomenological techniques. A modern variation of the original Lindy Hop, West Coast Swing is typically learned in dance studios and non-profit clubs. The West Coast Swing community can be considered a community

  9. Comparative study on foraminifera of east and west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Gadi, Subhadra Devi; Patil, Rajashekhar K

    2012-09-01

    The oceanographic conditions of west and east coasts of India provide variations in ecological conditions. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the geographic distribution and diversity of foraminifera (Protista) of west and east Coasts of India to gain insights in to ecological conditions that effect their distribution. The intertidal sediment samples, collected for a period of two years from October 2004 to September 2006 were analysed for foraminiferal diversity and sediment characteristics by standard methods. Relatively high densities (west coast--156 to 19,400 g(-1), east coast--37-214 g(-1)) and diversities were observed at all the sites of the West (74 species) compared to the east coast (57 species). Thirty three species were common to both the coasts. Forty one and 24 species were found to be unique to west and east coast, respectively. Foraminifera of west and east coasts form distinct clusters as revealed by Bray-Curtis cluster analysis, indicating distinctly different foraminiferal assemblages. The geographical and oceanographic conditions thus seem to influence a differential diversity of forams. PMID:23734457

  10. Dynamic Stability of Coral Reefs on the West Australian Coast

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ C.; Bancroft, Kevin P.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Moore, James A. Y.; Nutt, Christopher D.; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 1035S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (?28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs. PMID:23922829

  11. Measured wind speed trends on the west coast of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuller, Stanton E.

    2004-09-01

    Trends in measured wind speed are discussed for four stations on the west coast of Canada. Periods of record vary with the station. They begin in the late 1940s or the 1950s and run through to the early to mid 1990s. The most prominent feature of the time series was a decline in mean annual and winter wind speeds at Cape St James, Victoria International Airport, and Vancouver International Airport during the middle portion of the record. Declines in mean annual wind speed are matched by increases in the percentage of calms and decreases in high wind speed observations. The pressure gradient between Victoria, Vancouver and Comox, the Pacific North American index, the Pacific decadal oscillation index, and other climate elements in British Columbia and the northwestern USA show trends at roughly the same time, indicating a natural cause of the wind speed decrease. Comox Airport mean wind speeds increased, however, perhaps the result of reduced friction in the vicinity of the anemometer outweighing the decrease in the regional pressure gradient.

  12. 75 FR 33733 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... as part of the live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of...

  13. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan faunas. ?? 1984.

  14. LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

  15. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  16. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  17. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  18. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  19. 40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180 Section 408.180 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory 408.180 Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The provisions...

  20. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IN WEST COAST ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabalistic survey of coastal condition assessment was conducted in 1999 by participants in US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The survey targeted estuaries along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, including the lower Columbi...

  1. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  2. Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

  3. Higher Educational Needs of the Lower West Coast [Florida].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Regents, Tallahassee.

    This study reports the higher educational needs of the persons living in lower west Florida counties from Manatee to Collier, identifies the most feasible course of action to meet those needs and assesses the consequences ensuing from adding to the state university system. Chapters cover access to public higher education, expansion of the state…

  4. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  5. 50 CFR Table 2 to Part 660 - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits 2 Table 2 to Part 660 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Pt. 660, Table 2...

  6. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. Fishing by vessels of Canada under the 1981 Treaty Between the Government...

  7. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. Fishing by vessels of Canada under the 1981 Treaty Between the Government...

  8. Comparison of HIV infection risk behaviors among injection drug users from East and West Coast US cities.

    PubMed

    Garfein, Richard S; Monterroso, Edgar R; Tong, Tony C; Vlahov, David; Des Jarlais, Don C; Selwyn, Peter; Kerndt, Peter R; Word, Carl; Fernando, M Daniel; Ouellet, Lawrence J; Holmberg, Scott D

    2004-06-01

    This study assessed whether behavioral differences explained higher human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence among injection drug users (IDUs) in three East Coast versus two West Coast cities in the United States. Sociodemographic, sexual, and injecting information were collected during semiannual face-to-face interviews. Baseline data from New York City; Baltimore, Maryland; and New Haven, Connecticut, were compared with data from Los Angeles, California, and San Jose, California. Among 1,528 East Coast and 1,149 West Coast participants, HIV sero-prevalence was 21.5% and 2.3%, respectively (odds ratio [OR] 11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9-17.8). HIV risk behaviors were common among IDUs on both coasts, and several were more common among West Coast participants. Adjusting for potential risk factors, East (vs. West) Coast of residence remained highly associated with HIV status (adjusted OR 12.14; 95% CI 7.36-20.00). Differences in HIV sero-prevalence between East and West Coast cities did not reflect self-reported injection or sexual risk behavior differences. This suggests that other factors must be considered, such as the probability of having HIV-infected injection or sexual partners. Prevention efforts are needed on the West Coast to decrease HIV-associated risk behaviors among IDUs, and further efforts are also needed to reduce HIV incidence on the East Coast. PMID:15136659

  9. A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE US WEST COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A probabilistic survey of environmental condition of the continental shelf of the US West Coast was conducted in 2003 by the US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA), with collaboration by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. Metals and organic contaminants were analyzed ...

  10. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8-12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers...

  11. 78 FR 51097 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC783 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  12. 76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA554 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  13. 77 FR 50952 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC166 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  14. 75 FR 42610 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XX54 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  15. 76 FR 58720 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA709 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  16. 75 FR 59156 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY79 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  17. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

  18. New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of

  19. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  20. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  1. 75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ...HUD gives notice to the public, agencies, and Indian tribes that the City of West Sacramento, CA, intends to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the development of the West Coast Recycling Group project located at the Port of West Sacramento (Port) in West Sacramento, Yolo County, CA. The City of West Sacramento, acting as the lead agency, will......

  2. 75 FR 41383 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010... (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on April 27, 2009 (74...

  3. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are... specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to... published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions...

  4. 76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background... specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to... Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). These specifications and management measures...

  5. 75 FR 33196 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary Pacific Whiting Season for the Shore... announces the suspension of the Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery primary season for the shore-based sector... reinstated until 0001 hours June 15, 2010, at which time the primary season for the shore-based sector...

  6. 75 FR 75417 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html... groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010 specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This...

  7. 76 FR 28897 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... via the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). A final rule was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508) that responded to public comments and codified the specifications and management...

  8. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and... December 31, 2008, (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010 specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This...

  9. 76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Register's Web site at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at http://www.pcouncil.org... management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule...

  10. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010... (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on April 27, 2009 (74...

  11. 76 FR 67092 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at... measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to implement the 2011-2012... May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on June...

  12. 76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the... management measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the... on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). The final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on...

  13. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... coast groundfish fishery's trawl fleet (see 75 FR 78344; Dec. 15, 2010). The program was adopted in 2010... follow. NMFS published the ANPR on April 4, 2012 (77 FR 20337), which, among other things, announced the... 21, 2012 (77 FR 29955), with the final rule published on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45508). RAW 1...

  14. 76 FR 34910 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of green sturgeon was listed as threatened under the ESA (71 FR 17757... the ESA (75 FR 13012). NMFS has reinitiated consultation on the fishery, including impacts on green... management measures for that fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California (76 FR 27508)....

  15. 75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...NMFS is extending the comment period for the proposed rule to implement the 2011-2012 Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Amendment 16-5; and Amendment 23 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). The comment period is being extended to provide additional opportunity for public...

  16. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... and transfer regulations, increase flexibility or efficiency, or address minor revisions... the Pacific coast groundfish fishery's trawl fleet (see 75 FR 78344; Dec. 15, 2010). The program was... include the following, by category of (a) implementation of original program, (b) increasing...

  17. 75 FR 38030 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... yelloweye rockfish harvest specifications to the Court's ] Order in Natural Resources Defense Council v....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). A final rule was published on March 6,...

  18. 75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... via the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index... Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). A final rule was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874), which... sustained yield. On April 23, 2010, NMFS received a decision in the case of Natural Resources...

  19. 78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...This action implements a cost recovery program for the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program, as required by the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA). This action includes regulations that affect all trawl rationalization program sectors (Shorebased Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program, Mothership Cooperative Program, and Catcher/Processor......

  20. 77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ...This proposed action would delay or revise several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations. These changes are necessary to enable the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to implement new regulations for the program to comply with a court order requiring NMFS to reconsider the initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) to......

  1. 78 FR 14259 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...NMFS issues this proposed rule for the 2013 Pacific whiting fishery under the authority of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), the Magnuson Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act), and the Pacific Whiting Act of 2006. This proposed rule would establish a formula, specifically [17.5 percent * (U.S. Total Allowable Catch)] plus 16,000 metric......

  2. Remote sensing of wetland conditions in West Coast salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui C.; Li, Lin

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the PEEIR (Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research Consortium) program is to develop new indicators for assessing wetland health or condition. As part of PEEIR program we are investigating the use of imaging spectrometry to map and characterize marsh vegetation of several estuarine systems in California. We obtained airborne Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, an instrument which measures a detailed reflectance spectrum (400-2500nm) for each pixel, over paired tidal marshes, having either a history of exposure to pollution or no known exposure. AVIRIS image data was analyzed based on comparison to field measurements and reflectance changes measured in hydroponic experiments. We report leaf and canopy reflectance measurements of several common plant species of Pacific coast salt marshes exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, V) and crude oil contaminants. Species exhibited differential sensitivities to specific contaminants, however in general, Salicornia virginica, the most salt tolerant species and the dominant species in these wetlands (70-90% cover) was most sensitive to metal and petroleum contaminants. Field measurements of canopy reflectance, biomass and vegetation structure were acquired across GPS-located transects at each field site. The AVIRIS data were calibrated to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiative transfer code and geometrically registered to coordinates using the 1m USGS digital orthophoto quads. AVIRIS results show spatial patterns of plant stress indicators (e.g., reduced chlorophyll and water contents) are consistent with known patterns of contamination in these tidal wetlands.

  3. Atmospheric nutrient deposition to the west coast of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyaga, Justine M.; Cramer, Michael D.; Neff, Jason C.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is an important source of nutrients to many ecosystems, but is of particular importance to plant nutrition in areas where nutrients are scarce. Nutrient containing aerosols enter the atmosphere through industrial and agricultural activities, wildfires, and the production of terrigenous and marine aerosols. In this study, we collected bulk rain precipitation along the Atlantic coast of South Africa in a coastal “strandveld” vegetation region. This region is relatively remote from significant anthropogenic influences and is downwind of a highly productive and stormy portion of the Atlantic. Samples were collected over 12 months at sites along a 17 km downwind transect from the shoreline and analyzed for N, P, Na, Ca, Mg and K. Annual total N and total P fluxes of 4.8 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 0.16 kg ha-1 yr-1 are low compared to global averages. In contrast, fluxes of Na were 88.7 kg ha-1 yr-1, 16.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Ca, 12.1 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Mg and 5.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for K; rates that are higher than most other measurements elsewhere in the world. Dissolved organic N represented ca. 71% of the N flux while 43% of the P flux was in the form of soluble reactive P (SRP). These results combined with the high fluxes of Na and Mg strongly suggest that marine aerosols are important contributors to nutrient deposition at this site.

  4. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setbal, Cascais and Nazar Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  5. Rapid Glacier Thinning Along the Amundsen Coast, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, A.; Wingham, D. J.; Mansley, J. A.

    2001-12-01

    Together with the Pine Island glacier (PIG), the Thwaites (TG) and Smith (SG) glaciers are the principal drainage systems of the Amundsen Sea (AS) sector of the West Antarctic ice-sheet. We use satellite radar altimetry to show that a rapid thinning of ice has occurred along the AS coastline, and satellite radar interferometry (SRI) to show that the pattern of thinning was restricted to the fastest flowing sections of the outlet glaciers. Between 1991 and 2001, the TG and SG thinned by more than 25 and 45 m at their grounding lines, and a total of 157 cubic kilometres of ice was lost from the AS sector into the ocean. Using BEDMAP elevation data, we show that the thickness changes may have caused the PIG, TG and SG to retreat inland by over 8, 4 and 7 km respectively. This is in line with ours and other independent estimates of grounding line retreat rates derived from SRI. If the glaciers continue to thin at the present rates they will become afloat within 150-1500 years.

  6. Plummeting crude prices hurt West Coast work, but several projects start up

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.

    1987-06-08

    The U.S. West Coast this year will see the nation's first commercial offshore arctic production and the start-up of oil flow from the controversial Santa Maria basin off California. An even bigger controversy involves the best remaining U.S. petroleum prospect-the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The collapse in oil prices in 1986 has crippled drilling on the West Coast. The region always has had to contend with lower prices for lesser quality crudes and some of the highest operating costs in the U.S. But as oil prices continue to show stability, action will rebound in the two states that furnish more than one third of U.S. oil production.

  7. Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, William M.

    2012-06-30

    Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

  8. Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

  9. Agars of Gelidiella acerosa of west and southeast coasts of India.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Kamalesh; Siddhanta, A K; Ganesan, M; Ramavat, B K; Jha, B; Ghosh, Pushpito K

    2007-07-01

    Seventeen agar samples were extracted from Gelidiella acerosa (Forsskal) Feldmann and Hamel (Rhodophyta, Gelidiales) specimens collected from nine different sites on the Indian coast-five from southeast coast and four from the west coast. The agar samples were analysed. The stability characteristics of the gels of selected agar samples were studied by rheometry under applied stress conditions, i.e. variation of the storage (G') and loss moduli (G'') were studied under varying frequency and duration (time) of the stress applied. Yield, apparent and dynamic viscosities, gelling and melting temperatures, 3,6-anhydrogalactose (3,6-AG), sulphate contents and TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis) measurements of the products were done. It was observed that the best quality agar was produced by G. acerosa occurring in the Gulf of Mannar region in the southeast coast. The gel strengths and the viscosities of agars extracted from Gelidiella acerosa occurring in the Gulf of Mannar ranged from 500 to 700gcm(-2) and 33 to 45cP for 2001 collections and for 2002 collections the corresponding values were 450 to 845gcm(-2) and 55 to 67cP respectively. On the other hand, for the agar samples extracted from the west coast of India, the gel strength and viscosities values ranged from 225 to 400gcm(-2) and from 15 to 30cP, respectively. The agars obtained from G. acerosa collected from southeast coast have been found to be suitable for bacterial culture and molecular biology. This is the first report of superior quality of agar from the Indian agarophytes. PMID:16949817

  10. Recruitment dynamics of two ecosystem engineers could drive shellfish populations in U.S. west coast estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of burrowing shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis are important members of intertidal mudflat communities in US West coast estuaries. Both species act as ecosystem engineers and influence the presence of other structured habitats and suspension ...

  11. The 2010 Chilean Tsunami Off the West Coast of Canada and the Northwest Coast of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.; Fine, Isaac V.

    2013-09-01

    The major ( M w = 8.8) Chilean earthquake of 27 February 2010 generated a trans-oceanic tsunami that was observed throughout the Pacific Ocean. Waves associated with this event had features similar to those of the 1960 tsunami generated in the same region by the Great ( M w = 9.5) 1960 Chilean Earthquake. Both tsunamis were clearly observed on the coast of British Columbia. The 1960 tsunami was measured by 17 analog pen-and-paper tide gauges, while the 2010 tsunami was measured by 11 modern digital coastal tide gauges, four NEPTUNE-Canada bottom pressure recorders located offshore from southern Vancouver Island, and two nearby open-ocean DART stations. The 2010 records were augmented by data from seven NOAA tide gauges on the coast of Washington State. This study examines the principal characteristics of the waves from the 2010 event (height, period, duration, and arrival and travel times) and compares these properties for the west coast of Canada with corresponding properties of the 1960 tsunami. Results show that the 2010 waves were approximately 3.5 times smaller than the 1960 waves and reached the British Columbia coast 1 h earlier. The maximum 2010 wave heights were observed at Port Alberni (98.4 cm) and Winter Harbour (68.3 cm); the observed periods ranged from 12 min at Port Hardy to 110-120 min at Prince Rupert and Port Alberni and 150 min at Bamfield. The open-ocean records had maximum wave heights of 6-11 cm and typical periods of 7 and 15 min. Coastal and open-ocean tsunami records revealed persistent oscillations that "rang" for 3-4 days. Tsunami energy occupied a broad band of periods from 3 to 300 min. Estimation of the inverse celerity vectors from cross-correlation analysis of the deep-sea tsunami records shows that the tsunami waves underwent refraction as they approached the coast of Vancouver Island with the direction of the incoming waves changing from an initial direction of 340 True to a direction of 15 True for the second train of waves that arrived 7 h later after possible reflection from the Marquesas and Hawaiian islands.

  12. A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ingole, B; Sivadas, S; Nanajkar, M; Sautya, S; Nag, A

    2009-07-01

    Harbours are heavily stressed coastal habitats characterised by high concentration of contaminant and low diversity of benthic community. The west coast of India harbours most of the major harbours compared to the east coast. Very few studies have compared the macrobenthic community between different Indian harbours. The present study was therefore conducted in three important harbour (Ratnagiri, Goa, Karwar) along the central west coast of India. The paper discusses the health status of the three harbours diagnosed using various biotic indices. Sediment samples were collected using van Veen grab (0.11 m(2)) on board CRV Sagar Sukti. A total of 55 macrobenthic taxa were identified and were numerically dominated by polychaete. Biomass was high (0.14-145.7 g m(-2)) and was made largely by echiurans (>80%). Overall, polychaete dominated the macrobenthic diversity. Opportunistic P.pinnata, Notomastus sp. and Mediomastus sp., dominated the macrobenthic community responding to the increased in the harbour. Biotic indices (Polychaete:Amphipod ratio, ABC curve and geometric class abundance) and the dominance of opportunistic species indicate that, the three harbours are under stress from anthropogenic activities. PMID:18566901

  13. Water Temperature Variability Along the West Coast of the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    God¡nez, L.; Gutierrez de Velasco, G.; Halfar, J.; Valdez, J. E.; Borges, J. M.

    2003-12-01

    The seawater temperature variability along the west coast of the Gulf of California for the time period March 2002 to March 2003 is discussed. The observations used for the analysis correspond to hourly samples at 10, 15, 20, and 25 m depths from moorings deployed in 35 m total depth at four locations along the west gulf coast, from its mouth to Ballenas channel: Cabo Pulmo (23 23' N, 109 25 W), Isla Espritu Santo (24 33' N, 110 24' W), Punta Chivato (27 04' N, 111 58' W), and Baha de los ngeles (28 58' N, 113 31' W). Mean sea water temperatures increase along the gulf from the temperate north region to the subtropical gulf entrance (17 to 26 C). Temperature variability shows periodicities ranging from the seasonal to the semi-diurnal frequencies with decreasing amplitudes as frequency increases. Temperature seasonal cycle changes along the Gulf coast. Its amplitude diminishes from north to south were maximum temperature values are reached about 30 days later. Maximum and minimum values in the cycle increase northward; in contrast to the southward decreasing amplitude. Frequencies higher than seasonal exhibit two distinct patterns: An active spring and summer period and a quiet fall and winter one. During spring and summer vertical temperature differences increase and variability is dominated by 2 to 5 C amplitude oscillations at diurnal, 5 to 7 day, and quarterly frequencies. Fall and winter exhibit an almost constant vertical temperature distribution with weak oscillations (<1 C amplitude) at the same frequencies.

  14. East-West Coast Differences in Ionospheric Electron Density over the Continental US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.; Foster, J. C.; Coster, A. J.; Erickson, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports on a new finding of pronounced longitudinal variations in midlatitude electron density in the F region over the continental US manifested as an east-west coast difference, based on observations by a dense network of ground-based GPS receivers and extra-wide coverage experiments by the incoherent scatter radar at Millstone Hill. We find that the evening TEC is substantially higher on the US east coast than on the west, and vice versa for the morning TEC; the longitudinal difference displays a clear diurnal variation. Through an analysis of morning-evening variability in the east-west TEC difference, minimum variability is found to coincide with the longitudes of zero magnetic declination over the continental US. We suggest that these new findings of longitudinal differences in ionospheric electron density at midlatitudes are caused by the longitudinal difference in magnetic declination combined with the effects of thermospheric zonal winds which are subject to directional reversal over the course of a day. This study indicates that longitudinal variations in TEC measurements contain critical information on thermospheric zonal winds. The proposed declination-zonal wind mechanism may also provide a new insight into longitude/UT changes at midlatitudes on a global scale, as well as on some geospace disturbances.

  15. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used...

  16. 77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... is a Delaware limited liability company with its principal place of business in Houston, Texas. Gulf... Application did not contain evidence that Gulf Coast had established a business relationship with the Port of... toward establishing the sorts of business relationships essential for performing the services for...

  17. Chlorinated pesticide residues in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the central west coast of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, A.; Gupta, R.S.

    1987-12-01

    The problem of environmental contamination by persistent chlorinated pesticides still evokes major concern due to the presence of their residues in the environment and in human tissues. In developing countries like India organochlorine insecticides, especially DDT are extensively being used in agriculture and vector control programs. Few data are available on their levels of concentration from the seas around India. Persistent pesticides residues can be expected to accumulate in marine sediments. However, very little data on this are available along the Indian coast. An attempt has been made in the present communication to identify and quantify some of the chlorinated pesticides residues in the marine sediments collected from different region along the central west coast of India. This is a part of our ongoing project to monitor and map pollutants within the exclusive economic zone of India.

  18. 76 FR 5144 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... the U.S. Navy F-35 West Coast Homebasing EIS, both written and oral, must be submitted or postmarked... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West... facilities and functions to homebase the F-35C Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft on the West Coast of...

  19. Effect of soda ash industry effluent on agarophytes, alginophytes and carrageenophyte of west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jadeja, R N; Tewari, A

    2009-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study on the impact of the effluent released by the soda ash industry on important red and brown macro algal species Gelidiella acerosa, Gracilaria corticata, Soleria robusta, Sargassum tenerrimum, Padina tetrastromatica in the tidal zone around Veraval, on the west coast of India, in the lowest low water tide of December 2003. The study examined the effect of effluent discharge on availability of biomass and percentage of phyco-colloids extraction such as agar, alginic acid and carrageen of these commercial seaweeds. PMID:18583039

  20. ShakeAlert: an earthquake early warning system for the United States West Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with several partners has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a demonstration system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN THE HYDROMEDUSA GENUS POLYORCHIS ON THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA

    SciTech Connect

    Rees, John T.; Larson, R.J.

    1980-12-01

    Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

  2. Atmospheric 210Pb changes during monsoon in east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johari, Siti Munirah; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2014-02-01

    210Pb is widely used as an atmospheric tracer as its parent, 222Rn is continuously produced in the atmosphere from soil emanation. This study was conducted to observe the changes of 210Pb activity based on temporal and spatial factor using PM10 samples. PM10 were sampled by Malaysian Meteorological Department in four station consist of two station from both east and west coast of Peninsular Malaysia in 2007. Activity level of 210Pb was determined using the Tennelec XLB-5 Gross Alpha-Beta Counter, Canberra, after the ingrowth of 210Pb by the outgrowth of 210Bi. Basically, the analysed result showed that three to four significant peaks during northeast monsoon, southwest monsoon and intermonsoon. For east coast which comprises Kuantan and Mersing stations, the highest 210Pb activity in Kuantan was in April and June with 45.73 3.66 mBq/kg and 48.20 3.33 mBq/kg, respectively. While in Mersing, 210Pb activity showed the highest in April and July with 45.77 2.67 mBq/kg and 44.21 2.42 mBq/kg, respectively. As for the west coast, it comprises Setiawan and Chuping stations. Setiawan station showed the highest 210Pb activity in October and July with 48.90 2.52 mBq/kg and 44.09 2.34 mBq/kg, respectively. Chuping showed the highest 210Pb activity in March and October with 39.96 1.94 mBq/kg and 14.98 0.80 mBq/kg, respectively. It shows that 210Pb activity in Chuping is much lower than in Setiawan because of its location is in a rural area. This study showed that during southwest monsoon from May to September, it clearly showed that 210Pb activity is higher in west coast than in east coast as wind sources come from southwest of Peninsular Malaysia.

  3. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis--vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches with seasonal morphological changes and annual cyclicity. The coastal zone in Goa is exposed to environmental and anthropogenic pressures. Some of the factors attributing to these pressures can be due to demographic settings and population growth, rapid urbanization, migration, recreation and tourism activities, fishery activities, transportation problems, socio-economic shift and transformation in occupation like, fishing, tourism, trade, salt industry; wetlands conversion, degradation of agriculture land and fallow lands. Shoreline changes observed overlapping the data after 32 years showed that all along the coast of Goa, from north to south, there is large variation in depositional and erosional processes. Deposition is specifically observed at Morjim, Baga, Campal, Miramar, Mobor and erosion is specifically observed at Kerim, Anjuna, Velsao. The present study reveals that all along the estuarine systems, there is net deposition. Further change detection study carried out overlapping the data after 38 years showed transformation of Khazan lands, conversion of marshy swampy and water logged areas, increase in Mangrove areas and decrease in salt pans. The present paper has succeeded in delineating various coastal ecosystems, coastal land forms, their resource potentials and transformation, if any. The study has helped earmarking the coastal region into conservation, development and utilization areas.

  4. Climatology of Long-Range Transport of Asian Dust on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamean, J.; Spackman, J.

    2013-12-01

    Dust aerosols affect climate by directly absorbing radiation and indirectly by forming cloud particles. Once incorporated into clouds, dust has been shown to enhance precipitation formation from in situ measurements, such as those during the CalWater field campaign (2009-2011) along the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California. Large discrepancies exists between global aerosol models that simulate the dust in the atmosphere and its impact on climate. Further, about 25% of the global dust burden originates from Asia, thus a better understanding of where and how Asian dust is transported in the atmosphere is needed, particularly with projected increases in dust emissions in mind. Asian dust is typically transported to the U.S. in the spring, but not many long-term studies of this phenomenon exist. Our results show Asian dust transport varies significantly from year-to-year and at various locations along the U.S. west coast. Observations from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) LIDAR network in Japan and the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network along the U.S. West Coast were analyzed in the context of HYSPLIT trajectory analyses to investigate trans-Pacific Asian dust transport from 2002-2011. Similar to previous studies, the ratio of iron to calcium from IMPROVE soil was used to estimate Asian dust concentrations at multiple sites in California, Oregon, and Washington. Asian dust estimated from IMPROVE exhibited maximum concentrations in the spring (Apr-May) on the U.S. west coast, while non-Asian dust peaked late summer (Aug-Sep). Because Asian dust is typically transported in the mid-troposphere (2-4 km), the highest concentrations of Asian dust were typically observed at higher elevation sites, such as in the Cascades and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. California experienced larger influences from Asian dust compared to Oregon or Washington, likely due to large-scale synoptic patterns and higher elevation IMPROVE sites. Dust extinction measured from 7 LIDAR sites on the east coast of Japan, located in the Asian dust outflow region, was compared to seasonal and interannual trends in IMPROVE Asian dust. The highest LIDAR-derived dust extinction coefficients were observed from 2-5 km, although distinct layers were not evident most of the years. Dust extinction peaked in the spring to early summer (Apr-Jun), consistent with the IMPROVE record and previous studies. Good agreement existed between the trends in relative amount of dust from LIDAR and IMPROVE measurements, even though they are located thousands of kilometers apart. Trajectory analyses indicate transport from the Asian outflow region to the U.S. was lowest in the summer/fall, and highest in the winter/spring. Air masses were either transported zonally across the Pacific, or traveled north and then south along the west coast in the large-scale undulating flow. This work presents a 10 year record of dust along the U.S. West Coast in an effort to study Asian dust transport to the western U.S.

  5. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the west coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

    2015-02-01

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg(-1), significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs and (137)Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ?2 Bq kg(-1). Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain (137)Cs exactly at the detection limit level and (134)Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of (134)Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. PMID:24795385

  6. The ecology of the seagrass meadows of the west coast of Florida: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Zieman, J.C.; Zieman, R.T. . Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

    1989-09-01

    This report summarizes information on the ecology of seagrass meadows on the west coast of Florida, from south of Tampa Bay to Pensacola. This area contains more than 3500 ha of seagrass beds, dominated by three species, Thalasia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Beds occur both on the shallow, zero-energy Continental Shelf and in inshore bays and estuaries. Species ecology, distribution, biomass, and productivity of these dominant seagrass species are discussed. Seagrass beds support a very diverse and abundant algal flora and fauna, and these organisms, and seagrass detritus form the base of a productive food chain. Seagrass beds are important nursery areas providing both cover and food, for a number of commercial and sports fishery species. Along the west Florida coast, estuarine grass beds are noticeably more stressed and impacted by human activities than the more pristine nearshore beds. Urban development and dredging and filling are the major threates to seagrass beds in this region. 500 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  7. Interannual to multidecadal climate forcings on groundwater resources of the U.S. West Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velasco, Elzie M; Gurdak, Jason J.; Dickinson, Jesse; Ferre, T.P.A; Corona, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe U.S. West Coast, including the Pacific Northwest and California Coastal Basins aquifer systems.Study focusGroundwater response to interannual to multidecadal climate variability has important implications for security within the waterenergyfood nexus. Here we use Singular Spectrum Analysis to quantify the teleconnections between AMO, PDO, ENSO, and PNA and precipitation and groundwater level fluctuations. The computer program DAMP was used to provide insight on the influence of soil texture, depth to water, and mean and period of a surface infiltration flux on the damping of climate signals in the vadose zone.New hydrological insights for the regionWe find that PDO, ENSO, and PNA have significant influence on precipitation and groundwater fluctuations across a north-south gradient of the West Coast, but the lower frequency climate modes (PDO) have a greater influence on hydrologic patterns than higher frequency climate modes (ENSO and PNA). Low frequency signals tend to be preserved better in groundwater fluctuations than high frequency signals, which is a function of the degree of damping of surface variable fluxes related to soil texture, depth to water, mean and period of the infiltration flux. The teleconnection patterns that exist in surface hydrologic processes are not necessarily the same as those preserved in subsurface processes, which are affected by damping of some climate variability signals within infiltrating water.

  8. A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V.M. |; Beaty, T.W.; Daniels, R.C.

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

  9. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the West Coast of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W.; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg?1, significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of 134Cs and 137Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ?2 Bq kg?1. Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain 137Cs exactly at the detection limit level and 134Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of 134Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. PMID:24795385

  10. Water quality simulation of sewage impacts on the west coast of Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Vijay, R; Khobragade, P J; Sohony, R A

    2010-01-01

    Most coastal cities use the ocean as a site of waste disposal where pollutant loading degrades the quality of coastal waters. Presently, the west coast of Mumbai receives partially treated effluent from wastewater treatment facilities through ocean outfalls and discharges into creeks as well as wastewater/sewage from various open drains and nallahs which affect the water quality of creek and coastal water. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to simulate and assess the hydrodynamic behaviour and water quality due to impact of sewage and wastewater discharges from the west coast of Mumbai. Hydrodynamics and water quality were simulated based on present conditions and validated by using measured tide, current data and observed DO, BOD and FC. Observed and simulated results indicated non compliance to standards in Malad, Mahim creeks and the impact zones of ocean outfalls. The developed model could be used for generating various conditions of hydrodynamics and water quality considering the improvement in wastewater collection systems, treatment levels and proper disposal for proper planning and management of creeks and coastal environment. PMID:20651431

  11. Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kniskern, T.A.; Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West Coast during winter storms and that these patterns vary substantially with latitude. These results should assist with future evaluations of flood plume formation and sediment fate along this coast. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The West Coast Thermal Trough: Climatology, Evolution and Sensitivity to Terrain and Surface Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewer, Matthew

    Although the West Coast thermal trough (WCTT) is the most important mesoscale feature over the U.S. West Coast during the warm season, its initiation, evolution, and structure are not well understood. Originating in the southwest U.S., this inverted trough can extend northward into Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, with large impacts on temperature, wind, humidity, and air quality. Using NCEP's North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), annual and diurnal climatologies of WCTTs reaching the northwest U.S. were constructed. For the entire year, WCTTs are most frequent along the coast near the California/Oregon border, with weaker maxima west of the Cascade and coastal mountains. Over the coastal region, they occur most often during autumn, while east of the Cascade Mountains, the highest frequency is during summer. There is strong diurnal variability in WCTT frequency during the summer, with little diurnal variation in winter. Though compositing revealed important seasonal differences in WCTT evolution, some common features emerged. An upper-level ridge moves over the northwest U.S. and associated high pressure builds in the lower troposphere over southwest Canada, resulting in the development of near-surface easterlies and downslope flow over the western slopes of major terrain barriers of the region. Simultaneously, the WCTT extends northward from California into the Pacific Northwest. As the synoptic configuration changes, the WCTT either moves eastward and merges with the larger thermal low over the Great Basin region, which is most common in summer, or recedes back into California and dissipates, as often happens in winter. Another important question is the relative importance of terrain forcing, advection, and surface heating on its formation and evolution. To investigate this, the 13-16 May 2007 WCTT event was examined using observations and simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. An analysis of the thermodynamic energy equation for these simulations was completed, as well as sensitivity experiments in which terrain or surface fluxes were removed or modified. For the May 2007 event, vertical advection of potential temperature is the primary driver of local warming and WCTT formation west of the Cascades. The downslope flow that drives this warming is forced by easterly flow associated with high pressure over British Columbia. When the terrain is removed from the model, the WCTT does not form, and high pressure builds over the northwest U.S. When the WCTT forms on the east side of the Cascades, diabatic heating dominates over the other terms in the thermodynamic energy equation, with warm advection playing a small role. If surface heat fluxes are turned off in the model, an area of low pressure remains east of the Cascades, though it is substantially attenuated.

  13. Source location impact on relative tsunami strength along the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, L.; Bromirski, P. D.; Miller, A. J.; Arcas, D.; Flick, R. E.; Hendershott, M. C.

    2015-07-01

    Tsunami propagation simulations are used to identify which tsunami source locations would produce the highest amplitude waves on approach to key population centers along the U.S. West Coast. The reasons for preferential influence of certain remote excitation sites are explored by examining model time sequences of tsunami wave patterns emanating from the source. Distant bathymetric features in the West and Central Pacific can redirect tsunami energy into narrow paths with anomalously large wave height that have disproportionate impact on small areas of coastline. The source region generating the waves can be as little as 100 km along a subduction zone, resulting in distinct source-target pairs with sharply amplified wave energy at the target. Tsunami spectral ratios examined for transects near the source, after crossing the West Pacific, and on approach to the coast illustrate how prominent bathymetric features alter wave spectral distributions, and relate to both the timing and magnitude of waves approaching shore. To contextualize the potential impact of tsunamis from high-amplitude source-target pairs, the source characteristics of major historical earthquakes and tsunamis in 1960, 1964, and 2011 are used to generate comparable events originating at the highest-amplitude source locations for each coastal target. This creates a type of "worst-case scenario," a replicate of each region's historically largest earthquake positioned at the fault segment that would produce the most incoming tsunami energy at each target port. An amplification factor provides a measure of how the incoming wave height from the worst-case source compares to the historical event.

  14. Orographic shaping of US West Coast wind profiles during the upwelling season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, Lionel; Hall, Alex; McWilliams, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of nearshore winds in eastern boundary current systems is affected by orography, coastline shape, and air-sea interaction. These lead to a weakening of the wind close to the coast: the so-called wind drop-off. In this study, regional atmospheric simulations over the US West Coast are used to demonstrate monthly characteristics of the wind drop-off and assess the mechanisms controlling it. Using a long-term simulation, we show the wind drop-off has spatial and seasonal variability in both its offshore extent and intensity. The offshore extent varies from around 10 to 80 km from the coast and the wind reduction from 10 to 80 %. We show that when the mountain orography is combined with the coastline shape of a cape, it has the biggest influence on wind drop-off. The primary associated processes are the orographically-induced vortex stretching and the surface drag related to turbulent momentum flux divergence that has an enhanced drag coefficient over land. Orographically-induced tilting/twisting can also be locally significant in the vicinity of capes. The land-sea drag difference acts as a barrier to encroachment of the wind onto the land through turbulent momentum flux divergence. It turns the wind parallel to the shore and slightly reduces it close to the coast. Another minor factor is the sharp coastal sea surface temperature front associated with upwelling. This can weaken the surface wind in the coastal strip by shallowing the marine boundary layer and decoupling it from the overlying troposphere.

  15. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  16. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  17. Soils developed from marine and moraine deposits on the Billefjord coast, West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.

    2012-11-01

    Morphogenetic features of soils developed from noncalcareous and calcareous deposits of the marine and glacial origins on the coasts of Billefjord and Petunia Bay in West Spitsbergen are studied. Grayhumus (soddy) soils develop from noncalcareous deposits; they consist of the AO-AY-C horizons and differ from analogous soils in other locations in a higher bulk content of calcium, a close to neutral reaction, and a relatively high degree of base saturation. Gray-humus residually calcareous soils (AO-AYca-Cca) developed from calcareous deposits have a neutral or slightly alkaline reaction; their exchange complex is almost completely saturated with bases. The soils that developed from both marine and moraine deposits are generally similar in their major genetic features. The profiles of all the soils are not differentiated with respect to the contents of major elements, including oxalate-soluble forms of aluminum and iron. Gley features are also absent in the profiles of these soils.

  18. Methane emissions from a coastal lagoon: Vembanad Lake, West Coast, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Anuradha; Subramanian, V; Ramesh, R

    2002-06-01

    An attempt has been made to estimate methane fluxes from a tropical coastal wetland the Vembanad Lake, a lagoon along the West Coast of India. It has been found that Vembanad Lake contributes significant amount of methane to the atmosphere. Average emissions varied spatially within the lake. Methane emissions were 193.2 +/- 24.5 mg m(-2) h(-1) at Kumaragam (fresh water) as compared to 9.3 +/- 9.6 mgm(-2) h(-1) at Pullot (brackish water) site. Seasonal variation was significant between pre- and post-monsoons. Soil temperature, time of the day, salinity sediment organic carbon, all control the rate of methane emissions from the Vembanad Lake. PMID:12079082

  19. Extreme irgarol tolerance in an Ulva lactuca L. population on the Swedish west coast.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, sa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

    2013-11-15

    The herbicide irgarol 1051 is commonly used on ship hulls to prevent growth of algae, but as a component of self-eroding paints it can also spread in the surrounding waters and affect non-target organisms. The effect of irgarol on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macro algae Ulva lactuca from the Gullmar fjord on the Swedish west coast was investigated in the present study. The zoospores were allowed to settle and grow in the presence of irgarol, but neither settlement - nor growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of up to 2000 nmol l(-1). This is between 10 and 100 times higher than effect concentrations reported earlier for algae. Irgarol also induced the greening effect (4-fold increase in chlorophyll a content) in the settled zoospore/germling population, typical for photosystem II inhibitors like irgarol. This study support previous findings that irgarol constitutes a selection pressure in the marine environment. PMID:24054733

  20. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

    2006-10-01

    Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

  1. Classification of atmospheric river events on the U.S. West Coast using a trajectory model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryoo, Ju-Mee; Waliser, Duane E.; Waugh, Darryn W.; Wong, Sun; Fetzer, Eric J.; Fung, Inez

    2015-04-01

    We investigate transport pathways of water vapor associated with landfalling atmospheric river (AR) events that result in precipitation along the West Coast of the U.S. for winters of 1997-2010. The water vapor transport pathways are determined by computing back trajectories with a trajectory model using the Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications reanalysis data set. The majority of AR events (86%) over the West Coast of the U.S. are grouped into three trajectory types, and two of them are closely associated with the AR events. We designate the first type as Ascending near landfall and of Tropical Origin (AT), the second type as Ascending near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (AE), and the third type as Descending or parallel near landfall and of Extratropical Origin (DE), which is accompanied but not directly associated with the AR events. The magnitude and spatial distribution of precipitation of a given AR event are found to be strongly determined by the type of trajectories. In general, AR events composed of both AT and AE trajectories have more frequent precipitation over a broad region of the western U.S. and AR events composed of both AT and DE trajectories have intense precipitation over the southwestern U.S. due to AT trajectories. AR events of AT-only trajectories have intense precipitation, especially over the northwestern U.S., but are less frequent compared to those of AT + AE trajectories. In addition, different patterns of trajectory types among AR events are closely linked to upper level potential vorticity (PV) anomalies; 66% of AR events are associated with anticyclonic Rossby wave breaking events.

  2. The message, meteorology and myths of the historic West Coast winter flooding of 1861 - 62

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schick, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    The greatest known recorded flooding, ever to impact the West Coast of the United States, occurred during the winter of 1861-1862. In fact, the extraordinary flood flows on five major rivers, remain the record peaks to this day. The flooding was caused by a series of Pacific mid-latitude cyclones and several strong atmospheric rivers. The extreme rainy pattern initially strikes Oregon. The high water causes the flood of record on the Willamette River, with extensive devastation, wiping out several major towns along the river. Communications, food and supplies were cut off for much of the winter in Oregon.The intense wet weather, then redevelops, moves south and stalls - pummeling Northern California with major flooding. The runoff fills California's Central Valley with a huge inland lake. Sacramento is submerged, turned into what was described as a "frontier Venice". Flood damages eliminate a large part of the state's tax base.Finally the stormy pattern shifts into Southern California, producing major flooding. Most of lowland Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego Counties are flooded under several feet of water for weeks.The author researched limited weather data, historical accounts, maps and ship reports to reconstruct this series of storms and their effects along the West Coast. The extent and evolution of this series of flood events is unprecedented. Myths regarding the causes of this flooding are common, but its sheer magnitude is undisputable. This presentation will also demonstrate the nature and impacts of these consecutive major flood events, while revealing the lessons to be learned in light of advances in modern forecasting techniques.

  3. Atmospheric fluxes of persistent organic compounds to a forest ecosystem at the Swedish west coast

    SciTech Connect

    Brorstroem-Lunden, E.; Loefgren, C.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this ongoing study is to investigate the importance of the atmospheric contribution of POP, such as PCB, HCH, HCB and PAH, to a forest at the Swedish west coast, Lake Gaardsjoen, and to get an idea about circulation and accumulation of these organic contaminants within a terrestrial ecosystem. The measurements include parallel sampling in air, deposition (artificial surface) and spruce needles. Recent sampling periods also include throughfall, runoff water, litterfall and soil. The amounts of POP deposited to the Gaardsjoen area were similar to those obtained during measurements at coastal and sea based sites at the Swedish west coast. Events with long range air transport did not significantly increase the atmospheric concentrations of PAH and PCB in the Gaardsjoen area. However, due to an increased particle concentration in the air, such episodes increased the deposition fluxes of PAH and PCB. Only small variations in the concentrations of POP occurred in the needles during different sampling periods and no accumulation was observed. The lowest PCB concentrations in the needles were found during a summer period in connection with the highest PCB concentrations in the air and with the highest ambient air temperature. The PAH and PCB found in spruce needles seemed to be due to uptake from both the gas and particle phases. Except for a relative increase of less volatile compounds, the distribution among individual PCB obtained in the soil agreed well with the PCB profile found in the deposition and throughfall. This supports the hypothesis that atmospheric deposition is the main source for PCB in this area.

  4. Climatic and Anthropogenic Controls on Correlated Discharge from US West Coast Rivers (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnsworth, K. L.; Kniskern, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    Most river basins along the US West Coast are generally small, less than 15,000 km2, and tend to flood quickly following rain events. The storm systems that deliver rain to the coastal mountain ranges are considerably larger than the river basins such that multiple basins receive precipitation within hours of each other. Subsequently, these proximal rivers often disperse freshwater and sediment to the coastal ocean at relatively the same time. Many conceptual and numerical models of coastal processes may underestimate the delivery, dispersal and burial of sediment on the continental shelves as they often assume point source delivery of water and sediment from a single river. The reality seems to speak to the fact that a collection of smaller river basins may be synchronously delivering sediment all along a stretch of coastline. Hydrologic records from 62 coastal watersheds stretching along the US west coast from the Canadian to the Mexican border were acquired from the USGS river gauging network, this included over 100 gauging stations with records varying in length. This data mining effort allowed for a detailed analysis of the timing of flood peaks to the actual coastlines, rather than just correlation between gauging stations. Distinct coastal groupings were found that have rivers that deliver freshwater and sediment to the continental shelves at the same time, indicating plume mixing and different oceanic hydrodynamic regimes than would be indicated by traditional coastal sediment transport models. Also seen were larger scale climatic controls on the watershed relationships and alteration of the flood signals due to anthropogenic changes within the watershed. Extensive flood control networks, differences in population centers and floodplain modification within these basins all contributed to unexpected deviations from the correlation patterns.

  5. New residence times of the Holocene reworked shells on the west coast of Bohai Bay, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Zhiwen; Wang, Fu; Li, Jianfen; Marshall, William A.; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xingyu; Tian, Lizhu; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Shelly cheniers and shell-rich beds found intercalated in near-shore marine muds and sandy sediments can be used to indicate the location of ancient shorelines, and help to estimate the height of sea level. However, dating the deposition of material within cheniers and shell-rich beds is not straightforward because much of this material is transported and re-worked, creating an unknown temporal off-set, i.e., the residence time, between the death of a shell and its subsequent entombment. To quantify the residence time during the Holocene on a section of the northern Chinese coastline a total 47 shelly subsamples were taken from 17 discrete layers identified on the west coast of Bohai Bay. This material was AMS 14C dated and the calibrated ages were systematically compared. The subsamples were categorized by type as articulated and disarticulated bivalves, gastropod shells, and undifferentiated shell-hash. It was found that within most individual layers the calibrated ages of the subsamples got younger relative to the amount of apparent post-mortem re-working the material had been subject to. For examples, the 14C ages of the bivalve samples trended younger in this order: shell-hash → split shells → articulated shells. We propose that the younger subsample age determined within an individual layer will be the closest to the actual depositional age of the material dated. Using this approach at four Holocene sites we find residence times which range from 100 to 1260 cal yrs, with two average values of 600 cal yrs for the original 14C dates older than 1 ka cal BP and 100 cal yrs for the original 14C dates younger than 1 ka cal BP, respectively. Using this semi-empirical estimation of the shell residence times we have refined the existing chronology of the Holocene chenier ridges on the west coast of Bohai Bay.

  6. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  7. Numerical investigation of the effects of upwelling on harmful algal blooms off the west Florida coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanerolle, Lyon W. J.; Tomlinson, Michelle C.; Gross, Thomas F.; Aikman, Frank, III; Stumpf, Richard P.; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.; Pederson, Brad A.

    2006-12-01

    The initiation of the toxic harmful algal bloom (HAB), Karenia brevis, along the west Florida coast has been associated with upwelling events. Upwelling processes may be responsible for the transport of nutrients or algae from deep offshore locations across the Florida shelf to the coast. The influence of coastal wind-driven upwelling on the onset and occurrences of K. brevis in this region was numerically investigated using Rutgers University's Regional Ocean Modeling System. Computations were carried out in an idealized model domain, a two-dimensional slice in the cross-shore and vertical directions. The surface forcing data used was from several offshore meteorological buoys. The motion of the algae was simulated using Lagrangian particles and a passive tracer. The numerical simulations of three K. brevis events in 2000-2002 showed that the particles respond (with upwelling/downwelling) to the along-shore wind stresses as expected and some upwelling was present during the events. Comparison of the passive tracer fields with measured fluorescence data exposed the model's sensitivity to the particular surface forcing data employed and the relatively more significant role played by surface forcing over initial conditions. The present model set-up constitutes a useful predictive tool for conditions conducive to the onset of HABs. It is planned to be used in a real-time mode to aid the NOAA HAB monitoring and forecasting system.

  8. Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic weak type orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, M.; Gumiaux, C.; Cagnard, F.; Pouclet, A.; Ouattara, G.; Pichon, M.

    2009-11-01

    The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly constituted by TTG, greenstones, supracrustal rocks and leucogranites. A compilation of metamorphic and radiometric data highlights that: i) metamorphic conditions are rather homogeneous through the domain, without important metamorphic jumps, ii) HP-LT assemblages are absent and iii) important volumes of magmas emplaced during the overall Paleoproterozoic orogeny suggesting the occurrence of long-lived rather hot geotherms. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest that the deformation is homogeneous and distributed through the Paleoproterozoic domain. In details, results of this study point out the long-lived character of vertical movements during the Eburnean orogeny with a two folds evolution. The first stage is characterized by the development of "domes and basins" geometries without any boundary tectonic forces and the second stage is marked by coeval diapiric movements and horizontal regional-scale shortening. These features suggest that the crust is affected by vertical movements during the overall orogeny. The Eburnean orogen can then be considered as an example of long-lived Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogen.

  9. Port Eliza cave: North American West Coast interstadial environment and implications for human migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. C.; Wilson, M. C.; Nagorsen, D. W.; Nelson, D. E.; Driver, J. C.; Wigen, R. J.

    2003-06-01

    The timing of Late Pleistocene glacial advance, retreat, relative sea level and environmental viability between 25 and 12.5 ka ( 14C yrs BP) remain a key issue in the feasibility of a coastal migration route for the first North Americans. This is discussed on the basis of stratigraphic, radiometric and faunal data for Port Eliza cave, a raised sea cave, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ice cover is indicated by the occurrence of 2 m of laminated clay, representing deposition in a subglacial lake. From immediately below this clay a diverse vertebrate fauna of marmot, vole, marten, cervid and various species of birds and fish was recovered, yielding ages of 18-16 ka. These dates and others from the region show that ice cover on the outer coast was brief, from ca 15.5-14 ka. The fish species indicate that relative sea level was close to the cave and that salmon runs were likely present. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna is consistent with a cool, open parkland environment with maximum summer temperatures cooler than present; these conditions lasted until at least 16 ka. With a diverse fauna and favorable climate, humans could have survived here on a mixed marine-terrestrial diet, confirming the viability of the coastal migration hypothesis for this portion of the route.

  10. Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

  11. 78 FR 77413 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Change to Start of Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BD63 Fisheries Off West Coast...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... effective July 22, 2013 (78 FR 37398). The rule increased the size standard for Finfish Fishing from...

  12. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  13. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  14. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C - Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vessel Capacity Ratings for West Coast Groundfish Limited Entry Permits 3 Table 3 to Part 660, Subpart C Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE...

  15. Rain- vapour isotopic interaction over the south-west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palliyil Ravisankar, Lekshmy; Madhavan, Midhun; Rengaswamy, Ramesh

    2015-04-01

    Boundary layer water vapor isotopic composition (?v) is an important factor that controls the isotopic composition of evaporation flux and modulating the ?18O of tree ring cellulose through plant physiological cycle. But due to the difficult sampling procedure for water vapor, ?v has rarely been quantified. Since many simple isotopic models require ?vas an input, mostly we assume that the water vapor is in isotopic equilibrium with ?of monthly rain (?r). Here we present simultaneous observations of water vapour (~ 300 samples) and rainfall (~200 samples) isotopic ratios from two stations in the south-west coast of India (both the stations are located in the west of Western Ghats), sampled during April- October, 2012. Daily rain water and water vapour (cryogenic trapping method) were collected according to the IAEA protocol and the isotopic analyses (D and 18O) were done using a Thermo Fisher Delta V+ Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer. We observe that, water vapour and rain are close to the equilibrium values during pre monsoon (April-May, ? = ?r - ?v= 8.9 1.4 ), summer monsoon (June-September, ? = 9.0 1.8 ) and North- East (NE) monsoon (October, ? = 7.9 2.9 ) seasons. However, some individual rain events show more deviations from the equilibrium values. NE monsoon rainfall and water vapour are isotopically more depleted in 18O compared to the pre monsoon and summer monsoon seasons, in which the depletion is more in rain (~4 ) compared to water vapour (~2 ). This is because of the 18O enrichment of ground level vapour due to local evapo- transpiration (stations are at the leeward side of the Ghats), while rainfall is directly formed from the NE monsoon clouds which is more depleted in 18O. These results will be useful for the interpretation of ?18O of tree rings from south west.

  16. Concentrations of Cu and Pb in the offshore and intertidal sediments of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Tan, S G; Omar, H

    2002-12-01

    Malaysia is now a developing country and on her way towards being an industrialised one by the year 2020. Most of her industries and urban areas are located on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In addition, the offshore area of the west coast is now one of the busiest shipping lanes in the world. These two phenomena make the intertidal and offshore areas of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia interesting for scientific studies. Therefore, this study focused on both the offshore and intertidal sediments of the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Sampling for sediment samples were done from the northern to the southern ends of the peninsula and these sediment samples were analysed for Cu and Pb. It was found that total Cu concentrations ranged from 0.25 to 13.8 and 0.40 to 315 microg/g dry weight (dw) for offshore and intertidal sediments, respectively. For Pb, it ranged from 3.59 to 25.4 and 0.96 to 69.8 microg/g dw for the offshore and intertidal sediments, respectively. The ranges of Cu and Pb found from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were low in comparison to regional data. However, some intertidal areas were identified as receiving anthropogenic Cu and Pb. Geochemical studies revealed that the 'nonresistant' fraction for Pb contributed about 70.0% to 75.0% and 54.0% of the total Pb concentration in the offshore and intertidal sediments, respectively. As for Cu, the 'nonresistant' fraction contributed about 46.2% to 60.4% and 46.3% of the total Cu concentration in the offshore and intertidal sediments, respectively. The 'nonresistant' fraction contained mostly of anthropogenic metals besides natural origins. These 'nonresistant' percentages indicated that both the offshore and intertidal areas could have received anthropogenic-derived metals, which could be influenced by physico-chemical properties of the sediments. Although the present data indicated that contamination due to Cu and Pb in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia especially in the offshore areas were not serious, regular biomonitoring studies along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia are recommended. PMID:12503912

  17. Reported traumatic injuries among West Coast Dungeness crab fishermen, 2002–2014

    PubMed Central

    Case, Samantha; Bovbjerg, Viktor; Lucas, Devin; Syron, Laura; Kincl, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Background Commercial fishing is a high-risk occupation. The West Coast Dungeness crab fishery has a high fatality rate; however, nonfatal injuries have not been previously studied. The purpose of this report was to describe the characteristics of fatal and nonfatal traumatic occupational injuries and associated hazards in this fleet during 2002–2014. Materials and methods Data on fatal injuries were obtained from a surveillance system managed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Data on nonfatal injuries were manually abstracted from Coast Guard investigation reports and entered into a study database. Descriptive statistics were used to characterise demographics, injury characteristics, and work processes performed. Results Twenty-eight fatal and 45 nonfatal injuries were reported between 2002 and 2014 in the Dungeness crab fleet. Most fatalities were due to vessel disasters, and many nonfatal injuries occurred on-deck when fishermen were working with gear, particularly when hauling the gear (47%). The most frequently reported injuries affected the upper extremities (48%), and fractures were the most commonly reported injury type (40%). The overall fatality rate during this time period was 209 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers and the rate of nonfatal injury was 3.4 per 1,000 full-time equivalent workers. Conclusions Dungeness crab fishermen are at relatively high risk for fatal injuries. Nonfatal injuries were limited to reported information, which hampers efforts to accurately estimate nonfatal injury risk and understand fishing hazards. Further research is needed to identify work tasks and other hazards that cause nonfatal injuries in this fleet. Engaging fishermen directly may help develop approaches for injury prevention. PMID:26726891

  18. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  19. The puzzle of high heads beneath the West Cumbrian coast, UK: a possible solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John H.; Barker, John A.

    2015-12-01

    A region of high heads within the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG; a fractured crystalline rock) beneath the coastal plain of West Cumbria, England (UK), is identified as a possible relic left over by the Late Devensian ice sheet. It was found during investigations in the 1990s. Contemporary modelling work failed to produce a satisfactory explanation of the high heads compatible with the `cold recharge' isotopic signature of the groundwater. This study has reassessed the original hydraulic testing results. By plotting density-adjusted heads versus their depth below the water table in the immediate vicinity of the borehole in which they were measured, a depth profile resembling a `wave' was revealed with a peak value located at 1,100 m depth. The possibility that this wave represents relic heads from the last major ice sheet has been assessed using one-dimensional mathematical analysis based on a poroelastic approach. It is found that a wet-based ice sheet above the West Cumbrian coast was probably thick enough and sufficiently long-lasting to leave such relic heads providing that the hydraulic diffusivity of the BVG is in the order of 10-6 m s-1. Initial assessment 20 years ago of the long-interval slug tests suggested that such low values are not likely. More recent interpretation argues for such low values of hydraulic diffusivity. It is concluded that ice sheet recharge is the most likely cause of the raised heads, that the BVG contains significant patches of very low conductivity rock, and that long-interval single-hole tests should be avoided in fractured crystalline rock.

  20. The puzzle of high heads beneath the West Cumbrian coast, UK: a possible solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, John H.; Barker, John A.

    2016-03-01

    A region of high heads within the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG; a fractured crystalline rock) beneath the coastal plain of West Cumbria, England (UK), is identified as a possible relic left over by the Late Devensian ice sheet. It was found during investigations in the 1990s. Contemporary modelling work failed to produce a satisfactory explanation of the high heads compatible with the `cold recharge' isotopic signature of the groundwater. This study has reassessed the original hydraulic testing results. By plotting density-adjusted heads versus their depth below the water table in the immediate vicinity of the borehole in which they were measured, a depth profile resembling a `wave' was revealed with a peak value located at 1,100 m depth. The possibility that this wave represents relic heads from the last major ice sheet has been assessed using one-dimensional mathematical analysis based on a poroelastic approach. It is found that a wet-based ice sheet above the West Cumbrian coast was probably thick enough and sufficiently long-lasting to leave such relic heads providing that the hydraulic diffusivity of the BVG is in the order of 10-6 m s-1. Initial assessment 20 years ago of the long-interval slug tests suggested that such low values are not likely. More recent interpretation argues for such low values of hydraulic diffusivity. It is concluded that ice sheet recharge is the most likely cause of the raised heads, that the BVG contains significant patches of very low conductivity rock, and that long-interval single-hole tests should be avoided in fractured crystalline rock.

  1. Micrometeorological characteristics of sea fogs off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, C. K.; Yum, S. S.

    2010-07-01

    Incheon International Airport (hereafter IIA) is located on a partly reclaimed island off the west coast of Korea and aircraft operation at IIA often suffers from visibility degradation due to sea fogs. The number of sea fogs that influenced the IIA area is 35 from 2002 to 2006. They are classified into cold sea fogs (27) and warm sea fogs (8), based on the temperature difference between the sea surface and the air above, i.e., the SST and the air temperature at the buoy near IIA. However, clear physical mechanisms that lead to the formation of both cold and warm sea fogs have not been identified yet. For that task, various analyses of meteorological data from micrometeorological to synoptic scales including vertical soundings must be examined. In addition, numerical modeling should be supplemented because of the temporal and spatial limitation of observation. Many scientists studying the physical processes of fog with numerical models emphasize that it is important to fully understand the effects of radiative cooling, turbulent mixing, aerosols and vegetations. In this study, micrometeorological effects of turbulence and radiation on sea fogs are examined using both observed meteorological data at the buoy, vertical sounding measured at an island to the west of IIA, and numerical simulation results with the Weather Research and Forecast version 3 (WRFV3) model. Among the analyzed observational data, are sensible and latent heat fluxes, calculated with the meteorological data at the buoy. These are examined in association with the bulk Richardson number for each sea fog case. WRFV3 supports the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) for small grid spacing. Five nested domains of 18 km, 6 km, 2 km, 500 m and 100 m are used along with 65 vertically stretched layers. The LES is carried out only for the finest horizontal resolution. Detailed results will be shown at the conference.

  2. Seasonal biomass and energy content in seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.; Hall, M.O.; Riechert, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Seasonal collections were made over a 16 month period in seven seagrass communities on the west coast of Florida. The seagrass component accounted for at least 45% of the total biomass and Thalassia testudinum was the dominant species. The 15 month mean of total biomass at six sites that were dominated year around by T. testudinum from Tampa Bay to Cedar Key, Florida was 385 g dry weight m/sup 2/ or 1.42 tons dry weight/acre. The drift and attached seaweed components showed seasonal fluctuations in terms of species and biomass. Of the six open water sites, only one site, characterized by depressed salinity, showed significant differences in seasonal biomass for T. testudinum using a nested ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keul's test for variance. Available kilocalories ranged from a 16 month low of 344 to a high of 1837 kcal/m/sup 2/ with the highest biomass and caloric values occurring in the late spring and summer.

  3. Tidal constituent database. West Coast of the United States and Eastern North pacific ocean. Technical note

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This technical note describes a database of tidal elevation boundary condition information generated in support of the `Long-Term Fate of Dredged Material Disposed in Open Water` research of the Dredging Research Program (DRP), being conducted at the U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. The database, described in detail by Hench and others (1994), allows the user to manually generate time series of tidal elevations or to use a program to access the full database to generate time series of both tidal elevations and currents for any location along the West Coast of the United States and Eastern North Pacific Ocean, extending from Seal Cape on Unimak Island, Alaska, in the North to Punta Parada, Peru, in the South. The land boundary includes the Pacific shorelines of Alaska, Canada, mainland United States, Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Columbia, and Northern Peru. Although the capability to generate these time series was developed to provide input to the Long-Term Fate and Stability Model (LTFATE), the generated time series can be used for any application requiring tidal forcing data.

  4. On the relationship between sea surface temperatures, circulation parameters and temperatures over west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Revadekar, J V; Varikoden, Hamza; Murumkar, P K; Ahmed, S A

    2016-05-01

    The oceans and the atmosphere are tightly linked and they together form the most dynamic component of the climate system. Topography and proximity to the surrounding seas of the region determine the temperature of the area. West Coast (WC) of India is a high elevated region surrounded by large oceanic area, therefore, an attempt is made in this study to examine the trends and variability in temperature over WC in relation to oceanic phenomena. Temperature over the WC shows considerable year-to-year variation with anomalous cool years in recent warm epoch. Therefore, sea surface temperature (SST) and associated winds have been analyzed to understand possible mechanism behind the variation in temperatures over the WC. During the winter, north-easterlies prevail over the WC which blows from land to ocean. Variations in SSTs alter the strength of these winds to cause anomalies in temperature over the WC. Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) appears to have a dominant role in climate of the WC, whereas SSTs over the equatorial Pacific do not show any impact on temperatures over the WC. Study indicates that the strengthening of north-easterlies due to negative phase of Indian Ocean Dipole causes cooling over the WC of India. PMID:26874773

  5. Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

    2015-06-01

    Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes. PMID:25015225

  6. Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of mangrove species on the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Ananda, K; Sridhar, K R

    2002-10-01

    Because mangrove plant species are a valuable source of useful metabolites, their endophytes have gained more importance. Randomly sampled surface-sterilized whole root segments of four mangrove plant species, Acanthus ilicifolius, Avicennia officinalis, Rhizophora mucronata, and Sonneratia caseolaris from the mangroves of Udyavara (Karnataka) on the west coast of India, were characterized for fungal communities by direct plating, damp chamber, and bubbling chamber incubation methods. The richness of endophytic fungal species from whole root segments after direct plating and damp chamber incubation was greatest for R. mucronata than for other plants (18 vs. 8-13). Incubation of whole root segments in bubbling chambers yielded conidia of two freshwater hyphomycetes: Mycocentrospora acerina (in Avicennia officinalis) and Triscelophorus acuminatus (in R. mucronata and in S. caseolaris). Surface-sterilized whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata sampled from the mid-tide level on direct plating yielded more fungi than that of the root segments sampled from low-tide and high-tide levels. The greatest number of isolates, species richness, and diversity of fungi were shown by the whole root segments of R. mucronata from the mid-tide level. Rarefaction indices also revealed the highest expected number of species out of 150 random isolations from the mid-tide level samples of whole root and root bark segments of R. mucronata. The present study showed that fungi in mangrove roots are composed of a consortium of soil, marine, and freshwater fungi. PMID:12489776

  7. Effects of changing forest land definitions on forest inventory on the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Azuma, David L; Gray, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    A key function of forest inventory is to detect changes in the area of forest land over time, yet different definitions of forest land are used in different regions of the world. Changes in the definition of forest intended to improve international consistency can affect the ability to quantify true changes over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a definitional change from relative stocking to canopy cover on the area classified as forest land and its relationship to species and forest density in California, Oregon, and Washington. Both western Juniper and ponderosa pine will yield higher estimates of forest land area using a canopy cover definition in comparison to a stocking-based definition, with the difference being most pronounced where land is marginally forested. The change in definition may result in an additional 146,000ha of forest land identified on the West Coast. Measuring marginal forest lands with both metrics for the first cycle after implementation should make it possible to distinguish real change from definitional change. PMID:24072525

  8. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety)

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 6080C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 0.01?mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 0.04?mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 1.84?mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50? value 0.77 0.06?mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.). PMID:26904626

  9. Diatom community dynamics in a tropical, monsoon-influenced environment: West coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Costa, Priya M.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2010-07-01

    Diatom communities are influenced by environmental perturbations, such as the monsoon system that impact the niche opportunities of species. To discern the influence of the monsoon system on diatom community structure, we sampled during two consecutive post-monsoons (2001 and 2002) and the intervening pre-monsoon at Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports along the central west coast of India. Characteristic temporal shifts in diatom community structure were observed across the sampling periods; these were mainly driven by temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen saturation. The nutrient-poor pre-monsoon period supported low abundance yet high species richness and diversity of diatoms. Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, Thalassiosira, Triceratium, Pleurosigma, Skeletonema and Surirella were the most dominant genera. Both the post-monsoon periods, following dissimilar monsoon events, were dominated by Skeletonema costatum, but differed in some of the residual species . Thalassiosira and Thalassionema spp. dominated mostly during post-monsoon I whereas Triceratium and Pleurosigma spp. dominated during post-monsoon II. To understand the underlying ecological mechanisms involved in such dynamics, we focus on the dominant diatom species in post-monsoon periods, S. costatum, that contributes up to 60% to total diatom cell numbers. This research is relevant in light of the fluctuating monsoon regimes over the Asian continent, the confounding effects of anthropogenic eutrophication and the resulting cascading effects on trophic web dynamics.

  10. Giant fossil mass wasting off the coast of West India: The Nataraja submarine slide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvès, Gérôme; Huuse, Mads; Clift, Peter D.; Brusset, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    We use two-dimensional pre-stack depth migrated seismic reflection profiles and seafloor bathymetry to describe the continental margin structure and a massive mass-transport deposit off the west coast of India. This giant slide runs from the Gujurat-Saurashtra margin to the Laxmi Basin. It is over 330 km long, a maximum of 190 km wide and its run-out basal gradient is 1.2°. We name this giant mass wasting deposit the Nataraja Submarine Slide. This slide covers 49 ± 16 ×103 km2 and represents a volume of 19 ×103 ± 4 ×103 km3, making it the second by volume of any passive margin landslide/mass-transport deposit. Seismic facies analysis allows the internal structure of the mass-transport deposit to be described as far as the toe. This slide has been able to circumvent massive seamounts, thus highlighting the capacity of the flow and its potential energy during emplacement in a funnel between the slope of the Western Indian passive margin and the Laxmi Ridge. Stratigraphically, the emplacement of the Nataraja Slide predates the main pulse of sedimentation during the late Miocene-Recent associated with the Indus Fan but follows rapid sedimentation across S and SE Asia during the Early-Middle Miocene. The margin architecture at the head of this slide is associated with a gravity-controlled fold and thrust belt that may have caused slope steepening and triggering of the slide.

  11. Brevetoxicosis in seabirds naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms along the central west coast of Florida.

    PubMed

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer M; Keller, Martha; Kinsel, Michael J; Johnson, Christine K; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet G; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-04-01

    Harmful algal bloom events caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occurred along the central west Florida, USA, coast from February 2005 through December 2005 and from August 2006 through December 2006. During these events, from 4 February 2005 through 28 November 2006, live, debilitated seabirds admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs that included disorientation, inability to stand, ataxia, and seizures. Testing of blood, biologic fluids, and tissues for brevetoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 69% (n=95) of rehabilitating seabirds. Twelve of the 19 species of birds had evidence of brevetoxin exposure. Commonly affected species included Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and Common Loons (Gavia immer). Serial blood and fecal samples taken from several live seabirds during rehabilitation showed that brevetoxin was cleared within 5-10 days after being admitted to the rehabilitation facility, depending on the species tested. Among seabirds that died or were euthanized, the highest brevetoxin concentrations were found in bile, stomach contents, and liver. Most dead birds had no significant pathologic findings at necropsy, thereby supporting brevetoxin-related mortality. PMID:23568900

  12. Food and habitat resource partitioning between three estuarine fish species on the Swedish west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorman, Staffan

    1983-12-01

    In 1978 the food and habitat resource partitioning of three small and common fish species, viz. Pomatoschistus microps (Kryer), Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.) and Pungitius pungitius (L.) were studied in river Brolven estuary on the Swedish west coast (5822'N, 1129'E). The area was divided into three habitats, based on environmental features. In July, September, and October stomach contents and size distribution of each species present were analysed. In July there was high food and habitat overlap between the species. Interference interactions probably occurred between some size classes of P. microps and the other two species. P. pungitius was exposed to both intra- and interspecific interactions. In September the food and habitat overlaps between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were high, while both had low food and habitat overlaps in relation to P. microps. Interactions between G. aculeatus and P. pungitius were probably influenced by more severe abiotic conditions in one habitat, which caused lower abundances there, and higher abundances in the other two habitats. In October no interactions were observed. These results indicate that competition for food at least temporarily determines the species distribution in a temperate estuary, and that estuarine fish populations are sometimes food limited.

  13. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Ivea, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion. PMID:25828676

  14. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  15. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT...

  20. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to (1) Personnel who work at...

  1. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to (1) Personnel who work at...

  2. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to (1) Personnel who work at...

  3. 75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... final rule entitled ``Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements'' (75 FR 29420... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 127 RIN 1625-AB13 Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General... (WSA) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities....

  4. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to (1) Personnel who work at...

  5. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to (1) Personnel who work at...

  6. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  7. 77 FR 16048 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: “Harmonizing Trade for a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Symposium: ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... Economy.'' This document announces that the West Coast trade symposium will be held in Long...

  8. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in novel species assemblages and shifts in functional composition, which in turn may alter ecosystem functions. PMID:26222331

  9. Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

  10. Pacific West Coast Cretaceous molluscan faunas: time and aspect of changes

    SciTech Connect

    Saul, L.R.

    1986-04-01

    Cretaceous deposits of the West Coast of North America, from central Baja California to southern Alaska, yield molluscan faunas that commonly contain some forms of tropical aspect, some suggestive of cool water, and some which are typically or uniquely found in North Pacific deposits. The Aptian-Albian faunas of the Alisitos Formation of northern Baja California are entirely tropical in aspect, but may have been moved northward relative to the North American plate, as may have the older deposits of the Vizcaino Peninsula that contain buchias of boreal or North Pacific affinities. The faunas with the coolest aspect are those of the Early Cretaceous late Valanginian Stage, which contain buchias of the boreal Canadian lineage, and/or the Late Cretaceous Senonian to early Maestrichtian faunas that are dominated by North Pacific taxa. Nonetheless, both these Early and Late Cretaceous faunas include warm-water elements. In the northern occurrences of these faunas, the warm-water taxa are farther north than are comparable living taxa. Shifting faunas southward to compensate for their warmer water elements would displace the cooler water components (which during most stages comprised more than half of the faunas) too far into tropical areas. Cretaceous island arcs may have afforded protection from southerly flowing cooler currents and allowed various warm-water forms to live unexpectedly farther north. The strong North Pacific element in these faunas makes it unlikely that they originated elsewhere, or that the relatively cool or warm fluctuations they record are a result of successive exotic origins. The cooling at the end of the Valanginian was followed by a warming trend.

  11. Mapping and assessing seagrass bed changes in Central Florida's west coast using multitemporal Landsat TM imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Ruiliang; Bell, Susan; Meyer, Cynthia

    2014-08-01

    Some seagrass meadows in coastal shallow waters have displayed large scale changes in seagrass spatial extent and hurricanes and/or tropical storms have been suggested as factors responsible for reduction in coverage. Taking advantage of the incidence of three tropical storms passing near a study site along the central west Florida coast within a two-month period in 2004, we evaluated whether satellite remote sensing techniques (Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery) are useful for assessing dynamics of seagrass (=submerged aquatic vegetation: SAV) cover/abundance in response to these multiple disturbances. We also examined whether an image preprocessing procedure, which included water column correction, applied to the Landsat TM images could further improve the classification and mapping of detailed SAV coverage. We compared a historical set of Landsat TM images, acquired in Fall 2003 and Fall and late Summer 2005, which were processed to classify %SAV cover into five classes using a maximum likelihood classifier. Importantly, our experimental results demonstrated that the application of the image preprocessing procedures led to an overall accuracy 2-14% improvement in SAV classification due to water column correction compared to that currently reported in the literature when similar Landsat TM data are utilized. Based upon the classification results mapped from the TM images and as well as a similar classification of SAV interpreted from aerial photographs collected before and after the passage of these same storms, SAV coverage over the study areas was found to increase about 6% (integrating SAV losses and gains) by 2005/2006 in comparison to cover levels present prior to the repeated storm activity. We conclude that heavy rains during 2004 along with physical disturbance from gale force winds from the tropical storms/hurricanes did not produce any SAV bed loss at the study site that was sustained for more than one year after multiple storm passage.

  12. The West Coast Earthquake Early Warning Global Navigation Satellite System Working Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudnut, K. W.; Minson, S. E.; Boese, M.; Felizardo, C.; Johanson, I. A.; Grapenthin, R.; Crowell, B. W.; Schmidt, D. A.; Murray, J. R.; Lisowski, M.; Langbein, J. O.; Smith, D.; Determan, D.; Thomas, V. I.; Melbourne, T. I.

    2014-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data permit rapid and accurate measurement of large static displacements and, as such, could be used to improve the performance of earthquake early warning (EEW) systems in the event of large to great earthquakes by providing an effective complement to seismic data. We are working to formally incorporate real-time GNSS data into existing seismic-based EEW systems. The West Coast EEW GNSS Working Group (WC-EEW GNSS WG) was formed to "develop, test and integrate GNSS data into the ShakeAlert system" (USGS OFR 2014-1097). ShakeAlert is the EEW system recognized by the USGS, the federal agency responsible for issuing earthquake alerts. The WC-EEW GNSS WG establishes geodetic standards and coordinates the activities of WC-EEW collaborators that are focused on research and development aspects of real-time GNSS processing and analysis. The long-term objective is to improve accuracy and robustness and to reduce data latency and overall system resource demands. These efforts will ensure the rapid availability of precise input data for the EEW algorithms, the research and development of which is coordinated by WC-EEW Science Coordination Working Group. The WC-EEW GNSS WG activities will carry out comparisons to assess performance of existing and new methods for real-time processing of GNSS data. Subcommittees within the working group are being formed to address requirements of the ShakeAlert production system as follows: 1) define interface specification documents and data format standards, 2) coordinate and specify plans for physical testing of equipment (for example on shake tables), and 3) assess performance of real-time GNSS processing options and define acceptable data specifications. Finally, the working group interfaces with other organizations, such as the IGS Real-Time Working Group, UNAVCO, Inc., and READI, on the incorporation of GNSS into the WC-EEW ShakeAlert production system.

  13. Predicted deep-sea coral habitat suitability for the U.S. West coast.

    PubMed

    Guinotte, John M; Davies, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

  14. The Contribution of Occult Precipitation to Nutrient Deposition on the West Coast of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3-, NH4+ and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation. PMID:26017747

  15. Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

  16. The contribution of occult precipitation to nutrient deposition on the west coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Nyaga, Justine M; Neff, Jason C; Cramer, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The Strandveld mediterranean-ecosystem of the west coast of South Africa supports floristically diverse vegetation growing on mostly nutrient-poor aeolian sands and extending from the Atlantic Ocean tens of kilometers inland. The cold Benguela current upwelling interacts with warm onshore southerly winds in summer causing coastal fogs in this region. We hypothesized that fog and other forms of occult precipitation contribute moisture and nutrients to the vegetation. We measured occult precipitation over one year along a transect running inland in the direction of the prevailing wind and compared the nutrient concentrations with those in rainwater. Occult deposition rates of P, N, K, Mg, Ca, Na, Al and Fe all decreased with distance from the ocean. Furthermore, ratios of cations to Na were similar to those of seawater, suggesting a marine origin for these. In contrast, N and P ratios in occult precipitation were higher than in seawater. We speculate that this is due to marine foam contributing to occult precipitation. Nutrient loss in leaf litter from dominant shrub species was measured to indicate nutrient demand. We estimated that occult precipitation could meet the demand of the dominant shrubby species for annual N, P, K and Ca. Of these species, those with small leaves intercepted more moisture and nutrients than those with larger leaves and could take up foliar deposits of glycine, NO3(-), NH4(+) and Li (as tracer for K) through leaf surfaces. We conclude that occult deposition together with rainfall deposition are potentially important nutrient and moisture sources for the Strandveld vegetation that contribute to this vegetation being floristically distinct from neighbouring nutrient-poor Fynbos vegetation. PMID:26017747

  17. GLORIA mosaic of West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone, northern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.

  18. A modeling system for predicting the impact of severe storms on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P. L.; Ormondt, M. V.; O'Reilly, B.; Hoover, D.; Hapke, C. J.; Eshleman, J.; Ruggiero, P.; Elias, E.; Erikson, L. H.; Collins, B. D.; Guza, R. T.; Adams, P. N.; Thomas, J.

    2009-12-01

    Storm hazards on the U.S. West Coast are generally thought of as being less severe than the more dramatic hurricane impacts that affect the Gulf of Mexico and East Coasts. However, the magnitude, duration and economic and societal impacts of West Coast storms can still be substantial. Storms during the 1982-83 El Nio winter resulted in 36 casualties and over $1.2 billion in damage to the State of California, and current research suggests that increasing storm intensity, frequency, and wave heights will increase coastal-hazards risks on the West Coast for the foreseeable future. To begin to address the increased risk, the U.S. Geological Survey is leading the development of a modeling system for forecasting the impact of winter storms along the U.S. West Coast. A prototype has been developed for Southern California and is being tested with a hypothetical extreme winter storm scenario designed by atmospheric scientists. The modeling system has been designed to be run operationally or with prescribed scenarios, and utilizes atmospheric forcing information with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models to provide detailed prediction of ocean currents, deep-water and near-shore wave heights, coastal wave runup, and the resulting total water levels on beaches and cliffed coastlines. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also provided. The modeling system utilizes an integrated, nested structure whereby regional wave and water level models are driven by boundary conditions derived from a global wave model, regional seas and swell data from an extensive wave buoy network, a global tide model from satellite altimetry, and atmospheric pressure and wind forecasts. Wave parameters and water levels from the regional models drive local, high resolution cross-shore profile models and 2D-morphological models. Data from these models, in turn, provide boundary conditions for a Bayesian cliff failure model. This paper reports on the complex modeling system structure and preliminary testing. Large waves striking Pacific Grove, CA, USA, in December 2006 (photo by Patrick Barnard).

  19. 77 FR 22679 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by several inseason actions (76 FR 39313, 76 FR 67092, 76 FR 79122, 77...

  20. 77 FR 47322 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by several inseason actions (76 FR 39313, 76 FR 67092, 76 FR 79122, 77...

  1. 77 FR 12503 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... specifications ] and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final... action, which published on December 21, 2011 (76 FR 79122). This inseason action contains a...

  2. 78 FR 72586 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish ] fishery (77 FR 67974... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580). The Council.... had a large projected underage compared to their harvest target, the Council recommended an...

  3. 78 FR 49190 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. This action, which is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP), is intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks while protecting overfished and depleted...

  4. 77 FR 63758 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ...This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. This action, which is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP), is intended to allow fisheries to access more abundant groundfish stocks while protecting overfished and depleted...

  5. Prospects for measuring phytoplankton bloom extent and patchiness using remotely sensed color images: An example. [West Coast of Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A 10 channel scanning radiometer, built as a prototype for the coastal zone color scanner on the Nimbus 7 satellite, was flown on a high altitude aircraft during a Gymnodium breve bloom along the west coast of Florida. The remotely measured ocean color imagery shows what is probably the patchy structure of a G. breve bloom extending over a 60 km by 100 km area. This conclusion is based on visual inspection of bathymetry to infer bottom reflection trends and on a single growth truth measurement of B G. breve obtained the previous day. The image shows coherent blooms which extend scales up to 60 km in length.

  6. Equilibrium Beach Profiles on the East and West U.S. Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludka, B. C.; Guza, R. T.; McNinch, J. E.; O'Reilly, W.

    2012-12-01

    Beach elevation change observations from the United States west and east coasts are used to identify statistically the dominant cross-shore patterns in sand level fluctuations, and these changes are related to equilibrium beach profile concepts. Three to seven years of observations at four beaches in Southern California include monthly surveys of the subaerial (near MSL) beach, and quarterly surveys from the backbeach to about 8m depth. At Duck, North Carolina, observations include 31 years of monthly surveys from the dunes to about 8m depth. On the Southern California beaches, the dominant seasonal pattern is subaerial erosion in winter and accretion in summer. Seasonal fluctuations of 3m in shoreline vertical sand levels, and 50m in subaerial beach width, are not uncommon. The sand eroded from the shoreline in winter is stored in an offshore sand bar and returns to the beach face in summer. Wave conditions in Southern California also vary seasonally, with energetic waves arriving from the north in winter, and lower energy, longer period southerly swell arriving in summer. A spectral refraction model, initialized with a regional network of directional wave buoys, is used to estimate hourly wave conditions, in 10m water depth. Using an equilibrium hypothesis, that the shoreline (defined as the cross-shore location of the MSL contour) change rate depends on the wave energy and the wave energy disequilibrium, Yates (2009) modeled the time-varying shoreline location at several Southern California beaches with significant skill. The four free model parameters were calibrated to fit observations. Following Yates (2009), we extend the equilibrium shoreline model to include the horizontal displacement of other elevation contours. At the Southern California sites, the modeled contour translation depends on the incident wave energy, the present contour configuration, and observation-based estimates of the contour behavior (based on EOF spatial amplitudes). At Duck, seasonal variations of the wave field (measured immediately offshore) are large, but shoreline changes (usually <30cm) are smaller than in Southern California. Maximum vertical variations occur just seaward of the shoreline and the nearshore bathymetry is often barred. Plant (1999) show that bar crest position at Duck has equilibrium-like behavior. We will present the results of equilibrium shoreline and profile modeling at Duck. At both sites, we diagnose sources (e.g. grain size and incident waves) of the sometimes strong observed alongshore variations in sand level change patterns. Funding was provided by the US Army Corps of Engineers and the California Department of Boating and Waterways. REFERENCES Plant, N. G., R. A. Holman, M. H. Freilich, and W. A. Birkemeier (1999), A simple model for interannual sandbar behavior, J. Geophys. Res., 104(C7), 15,755-15,776. Yates, M. L., R. T. Guza, and W. C. O'Reilly (2009), Equilibrium shoreline response: Observations and modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C09014.

  7. Coastal hazards projections on the U.S. West Coast using a dynamic water level modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Foxgrover, A. C.; O'Neill, A.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies of future coastal flooding vulnerability consider sea level rise and tides only, typically applying a bath-tub type approach that omits key physical-forcing factors that elevate flood levels during storm events such as waves, surge and fluvial discharge. Here we present a new modeling approach that considers all the relevant factors that contribute to elevated water levels for open coast and embayment settings along the U.S. West Coast during projected 21stcentury storms. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) is a numerical modeling system developed to predict coastal flooding due to both SLR and plausible 21st century storms for active-margin settings like the U.S. West Coast. CoSMoS applies a predominantly deterministic framework that encompasses large geographic scales (100s to 1000s of kilometers) yet models flood extents to a local resolution (2 m) so that storm related changes in water levels at the shore can be resolved. In the latest iteration of CoSMoS applied to San Francisco Bay, efforts were made to incorporate water level fluctuations in response to trapped coastal waves, low pressure systems, ocean swell energy penetrating through the Golden Gate, locally wind-generated waves, and backflow induced by river discharge. The end product is a web-based tool (www.prbo.org/ocof) where users can assess variations in flood extent, maximum flood depth, maximum current velocities and wave heights in response to a number of potential SLR and storm combinations, providing direct support for adaptation and management decisions. Future efforts in Southern California will feature a dynamic coastal DEM that evolves over decadal time scales to provide updated boundary conditions for future storm simulations.

  8. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  9. 77 FR 24634 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to... Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by several inseason actions (76 FR 39313, 76 FR 67092, 76 FR 79122, 77 FR 12503, 77 FR 22679). On...

  10. 78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... for most species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580... limited entry fixed gear fishermen north of Pt. Chehalis continued opportunities to harvest incidental... targeting sablefish north of Pt. Chehalis, which would cause confusion and be inconsistent with the...

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, Isolated from the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj Sv, Vamsi; Shrivastav, Anupama; Dubey, Sonam; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, a halophilic bacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It was isolated from the sea coast of Aadri, Veraval, Gujarat, India. Its genome contains genes for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a substitute for petroleum plastics. PMID:25593258

  12. 75 FR 932 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... public comments (74 FR 4845). One comment was received, which was in support of the proposed action... of small entities. The factual basis for the certification was published in the proposed rule (74 FR... Pacific mackerel off the Pacific coast. The total HG for the 2009-2010 fishing year is 10,000 metric...

  13. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  14. Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

  15. Year-round West Nile Virus Activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and Louisiana

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Ray; Siirin, Marina; Randle, Yvonne; Sargent, Chris; Guzman, Hilda; Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Bala, Adil A.; Haas, Keith; Zerinque, Brian

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in 11 dead birds and two mosquito pools collected in east Texas and southern Louisiana during surveillance studies in the winter of 2003 to 2004. These findings suggest that WNV is active throughout the year in this region of the United States. PMID:15498169

  16. Metamorphic waters from the pacific tectonic belt of the west coast of the United States.

    PubMed

    Barnes, I

    1970-05-22

    Waters unusually rich in ammonia, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrocarbons are found in more than 100 localities along the Pacific coast of the United States. The waters are believed to be products of low-grade metamorphism of marine sediments. The marine sedimentary rocks would have to be tectonically emplaced below crystalline rocks in many places. Mercury ore deposits are probably also products of the low-grade metamorphism. PMID:17844188

  17. Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

    1989-01-01

    A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

  18. Assessment of IEC 61400-1 Normal Turbulence Model for Wind Conditions in Taiwan West Coast Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng; Yo, Jui-Ming; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Miau, Jiu-Jih; Wang, Ta-Chung; Tseng, Chien-Chou

    2014-11-01

    This paper studies the applicability of Normal Turbulence Model (NTM) in IEC61400-1 for wind conditions in Taiwan west coast area where future offshore wind farms are planning in the nearby areas. The parameters for the standard deviation of wind fluctuating (\\bar σ / Iref) are presented and compared with IEC Normal Turbulence Model. It is found that the trend of turbulence standard deviation (\\bar σ /Iref) based on the observation data agreed qualitatively well with IEC Normal Turbulence Model. However, IEC Normal Turbulence Model results in rather small (σ /{Iref}) compared to surveillance wind data in Taiwan. In this paper, model parameters for (\\bar σ / {Iref)} and (σ /{Iref}) based on the two-year observation wind data are proposed. The proposed model parameters a, b, α and β are 0.9125, 2.4345, 0.097 and 2.1875.

  19. Microdistribution within a population of Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) in Little Killary, west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makra, A.; Keegan, B. F.

    1998-03-01

    Acrocnida brachiata (Montagu), like many other infaunal ophiuroids, has a penchant for gregariousness. In Little Killary, a small embayment on the west coast of Ireland, it colonises an extensive tract of sandy inshore ground (ca 7 m depth), at densities of 150-200 individuals/m2. In the course of a two-year study, variation in regular suction-sampling returns prompted a detailed study of the species distribution pattern. Towards this end, 256 contiguous and stratified core samples were taken along a line of transect, in May 1995. These showed randomness with respect to the population at large, but exposed an aggregated distribution for juveniles and adults separately, at different levels within the sediment. Juveniles formed wide, loose patches in the surficial deposit, while adults formed smaller, denseer patches deeper within the sediment. It remains to be seen what this approach may expose, when applied in different seasons, or during different phases of the species life cycle.

  20. Baseline of organotin pollution in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sangeeta; Bhosale, Darshana; Bhosle, Narayan

    2011-10-01

    Organotins, especially tributyltins (TBT) are highly toxic to many marine organisms. These compounds are introduced in marine waters by ship trafficking, ship scrapping activities, as antifouling compounds and sewage disposal. Marine fishes, crustaceans and molluscans are easily prone to organotins contamination. In view of this, a baseline monitoring study was conducted in order to establish the levels of organotins in edible marine fishes, bivalves, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from Mumbai, Goa and Karwar on the west coast of India. At these locations average organotin concentration found in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs was 108, 852, 179, 70 and 89 ng Sn g(-1)dw, respectively. In all the samples butyltins dominated over phenyltins. The levels of organotins suggest that all the organisms were contaminated with organotins and their consumption may pose health problems to humans. PMID:21820681

  1. An analysis of historical Mussel Watch Programme data from the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Conrad; Odendaal, James; Snyman, Reinette

    2014-10-15

    The concentrations of metals in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) prevalent along the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town are presented. The mussels were sampled during the routine "Mussel Watch Programme" (MWP) between 1985 and 2008. Levels of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, Fe and Mn at Cape Point, Hout Bay, Sea Point, Milnerton and Bloubergstrand were analysed for autumn and spring and showed consistent similar mean values for the five sites. There was a highly significant temporal (annual and seasonal) difference between all metals as well as a significant difference in metal concentrations between the five sites. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb were higher than previous investigations and possibly indicative of anthropogenic sources of metals. The results provide a strong motivation to increase efforts in marine pollution research in the area. PMID:25127737

  2. Ground-water quality of coastal aquifer systems in the West Coast Basin, Los Angeles County, California, 1999-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Reichard, Eric G.; Crawford, Steven M.; Everett, Rhett; Newhouse, Mark W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2004-01-01

    The extensive use of ground water throughout the Central and West Coast Basins of Los Angeles County during the first half of the 20th century resulted in declining water levels, widespread seawater intrusion, and deterioration of water quality along most reaches of the coast. In order to control seawater intrusion in the West Coast Basin, freshwater is injected into a series of wells at two seawater barrier projects. In order to better understand the processes of seawater intrusion and the efficiency of current barrier operation, data were collected from multiple-well monitoring sites installed by the U.S. Geological Survey, from local observation wells, and from production wells. The occurrence and areal extent of native, saline, and recently injected ground water near the coast were defined through the collection and analysis of inorganic and isotopic water-quality data and geophysical logs. Most water in the West Coast Basin with a dissolved-solids concentration less than 500 milligrams per liter generally has a sodium-bicarbonate to sodium/calcium-bicarbonate character. Water with a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter also contains variable amounts of calcium and sodium, but chloride is predominant. Most of these high-dissolved-solids wells are perforated in the Upper aquifer systems; several have dissolved-chloride values near that of seawater. Elevated chloride concentrations were measured at many wells in both the Upper and Lower aquifer systems inland from the barrier projects. Although water levels have increased in many wells over the last 30 years, some of the wells do not show a corresponding decrease in dissolved chloride. A detailed assessment of saline ground water was provided by examining the ratios of chloride to bromide, iodide, and boron. Seawater-freshwater mixing lines were constructed using all three ratios. These ion ratios also identify water affected by mixing with injected imported water and oil-field brine water. Isotopic data -oxygen-18, deuterium, strontium-87, boron-11, tritium, and carbon-14-also were collected. The stable isotopes oxygen-18 and deuterium were used to distinguish between isotopically heavier water that originated in the Los Angeles Forebay, isotopically lighter water that originated in the Montebello Forebay, local recharge, and water containing a mixture of seawater and imported water. Tritium data were used to identify recent water (less than 50 years old) present in the Upper and Lower aquifer systems inland from the seawater barrier projects, and present locally near the Dominguez Gap. Carbon-14 data indicate that water with uncorrected ages ranging from about 4,000 years to more than 20,000 years before present occurs in the Lower aquifer systems and in the Pico unit. Borehole electromagnetic conductivity logs, combined with gamma-ray logs, were used to identify potential saline zones throughout the entire well depth; this provides an indicator of intrusion in zones that are not being monitored by a piezometer. Temperature logging was used to track the thermal effects of the cooler water used for injection. Specific-conductance logs provided a screening-level indicator of poor-quality water in monitoring wells.

  3. Brominated flame retardants and halogenated phenolic compounds in North American west coast bald eaglet (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) plasma.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Melissa A; Cesh, Lillian S; Elliott, John E; Williams, Tony D; Garcelon, David K; Letcher, Robert J

    2006-10-15

    We report on the identity, characterization, and spatial trends of several brominated flame retardants and hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) organohalogen contaminants in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestling plasma collected from sites along the west coast of North America. Samples were from four southwestern British Columbia (BC) locations, a reference site in northern BC (Fort St. James; FSJ), and from Santa Catalina Island, CA (SCI), an area of high DDT and PCB contamination. Mean concentrations of sigma polybrominated diphenyl ether (sigma PBDE (8 congeners monitored); 1.78-8.49 ng/g), sigma OH-polychlorinated biphenyl (sigma OH-PCB (30 congeners monitored); 0.44-0.87 ng/g), and sigma OH-PBDE (14 congeners monitored; 0.31-0.92 ng/g) were similar in eaglets from southwestern BC yet lower than for SCl and significantly higher than for FSJ. Dominant PBDE congeners were BDE47, BDE99, and BDE100, but SCl eaglets also contained low levels of higher brominated congeners. 4-OH-CB187 and 4'-OH-CB202 accounted for 65-100% of sigma OH-PCB in all BC eaglets, with 4'-OH-CB202 as well as 3'-OH-CB138 and 4-OH-CB146 dominating in SCl eaglets. Ostensibly of biogenic origin, 6'-OH-BDE49 and 6-OH-BDE47 were found in BC nestlings. Only 4'-OH-BDE49 (2.10 ng/g) was found in SCl eaglets. MeO-PBDEs and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) were not found in any birds, but the polybrominated biphenyl BB101 was detected in southwestern BC samples. This study demonstrates that west coast North American bald eagles contain previously unreported organohalogens, which have the potential to impact the health and survival of these raptors. PMID:17120553

  4. Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the home range (HR) and core areas (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Nio and La Nia conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  5. The impact of the 2009-10 El Nio Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, Andr

    2011-07-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Nio. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Nio of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Nio did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Nio winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Nio is principally linked to the El Nio Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Nio), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

  6. Distribution of Sargassum muticum on the North West coast of Spain: Relationships with urbanization and community diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Incera, Mnica; Olabarria, Celia; Cacabelos, Eva; Csar, Javier; Troncoso, Jess S.

    2011-04-01

    Invasions are common in coastal marine environments where proximity to urban areas should influence the number of non-native organisms due to the likelihood of unintentional introductions from urban centers. Invasive species are widely recognised as important agents of global change, and can colonize new habitats and even cause local extinction of native species. This study was focused on the invasive marine macroalga Sargassum muticum, a problematic invasive species on the West coast of America and in European waters. An intensive survey was carried out along the Galician coast (North West of Spain) from March to August 2008 to determine the current distribution of this species, and its relationship with level of urbanization and native macroalgal diversity. We sampled the presence of S. muticum and native macroalgae in the mid and low intertidal zones of twenty rocky shores distributed along ten rias. Rias were grouped into high and scarcely urbanized based on their population density. Results indicated that S. muticum was present in nine out of the ten rias, confirming its presence in most of the intertidal rocky shores of Galicia twenty years after it was first observed. The presence of S. muticum was not related to the degree of urbanization of the rias, and its distribution and abundance did not seem to be influenced by diversity or functional groups of native algae. In addition, there was a great variability in the percentage cover, number and length of individuals amongst localities and rias suggesting that both large-scale and local processes may play a role in the distribution of this species. This study highlights the importance of future research into the distribution and impact of introduced algae and proves the urgent need for monitoring programmes and increasing efforts to prevent and control new introductions.

  7. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  8. Distribution of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata, Benthesicymidae) off the west coast of Mexico and notes on its morphology

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickx, Michel E.; Papiol, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A large series of specimens of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata; Benthesicymidae) was collected during an extensive survey of deep-water invertebrate fauna off western Mexico. In total, 61 males and 122 females (M:F ratio = 1:2) from 44 sampling stations were examined, considerably increasing the number of known specimens and sampling localities for this species which is widely distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The collection is the largest available for this species to date and presents first records from off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and a slight increase of the northernmost record within the Gulf of California. On the whole, females grew larger than males. The petasma of males of different sizes and the female thelycum of Benthesicymus tanneri are illustrated. The petasma of Benthesicymus tanneri presents a ventrolateral crescent-shape process otherwide found only in Benthesicymus tirmiziae Crosnier, 1978 and in Benthesicymus bartletti S.I. Smith, 1882. A key to the four species of Benthesicymus presently known from the eastern Pacific is presented. PMID:25632254

  9. Distribution of Benthesicymustanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata, Benthesicymidae) off the west coast of Mexico and notes on its morphology.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E; Papiol, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    A large series of specimens of Benthesicymustanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata; Benthesicymidae) was collected during an extensive survey of deep-water invertebrate fauna off western Mexico. In total, 61 males and 122 females (M:F ratio = 1:2) from 44 sampling stations were examined, considerably increasing the number of known specimens and sampling localities for this species which is widely distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The collection is the largest available for this species to date and presents first records from off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and a slight increase of the northernmost record within the Gulf of California. On the whole, females grew larger than males. The petasma of males of different sizes and the female thelycum of Benthesicymustanneri are illustrated. The petasma of Benthesicymustanneri presents a ventrolateral crescent-shape process otherwide found only in Benthesicymustirmiziae Crosnier, 1978 and in Benthesicymusbartletti S.I. Smith, 1882. A key to the four species of Benthesicymus presently known from the eastern Pacific is presented. PMID:25632254

  10. Environmental Relationship of Benthic Fauna in the Near Shore Waters off Gulf of Kutch, North West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanagoudra, S. N.; Bhat, U. G.

    2014-12-01

    The present study was undertaken for a period of two years from December 2010 to May 2012.Studying the benthos of Gulf of Kutch near shore waters is also useful in understanding changes in biological diversity of Gujarat coast. The use of benthos in aquatic ecological research is especially effective in assessing long term changes and detecting input from diffuse sources. The benthos reflects the effects organic enrichment by responding through detectable changes in population dynamics on a time scale of months to years. This is in contrast to plankton which shows a more immediate change to point sources with no long term consequences to the populations (Gray et al 1992). Benthoses were collected from 6 stations on regular basis and were identified. Altogether 60 species belonging to 39 families were identified and placed taxonomically during the course of investigation with sediment samples. Benthic environmental relationship species were observed and recorded. Our studies of monthly comparisons have become an interesting and popular approach in ecology and environmental relationships in the past a number of studies have been conducted on the ecology of macro benthic populations of Gulf of Kutch near shore. My research helps in Gulf of Kutch of the west coast of India has become an important economic asset of the country serving commercial navigation and the fishing sector with environmental relation of benthos in the Gulf of Kutch Gujarat. India.

  11. Skin chemistry of nudibranchs from the west coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Andersen, R J; Desjardine, K; Woods, K

    2006-01-01

    The Pacific coastline of North America extends from Alaska in the north to Panama in the south. Chemical studies of skin extracts from nudibranchs collected along this coast have resulted in the isolation of over 100 chemically diverse secondary metabolites. The majority of the compounds are terpenoids, but polyketides, steroids, and alkaloids have also been found. Observations of geographic variation in metabolite content and stable isotope-feeding experiments have provided information about the de novo biosynthetic or dietary sequestration origins of the skin extract metabolites. PMID:17153348

  12. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Thresiamma; Shaiju, P; Laluraj, C M; Balachandran, K K; Nair, M; George, Rejomon; Nair, K K C; Sahayak, Satish; Prabhakaran, M P

    2008-08-01

    The bloom-infested waters along the southwest coast of India were assessed to bring about the probable cause related to the excessive algal production. Low nitrate and silicate concentrations were concomitant with slightly higher levels of phosphate. The silicate depletion in the bloom area is possibly an indication of community succession (diatom to dinoflagellate), since it was completely utilized by the preceding diatom blooms. The dinoflagellates in this region could have been advected from the northern regions where it was noticed during the previous months. PMID:17879133

  13. 77 FR 17086 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: “Transforming Trade for a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 16048) on March 19, 2012, about the West Coast trade symposium which will be held... Symposium: ``Transforming Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... ``Transforming Trade for a Stronger Economy''; and to inform the public that the fees have changed for...

  14. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  15. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN

  16. Measurements of elemental composition in background aerosol on the west coast of Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    blad, M.; Selin, E.

    Concentrations of 14 elements in long distance transported aerosol have been measured in a rural site on the W coast of Sweden. The measurements were made during one winter and two summer periods, 1981-1984. Sampling was made with a dichotomous virtual impactor. Element analysis was made by photon induced X-ray fluorescence. The element concentrations were related to air mass trajectories. A strong dependence of the concentration variations with air mass history is found for most elements, in particular Pb, S, V, Zn and Cl. Median concentrations for the 14 elements in the two size fractions are reported and compared with previous measurements in central Sweden at the same latitude. Significant deviations are found for S and V. Concentrations of particulate S have proven to be very insensitive to locally produced SO 2 emissions. This makes measurements of fine particulate S on the Swedish W coast an excellent tool for checking the S transport from other countries to Sweden. The ratios Br/Pb in fine particles and the coarse/fine ratios for particulate lead have, together with air mass trajectories, been used to suggest source areas for automotive lead. The soil derived elements, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn, also demonstrate variations with air mass trajectories. Enrichment factors for coarse particles of Ca, Mn and Ti with iron as a reference show variations that we believe are typical for the soil of the source area.

  17. Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-20

    World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

  18. Primary productivity off the Antarctic coast from 30-80E; BROKE-West survey, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westwood, Karen J.; Brian Griffiths, F.; Meiners, Klaus M.; Williams, Guy D.

    2010-05-01

    Primary productivity was measured in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean (30 to 80E) as part of a multi-disciplinary study during austral summer; Baseline Research on Oceanography, Krill and the Environment, West (BROKE-West Survey, 2006). Gross integrated (0-150 m) productivity rates within the marginal ice zone (MIZ) were significantly higher than within the open ocean, with averages of 2110.21347.1 and 595.0283.0 mg C m -2 d -1, respectively. In the MIZ, high productivity was associated with shallow mixed-layer depths and increased P max up to 5.158 mg C (mg chl a) -1 h -1. High Si:N drawdown ratios in the open ocean (4.11.5) compared to the MIZ (2.20.79) also suggested that iron limitation was important for the control of productivity. This was supported by higher F v/F m ratios in the MIZ (0.500.11 above 40 m) compared to the open ocean (0.360.08). As well, in the open ocean there were regions of elevated productivity associated with the seasonal pycnocline where iron availability was possibly increased. High silicate drawdown in the north-eastern section of the BROKE-West survey area suggested significant diatom growth and was linked to the presence of the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front (sACCF). However, low assimilation numbers (12.8-23.2 mg C mg chl a-1 d -1) and F v/F m ratios indicated that cells were senescent with initial growth occurring earlier in the season. In the western section of the survey area within the MIZ, high NO 3 drawdown but relatively low silicate drawdown were associated with a Phaeocystis bloom. NO 3 concentrations were strongly negatively correlated with column-integrated productivity and chlorophyll biomass which was expected given the requirement for this nutrient by all phytoplankton groups. Regardless, concentrations of both NO 3 and silicate were above limiting levels within the entire BROKE-West survey area (N>15.7 ?M, Si>18.3 ?M) supporting the high-nutrient low-chlorophyll status of the Southern Ocean.

  19. Variability in Sea Surface Temperature Fronts off the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavor, T. P.; Legeckis, R.; Breaker, L.

    2002-12-01

    Operational sea surface temperature (SST) derived from NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) provides a temporal advantage over SST derived from polar-orbiting satellites: each location is observed 24 times per day. Regions with persistent cloud cover, such as off the coast of California, may benefit from increased observational frequency. Using hourly, cloud-masked SST from GOES-10, a daily-averaged SST product is produced that provides a large spatial SST field for use by an edge-detection algorithm. The near real-time daily frontal products produced at NESDIS/ORA, along with long-term analysis and composites, indicate preferential locations of frontal boundaries, especially upwelling fronts. Additionally, these locations and other products being produced by NESDIS provide information regarding regions of convergent flow, which may have important biological implications regarding fisheries management and the ocean environment.

  20. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  1. Assessment of contamination, distribution and chemical speciation of trace metals in water column in the Dakar coast and the Saint Louis estuary from Senegal, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Diop, Cheikh; Dewael, Dorothe; Diop, Mamadou; Tour, Aminata; Cabral, Mathilde; Cazier, Fabrice; Fall, Mamadou; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

    2014-09-15

    The water column from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa, was sampled in order to measure the contamination level by trace metals. The speciation of metals in water allowed performing a distribution between dissolved and particulate trace metals. For the dissolved metals, the metallic concentration and repartition between the organic fraction and the inorganic fraction were performed. The results show that the pollution of the estuary was more serious than in Dakar coast for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn; while, Cd and Cu were higher in Dakar coast. A strong affinity between metals and suspended particles has been revealed. Dissolved metals that have a tendency to form organic metal complexes are in decreasing order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Co=Cr=Mn, Cu and Ni. The results showed that the mobility of trace metals in estuary is controlled by dissolved organic carbon, while in coast it depends on chlorides. PMID:25038980

  2. The impact of the 2009-10 El Nio on West Coast beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Hansen, J. E.; Allan, J. C.; Ruggiero, P.; Hoover, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    Long-term monitoring programs at a series of beaches in California, Oregon and Washington were used to evaluate beach evolution associated with the El Nio winter of 2009-10, and to relate the observed coastal change to past winters, including the last major El Nio in 1997-98. At the California study sites, analysis of Lidar (1997-98) and semi-annual or greater high-resolution beach and nearshore surveys (2004-10) shows that coastal change during the winter of 2009-10 broadly rivals that in 1997-98, and that the 2009-10 winter storms collectively forced the most beach erosion since high-resolution monitoring began in 2004. Along the Oregon and Washington coasts, many beaches exhibited classic El Nio shoreline responses, with significant shoreline retreat occurring immediately north of jetties and tidal inlets as well as the southern ends of pocket beaches and littoral cells. In Washington in particular, these areas eroded rapidly during the winter of 2009-10, comparable to the response seen in the El Nio winter of 1997-98. Wave buoy data from buoys in California and Washington that captured both the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Nio show that the two events were comparable in wave energy as measured by the mean wave year (1 July- 30 June) energy flux (Fig. 1). The increased wave energy in 2009-10 had significant impacts on coastal infrastructure throughout the region; for example, in San Francisco the Great Highway was severely undercut by wave action, resulting in a $5 million emergency remediation project. In Washington, approximately 195 m of road was eroded along the entrance to Willapa Bay and southern Grayland Plains. While the impacts of the 2009-10 winter were substantial, impacts on the coast were moderated by an unusually mild wave climate in 2008-9 (Fig. 1), which left beaches more accreted prior to the severe wave season of 2009-10. As climate change accelerates sea level rise and potentially increases the magnitude and frequency of storms in mid-latitudes, the beach erosion seen in 2009-10 will become less unusual, making it critical that we continue to monitor beach morphology to provide data for coastal managers and to improve our understanding of beach dynamics. Figure 1. Yearly mean wave energy flux relative to the mean since each buoys deployment offshore of Washington (Grays Harbor), San Francisco (Point Reyes), and Santa Barbara (Harvest, Anacapa Passage).

  3. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast.

    PubMed

    Risien, C M; Strub, P T

    2016-01-01

    We form a new 'blended' data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55-70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993-31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  4. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Risien, C.M.; Strub, P.T.

    2016-01-01

    We form a new ‘blended’ data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55–70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993–31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  5. Biomarker pigment signatures in Cochin back water system - A tropical estuary south west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aneeshkumar, N.; Sujatha, C. H.

    2012-03-01

    Sedimentary biomarker pigments around Cochin estuary situated in the southwest coast of India were determined by HPLC. Fucoxanthin, an indicator of diatom was observed to be the most abundant carotenoid pigment in the estuary. Dinoflagellate derived carotenoid pigment peridinin was confined in the southern part of estuary and zeaxanthin pigment indicative of cyanobacteria were more found in sites influenced by anthropogenic activities. One compound having close similarity to fucoxanthin was also detected. Alloxanthin (cryptophyceae), chl b (green algae), canthaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein and peridinin isomer were also detected by spectra and corresponding algal class were identified. The highest concentration of chl a (11.01 ?g g-1) found near to the anthropogenic affected area while the lowest chl a (0.65 ?g g-1) was recorded in industrial area. Degradation products of chl a, such as pheophorbide and pheophytin were observed and principal mode of mechanism of degradation were derived. Higher pheopigments content than chl a, reflects a density trapping of dead cells and early degradation of phytopigments from grazing activities.

  6. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  7. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

  8. Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

    2010-12-01

    Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due to rock slope failures, onto glacier surfaces. The absence of any sediment that could be unequivocally classified as subglacial till reflects the dominance of debris flow and glacifluvial processes in latero-frontal moraine construction in this hyper-humid west coast setting.

  9. New LNG process scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Foglietta, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    A new LNG cycle has been developed for base load liquefaction facilities. This new design offers a different technical and economical solution comparing in efficiency with the classical technologies. The new LNG scheme could offer attractive business opportunities to oil and gas companies that are trying to find paths to monetize gas sources more effectively; particularly for remote or offshore locations where smaller scale LNG facilities might be applicable. This design offers also an alternative route to classic LNG projects, as well as alternative fuel sources. Conceived to offer simplicity and access to industry standard equipment, This design is a hybrid result of combining a standard refrigeration system and turboexpander technology.

  10. Recent deformation along the offshore Malibu Coast, Dume, and related faults west of Point Dume, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Langenheim, V.E.; Sorlien, C.C.; Dartnell, P.; Sliter, R.W.; Cochrane, G.R.; Wong, F.L.

    2005-01-01

    Offshore faults west of Point Dume, southern California, are part of an important regional fault system that extends for about 206 km, from near the city of Los Angeles westward along the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains and through the northern Channel Islands. This boundary fault system separates the western Transverse Ranges, on the north, from the California Continental Borderland, on the south. Previous research showed that the fault system includes many active fault strands; consequently, the entire system is considered a serious potential earthquake hazard to nearby Los Angeles. We present an integrated analysis of multichannel seismic- and high-resolution seismic-reflection data and multibeam-bathymetric information to focus on the central part of the fault system that lies west of Point Dume. We show that some of the main offshore faults have cumulative displacements of 3-5 km, and many faults are currently active because they deform the seafloor or very shallow sediment layers. The main offshore fault is the Dume fault, a large north-dipping reverse fault. In the eastern part of the study area, this fault offsets the seafloor, showing Holocene displacement. Onshore, the Malibu Coast fault dips steeply north, is active, and shows left-oblique slip. The probable offshore extension of this fault is a large fault that dips steeply in its upper part but flattens at depth. High-resolution seismic data show that this fault deforms shallow sediment making up the Hueneme fan complex, indicating Holocene activity. A structure near Sycamore knoll strikes transversely to the main faults and could be important to the analysis of the regional earthquake hazard because the structure might form a boundary between earthquake-rupture segments.

  11. A Coastal Nio/Nia Phenomenon Off the Coast of Senegal (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oettli, P.; Morioka, Y.; Doi, T.; Yamagata, T.

    2014-12-01

    A recent discovery, the Dakar Nio/Nia, is introduced, involving a local air-sea interaction in the southern region of the Canary Current, an eastern boundary current in the North Atlantic Ocean. In the region (20-15W, 9-15N) located south of the Cap-Vert peninsula (Senegal, Western Africa), Sea Surface Temperature (SST) undergoes a strong seasonal cycle with a minimum variability during boreal late summer/early fall and with a peak in boreal winter when the surface trade-winds are at their peak strength. The present study identifies that this area is subject to anomalous warming/cooling of the SST in boreal winter, during the period 1982-2011. A close examination of the relationships between the SST and the dynamics of the lower atmosphere reveals the important role played by the surface wind, particularly the meridional component and its angle to the coast. At the interannual time-scale, less (more) intense trade winds in February lead to warmer (cooler) SST in March. The interannual variability in trade winds (speed and direction) also has an influence on the intensity of the coastal upwelling. These results have implications for a potential impact on the fish abundance and also on the local fishery and economy. Similar regional warming phenomena have been described in other oceanic basins, such as in the South Atlantic Ocean (Benguela Nio), the southern Indian Ocean (Ningaloo Nio) and the North Pacific Ocean (California Nio). A comparison between the Dakar Nio and the well documented Ningaloo Nio suggests that an important difference arises to be the distinct feedback mechanisms from the ocean into the atmosphere. The Ningaloo Nio (Nia) has significant impacts on regional precipitation in Australia, through changes in SLP anomalies. While the Dakar Nio (Nia) appears to favor the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback, at a local- to regional-scale. The connection between coastal Nio and ENSO is also analyzed.

  12. Annual Bacterioplankton Biomasses and Productivities in a Temperate West Coast Canadian Fjord

    PubMed Central

    Albright, L. J.; McCrae, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    Bacterioplankton numbers, biomasses, and productivities, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton productivities, were assayed from 1 March 1984 to 12 August 1985 through a 250-m-deep seawater column in Howe Sound, a temperate fjord-sound on the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada. Primary production during this 18-month period was 845 g of C m?2. Bacterial production was assayed over this same period as 193 g of C m?2 (thymidine incorporation) and 77 g of C m?2 (frequency of dividing cells). Bacterial productivities per cubic meter were usually greater in the euphotic zone than in deeper aphotic water, but when integrated through the water column, approximately half of the bacterial production occurred in the deeper aphotic portion. Bacterial production occurred throughout the year, although at reduced rates in late fall and early winter; primary production almost ceased during late fall and early winter. Because of this heterotrophic bacterioplankton production was a very large portion of the microbial (bacterial plus phyto-plankton) production at this time. In mid-summer bacterial production was a small proportion of the microbial production. Because of this asynchrony in peaks and troughs of bacterial and phytoplankton production through the year, data comparison is best done over an annual cycle. On this basis the bacterial production in the Howe Sound water column was between 23 and 9% of the phytoplankton production when a bacterial C to biovolume ratio of 0.107 pg of C ?m?3 was assumed; the corresponding values were 64 and 29% when a ratio of 0.300 pg of bacterial C ?m?3 was assumed. PMID:16347360

  13. Disturbance, Climate, and Management Impacts on US West-Coast Forest Carbon Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tara, H. M.; Beverly, L. E.; Turner, D. P.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.; Donato, D.

    2008-12-01

    Forest net uptake of atmospheric CO2 (net ecosystem production, or NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. Accurate quantification of NEP and forest carbon budgets is necessary for validation of coupled carbon-climate models and monitoring state carbon budgets. To improve understanding of the influence of disturbance, climate, and management on forest carbon stocks and fluxes in the western U.S., federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon, Washington, and California from 2001-2006. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations and ecoregion-specific lookup tables were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), NEP, and mortality for different age classes. Natural and anthropogenic disturbance impacts on forest carbon accumulation and NPP varied by ecoregion, forest type, and ownership. In the semi-arid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C m-2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C m-2 yr-1, respectively. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (greater than 200 years) in some ecoregions. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically double if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase terrestrial carbon storage by decreasing anthropogenic disturbance through increased rotation age and reduction in harvest rates.

  14. Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with Special Reference to a Novel Clade from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Uehara, Keita; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Tawong, Wittaya; Hariganeya, Naohito; Smith, Kirsty; Rhodes, Lesley; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yosuke; Suda, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is known as a potential producer of Palytoxin derivatives. Palytoxin is the most potent non-proteinaceous compound reported so far. There has been a growing number of reports on palytoxin-like poisonings in southern areas of Japan; however, the distribution of Ostreopsis has not been investigated so far. Morphological plasticity of Ostreopsis makes reliable microscopic identification difficult so the employment of molecular tools was desirable. Methods/Principal Finding In total 223 clones were examined from samples mainly collected from southern areas of Japan. The D8–D10 region of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (D8–D10) was selected as a genetic marker and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Although most of the clones were unable to be identified, there potentially 8 putative species established during this study. Among them, Ostreopsis sp. 1–5 did not belong to any known clade, and each of them formed its own clade. The dominant species was Ostreopsis sp. 1, which accounted for more than half of the clones and which was highly toxic and only distributed along the Japanese coast. Comparisons between the D8–D10 and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, which has widely been used for phylogenetic/phylogeographic studies in Ostreopsis, revealed that the D8–D10 was less variable than the ITS, making consistent and reliable phylogenetic reconstruction possible. Conclusions/Significance This study unveiled a surprisingly diverse and widespread distribution of Japanese Ostreopsis. Further study will be required to better understand the phylogeography of the genus. Our results posed the urgent need for the development of the early detection/warning systems for Ostreopsis, particularly for the widely distributed and strongly toxic Ostreopsis sp. 1. The D8–D10 marker will be suitable for these purposes. PMID:22164222

  15. GLORIA mosaic of west coast U. S. Exclusive Economic Zone, southern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, J.V.; Edwards, B.D.; Field, M.E.; McCulloch, D.S.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range side-scan sonar system GLORIA was used to produce digitally enhanced mosaics of the sea floor of the entire US Exclusive Economic Zone. The data resolution, about 50 x 50 m, provides a mesoscale reconnaissance that reveals the continuity and extent of bottom features, some of which were previously unrecognized. The transform continental margin from the Mendocino Escarpment to the US-Mexican border is cut by numerous submarine canyons and gullies of varied size and complexity. The number, size, and extent of gullies appear directly related to the underlying bed-rock geology. Surprisingly, relatively few slumps and slump scarps are apparent. Submarine fans characterize the basins adjacent to the margin in this sector. The fans vary in size and complexity: relatively small, immature fans of the borderland basins, such as Redondo and Hueneme; fans intermediate in size and age, such as Arguello and Farallon; and large, relatively mature fans, such as Monterey and Delgada. Most fans have well-defined depositional lobes at the distal reach of a single channel. Distributary channels are not apparent on all fans, and on some (e.g., Monterey Fan), the single channel can be seen in seismic reflection profiles to have originated on or close to the basement, directly below its present position. The older depositional lobes that have been identified on the fan systems are adjacent to the present main channel, which implies that channel avulsion is not always a process that accompanies fan growth. Seamounts are prominent features in the region, ranging in number from hundreds in the Baja Seamount province to tens in the region west of San Francisco. The gradient of increasing numbers of exposed seamounts and volcanic ridges from north to south is a direct result of decreasing sediment supply from the continent to the south.

  16. Variability in nitrogen uptake and fixation in the oligotrophic waters off the south west coast of Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twomey, L. J.; Waite, A. M.; Pez, V.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.

    2007-04-01

    The results presented in this study provide the first broad-scale regional characterisation of the phytoplankton-nitrogen dynamics across the continental shelf between the Abrolhos Islands and Cape Leeuwin, Western Australia. We demonstrate key features of N-uptake, including nitrate and ammonium uptake and N fixation, across the dominant current systems of the west coast of Australia during a 2-week period in spring-summer. The surface waters of the region were N impoverished with low phytoplankton biomass. Nitrate and ammonium uptake rates were among the lowest on record, and f-ratios were high compared to other oligotrophic systems ( f-ratio 0.5 throughout), indicating an equal preference for nitrate and ammonium uptake. Areas of high phytoplankton biomass were most likely fuelled by nitrate transported into the euphotic zone during temporally short bursts of upwelling on weekly, rather than monthly time scales. When upwelling had relaxed, phytoplankton productivity was largely maintained by microbial regeneration in the euphotic zone. A large proportion (20-60%) of the phytoplankton biomass was comprised of picoplankton and nanoplankton cyanobacteria. However, rates of N 2 fixation were 2 orders of magnitude lower than dissolved inorganic N uptake, indicating that N 2-fixation did not significantly contribute to phytoplankton productivity during the study.

  17. Habitat characteristics promoting high density and condition of juvenile flatfish at nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedemaecker, F.; Brophy, D.; O'Connor, I.; Comerford, S.

    2012-10-01

    Coastal zones are essential nursery habitats for most juvenile flatfish species. Understanding the habitat requirements promoting high abundance and growth of juvenile flatfish is important for evaluating nursery habitat quality. The present study aimed to assess nursery ground quality for the most common flatfish species: dab (Limanda limanda) and plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), in Galway Bay, on the west coast of Ireland. Monthly surveys were carried out in the period after peak settlement over two years. Variability in flatfish density and Fulton's K condition was explained in relation to biotic and abiotic habitat characteristics, differing within and between distinct nursery grounds. Dab were concentrated in deeper waters, were negatively associated with shrimp densities and salinity and their abundance showed a decrease from June to September combined with interannual variation. Plaice densities were highly associated with shallower depths and high polychaete and shrimp densities and were negatively related with increased macroalgal cover and organic content. Most of the variability in Fulton's condition was explained by the same set of variables for both species; year and densities of crab and malacostracans. This analysis revealed important ecological mechanisms allowing the co-existence of two flatfish species in nursery grounds. However, high quality nursery grounds for dab and plaice differed and anthropogenic and climatic impacts on flatfish nurseries are likely to have a different impact on plaice and dab populations. Knowledge gained about the quality of nursery habitat for commercially important fish species provides a basis for mapping essential flatfish habitats to inform management plans for coastal areas.

  18. Long-range transport of Siberian forest fire smoke to Canada's west coast identified by Lidar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawbridge, Kevin; Cottle, Paul; McKendry, Ian

    2014-05-01

    During the summer of 2012, forest fire smoke wasdetected by two CORALNet lidar systems operated by Environment Canada along Canada's west coast. Based on satellite, model and back trajectory analysis it is thought the smoke originated in Boreal Asia as a result of unusually large amounts of Siberian wildfire activity. The CORALNet lidar systems operate autonomously, measuring the vertical profile of aerosols from near ground to 18 km at a vertical resolution of 3 m and 7.5 m and a temporal resolution of 10 s and 60 s at 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths respectively. The lidar also measures the depolarization ratio at 532 nm: and indicator of particle shape. The lidars, located at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver and in the village of Whistler, British Columbia observed an increase in the aerosol backscatter ratio in the free troposphere as the Siberian forest fire smoke was transported across the Pacific Ocean into the region. Of particular importance was the increase in ground level particulate due to the mixing of the smoke into the boundary layer, impacting the air quality in southwestern British Columbia. Lidar depolarization ratios in the boundary layer and the free troposphere were consistent with high concentrations of smoke. Detailed lidar observations will be presented along with supporting satellite, model and ground observations revealing the magnitude of the impact on the region.

  19. Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

  20. The indigenous Sea Gypsy divers of Thailand's west coast: measurement of carbon monoxide in the breathing air.

    PubMed

    Gold, D; Geater, A; Aiyarak, S; Juengpraert, W

    1999-07-01

    Approximately 400 indigenous divers live and work on Thailand's west coast. They dive with surface supplied air from primitive compressor units mounted on open boats which measure from seven to 11 meters in length. It was suspected that carbon monoxide was present in the breathing air of at least the gasoline-driven compressor units. To determine the presence of carbon monoxide gas in the breathing air, compressed air from the compressor was pumped through the diver air supply hose through a plenum (monitoring) chamber established on the boat. After a compressor warm-up of 15 minutes, the diving air was measured with the boat at eight different bearings to the wind, each 45 degrees apart at intervals of five minutes. Three of the four gasoline-driven compressor units tested showed presence of carbon monoxide in the breathing air. One diesel-driven unit showed a very low concentration of carbon monoxide (3-4 ppm) and six diesel-driven units showed no detectable carbon monoxide. Although not tested, diesel exhaust emissions could also enter the breathing air by the same route. A locally made modification to the compressor air intake was designed and successfully tested on one gasoline-driven compressor unit. An information sheet on the hazards of carbon monoxide as well as on the modification has been developed for distribution among the villages. PMID:10461405

  1. In situ gamma ray measurements of radionuclides at a disused phosphate mine on the West Coast of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    High levels of uranium and its radioactive progeny like radium is normally associated with phosphate mining. In Situ gamma ray spectroscopy as a survey tool has been successfully applied to assess radionuclide concentrations in various geographical environments. A transportable and robust gamma ray detection system (GISPI) was therefore employed to determine the concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides at a disused phosphate mine on the West Coast of South Africa. The concentrations of radium, thorium and potassium were measured and plotted. The measurements showed fairly high concentrations with medians of 320 Bq/kg for (226)Ra, 64 Bq/kg for (232)Th and 390 Bq/kg for (40)K. The highest concentrations were however confined to specific areas of the mine. The effective dose due to gamma irradiation for the various areas of the mine was also estimated and the highest estimated level was 0.45 mSv/y. The article finally draws conclusions as to the origins and impact of the radiation. PMID:26254719

  2. Changes in nearshore waves during the active sea/land breeze period off Vengurla, central west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Singh, J.

    2016-02-01

    A unique feature observed in the tropical and subtropical coastal area is the diurnal sea-breeze/land-breeze cycle. We examined the nearshore waves at 5 and 15 m water depth during the active sea/land breeze period (January-April) in the year 2015 based on the data measured using the waverider buoys moored in the eastern Arabian sea off Vengurla, central west coast of India. Temporal variability of diurnal wave response is examined. Numerical model Delft3D is used to study the nearshore wave transformation. The wave height increased due to the sea breeze and reached its peak at ˜ 13:00 UTC at 15 m water depth, whereas the peak significant wave height is at 12:00 UTC at 5 m water depth. Due to the influence of the land/sea breeze system, the range of the peak wave period in 1 day varied up to 8 s. Reduction in the wave height of wind-sea is around 20 % and that of the swell is around 10 % from 15 to 5 m water depth.

  3. A numerical analysis of landfall of the 1979 red tide of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, John J.; Haddad, Kenneth D.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Weisberg, Robert H.; Li, Zhenjiang; Yang, Huijun; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Bissett, W. Paul

    2002-01-01

    A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall of these populations at the coast in our model matches shoreline data sets as well. The simulated vertical movement of K. brevis, in response to light-cued migration and nocturnal mixing, also mimics these aspects of the next fall red tide in 1980, suggesting that sunrise populations may provide the strongest surface signal, for detection of red tides by remote sensors aboard aircraft and satellites. Once a mature red tide is formed, a light-regulated maximal growth rate of 0.15 day -1, reflecting nutrient-limitation, and no other loss processes may be an adequate description of population dynamics above the 30-40 m isobaths, where blooms of K. brevis originate. Within shallow waters at the 10-m isobath, however, an apparent larger growth rate of 0.80 day -1as a presumed consequence of frontal aggregationsmust be offset by unknown processes of algal mortality. Likely candidates for cumulative, biomass-dependent losses are UV-B irradiation, microbial-induced lysis, and unselective grazing pressure from copepods, protozoans and heterotrophic dinoflagellates.

  4. Four new species of Pyropia (Bangiales, Rhodophyta) from the west coast of North America: the Pyropia lanceolata species complex updated

    PubMed Central

    Lindstrom, Sandra C.; Hughey, Jeffery R.; Rosas, Luis E. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recent molecular studies indicate that the Pyropia lanceolata species complex on the west coast of North America is more speciose than previously thought. Based on extensive rbcL gene sequencing of representative specimens we recognize seven species in the complex, three of which are newly described: Pyropia montereyensis sp. nov., Pyropia columbiensis sp. nov., and Pyropia protolanceolata sp. nov. The new species are all lanceolate, at least when young, and occur in the upper mid to high intertidal zone primarily in winter and early spring. Pyropia montereyensis and Pyropia columbiensis are sister taxa that are distributed south and north of Cape Mendocino, respectively, and both occur slightly lower on the shore than Pyropia lanceolata or Pyropia pseudolanceolata. Pyropia protolanceolata is known thus far only from Morro Rock and the Monterey Peninsula, California; it occurs basally to the other species in the complex in the molecular phylogeny. A fourth newly described species, Pyropia bajacaliforniensis sp. nov., is more closely related to Pyropia nereocystis than to species in this complex proper. It is a thin species with undulate margins known only from Moss Landing, Monterey Bay, California, and northern Baja California; it also occurs in the high intertidal in spring. Porphyra mumfordii, a high intertidal winter species that has frequently been confused with species in the Pyropia lanceolata complex, has now been confirmed to occur from Calvert Island, British Columbia, to Pescadero State Park, California. PMID:26312033

  5. Forensic investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments from selected mangrove ecosystems in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaiton; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Masood, Najat; Magam, Sami Mohsen; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo

    2015-11-15

    Peninsular Malaysia has gone through fast development during recent decades resulting in the release of large amounts of petroleum and its products into the environment. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of petroleum. Surface sediment samples were collected from five rivers along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total concentrations of C10 to C36 n-alkanes ranged from 27,945 to 254,463ng·g(-1)dry weight (dw). Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such as carbon preference index (CPI; 0.35 to 3.10) and average chain length (ACL; 26.74 to 29.23) of C25 to C33 n-alkanes indicated a predominance of petrogenic source n-alkanes in the lower parts of the Rivers, while biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants are more predominant in the upper parts, especially in less polluted areas. Petrogenic sources of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil versus fresh oil inputs. PMID:26323864

  6. Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Prabhakar R

    2013-10-15

    Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress. PMID:23856298

  7. Food web of the intertidal rocky shore of the west Portuguese coast-Determined by stable isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, Catarina; Mendona, Vanessa; Narciso, Lus; Madeira, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of food web structure, energy pathways and trophic linkages is essential for the understanding of ecosystem functioning. Isotopic analysis was performed on food web components of the rocky intertidal ecosystem in four sites along the Portuguese west coast. The aim was to 1) determine the general food web structure, 2) estimate the trophic level of the dominant organisms and 3) track the incorporation of organic carbon of different origins in the diet of the top consumers. In this food web, fish are top consumers, followed by shrimp. Anemones and gastropods are intermediate consumers, while bivalves and zooplankton are primary consumers. Macroalgae Bifurcaria bifurcata, Ulva lactuca, Fucus vesiculosus, Codium sp. and phytoplankton are the dominant producers. Two energy pathways were identified, pelagic and benthic. Reliance on the benthic energy pathway was high for many of the consumers but not as high as previously observed in subtidal coastal food webs. The maximum TL was 3.3, which is indicative of a relatively short food web. It is argued that the diet of top consumers relies directly on low levels of the food web to a considerable extent, instead of on intermediate levels, which shortens the trophic length of the food web. PMID:26275753

  8. Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the West Coast OF India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Pillai, A. G.; Safai, P. D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M. G.

    The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO 2 and NO, emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and CI -) whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca 2+ from natural sources and NH 3 released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H + ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO 42- and N0 3-). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rainwater in the area maybe due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

  9. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

    2014-02-01

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

  10. Spatio-temporal variability of tidal asymmetry due to multiple coastal constructions along the west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Seung Won; Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Hyeon Jeong

    2014-12-01

    At least 19 remarkable dikes and land reclamations have been constructed since 1970 along the west coast of Korea, which resulted in a reduction in tidal flat area of almost 50%. Both the reduction in tidal flats and the artificially simplified coastal line have distorted the spatio-temporal tidal hydrodynamics; to quantify this, we analyzed and evaluated tidal asymmetry by phase differences of the principal semi-diurnal lunar constituent M2 and its first over-tide M4. Moreover, we applied the ADCIRC model to quantitatively investigate near- and far-field impacts on tidal variations using the gamma parameter, tidal energy flux, and dissipation rate. Through this study, we found that the tidal regime around the Incheon harbor area in Gyeonggi Bay has changed from ebb- to flood-dominant due to multiple nearby reclamations, in particular to the construction of the Siwha dike. The Saemangeum dike caused near-field de-amplification of M2 but far-field amplification in the Shandong area of China. In addition to allowing a traditional asymmetry approach using phase difference, analyses based on the gamma parameter and tidal energy variations could distinctly improve spatial understanding of anthropogenic impacts on coastal tidal hydrodynamics.

  11. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2015-09-15

    Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found. PMID:25863629

  12. Lacaziosis and lacaziosis-like prevalence among wild, common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the west coast of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Burdett Hart, Leslie; Rotstein, Dave S; Wells, Randall S; Bassos-Hull, Kim; Schwacke, Lori H

    2011-05-24

    Lacaziosis (lobomycosis; Lacazia loboi) is a fungal skin disease that naturally occurs only in humans and dolphins. The first reported case of lacaziosis in a bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus occurred in 1970 in Sarasota Bay, Florida, USA, and subsequent photo-ID monitoring of the Sarasota Bay dolphin population has revealed persistence of the disease. The objectives of this study were to estimate lacaziosis prevalence (P) in 2 bottlenose dolphin populations on the west coast of Florida (Sarasota Bay and Charlotte Harbor) and compare disease occurrence to other published estimates of lacaziosis in dolphin populations across the globe. Historic photographic records of dolphins captured and released for health assessment purposes (Sarasota Bay) and photo-ID studies (Charlotte Harbor) were screened for evidence of lesions consistent with lacaziosis. Health assessment data revealed a prevalence of lacaziosis in the Sarasota Bay bottlenose dolphin population between 2 and 3%, and analyses of photo-ID data provided a lacaziosis-like prevalence estimate of 2% for Charlotte Harbor dolphins. With the exception of lacaziosis prevalence estimates for dolphins inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon (P = 0.068; P = 0.12), no statistically significant differences were seen among Sarasota Bay, Charlotte Harbor, and other published estimates. Although lacaziosis is a rare disease among these dolphin populations, studies that assess disease burden among different populations can assist with the surveillance of this zoonotic pathogen. PMID:21797035

  13. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with abundant tritium (greater than 8 tritium units) is found in and downgradient from the Montebello Forebay and near the seawater barrier projects, indicating recent recharge. Water with less than measurable tritium is present in, and downgradient from, the Los Angeles Forebay and in most wells in the West Coast Basin. Water from several deep wells was analyzed for carbon-14. Uncorrected estimates of age for these samples range from 600 to more than 20,000 years before present. Chemical and isotopic data are combined to evaluate changes in chemical character along flow paths emanating from the Montebello and Los Angeles Forebays. A four-layer ground-water flow model was developed to simulate steady-state ground-water conditions representative of those in 1971 and transient conditions for the period 1971?2000. Model results indicate increases in ground-water storage in all parts of the study area over the simulated thirty-year period. The model was used to develop a three-dimensional ground-water budget and to assess impacts of two alternative future (2001?25) ground-water development scenarios?one that assumes continued pumping at average current rates and a second that assumes increasing pumping from most wells in the Central Basin. The model simulates stable or slightly increasing water levels for the first scenario and declining water levels (25 to 50 ft in the Central Basin) in the second scenario. Model sensitivity to parameter values and to the assumed Orange County boundary condition was evaluated. Particle tracking was applied to simulate advective transport of water from the spreading ponds, the coastline, and the seawater injection barriers. Particle tracking results indicate that most flow within the Upper San Pedro aquifer system occurs within about 20 percent of the total aquifer system thickness and that virtually all water injected into the seawater barrier projects has flowed inland. The simulation model was linked with optimizatio

  14. Probability of pipe failure in the reactor coolant loops of Westinghouse PWR plants. Volume 4. Pipe failure induced by crack growth in west coast plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D.J.; Holman, G.S.; Lo, T.Y.; Mensing, R.W.

    1985-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contracted with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to conduct a study to determine if the probability of occurrence of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in primary coolant piping warrants the current design requirements that safeguard against the effecs of such a break. This report assesses the reactor-coolant-loop piping system of west coast Westinghouse plants. The results indicate that directly induced DEGB is an unlikely event in the west coast Westinghouse plants. For the Trojan plant, leak is far more likely than a direct DEGB. Further, earthquakes have very little effect on the probabilities of leak and direct DEGB. At the Diablo Canyon plant, the increase in postulated seismic levels due to reevaluation of the site to account for the Hosgri Fault has caused directly induced DEGB failure probability to be dependent on earthquake occurrences. The resulting direct DEGB failure probability is still much lower than the indirect DEGB failure probability for Diablo Canyon.

  15. Safety features on LNG ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, F. S.

    The technology to transport liquefied natural gas (LNG) safely by sea is well established and many variations of cargo containment systems have been tested and developed since the early 1950s. Examples of four current LNG ships incorporating different containment systems are briefly described. Safety features are examined, now considered standard practice on a modern LNG carrier, which have made a major contribution to the outstandingly good record of LNG ship operations. Examples are given of some LNG ship casualty incidents.

  16. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Rckmann, T.

    2012-12-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (N2) to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2) fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway besides photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16-25 W, 17-24 N). This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. Besides this a diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2 was investigated. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008, respectively. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Island towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled. In 2007 additionally four days were sampled with a high resolution of one sample per hour. Our results clearly indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas N2 fixation could not be identified as a H2 source during these two cruises. With our experimental setup we could demonstrate that variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced and biased by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and the origin of air masses. This means for further investigations that just measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of a diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. However, measurements of H2 mixing ratios, which are easy to conduct online during ship cruises could be a helpful tool to easily identify production areas of biological precursors such as VOC's for further investigations.

  17. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Rckmann, T.

    2013-05-01

    Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2) fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway followed by photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16-25 W, 17-24 N). This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Islands towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled to cover differing oceanic regions such as upwelling and oligotrophic regimes. In 2007, additionally, four days were sampled at high resolution of one sample per hour to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2. Our results indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas oceanic N2 fixation could not be identified as a source for atmospheric H2 during these two cruises. The variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and also affected by a varying origin of air masses. This means for future investigations that only measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of an atmospheric diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. Nevertheless, measurements of atmospheric H2 mixing ratios, which are easy to conduct online during ship cruises, could be a useful indicator of production areas of biological precursors such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for further investigations.

  18. Quantification of Coastal Macro Algae Iodine Emissions and its Spatial Variability at the West Coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Reactive iodine species are emitted by macro algae in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Due to the oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and thus reduction of ozone, they may have a significant influence on the local atmosphere. Further high iodine oxide levels may act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in previous field studies. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. An observation of the dominant sources, the spatial distribution and the impact on larger scales was not possible so far. To investigate these questions we performed intensive measurements at eight different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Therefore, we applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and a mobile Cavity Enhanced (CE)- DOAS instrument for in-situ IO measurements at different locations. Additionally, a static Long Path-DOAS system for IO, OIO and I2 measurements located at Mace Head was applied. This allows comparing directly different locations with the reference station Mace Head without the influence of locally varying meteorology and comparing results also to former observations. We could confirm previous results that the macro algae species Laminaria digitata is the strongest iodine emitting algae. However, we observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, iodine oxide concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site compared to Mace Head. IO reaching levels up to 40ppt observed with the LP-DOAS and 70ppt @ 1.2m height with the CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high abundance in the intertidal zone, is by far the strongest source. Third, we observed also high iodine oxide levels above 30ppt at rainy, cold and windy weather. Thus former observations that these emissions arise only at sunny and warm weather could not be confirmed. Fourth, we investigated that iodine oxide increase exponentially with decreasing distance to the emitting seaweed patches reaching concentrations much above 100ppt being sufficient to start particle nucleation events. We conclude that coastal macro algae emissions are thus much more relevant for the atmosphere than so far expected from previous observations performed at Mace Head which is rather characterized by low IO levels in comparison to other locations. Reasons and explanations for these findings will be presented. A review of the coastal macro algae iodine emissions and its influence on the atmosphere is thus urgently needed.

  19. Radium-226, 232Th, and 40K distribution in the environment of Kaiga of south west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Karunakara, N; Somashekarappa, H M; Avadhani, D N; Mahesh, H M; Narayana, Y; Siddappa, K

    2001-05-01

    Systematic studies on gamma radiation level and the distribution of natural radionuclides were carried out under a pre-operational survey for the establishment of baseline data on background radiation level and the distribution of radio-nuclides in the environment of Kaiga, in the south west coast of India, where a nuclear power reactor of 235 MWe has just been commissioned. The external gamma absorbed dose rates prevailing in the region were measured using a portable plastic scintillometer. Soil samples from 18 stations were collected from depth intervals of 0-5, 5-10, and 10-25 cm and analyzed for their 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K activity concentrations by gamma spectrometry employing a 90 cc PGT HpGe detector coupled to an EG&G ORTEC 8K multichannel analyzer. The activity of 226Ra was found to vary between 15.5-61.2 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 31.3 Bq kg(-1), that of 232Th varies between 11.4-41.9 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 27.5 Bq kg(-1) and of 40K between 78.3-254.8 Bq kg(-1) with a mean value of 159.9 Bq kg(-1) in 0-5 cm soil profiles of the region. The contributions of 238U, 232Th, and 40K to the total gamma absorbed dose rate were 39.9%, 40.7%, and 16.0%, respectively. The gamma absorbed dose rate in air estimated using the results of activity concentration of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K are found to compare well with that of the direct measurement. The results of the study were compared with the literature values reported for other environs of the country as well as the world, and conclusions are drawn. PMID:11316077

  20. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Nio-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play significant roles in flatfish distribution.

  1. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, K. Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Benson, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the “jeopardy” standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international management frameworks. Given the range of abundance data scenarios addressed, LRPs should be estimable for many other areas, populations, and taxa. PMID:26368557

  2. Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

    2013-08-01

    On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

  3. Dependence of Wind Turbine Curves on Atmospheric Stability Regimes - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Tall Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Sharp, J; Zulauf, M

    2009-08-24

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, convective or neutral, mean wind speed (U) and turbulence ({sigma}{sub U}) may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 m to 120 m). This variation can cause a single turbine to produce difference amounts of power during time periods of identical hub height wind speeds. The study examines the influence that atmospheric mixing or stability has on power output at a West Coast North American wind farm. They first examine the accuracy and applicability of two, relatively simple stability parameters, the wind shear-exponent, {alpha}, and the turbulence intensity, I{sub u}, against the physically-based, Obukhov length, L, to describe the wind speed and turbulence profiles in the rotor area. In general, the on-site stability parameters {alpha} and I{sub u} are in high agreement with the off-site, L stability scale parameter. Next, they divide the measurement period into five stability classes (strongly stable, stable, neutral, convective, and strongly convective) to discern stability-effects on power output. When only the mean wind speed profile is taken into account, the dependency of power output on boundary layer stability is only subtly apparent. When turbulence intensity I{sub u} is considered, the power generated for a given wind speed is twenty percent higher during strongly stable conditions than during strongly convective conditions as observed in the spring and summer seasons at this North American wind farm.

  4. Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Kawser; Mehedi, Yousuf; Haque, Rezaul; Mondol, Pulakesh

    2011-06-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos ranged from 235 10.11 to 1,051 38.42, 3.66 0.89 to 7.55 1.29, 76.8 8.55 to 98.5 6.49, 0.46 0.11 to 0.859 0.2 and 4.66 1.17 to 6.77 2.1 ?g/g, respectively. Significant variations (p???0.05) in heavy metal concentrations have been observed among the mud crab, mudskipper and gastropod. However, heavy metal burdens did not vary significantly among the hermit and horseshoe crabs. In mud crab, horseshoe crab and gastropod, heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the sequence: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. Hermit crab and mudskipper contained heavy metals in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Fe and Zn concentrations were found significantly (p???0.05) higher in macrobenthos. The lead (Pb) concentration found in the edible portion of macrobenthos exceeded the international permissible limits certified by the WHO. Bioconcentration factors >1.00 obtained for Fe (17.05 in mudskipper) and Cd (1.87 in gastropod) indicated that these metals were highly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in benthic fauna of Sundarbans. The findings of this study refer to the potential impact of heavy metals in the mangrove ecosystem of Bangladesh. PMID:20711859

  5. Assessment of well water quality in Tsunami affected regions of south-west coast of Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Nair, G Achuthan; Chandran, R Pratap; Sukumar, B; Santhosh, S; Vijayamohanan; Sobha, V

    2013-07-01

    The quality of well waters, based on 23 parameters of water, at 12 stations of south-west coast of Kerala, India, was assessed during monsoon, 2009 and summer, 2010, to determine their suitability for drinking and other domestic purposes. The stations selected were grouped into four regions viz. least, slightly, moderately and severely affected ones based on the severity of 2004 Asian Tsunami at each station. The depths of wells showed variations depending on the seasons and on their distance from the seacoast. The average water temperatures during monsoon and summer seasons were 28.5 degrees C and 30.2 degrees C respectively. The pH of well waters were below 6.5 in least and slightly affected regions and above this value in moderately and severely affected regions. In all the four regions, the well water parameters of electrical conductivity, hardness, fluoride, free chlorine, copper, zinc, calcium and nickel were below, and phosphorus, lead, iron cadmium and manganese were above the standard permissible levels set for them in drinking water. The values of salinity, sodium and potassium in the well waters of moderately and severely affected regions, and the values of nitrate-nitrogen, nitrate and magnesium in the well waters of severely affected regions were above the permissible limits set for them in drinking water. Water quality index calculated on the basis of drinking water standards revealed that the well waters of least and slightly affected regions were moderately polluted in both monsoon and summer seasons and the same of moderately affected region were excessively polluted during monsoon and severely polluted during summer seasons, whereas the well waters of severely affected regions were severely polluted in both seasons. Suitable recommendations were made to improve the quality of well waters of least and slightly affected regions. PMID:24640255

  6. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E; Benson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international management frameworks. Given the range of abundance data scenarios addressed, LRPs should be estimable for many other areas, populations, and taxa. PMID:26368557

  7. Holocene Dunefield Construction, Wind Climate and North Atlantic Climate Change: Data From The West Coast of Jutland, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemmensen, L. B.

    Holocene dunefield construction on the west coast of Jutland (56 N) was episodic (Clemmensen et al., 2001a; 2001b). Evidence from optically stimulated luminescence dating and radiocarbon dating supplemented by archaeological data and historical ob- servations places the onset of these phases of increased aeolian activity to about 4000 BC, 2200 BC, 700 BC, AD 500, AD 1100, and AD 1625. Most of these aeolian events record increased storminess and were simultaneous with climatic cooling phases in the North Atlantic (Bond et al., 1997; Bianchi &McCave, 1999). During these events cool, ice-bearing waters were advected far southward in the North Atlantic Ocean and the atmospheric circulation changed (Bond et al., 1997). Climate model experiments suggest that during periods of increased sea-ice cover and cold waters in the North Atlantic Ocean the jet stream over the North Atlantic was strengthened, causing an enhanced cyclonic activity over large parts of Europe (Renssen et al., 1997; Lopez et al., 2000). These climatic events can probably be explained by a change in solar activity (van Geel et al., 1999). Thus geological data and climate experiments agree well and suggest millennial-scale variability in storminess in Jutland in concert with climatic change in the North Atlantic. References: Bianchi, G. G. &McCave, I. N., 1999: Holocene periodicity in North Atlantic climate and deep-ocean flow south of Iceland. Nature, 397, 515-517. Bond et al., 1997: A pervasive millennial-scale cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and glacial climates. Science, 278, 1257-1266. Clemmensen et al., 2001a: Sedimentology, stratigraphy and landscape evolution of a Holocene coastal dune system, Lodbjerg, NW Jutland, Denmark. Sedimentology,48, 3-27. Clemmensen et al., 2001b: A Holocene coastal aeolian system, Vejers, Denmark: land- scape evolution and sequence stratigraphy. Terra Nova, 13, 129-134.

  8. Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kon, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

    2009-04-01

    We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tano and Como) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebri, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

  9. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of suspended particulate organic matter in Zuari Estuary, west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardhan, Pratirupa; Karapurkar, S. G.; Shenoy, D. M.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; Maya, M. V.; Naik, H.; Varik, S.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

    2015-01-01

    The spatio-temporal variations of the ?13C and ?15N of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), along with ancillary chemical and hydrographic parameters, have been examined monthly for one year (October 2010 to September 2011) at a total of seven stations to refine the understanding of SPOM sources and biogeochemical pathways in the tropical Zuari Estuary, west coast of India. The dynamic nature of C and N cycling in estuaries is reflected in the isotopic variation of SPOM as a function of space and time. The results exhibit marked seasonality, with the autochthonous component and the terrestrial component being the major SPOM sources during periods of low and high river discharges, respectively. Spatially, enrichments of ?13C and ?15N from the head (?13C = - 29.6, ?15N = 1.78, C/N = 7.09) to the mouth (?13C = - 20.9, ?15N = 5.77, C/N = 6.12) of the estuary indicate downstream reduction of terrigenous influence. The mean C:N ratios varied between 4 and 9 over the study period with low values during the monsoon, in spite of large terrestrial input, which can be attributed to microbial modification of terrestrial SPOM. A significant positive correlation of ?13C with salinity suggests the reliability of ?13C as a biogeochemical tracer for organic matter provenance. Carbon:chlorophyll plots reveal suppressed autochthonous production during the southwest monsoon which may be attributed to the rapid flushing time, light-limitation due to cloud cover and high water-column turbidity.

  10. Local meteorological and synoptic characteristics of fogs formed over Incheon international airport in the west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Yum, Seong Soo

    2010-07-01

    Fogs observed over Incheon international airport (IIA) in the west coast of Korea from January 2002 to August 2006 are classified into categories of coastal fog, cold sea fog, and warm sea fog based on the areal extent of the fogs and the difference between the air temperature ( T) and the SST, i.e., cold sea fog if TSST = T-SST > 0C and warm sea fog if TSST < 0C. The numbers of coastal, cold, and warm sea fog cases are 64, 26, and 9. Coastal fogs form most frequently in winter, while cold sea fogs occur mostly in summer and warm sea fogs are observed from January to May but not in November and December. On average the air gets colder by 1.6C during the three hours leading up to the coastal fog formation, and an additional cooling of 1.1C occurs during the fog. The change in the dew point temperature ( T d) is minimal except during the fog (0.6C). Decreases in T for the cold and warm sea fogs are relatively smaller. The average T d is higher than SST during the cold sea fog periods but this T d is more than 4C higher than that for the corresponding non-fog days, suggesting that cold sea fogs be formed by the cooling of already humid air (i.e., T d>SST). Increases of T d are significant during the warm sea fog periods (1.4C), implying that efficient moisture supply is essential to warm sea fog formation. Four major synoptic patterns are identified in association with the observed fogs. The most frequent is a north Pacific high that accounts for 38% of cases. Surface or upper inversions are present in 77%, 69%, and 81% of the fog periods for coastal, cold, and warm sea fogs, respectively.

  11. Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

    2006-04-01

    The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in "West-to-east pipeline gas" in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

  12. United States West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India.

    PubMed

    Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Naik, B G; Krishna, M S; Jadhav, Lakshmikant

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. PMID:25965045

  14. Evaluation of consumer acceptance of west coast versus east coast-produced broccoli through sensory analysis of quality rating factors and nutritionally important metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production trials and germplasm evaluation of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) developed for eastern U.S. production conditions have identified lines and cultivars that are better adapted to more stressful, variable East Coast environments. As a part of this work sponsored by the USDA SCIR...

  15. Power generation from LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Kooy, R.J.; Andrepont, J.S.; Gyger, R.F.; Tyree, L. Jr.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes a method for generating power from LNG and storing energy. It comprises: providing a source of LNG at a temperature of about {minus}250{degrees} F. or lower, increasing the pressure of the LNG to at least about 400 psia, creating a reservoir of carbon dioxide liquid at about the triple point thereof which reservoir contains a substantial amount of solid carbon dioxide, vaporizing the LNG to natural gas by removing heat from CO{sub 2} at about the triple point temperature, heating the high pressure natural gas, expanding the heated natural gas to create rotary power, and employing the carbon dioxide in the reservoir in a useful manner which results in the creation of CO{sub 2} vapor that is subsequently reliquefied.

  16. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts little impact on power output during the winter and autumn periods. During the spring and summer seasons, power output for a given wind speed was significantly higher during stable conditions and significantly lower during strongly convective conditions: power output differences approached 20% between stable and convective regimes. The dependency of stability on power output was apparent only when both turbulence and the shape of the wind speed profile were considered. Turbulence is one of the mechanisms by which atmospheric stability affects a turbine's power curve at this particular site, and measurements of turbulence can yield actionable insights into wind turbine behavior.

  17. Marine Boundary Layer Structure for the Sea Fog Formation off the West Coast of the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Ki; Yum, Seong Soo

    2012-05-01

    Marine boundary layer (MBL) structure for the formation of sea fogs off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula are examined for the investigation period from January 2002 to August 2006, using the meteorological data measured at a buoy and the vertical sounding data measured at an island in this region. There is the total of 3,294 vertical soundings during the investigation period. Based on these vertical soundings, the MBL structure is classified as convective boundary layer (CBL; when inversion exists aloft but at altitudes lower than 3 km, 1,618 soundings), stable boundary layer (SBL; when inversion base is at the surface, 655 soundings) or near-neutral boundary layer (NNBL; when there is no inversion or inversion base is higher than 3 km altitude, 1,021 soundings). Under the CBL condition, the most frequently formed lower level cloud is stratocumulus but fogs do form in spring and summer months mostly as warm sea fogs [TSST (=T-SST) < 0]. Under the SBL condition, stratus and cold sea fogs (TSST > 0) are the most frequently found lower level clouds. The effects of turbulence, advection and radiation on sea fog formation vary with turbulence strength, represented by bulk Richardson number, R b. For cold sea fog cases, in the highly turbulent regime ( R b < 0.03), strong turbulent cooling and drying are canceled out by equally strong or even stronger warm and moist advection, and thus the additional radiative cooling turns out to be critical in the successful formation of fog. In the weak turbulent and non-turbulent ( R b > 0.30) regimes, the effects of turbulence decrease dramatically and so do the advection effects but radiative cooling is still strong, again making it the crucial reason for the successful formation of cold sea fogs. On the other hand, the turbulent moisture supply from the warmer sea surface is the crucial factor for the formation of warm sea fogs while turbulent warming and radiative cooling largely cancel each other out and the advection effects are negligibly small.

  18. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... the top. The left image is a color composite generated using data from the blue, green, and red bands of the vertical (nadir) camera. The ... stratus cloud layer; to their west at the edge of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. ...

  19. Detrital zircon geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology as an indicator of provenance of the Namakwa Sands heavy mineral deposit, west coast of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philander, C.; Rozendaal, A.

    2015-10-01

    A representative suite of detrital zircons from the Cenozoic Namakwa Sands heavy mineral placer deposit, which is hosted by mainly unconsolidated clastic sediments of the West Coast Group, has been studied from a provenance perspective. The deposit is located along the west coast of South Africa and is underlain by a metamorphosed Meso- and Neoproterozoic basement. Mineral geochemistry of individual zircon grains indicated that the entire population is continentally derived and is dominated by zircons from a felsic magmatic source, some highly evolved, with minor contributions from a metamorphic and mafic provenance. The U-Pb zircon age distribution is diverse, but is dominated by three distinct age populations. The 1100-1020 Ma interval can be equated with the felsic meta-intrusives of the Namaquan Orogeny of the Namaqualand Metamorphic Province, and the 650-500 Ma period with the meta-volcanosedimentary Pan-African Gariep and Saldania Belts. A particularly dominant group with a narrow time interval (145-130 Ma) is correlated with the proximal intrusives of the anorogenic Koegel Fontein Complex. Equivalent source rocks of the above time intervals occur proximal to the Namakwa Sands deposit. As a result, it was demonstrated that the Namakwa Sands zircon population has mainly a proximal, primary provenance, whereas contributions attributed to secondary, reworked or distal sources proved minor. The high concentration and quality of zircons in this deposit compared to similar placers globally is attributed to the proximity of a primary, zircon-rich provenance to a geomorphologically controlled depositional trap. The results of the study suggest that the contribution of Pan-African (750-500 Ma) sources is a key prerequisite in the successful exploration for similar high-quality zircon placer deposits along the west coast of South Africa.

  20. Introduction to LNG vehicle safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratvold, Delma; Friedman, David; Chernoff, Harry; Farkhondehpay, Dariush; Comay, Claudia

    1994-03-01

    Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

  1. The timing of early life events and growth rate estimates of age-0?year group brill Scophthalmus rhombus along the west coast of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Haynes, P S; Brophy, D; McGrath, D

    2014-01-01

    The timing of spawning and hatching, larval durations and growth exhibited by juvenile brill Scophthalmus rhombus captured along the Irish west coast were estimated using otolith microstructure analysis. Scophthalmus rhombus were estimated to have hatched between February and May, with fish settling onto nursery grounds between March and June. Fish collected later on in the season exhibited higher otolith growth rates in comparison to earlier collected fish. This is the first study to describe the early life history of a commercially valuable but understudied flatfish species. PMID:24383806

  2. Seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of West Indian manatees along the Atlantic coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deutsch, C.J.; Reid, J.P.; Bonde, R.K.; Easton, Dean E.; Kochman, H.I.; O'Shea, T.J.

    2003-01-01

    The West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus) is endangered by human activities throughout its range, including the U.S. Atlantic coast where habitat degradation from coastal development and manatee deaths from watercraft collisions have been particularly severe. We radio-tagged and tracked 78 manatees along the east coast of Florida and Georgia over a 12-year period (1986-1998). Our goals were to characterize the seasonal movements, migratory behavior, and site fidelity of manatees in this region in order to provide information for the development of effective conservation strategies. Most study animals were tracked remotely with the Argos satellite system, which yielded a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.6) locations per day; all were regularly tracked in the field using conventional radiotelemetry methods. The combined data collection effort yielded >93,000 locations over nearly 32,000 tag-days. The median duration of tracking was 8.3 months per individual, but numerous manatees were tracked over multiple years (max = 6.8 years). Most manatees migrated seasonally over large distances between a northerly warm-season range and a southerly winter range (median one-way distance = 280 km, max = 830 km), but 12% of individuals were resident in a relatively small area (2,300 km of coastline between southeastern Florida and Rhode Island. No study animals journeyed to the Gulf coast of Florida. Regions heavily utilized by tagged manatees included: Fernandina Beach, FL to Brunswick, GA in the warm season; northern Biscayne Bay to Port Everglades, FL in the winter; and central coastal Florida, especially the Banana River and northern Indian River lagoons, in all seasons. Daily travel rate, defined as the distance between successive mean daily locations, averaged 2.5 km (SD = 1.7), but this varied with season, migratory pattern, and sex. Adult males traveled a significantly greater distance per day than did adult females for most of the warm season, which corresponded closely with the principal period of breeding activity, but there was no difference between the sexes in daily travel rate during the winter. The timing of seasonal migrations differed markedly between geographic regions. Most long-distance movements in the southern half of the study area occurred between November and March in response to changing temperatures, whereas most migrations in the northern region took place during the warmer, non-winter months. Manatees left their warm-season range in central Florida in response to cold fronts that dropped water temperatures by an average of 2.0??C over the 24-hr period preceding departure. Water temperature at departure from the warm-season range averaged 19??C, but varied among individuals (16-22??C) and was not related to body size or female reproductive status. The presence of industrial warm-water effluents permitted many manatees to overwinter north of their historic winter range, and for some migrants this delayed autumn migrations and facilitated earlier spring migrations. Southward autumn and northward spring migrations lasted an average of 10 and 15 days at mean rates of 33.5 (SD = 7.6) and 27.3 (SD = 10.5) km/day, respectively. The highest rate of travel during migration was 87 km/day (3.6 km/hr) during winter. Manatees overwintering in southeastern Florida often traveled north during mild weather - sometimes reaching their warm-season range - only to return south again with the next major cold front. Manatees were consistent in their seasonal movement patterns across years and showed strong fidelity, to warm-season and winter ranges. Within a season, individuals usually occupied only 1 or 2 core use areas that encompassed about 90% of daily locations. Most manatees returned faithfully to the same seasonal ranges year after year (median distance between range centers was <5 km between years). Seasonal movements of 4 immature manatees tracked as calves with their mothers

  3. Seasonal and regional variability in dissolved and particulate iron fluxes via glacial runoff along the West Greenland coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, K.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Harrold, Z.; Liu, L.; Dieser, M.; Cameron, K. A.; Christner, B. C.; Junge, K.

    2012-12-01

    Subglacial weathering, due to biogeochemical and physical weathering processes, can affect the chemical evolution of subglacial waters and release dissolved and particulate iron via glacial runoff. Iron is a growth limiting nutrient and plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycles of coastal and marine waters. More recently, dissolved and colloidal iron derived from subglacial sources have been considered an important contributor of Fe fluxes to the ocean; however, their dependency on lithology, grain size, and microbial activity is not well understood. This study characterizes the solute chemistry, in particular iron mineralogy and dissolved iron concentrations, released from beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), from two locations along the West Greenland coast, Thule (76N, 68W) and Kangerlussuaq (67N, 50W). We hypothesize that the subglacial lithology has a control on Fe fluxes from the GrIS to coastal and marine systems. The underlying bedrock in Thule is the Precambrian Dundas and Narssarssuk sedimentary formations which include sandstone, siltstone, and shale. The bedrock in Kangerlussuaq is dominated by Archean granodioritic gneiss and amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen. Supra and subglacial meltwater samples were collected directly in front of the Ice Sheet over an entire melt season in 2011 (North River, Thule) and 2012 (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River, Kangerlussuaq). In situ parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity were recorded in order to interpret meltwater chemistry. Dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) species were fixed immediately and analyzed within 24 hours after sampling in the field laboratory using a spectrophotometer and 10 cm cell. Total dissolved iron (FeT) of different size fractions (<0.22 and <0.05 ?m) of iron were determined back in the home laboratory using reaction cell ICP MS. Preliminary results demonstrate that subglacial meltwater of North River has average FeT concentrations of 200 nM and 10 nM in the <0.22 and <0.05 ?m size fraction, respectively, indicating that FeT in the <0.22 ?m fraction is mostly (95%) in form of colloidal iron. In comparison, data from Kangerlussuaq show an average FeT of 580 nM in the <0.22 ?m size fraction and 150 nM in the <0.05 ?m fraction. Suspended load in North River increased throughout the ablation period in concurrence with variation in discharge, from an average of 0.08 g/L in the early melt stages (June), 0.21 g/L during the high melt (July-August), and 0.15 g/L during the late melt (end of August-September). Initial estimates for the suspended load for subglacial flow in Kangerlussuaq are 0.30 g/L on average. The suspended load will be analyzed for iron by sequential extraction in order to characterize how iron partitions between oxide and (oxyhydr)oxide minerals in the sediment. This comprehensive study will allow us to identify biogeochemical processes involved in the mobilization of iron and to evaluate how increased melting of GrIS will affect Fe fluxes to coastal and marine environments.

  4. Paleo-tsunami and land-level change evidence from the west coast of South Andaman, Andman Nicobar Island, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Javed; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Shishikura, M.

    2010-05-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004, Mw 9.3 provided an ideal opportunity to understand the pattern of paleoseismic event and paleo-tsunami deposition in Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The present investigation carried out along the west coast of Andaman Island around Collinpur village (N113956.9 and E924431.3) revealed excellent evidences pointing towards land-level change and tsunami deposition during recent historic past. Sedimentary records studied from the geo-slicer and trench sections collected along transect across stable beach ridges and swales between the ridges (N1141'38?, E9235'52?) revealed distinct change in depositional environments which have been attributed to tectonic activity. In total we excavated 4 trenches and collected 9 geo-slicer sections. We present here our preliminary results and interpretations. Based on sedimentary structures, grain size and nature of contact and colour, sedimentary units from the trenches and geoslicers were classified into seven units (a, b, c, d, e, f, g and h) from bottom to top. The bottom most unit a is marked by poor laminations of fine silty-sand and peaty material suggestive of inter-tidal to marshy environment. This is overlain by 30 cm thick unit b - comprising coarse sand with gravel fragments (corals, shells, rock clasts etc.) in the swale and coarse sandy deposits along with broken shells, peaty material and rip-up clasts of underlying soil on the back-limb of the beach ridge. The sharp-erosive contact with the underlying and overlying sedimentary unit, distinct variation in grain marked assorted fragments, broken shell; peaty material suggests deposition by tsunami wave during recent geological past. Overlying unit c marked by partially developed peaty layer suggests marshy environment at or above mean sea level indicative of a probable uplift (?) which occurred during Event I accompanied with tsunami waves. Unit d with finer deposits comprised of silty-clay suggests deposition under sub-tidal environment; change of depositional environment from marshy to sub-tidal suggests subsidence - Event II. Thick silty-sand unit (unit e) and overlying humic soil (unit f) indicates land-level change. Based on the change in sediment grain size and well develop humic soil it is suggested that the uplift was gradual during inter-seismic period. Unit g shows yellowish medium to coarse sand with prominent laminations at the basal part and sharp contact with the underlying humic soil (unit f). This unit marks the deposition by recent tsunami generated by 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquakes. Marginal coseismic subsidence probably occurred during this event - Event II. AMS ages obtained from the peaty material, charcoal, wood from the geo-slice and trench sections suggests that Event I marked by tsunami deposits occurred at around 1200-1300 AD; Event II marked by subsidence occurred somewhere during 1300-1800 AD. It is inferred that the gradual uplift during inter-seismic period occurred between 1800 and 2000 AD. Finally the area marginally subsided during 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake along with deposition of tsunami sediments.

  5. Wave energy converter with enhanced amplitude response at frequencies coinciding with Swedish west coast sea states by use of a supplementary submerged body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engstrm, J.; Eriksson, M.; Isberg, J.; Leijon, M.

    2009-09-01

    The full-scale direct-driven wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University has been in offshore operation at the Swedish west coast since 2006. Earlier simulations have now been validated by full-scale experiment with good agreement. Based on that, a theoretical model for a passive system having optimum amplitude response at frequencies coinciding with Swedish west coast conditions has been developed. The amplitude response is increased by adding supplementary inertia by use of the additional mass from a submerged body. A sphere with neutral buoyancy is chosen as the submerged body and modeled as being below the motion of the waves. The model is based on potential linear wave theory and the power capture ratio is studied for real ocean wave data collected at the research test site. It is found that the power capture ratio for the two body system can be increased from 30% to 60% compared to a single body system. Increased velocity in the system also decreases the value for optimal load damping from the generator, opening up the possibility to design smaller units.

  6. First report of Urosporidium sp., a haplosporidian hyperparasite infecting digenean trematode Parvatrema duboisi in Manila clam, Ruditapes philippinarum on the west coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Le, Thanh Cuong; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Kwang-Jae; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we first report on the occurrence of Urosporidium sp., a haplosporidian hyperparasite infecting the trematode, Parvatrema duboisi, which parasitizes Manila clams, Ruditapes philippinarum on the west and south coasts of Korea. The larval P. duboisi infected by the sporocyst stage of Urosporidium sp. demonstrated numerous small yellowish spores in their tissues. The heavily infected metacercariae exhibited degenerate bodies and the larvae were often motionless. Clams heavily infected by the metacercariae of P. duboisi also displayed abnormal golden spots on the mantle tissue. In histology, different life stages of Urosporidium sp. could be identified, including the uni-nucleate, plasmodial, sporogonic stages and the acid fast mature spores released from the cyst. In scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the mature spore exhibited a semi-circular rim around the apical end and the orifice was covered internally with a flap. Loop-like filaments ornamentation was also identified from Urosporidium sp. in SEM, suggesting that Urosporidium sp. found in this study is a new member in the genus. Prevalence of Urosporidium sp.-infected trematodes in this study ranged from 2.5% to 24.0% in April 2010 and the infection was observed from 8 sampling sites out of the 26 sites surveyed on the west and south coasts. PMID:26271576

  7. Low-Frequency Aspects of the Large-Scale Circulation and West Coast United States Temperature/Precipitation Fluctuations in a Simplified General Circulation Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shyh-Chin; Cayan, Daniel R.

    1994-11-01

    Behavior of regional precipitation and temperature over the West Coast of the United States was examined in a long perpetual winter simulation from a simplified global general circulation model. The model, a simplified version of the U.S. National Weather Service global operational forecast model, was run over a series of 568 winters, complete with geopotential, precipitation, and near-surface temperature. In spite of the fixed climatologica boundary conditions, the simulated winter-mean precipitation and temperature anomalies have a fairly realistic low-frequency regional variability. Both synoptic-scale events and seasonal average behavior are produced quite realistically by the model. Like observations, the regional surface variations can be related to the large-scale low-frequency circulation.Four regional temperature/precipitation extreme-namely, warm/dry, cool/wet, cool/dry, and warm/wet-can be identified from the simulated winter-mean time series over the West Coast. Associated with these four regional extremes, model Northern Hemisphere 500-rnb height composites exhibit distinct planetary-scale circulation patterns. An empirical orthogonal function analysis further reveals that the first and third modes of the 500-mb height anomalies am primary contributors to these four regional extremes. The first mode largely governs the regional temperature variation, whereas the third mode largely determines the precipitation variation.

  8. Isolation and characterization of a nodavirus associated with mass mortality in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) from the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debashis; Hamod, Mohammed A; Suresh, Thangavel; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2014-12-01

    A fish nodavirus was detected in the juveniles of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) during a massive outbreak in the seabass cage culture farm located in the south west coast of India. The clinical signs of the disease included anorexia, inflated abdomen, exophthalmia, darkening of the whole body, erratic swimming and cork-screw type movement followed by death. The dead and the moribund fish were analyzed for nodavirus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers targeting the T4 region of RNA2 coat protein gene. This is the first report of nodavirus infection in the fresh water cage-reared seabass fish in the west coast of India. The piscine nodavirus was detected in the brain, retina and kidney of all the fishes examined. The PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequence analysis showed more than 90% homology with the other coat protein gene sequence of piscine nodaviruses from other countries. The phylogenetic analysis based on the partial nucleotide sequence of RNA2 coat protein gene revealed that the virus belonged to the red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus, which is one of the widely distributed genotype among the other four known genotypes of piscine nodavirus. PMID:25674617

  9. LNG risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, P.

    1980-12-01

    A general methodology is presented for conducting an analysis of the various aspects of the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which should be considered during the planning stages of a typical LNG ship terminal. The procedure includes the performance of a hazards and system analysis of the proposed site, a probability analysis of accident scenarios and safety impacts, an analysis of the consequences of credible accidents such as tanker accidents, spills and fires, the assessment of risks and the design and evaluation of risk mitigation measures.

  10. LNG annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

    1982-09-01

    This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

  11. LNG infrastructure and equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Forgash, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Sound engineering principals have been used by every company involved in the development of the LNG infrastructure, but there is very little that is new. The same cryogenic technology that is used in the manufacture and sale of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen infrastructure is used in LNG infrastructure. The key component of the refueling infrastructure is the LNG tank which should have a capacity of at least 15,000 gallons. These stainless steel tanks are actually a tank within a tank separated by an annular space that is void of air creating a vacuum between the inner and outer tank where superinsulation is applied. Dispensing can be accomplished by pressure or pump. Either works well and has been demonstrated in the field. Until work is complete on NFPA 57 or The Texas Railroad Commission Rules for LNG are complete, the industry is setting the standards for the safe installation of refueling infrastructure. As a new industry, the safety record to date has been outstanding.

  12. The effects of marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations on ambient PM2.5 along the west coast of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2015-02-01

    This work uses PM2.5 data and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) modeling to explore the effects of two marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations along the west coast of the United States (US); California's (CA) Ocean-Going Vessel Clean Fuel Regulation (CA-CFR) implemented in July 2009 and the North American Emissions Control Area (NA-ECA) implemented in August 2012. Data from 31 chemically speciated PM2.5 monitors along the US west coast were analyzed and 9 sites with strong linear correlations between vanadium and nickel were selected for PMF modeling. The 9 sites were modeled independently and for 8 sites, 3 in CA and 5 in Washington State (WA), a well-defined factor linked to marine vessel residual fuel oil (RFO) combustion was identified. For these 8 sites, model results were subdivided into three time periods; a three year period prior to implementation of the CA-CFR, a three year period after the CA-CFR but prior to the NA-ECA, and a one year period after implementation of the NA-ECA. Marine vessel PM2.5 distributions were compared between the three time periods to determine if statistically significant reductions had occurred. Comparing marine vessel PM2.5 for the three years before and after CA-CFR implementation, all CA sites indicated statistically significant reductions, with reductions in annualized average marine vessel PM2.5 from 30 to 52% (0.09-0.78 μg/m3). Comparing marine vessel PM2.5 for the three years before NA-ECA implementation and the 1 year after, 2 of 5 WA sites indicated statistically significant reductions in annualized average impacts (45-50%, 0.12-0.23 μg/m3) and 1 of 3 sites in CA (46%, 0.04 μg/m3). These results demonstrate that marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations on the west coast of the US have been effective at reducing PM2.5 impacts from marine vessel RFO combustion at some locations, with the implementation of the CA-CFR showing more success than the NA-ECA. The greater observed success of the CA-CFR is, to some extent, probably the result of a longer 3-year implementation time compared to only 1 year for the NA-ECA.

  13. Determination of in situ biomass and energetics in seagrass beds on the west coast of Florida. Topical report, May 1982-January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Gulf Coastal region of Florida supports extensive grass beds that almost continuously cover the shallow (1-5m) depths from Apalachicola Bay to Anclote Bay and in Tampa Bay. Attached and drift benthic seaweeds occur as well and may have higher energetic yields than the seagrasses. The shallow and continuous beds offer a possible source for plant biomass use in methane production, if sufficient material is available throughout the year and the energetics are high enough. Triweekly samplings at three sites around Tampa Bay and bimonthly samplings at four sites along the west coast of Florida showed highest biomass occurring during the spring through fall months. The available biomass of combined attached and drift seagrasses and seaweeds was lower than that predicted when compared with terrestrial crops. Naturally occurring seagrass and seaweed beds do not have sufficient biomass to justify harvesting for biogass production, although energetics levels are high.

  14. Depositional record of trace metals and degree of contamination in core sediments from the Mandovi estuarine mangrove ecosystem, west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Vethamony, P; Mani Murali, R; Fernandes, B

    2015-02-15

    The concentrations of seven trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn) in three sediment cores were analysed to assess the depositional trends of metals and their contamination level in the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India. All sediment cores showed enrichment of trace metals in the upper part of core sediments and decrease in concentration with depth, suggesting excess of anthropogenic loading (including mining activities) occurred during the recent past. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images distinguished the shape, size and structure of particles derived from lithogenic and anthropogenic sources in core sediments. The geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) values indicate that Mandovi estuary is 'moderately polluted' with Pb, whereas 'unpolluted to moderately polluted' with Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn. The comparative analysis of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn were highly enriched in the Mandovi estuary compared to all other Indian estuaries. PMID:25510546

  15. Low-Level Waste Ocean Disposal Program final report: Site characterization of the Pacific Study Area, West Coast, Northern Site (W-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes the outcome of a Pacific Ocean research program begun in November 1978 by Sandia National Laboratories for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. The six-year oceanographic program was in support of a US Navy environmental evaluation of possible sea disposal of defueled, decommissioned, nuclear-powered submarines. Evaluation guidelines were written to define a site suitable for such sea disposal. This final report, which combines results from two previous progress reports and data from recently completed studies, characterizes a suitable site, the West Coast, Northern Site (W-N). Although W-N is neither the only possible nor the best Pacific site, it is one suitable location under the site evaluation guidelines. 95 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. On some sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) from off the south and west coasts of South Africa collected by the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON).

    PubMed

    Thandar, Ahmed S; Rambaran, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Twenty four specimens of holothuroids recently received from the South African Environmental and Observation Network (SAEON), collected from off the south and west coasts of South Africa, are herein recorded and/or described. The specimens comprise eight nominal and one indeterminate species and represent both shallow-water and deep-sea forms, distributed from Plettenberg Bay to just north of Lambert's Bay in the Western Cape Province. There are no new species but two new records for the South African region and extensions of horizontal and bathymetric distributions of the other species. Additions to the South African fauna are Zygothuria lactea (Thel, 1886) and Synallactes cf. challengeri (Thel, 1886). The paper also contains the first definite record of Thyone venusta Selenka, 1868, originally described from the Red Sea. Distribution ranges of the following species have been altered Synallactes viridilimus Cherbonnier, 1952; S. mollis Cherbonnier, 1952 and Psuedostichopus langeae Thandar, 2009. PMID:26250325

  17. Applications of a new ecosystem model to study the dynamics of phytoplankton and nutrients in the Ariake Sea, west coast of Kyushu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minh Hang, Nguyen Thi; Cao Don, Nguyen; Araki, Hiroyuki; Yamanishi, Hiroyuki; Koga, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we present the development and application of a new ecosystem model coupled with a hydrodynamic model to describe the important physical, chemical and biological processes of an ecosystem in the marine environment, the Ariake Sea in the west coast of Kyushu, Japan. The model was calibrated and validated using in-situ field measurements from various monitoring stations in the sea. The presented results covered the period from January 1991 to December 2000. The results showed that chlorophyll- a, nutrients and dissolved oxygen levels varied seasonally in response to weather and boundary condition. Through this study, the model was shown to be able to handle the flooding and drying processes that usually exist and play an essential role over the estuarine-tidal flats of the sea.

  18. New Tooth Enamel Isotopic Data from the West Coast of South Africa and a Comparison of Terrestrial and Marine Records of Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Stynder, D. D.; Bishop, L. C.; Forrest, F.; Braun, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene transition marks a change in the Earth's climate from relative global warmth to colder temperatures with the initiation of glacial-interglacial cycles. Proxy records from marine cores off SW Africa archive changes in ocean upwelling and terrestrial vegetation that suggest increased aridity across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Today, the SW African coast has a Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ) and is dominated by C3 vegetation, which results from the regional high-pressure system and upwelling in the Benguela Current. While marine records provide an integrated perspective on regional responses to global climate change, terrestrial paleoclimate records are needed to assess the effects of these changes in a heterogeneous environment like southern Africa. Archeological and paleontological sites can provide useful proxies of paleoclimate, but many southern African sites are poorly dated or postdate the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Langebaanweg (LBW, ~5 Ma) and Elandsfontein (EFT, ~1.0-0.6 Ma) are sites on the SW coast of South Africa that are rich in fossil mammals and represent landscapes where surface water was more prevalent than it is in today's dry coastal environment. Fossil teeth of large herbivores (e.g. hippopotamids, giraffids, bovids, rhinocerotids, suids and equids) are preserved at both sites and enable isotopic studies of vegetation and climate across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotopic data are reported for 100 fossil teeth (11 herbivore taxa) at EFT and are compared to published isotopic data from early Pliocene teeth from LBW for many of the same genera. ?13C values of the EFT tooth enamel range from 13 to 8 (VPDB) and ?18O values range from -2 to +3 (VPDB). Among the EFT data, there are consistent differences in the distribution of both ?13C and ?18O values among the sampled taxa. When the EFT and LBW isotopic results are compared, ?13C values from the two sites are similar within each taxonomic group. However, ?18O values of the EFT teeth are more than 2 higher than ?18O values of LBW teeth for each herbivore family that was sampled. Enamel ?13C values from LBW and EFT indicate herbivore diets that were dominated by C3 vegetation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Mesowear studies of teeth suggest that the West Coast of South Africa was a forested environment with seasonal grasses during the Pliocene but that it supported trees, fynbos and grasses in the mid-Pleistocene. The isotopic indications of C3 diets among grazers from both sites suggest that a WRZ must have existed across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. The positive shift in ?18O values of fossil tooth enamel between the early Pliocene and the mid-Pleistocene on the West Coast of South Africa might suggest a change in the oxygen isotopic composition of rainfall and a decrease in the amount of rainfall across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Excluding diagenesis, these conclusions are consistent with marine records. This study indicates the potential for using the stable isotope records from fossil teeth from the West Coast of South Africa to evaluate how the intensification of the Benguela Upwelling System, which is well documented in the marine records, affected terrestrial ecosystems across the Plio-Pleistocene transition.

  19. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  20. Interaction of the Marine Atmosphere, Coastal Topography and Sea Surface Temperature on Marine Fog Distribution Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, C. E.; Mejia, J.; Koracin, D. R.; McEvoy, D.

    2014-12-01

    ICOADS ship observations for 1950-2007 were used to examine the distribution of marine fog along the West Coast of North America between 20N and 50N. Quarterly (June-August, JJA; Sept-Nov, SON; Dec-Feb, DJF; March-May, MAM) long-term means were obtained and gridded using a 1x 1 degree-arc mesh. The ship observation includes a subjective assessment of the weather that is codified into 100 categories. The most important and relevant are deep fog at the time of observation with the visibility less than or equal to 1 km. The most frequent deep fog is during JJA, with the highest values in the grid points closest to shore. There is a general fog frequency maximum along the coast between 34N - 44N that decreases offshore. More frequent occurrences tend to occur at major capes. The maximum JJA occurrences are at Cape Blanco and Pt Arena. In contrast, deep fog is infrequent along Baja California. In SON, deep fog occurrences are lowest with a narrower coastal maximum. In DJF, there is a broad, uneven fog maximum along the coast between 35N-39N. The frequency of deep fog occurrence is intermediate in MAM, with a weak, broad area north of 35N. The distribution of the occurrence of deep fog in JJA is determined by a three way interaction between the atmosphere, the land and the ocean. The southbound marine layer is channeled by the coastal mountains and interacts with land topography via hydraulic dynamics. The marine layer flow accelerates on the downwind side of major capes, forces greater wind driven upwelling and colder sea surface temperatures along the coast of Southern Oregon and Northern California. However, the fast southbound winds are largely free of marine fog. Marine fog tends to occur along the inner coast when the southbound winds decay or reverse direction for 1-3 days, with the densest fog downwind of a major cape where the sea surface temperatures are lowest.

  1. Distribution, biomass and size of grooved Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes tanneri) from annual bottom trawl surveys (2003-2010) along the U.S. west coast (Washington to California)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Harms, John H.; Buchanan, John C.

    2012-09-01

    Catch and distribution of grooved Tanner crab (Chionoecetes tanneri Rathbun, 1893) from the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey (55-1280 m) were examined along the U.S. west coast (lat. 3230'N-4830'N). Grooved Tanner crabs were present in 28% of tows and occurred primarily at depths from 300 to 1280 m. Annual biomass (metric tons, mt) indices and density (kg km-2) estimates for the population varied significantly throughout the study area and within five International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC) statistical areas. Highest estimates occurred in the Monterey INPFC area (lat. 36N-4030'N) and within the 601-800 m depth interval. Depth distribution varied by year and coast-wide catch-weighted average depths (m) were significantly correlated with average annual Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) indices (2003-2010), a measure of Pacific climate variability. Annual mean carapace widths (CW), measured from 2005 to 2010, were always greater for males (96.9-113.9 mm) relative to females (85.3-95.8 mm). Size frequency distributions varied by year with strong recruitment for both sexes apparent in 2010. Grooved Tanner crabs were partially segregated by depth and stage. Males and females were found in all depth intervals but the average depth of adult females was significantly shallower (756 m) than adult males (837 m); adults were significantly shallower than subadult female (907 m) and subadult male (927 m) crabs.

  2. Glacial isostatic adjustment in response to changing Late Holocene behaviour of ice streams on the Siple Coast, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nield, Grace A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; King, Matt A.; Clarke, Peter J.

    2016-04-01

    The Siple Coast region of Antarctica contains a number of fast-flowing ice streams, which control the dynamics and mass balance of the region. These ice streams are known to undergo stagnation and reactivation cycles, which lead to ice thickness changes that may be sufficient to excite a viscous solid Earth response (glacial isostatic adjustment; GIA). This study aims to quantify Siple Coast ice thickness changes during the last 2000 yr in order to determine the degree to which they might contribute to GIA and associated present-day bedrock uplift rates. This is important because accurate modelling of GIA is necessary to determine the rate of present-day ice-mass change from satellite gravimetry. Recently-published reconstructions of ice-stream variability were used to create a suite of kinematic models for the stagnation-related thickening of Kamb Ice Stream since ˜1850 AD, and a GIA model was used to predict present-day deformation rates in response to this thickening. A number of longer-term loading scenarios, which include the stagnation and reactivation of ice streams across the Siple Coast over the past 2000 yr, were also constructed, and used to investigate the longer term GIA signal in the region. Uplift rates for each of the ice loading histories, based on a range of earth models, were compared with regional GPS-observed uplift rates and an empirical GIA estimate. We estimate Kamb Ice Stream to have thickened by 70-130 m since stagnation ˜165 years ago. Modelled present-day vertical motion in response to this load increase peaks at -17 mm yr-1 (i.e. 17 mm yr-1 subsidence) for the weakest earth models tested here. Comparison of the solid Earth response to ice load changes throughout the last glacial cycle, including ice stream stagnation and reactivation across the Siple Coast during the last 2000 yr, with an empirical GIA estimate suggests that the upper mantle viscosity of the region is greater than 1 × 1020 Pa s. When upper mantle viscosity values of 1 × 1020 Pa s or smaller are combined with our suite of ice-load scenarios we predict uplift rates across Siple Coast that are at least 4 mm yr-1 smaller than those predicted by the empirical GIA estimate. GPS data are unable to further constrain model parameters due to the distance of the GPS sites from the study area. Our results demonstrate that Late Holocene ice load changes related to the stagnation and reactivation of ice streams on the Siple Coast may play a dominant role in defining the present-day uplift signal. However, both the detailed Earth structure and deglacial history of the region need to be better constrained in order to reduce uncertainties associated with the GIA signal of this region.

  3. Field Signatures of the SE-Asian Mega-Tsunami along the West Coast of Thailand Compared to Holocene Paleo-Tsunami from the Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelletat, Dieter; Scheffers, Sander R.; Scheffers, Anja

    2007-03-01

    The Andaman-Sumatra Tsunami of Dec. 26, 2004, was by far the largest tsunami catastrophe in human history. An earthquake of 9 to 9.3 on the Richter scale, the extension of waves over more than 5000 km of ocean and run-ups up to 35 m are its key features. These characteristics suggest significant changes in coastal morphology and high sediment transport rates. A field survey along the west coast of Thailand (Phuket Island, Khao Lak region including some Similan Islands, Nang Pha mangrove areas and Phi Phi Don Islands) seven to nine weeks after the tsunami, however, discovered only small changes in coastal morphology and a limited amount of dislocated sediments, restricted to the lower meters of the tsunami waves. This is in striking contrast to many paleo-tsunami's events of the Atlantic region. Explanations for this discrepancy are sought in: a. Mechanics of the earthquake. A rather slow shock impulse on the water masses over the very long earthquake zone, b. Shallow water in the earthquake zone, and c. Bathymetry of the foreshore zone at the impacted sites. Shallow water west of Thailand has diminished wave energy significantly. The differences in geomorphological and sedimentological signatures of this tsunami compared with many paleo-tsunami worldwide makes it unsuitable to be used as a model for old and future tsunami imprints by an event of this extreme energy and extension.

  4. Tracing the sources of water using stable isotopes: first results along the Mangalore-Udupi region, south-west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Lambs, L; Gurumurthy, G P; Balakrishna, K

    2011-10-15

    The Mangalore and Udupi region on the south-west coast of India is characterized by small west-flowing rivers (150-250 km in length) originating in the Western Ghats (up to 1940 meters above sea level (m asl)) and joining the Arabian Sea. The area experiences a humid tropical climate with frequent, high-intensity rainfall (4000 mm annual average). Nevertheless, there is a shortage of water during the peak dry season immediately before the onset of monsoon because of a rapid fall in the groundwater level. From the humid high-altitude forests to the intense agriculture in the coastal area, there is an urgent need to understand the movement of water between evapotranspiration, rainfall, river systems and the groundwater compartments in order to achieve better water resource management. Demographic pressure on the area with over half a million inhabitants and industrial activity strongly influence this fragile ecosystem. The coastal area is characterized by shallow open wells, which are particularly sensitive to pollution and eutrophication. Stable water isotopes ((18)O and deuterium) were used for the first time in this region to determine the isotopic characteristics of the different waters. There is a clear seasonal difference in the isotopic ratios and d-excess values between the summer and winter monsoon periods, with a predominance of lighter isotopes in the latter period. No significant variations in isotopic ratios were observed in relation to altitude because of the possible role of mist formation at high altitude. Greater d-excess values were observed in the west-flowing streams than in rivers flowing east on account of the moist westerly oceanic winds and water vapour recycling. PMID:21913254

  5. Using CHEMTAX to evaluate seasonal and interannual dynamics of the phytoplankton community off the South-west coast of Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goela, P. C.; Danchenko, S.; Icely, J. D.; Lubian, L. M.; Cristina, S.; Newton, A.

    2014-12-01

    CHEMTAX was used to assess the relative contribution of the main phytoplankton classes to the total concentration of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) from the waters off SW coast of Portugal. Sampling campaigns were carried out during all seasons from 2008 to 2012, at three stations located 2, 10 and 18 km from the coast. Samples were taken from the surface, mid-Secchi and Secchi depth, for the determination of Chl a and other phytoplanktonic pigments by HPLC. Supporting data were also obtained including dissolved inorganic nutrients, salinity, transparency, temperature and upwelling indices. The CHEMTAX results were also related to microscopy counts and also spectral analysis of absorption of other samples from the same sampling campaigns. The pigment results showed that diatoms dominated from early spring to summer, coinciding with upwelling conditions, while cryptophytes, prymnesiophytes and prasinophytes dominated in autumn and winter, coinciding with seasonal stratification. Although the contribution of cyanobacteria to total Chl a was generally low, there were occasional sampling campaigns where it was exceptionally high, but these appeared not to be related to upwelling. Dinoflagellates and chrysophytes were minority groups although the pigment marker peridinin that was used to distinguish dinoflagellates was not adequate for distinguishing all the members of this group. CHEMTAX was particularly useful for discriminating between the smaller (0-20 ?m) classes of the microplankton that could not be easily identified by microscopy.

  6. Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

  7. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  8. Reactivation of Kamb Ice Stream tributaries triggers century-scale reorganization of Siple Coast ice flow in West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougamont, M.; Christoffersen, P.; Price, S. F.; Fricker, H. A.; Tulaczyk, S.; Carter, S. P.

    2015-10-01

    Ongoing, centennial-scale flow variability within the Ross ice streams of West Antarctica suggests that the present-day positive mass balance in this region may reverse in the future. Here we use a three-dimensional ice sheet model to simulate ice flow in this region over 250 years. The flow responds to changing basal properties, as a subglacial till layer interacts with water transported in an active subglacial hydrological system. We show that a persistent weak bed beneath the tributaries of the dormant Kamb Ice Stream is a source of internal ice flow instability, which reorganizes all ice streams in this region, leading to a reduced (positive) mass balance within decades and a net loss of ice within two centuries. This hitherto unaccounted for flow variability could raise sea level by 5 mm this century. Better constraints on future sea level change from this region will require improved estimates of geothermal heat flux and subglacial water transport.

  9. International LNG report/Developments proceed slowly in world LNG industry

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.

    1980-03-01

    A discussion of developments in the world LNG industry covers U.S. developments, including the Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, the National Fire Protection Association's 1979 edition of Standard 59A for the production, storage, and handling of LNG, and progress in the permitting of major LNG import projects changes in U.S. rules on LNG pricing; LNG accidents, including the grounding of the LNG carrier Vertical BarEl Paso Paul Kaise.

  10. Installation and Initial Operation of DOE's 449-MHz Wind Profiling Radars on the U.S. West Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, Julia E.; Shaw, William J.; Morris, Victor R.; Wilczak, J. M.; White, A. B.; Ayers, Tom; Jordan, Jim; King, Clark W.

    2015-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has recently completed the installation of three new wind profiling radars on the Washington and Oregon coasts. These systems operate at a frequency of 449 MHz and provide mean wind profiles to a height of roughly 8 km, with the maximum measurement height depending on time-varying atmospheric conditions. This is roughly half the depth of the troposphere at these latitudes. Each system is also equipped with a radio acoustic sounding system (RASS), which provides a measure of the temperature profile to heights of approximately 2 km. Other equipment deployed alongside the radar includes a surface meteorological station and GPS for column water vapor. This project began in fiscal year 2014, starting with equipment procurements and site selection. In addition, environmental reviews, equipment assembly and testing, site access agreements, and infrastructure preparations have been performed. Finally, with equipment deployment with data collection and dissemination, the primary tasks of this project have been completed. The three new wind profiling radars have been deployed at airports near Coos Bay, OR, and Astoria, OR, and at an industrial park near Forks, WA. Data are available through the NOAA Earth Systems Research Laboratory Data Display website, and will soon be made available through the DOE Atmosphere to Electrons data archive and portal as well.

  11. Albedo patterns and gypsum generation in the central Namib Desert - Land, sea and air interactions on an arid West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Helms, D. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

    1992-01-01

    In the central Namib Desert, dune-free surfaces are separated abruptly from a sea of yellow and red sand dunes at the Kuiseb River canyon. The off-white hues of the dune-free area result from anomalously high surficial gypsum enrichment. Satellite imagery indicates that the gypsum surfaces are associated with lower surface maximum temperatures than those of the darker dune surfaces to the south. One of various sources of sulfate for the gypsum bodies is oceanic H2S, supplied to desert land-surfaces by regular fog incursions. Since fog events are widespread along the coast, the question of anomalous gypsum accumulations north of the dune sea arises. Satellite imagery, in conjunction with more detailed handheld photography from the space shuttle, indicates that the penetration of fog inland is significantly greater over the gypsum surfaces than it is over the dunes. It is postulated that the thermal gradient between these surfaces generates a heat low centered over the northern part of dune sea and that this enhances fog and H2S advection on its north side onto the nearby dune-free zone. In such a system, gypsum/caliche surfaces reinforce advection of fog over themselves in a positive feedback mode.

  12. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  13. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  14. The impact of different hydrographic conditions and zooplankton communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Walkusz, Wojciech; Karnovsky, Nina; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Cisek, Malgorzata; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2010-10-01

    Composition and abundance of zooplankton were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks ( Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. Zooplankton was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Sørkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the abundance of prey preferred by Little Auks, Arctic Calanus glacialis copepodids stage V, among zooplankton was similar in both localities. However, there was much more of Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus on the shelf outside Magdalenefjorden compared to Hornsund, resulting in different abundance ratios of Arctic to Atlantic copepods in the two areas (1:14 and 1:1, respectively). Even greater differences between the two areas occurred in the ratio of C. glacialis CV to other zooplankters, amounting to 1:40 in Magdalenefjorden and 1:6 in Hornsund. In both Little Auk colonies food brought by parents to their chicks contained mainly C. glacialis CV, albeit the proportion of this copepod in meals was significantly higher in Hornsund. Meals delivered to Little Auk chicks in Hornsund had also higher zooplankton numbers, biomass and energy content. In Magdalenefjorden, on the other hand, a higher number of feedings and longer duration of foraging trips were recorded. These differences became more apparent with increasing energy requirements of the fast growing nestlings. This was probably a consequence of lower relative abundance of the Little Auks’ preferred prey in the sea adjacent to Magdalenefjorden colony. It seems that searching for the preferred food items, such as C. glacialis, among abundant but less favored C. finmarchicus, may require more time and energy demanding foraging behavior. As a consequence, foraging effort of the Little Auk parents from Magdalenefjorden was higher, and feeding efficiency lower, than those of birds from Hornsund. Increasing influx of warm Atlantic waters that bring boreal zooplankton to the Arctic Seas may have negative impacts on Little Auks’ time and energy budgets and eventually on their breeding success and range of breeding distribution.

  15. Food utilisation by coastal fish assemblages in rocky and soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Inference for identification of essential fish habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stål, Johan; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

    2007-02-01

    The concept of essential fish habitats (EFHs) is widely accepted for conservational and management purposes. EFHs are often considered as high quality habitats for fisheries species and subsequently of high values for society. In this study, fish and Substrate-Associated Prey (SAP) were sampled during the productive summer season 1998 (fish) and 2003 and 2004 (SAP) in shallow coastal rocky- and soft-bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast. The aim was to study the spatial and monthly variation of SAP as well as abundance and biomass of fish, and to examine if food items found in the diet of the fish assemblage were derived from SAP. We also examined if the diet of Ctenolabrus rupestris, a resident and abundant fish species in the shallow coastal habitats, and the diet of four seasonally abundant and commercially important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Pleuronectes platessa, Salmo trutta and Scomber scombrus) were derived from SAP. There were significantly higher mean species number and abundance of the SAP assemblage on rocky compared to soft bottoms and the highest values were found on the rocky bottoms in August and in the shallowest (0-3 m) depth strata. There were no significant differences in number of fish species caught in the two habitats, although mean number of fish and mean biomass were significantly higher on rocky bottoms. Both habitats showed the same seasonal variation and the highest values of number of fish species, abundance and biomass were observed in June. On rocky bottoms, gastropods and amphipods were the most frequent food items in the diet of the entire fish assemblage and these items were also the most abundant SAP in this habitat. The dominant food items of the soft-bottom fish assemblage were decapods and fish, which were not common SAP. However, except for S. scombrus, the diet of the selected fish species showed a strong association to the SAP availability. Gadus morhua displayed the strongest association to SAP on rocky bottoms and P. platessa and C. rupestris to SAP on soft bottoms. Further, for C. rupestris, multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association to the SAP assemblage on both rocky and soft bottoms. These results provide vital new information for the management and conservation of Essential Fish Habitats on the Swedish west coast.

  16. Provenance of the Heavy Mineral-enriched Alluvial Deposits at the West Coast of Red Sea. Implications to the Evolution of Arabian-Nubian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar, M. A.; Ibrahim, T.; Goodell, P.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of 1) 824-733 Ma, 2) 730-705 Ma, 3) 646-608 Ma, 4) 516-500 Ma, and 5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ~500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (?Hf (t)) of both fans varies from +3.5 to +13.5. Our new U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition suggests that the detrital zircons were derived from the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust. This is consistent with the Neoproterozoic juvenile igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Eastern Desert and northern Sudan.

  17. Provenance of the heavy mineral-enriched alluvial deposits at the west coast of the Red Sea. Implications for evolution of Arabian-Nubian crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Ibrahim, Tarek M. M.; Goodell, Philip C.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet, etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of (1) 824-733 Ma, (2) 730-705 Ma, (3) 646-608 Ma, (4) 516-500 Ma, and (5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ?500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (?Hf (t)) of both fans varies from +3.5 to +13.5. Our new U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition suggests that the detrital zircons were derived from the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust. This is consistent with the Neoproterozoic juvenile igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Eastern Desert and northern Sudan.

  18. The distribution of the invasive non-native gastropod Crepidula fornicata in the Milford Haven Waterway, its northernmost population along the west coast of Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, Katrin; Richardson, Christopher A.; Jenkins, Stuart R.

    2015-12-01

    The invasive non-native gastropod Crepidula fornicata is well established in the Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) in south-west Wales, UK, since its first introduction to this ria in 1953. Whilst it reaches high densities within the MHW and has extended its range to the south of this ria, there has been very little northward expansion. Here, we report findings of a series of intertidal and subtidal surveys in 2009 and 2010 where we monitored the population density and the vertical distribution of C. fornicata at its northern range limit in Wales (the MHW). We also characterised the composition of the surface substrata of the seabed in the MHW to provide some insight into how the availability of certain settlement substrata may limit its distribution along the west coast of Britain. We found locally very dense aggregations (maximum 2748 ± 3859 individuals m-2, mean ± SD) in the shallow subtidal and low intertidal of the MHW. Subtidally, highest densities were found in areas of high gravel content (grain sizes ~16-256 mm), suggesting that the availability of this substrata type is beneficial for its establishment at a site. In the intertidal, on the other hand, high gravel content was indicative of low C. fornicata abundance, possibly because gravelly shores are an indicator of very exposed conditions that, at least in the intertidal, may result in high levels of early post-settlement mortality and low recruitment. C. fornicata was absent from the entrance of the MHW, possibly due to the lack of suitable settlement substrata. The presence of substantial populations in the MHW suggests that C. fornicata's population growth and potential expansion in Welsh coastal waters is not fully limited by prevailing environmental conditions in the region, but that other processes may affect its local distribution.

  19. Depositional response to seagrass mortality along a low-energy, barrier-island coast: west-central Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.W.; Hine, A.C.; David, R.A.; Belknap, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of aerial photographs and surficial sediment samples from the northern islands of the west-central barrier system of Florida indicates that: (1) seagrass beds in the nearshore zone have controlled onshore/longshore sand transport, and (2) resulting sedimentary accumulations within nearshore seagrass beds make differentiation of nearshore and backbarrier facies difficult. Between 1957 and 1973, an extensive seagrass community occupying the nearshore zone off Anclote Key disappeared, thus allowing the sudden and rapid onshore and longshore transport of sand. The 1000 year old barrier island lengthened 30% by recurved spit growth in this very short period of time. Although there are not direct observations, four possible causes of seagrass mortality have been postulated, and of these overgrazing as a result of the accelerated population growth of sea urchins (Lytechinus variegatus) seems to be the most likely cause. Because of the ability of seagrasses to trap fine-grained sediments, contribute organic matter, and provide for low-energy, sheltered, molluscan biocoenosis, there is little depositional difference between these nearshore and backbarrier/lagoonal facies. This work indicates that the development and destruction of benthic floral communities should be considered as a process that generates or accentuates episodicity/cyclicity in the sedimentary record. Additionally, such changes in these communities should be expected to present a blurred distinction between certain types of coastal sedimentary facies.

  20. Variability of fresh- and salt-water marshes characteristics on the west coast of France: a spatio-temporal assessment.

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Sbastien; David, Valrie; Brahmia, Amel; Dupuy, Christine; Laniesse, Thomas; Parinet, Bernard; Pouget, Frederic; Rousseau, Frederic; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Robin, Franois-Xavier

    2011-08-01

    The degradation of water quality and the multiple conflicts of interest between users make marsh restoration very important. A Water Quality Evaluation System (WQES) was developed for river systems by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Some form of biologically-based, habitat-specific reference standard seems absolutely essential for wise management and stewardship of marsh ecosystems. The goal of this study was to develop a statistical method to define and to characterize a water body typology for drained marshes of the Charente-Maritime wetlands on the French Atlantic coast, placing particular emphasis on environmental factors as hydraulic functioning, human activities and pedological substratum. The Charente-Maritime marshes represent a good field study because of his high diversity of types of marshes and of anthropogenic activities in a restrictive area thus erasing spatial climatic effect (latitude effect). The statistical method developed here had permitted to define and characterize 12 different water bodies, 7 in freshwater (F1 to F7) and 5 in salt water marshes for the Charente-Maritime area. This typology demonstrated an important link between the size catchment area, nitrate concentrations, and leaching of precipitation from cultured soils. Even though the Charente-Maritime marshes are strongly impacted by humans, they may still retain the ability to remove nitrate. The increasing gradient of water renewal in the freshwater marshes from F1 to F7 explained the decreasing gradient of eutrophication. A better management of the hydrodynamic of the marshes can avoid eutrophication risk on the coastal sea area. Reliance on the WFD parameter set necessarily placed limits on the kinds of interpretations that could be made and on the study's potential contribution to the basic science of marshes. Ecologically-based insights regarding both external flows (links between ecosystems, meta-ecosystem theory) and internal flows (structure of the planktonic food web) seem an essential prerequisite for further advances in the study of marsh ecosystems. PMID:21689837

  1. LNG -- Technology on the edge

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.

    1995-10-01

    With immense promise and many supporters, LNG as a vehicular fuel is still, a nascent industry. In about two years, an array of LNG engines should be commercially available, and infrastructure greatly expanded. These developments should reduce the present premium of LNG equipment, greatly improving industry economics. The most propitious sign for LNG-market developed lies in the natural gas industry`s recently refined strategy for natural gas vehicles. The new strategy targets the right competitor--diesel, not gasoline. It also targets the right market for an emerging fuel--high-fuel-usage fleets made up of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, often driven long distances. But problems persist in critical areas of development. These problems are related to the materials handling of LNG and the refueling of vehicles. The paper discusses the studies on LNG handling procedures, its performance benefits to high-fuel use vehicles, economic incentives for its use, tax disadvantages that are being fought, and LNG competition with ``clean`` diesel fuels.

  2. The Impact of the 2006 Java Tsunami on the Australian Coast: Post-tsunami Survey at Steep Point, West Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    A detailed assessment of the impact of a far-field tsunami on the Australian coastline was carried out in the Steep Point region, West Australia, following the July 17th 2006 Java tsunami. Tsunami impact was surveyed by collating eye-witness accounts, measuring run-up heights, local flow depths, inundation distances and examining tsunami deposit sedimentology. The tsunami inundated the Steep Point coastline close to low tide. It caused widespread erosion in the littoral zone, extensive vegetation damage and destroyed several campsites (including transporting a large vehicle ten metres inland. Eye-witnesses reported three waves in the tsunami wave train, the second being the biggest. Tsunami wave height, inundation and run-up were determined on the basis of eye-witness accounts, debris lines, vegetation damage and the occurrence of fish, starfish, corals and sea urchins well above high tide mark. A topographic survey was performed using a handheld global positioning system (GPS) receiver and a dumpy level with stadia capability to record the extent of the inundation and run-up. Maximum recorded run-up was approximately ten metres above mean sea level (the highest ever recorded for a tsunami in Australia), maximum wave height was three metres, whilst maximum inundation distance was approximately 200 m from the shoreline. The tsunami deposited up to 14 centimetres of sand over back beach dune systems. The deposits were studied in 25 trenches. In some cases, evidence for individual waves was preserved as normally graded sequences mantled by a layer of fine silts and organics. These data will be used to enhance our ability to interpret palaeotsunami deposits, improve the understanding of the tsunami hazard to Australia and to validate tsunami inundation models.

  3. Changes in bacterial populations during red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and Gymnodinium catenatum in North West Coast of Spain.

    PubMed

    Romalde, J L; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1990-02-01

    Heterotrophic bacterial communities associated with four red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and Gymnodinium catenatum in two Galician Rias (North West Spain) were examined. Three of these were produced by the Mesodinium rubrum and the causative organism of a toxic bloom was Gymnodinium catenatum. In early stages of all the blooms, the diversity decreased but the total marine bacterial counts increased by one or two logs. Vibrio numbers were also incremented by two logs in two blooms of M. rubrum, while in the other bloom of this organism and in the red tide caused by G. catenatum a decrease in number of these bacteria was observed. A total of 116 bacterial strains were identified at the genus level and grouped into 12 phena. During the decomposition processes of two blooms of M. rubrum a zooplanktonic-type bacterial succession was observed (Vibrio, pseudomonads and Moraxella-Acinetobacter). On the other hand, during decomposition of the other red tide of M. rubrum and the bloom of G. catenatum, a typical phytoplanktonic-type succession occurred, as Pseudomonas and Moraxella groups became dominant for all the process. These results support the conflicting taxonomical position of M. rubrum. After the blooms, the changes in the community point towards the restablishment of the normal bacterial flora of the estuary (increase in diversity and decreases of bacterial numbers). Only the Vibrio strains, isolated from the non-toxic first and second red tides, displayed cytotoxic activities. A relationship among bacterial cytotoxicity and toxic effects of blooms cannot therefore be established. PMID:2318743

  4. LNG plants in the US and abroad

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

    1992-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT`s LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

  5. New Measurements and Modeling Capability to Improve Real-time Forecast of Cascadia Tsunamis along U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Titov, V. V.; Bernard, E. N.; Spillane, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis, especially in the near field. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Existing observational instruments along the Cascadia Subduction Zone are capable of providing tsunami data within minutes of tsunami generation. However, this strategy requires separation of the tsunami signals from the overwhelming high-frequency seismic waves produced during a strong earthquake- a real technical challenge for existing operational tsunami observational network. A new-generation of nano-resolution pressure sensors can provide high temporal resolution of the earthquake and tsunami signals without loosing precision. The nano-resolution pressure sensor offers a state-of the-science ability to separate earthquake vibrations and other oceanic noise from tsunami waveforms, paving the way for accurate, early warnings of local tsunamis. This breakthrough underwater technology has been tested and verified for a couple of micro-tsunami events (Paros et al., 2011). Real-time forecast of Cascadia tsunamis is becoming a possibility with the development of nano-tsunameter technology. The present study provides an investigation on optimizing the placement of these new sensors so that the forecast time can be shortened.. The presentation will cover the optimization of an observational array to quickly detect and forecast a tsunami generated by a strong Cascadia earthquake, including short and long rupture scenarios. Lessons learned from the 2011 Tohoku tsunami will be examined to demonstrate how we can improve the local forecast using the new technology We expect this study to provide useful guideline for future siting and deployment of the new-generation tsunameters. Driven by the new technology, we demonstrate scenarios of real-time forecast of Cascadia tsunami impact along the Pacific Northwest, as well as in the Puget Sound.

  6. Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernndez, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis Gonzlez; Len, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; Gonzlez, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, Jos; Ibez, Jess; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

    2014-12-01

    We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hesprides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ?2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge of El Hierro. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

  7. Propagation and forcing of high-frequency sea level variability along the west coast of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornejo-Rodriguez, Maria Del Pilar; Enfield, David B.

    1987-12-01

    Tide and wind data from coastal and island stations from Buenaventura, Colombia (4°N), to Callao, Peru (12°S), have been analyzed for the 1979-1984 time period to determine the propagation and forcing characteristics of coastal sea level variability at periods of days to weeks, as well as how they vary either with season or between the 1982-1983 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) period and non-ENSO years. During four non-ENSO years, the ensemble averaged cross spectra between coastal sea level height (SLH) and local winds show weak evidence of local forcing during the whole year without significant differences between the austral summer and winter seasons, other than a greater energy in the wind fluctuations at Talara during summer. Cross spectra between SLH series from neighboring stations show evidence of poleward phase propagation during winter seasons at speeds of about 2.0 m s-1.between La Libertad and Talara at periods of a week or more, and about 2.7 m s-1 between Talara and Callao at periods of 5-11 days, but no propagation is found during summers. During the 1982-1983 ENSO there is a large increase in SLH energy at most frequencies at all coastal stations, but especially in the 8-to-11-day band, where energies are enhanced by as much as an order of magnitude above non-ENSO levels. The cross spectra between adjacent SLH stations indicate a nondispersive poleward propagation of events during the 1982-1983 ENSO with phase speeds of 2.2-3.5 m s-1 from La Libertad to Talara (periods of a week or more) and 3.4-3.6 m s-1 from Talara to Callao (3.5 days or more). As with the SLH energy, the coherence and phase propagation were much stronger along the Peru coast in 1982-1983 than during non-ENSO periods, especially in the 8-to-11-day band. The one-third increase in phase speeds during the ENSO over the non-ENSO speeds is found to be consistent with the anomalous depression of the density structure during El Niño. Comparisons between coastal SLH and the local alongshore wind suggest that locally forced SLH variability was obscured during the 1982-1983 ENSO by the noncoastally forced, but energetic propagating fluctuations, which probably originated in the equatorial waveguide.

  8. Propagation and forcing of high-frequency sea level variability along the west coast of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pilar Cornejo-Rodriguez, Maria; Enfield, David B.

    1987-12-01

    Tide and wind data from coastal and island stations from Buenaventura, Colombia (4°N), to Callao, Peru (12°S), have been analyzed for the 1979-1984 time period to determine the propagation and forcing characteristics of coastal sea level variability at periods of days to weeks, as well as how they vary either with season or between the 1982-1983 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) period and non-ENSO years. During four non-ENSO years, the ensemble averaged cross spectra between coastal sea level height (SLH) and local winds show weak evidence of local forcing during the whole year without significant differences between the austral summer and winter seasons, other than a greater energy in the wind fluctuations at Talara during summer. Cross spectra between SLH series from neighboring stations show evidence of poleward phase propagation during winter seasons at speeds of about 2.0 m s-1 between La Libertad and Talara at periods of a week or more, and about 2.7 m s-1 between Talara and Callao at periods of 5-11 days, but no propagation is found during summers. During the 1982-1983 ENSO there is a large increase in SLH energy at most frequencies at all coastal stations, but especially in the 8-to-11-day band, where energies are enhanced by as much as an order of magnitude above non-ENSO levels. The cross spectra between adjacent SLH stations indicate a nondispersive poleward propagation of events during the 1982-1983 ENSO with phase speeds of 2.2-3.5 m s-1 from La Libertad to Talara (periods of a week or more) and 3.4-3.6 m s-1 from Talara to Callao (3.5 days or more). As with the SLH energy, the coherence and phase propagation were much stronger along the Peru coast in 1982-1983 than during non-ENSO periods, especially in the 8-to-11-day band. The one-third increase in phase speeds during the ENSO over the non-ENSO speeds is found to be consistent with the anomalous depressions of the density structure during El Niño. Comparisons between coastal SLH and the local alongshore wind suggest that locally forced SLH variability was obscured during the 1982-1983 ENSO by the noncoastally forced, but energetic propagating fluctuations, which probably originated in the equatorial waveguide.

  9. Strong Endemism of bloom-forming tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

    2014-01-01

    Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent. PMID:25329833

  10. Pollutant Concentrations and Toxic Effects on the Red Alga Ceramium tenuicorne of Sediments from Natural Harbors and Small Boat Harbors on the West Coast of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Britta; Hansson, Tomas; Bengtsson, Henrik; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin

    2016-04-01

    This investigation set out to analyze the toxicity of surface sediments in a number of natural harbors and small boat harbors on the west coast of Sweden. This was done with the growth inhibition method with Ceramium tenuicorne. Also, concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), irgarol, organotin compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments were analyzed. The small boat harbors were heavily polluted by Cu, Zn, butyltins, and PAHs, and to a lesser extent by Pb. The Cu, Pb, Zn, and butyltins probably originated from their past and/or present use in antifouling paints, whereas the PAHs probably had multiple sources, including boat motor exhausts. The measured toxicity of the sediment was generally related to their Cu, Zn, and butyltin content, although other toxic substances than those analyzed here probably contributed to the toxicity in some of the harbors. The natural harbor sediments contained less pollutants and were less toxic than the small boat harbor sediments. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the boating pressure today may be high enough to produce toxic effects even in natural harbors in pristine areas. The strongest relationship between toxicity and the major pollutants was obtained when the sediment toxicity was expressed as gram wet weight per liter compared with gram dry weight per liter and gram total organic carbon per liter. Hence, for pollutants that can be elutriated with natural sea water, sediment toxicity expressed as gram wet weight per liter appears preferable. PMID:26833201

  11. Strong Endemism of Bloom-Forming Tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with Description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)

    PubMed Central

    Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

    2014-01-01

    Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent. PMID:25329833

  12. Assessing the health of the U.S. west coast with a regional-scale application of the Ocean Health Index.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Benjamin S; Longo, Catherine; Scarborough, Courtney; Hardy, Darren; Best, Benjamin D; Doney, Scott C; Katona, Steven K; McLeod, Karen L; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Samhouri, Jameal F

    2014-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment. PMID:24941007

  13. Assessing the Health of the U.S. West Coast with a Regional-Scale Application of the Ocean Health Index

    PubMed Central

    Best, Benjamin D.; Doney, Scott C.; Katona, Steven K.; McLeod, Karen L.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Samhouri, Jameal F.

    2014-01-01

    Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment. PMID:24941007

  14. Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

    2013-09-01

    A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous Allocladus-Brachyphyllum-Pagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated Weichselia-Onychiopsis-Gleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two ‘biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

  15. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; W.G. Ernst; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late CampanianMaastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San GregorioHosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ?185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite prehnite laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobereverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablationinductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 8690 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San GregorioHosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ?100 km to the east in the Diablo RangeSan Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous forearc units of the Transverse Ranges. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, geologic and petrographic relations, the Pescadero felsite and a capping, sheared metaconglomerate underlie the Pigeon Point Formation. We infer that the magma formed by anatexis of Franciscan or Great Valley clastic sedimentary rocks originating from a parental Mesozoic Sierran-Mojave-Salinian calc-alkaline arc. The felsite erupted during Late Cretaceous time, was metamorphosed to pumpellyite-prehnite grade within the subduction zone, and then was rapidly exhumed, weakly zeolitized, and exposed before Pigeon Point forearc deposition. Pescadero volcanism apparently reflects a previously unrecognized ca. 8690 Ma felsic igneous event in the accretionary margin.

  16. Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jrg; Cermak, Jan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19N in July and 6N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanr, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

  17. North American LNG Project Sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

  18. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Coast Guard received an application from Liberty Natural Gas LLC for all Federal authorizations required... the transportation, storage, and further handling of oil or natural gas for transportation to...

  19. Annual and spatial variation in the abundance length and condition of juvenile turbot ( Psetta maxima L.) on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland: 2000-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, Paula S.; Brophy, Deirdre; McGrath, David; O'Callaghan, Roisin; Comerford, Stephen; Casburn, Paul

    2010-11-01

    Turbot ( Psetta maxima Linnaeus) is a high value commercially exploited marine flatfish which occurs in European waters, from the Northeast Atlantic to the Arctic Circle, the Baltic and Mediterranean Sea. In Ireland, turbot are the most valuable commercial non-quota species. Very little is known about their population dynamics in the wild, in particular during the sandy beach nursery phase of the life history. In 2000, a survey was established to assess flatfish species on nursery grounds on the west coast of Ireland. Eleven sandy beaches were assessed for 0+ turbot by beach seining, over an eight year period (2000-2007) during the months of August and September. The objective of the study was to estimate juvenile turbot abundance and size structure to determine if any spatial and annual trends existed. Large scale variability in the recruitment of fish to nursery grounds may be indicative of fluctuations in the adult stock. Turbot were found to recruit to five beaches consistently over the eight year period. Temporal and spatial variability in the relative abundance and length of turbot was discerned, with no apparent overall trend. However, certain nursery grounds were shown in most of the years examined to support higher abundances of turbot in comparison to other areas over the eight year period. Turbot abundances on nursery grounds were significantly correlated with mean spring sea temperatures during the pelagic stage. The condition of turbot did not significantly differ on an annual or spatial scale. Mean densities of 0+ turbot along the Irish coast were found to be similar and at times higher than other areas in Europe, ranging from 0.1 ( 0.3) individuals 1000 m - 2 to 18.5 ( 6.9) individuals 1000 m - 2 . Mean turbot total length on beaches ranged from 3.8 cm ( 0.6) to 6.6 cm ( 4.3). The observed spatial and temporal variability in abundance and length highlights the need for long-term studies when assessing juvenile flatfish populations. Results from the present study have provided much needed baseline data on wild juvenile turbot populations which is severely lacking for this species both on an Irish and on a European scale.

  20. Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.

    PubMed

    Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

    2015-01-01

    The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO₃(-), and Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high vulnerable zones in the study area. The Cl(-)/HCO₃(-) ratio (7.13 to 12.18) of the high vulnerable zone obviously indicates deterioration of the aquifer contamination. Sensitivity analysis has also been performed to evaluate sensitivity of the individual DRASTIC parameters to aquifer vulnerability. This reveals the net recharge rate and groundwater table depth are becoming more sensitive to aquifer contamination. It is realized that the GIS is an effective platform for aquifer vulnerability mapping with reliable accuracy, and hence, the study is more useful for sustainable water resource management and the aquifer conservation. PMID:25407988

  1. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A

    2011-01-17

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique - taken from the published literature - and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75N and 28.25N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 10(4) cells L(-1)) varied considerably (sensitivity-Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity-Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)-improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%). PMID:22180667

  2. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique taken from the published literature and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75N and 28.25N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 104 cells L?1) varied considerably (sensitivityEmpirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificityEmpirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%). PMID:22180667

  3. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC leveraged PUMP project results nationally through expanding workshops to other regions, providing coverage in its newsletter, through columns and case studies in trade journals, and through coordinating presentations at association and professional society meetings. Combined, there were more than 800 participants. Applying ''application percentages'' from PTTC's total technology transfer program, more than 250 participants are likely to be applying technologies (39% of industry participants). Polymer gel water-shutoff (WSO) treatments and wellbore management were a focus in the Midcontinent area. A major provider of polymer gel WSO treatments has experienced a significant increase in treatment activity in Oklahoma, some of which can be logically attributed to this project. A provider of polylined tubing, a product related to wellbore management, has noted a 280% increase in their independent customer base and opening of a new market due to their involvement in PUMP-spinoff technology transfer. Detailed case studies on polymer gel WSO treatments and wellbore management, along with more global analyses, demonstrate the economic value of these technologies to producers. Among the many information sources that producers consider when applying technology, PTTC knows it is an important source in these technology areas.

  4. Recent environmental changes and filamentous algal mats in shallow bays on the Swedish west coast — A result of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossellu, Michele; Nordberg, Kjell

    2010-04-01

    Over the last thirty years, many shallow estuarine bays, located in Scandinavian sheltered coastal environments, have been subject to the increased dominance of opportunistic species of filamentous green algae, oxygen deficiency in bottom waters and the alteration of flora and fauna. Human-induced eutrophication has been held responsible for these recent changes, but from this study the importance of climatic factors emerges. This research is based on the analysis of sediment cores from 8 shallow areas ( d < 50 cm) along the Bohuslän archipelago, Swedish west coast, and focuses on their recent (< 100 years) sedimentary evolution. Evidence of hydrodynamic change was observed in the sediments, where modern fining-upward sequences contrast with the expected coarsening upward model due to ongoing land uplift. Heavy metal concentrations from modern pollution and 14C dating of mollusk shells and eelgrass roots provided the age control, and allowed to place these changes within the last three decades. Data were compared with historical meteorological records (seasonal warming, modification of dominant winds and upwelling and reduction of sea-ice), and a clear connection emerged between the environmental changes and variations in the North Atlantic Ocean weather pattern. The increase of winter temperature and reduction of reworking winter sea-ice in these sheltered bays increased the storing of nutrients in the sediments and the turnover of organic matter, favoring the early growth stage of opportunistic algae in the most sheltered areas of the archipelago. This, together with human-induced modifications (overfishing and eutrophication), increased the possibility of opportunistic explosions, which in turn determined a reduced water exchange, the increased deposition of fine sediments and organic matter and evolving hypoxic conditions.

  5. Projection of Carbon Dynamics in the Marine West Coast Forests under Climate and Land Cover changes Using General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, Y.; Liu, S.; Li, Z.; Young, C.; Werner, J.; Dahal, D.; Liu, J.; Schmidt, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate and land cover changes may influence the capacity of the terrestrial ecosystems to be carbon sinks or sources. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential change of the carbon sequestration in the Marine West Coast Forests ecoregion in the Pacific Northwest United States using the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS). In GEMS, the underlying biogeochemical model, Erosion and Deposition Carbon Model (EDCM), was used and calibrated using MODIS net primary production (NPP) and grain yield data during the baseline period from 2002 to 2005, and then validated with another four-year period from 2006 to 2009. GEMS-EDCM was driven using projected climate from three General Circulation Models (GCMs) under three IPCC scenarios (A2, A1B, and B1) and derived land cover data from the FORecasting SCEnarios (FORE-SCE) model under the same three IPCC scenarios for the period from 2006 to 2050. This ecoregion, two-thirds of which is covered by forest, was projected to continue to gain carbon from 2005 to 2050, with an annual carbon sequestration of about -3 Tg C. It was also predicted that live biomass and soil organic carbon (SOC) would contain about 48% and 33% of the total carbon storage by 2050, respectively. In addition, forest carbon sequestration (-2 Tg C yr-1) demonstrated to be the largest sink among all ecosystems, accounting for 73% of the total, followed by grass/shrub and agriculture. Overall, results about predicted dynamics of carbon storage and sequestration can be informative to policy makers for seeking mitigation plans to reduce greenhouse gases emissions.

  6. Assessment of topographic and drainage network controls on debris-flow travel distance along the west coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Mark E.; Brien, Dainne L.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    To better understand controls on debris-flow entrainment and travel distance, we examined topographic and drainage network characteristics of initiation locations in two separate debris-flow prone areas located 700 km apart along the west coast of the U.S. One area was located in northern California, the other in southern Oregon. In both areas, debris flows mobilized from slides during large storms, but, when stratified by number of contributing initiation locations, median debris-flow travel distances in Oregon were 5 to 8 times longer than median distances in California. Debris flows in Oregon readily entrained channel material; entrainment in California was minimal. To elucidate this difference, we registered initiation locations to high-resolution airborne LiDAR, and then examined travel distances with respect to values of slope, upslope contributing area, planform curvature, distance from initiation locations to the drainage network, and number of initiation areas that contributed to flows. Results show distinct differences in the topographic and drainage network characteristics of debris-flow initiation locations between the two study areas. Slope and planform curvature of initiation locations (landslide headscarps), commonly used to predict landslide-prone areas, were not useful for predicting debris-flow travel distances. However, a positive, power-law relation exists between median debris-flow travel distance and the number of contributing debris-flow initiation locations. Moreover, contributing area and the proximity of the initiation locations to the drainage network both influenced travel distances, but proximity to the drainage network was the better predictor of travel distance. In both study areas, flows that interacted with the drainage network flowed significantly farther than those that did not. In California, initiation sites within 60 m of the network were likely to reach the network and generate longtraveled flows; in Oregon, the threshold was 80 m.

  7. Summer monsoon onset-induced changes of autotrophic pico- and nanoplankton in the largest monsoonal estuary along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Arya P; Jyothibabu, R; Jagadeesan, L; Lallu, K R; Karnan, C

    2016-02-01

    This study presents the response of autotrophic pico- and nanoplankton to southwest monsoon-associated hydrographical transformations in the Cochin backwaters (CBW), the largest monsoonal estuary along the west coast of India. By the onset of the southwest monsoon, the euhaline/mesohaline conditions in the downstream/upstream of CBW usually transform into oligohaline/limnohaline. The flow cytometer analysis revealed the dominance of picoeukaryotes?>?Synechococcus?>?nanoautotrophs, with Prochlorococcus either very low or entirely absent. Synechococcus abundance was high during the pre-southwest monsoon (10(6)L(-1)), which dwindled with heavy fresh water influx during the southwest monsoon (10(5)L(-1)). The drastic drop in salinity and faster flushing of the CBW during the southwest monsoon replaced the euhaline/mesohaline strain of Synechococcus with an oligohaline/limnohaline strain. Epifluorescence microscopy analyses showed that, among the two strains of Synechococcus, the phycoerythrin-rich (PE-rich) one was dominant in the mesohaline/euhaline conditions, whereas the phycocyanin-rich (PC-rich) strain dominated in oligohaline/limnohaline conditions. Although Synechococcus abundance diminished during the southwest monsoon, the total abundance of picoplankton community remained virtually unchanged in the upstream due to an increase in the abundance of picoeukaryotes. On the other hand, the autotrophic nanoplankton abundance increased from pre-monsoon levels of av. 3.8??10(6)-av. 9.5??10(6)L(-1) at the onset of the southwest monsoon. Utilizing suitable multivariate analyses, the study illustrated the differential response and niche preference of various smaller communities of autotrophs to the southwest monsoon-associated hydrographical ramifications in a large monsoonal estuary, which may be applicable to similar such estuaries situated along the Indian coastline. PMID:26780412

  8. Sources and distribution of organic matter in thirty five tropical estuaries along the west coast of India-a preliminary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, U. K.; Wu, Ying; Shirodkar, P. V.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

    2014-12-01

    Studies characterizing the sources of organic matter (OM) to the west coast of India (WCI) and its continental shelf are limited. This study examined sedimentary OM in 35 estuaries along the WCI using molecular biomarkers (lignin phenol), elemental ratio (C/N), and stable carbon isotope (?13C) values. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, identified similar sedimentary chemical properties among the estuaries and their distribution patterns highlight the strong control of geographical provenance on sedimentary OM composition from south to north along the WCI. Results of an end-member mixing model reveal that terrigenous sources (C3 plants, C4 plants, and soil) contribute 80% of estuarine OM, with the remaining 20% derived from marine sources (marine plankton and estuarine macrophytes). In the estuaries of large rivers, such as the Narmada and Sabarmati rivers, C4 plants and soil OM were found to be the dominant contributors of OM, which is likely the result of an abundance of C4 vegetation and agriculture in their catchment areas. High OC (organic carbon content) of sediments (0.5-5%) from the WCI estuaries indicates that large amounts of OM are present in the sediments. The sources of OM (plant and soil) shift substantially throughout the study area, corresponding to changes in land use patterns along the Western Ghats. Sediments with low nitrogen contents (C/N > 15-20) and degraded lignin ((Ad/Al)V = 0.4-0.6 and DHBA/V = 0.16-0.34) were observed in all estuaries, indicating humification and/or degradation of OM originating from terrestrial plants (bio-degradation) and soil (de-mineralization). The collective results of this study illustrate the benefits of using biomarkers (lignin phenols) along with C/N and ?13C values for evaluating land use changes and the impacts of land use changes on aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

    2010-06-01

    GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites, reanalysis meteorology and various remote sensing products to generate statewide estimates of biosphere carbon exchange from the atmospheric point of view.

  10. Bio-physical model provides insight into dispersal of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) from putative spawning grounds to nursery areas on the west coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlck, Melanie; Brophy, Deirdre; Mohn, Christian; Minto, Ciln; McGrath, David

    2015-05-01

    In this study we use an individual-based coupled physical biological model (ICPBM) to reconstruct the dispersal pathways of 0-group juveniles (young of the year) collected from nursery grounds in Galway Bay and to identify probable spawning ground locations for plaice on the west coast of Ireland. The relative importance of passive transport, behaviour and individual growth rates on successful larval delivery, from three putative spawning grounds to suitable nursery areas, was also investigated. Using a hydrodynamic Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS), combined with a particle tracking model, three model scenarios were tested: a passive tracer scenario (PTS), a linear growth scenario (LGS) and a temperature-dependent growth scenario (TDS). Hydrodynamic conditions were modelled and biological information (pelagic larval durations and size at settlement) incorporated. The LGS and TDS included vertical migration and tidally synchronised behaviour. Generalized Linear Model (GLM) comparisons showed that incorporation of behaviour and temperature-dependent growth, resulted in approximately two to three times more particles being delivered to sites of suitable depth for settlement (? 10 m), compared to passive transport alone (p < 0.001, LGS 19-78%; TDS 40-81%). The probability of successful delivery also varied significantly depending on the location, year and week of release (p < 0.05). A comparison of temperature histories between particles that were delivered to shallow inshore areas and those that failed to reach depths suitable for settlement indicated that dispersal to coastal nursery areas is facilitated by entrainment into a cool coastal current system. This study identifies a probable plaice spawning area in western Ireland and reconfirms the importance of including behaviour and growth in dispersal simulations. The model results suggest that differences in growth can influence larval delivery to potentially suitable nursery areas.

  11. Introduction to LNG vehicle safety. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bratvold, D.; Friedman, D.; Chernoff, H.; Farkhondehpay, D.; Comay, C.

    1994-03-01

    Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled in this report to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

  12. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... in mind that the NERA Study was performed by an independent non-governmental organization under... Charles Exports, LLC, FE Docket No. 11-59-LNG, 76 FR 34212 (June 13, 2011); Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP, FE Docket No. 11-128-LNG, 76 FR 76698 (December 8, 2011); Carib Energy (USA) LLC, FE Docket No....

  13. Method for processing LNG for rankine cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, I.; Matsumoto, O.

    1983-06-14

    A method is disclosed for processing lng using a mixed heat medium for performing a rankine cycle to gasify the lng. The medium is prepared by batch distillation using only lng. The method comprises the steps of condensing an upflow vapor in a single distillation column employing part of the lng in an lng batch distillation cycle, venting one fraction having low boiling point components mainly containing methane, and accumulating the other fractions containing ethane and components heavier than ethane. The supply of lng to be distilled in the column is halted. A total condensing operation is performed in which the other fractions are sequentially condensed by part of the lng at the condenser to sequentially recover and mix each component with the other fractions. Lng is added as the methane component to the recovered mixture of components to prepare a mixed heat medium consisting of components selected from hydrocarbons having 1-6 carbon atoms, or hydrocarbons having 1-6 carbon atoms and nitrogen. The mixed heat medium is stored. A mixed heat medium vapor generated by heat input to the stored mixed heat medium is condensed by lng and returned to the mixed heat medium; collection and complete gasification of the low boiling point components mainly containing methane and the lng is gasified by condensation to provide an lng vapor gas. Lng is gasified by performing the rankine cycle with the mixed heat medium.

  14. 75 FR 29420 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... enforce the revised collection requirements until the collection is approved by the Office of Management... the Docket Management Facility (M-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor... Regulatory Commission FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter...

  15. LNG to CNG refueling stations

    SciTech Connect

    Branson, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    While the fleet operator is concerned about the environment, he or she is going to make the choice based primarily on economics. Which fuel provides the lowest total operating cost? The calculation of this costing must include the price-per-gallon of the fuel delivered, as well as the tangible and intangible components of fuel delivery, such as downtime for vehicles during the refueling process, idle time for drivers during refueling, emissions costings resulting from compressor oil blow-by, inclusion of non-combustible constituents in the CNG, and energy consumption during the refueling process. Also, the upfront capital requirement of similar delivery capabilities must be compared. The use of LNG as the base resource for the delivered CNG, in conjunction with the utilization of a fully temperature-compressed LNG/CNG refueling system, eliminates many of the perceived shortfalls of CNG. An LNG/CNG refueling center designed to match the capabilities of the compressor-based station will have approximately the same initial capital requirement. However, because it derives its CNG sales product from the {minus}260 F LNG base product, thus availing itself of the natural physical properties of the cryogenic product, all other economic elements of the system favor the LNG/CNG product.

  16. Recommended research on LNG safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  17. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  18. LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

  19. Potential for long-term LNG supplies to the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lihn, M.L.

    1992-02-01

    Topics discussed here include: (1) terminal capacity; (2) potential sources for US LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports; (3) LNG liquefaction and transportation capacity; (4) historical US LNG imports; (5) LNG supply costs; (6)delivered cost of future LNG imports.

  20. Processing of Single-Channel High-Resolution Shallow Seismic Reflection Data for Imaging Gas Charged Sediments and Buried Channel System on Central-West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaubey, A. K.; Yadav, R.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution, shallow-seismic reflection using sparker seismic source is one of the most popular offshore exploration methods for imaging sub-surface structures in near shore region. In the present study, high-resolution shallow-seismic reflection data were acquired using 300 Joule sparker energy source with multi-electrode spark array and single-channel streamer containing 16-hydrophones at a boat speed of about 4 knot. The data were recorded in SEG-Y format with record length of 500 ms, sampled at 40 ?s. The problems in sparker seismic data are artefacts which primarily include (i) short-path multiples, (ii) long-path multiples, (iii) ghost reflections, (iv) secondary bubble effect, and (v) incoherent noise. Short-path multiples, produced by reflectors at seabed/sub-seabed and sea surface, arrive at receiver immediately after the primary reflection, whereas, long-path multiples arrive later as a distinct event. Ghost reflections due to source and receiver arrangement below sea-surface produce a seismic wavelet, delay in time and reverse in polarity with respect to primary. Secondary bubbles (bubble effect) produced destructive interference that strongly attenuated amplitude of the signal, and produced frequency notching as demonstrated in power spectrum of raw seismic data. Incoherent noise present in seismic reflection data reduce the quality of the signal and can often lead to misinterpretation. Processing and analysis of seismic trace of the present study reveal that the artefact related to ghost reflections are not present in the data. However, short-path and long-paths multiples, secondary bubble effect and incoherent noise severely affected the quality of the seismic data. This paper presents and discusses processing of high-resolution, single-channel seismic reflection data acquired between water depth 10 and 70 meter in near shore region of central-west coast of India. Our results show that quality of the processed data is highly improved and yield artefact free interpretable seismic sections. Based on the processed seismic data, several sub-surface features such as gas charged sediments, incised V-shaped valley, and late-Pleistocene to Holocene sedimentary strata are identified.

  1. Future scenarios of land-use and land-cover change in the United States--the Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Griffith, Glenn; Acevedo, William; Bennett, Stacie; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan; Ryan, Christy; Sayler, Kristi L.; Sleeter, Rachel; Soulard, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Detecting, quantifying, and projecting historical and future changes in land use and land cover (LULC) has emerged as a core research area for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Changes in LULC are important drivers of changes to biogeochemical cycles, the exchange of energy between the Earth’s surface and atmosphere, biodiversity, water quality, and climate change. To quantify the rates of recent historical LULC change, the USGS Land Cover Trends project recently completed a unique ecoregion-based assessment of late 20th century LULC change for the western United States. To characterize present LULC, the USGS and partners have created the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) for the years 1992, 2001, and 2006. Both Land Cover Trends and NLCD projects continue to evolve in an effort to better characterize historical and present LULC conditions and are the foundation of the data presented in this report. Projecting future changes in LULC requires an understanding of the rates and patterns of change, the major driving forces, and the socioeconomic and biophysical determinants and capacities of regions. The data presented in this report is the result of an effort by USGS scientists to downscale the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) to ecoregions of the conterminous United States as part of the USGS Biological Carbon Sequestration Assessment. The USGS biological carbon assessment was mandated by Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. As part of the legislative mandate, the USGS is required to publish a methodology describing, in detail, the approach to be used for the assessment. The development of future LULC scenarios is described in chapter 3.2 and appendix A. Spatial modeling is described in chapter 3.3.2 and appendix B and in Sohl and others (2011). In this report, we briefly summarize the major components and methods used to downscale IPCC-SRES scenarios to ecoregions of the conterminous United States, followed by a description of the Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion, and lastly a description of the data being published as part of this report.

  2. The ORCA West Coast Regional Project - Atmospheric Top-Down Modeling to constrain Regional Carbon Budgets at high Temporal and Spatial Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeckede, M.; Michalak, A. M.; Vickers, D.; Turner, D.; Law, B.

    2008-12-01

    The ORCA project aims at determining the regional carbon balance of Oregon, California and Washington, with a special focus on the effect of disturbance history and climate variability on carbon sources and sinks. ORCA provides a regional test of the overall NACP strategy by demonstrating bottom-up and top-down modeling approaches to derive carbon balances at subregional to regional scales. The ORCA top-down modeling component has been set up to capture flux variability on the regional scale at high temporal and spatial resolution. Atmospheric transport is simulated coupling the mesoscale model WRF (Weather Research and Forecast) with the STILT (Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport) footprint model. This setup allows identifying sources and sinks that influence atmospheric observations with highly resolved mass transport fields and realistic turbulent mixing. High-precision atmospheric CO2 concentrations are monitored as continuous time series in hourly timesteps at 5 locations within the model domain, west to east from the Pacific Coast to the Great Basin, and include two flux sites for evaluation of computed fluxes. Terrestrial biosphere carbon fluxes are simulated at an effective spatial resolution of smaller than 1km and subdaily timesteps, considering effects of ecoregion, land cover type and disturbance regime on the carbon budgets. Flux computation assimilates high-resolution remote sensing products (e.g. LandSat, MODIS) and interpolated surface meteorology (DayMet, SOGS, PRISM). We present results on regional carbon budgets for the ORCA modeling domain that have been optimized using Bayesian inversion and the information provided by the network of high-precision CO2 observations. We address the influence of spatial and temporal resolution in the general modeling setup on the findings, and test the level of detail that can be resolved by top-down modeling on the regional scale, given the uncertainties introduced by various sources for model-data mismatch. Application of the approach highlights the strong regional variability in CO2 exchange rates on the regional scale. For Oregon, we found that this type of model must account for water availability and drought stress to avoid overestimating terrestrial sinks for CO2.

  3. An evaluation of the impact of forest biomass harvest for biofuels on carbon storage in the US west coast states under different management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. M.; Law, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    Mitigation strategies to reduce fossil fuel emissions of carbon dioxide have lead to investigation of alternative sources of fuels. National and state forest policies have been implemented to both reduce risk of wildfire and promote use of forest biomass as a secondary biofuels energy source. However, the cost and biomass availability have been estimated without quantifying the impact on current and future terrestrial carbon balances. This study uses a combination of Federal Inventory Analysis data (FIA) and supplementary plot data for Washington, Oregon and California to quantify the current forest carbon stocks, net ecosystem production (NEP), and net biome production (NBP = NEP - removals) for the period from 2001-2006. Varying management treatments were applied to determine the net cost, carbon debt, and biofuels energy potential. The treatments were designed to meet multiple objectives emphasizing carbon storage, economic gain, or energy production. The hazardous fuels reduction treatment minimizes carbon loss by only harvesting biomass in forested areas classified by moderate to high risk fire condition classes (FRCC class). This scenario assumes no additional harvest in ecoregions characterized by long fire return intervals (>100 years) such as the Coast Range and the West Cascades and limits removals to an 18 in diameter at breast height (DBH). The energy production treatment maximizes biomass removal by harvesting areas regardless of FRCC class and allows removals up to a 24 inch DBH. Statewide estimates of carbon for 2001-2006 prior to harvest scenarios for California, Oregon, and Washington respectively are as follows: 1) Total land-based carbon stocks (excluding soils) averages 1680, 1663, and 1278 Tg C; 2) NEP is positive in most ecoregions averaging 213, 180, and 191 g C m-2 yr-1; 3) Actual harvest removals averaged 2.7, 6.5, and 5.1 Tg C yr-1 for the same period. In Oregon, the amount of biomass available for biofuels varies from 128 g C m-2 in the hazardous fuels reduction treatment versus 185 g C m-2 in the energy production treatment. Removal of this biomass over the next 20 years is estimated to result in an additional 4 Tg C yr-1 (a 60% increase) in harvest removals for the hazardous fuels reduction treatment and an additional 14 Tg C yr-1 (216% increase) for the energy production treatment. Even in a minimal removals scenario and assuming no other disturbance losses (i.e. insects and fire), Oregon forest NBP will be significantly reduced with the potential to become a carbon source.

  4. Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-12-01

    US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some ecoregions, harvest reductions below current levels will sequester more carbon than additional harvest removals for bioenergy. References: Hudiburg, T., B. E. Law, D. P. Turner, J. Campbell, D. Donato, and M. Duane. 2009. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage. Ecological Applications 19:163-180. Waring, R. H., and J. F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen Coniferous Forests of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204:1380-1386.

  5. Temporal variation of aerosol optical depth and associated shortwave radiative forcing over a coastal site along the west coast of India.

    PubMed

    Menon, Harilal B; Shirodkar, Shilpa; Kedia, Sumita; S, Ramachandran; Babu, Suresh; Moorthy, K Krishna

    2014-01-15

    Optical characterization of aerosol was performed by assessing the columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD) and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) using data from the Microtops II Sunphotometer. The data were collected on cloud free days over Goa, a coastal site along the west coast of India, from January to December 2008. Along with the composite aerosol, the black carbon (BC) mass concentration from the Aethalometer was also analyzed. The AOD0.500 ?m and angstrom wavelength exponent (?) were in the range of 0.26 to 0.7 and 0.52 to 1.33, respectively, indicative of a significant seasonal shift in aerosol characteristics during the study period. The monthly mean AOD0.500 ?m exhibited a bi-modal distribution, with a primary peak in April (0.7) and a secondary peak in October (0.54), whereas the minimum of 0.26 was observed in May. The monthly mean BC mass concentration varied between 0.31 ?g/m(3) and 4.5 ?g/m(3), and the single scattering albedo (SSA), estimated using the OPAC model, ranged from 0.87 to 0.97. Modeled aerosol optical properties were used to estimate the direct aerosol shortwave radiative forcing (DASRF) in the wavelength range 0.25 ?m4.0 ?m. The monthly mean forcing at the surface, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and in the atmosphere varied between -14.1 Wm(-2) and -35.6 Wm(-2), -6.7 Wm(-2) and -13.4 Wm(-2) and 5.5 Wm(-2) to 22.5 Wm(-2), respectively. These results indicate that the annual SSA cycle in the atmosphere is regulated by BC (absorbing aerosol), resulting in a positive forcing; however, the surface forcing was governed by the natural aerosol scattering, which yielded a negative forcing. These two conditions neutralized, resulting in a negative forcing at the TOA that remains nearly constant throughout the year. PMID:24012896

  6. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Shahid; Huber, Sandra; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

    2014-04-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (

  7. Normal-mode frequency band view of the Off-the-West-Coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, M.; Tanimoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies with body-wave and long-period surface wave analyses on the Off-the-West-coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012, have already pointed out complexities of this event (e.g., Meng et al., 2012). A sequence of events with fairly wide spatial and temporal extent are clearly needed to explain many facets of seismic data. In this study, we attempt to summarize a few distinct features from the normal-mode frequency band (0.3-2.0 mHz) which are obviously much simpler by their long wavelength and long periods. We analyzed long-period seismic data from STS1 and KS54000 sensors for the first 12 hours of the main event using the time-domain waveform fitting technique (Tanimoto, et al., 2012). Adoption of this short time series is partly to avoid uncertain Q parameters on amplitudes but also to avoid the effects from two earthquakes in Oregon (Mw6.0) and Mexico (Mw6.7) that occurred about 23rd hour on the same day. These events are much smaller but their effects cannot be ignored in seismic stations in North America. Two major events reported by the Global CMT project, the Mw8.6 main shock and the Mw8.2 aftershock that occurred two hours later, are clearly not sufficient to explain the amplitude data at about 1 mHz (0.6-1.5 mHz). Synthetic seismograms for the two events under-predicts data by about 30 percent. Amplitudes also show two-theta azimuthal variation that indicates a necessity of at least one hidden event (if not rupture propagation). This necessity has already been pointed out by various groups (e.g., Duputel et al., 2012, Shao et al., 2012). Duputel et al. (2012), for example, reports that the Mw8.6 main event by GCMT should be split up by two large events, the Mw8.5 main event and Mw8.3 event that occurred 70 seconds later. Our analysis shows that their three-source solution, including the Mw8.2 event two hours later, satisfies overall amplitude data in the normal-mode frequency band. However, their solution still shows two-theta azimuthal variations with amplitudes about 10-15 percent. We therefore sought a solution that reduces total amplitude misfit as well as their azimuthal variations. Our preferred solution has two similar events to GCMT and an extra event about 70 seconds after the main shock with moment 2.7e28 (dyne cm). The moment, however, trades off with depth due to uncertain Mxz and Myz components. Our solution puts this event at depth 40 km but a solution at 30 km can almost equally explain the data but with moment 3.7e28 (dyne cm). Long wavelength nature also brings uncertainties to the source location but a location further to the north west of the Mw8.2 aftershock (2 hours later) tends to show a solution with smaller deviation from a double-couple solution. We will present the details of our analysis at the meeting.

  8. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  9. Puerto Rico`s EcoElectrica LNG/power project marks a project financing first

    SciTech Connect

    Lammers, R.; Taylor, S.

    1998-02-23

    On Dec. 15, 1997, Enron International and Kenetech Energy Services achieved financial close on the $670 million EcoElectrica liquefied natural gas terminal and cogeneration project proposed for Puerto Rico. The project involves construction of a liquefied natural gas terminal, cogeneration plant, and desalination unit on the southern coast of Puerto Rico, in the Penuelas/Guayanilla area. EcoElectrica will include a 500-mw, combined-cycle cogeneration power plant fueled mainly by LNG imported from the 400 MMcfd Atlantic LNG project on the island of Trinidad. Achieving financial close on a project of this size is always a time-consuming matter and one with a number of challenges. These challenges were increased by the unique nature of both the project and its financing--no project financing had ever before been completed that combined an LNG terminal and power plant. The paper discusses the project, financing details and challenges, key investment considerations, and integrated project prospects.

  10. LNG satellites in a distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, C.T.

    1980-04-01

    An LNG satellite system using two LNG sources has been developed by Bay State Gas Co. for Massachusetts incorporating small, portable ambient vaporizers and a large peak-shaving facility. The primary facilities at Ludlow, MA, consist of a 1 billion cu ft storage tank, equipment capable of liquefying 7.5 million cu ft/day of gas, vaporization equipment with a capacity of 55 million cu ft/day, and LNG transport trailer loading-unloading facilities. Secondary facilities are located at a similar terminal at Everett, MA. The largest satellite station has an 8 billion cu ft storage tank, equipment capable of vaporizing 35 million cu ft/day, and LNG transport trailer loading-unloading facilities. Mobile units consisting of a trailer-mounted vaporizer and an LNG trailer also are in use. Factors in safe and dependable operation of the satellite LNG system are reviewed, including local transportation restrictions.

  11. Elemental geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic fingerprinting of sediments in monsoon dominated river systems along the west coast of India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, S. U.; Zhang, J.; Baskaran, M. M.; Shirodkar, P.; Wu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Strontium-Neodymium isotopes have been widely utilized as provenance tracers of major global river basins. Using HR-ICPMS (elements) and MC-ICPMS (isotopes), we measured a suite of trace elements, 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic ratios from silicate (Si) and carbonate (CO32-) fractions of 37 bottom sediment samples during 3 seasons along a transect from the estuary upstream in Narmada (ND) and Netravati (NT), the two large rivers along the west coast of India, discharge into the Arabian Sea. Strontium isotopic values ranged from 0.70910 to 0.71778 (NR CO32-), 0.71014 to 0.72427 (NT CO32-) and 0.71085 to 0.72825 (NR Si), and 0.71025 to 0.73349 (NT Si). The ?Nd(0) values ranged from -22.1 to -0.8 (NR CO32-), and -32.2 to -24.3 (NT, CO32-), and -23.7 to -6.2 (NR Si) and -37.4 to -21.2 (NT Si). Variable extents of seasonal and spatial variations on the isotopic compositions of Sr and Nd (both in CO32- and Si fractions), were observed in both rivers. A comparison of the 'model age' of the sediments calculated from the time-depleted-mantle (TDM) model using the concentrations of Nd and Sm and isotopic composition of Nd indicate the following: i) For NT, the TDM-based 'model age', 2.8 to 3.3 Ga, agrees with the age of Peninsular Gneiss, an older gneissic complex (3.2-3.4 Ga) found in this watershed; ii) For NR, there is discordance between the TDM-based 'model age' (1.3-2.4 Ga) and the age of the rocks in this watershed (Deccan basalt, ~65 Ma). We attribute this discordance to mixing of older material from the Precambrian rocks derived by weathering at the head waters of NR. From the observed differences in the Sr isotopes in the main stream and tributaries, we estimate that ~90% of the sediments are derived from main stream and ~10% is derived from tributaries using binary mixing equation in NT and additional sediment source(s) in NR. The Sr isotopic signatures of carbonate fractions in both rivers are close to the global average modern seawater (0.7092) and river water (0.7160) values, suggesting dominant authigenic origin representing the isotopic signatures of the dissolved phase of these rivers. Among the two rivers studied, the NR seems to be dominated by carbonate weathering and whereas silicate weathering dominates the NT. The contrasting differences between these two river systems serve as model for other large and small Indian rivers.

  12. AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    SciTech Connect

    Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

    2011-07-01

    The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

  13. COGAS propulsion for LNG ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, Edwin G.

    2011-06-01

    Propulsion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships is undergoing significant change. The traditional steam plant is losing favor because of its low cycle efficiency. Medium-speed diesel-electric and slow-speed diesel-mechanical drive ships are in service, and more are being built. Another attractive alternative is combined gas and steam turbine (COGAS) drive. This approach offers significant advantages over steam and diesel propulsion. This paper presents the case for the COGAS cycle.

  14. Liquid turbines improve LNG operations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.

    1996-11-18

    Adding a pair of cryogenic hydraulic turbines, often called liquid expanders, into an LNG processing train can increase plant annual revenues by 3--4%. The cooldown of a vapor phase by expansion through a gas turbine is widely used in such cryogenic processes as NGL and LPG recovery in the cold section of the steam cracking and in air or natural-gas liquefaction. Traditionally, this pressure letdown function has been through use of a Joule-Thomson (JT) valve which wastes the energy and reduces process efficiency by leaving it in the system in the form of heat. Any natural-gas liquefaction process can be improved by expanding the LNG and the liquid phase of the mixed refrigerant through a hydraulic turbine. Described here are the technical requirements for such turbines along with the design developed to meet those requirements. Also reviewed is the testing of the first set of large-scale (800 kw) commercial turbines at full flow and pressure using {minus}160 C. LNG as the test fluid. First installation and operation are also described.

  15. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  16. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  17. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  18. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  19. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  20. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  1. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer... other assigned duties during the transfer operation; (2) Personnel transferring fuel or oily waste...

  2. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer... other assigned duties during the transfer operation; (2) Personnel transferring fuel or oily waste...

  3. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer... other assigned duties during the transfer operation; (2) Personnel transferring fuel or oily waste...

  4. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer... other assigned duties during the transfer operation; (2) Personnel transferring fuel or oily waste...

  5. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer... other assigned duties during the transfer operation; (2) Personnel transferring fuel or oily waste...

  6. Strategic evaluation central to LNG project formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, D.; DiNapoli, R.N.; Yost, C.C.

    1995-07-03

    An efficient-scale, grassroots LNG facility of about 6 million metric tons/year capacity requires a prestart-up outlay of $5 billion or more for the supply facilities--production, feedgas pipeline, liquefaction, and shipping. The demand side of the LNG chain requires a similar outlay, counting the import-regasification terminal and a combination of 5 gigawatts or more of electric power generation or the equivalent in city gas and industrial gas-using facilities. There exist no well-developed commodity markets for free-on-board (fob) or delivered LNG. A new LNG supply project is dedicated to its buyers. Indeed, the buyers` revenue commitment is the project`s only bankable asset. For the buyer to make this commitment, the supply venture`s capability and commitment must be credible: to complete the project and to deliver the LNG reliably over the 20+ years required to recover capital committed on both sides. This requirement has technical, economic, and business dimensions. In this article the authors describe a LNG project evaluation system and show its application to typical tasks: project cost of service and participant shares; LNG project competition; alternative project structures; and market competition for LNG-supplied electric power generation.

  7. LNG links remote supplies and markets

    SciTech Connect

    Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N.; Rethore, T.J.

    1997-06-02

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas.

  8. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  9. Reserves hike to buoy Bontang LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that a redetermination of reserves in an Indonesian production sharing contract (PSC) will boost liquefied natural gas sales for an Indonesian joint venture (IJV) of Lasmo plc, Union Texas (South East Asia) Inc., Chinese Petroleum Corp. (CPC), and Japex Rantau Ltd. The Indonesian reserves increase involves the Sanga PSC operated by Virginia Indonesia Co., a 50-50 joint venture of Lasmo and Union Texas. Union Texas holds a 38% interest in the IJV and Lasmo 37.8%, with remaining interests held by CPC and Japex. meantime, in US LNG news: Shell LNG Co. has shelved plans to buy an added interest in the LNG business of Columbia Gas System Inc. Panhandle Eastern Corp. units Trunkline Gas Co., Trunkline LNG Co., and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. (PEPL) filed settlement agreements with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to recover from customers $243 million in costs associated with Panhandle's Trunkline LNG operation at Lake Charles, Louisiana.

  10. A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LANDFALL OF THE 1979 RED TIDE OF KARENIA BREVIS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA. (R827085)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall o...

  11. West coast RFI survey, volume 1, volume 2 appendix E, volume 3 appendix F, volume 4 appendix G, and volume 5 appendix H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, W. F.

    1972-01-01

    Activities and data reported cover experimental design, mechanization onboard the aircraft, survey operations, quick look and automated data reduction, and a qualitative comparison of survey data with predicted values for the radio frequency survey. The survey was designed to measure amplitude, frequency and time of occurrence of terrestrial emissions in the VHF band during overflights of heavily populated metropolitan areas located on the Pacific Coast of the Continental United States by sensing and recording equipment installed in jet aircraft.

  12. Direct application of west coast geothermal resources in a wet corn milling plant supplementary analyses and information dissemination. Final report, addendum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-03-19

    In an extension to the scope of the previous studies, supplementary analyses were to be performed for both plants which would assess the economics of geothermal energy if coal had been the primary fuel rather than oil and gas. The studies include: supplementary analysis for a coal fired wet corn milling plant, supplementary analysis for an East Coast frozen food plant with coal fired boilers, and information dissemination activities.

  13. North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Park, W.; Douglas, D.C.; Shirley, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997-2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7??C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  14. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon H.; Hamilton, Christine D.; Spencer, Gregory C.; Ogston, Heather O.

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of southern California to Washington, and occasional, seasonal, or transitory associations of coastal pelagic fishes such as jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus) may also occur at WECs in these waters. Importantly, our review indicated that negative effects of WEC structures on special-status fish species, such as increased predation of juvenile salmonids or rockfishes, are not likely. In addition, WECs installed in coastal California, especially in southern California waters, have the potential to attract high densities of reef-associated fishes and may even contribute to rockfish productivity, if fish respond to the WECs similarly to oil and gas platforms, which have some of the highest secondary production per unit area of seafloor of any marine habitat studied globally (Claisse et al. 2014). We encountered some information gaps, owing to the paucity or lack, in key locations, of comparable surrogate structures in which fish assemblages and ecological interactions were studied. TECs are most likely to be used in the Puget Sound area, but suitable surrogates are lacking there. However, in similarly cold-temperate waters of Europe and Maine, benthopelagic fish occurred around tidal turbines during lower tidal velocities, and this type of interaction may be expected by similar species at TECs in Puget Sound. To address information gaps in the near term, such as whether WECs would function as FADs in temperate waters, studies of navigation buoys using hydroacoustics are recommended.

  15. Recovery of wild Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in terms of reproduction and gametogenesis two-years after the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident off the West Coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondol, Mostafizur Rahman; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Heung-Sik; Park, Sang-Rul; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007 at Taean off the west coast of Korea was the largest oil tanker accident in Korea. However, the impact of the spill on physiology of benthic animals remains largely unknown. Two-years after the accident, we compared reproductive effort and annual gametogenesis of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, residing at oil spill site with a control oyster population in Incheon Bay, North-West coast of Korea. Results showed that the oyster sampled from the oil spill site showed a significantly higher (279.0 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) growth by tissue dry weight to that of the control population (228.0 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). Histology revealed that there was no significant difference in the annual gametogenic pattern between the two populations, and most of the females of both populations spawned between August and September. During spawning season, egg mass of oysters determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) in the oil spill area was significantly higher (136.3 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the control population (120.5 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The tissue protein level in the oysters at the contaminated area was significantly higher (102.6 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the level measured from the control oysters (81.4 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The observed better biological performances of oysters at the contaminated site suggested their recovery of the physiological status to normal level after two years of the oil spill accident.

  16. Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

    2013-06-01

    In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

  17. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  18. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  19. LNG -- A paradox of propulsion potential

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been demonstrating its viability as a clean-burning alternative fuel for buses and medium- and heavy-duty trucks for the past 30 years. The first known LNG vehicle project began in San Diego in 1965, When San Diego Gas and Electric converted 22 utility trucks and three passenger vehicles to dedicated LNG. A surge in LNG vehicle project activity over the past five years has led to a fairly robust variety of vehicles testing the fuel, from Class 8 tractors, refuse haulers and transit buses to railroad locomotives and ferry boats. Recent technology improvements in engine design, cryogenic tanks, fuel nozzles and other related equipment have made LNG more practical to use than in the 1960s. LNG delivers more than twice the driving range from the same-sized fuel tank as a vehicle powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). Although technical and economic hurdles must be overcome before this fuel can achieve widespread use, various ongoing demonstration projects are showing LNG`s practicality, while serving the vital role of pinpointing those areas of performance that are the prime candidates for improvement.

  20. Study of gelled LNG. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, M I; Cabeal, J A; Hoffman, L C; Newton, R A; Schaplowsky, R K; Vander Wall, E M

    1980-01-01

    Research involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and an examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigation included (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics as well as (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system. The safety-related criterion for successful application of gelled LNG is the substantial reduction of the Maximum Distance to the Lower Flammability Limit, MDLFL. This will be achieved by first, gel-inhibition of the hydrodynamic pooling and spreading of the spill, and second, the suppressed thermal transport properties of the GELNG relative to those of LNG. The industrial scale gelation study evaluated a design capable of producing 11,000 gallons (LNG tank truck) of gel in two hours. The increased cost of gelation using this equipment was estimated at $0.23/10/sup 6/ Btu for plants with liquefaction facilities. The technical results of this study are supportive of the conclusion that gelation of LNG will reduce, relative to ungelled LNG, the hazard associated with a given size spill. Parameters of interest to the LNG facility operator (such as pumpability) are not significantly affected by gelation, and the impact on LNG delivery cost appears to be small, about 5%. Thus, the initial assumption that gelation would provide a practical means to enhance safety is supported by the results of this study. Larger scale, comparative spill tests of LNG and GELNG are now required to confirm the safety aspects of use of the gelled material.

  1. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions unless a significant station capital subsidy, upwards of 50 percent and even then it might not be enough. However, a doubling of LNG truck demand will initialize network commercialization in the modeling base year, 2012 (the same year Clean Energy Corp. launched their national LNG network) in California and then gradually establish in other hotspot regions in Mid-West and Mid-Atlantic throughout the time horizon. The model shows that trucking routes in California are highly commercial due to high traffic volume and regional advantages. The model can be used by industry to inform necessary policies and to plan future infrastructure deployment along trucking routes that are likely to provide the highest returns.

  2. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  3. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  4. Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature and local topography effects on coastal fog: Case study of 21-22 January 2008 event on the west coast of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Driss; Bergot, Thierry; El Khlifi, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    The life cycle of fog over coastal regions is very sensitive to the heterogeneity of the landform and to the vicinity to the Ocean. Thus, the influence of the sea surface temperature (SST) and local topography on the evolution of a coastal fog is assessed in this study by performing sensitivity experiments. To achieve this, the numerical simulations are performed with the three-dimensional research model Meso-NH. This fog event occurred at the Grand Casablanca region, in the northwest coast of Morocco, during the night of 21-22 January 2008 and last more than 12 hours. It was analyzed using standard meteorological observations from the two synoptic stations of the region, the observed radio-sounding at the coastal station, the MSG satellite imagery and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. The numerical simulation reproduced well the main features of this fog event since its formation to its dissipation. The numerical results demonstrated that this fog event was of a radiation type over land, due to the nocturnal radiative cooling and the turbulence. And one hour later near the coast, the fog was resulting from base lowering of Stratus low cloud, due to the cloud top cooling and the vertical turbulent mixing. The sensitivity experiments to SST demonstrate that varying SST in space and time affects the spatial distribution of the fog layer over an area of about 20km around the coast. Besides, the SST governs the thermodynamic fluxes at the air-sea interface, and then affects the life cycle of this fog event, in particular in the mature and dissipation phases. On the other hand, the sensitivity experiments to local coastal topography demonstrated its impact on the speed and direction of wind in the boundary layer during the different phases of the life cycle of this fog event. Then, it was found that the heterogeneities of terrain over the coastal regions affect the horizontal extension of this fog event during the mature phase and its evolution during the dissipation stage.

  5. Damage-detection system for LNG carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

    1978-01-01

    System utilizes array of acoustical transducers to detect cracks and leaks in liquefied natural gas (LNG) containers onboard ships. In addition to detecting leaks, device indicates location and leak rate.

  6. LNG production for peak shaving operations

    SciTech Connect

    Price, B.C.

    1999-07-01

    LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

  7. Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

  8. LNG carrier using membrane tank system delivered

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-06

    The world's first LNG carrier that incorporates the Technigaz Mark 3 membrane tank system was delivered in October to its owner, Asia LNG Transport Sdn. Bhd., a joint venture between Nippon Yusen K.K. and Perbadanan Nasional Shipping Line Berhad of Malaysia. NKK built the 18,800 cu m, fully double-hull carrier Aman Bintulu at its Tsu works. Construction was completed in September with more than 2 months of sea trials and gas tests using [minus]190 C. Liquid nitrogen and final gas trails with LNG. The orthogonally corrugated stainless membrane primary barrier and the triplex (aluminum foil/fiber glass cloth) composite-material secondary barrier prevent LNG from leaking in the event of an accident.

  9. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  10. Investigation of sea level anomalies related with NAO along the west coasts of Turkey and their consistency with sea surface temperature trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, Mustafa; Cigizoglu, H. Kerem; Sanli, D. Ugur; Ulke, Asli

    2015-07-01

    It is well-known that North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is one of the large-scaled climate modes effective in the Northern Hemisphere, has a considerable affect on the water resources and climatic indicators especially in the Mediterranean basin. In recent years, also crucial studies about the sea level rise in relation to climate change have been accelerated. Turkey has about 20 modernized tide gauge stations equipped with permanent GPS receivers and targets to contribute to global sea level rise studies in the future. The aim of this study is to find out the effects of North Atlantic Oscillation on the national shores using the data of four tide-gauge stations located on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey. Implications from these four tide gauges would motivate researches to take into account the effect of NAO in calculating the true sea level rise at the national coasts. While studying the sea level changes, vertical crustal movement has been observed using the data of tide gauge GPS stations, and this situation has been taken into consideration in the evaluation of sea levels. Besides, in order to investigate the influences of thermal expansion on sea levels, sea surface temperature data of the meteorology stations near the tide gauges have been evaluated. The homogeneity of the data sets was analyzed using four statistical tests. As a result, all of the meteorology stations' temperature series and tide gauges' data are subjected to trend detection after the homogeneity analysis. Eventually, the effects of North Atlantic Oscillation on both sea levels and sea surface temperatures have been introduced. The study results indicate high correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation and the sea level and sea surface temperature events. It is seen that the linear correlation between the sea level trends of the considered stations and the sea surface temperature data of the related meteorology stations is considerably significant.

  11. LNG ventures raise economic, technical, partnership issues

    SciTech Connect

    Acord, H.K.

    1995-07-03

    The author feels that natural gas will remain a competitive energy alternative and the preferred fuel for many residential and industrial customers around the globe. The article attempts to explain where liquefied natural gas will fit into the global picture. The paper discusses the growth in the Asia-Pacific region; the complex interactions in a LNG project involving buyers, sellers, governments, financial institutions, and shipping companies; the cost of development of such projects; and the elements of a LNG venture.

  12. Northern Adriatic LNG receiving terminal: Pre-feasibility study. Part 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-19

    The study evaluated 2 potential sites as the location for a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) receiving terminal. The study assumed that the LNG will be obtained in Algeria and transported, via liquefied gas carriers, to either Koper or Omisalj, located on the Northern Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia. The proposed terminal will provide natural gas, via pipeline, to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia. The goal of the study was to determine specific transportation and processing costs, per cubic meter of gas, at each delivery station in Yugoslavia and at the respective custody transfer points. Consideration has been given to the overall costs for construction, maintenance and operation, as well as marine transport for the gas and capital equipment of the system.

  13. Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

  14. Demonstration of a Real Time Capability to Produce Tidal Heights and Currents for Naval Operational Use: A Cast Study for the West Coast of Africa (Liberia)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehra, Avichal; Anantharaj, Valentine; Payne, Steve; Kantha, Lakshmi

    1996-01-01

    This report documents an existing capability to produce operationally relevant products on sea level and currents from a tides/storm surge model for any coastal region around the world within 48 hours from the time of the request. The model is ready for transition to the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) for potential contingency use anywhere around the world. A recent application to naval operations offshore Liberia illustrates this. Mississippi State University, in collaboration with the University of Colorado and NAVOCEANO, successfully deployed the Colorado University Rapidly Relocatable Nestable Tides and Storm Surge (CURReNTSS) model that predicts sea surface height, tidal currents and storm surge, and provided operational products on tidal sea level and currents in the littoral region off south-western coast of Africa. This report summarizes the results of this collaborative effort in an actual contingency use of the relocatable model, summarizes the lessons learned, and provides recommendations for further evaluation and transition of this modeling capability to operational use.

  15. Potential for BLEVE associated with marine LNG vessel fires.

    PubMed

    Pitblado, Robin

    2007-02-20

    Recent LNG marine shipping hazard studies have discounted BLEVE hazards associated with LNG vessels. This exclusion of a potential major hazard event has been queried, particularly since a recent LNG truck BLEVE-like event in Spain. This paper reviews the physical factors associated with the Spanish LNG truck event and accepts that this had features of a classical BLEVE event and that there is no inherent property of LNG excluding BLEVE-like events, although US LNG trucks would be safer due to design features. Marine LNG vessels have differently designed tanks and it is demonstrated that the combination of physical barriers makes direct thermal input to the LNG inner tank more limited than hypothesized by some, but if it occurs these tanks cannot rise to a pressure sufficient to cause a large flash of liquid and consequent BLEVE event of a scale hypothesized in the literature. PMID:17137713

  16. 76 FR 73609 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... operate a boil-off gas (BOG) liquefaction system at its LNG import terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana... terminal to liquefy BOG and return such gas in the form of LNG to its storage tanks. Cameron states...

  17. Identification and Frequency of Holocene Earthquakes from the Marine Sedimentary Records of Effingham Inlet and Other Pacific Ocean Fjords Along the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallimore, A.; Enkin, R. J.; Rogers, G. C.; Cassidy, J.

    2012-12-01

    The paleoseismic record preserved in fjords along the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone, on the west coast of Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada), will be a complement to the known turbidite chronology related to past great earthquakes, interpreted from the paleoseismic interpretation from offshore canyons along the central and southern Cascadia margin. These new paleoseismic marine sedimentary records will facilitate a regional interpretation of the paleoseismic record of the entire Cascadia subduction zone. At the primary coastal B.C. paleoseismic study site investigated to date, laminated sediments preserved in the anoxic inner basin of Effingham Inlet on the Pacific coast of Vancouver Island, B.C., yield a high-resolution 40 m long sediment deposition record spanning about 14ka 14C BP (17ka cal BP). Sedimentary, physical properties and geochemical criteria are used to interpret seismically triggered mass wasting events (seismites) intercalated within theannually laminated lithofacies. The high resolution age model is based on 68 radio-carbon dates from plant material, complemented with the presence of the Mazama Ash and varve counting, fit on a modified depth scale from which the instantaneous seismites have been removed. A Poisson-process deposition model is used, applying new methodology to choose the most realistic "k parameter". Bayesian analysis produces remarkably well constrained ages of the seismites (median sigma = 30 years). In total, 21 seismites are recognized back to 11 ka (cal years BP), which provide accurate correlations to some of the paleoseismic events observed in complementary offshore turbidite paleoseismic records. A Canadian research cruise in July 2012 collected marine sediment cores from four previously unstudied B.C. coastal fjords located to the north of Effingham Inlet, yielding the potential for a paleoseismic marine sedimentary record spanning the full length of the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone.

  18. GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall - Duration: 37 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

  19. Application of a degree-day model of West Nile virus transmission risk to the East Coast of the United States of America.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Sarah K; Miller, Scott N

    2012-11-01

    A geographical information systems model that identifies regions of the United States of America (USA) susceptible to West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk is presented. This system has previously been calibrated and tested in the western USA; in this paper we use datasets of WNV-killed birds from South Carolina and Connecticut to test the model in the eastern USA. Because their response to WNV infection is highly predictable, American crows were chosen as the primary source for model calibration and testing. Where crow data are absent, other birds are shown to be an effective substitute. Model results show that the same calibrated model demonstrated to work in the western USA has the same predictive ability in the eastern USA, allowing for a continental-scale evaluation of the transmission risk of WNV at a daily time step. The calibrated model is independent of mosquito species and requires inputs of only local maximum and minimum temperatures. Of benefit to the general public and vector control districts, the model predicts the onset of seasonal transmission risk, although it is less effective at identifying the end of the transmission risk season. PMID:23242676

  20. Aurelia labiata jellyfish in Roscoe Bay on the West Coast of Canada: Seasonal changes in adult bell diameter and mingling of juvenile and adult populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, David J.; Walsh, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The bell diameter of adult Aurelia labiata in Roscoe Bay increased from spring (April) to early summer (May/June) and decreased over the rest of the year (2009/2010). The increase in bell diameter in the spring would have been supported by the increase in zooplankton that occurs in the northeast Pacific at this time. Over the summer, bell diameter may have decreased because the food available/medusa would have been decreased by the arrival of a large number of juveniles and may have decreased further over the fall and winter when zooplankton levels are known to be low. Adults and juveniles were intermingled during 2010, 2011, and 2012. Correlations between the number of adults and number of juveniles obtained in individual net lifts across the entire bay and in different parts of the bay were all positive and most were statistically significant. In 2012, salinity in the entire water column of the west side of the bay dropped below 20 ppt in July and most medusae migrated to higher salinity in the east side of the bay, a distance of about 0.5 km. The mingling of adults and juveniles supports other evidence that adult Aurelia sp. medusae do not prey upon juveniles. The ability to withstand months with insufficient food and to inhibit preying on juveniles would contribute greatly to the survival of Aurelia sp. jellyfish.

  1. USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) project, in collaboration with the California Geological Survey, the California Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other agencies and institutions are developing a Tsunami Scenario to describe in detail the impacts of a tsunami generated by a hypothetical, but realistic, M9 earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula. The overarching objective of SAFRR and its predecessor, the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project, is to help communities reduce losses from natural disasters. As requested by emergency managers and other community partners, a primary approach has been comprehensive, scientifically credible scenarios that start with a model of a geologic event and extend through estimates of damage, casualties, and societal consequences. The first product was the ShakeOut scenario, addressing a hypothetical earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, that spawned the successful Great California ShakeOut, an annual event and the nation's largest emergency preparedness exercise. That was followed by the ARkStorm scenario, which addresses California winter storms that surpass hurricanes in their destructive potential. Some of the Tsunami Scenario's goals include developing advanced models of currents and inundation for the event; spurring research related to Alaskan earthquake sources; engaging the port and harbor decision makers; understanding the economic impacts to local, regional and national economy in both the short and long term; understanding the ecological, environmental, and societal impacts of coastal inundation; and creating enhanced communication products for decision-making before, during, and after a tsunami event. The state of California, through CGS and Cal EMA, is using the Tsunami Scenario as an opportunity to evaluate policies regarding tsunami impact. The scenario will serve as a long-lasting resource to teach preparedness and inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

  2. A small-scale oceanic eddy off the coast of West Africa studied by multi-sensor satellite and surface drifter data, and by a numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpers, Werner; Brandt, Peter; Lazar, Alban; Dagorne, Dominique; Sow, Bamol; Faye, Saliou; Hansen, Morten; Rubino, Angelo; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Bremer, Patrice

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution satellite images and oceanographic field measurements have revealed that oceanic eddies with diameters ranging from 1 to several hundred km are ubiquitous phenomena in the World's ocean. While eddies with horizontal scales above 100 km have been studied extensively using altimeter data, only few papers exist dealing with observations of eddies with horizontal scales below 50 km. These small-scale eddies cannot be resolved by conventional altimeters, but they can be observed from space by high-resolution optical/infrared sensors and by synthetic aperture radars (SARs). In this paper we report about a single small-scale cyclonic (cold) eddy which was generated at the headland of Cap-Vert off the coast of Senegal following a sudden freshening of the trade winds. Due to favorable cloud conditions, we were able to track the time evolution of the eddy for 31 days by satellite images acquired in the visible/ infrared band. Furthermore, the eddy was also imaged during this period by a space-borne SAR. Cold eddies become visible on SAR images via the change in the small-scale sea surface roughness caused by the damping of short surface waves by biogenic surface films or/and by the change of the stability of the air-sea interface. Biogenic surface films consist of surface-active material secreted by biota in the cold eddy. The satellite data we are using are from the MODIS sensor onboard the American Aqua satellite, the AVHHR sensor onboard the European MetOp satellite, and the Advanced SAR (ASAR) onboard the European Envisat satellite. The sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (CHL) maps derived from MODIS data show that the eddy propagated from its birth place at Cap-Vert in the Senegal upwelling region westward into the open North Atlantic. During the 31 days of satellite observations, the eddy moved 200 km westward thereby carrying nutrients from the upwelling region into the oligotrophic North Atlantic, where it caused enhanced CHL concentration. Maximum CHL concentration was encountered few days after the eddy generation, which is consistent with a delayed plankton growth following nutrient supply into the euphotic zone within the eddy. Furthermore, we recorded the movement of the eddy also by a satellite-tracked surface drifter. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a small-scale eddy has been tracked over such a long time period by high-resolution satellite images and simultaneously by a surface drifter. Model calculations carried out with the "Mercator" ocean circulation model show that the generation of the small-scale eddy was linked to a sudden increase of the trade winds. This wind event caused enhanced southward flow and upwelling at the coast of Senegal. The model calculations show further that the eddy was generated by flow separation at the headland of Cap-Vert.

  3. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193.2181 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193.2181 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193.2181 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193.2181 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193.2181 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to verify that each of the following conditions does not...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  16. 75 FR 26744 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application May 5, 2010. On April 22, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission) an application under... this application may be directed to William D. Rapp, Senior Regulatory Counsel at Cameron LNG, LLC,...

  17. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The event..., Super Boat International Productions, Inc. is hosting the Key West World Championship, a series of...

  18. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  19. Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2011-01-01

    From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

  20. Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  1. Archaeological remains accounting for the presence and exploitation of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Antnio; Venncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001-2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

  2. 77 FR 65815 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 Special Local Regulations; Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard.... Winegar, Sector Key West Prevention Department, Coast Guard; telephone 305-292- 8809, email...

  3. 76 FR 2677 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... LNG Truck Loading Project January 7, 2011. On February 2, 2011, the Office of Energy Projects staff... Southern LNG Company, LLC's (Southern) LNG Truck Loading Project. We scheduled this meeting to provide... Truck Loading Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public...

  4. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous forearc units of the Transverse Ranges. Based on zircon U-Pb ages, geologic and petrographic relations, the Pescadero felsite and a capping, sheared metaconglomerate underlie the Pigeon Point Formation. We infer that the magma formed by anatexis of Franciscan or Great Valley clastic sedimentary rocks originating from a parental Mesozoic Sierran-Mojave-Salinian calcalkaline arc. The felsite erupted during Late Cretaceous time, was metamorphosed to pumpellyite-prehnite grade within the subduction zone, and then was rapidly exhumed, weakly zeolitized, and exposed before Pigeon Point forearc deposition. Pescadero vol canism apparently reflects a previously unrecognized ca. 86-90 Ma felsic igneous event in the accretionary margin. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  5. a Baseline Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters and Trace Metals in Waters of Manakudy, South-West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, M.; Muthumanikkam, J.

    2013-05-01

    The transport of trace metals from the land to ocean has a number of different routes and efficiencies. The sources of toxic elements into the rivers to be debouched into the sea through estuaries are either weathered naturally from the soils and rocks or introduced anthropogenically from point or non-point sources, in labile form or in particulate form. However, recent studies indicate that the transport of trace elements to the aquatic environment is much more complex than what has been thought. The chemistry and ecology of an estuarine system are entirely different from the fluvial as well as the marine system. Estuarine environment is characterized by a constantly changing mixture of salt and freshwater. In the present study area Manakudy estuary is situated about 8 kilometres north west of Kanyakumari (Latitude N 08 05 21.8 and Longitude E 077 29 03.7). To gain a better understanding of the geochemical behavior of physico-chemical parameters and trace elements in the estuary and to examine variations in associated chemical changes, 20 water samples were collected throughout the Manakudy estuary, a minor river in south-western India. These samples, collected in typical dry season during 2012, were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, dissolved major and trace elements. Our results show that dissolved Na, Mg, Ca and Cl behave conservatively along the salinity gradient. The concentration of nutrients is normal and they are due to the higher organic activity in soils as well as faster rates of chemical weathering reaction in the source region. The concentration of major ions is due to tidal influence and it increases with salinity and the nutrients do behave non-conservatively due to biogenic removal. The conservative behaviour of the trace metals with salinity has been strongly affected by the introduction of these metals by external sources. Even though the trace metals in the contaminated water have been removed and incorporated in sediments due to flocculation, the concentration of these metals did not decrease. S.MUTHUSAMY M.sc.,M.phil., RESEARCH SCHOLAR UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS CHENNAI,TAMILNADU INDIA

  6. Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2005-04-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

  7. LNG shipments in 1994 set records

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-15

    Worldwide LNG shipments by ocean-going vessels in 1994 increased to 1,619 voyages, according to an LNG shipping industry statistical annual. LNG Log 20 published the recently compiled 1994 data in the last quarter of 1995. The publication is from the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators Ltd., London. The year`s total was 8.8% more than for 1993 and the most in 35 years of records. The trips were made and the vessels loaded and discharged without report of serious safety or environmental incident, says the publication. Of the voyages completed during the year, 596 were to European receiving terminals (up 2.8% over 1993), and 1,003 went to the Far East (an increase of 10.7%); shipments to the US, however, dropped to 20, from 32 in 1993. This paper shows that the 1,619 voyages represent 3.6 million nautical miles logged by 78 vessels active during the year. These ships pumped ashore record annual volumes of approximately 144.3 million cu m of LNG, 110.1 million cu m (76.3%) of which went to Far Eastern customers. The paper also summarizes containment systems in use in 1994 and since LNG began to be shipped in 1959.

  8. Nippon Kokan technical report No. 42, December 1984: overseas. LNG technology special issue

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Contents INCLUDE: fracture toughness of 9% Ni steel and safety of LNG storage tank; fatigue strength and safety assessment of membrane components; comparison of LNG carriers of membrane tank system and spherical tank system; diesel-driven LNG carrier with reliquefaction plant; construction of TGZ MK I system LNG carrier model tank and its cryogenic tests; vacuum insulation test using LNG model tank; estimation of impact pressure and hydrodynamic force due to sloshing in LNG carrier; Higashi-Ohgishima LNG receiving facility for the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.; design of LNG receiving facility; receiving and circulation control system of Higashi-Ohgishima LNG terminal; welding procedure of LNG pipelines; the design method of inground LNG storage tank; the design method of aboveground LNG storage tank; various applications of LNG tank roll-over simulation program ROSP.

  9. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-16

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa.

  10. First LNG from North field overcomes feed, start-up problems

    SciTech Connect

    Redha, A.; Rahman, A.; Al-Thani, N.H.; Ishikura, Masayuki; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1998-08-24

    Qatar Gas LNG is the first LNG project in the gas-development program of the world`s largest gas reservoir, North field. The LNG plant was completed within the budget and schedule. The paper discusses the LNG plant design, LNG storage and loading, alternative mercaptan removal, layout modification, information and control systems, training, data management systems, start-up, and performance testing.

  11. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  12. Raley's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-05-03

    Raley's, a large retail grocery company based in Northern California, began operating heavy-duty trucks powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 1997, in cooperation with the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) sponsored a research project to collect and analyze data on the performance and operation costs of eight of Raley's LNG trucks in the field. Their performance was compared with that of three diesel trucks operating in comparable commercial service. The objective of the DOE research project, which was managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel fuel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  13. LNG imports make strong recovery in 1996; exports increase also

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, E.J.

    1998-01-19

    LNG imports to the US jumped in 1996 as Algerian base-load plants resumed operations following major revamps. Exports from Alaska to Japan grew by nearly 4% over 1995. Total LNG imports to the US in 1996 were 40.27 bcf compared to 17.92 bcf in 1995, an increase of 124.8%. Algeria supplied 35.32 bcf; Abu Dhabi, 4.95 bcf. About 82.3% of the imported LNG was received at Distrigas Corp.`s terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Pan National terminal in Lake Charles, LA. LNG imports during 1995 fell to such a low level not because of depressed US demand but because of limited supply. The paper discusses LNG-receiving terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports.

  14. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-01-01

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided. PMID:25947447

  15. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  16. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  17. 50 CFR 660.398 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of Oregon. 660.398 Section 660.398 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries §...

  18. 50 CFR 660.399 - EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EFH Conservation Areas off the Coast of California. 660.399 Section 660.399 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries...

  19. 7. DETAIL OF WINDOW AT WEST END OF SOUTH ELEVATION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF WINDOW AT WEST END OF SOUTH ELEVATION, CAMERA FACING NORTH. - U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Alameda, Warehouse, Spencer Road & Icarrus Drive, Coast Guard Island, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  20. Technology advances keeping LNG cost-competitive

    SciTech Connect

    Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Ghazal, F.P.; Silverman, A.J.; Myers, S.D.

    1997-06-02

    LNG plants, often very expensive in the past, will in the future need to cost less to build and operate and yet maintain high safety and reliability standards, both during construction and operation. Technical advancements, both in the process and in equipment scaling, manufacturing, and metallurgy, will provide much of the impetus for the improved economics. Although world energy demand is predicted to grow on average of about 2% annually over the next decade, LNG is expected to contribute an increasing portion of this growth with annual growth rates averaging about 7%. This steep growth increase will be propelled mainly by the environmentally friendlier burning characteristics of natural gas and the strong industrial growth in Asian and pacific Rim countries. While LNG is emerging as the fuel of choice for developing economies, its delivered cost to consumers will need to stay competitive with alternate energy supplies if it is to remain in front. The paper discusses LNG process development, treating process, equipment developments (man heat exchanger, compressors, drivers, and pressure vessels), and economy of scale.

  1. LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A.

    1997-06-02

    The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

  2. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-02-09

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.

  3. Technical efforts focus on cutting LNG plant costs

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1995-07-03

    LNG demand is growing due to the nuclear setback and environmental issues spurred by concern about the greenhouse effect and acid rain, especially in the Far East. However, LNG is expensive compared with other energy sources. Efforts continue to minimize capital and operating costs and to increase LNG plant availability and safety. Technical trends in the LNG industry aim at reducing plant costs in pursuit of a competitive LNG price on an energy value basis against the oil price. This article reviews key areas of technical development. Discussed are train size, liquefaction processes, acid gas removal, heavy end removal, nitrogen rejection, refrigeration compressor and drivers, expander application, cooling media selection, LNG storage and loading system, and plant availability.

  4. U.S. LNG Imports - The Next Wave

    EIA Publications

    2007-01-01

    U.S. LNG imports - The Next Wave, is now available as a special supplement to the January 2007 issue of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO). Although liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports still account for less than 3% of total U.S. natural gas supplies, the global market is growing and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) foresees another wave of U.S. LNG import growth over the next two years. The supplement focuses on recent trends in global and U.S. LNG trade, and presents factors expected to influence LNG imports through 2008. EIA expects year-over-year increases in LNG imports of 34.5% and 38.5% in 2007 and 2008, respectively.

  5. Oceanography of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Bemiasa

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 g/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22C in the south to 26C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

  6. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  7. LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C.H.

    1997-11-24

    With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

  8. 78 FR 67026 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the special local regulations pertaining to the Key West...

  9. LNG safety, safety regulations and public perception

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.P.; Outtrim, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Although the subjects of safety, safety regulations and public perception are relatively separate, they should be discussed within the context of their total impact on the owner`s operation. The safety of LNG is a major issue both on an absolute safety basis and perceived safety basis. Public and regulatory perception are the dominant factors in the development of regulations and issue of permits. A safe operation includes protection of the public, plant personnel, investment in facilities and continued operation. In addition, protection of the company from litigation and regulatory restraint are also considerations. The paper discusses general safety considerations, safety regulation considerations, storage and impoundment, transport, odorization, personnel training, recent OSHA and EPA rule making activities, and recent research and progress in LNG safety.

  10. High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-04-18

    A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

  11. LNG pump anti-slam device

    SciTech Connect

    Tornay, E.G.

    1980-05-27

    In pumping LNG (liquefied natural gas) from one receiver to another, eg., from a vessel's tank to a shore installation, it is conventional to use a submerged pump, a riser pipe connecting the pump to a stop valve and flexible joint connecting the stop valve to a header. If a pocket of gaseous lng is present in the riser pipe, when the pump commences its operation, the advancing column of liquid in the riser pipe slams against the stop valve and may damage it. The invention provides the improvement of a removable or bypassable flow restrictor incorporated between the pump and the riser pipe, permitting to ensure that the riser pipe is completely liquid-filled, before the pump commences to operate.

  12. Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone. PMID:12314235

  13. Geologic setting and gas reserves of the Venezuelan LNG project

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, R.; Van der Molen, I.; Ramirez de Arellano, R. )

    1993-02-01

    Four gas fields, Mejillones, Patao, Dragon, and Rio Caribe, were discovered by Lagoven, a subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela S.A., during an exploratory campaign during 1978-1982, offshore northeastern Venezuela. Thirteen wells drilled in the four fields discovered 13.9 tcf of gas, including 1.2 tcf of gas and condensate in the Rio Caribe field. In February 1991, Lagoven entered into an agreement with Shell, Exxon, and Mitsubishi to assess the viability of producing and exporting gas from the four offshore gas fields in the form of liquified natural gas. This is the Venezuelan LNG Project, otherwise called the Cristobal Colon Project. As part of the agreement the participants established a Project Team in Caracas and undertook the acquisition of 1600 km[sup 2] of 3D seismic data over the four fields to evaluate the geological model of the area. In addition, interpretation of the 3D data has led to a preliminary geological model for the gas bearing sands which envisages deposition in a regional setting varying from bathyal turbidites in the Rio Caribe and Mejillones fields in the west to shelf deposits over the Patao and Dragon fields in the east. In addition to the geological setting this paper will discuss preliminary results of the reserves evaluation for the Rio Caribe, Patao, and Dragon fields.

  14. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563... Regulatory, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C., 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham, Alabama 35209 at...

  15. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS 191.22 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1, 2012, each operator of a gas pipeline, gas pipeline facility, LNG plant or LNG...

  16. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS 191.22 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1, 2012, each operator of a gas pipeline, gas pipeline facility, LNG plant or LNG...

  17. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS 191.22 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1, 2012, each operator of a gas pipeline, gas pipeline facility, LNG plant or LNG...

  18. Imported LNG (liquid natural gas) as an alternative fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, M. )

    1990-11-01

    Imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) first arrived in the United States in 1972 at the rate of one billion cubic feet (Bcf) per year. By 1979, they had reached 252 Bcf/year. However, as US as demand declined and domestic deliverability grew, inflexible LNG prices led to the complete collapse of trade during the 1980s. In 1987, all four US import terminals were idle and no LNG was imported. The situation bean to change with renegotiation of Distrigas' contract to import LNG from Algeria's Sonatrach. In 1988, the company imported 19 Bcf of gas to its Everett, Massachusetts terminal, with greater volumes in 1989. Panhandle Eastern has also renegotiated its Algerian supply contract and reactivated the company's Trunkline LNG terminal at Lake Charles, Louisiana. It received its first cargo in December 1989. Moves are also being made to bring the other two US import terminals, at Cove Point, Maryland and Elba Island, Georgia, back into service. On the supply side too, there are major new developments. Not only is Algeria seeking to expand its existing exports, but new LNG projects in Nigeria, Norway and Venezuela in particular are aimed at the US market. The purpose of this report is to describe the current status and potential development of LNG imports to the US with a view to identifying those circumstances in which an electric utility might consider LNG as an alternate back-up fuel to distillate or residual oil, in gas-fired generating facilities. 9 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  20. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...