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1

West Coast Poverty Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Based at the University of Washington, the West Coast Poverty Center "serves as a hub for research, education, and policy analysis leading to greater understanding of the causes and consequences of poverty and effective approaches to reducing it in the west coast states." The Center was created in the fall of 2005, and it represents a collaborative venture between the UW School of Social Work, the Daniel J. Evans School of Public Affairs, and the College of Arts and Sciences. Scholars and others will find the site quite useful, and they may wish to start at the "Poverty Basics" section. This area includes helpful overviews like "How Many People Are Poor in the United States?" and interactive maps and charts that document the state of poverty levels on the West Coast. Moving on, the "Research" area contains links to papers, research briefs, and information about upcoming events sponsored by the Center.

2

77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Gulf Coast proposes to export LNG from a proposed natural...Texas, which Gulf Coast plans to develop, to any country...Gulf Coast seeks to export this LNG on its own behalf...percent). Gulf Coast plans to develop, own and...liquefaction facility and LNG export terminal at the...

2012-06-04

3

West Coast Chlorophyll Bloom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on board the Orbview 2 satellite captured the phytoplankton bloom October 6, 2002 . Red represents high concentration of chlorophyll, follow by orange, yellow and green. Land and cloud portions of the image are presented in natural color. SeaWiFS monitors ocean plant life by measuring the amount of chlorophyll in the ocean. Large phytoplankton blooms tend to coincide with natural phenomena that drive that nutrient-rich water to the surface. The process is called upwelling. Winds coming off principal land masses push surface layers of water away from the shore. Into the resulting wind-driven void deeper water underneath the surface layers rushes in toward the coast, bringing with it nutrients for life to bloom. This upwelling fuel the growth of marine phytoplankton which, along with larger seaweeds, nourishes the incredible diversity of creatures found along the northern and central California coast.

Lori Perkins

2002-10-15

4

77 FR 67327 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...transmitted Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2012-11-09

5

77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...CONTACT: Peggy Mundy, Northwest Region Salmon Management Division, NMFS, 206-526-4323...regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of...

2012-09-25

6

76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...submitted Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for...

2011-09-19

7

76 FR 32876 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures; Correction  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; 2011 Management Measures...management measures for the 2011 ocean salmon fisheries off Washington, Oregon, and California and the 2012 salmon seasons opening earlier than May...

2011-06-07

8

75 FR 51183 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...0648-XX92 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. Inseason...Canada Border to Cape Falcon, Oregon. The...9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

2010-08-19

9

West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011 Japan tsunami,. Comparing to a long rupture, the Tohoku-type rupture may cause more serious impact at the adjacent coastline, independent of where it would occur in the Cascadia subduction zone. These findings imply that the Cascadia tsunami hazard may be greater than originally thought.

Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

2013-12-01

10

Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference  

SciTech Connect

Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

NONE

1997-05-01

11

76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2011-12-29

12

78 FR 10557 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2013-02-14

13

77 FR 75101 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 17 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National Marine...to implement Amendment 17 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and...

2012-12-19

14

Plans for West Coast STS launch capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The layout and scope of operations of the Vandenberg AFB West Coast Launch Site for the Space Shuttle are examined. The launch site intended for the first West Coast launch in December 1983 is being constructed by the United States Air Force. Topic discussed include site/selection/management/concepts, Shuttle hardware flow and related facilities, launch pad operations, orbiter erection at SLC-6 VAFB, solid rocket booster operations, and payload ground processing. In conclusion it is noted that NASA and DOD personnel are working together to ensure that the launch site is completed on schedule at minimum cost.

Murphy, W. P.; Marshall, J. H.

1979-01-01

15

OCEANOGRAPHIC OBSERVATIONS IN WEST COAST FLORIDA WATERS,  

E-print Network

the west coast af Florida since 1844. This fish-killing plague, known popularly as "red tide" be- cause not supported by evidence . It was not until 1948 that the cause of the red tide was positively identified. The goal of this investigation was to develop methods for prediction and control of red tide outbreaks

16

78 FR 50347 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 6 Through...announces six inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-08-19

17

78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-06-12

18

77 FR 22682 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces 3 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2011 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (76 FR 25246, May 4,...

2012-04-17

19

77 FR 65329 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 22 through...announces 5 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-10-26

20

77 FR 55426 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 through...announces 11 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-09-10

21

78 FR 24360 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2013-04-25

22

76 FR 17033 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...in effect until the opening of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011...

2011-03-28

23

77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15 through...announces 7 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...2012 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (77 FR 25915, May 2,...

2012-10-11

24

75 FR 44925 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 1, 2...announces four inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 1 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-07-30

25

78 FR 30780 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Action 3 AGENCY...announces one inseason action in the ocean salmon fisheries. This inseason action modified...2013 annual management measures for ocean salmon fisheries (78 FR 25865, May 3,...

2013-05-23

26

Traditional West Coast Native Medicine  

PubMed Central

An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

Deagle, George

1988-01-01

27

76 FR 54713 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...recreational regulations off the coasts of Washington and California...660--FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES 0 1. The authority...31 along the mainland coast and along islands and...deg]27' N. lat. (Central Management Area),...

2011-09-02

28

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct.1. Contracts were then put into place with twelve organizations which will carry out the technical work required to meet Partnership objectives.

Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

2004-01-01

29

West Coast, United States and Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view shows the west coast of the United States and Mexico (32.5N, 118.0W) and gives an indication of the range of view from orbital altitude. The visual range of this particular scene is from Skammon's Lagoon on Baja to the northern tip of California's Central Valley and Sierra Nevada, a range of over 15 degrees of latitude. Coastal fog drapes over southern California and northern Baja California. White Sands, New Mexico is at far right center.

1990-01-01

30

West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the homepage of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) tsunami warning center for Alaska and the west coast of the United States. Users can access current tsunami information through an interactive map that shows the latest events and information statements. Rolling over the map symbols provides the date and time, location, and preliminary magnitude of earthquakes. Clicking on them provides access to additional information, including a statement of whether a tsunami is expected. There are also links to previous warning messages, Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds with headlines, links to documents and brief information; publications; and links to related sites with additional information.

31

75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 12 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-12-06

32

75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14 and...announces two inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. Inseason action 14 modified...effect until the closing date of the 2010 salmon season announced in the 2010 annual...

2010-12-06

33

76 FR 68349 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 5 Through...announces 22 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified...effect until the closing date of the 2011 salmon season announced in the 2011 annual...

2011-11-04

34

78 FR 76570 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non-Whiting Allocations; Pacific Whiting Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

2013-12-18

35

77 FR 2655 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non-Whiting Allocations; Pacific Whiting Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

2012-01-19

36

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

37

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

38

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

39

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

40

40 CFR 408.190 - Applicability; description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. 408.190...SOURCE CATEGORY West Coast Mechanized Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.190...description of the West Coast mechanized salmon processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

41

Phytoplankton off the West Coast of Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Just off the coast of West Africa, persistent northeasterly trade winds often churn up deep ocean water. When the nutrients in these deep waters reach the ocean's surface, they often give rise to large blooms of phytoplankton. This image of the Mauritanian coast shows swirls of phytoplankton fed by the upwelling of nutrient-rich water. The scene was acquired by the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) aboard the European Space Agency's ENVISAT. MERIS will monitor changes in phytoplankton across Earth's oceans and seas, both for the purpose of managing fisheries and conducting global change research. NASA scientists will use data from this European instrument in the Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) program. The mission of SIMBIOS is to construct a consistent long-term dataset of ocean color (phytoplankton abundance) measurements made by multiple satellite instruments, including the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For more information about MERIS and ENVISAT, visit the ENVISAT home page. Image copyright European Space Agency

2002-01-01

42

Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from\\u000a large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms,\\u000a and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable\\u000a shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds,

Robert Emmett; ROBERTO LLANSO ´; Jan Newton; Ron Thom; Michelle Hornberger; Cheryl Morgan; Colin Levings; Andrea Copping; Paul Fishman

2000-01-01

43

A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new article is available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the US West Coast, discusses the "contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the U.S. West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise." Data published in this article is presented in ASCII text and/or can be read using a FORTRAN 77 data-retrieval routine

44

78 FR 2254 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 0648-XC397 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific...Association and Dan Platt; and (3) the Central Coast Sustainable Groundfish Association...Collaborative Fishing Survey EFP The Central Coast Sustainable Groundfish...

2013-01-10

45

Sequestration Options for the West Coast States  

SciTech Connect

The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source-sink matching was implemented and preliminary marginal cost curves developed, which showed that 20, 40, or 80 Mega tonnes (Mt) of CO{sub 2} per year could be sequestered in California at a cost of $31/tonne (t), $35/t, or $50/t, respectively. Phase I also addressed key issues affecting deployment of CCS technologies, including storage-site monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks. A framework for screening and ranking candidate sites for geologic CO{sub 2} storage on the basis of HSE risk was developed. A webbased, state-by-state compilation of current regulations for injection wells, and permits/contracts for land use changes, was developed, and modeling studies were carried out to assess the application of a number of different geophysical techniques for monitoring geologic sequestration. Public outreach activities resulted in heightened awareness of sequestration among state, community and industry leaders in the Region. Assessment of the changes in carbon stocks in agricultural lands showed that Washington, Oregon and Arizona were CO{sub 2} sources for the period from 1987 to 1997. Over the same period, forest carbon stocks decreased in Washington, but increased in Oregon and Arizona. Results of the terrestrial supply curve analyses showed that afforestation of rangelands and crop lands offer major sequestration opportunities; at a price of $20 per t CO{sub 2}, more than 1,233 MMT could be sequestered over 40-years in Washington and more than 1,813 MMT could be sequestered in Oregon.

Myer, Larry

2006-04-30

46

he West Coast energy crisis of  

E-print Network

Conservation Investments nates electric system reliability in North America west of the Continental Divide, had fishery is a historical component of harvest and represents an essential aspect of Native American culture

47

Greenland: Full West Coast (2nd render)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation shows the ice concentration in Greenland. The ice has decreased significantly (~50 cm-year) along the coast and increased slightly in the center (+2 cm-year). Researchers view this as yet another serious warning sign of the threat of global warming.

Lori Perkins

2000-06-25

48

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2013-07-01

49

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

50

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

51

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2014-07-01

52

40 CFR 408.180 - Applicability; description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. 408.180...CATEGORY West Coast Hand-Butchered Salmon Processing Subcategory § 408.180...description of the West Coast hand-butchered salmon processing subcategory. The...

2011-07-01

53

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2011-07-01

54

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2014-07-01

55

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2010-07-01

56

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2013-07-01

57

33 CFR 100.1305 - Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. 100.1305 Section 100.1305 Navigation and Navigable...Richland, Washington, west coast outboard championship hydro races. (a) Regulated area. By this regulation,...

2012-07-01

58

77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc...Corporation, a noncarrier holding company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding...Transportation Management Services, Inc. (TMS), obtained the right to purchase the...

2012-07-03

59

North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

McIntosh, C. Barron

1974-01-01

60

Sediment trace metal contamination in the Ivory Coast, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help expand our global perspective on trace metal contamination, concentrations of Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined for sediments from the Ebrie Lagoon in the Ivory Coast, a developing West African nation. Excess loading of several metals, especially Hg, Pb, and Zn was found at several sites. The maximum concentration of Hg measured in sediments

Issifou Kouadio; John H. Trefry

1987-01-01

61

77 FR 65639 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non- Whiting Allocations; Pacific Whiting Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

2012-10-30

62

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOOD OF SKIPJACK AND YELLOWFIN TUNAS OFF THE COAST OF WEST AFRICA'  

E-print Network

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FOOD OF SKIPJACK AND YELLOWFIN TUNAS OFF THE COAST OF WEST AFRICA' ALEXANDER yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) captured in 1968 by live bait and trolling off the coast of West Africa food studies off the coast of West Africa showed greater taxonomic similarity in tuna forage when

63

78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...USCG-2013-0095] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals...Colorado River in Parker, Arizona for the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals...RPM Racing Enterprises is sponsoring the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast...

2013-04-18

64

NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER ATLANTIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA  

E-print Network

NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER ATLANTIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA Paul Whitmore - NOAA/West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center - Palmer, Alaska Uri ten Brink ­ United States Geological/West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center - Palmer, Alaska William Sammler ­ NOAA/National Weather Service

ten Brink, Uri S.

65

Heat flow through the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom?hole temperature data collected from 24 petroleum exploration wells have been used to calculate conductive heat flow through the West Coast, South Island. Steady?state modelling suggests a mean heat flow of 76 ± 15 mW\\/m (20%, 1 SD), a figure higher than those obtained previously by Funnell et al. and Funnell & Allis for the southern Taranaki and southwest South

John Townend

1999-01-01

66

ARkStorm: A West Coast Storm Scenario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is preparing a new emergency-preparedness scenario, called ARkStorm, to address massive U.S. West Coast storms analogous to those that devastated California in 1861-62. Storms of this magnitude are projected to become more frequent and intense as a result of climate change. The MHDP has assembled experts from the National Oceanic

D. A. Cox; L. M. Jones; F. M. Ralph; M. D. Dettinger; K. Porter; S. C. Perry; P. L. Barnard; D. Hoover; C. J. Wills; J. D. Stock; W. Croyle; J. C. Ferris; G. S. Plumlee; C. N. Alpers; M. Miller; A. Wein; A. Rose; J. Done; K. Topping

2009-01-01

67

78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...announces 23 inseason actions in the ocean salmon fisheries. These inseason actions modified the commercial and recreational salmon fisheries in the area from the...

2013-11-26

68

Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)  

E-print Network

Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast) M The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

69

ARkStorm: A West Coast Storm Scenario  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is preparing a new emergency-preparedness scenario, called ARkStorm, to address massive U.S. West Coast storms analogous to those that devastated California in 1861-62. Storms of this magnitude are projected to become more frequent and intense as a result of climate change. The MHDP has assembled experts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USGS, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, the State of California, California Geological Survey, the University of Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and other organizations to design the large, but scientifically plausible, hypothetical scenario storm that would provide emergency responders, resource managers, and the public a realistic assessment of what is historically possible. The ARkStorm patterns the 1861 - 1862 historical events but uses modern modeling methods and data from large storms in 1969 and 1986. The ARkStorm draws heat and moisture from the tropical Pacific, forming Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) that grow in size, gain speed, and with a ferocity equal to hurricanes, slam into the U.S. West Coast for several weeks. Using sophisticated weather models and expert analysis, precipitation, snowlines, wind, and pressure data the modelers will characterize the resulting floods, landslides, and coastal erosion and inundation. These hazards will then be translated into the infrastructural, environmental, agricultural, social, and economic impacts. Consideration will be given to catastrophic disruptions to water supplies resulting from impacts on groundwater pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence. Possible climate-change forces that could exacerbate the problems will also be evaluated. In contrast to the recent U.S. East and Gulf Coast hurricanes, only recently have scientific and technological advances documented the ferocity and strength of possible future West Coast storms. A task of ARkStorm is to elevate the visibility of the very real threats to human life, property, and ecosystems posed by extreme storms on the U.S. West Coast. This enhanced visibility will help increase the preparedness of the emergency management community and the public to such storms. ARkStorm is scheduled to be completed by September 2010 and will be the basis of a state-wide emergency response drill, Golden Guardian, led by the California Emergency Management Agency in 2011.

Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Ralph, F. M.; Dettinger, M. D.; Porter, K.; Perry, S. C.; Barnard, P. L.; Hoover, D.; Wills, C. J.; Stock, J. D.; Croyle, W.; Ferris, J. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Miller, M.; Wein, A.; Rose, A.; Done, J.; Topping, K.

2009-12-01

70

Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

2010-01-01

71

Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind wave spectra were recorded simultaneously at three shallow (water depth 7-9 m) locations (Malpe, Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April-24 May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June-8 July (monsoon), and 1-31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions that exist along the coast of Karnataka State, west coast of India.

Sanil Kumar, V.; Johnson, Glejin; Udhaba Dora, G.; Chempalayil, Sajiv Philip; Singh, Jai; Pednekar, P.

2012-04-01

72

7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8-12 ...Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of...

2010-01-01

73

COMPARISON OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL AND LEAST SUCCESSFUL WEST COAST ALBACORE TROLL FISHERMEN  

E-print Network

COMPARISON OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL AND LEAST SUCCESSFUL WEST COAST ALBACORE TROLL FISHERMEN DONALD F. KEENE! AND WILLIAM G. PEARCy2 ABSTRACf Catch data for albacore troll boats were collected from fishermen the lowliners. The west coast albacore troll-boat fleet consists of many types and sizes of vessels (Clemens

74

78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...most species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published...in consultation with Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Tribes and the...48[deg]10' N. lat. (Cape Alava; Washington Marine Area...waters off the U.S. West coast) allows an incidental...

2013-05-06

75

50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast....

2012-10-01

76

50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast....

2011-10-01

77

50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast....

2010-10-01

78

50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast....

2014-10-01

79

50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.525 Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast....

2013-10-01

80

78 FR 45288 - Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS Corporation--Intra-Corporate...Evergreen), Cabana Coaches, LLC (Cabana), TMS West Coast, Inc. (TMS), and FSCS Corporation (FSCS)...

2013-07-26

81

Winter extreme precipitation along the North American west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most extreme precipitation events that occur along the North American west coast are associated with winter atmospheric river (AR) events, causing flooding, landslides, extensive property damage, and loss of life. The studies contained within this dissertation use a combination of NCDC precipitation observations, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, a 10-model ensemble of historical and future CMIP5 climate model simulations, and an NCEP-NCAR reanalysis driven regionally downscaled WRF model simulation to characterize the synoptic evolution of AR events along the North American west coast, the spatial variability of precipitation along the coast and inland, and changes in AR intensity and frequency that are expected by the end of the 21st century. Most regional flooding events are associated with precipitation periods of 24 hours or less, and two-day precipitation totals identify nearly all major events. Precipitation areas of major events are generally narrow, roughly 200 km in width, and most are associated with ARs. Composite evolutions indicate negative anomalies in sea-level pressure and upper-level height in the central Pacific, high-pressure anomalies over the southwest U.S., large positive 850-hPa temperature anomalies along the coast and offshore, and enhanced precipitable water and integrated water vapor fluxes in southwest- to northeast-oriented swaths. A small subset of extreme precipitation events over the southern portion of the domain is associated with a very different synoptic evolution: a sharp trough in northwesterly flow and post-cold-frontal convection. High precipitable water values are more frequent during the summer but are not associated with heavy precipitation because of upper-level ridging over the eastern Pacific and weak onshore flow that limits upward vertical velocities. Global climate models have sufficient resolution to simulate synoptic features associated with AR events, such as high values of vertically integrated vapor transport (IVT) approaching the coast. Ten CMIP5 simulations are used to identify changes in ARs impacting the west coast of North America between historical (1970-1999) and end-of-century (2070-2099) representative concentration pathway (RCP) 8.5 runs. The most extreme ARs are identified in both time periods by the 99th percentile of IVT days along a north-south transect offshore of the coast. Integrated water vapor (IWV) and IVT are predicted to increase, while lower-tropospheric winds change little. Winter-mean precipitation along the West Coast increases by 11-18% (4-6% °C--1) while precipitation on extreme IVT days increases by 15-39% (5-19% °C --1). The frequency of IVT days above the historical 99 th percentile threshold increases as much as 290% by the end of this century. There appear to be only very slight changes in annual AR climatology from historical to future time periods when considering the most extreme events (99th percentile). However, when evaluating by the number of future days exceeding the historical threshold, there are significant increases in extreme IVT events in all months, especially when the majority of events take place. The peaks in historical and future frequency occur in similar months given the amount of model variability. Extreme IVT events appear to be occurring slightly earlier in the season, particularly in the northern part of the domain, and these results are similar to other studies. Spatially, 10-model mean historical composites of IVT reveal canonical AR conditions. At locations farther south, there is less model agreement on what AR events should look like, both in spatial extent and intensity; whereas farther north, the various models agree more. The future composites indicate very little spatial change. The models behave similarly in both the historical and future runs, suggesting little change in dynamics. The future-historical difference plots highlight the largest changes expected in the future, namely increases in IVT intensity which are primarily associated with thermodynamic changes related to future IWV increases due to warming.

Warner, Michael D.

82

Coastal processes and longshore sediment transport along Kundapura coast, central west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Longshore sediment transport (LST) is one of the main factors influencing coastal geomorphology. This study examines the variation in the LST estimate using four well known formulae and the sensitivity of wave parameters on LST determination. The study was done along the Kundapura coast, central west coast of India. The Delft3D-wave module was used for obtaining the nearshore wave characteristics from the wave data measured using Datawell directional wave rider buoy at 12 m water depth for a period of one year. Diurnal change and seasonal variation in LST were examined. The study shows that the net LST was toward north for most of the time (non-monsoon period) during the year when predominant wave direction was between SWS and SW, whereas the LST was toward south during the monsoon season when the wave direction was from the west. It was found that the influence of breaker height was more during the non-monsoon period whereas during the monsoon period, breaker angle shows more influence on LST. Estimated annual net LSTR for the region is 3.6, 3.0, 1.6, and 2.6 × 105 m3 based on the CERC, Walton and Bruno, Kamphuis and Komar formulae. The LSTR estimate based on the Kamphuis formula, which also includes the wave period, beach slope, and sediment grain size, was found to be a reliable estimate for the study region. The variation in LSTR estimate considering different data intervals was also examined and found that the difference in monthly LSTR for data intervals of 6, 12 and 24 h with respect to the 3 h interval was up to 11, 13 and 24%. For better and more accurate estimates of LSTR, the data interval should be 3 h or less.

Shanas, P. R.; Sanil Kumar, V.

2014-06-01

83

Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration  

SciTech Connect

Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have potential for enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM).

Larry Myer

2005-09-29

84

75 FR 23615 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...90 species of groundfish off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California...management measures for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published...in consultation with Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Tribes and the States of...

2010-05-04

85

Dynamic Stability of Coral Reefs on the West Australian Coast  

PubMed Central

Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10–35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (?28%), although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME) suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs. PMID:23922829

Speed, Conrad W.; Babcock, Russ C.; Bancroft, Kevin P.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Depczynski, Martial; Field, Stuart N.; Friedman, Kim J.; Gilmour, James P.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; Kobryn, Halina T.; Moore, James A. Y.; Nutt, Christopher D.; Shedrawi, George; Thomson, Damian P.; Wilson, Shaun K.

2013-01-01

86

78 FR 57348 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...one component of CPS fisheries off the U.S. West Coast, which primarily includes the fisheries for Pacific sardine, northern anchovy and market squid. Pacific mackerel are principally caught off southern California within the limited...

2013-09-18

87

77 FR 73005 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...one component of CPS fisheries off the U.S. West Coast, which primarily includes the fisheries for Pacific sardine, northern anchovy and market squid. Pacific mackerel are principally caught off southern California within the limited...

2012-12-07

88

75 FR 11068 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...conserve and manage Pacific sardine off the West Coast. DATES...report ``Assessment of Pacific Sardine Stock for U.S. Management...actively managed species (Pacific sardine and Pacific mackerel) are...jack mackerel, northern anchovy, and market squid)....

2010-03-10

89

Library Life on the West Coast. Part I: Local Color and Sweet Dreams  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A look at the color, style, dreams, and nightmares of several West Coast libraries, with particular emphasis on the Seattle, Los Angeles, and San Francisco areas. Brief notes on Southern California Answering Network and Bay Area Reference Center. (LS)

Plotnik, Art

1974-01-01

90

78 FR 16828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review of the West Coast Distinct...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Wildlife Service (Service), announce the opening of an information gathering period regarding the status of the fisher (Martes pennanti) throughout the range of its West Coast distinct population segment (DPS) in the United States. The...

2013-03-19

91

A Site on Stepping Stones Island Along the West Coast of the Antarctic Peninsula  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A site on Stepping Stones Island along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula where plants were collected for field and environmental chamber experiments examining the influence of temperature on the growth of flowering plants.

Thomas A. Day (Arizona State University; Department of Plant Biology and The Photosynthesis ADR; POSTAL)

2004-03-09

92

Contrasting oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton communities on the east and west coasts of Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition and dynamics of the phytoplankton communities and hydrographic factors that control them are described for eastern and western Australia with a focus on the Eastern Australian Current (EAC) and Leeuwin Current (LC) between 27.5° and 34.5°S latitude. A total of 1685 samples collected from 1996 to 2010 and analysed for pigments by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed the average TChl a (monovinyl+divinyl chlorophyll a) concentration on the west coast to be 0.28±0.16 ?g L -1 while it was 0.58±1.4 ?g L -1 on the east coast. Both coasts showed significant decreases in the proportions of picoplankton and relatively more nanoplankton and microplankton with increasing latitude. On both coasts the phytoplankton biomass (by SeaWiFS) increased with the onset of winter. At higher latitudes (>27.5°S) the southeast coast developed a spring bloom (September) when the mean monthly, surface chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration (by SeaWiFS) was 48% greater than on the south west coast. In this southern region (27.5-34.5°S) Synechococcus was the dominant taxon with 60% of the total biomass in the southeast (SE) and 43% in the southwest (SW). Both the SE and SW regions had similar proportions of haptophytes; ˜14% of the phytoplankton community. The SW coast had relatively more pelagophytes, prasinophytes, cryptophytes, chlorophytes and less bacillariophytes and dinophytes. These differences in phytoplankton biomass and community composition reflect the differences in seasonality of the 2 major boundary currents, the influence this has on the vertical stability of the water column and the average availability of nutrients in the euphotic zone. Seasonal variation in mixed layer depth and upwelling on the west coast appears to be suppressed by the Leeuwin Current. The long-term depth averaged (0-100 m) nitrate concentration on the west coast was only 14% of the average concentration on the east coast. Redfield ratios for NO 3:SiO 2:PO 4 were 6.5:11.9:1 on the east coast and 2.2:16.2:1 on the west coast. Thus new production (nitrate based) on the west coast was likely to be substantially more limited than on the eastcoast. Short term (hourly) rates of vertical mixing were greater on the east coast. The more stable water column on the west coast produced deeper subsurface chlorophyll a maxima with a 25% greater proportion of picoeukaryotes.

Thompson, P. A.; Bonham, P.; Waite, A. M.; Clementson, L. A.; Cherukuru, N.; Hassler, C.; Doblin, M. A.

2011-03-01

93

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but

N. G. Miller; L. I. Wassenaar; K. A. Hobson; D. R. Norris

2011-01-01

94

Modelling the Orust fjord system on the Swedish west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a numerical model to examine the dynamics controlling flushing of the basins of the Orust fjord system on the Swedish west coast over a period of 71 days in the autumn of 2010. This fjord system is known for its seasonal and permanent hypoxic basins; Koljöfjord, Byfjord and Havstensfjord. It is shown that wind direction determines in- and outflows of the basins. Westerly winds result in surface currents towards the interior of the system, and counter currents at the bottom. In contrast, easterly winds cause the export of surface water, which is compensated by upwelling of Skagerrak water. Although these easterly winds cause renewal to take place several times a month in southern Havstensfjord, it occurs only once or twice in the northern part, while Koljöfjord and Byfjord are ventilated about every 3 years. The reduction in density throughout the water column (i.e. weakening of the vertical stratification) is related to the amount of energy being supplied to the deepwater by internal waves, created by barotropic tides across the sills, and wind blowing across the surface. The model shows that, in the southern part of the system, tidal movement dominates the energy supply to the deepwater. Further into the system, the importance of wind energy increases. In Koljöfjord and Byfjord, wind accounts for about 40% of the supplied energy for deepwater mixing. Concurrent weekly measurements taken in each fjord basin reveal that the monthly monitoring programme currently in place cannot adequately resolve the dynamics of the fjords. Modelled and observed currents in Svanesund and Sunninge Strait show prominent baroclinic motion on time-scales between one day and one week, suggesting that monitoring programs that aim to support numerical modelling need to resolve these time scales.

Hansson, Daniel; Stigebrandt, Anders; Liljebladh, Bengt

2013-03-01

95

Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan faunas. ?? 1984.

Marincovich, L., Jr.

1984-01-01

96

West Coast Salmon and the Endangered Species Act: Extinction is NOT an Option  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Northwest Regional Office of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has recently launched this Website on endangered species listings for Pacific Coast salmon. The site includes West Coast Salmon Listings, Fact Sheets, Species Maps, Federal Register Notices, Reports and Publications, and a What's New section, providing news updates, progress reports, and detailed maps. The site features the five salmon species (Chinook, Chum, Coho, Pink, Sockeye), Steelhead, and Coastal Cutthroat Trout, with color images, international range maps (US and Canada), status/ descriptive text, critical habitat descriptions, and protective regulations for each Evolutionarily Significant Unit (distinctive group of fish). This is an excellent place to find current information on endangered West Coast salmon.

97

77 FR 16048 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection 2012 West Coast Trade Symposium: “Harmonizing Trade for a...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Coast Trade Symposium: ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy'' AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department...the Trade Symposium is ``Harmonizing Trade for a Stronger Economy.'' This document announces that the West Coast trade...

2012-03-19

98

A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF SEDIMENT TOXICITY IN WEST COAST ESTUARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A probabalistic survey of coastal condition assessment was conducted in 1999 by participants in US EPA's Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP). The survey targeted estuaries along the outer coasts of Washington, Oregon and California, including the lower Columbi...

99

LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream  

SciTech Connect

The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

NONE

1997-01-01

100

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG 1914 First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling/shipping.  

E-print Network

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN THE HISTORY OF LNG 1914 First (U.S.) patent awarded for LNG handling/shipping. 1917 First commercial natural gas liquefaction plant built in West Virginia. 1944 At an LNG peak-shaving plant in Cleveland, an LNG storage tank with a low nickel- steel content (only 3.5%) fails. LNG spills

101

Pollutant Transport During the Spring Months to the West Coast of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation (ITCT) 2K2 field campaign, April 22 to May 19 2002, a wide range of chemical species were measured over the west coast of the U.S. and adjacent Pacific Ocean. Both aircraft and ground-based measurements were made. The MOZART chemical transport model driven by forecast meteorological fields was used to provide forecasts of chemical species (ozone, CO, NOx and PAN) and inert diagnostic species during the ITCT campaign. The diagnostic species provided tracers of rapid transport to the west coast of the U.S. from emission regions located in North America (over both the U.S. and Mexico), eastern Asia (including emissions from biomass burning and anthropogenic sources), the eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer and Europe. Recirculation of pollution from North America had very little effect on free-tropospheric concentrations off the west coast of the U.S. The eastern Pacific maritime boundary layer also had little impact in the free troposphere. The west coast was most directly affected by biomass burning sources and anthropogenic emission sources over Eastern Asia with occasional evidence of rapid transport from European sources. Deep and strong tropopause folds were also forecast to influence the west coast of the U.S. during ITCT, and in at least one instance were verified by the measurements. During this talk we further explore the long-range transport of pollutants to the west coast of the U.S. during spring 2002, as well as in other years over the last decade.

Hess, P. G.; Lamarque, J.

2002-12-01

102

Engineering geomorphology on the coast: lessons from west Dorset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The central aim of this paper is to describe the general context in which an applied geomorphological investigation for a management project on a Heritage coast will be set. We attempt to show how the decisions may be affected by historical legacies and public or administrative attitudes. Modern attitudes to the coast in Great Britain are summarized in the light of recent studies by the Department of the Environment and the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. The Dorset coast in southwest England is used to illustrate the main points. The paper describes the coastal features, explains the historical legacy of use, and examines problems of contemporary coastal management. The paper concludes with a consideration of the natural geomorphological principles of landscape design which might be employed as part of the guiding concepts.

Brunsden, Denys; Moore, Roger

1999-12-01

103

HYDROLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA'S WEST COAST TRIBUTARIES 1  

E-print Network

Isborou!lh, Alafia, Little Manatee, Manatee, Myakka, Peace, and Caloosahatchee Rivers, which Bow into west. The Hillsborough, Alafia, Little Manatee, and Manatee Rivers, which are tribu- taries of Tampa Bay, wer

104

78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program; Cost Recovery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...SUMMARY: This action would implement a cost recovery program for the Pacific coast...rationalization program. One such requirement is cost recovery, where NFMS collects fees...

2013-02-01

105

Investigation into the high percentage of positive CG lightning along the west coast of the United States  

E-print Network

along the west coast of the United States. Along the west coast, annual percent positive values average around 40 to 50%, while the average value of the U.S. is only around 10%. Full analyses of the annual CG lightning characteristics were conducted...

Ely, Brandon Lee

2002-01-01

106

Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast  

E-print Network

Long-time trends in ship traffic noise for four sites off the North American West Coast Rex K American west coast permit extensive comparisons between "contemporary" low frequency ship traf- fic noise traffic noise (duration 6 to 12þ years) show that recent levels are slightly increasing, holding steady

Frandsen, Jannette B.

107

California meets the LNG terminal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal by California's gas utilities to build a liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal on the coast has generated five years of controversy, stalemates among agencies, and new state legislation, with no final decision yet in sight. Different perceptions of the public safety risks from LNG have played a major role in this controversy. Agencies and other parties have generally

William R. Ahern

1980-01-01

108

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.  

PubMed

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

2011-02-23

109

Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America  

PubMed Central

Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (?D) and carbon (?13C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

2011-01-01

110

A three-dimensional numerical model of coastal upwelling along the west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional baroclinic numerical model is developed and used to study the response of a coastal ocean to mean monthly pure wind-stress forcing representative of northeast monsoon and different phases of the southwest monsoon along the west coast of India. The model incorporates coastal ocean physics as realistically as possible by resolving surface and bottom Ekman layers. Conservation equations are

A. D. Rao; Madhu Joshi; S. V. Babu

2005-01-01

111

New cultural economies of marginality: revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of the nostrums of new regionalism. In an

David Conradson; Eric Pawson

2009-01-01

112

Characterization and Dynamics of Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) along Puerto Rico West Coast  

E-print Network

1 Characterization and Dynamics of Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) along Puerto Rico West Coast Lorenna Vazquez Albelo Geology Department, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, P.O. Box 9017 Mayagüez, Puerto Rico, 00681-9017 ABSTRACT.- This project intended to investigate and describe sediment

Gilbes, Fernando

113

Measurements of Short Ocean Waves during the MBL ARI West Coast Experiment  

E-print Network

165 Measurements of Short Ocean Waves during the MBL ARI West Coast Experiment Jochen Klinke 1 of the oceanic capillary waves. Estimates of the equilibrium spectra oceanic capillary-gravity and capillary. In order to gain deeper insight into the dynamics and the energy balance of ocean wind waves, i

Jaehne, Bernd

114

National Marine Fisheries Service, West Coast Region California Department of Fish and Wildlife  

E-print Network

California Voluntary Drought Initiative Goals of the Voluntary Drought Initiative NOAA's National Marine salmon and steelhead populations in California during the 2014 drought, while Federal and State droughtNational Marine Fisheries Service, West Coast Region California Department of Fish and Wildlife

115

Coal Mine Drainage Geochemistry, West Coast, South Island - a Preliminary Water Quality Hazard Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously published stream quality data and AMD (acid mine drainage) analyses have been collated into a database (DAME - Database for Assessment of Mine Environments) and additional samples including NMD (neutral mine drainage) have been collected from coal mine drainages on the West Coast. Variations in the chemistry of mine drainage samples can be related to four factors: 1. Regional

J. Pope; N. Newman; D. Craw

116

A PROBABILISTIC SURVEY OF FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF THE US WEST COAST  

EPA Science Inventory

A probabilistic survey of environmental condition of the continental shelf of the US West Coast was conducted in 2003 by the US EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA), with collaboration by the NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service. Metals and organic contaminants were analyzed ...

117

Industrial Relations and Firm Behavior: Informal Labor Practices in the West Coast Longshore Industry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers industrial relations policies and practices of stevedore firms in the West Coast longshore industry in terms of the social worker, worker-resource, and institutional theories. Subsidiary firms were more lenient in contract interpretation and more competitive in recruitment, supporting the worker-resource theory. Includes 2 tables and 33…

Finlay, William

1987-01-01

118

77 FR 36192 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...ACT (which is 10,128 mt) as a set-aside for incidental landings in other CPS fisheries. This final rule is intended to conserve and manage the Pacific mackerel stock off the U.S. West Coast. DATES: Effective June 18, 2012, through June 30,...

2012-06-18

119

New Cultural Economies of Marginality: Revisiting the West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marginal regions have been the subject of political concern and remedial action in western states for several decades now. The West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand is an interesting case study in this regard, for recent economic growth has confounded earlier expectations of post-restructuring decline, while also contradicting several of…

Conradson, David; Pawson, Eric

2009-01-01

120

Higher Educational Needs of the Lower West Coast [Florida].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study reports the higher educational needs of the persons living in lower west Florida counties from Manatee to Collier, identifies the most feasible course of action to meet those needs and assesses the consequences ensuing from adding to the state university system. Chapters cover access to public higher education, expansion of the state…

Florida State Board of Regents, Tallahassee.

121

78 FR 26526 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...lower Columbia River, Snake River Basin, upper Willamette River, central California coast...lat. 1,859.85 1,811.40 Minor shelf rockfish complex....... North of...10' N. lat. 508.00 508.00 Minor shelf rockfish complex....... South...

2013-05-07

122

78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Coast Region, NMFS, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle...retained catch estimates (weight) from the observer data...of doing so, (3) The weight and ex-vessel value...Recovery Notification, 7600 Sand Point Way NE., Seattle...Recovery Appeals, 7600 Sand Point Way NE.,...

2013-12-11

123

Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

2006-12-01

124

Atmospheric nutrient deposition to the west coast of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric deposition is an important source of nutrients to many ecosystems, but is of particular importance to plant nutrition in areas where nutrients are scarce. Nutrient containing aerosols enter the atmosphere through industrial and agricultural activities, wildfires, and the production of terrigenous and marine aerosols. In this study, we collected bulk rain precipitation along the Atlantic coast of South Africa in a coastal “strandveld” vegetation region. This region is relatively remote from significant anthropogenic influences and is downwind of a highly productive and stormy portion of the Atlantic. Samples were collected over 12 months at sites along a 17 km downwind transect from the shoreline and analyzed for N, P, Na, Ca, Mg and K. Annual total N and total P fluxes of 4.8 kg ha-1 yr-1 and 0.16 kg ha-1 yr-1 are low compared to global averages. In contrast, fluxes of Na were 88.7 kg ha-1 yr-1, 16.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Ca, 12.1 kg ha-1 yr-1 for Mg and 5.2 kg ha-1 yr-1 for K; rates that are higher than most other measurements elsewhere in the world. Dissolved organic N represented ca. 71% of the N flux while 43% of the P flux was in the form of soluble reactive P (SRP). These results combined with the high fluxes of Na and Mg strongly suggest that marine aerosols are important contributors to nutrient deposition at this site.

Nyaga, Justine M.; Cramer, Michael D.; Neff, Jason C.

2013-12-01

125

Remote sensing of wetland conditions in West Coast salt marshes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of the PEEIR (Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research Consortium) program is to develop new indicators for assessing wetland health or condition. As part of PEEIR program we are investigating the use of imaging spectrometry to map and characterize marsh vegetation of several estuarine systems in California. We obtained airborne Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, an instrument which measures a detailed reflectance spectrum (400-2500nm) for each pixel, over paired tidal marshes, having either a history of exposure to pollution or no known exposure. AVIRIS image data was analyzed based on comparison to field measurements and reflectance changes measured in hydroponic experiments. We report leaf and canopy reflectance measurements of several common plant species of Pacific coast salt marshes exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, V) and crude oil contaminants. Species exhibited differential sensitivities to specific contaminants, however in general, Salicornia virginica, the most salt tolerant species and the dominant species in these wetlands (70-90% cover) was most sensitive to metal and petroleum contaminants. Field measurements of canopy reflectance, biomass and vegetation structure were acquired across GPS-located transects at each field site. The AVIRIS data were calibrated to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiative transfer code and geometrically registered to coordinates using the 1m USGS digital orthophoto quads. AVIRIS results show spatial patterns of plant stress indicators (e.g., reduced chlorophyll and water contents) are consistent with known patterns of contamination in these tidal wetlands.

Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui C.; Li, Lin

2004-11-01

126

Phytoplankton community structure and succession in a tropical estuarine complex (central west coast of India)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonal distribution of phytoplankton in the Mandovi-Zuari estuarine complex (central west coast of India) from November 1979 to October 1980 is described. Of the 82 species of phytoplankton recorded, diatoms (63 species) showed an overwhelming predominance over dinoflagellates (14 species), blue-green algae (three species) and green algae (two species). Among the several factors affecting phytoplankton, the commencement of the south-west monsoon results in a drastic change in hydrographic conditions which are instrumental in the transformation of the phytoplankton population size and structure. The great variability in the ecosystem is amply illustrated by species succession.

Devassy, V. P.; Goes, J. I.

1988-12-01

127

Cenozoic history of the west coast margin, Jamaica  

SciTech Connect

Cycles of emergence and submergence caused by tectonic movements and glacio-eustatic sea-level changes have left a strong signature on the geologic record of Jamaica's west coat margin. The fault-bounded Hanover Block controlled sites of Early Eocene to late Middle Miocene bank, slope and deep water carbonate sedimentation. Uplift in the Late Middle Miocene resulted in subaerial exposure of the limestones, with the formation of distinctive karst topograpy. Downfaulting of an extensive coastal block occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene, with glacio-eustatic sea-level changes becoming superimposed on tectonic events. Lower than present sea-levels are recorded by submerged terraces, a downed river valley, cliff and sea-level notch. The latter may correspond with late-Pleistocene interstadial sea-level positions of c.-18m. below present. Higher-than-present sea levels created a series of terraces, some underlain by Pleistocene reef, though levels have been affected by tectonic movements. The downfaulted block is veneered by thick terrestrial clays and gravels of Pleistocene age, succeeded by Holocene peat, and at the beach margin, carbonate sands. Radiometric dating of buried peat indicates that upward growth of the wetland surface was accompanied by landward migration of the beach across the wetland during the last 4000 years of the Holocene transgression.

Hendry, M.D.

1985-01-01

128

Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1991  

SciTech Connect

The joint US -- UK 1991 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in two locations. From July 5 to 12, 1991, in Upper Loch Linnhe, and from July 18 to July 26, 1991, in the Sound of Sleat. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

Lehman, S K; Johnston, B; Twogood, R; Wieting, M; Yorkey, T; Robey, H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Whelan, D; Nagele, R [Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1993-01-05

129

Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

Warwick, William M.

2012-06-30

130

Climatology of long-range transported Asian dust along the West Coast of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of trans-Pacific dust estimated from satellite observations has been shown to be 3 times greater than domestic dust in North America throughout the year. Thus, a quantitative understanding of the frequency and locations where Asian dust is transported is necessary to improve global dust modeling for weather and climate predictions. This work presents a 10 year record (2002-2011) of dust along the U.S. West Coast estimated from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments network in an effort to characterize the seasonal cycle and interannual variability of Asian dust transport. In addition, observations of dust exported from East Asia were analyzed along with air mass trajectories and satellite and ground-based precipitation data to investigate seasonal variability of Asian dust transport. On average, Asian dust concentrations (0.08-0.60 µg m-3) from ground-based observations were 1.7 times those of local dust (0.00-0.53 µg m-3) and 23% (up to 44%) of fine particulate matter (particles with diameters ? 2.5 micrometers, or PM2.5) mass concentrations at high elevations in the spring. The maximum in springtime Asian dust on the U.S. West Coast was attributed to higher source concentrations (10.98-36.27 µg m-3) and reduced potential for wet removal over the Pacific Ocean and U.S. West Coast. Although trans-Pacific transport was more favorable during the winter, minimum concentrations of Asian dust were observed on the U.S. West Coast (0.11 µg m-3) due to a lower source influence and higher potential for wet removal during transport. Multiobservational approaches such as these should be taken into account when modeling transport of Asian dust to the western U.S.

Creamean, Jessie M.; Spackman, J. Ryan; Davis, Sean M.; White, Allen B.

2014-11-01

131

Antibiotic resistant bacteria in consumable fishes from Digha coast, West Bengal, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotic resistant bacteria from the commercial marine catch of the pelagic fishes in the Bay of Bengal at Digha coast (21°37?N,\\u000a 87°33?E), West Bengal, India were evaluated. Aerobic heterotrophic and gram negative, along with the enteric bacteria were\\u000a enumerated from gill and intestinal homogenates. Media supplemented with the antibiotics were used to evaluate the antibiotic\\u000a resistant bacterial load. Viable counts

Koushik Ghosh; Sudipta Mandal

2010-01-01

132

The motorcycle boy in the west coast for percussion trio Pablo Ortiz Derek Kwan, Megan Shieh, Chris Froh  

E-print Network

PROGRAM The motorcycle boy in the west coast for percussion trio Pablo Ortiz Derek Kwan, Megan) A chlorotic laundry maid Washes nightly white silk garments; Naked, snow-white silvery forearms Stretching

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

133

Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

Dettinger, Michael D.

2013-01-01

134

Near?shore distribution and abundance of dolphins along the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to other stretches of the New Zealand coast, very little is known about the cetacean fauna off the West Coast of the South Island. The purpose of this paper is to describe the near?shore distribution and abundance of dolphins in that area by summarising the results of two major studies. Between February 1995 and February 1997, 97 day trips

Stefan Brager; Karsten Schneider

1998-01-01

135

A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India.  

PubMed

Harbours are heavily stressed coastal habitats characterised by high concentration of contaminant and low diversity of benthic community. The west coast of India harbours most of the major harbours compared to the east coast. Very few studies have compared the macrobenthic community between different Indian harbours. The present study was therefore conducted in three important harbour (Ratnagiri, Goa, Karwar) along the central west coast of India. The paper discusses the health status of the three harbours diagnosed using various biotic indices. Sediment samples were collected using van Veen grab (0.11 m(2)) on board CRV Sagar Sukti. A total of 55 macrobenthic taxa were identified and were numerically dominated by polychaete. Biomass was high (0.14-145.7 g m(-2)) and was made largely by echiurans (>80%). Overall, polychaete dominated the macrobenthic diversity. Opportunistic P.pinnata, Notomastus sp. and Mediomastus sp., dominated the macrobenthic community responding to the increased in the harbour. Biotic indices (Polychaete:Amphipod ratio, ABC curve and geometric class abundance) and the dominance of opportunistic species indicate that, the three harbours are under stress from anthropogenic activities. PMID:18566901

Ingole, B; Sivadas, S; Nanajkar, M; Sautya, S; Nag, A

2009-07-01

136

MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN THE HYDROMEDUSA GENUS POLYORCHIS ON THE WEST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA  

SciTech Connect

Morphological variation in the hydromedusan genus Polyorchis on the west coast of North American is analyzed in relation to gonad number, tentacle number, and radial canal diverticula number relative to the height of the bell. In specimens of Polyorchis examined, it is concluded that P. penicillatus (Eschscholtz, 1829) is highly variable morphologically over its known geographic range from Alaska to Baja California. P. montereyensis Skogsberg, 1948 is considered a synonym of P. penicillatus, while P. haplus Skogsberg. 1948, is retained as a valid species.

Rees, John T.; Larson, R.J.

1980-12-01

137

Swedish Plectida (Nematoda). Part 7. Setostephanolaimus tchesunovi sp. n. from the west coast of Sweden.  

PubMed

A new species of Setostephanolaimus, S. tchesunovi sp. n., is described from bottom sediments collected in the Skagerrak and Gullmarn Fjord off the west coast of Sweden. It is characterised by 1.0-1.3 mm long body, outer labial setae 6.5-8.5 µm long, cephalic setae 9-11 µm long, subcephalic setae 4-6 µm long, transversely-oval amphid, female with monodelphic opisthodelphic reproductive system, male with 6-9 tubular and without alveolar supplements, spicules arcuate and 54-64 µm long, gubernaculum with dorsal apophysis. A tabular compendium and dichotomous identification key to species of the genus Setostephanolaimus are provided.  PMID:25112360

Holovachov, Oleksandr

2014-01-01

138

ShakeAlert: an earthquake early warning system for the United States West Coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake early warning systems use earthquake science and the technology of monitoring systems to alert devices and people when shaking waves generated by an earthquake are expected to arrive at their location. The seconds to minutes of advance warning can allow people and systems to take actions to protect life and property from destructive shaking. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with several partners has been working to develop an early warning system for the United States. ShakeAlert, a demonstration system currently under development, is designed to cover the West Coast States of California, Oregon, and Washington.

Burkett, Erin R.; Given, Douglas D.; Jones, Lucile M.

2014-01-01

139

A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the West Coast of Canada  

PubMed Central

Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg?1, significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of 134Cs and 137Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ?2 Bq kg?1. Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain 137Cs exactly at the detection limit level and 134Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of 134Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. PMID:24795385

Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W.; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

2015-01-01

140

The ecology of the seagrass meadows of the west coast of Florida: A community profile  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes information on the ecology of seagrass meadows on the west coast of Florida, from south of Tampa Bay to Pensacola. This area contains more than 3500 ha of seagrass beds, dominated by three species, Thalasia testudinum (turtle grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), and Halodule wrightii (shoal grass). Beds occur both on the shallow, zero-energy Continental Shelf and in inshore bays and estuaries. Species ecology, distribution, biomass, and productivity of these dominant seagrass species are discussed. Seagrass beds support a very diverse and abundant algal flora and fauna, and these organisms, and seagrass detritus form the base of a productive food chain. Seagrass beds are important nursery areas providing both cover and food, for a number of commercial and sports fishery species. Along the west Florida coast, estuarine grass beds are noticeably more stressed and impacted by human activities than the more pristine nearshore beds. Urban development and dredging and filling are the major threates to seagrass beds in this region. 500 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

Zieman, J.C.; Zieman, R.T. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville, VA (USA). Dept. of Environmental Sciences)

1989-09-01

141

A review of sediment dynamical processes in the west coast of Korea, eastern Yellow Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment dynamical processes began to be systematically monitored in the west coast of Korea facing the eastern Yellow Sea in the 1990s. The early investigations were largely conducted aboard vessels that provided results where the resolution was highly restricted in both temporal and spatial aspects. However, full-fledged autonomous instruments introduced early in the 2000s allowed for a quantum leap in the level of this sub-field of sedimentology. The investigated sites include various environments such as estuaries, bays, tidal flats, beaches, and offshore deposits. Among them, a total of seven sites were selected for the review: Han estuary, Daeho tidal flats, Garolim Bay, Saemangeum Region, Byunsan Beach, Gomso Bay, and Huksan Mud Belt. The major results from each site were briefly summarized. The summary clearly demonstrates that wind-generated currents and waves particularly during winter should be carefully considered in interpreting sedimentary environments. This is because winter-season processes interrupt or actively displace much of the sediments worked by tidal currents in the remaining seasons. The summary hence suggests that seasonal investigations of sediment dynamics are necessary to understand shallow-water sedimentation in the west coast of Korea that is governed complicatedly by two major forcing agents: waves and tidal currents.

Lee, Hee Jun

2014-06-01

142

A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast  

SciTech Connect

This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

Gornitz, V.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Beaty, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Daniels, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

1997-12-01

143

A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the west coast of Canada.  

PubMed

Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg(-1), significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of (134)Cs and (137)Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ?2 Bq kg(-1). Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain (137)Cs exactly at the detection limit level and (134)Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of (134)Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. PMID:24795385

Chen, Jing; Cooke, Michael W; Mercier, Jean-Francois; Ahier, Brian; Trudel, Marc; Workman, Greg; Wyeth, Malcolm; Brown, Robin

2015-02-01

144

Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West Coast during winter storms and that these patterns vary substantially with latitude. These results should assist with future evaluations of flood plume formation and sediment fate along this coast.

Kniskern, Tara A.; Warrick, Jonathan A.; Farnsworth, Katherine L.; Wheatcroft, Robert A.; Goñi, Miguel A.

2011-05-01

145

Coherence of river and ocean conditions along the US West Coast during storms  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The majority of water and sediment discharge from the small, mountainous watersheds of the US West Coast occurs during and immediately following winter storms. The physical conditions (waves, currents, and winds) within and acting upon the proximal coastal ocean during these winter storms strongly influence dispersal patterns. We examined this river-ocean temporal coherence for four coastal river-shelf systems of the US West Coast (Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara) to evaluate whether specific ocean conditions occur during floods that may influence coastal dispersal of sediment. Eleven years of corresponding river discharge, wind, and wave data were obtained for each river-shelf system from USGS and NOAA historical records, and each record was evaluated for seasonal and event-based patterns. Because near-bed shear stresses due to waves influence sediment resuspension and transport, we used spectral wave data to compute and evaluate wave-generated bottom-orbital velocities. The highest values of wave energy and discharge for all four systems were consistently observed between October 15 and March 15, and there were strong latitudinal patterns observed in these data with lower discharge and wave energies in the southernmost systems. During floods we observed patterns of river-ocean coherence that differed from the overall seasonal patterns. For example, downwelling winds generally prevailed during floods in the northern two systems (Umpqua and Eel), whereas winds in the southern systems (Salinas and Santa Clara) were generally downwelling before peak discharge and upwelling after peak discharge. Winds not associated with floods were generally upwelling on all four river-shelf systems. Although there are seasonal variations in river-ocean coherence, waves generally led floods in the three northern systems, while they lagged floods in the Santa Clara. Combined, these observations suggest that there are consistent river-ocean coherence patterns along the US West Coast during winter storms and that these patterns vary substantially with latitude. These results should assist with future evaluations of flood plume formation and sediment fate along this coast. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Kniskern, T.A.; Warrick, J.A.; Farnsworth, K.L.; Wheatcroft, R.A.; Goni, M.A.

2011-01-01

146

75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard...permanent security zone in the Freeport LNG Basin. This security zone is needed to...NPRM) entitled Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX in the Federal...

2010-03-10

147

NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

2009-01-01

148

P6 LISS III image for Coastal Landforms Extraction along South West Coast of Tamilnadu,  

E-print Network

Abstract--- The Remote sensing technology is measured or observed reflected energy to construct an image of the landscape beneath the platform passage in a discrete pixel format. The geometric and radiometric characteristics of remotely sensed image provide information about earth’s surface. In the present study, the primary data product obtained from IRS P6 satellite LISS – III images (23.5 m) are used to extract the landforms the South West coast of Tamil nadu, India. The study area comprises different types of landforms in nature. The selected image processing techniques are employed such as, geometric correction, radiometric correction for removal of atmospheric errors and noise from image and to identify spectral and spatial variations in structure, texture, pattern of objects in the image. Here, the spectral recognition statistics namely edge

S. Kaliraj; N. Ch

149

Extreme irgarol tolerance in an Ulva lactuca L. population on the Swedish west coast.  

PubMed

The herbicide irgarol 1051 is commonly used on ship hulls to prevent growth of algae, but as a component of self-eroding paints it can also spread in the surrounding waters and affect non-target organisms. The effect of irgarol on settlement and growth of zoospores from the marine macro algae Ulva lactuca from the Gullmar fjord on the Swedish west coast was investigated in the present study. The zoospores were allowed to settle and grow in the presence of irgarol, but neither settlement - nor growth inhibition was observed at concentrations of up to 2000 nmol l(-1). This is between 10 and 100 times higher than effect concentrations reported earlier for algae. Irgarol also induced the greening effect (4-fold increase in chlorophyll a content) in the settled zoospore/germling population, typical for photosystem II inhibitors like irgarol. This study support previous findings that irgarol constitutes a selection pressure in the marine environment. PMID:24054733

Wendt, Ida; Arrhenius, Åsa; Backhaus, Thomas; Hilvarsson, Annelie; Holm, Kristina; Langford, Katherine; Tunovic, Timur; Blanck, Hans

2013-11-15

150

Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

2006-10-01

151

Population dynamics and reproductive patterns of boltenia echinata (Ascidicea) on the Swedish west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two populations of Boltenia echinata on the Swedish west coast were studied over a 10-year period by stereo-photographic recording of subtidal, vertical rock wallsat a depth of 20 m. Supplemental sampling was carried out over a one-year period. On the sheltered population decreased in numbers with an explosive increase in Ciona intestinalis. Another, exposed population displayed a similar response at the increase of annual ascidians ( Ascidiella scabra, A. aspersa and Corella parallelogramma). Variations in recruitment were influenced by interference competition, while adults were affected to a lesser extent. Recruitment and mortality at the exposed locality were twice as high as at the sheltered locality whereas the mean annual mortality pattern was similar. Adult mortality was related to physical factors (mainly temperature), imposing stresses of different magnitudes on the two populations. Settling and recruitment was observed throghout the year. No relation was found between the presence of incubating embryos or larvae in the atrial cavity and settling.

Svane, I.; Lundälv, T.

152

Uptake of Bacteriophage and Their Subsequent Survival in Edible West Coast Crabs After Processing  

PubMed Central

Edible West Coast crabs (Cancer magister and Cancer antennarius), when in seawater contaminated with coliphage T4, were found to accumulate high titers of this virus. To study the extent of the hazard presented by crabs contaminated with virus, samples of edible crabs were contaminated with coliphage T4 and then processed by boiling. Results indicated that virus in crabs withstood this method of processing. The survival rate varied from 2.5 to 20%, depending upon the processing time. Heat penetration studies showed that, although internal temperature in the crabs was sufficient to inactivate virus, the processing times normally used to cook crabs were not. These results suggest that processed crabs could serve as vectors for the dissemination of virus diseases if the crabs are harvested from a polluted area. PMID:5064986

DiGirolamo, R.; Wiczynski, L.; Daley, M.; Miranda, F.; Viehweger, C.

1972-01-01

153

The message, meteorology and myths of the historic West Coast winter flooding of 1861 - 62  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The greatest known recorded flooding, ever to impact the West Coast of the United States, occurred during the winter of 1861-1862. In fact, the extraordinary flood flows on five major rivers, remain the record peaks to this day. The flooding was caused by a series of Pacific mid-latitude cyclones and several strong atmospheric rivers. The extreme rainy pattern initially strikes Oregon. The high water causes the flood of record on the Willamette River, with extensive devastation, wiping out several major towns along the river. Communications, food and supplies were cut off for much of the winter in Oregon.The intense wet weather, then redevelops, moves south and stalls - pummeling Northern California with major flooding. The runoff fills California's Central Valley with a huge inland lake. Sacramento is submerged, turned into what was described as a "frontier Venice". Flood damages eliminate a large part of the state's tax base.Finally the stormy pattern shifts into Southern California, producing major flooding. Most of lowland Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego Counties are flooded under several feet of water for weeks.The author researched limited weather data, historical accounts, maps and ship reports to reconstruct this series of storms and their effects along the West Coast. The extent and evolution of this series of flood events is unprecedented. Myths regarding the causes of this flooding are common, but its sheer magnitude is undisputable. This presentation will also demonstrate the nature and impacts of these consecutive major flood events, while revealing the lessons to be learned in light of advances in modern forecasting techniques.

Schick, L. J.

2012-12-01

154

Climatic and Anthropogenic Controls on Correlated Discharge from US West Coast Rivers (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most river basins along the US West Coast are generally small, less than 15,000 km2, and tend to flood quickly following rain events. The storm systems that deliver rain to the coastal mountain ranges are considerably larger than the river basins such that multiple basins receive precipitation within hours of each other. Subsequently, these proximal rivers often disperse freshwater and sediment to the coastal ocean at relatively the same time. Many conceptual and numerical models of coastal processes may underestimate the delivery, dispersal and burial of sediment on the continental shelves as they often assume point source delivery of water and sediment from a single river. The reality seems to speak to the fact that a collection of smaller river basins may be synchronously delivering sediment all along a stretch of coastline. Hydrologic records from 62 coastal watersheds stretching along the US west coast from the Canadian to the Mexican border were acquired from the USGS river gauging network, this included over 100 gauging stations with records varying in length. This data mining effort allowed for a detailed analysis of the timing of flood peaks to the actual coastlines, rather than just correlation between gauging stations. Distinct coastal groupings were found that have rivers that deliver freshwater and sediment to the continental shelves at the same time, indicating plume mixing and different oceanic hydrodynamic regimes than would be indicated by traditional coastal sediment transport models. Also seen were larger scale climatic controls on the watershed relationships and alteration of the flood signals due to anthropogenic changes within the watershed. Extensive flood control networks, differences in population centers and floodplain modification within these basins all contributed to unexpected deviations from the correlation patterns.

Farnsworth, K. L.; Kniskern, T. A.

2013-12-01

155

Atmospheric fluxes of persistent organic compounds to a forest ecosystem at the Swedish west coast  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this ongoing study is to investigate the importance of the atmospheric contribution of POP, such as PCB, HCH, HCB and PAH, to a forest at the Swedish west coast, Lake Gaardsjoen, and to get an idea about circulation and accumulation of these organic contaminants within a terrestrial ecosystem. The measurements include parallel sampling in air, deposition (artificial surface) and spruce needles. Recent sampling periods also include throughfall, runoff water, litterfall and soil. The amounts of POP deposited to the Gaardsjoen area were similar to those obtained during measurements at coastal and sea based sites at the Swedish west coast. Events with long range air transport did not significantly increase the atmospheric concentrations of PAH and PCB in the Gaardsjoen area. However, due to an increased particle concentration in the air, such episodes increased the deposition fluxes of PAH and PCB. Only small variations in the concentrations of POP occurred in the needles during different sampling periods and no accumulation was observed. The lowest PCB concentrations in the needles were found during a summer period in connection with the highest PCB concentrations in the air and with the highest ambient air temperature. The PAH and PCB found in spruce needles seemed to be due to uptake from both the gas and particle phases. Except for a relative increase of less volatile compounds, the distribution among individual PCB obtained in the soil agreed well with the PCB profile found in the deposition and throughfall. This supports the hypothesis that atmospheric deposition is the main source for PCB in this area.

Brorstroem-Lunden, E.; Loefgren, C.

1995-12-31

156

Incorporating climate information into rebuilding plans for overfished groundfish species of the U.S. west coast  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rebuilding plans are required by the U.S. Sustainable Fisheries Act (1996) for stocks that are designated to be overfished, including several stocks of groundfish on the U.S. west coast. Despite evidence for climate effects on groundfish recruitment, the analyses that underlie rebuilding plans have not incorporated those effects. We extended the conventional approach used to conduct rebuilding analyses to evaluate

Carrie A. Holt; André E. Punt

2009-01-01

157

Vegetational and Abiotic Analysis of the Salterns of Mangals and Salt Marshes of the West Coast of Florida  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine saltern boundaries, vascular plant distributions were analyzed across nine transects through three tidal communities on the west coast of Florida: a salt marsh in St. Mark's National Wildlife Refuge, a dwarf mangal in upper Tampa Bay and a well developed mangal in Charlotte Harbor. All nine transects had nearly identical soil salinities, ranging from 20 to 40 ppt

Barbara A. Hoffman; Clinton J. Dawes

1997-01-01

158

Histopathological and bacteriological study of white spot syndrome of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome (WSS) is a serious viral disease of shrimp causing severe mortalities in several parts of Asia. This paper describes the histopathology of the syndrome which occurred on the west coast of India. The affected shrimp showed white spots on the carapace and post abdominal segments and histopathologically, hypertrophied nuclei with eosinophilic to basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were

Indrani Karunasagar; S. K. Otta; Iddya Karunasagar

1997-01-01

159

Eight years of regional scale, benthic assessments of the U.S. West Coast: Lessons learned and future directions  

EPA Science Inventory

The EPA National Coastal Assessment (NCA) conducted regional scale assessments of benthic condition for the US West Coast from Washington to California, several regions of Alaska, Hawaii, and the Trust Territories of Guam and American Samoa. Over an 8-year period, studies focuse...

160

The ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita phalloides was introduced and is expanding its range on the west coast of North America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The deadly poisonous Amanita phalloides is common along the west coast of North America. Death cap mushrooms are especially abundant in habitats around the San Francisco Bay, California, but the species grows as far south as Los Angeles County and north to Vancouver Island, Canada. At different times, various authors have considered the species as either native or introduced, and

ANNE PRINGLE; RACHEL I. ADAMS; HUGH B. CROSS; THOMAS D. BRUNS

2009-01-01

161

NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

2008-01-01

162

Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic “weak type” orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly constituted by TTG, greenstones, supracrustal rocks and leucogranites. A compilation of metamorphic and radiometric data highlights that: i) metamorphic conditions are rather homogeneous through the domain, without important metamorphic jumps, ii) HP-LT assemblages are absent and iii) important volumes of magmas emplaced during the overall Paleoproterozoic orogeny suggesting the occurrence of long-lived rather hot geotherms. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest that the deformation is homogeneous and distributed through the Paleoproterozoic domain. In details, results of this study point out the long-lived character of vertical movements during the Eburnean orogeny with a two folds evolution. The first stage is characterized by the development of "domes and basins" geometries without any boundary tectonic forces and the second stage is marked by coeval diapiric movements and horizontal regional-scale shortening. These features suggest that the crust is affected by vertical movements during the overall orogeny. The Eburnean orogen can then be considered as an example of long-lived Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogen.

Vidal, M.; Gumiaux, C.; Cagnard, F.; Pouclet, A.; Ouattara, G.; Pichon, M.

2009-11-01

163

Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site serves as a portal for information pertaining to the coasts of the U.S. The coast page offers an introduction to the nature and importance of our coasts followed by a section that spells out their mission. The site contains a host of active links to other pages which include quick access to coastal information, immediate graphical and tabular water level and meteorological data from NOAA water level stations located at various U.S. coastal locations, real-time water levels, currents, and other oceanographic and meteorological data from bays and harbors, links to U.S. coastal observing systems, NOAA Restoration Center, and NOAA photo galleries. The site also has links to current topics, products such as publications and data bases, and seventeen organizations that are either a part of NOAA or closely aligned.

164

Brevetoxicosis in seabirds naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms along the central west coast of Florida.  

PubMed

Harmful algal bloom events caused by the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis occurred along the central west Florida, USA, coast from February 2005 through December 2005 and from August 2006 through December 2006. During these events, from 4 February 2005 through 28 November 2006, live, debilitated seabirds admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs that included disorientation, inability to stand, ataxia, and seizures. Testing of blood, biologic fluids, and tissues for brevetoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 69% (n=95) of rehabilitating seabirds. Twelve of the 19 species of birds had evidence of brevetoxin exposure. Commonly affected species included Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), and Common Loons (Gavia immer). Serial blood and fecal samples taken from several live seabirds during rehabilitation showed that brevetoxin was cleared within 5-10 days after being admitted to the rehabilitation facility, depending on the species tested. Among seabirds that died or were euthanized, the highest brevetoxin concentrations were found in bile, stomach contents, and liver. Most dead birds had no significant pathologic findings at necropsy, thereby supporting brevetoxin-related mortality. PMID:23568900

Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer M; Keller, Martha; Kinsel, Michael J; Johnson, Christine K; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet G; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

2013-04-01

165

Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.  

PubMed

Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments. PMID:18774643

Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

2009-05-15

166

A three dimensional hydrodynamic model of tides off the north-west coast of Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three dimensional hydrodynamic model using a fine {1}/{12 °} × {1}/{12 °} finite difference grid in the horizontal with a spectral approach in the vertical is used to examine the spatial distributions of the M 2 and O 1 tidal elevations and currents at the shelf edge. The region chosen for the study is the Malin-Hebrides shelf off the west coast of Scotland, where a set of offshore elevation and current meter data exists. Calculations show that M 2 tidal elevations and currents increase rapidly from ocean to shelf having the largest amplitude in the near shore regions. In contrast O 1 elevations and currents are intensified at the shelf edge showing spatial changes corresponding to a first mode shelf wave. Computed O 1 current ellipses show significant small scale horizontal spatial variability in the shelf edge region. Comparison of computed and observed M 2 tidal currents, shows that away from abrupt changes in topography, the model can adequately reproduce the currents, although in regions of rapid change in water depth a finer grid is probably required. Calculations show that with the finite difference grid used here the intensity and the spatial variability of the O 1 tidal currents in the shelf edge region is strongly influenced by the magnitude of horizontal eddy viscosity, the exact formulation of which is poorly known.

Proctor, R.; Davies, A. M.

1996-01-01

167

Distribution and quality of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) nursery grounds on the Swedish west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa) has spatially restricted nursery grounds located in shallow soft bottom areas, where the nursery areas only make up a small fraction of the species distribution range. The importance of different coastal areas for recruitment is expected to depend on the quality and size of the nursery grounds. This paper describes the geographical extension of plaice nursery grounds at a regional level along the Swedish west coast. Densities of juvenile plaice were used as the response variable of habitat quality and were compiled based on records from autumn sampling in the various regions. Different aspects of nursery ground quality were related to the density of 0-group plaice, to evaluate the contribution of different factors to the geographical pattern observed. Larval supply was found to be the most important component of nursery quality showing a close relationship with the density of juvenile plaice on a regional scale. The relative contribution of plaice recruits from Swedish nursery grounds to the Skagerrak/Kattegat stock was evaluated using historical data. Swedish nursery grounds were estimated to contribute 77% of the recruits to the adult stock in the area.

Wennhage, Håkan; Pihl, Leif; Stål, Johan

2007-02-01

168

Lagrangian Loopers in Intermediate Waters off the West coast of the United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagrangian measurements of intermediate waters along the West Coast of the United States have been made since 1992 using isobaric RAFOS floats. The focus of the measurements has been the California Undercurrent. The data now consists of 63 quasi-Lagrangian subsurface trajectories sampled for the most part between 150 and 600 dbar. Three patterns of float motion are clearly detected from the RAFOS trajectories: poleward flow in the California Undercurrent, reversing flow along the continental margin, and westward translation of the floats. The latter is often accompanied by anti-cyclonic eddy-like motion. Floats trapped in eddies are referred to as loopers. 47 loopers were identified, each consisting of two or more consecutive loops. Almost 80% of the loopers moved westward at about 1.9 cm/s. Assuming the looping trajectories were due to translation by a discrete eddy, the mean period of rotation, characteristic swirl velocity, loop diameter, and eddy kinetic energy were estimated from the float trajectories. These characteristics are presented and dynamical implications discussed.

Margolina, T.; Collins, C. A.; Rago, T. A.

2006-05-01

169

Bioaccumulation characteristics of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in coastal organisms from the west coast of South Korea.  

PubMed

Year-round monitoring for perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) along the west coast of South Korea targeting long-term changes in water and coastal organisms has been conducted since 2008. In this study, we present the most recent 5-years of accumulated data and scrutinize the relationship between concentrations in water and biota highlighting bioaccumulation characteristics. Twelve individual PFAAs in samples of water (n=43) and biota (n=59) were quantified by use of HPLC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction. In recent years, concentrations of PFAAs in water have been generally decreasing, but profiles of relative concentrations of individual PFAAs vary among location and year. Bioaccumulation of PFAAs in various organisms including fishes, bivalves, crabs, gastropods, shrimps, starfish, and polychaetes varied among species. However, overall bioaccumulation of PFAAs was dependent on corresponding concentrations of PFAAs in water within an area. In organ-specific distributions of PFAAs, greater concentrations of PFAAs were found in intestine of fish (green eel goby). This result suggests that PFAAs are mainly accumulated via dietary exposure, while greater concentrations were found in gill and intestine of bivalve (oyster) which suggests both waterborne and dietary exposures to these organisms. Concentrations of PFAAs in biota did not decrease over time (2008-2010), indicating that continuing bioaccumulation followed by slow degradation or excretion of PFAAs accumulated in biota. Overall, spatio-temporal distributions of PFAAs in water and bioaccumulation characteristics seemed to be associated with recent restrictions of PFOS-based products and uses of PFBS-based substitutes. PMID:25015225

Hong, Seongjin; Khim, Jong Seong; Wang, Tieyu; Naile, Jonathan E; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Song, Sung Joon; Ryu, Jongseong; Codling, Garry; Jones, Paul D; Lu, Yonglong; Giesy, John P

2015-06-01

170

Diatom community dynamics in a tropical, monsoon-influenced environment: West coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatom communities are influenced by environmental perturbations, such as the monsoon system that impact the niche opportunities of species. To discern the influence of the monsoon system on diatom community structure, we sampled during two consecutive post-monsoons (2001 and 2002) and the intervening pre-monsoon at Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports along the central west coast of India. Characteristic temporal shifts in diatom community structure were observed across the sampling periods; these were mainly driven by temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen saturation. The nutrient-poor pre-monsoon period supported low abundance yet high species richness and diversity of diatoms. Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, Thalassiosira, Triceratium, Pleurosigma, Skeletonema and Surirella were the most dominant genera. Both the post-monsoon periods, following dissimilar monsoon events, were dominated by Skeletonema costatum, but differed in some of the residual species . Thalassiosira and Thalassionema spp. dominated mostly during post-monsoon I whereas Triceratium and Pleurosigma spp. dominated during post-monsoon II. To understand the underlying ecological mechanisms involved in such dynamics, we focus on the dominant diatom species in post-monsoon periods, S. costatum, that contributes up to 60% to total diatom cell numbers. This research is relevant in light of the fluctuating monsoon regimes over the Asian continent, the confounding effects of anthropogenic eutrophication and the resulting cascading effects on trophic web dynamics.

D'Costa, Priya M.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

2010-07-01

171

Tidal Propagation in the Mandovi Zuari Estuarine Network, West Coast of India: Impact of Freshwater Influx  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mandovi-Zuari estuarine network on the west coast of India consists of shallow strongly converging channels, that receive large seasonal influx of fresh water due to the monsoons. The main channels, the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, connect the network to the Arabian Sea. Observations show that tidal amplitude in the channels remains unchanged over large distances (|mS40 km) from the mouths of the main channels and then decays rapidly over approximately 10 km near the head. To understand the dynamics behind this behaviour, a numerical model for tidal propagation has been used that simulates the observed tidal elevations well. Momentum balance in the model is predominantly between pressure gradient and friction. In the region of undamped propagation, the model behaviour is consistent with the theory that geometric amplification balances frictional decay leaving the tide unchanged. This balance breaks down near the upstream end, where channels are narrowest, and mean velocity associated with freshwater influx is sufficiently large to prevent upstream propagation of tide. This leads to rapid decay in tidal amplitude. The model also shows that the mean water-level rises in the upstream direction, in the region of the decay.

Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Shetye, S. R.; Gouveia, A. D.

1997-12-01

172

Adsorption of arsenic by iron rich precipitates from two coal mine drainage sites on the West Coast of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dissolved As can be strongly adsorbed to fine grained Fe(III) minerals such as hydroxides, oxyhydroxides and hydroxysulphates. Therefore precipitates that form during neutralisation or treatment of acid mine drainage have potential to be useful for treatment of As-contaminated water because acid mine drainage is often Fe rich. We tested the adsorption properties of Fe(III) rich precipitates from two West Coast

R Rait; D Trumm; J Pope; D Craw; N Newman; H MacKenzie

2010-01-01

173

Plant succession and interaction between soil and plants after land reclamation on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant succession and the interaction between soil and plants after reclamation were investigated on the west coast of Korea.\\u000a Our study included one natural tidal flat site (Namdong, 3 km2), and five sites that differed in the number of years since being reclaimed: Hyundai A, 6 km2 (1 yr); Hyundai B, 5 km2 (2 yr); Jangdeog, 5 km2 (8 yr);

Byeong Mee Min; Joon-Ho Kim

2000-01-01

174

Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest,\\u000a south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos\\u000a ranged from 235 ± 10.11 to 1,051 ± 38.42, 3.66 ± 0.89 to 7.55 ± 1.29, 76.8

Kawser Ahmed; Yousuf Mehedi; Rezaul Haque; Pulakesh Mondol

2011-01-01

175

Mapping the U.S. West Coast surface circulation: A multiyear analysis of high-frequency radar observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nearly completed U.S. West Coast (USWC) high-frequency radar (HFR) network provides an unprecedented capability to monitor and understand coastal ocean dynamics and phenomenology through hourly surface current measurements at up to 1 km resolution. The dynamics of the surface currents off the USWC are governed by tides, winds, Coriolis force, low-frequency pressure gradients (less than 0.4 cycles per day

Sung Yong Kim; Eric J. Terrill; Bruce D. Cornuelle; Burt Jones; Libe Washburn; Mark A. Moline; Jeffrey D. Paduan; Newell Garfield; John L. Largier; Greg Crawford; P. Michael Kosro

2011-01-01

176

Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

Not Available

1988-12-01

177

Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210 meters. The individual surveys were compiled to form a comprehensive grid of the entire region, which covers an area of approximately 1,110,000 square kilometers. Applications such as MB-System, Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL), Generic Mapping Tools (GMT), and Fledermaus were used to grid, compile, and visualize the data. This study focuses on the gridding methods, compilation, and pitfalls of creating a large-scale multibeam sonar grid for use on a single region of the U.S ECS project.

Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

2011-12-01

178

Vegetation history from the Kaihinu (last) interglacial to the present, West Coast, South Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An outline of the vegetation history of Hokitika-Westport area, West Coast, South Island, since the beginning of the Kaihinu Interglacial, is based on pollen analytical data from 20 sites. Interpretation of the pollen diagrams is constrained by the geology of the sites and by the unreliability of radiocarbon dates caused by widespread sample contamination by modern carbon. Accumulation of the pollen-bearing materials took place within the framework of deposition and erosion resulting from Kaihinu (last) Interglacial and Aranui Postglacial high sea levels and intervening glacier advances of the Otira (last) Glaciation. The principal groups of sites are associated with (1) high sea level deposits, (2) fluvial deposits, (3) loessic terrace cover deposits and (4) wet hollows. Together with spot samples, mostly previously described from late Otiran full glacial sites, the sites exemplify a wide variety of vegetation types and climatic environments ranging from warm temperate podocarp rain forest, through beech ( Nothofagus) forest and shrubland, to full glacial grassland. Based on the patterns of climatic change and geological events, tentative correlations are made with deep-sea Oxygen Isotope Stages of late Stage 6, through the substages of Stage 5, followed by Stages 4 to 1. Forest prevailed throughout the Kaihinu Interglacial (Stage 5), being initially dominated by the podocarp Dacrvdium cupressinum and then by Nothofagus. Individual sites cover estimated time ranges up to ca. 35,000 years in apparently unbroken sequences. In the terrace coverbeds, none more than 2 m thick, severe mixing of pollen is at least partly related to breaks in the sequences. A widespread early Aranuian break (latest Stage 2) and another in the mid-Otiran interstadial (Stage 3), are both in transitional periods between fully glacial and fully interglacial conditions, and probably required periods of seasonally dry and windy conditions to strip the loessic deposits from wide areas.

Moar, N. T.; Suggate, R. P.

179

Predicted Deep-Sea Coral Habitat Suitability for the U.S. West Coast  

PubMed Central

Regional scale habitat suitability models provide finer scale resolution and more focused predictions of where organisms may occur. Previous modelling approaches have focused primarily on local and/or global scales, while regional scale models have been relatively few. In this study, regional scale predictive habitat models are presented for deep-sea corals for the U.S. West Coast (California, Oregon and Washington). Model results are intended to aid in future research or mapping efforts and to assess potential coral habitat suitability both within and outside existing bottom trawl closures (i.e. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH)) and identify suitable habitat within U.S. National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). Deep-sea coral habitat suitability was modelled at 500 m×500 m spatial resolution using a range of physical, chemical and environmental variables known or thought to influence the distribution of deep-sea corals. Using a spatial partitioning cross-validation approach, maximum entropy models identified slope, temperature, salinity and depth as important predictors for most deep-sea coral taxa. Large areas of highly suitable deep-sea coral habitat were predicted both within and outside of existing bottom trawl closures and NMS boundaries. Predicted habitat suitability over regional scales are not currently able to identify coral areas with pin point accuracy and probably overpredict actual coral distribution due to model limitations and unincorporated variables (i.e. data on distribution of hard substrate) that are known to limit their distribution. Predicted habitat results should be used in conjunction with multibeam bathymetry, geological mapping and other tools to guide future research efforts to areas with the highest probability of harboring deep-sea corals. Field validation of predicted habitat is needed to quantify model accuracy, particularly in areas that have not been sampled. PMID:24759613

Guinotte, John M.; Davies, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

180

Mapping and assessing seagrass bed changes in Central Florida's west coast using multitemporal Landsat TM imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some seagrass meadows in coastal shallow waters have displayed large scale changes in seagrass spatial extent and hurricanes and/or tropical storms have been suggested as factors responsible for reduction in coverage. Taking advantage of the incidence of three tropical storms passing near a study site along the central west Florida coast within a two-month period in 2004, we evaluated whether satellite remote sensing techniques (Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery) are useful for assessing dynamics of seagrass (=submerged aquatic vegetation: SAV) cover/abundance in response to these multiple disturbances. We also examined whether an image preprocessing procedure, which included water column correction, applied to the Landsat TM images could further improve the classification and mapping of detailed SAV coverage. We compared a historical set of Landsat TM images, acquired in Fall 2003 and Fall and late Summer 2005, which were processed to classify %SAV cover into five classes using a maximum likelihood classifier. Importantly, our experimental results demonstrated that the application of the image preprocessing procedures led to an overall accuracy 2-14% improvement in SAV classification due to water column correction compared to that currently reported in the literature when similar Landsat TM data are utilized. Based upon the classification results mapped from the TM images and as well as a similar classification of SAV interpreted from aerial photographs collected before and after the passage of these same storms, SAV coverage over the study areas was found to increase about 6% (integrating SAV losses and gains) by 2005/2006 in comparison to cover levels present prior to the repeated storm activity. We conclude that heavy rains during 2004 along with physical disturbance from gale force winds from the tropical storms/hurricanes did not produce any SAV bed loss at the study site that was sustained for more than one year after multiple storm passage.

Pu, Ruiliang; Bell, Susan; Meyer, Cynthia

2014-08-01

181

Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

2014-09-01

182

Operating history of Arun LNG Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arun LNG plant is owned by PERTAMINA (The Oil And Gas State Enterprise Of The Republic Of Indonesia) and is located at Blang Lancang, North Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia. It is about 15 km west of the port of Lhokseumawe, or about 300 km north-west of the city of Medan. The plant is operated by PT Arun NGL Co. The

Suyanto

1984-01-01

183

76 FR 78188 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...of a waterway for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) marine...Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOR Letter of...

2011-12-16

184

Novel octabrominated phenolic diphenyl ether identified in blue mussels from the Swedish West Coast.  

PubMed

Hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are compounds present in the marine environment and OH-PBDEs are of toxicological concern and are therefore of interest to monitor in the environment. A phenolic octaBDE was tentatively identified in the phenolic fraction of previously analyzed mussel samples after methylation of the halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs). The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of this compound in blue mussels and investigate whether the analyte is diOH- and/or OH-MeO-octaBDE. Two reference standards, 6,6'-dimethoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6,6'-diMeO-BDE194) and 6-ethoxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194) were prepared via O-arylation of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxyphenol and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-ethoxyphenol, respectively, with a novel unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salt, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxydiphenyliodonium triflate. The GC retention time and GC/MS spectrum of the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 correspond well with the analyte in the methylated phenolic fraction of a mussel extract from a previous study. Structural analysis performed in this study indicate that the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 and 6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194 correspond well with 6-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194) after methylation and ethylation, respectively, of the HPCs in the mussel extracts. The compound 6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194 was identified and quantified in new mussels, sampled in 2012 from two locations on the Swedish west coast, with geometric mean concentrations of 3700 and 410 ng/g fat, respectively. PMID:24559155

Winnberg, Ulrika; Rydén, Andreas; Löfstrand, Karin; Asplund, Lillemor; Bignert, Anders; Marsh, Göran

2014-03-18

185

Observed tidal currents on the continental shelf off the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observed currents from ADCPs, deployed at 100 m and 150 m depths, on the continental shelf at five different locations along the west coast of India, were used to study the characteristics of both barotropic and baroclinic tidal currents. The observations extended over a 6-month period (March-August), which includes two seasons, pre-monsoon (March-April) and southwest (SW) monsoon (May-August) during 2008, 2009 and 2011. Tidal ellipses, constructed for M2 and K1 constituents, show that barotropic tidal currents propagate in along-isobath direction at the southern shelf (off Kollam at about 9°N) and they are oriented more or less in a cross-isobath direction at the northern shelf locations (off Jaigarh and Mumbai at about 17°N and 20°N, respectively). Maximum cross-isobath tidal current is found at northern shelf locations (for instance, about 32 cm s-1 off Mumbai) than those in south (about 10 cm s-1 off Bhatkal, at 13°N). This could be due to the amplification of semidiurnal tidal currents from south to north of the shelf due to an increase in shelf widths towards north. The rotary spectra of baroclinic currents showed large peaks at semidiurnal and diurnal bands with a dominant clockwise rotation showing the presence of strong internal tidal currents. Semidiurnal variability occurs mainly in M2 and S2 and diurnal variability occurs mainly in K1 and O1. An increase in the amplitude of semidiurnal and diurnal internal tide is apparent when the stratification on the shelf increases from pre-monsoon to SW monsoon period. The presence of strong internal tide during May to August is attributed to increased seasonal stratification on the shelf. EOF analysis showed that the first three modes are sufficient to describe most of the variability in both semidiurnal and diurnal internal tides on the shelf, as they represent about 70-90% of total variance. The small scale vertical shear in the velocity field, induced by diurnal internal tide, is found to be larger than that induced by semidiurnal internal tide.

Subeesh, M. P.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Fernando, V.; Agarwadekar, Y.; Khalap, S. T.; Satelkar, N. P.; Shenoi, S. S. C.

2013-10-01

186

Prospects for measuring phytoplankton bloom extent and patchiness using remotely sensed color images: An example. [West Coast of Florida  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 10 channel scanning radiometer, built as a prototype for the coastal zone color scanner on the Nimbus 7 satellite, was flown on a high altitude aircraft during a Gymnodium breve bloom along the west coast of Florida. The remotely measured ocean color imagery shows what is probably the patchy structure of a G. breve bloom extending over a 60 km by 100 km area. This conclusion is based on visual inspection of bathymetry to infer bottom reflection trends and on a single growth truth measurement of B G. breve obtained the previous day. The image shows coherent blooms which extend scales up to 60 km in length.

Mueller, J. L.

1981-01-01

187

Aerial Measurement of Radioxenon Concentration off the West Coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima Reactor Accident  

E-print Network

In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to Xe-133 was observed. Methods to extract Xe-133 count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding Xe-133 volumetric concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that Xe-133 concentrations on average lie in the range of 30 to 70 Bq/m3.

L. E. Sinclair; H. C. J. Seywerd; R. Fortin; J. M. Carson; P. R. B. Saull; M. J. Coyle; R. A. Van Brabant; J. L. Buckle; S. M. Desjardins; R. M. Hall

2011-06-20

188

Aerial Measurement of Radioxenon Concentration off the West Coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima Reactor Accident  

E-print Network

In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to Xe-133 was observed. Methods to extract Xe-133 count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding Xe-133 volumetric concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that Xe-133 concentrations on average lie in the range of 30 to 70 Bq/m3.

Sinclair, L E; Fortin, R; Carson, J M; Saull, P R B; Coyle, M J; Van Brabant, R A; Buckle, J L; Desjardins, S M; Hall, R M

2011-01-01

189

75 FR 932 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...harvest guideline (HG) for Pacific mackerel in the U.S. exclusive economic zone...allowable harvest levels for Pacific mackerel off the Pacific coast. The total HG...ADDRESSES: Copies of the report Pacific Mackerel (Scomber japonicus) Stock...

2010-01-07

190

78 FR 49190 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...SUMMARY: This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast groundfish...fishery information and additional inseason management needs. Those changes to management measures are implemented in this...

2013-08-13

191

Abrupt Changes in the Post-glacial and Paleo-environmental History of the West Coast of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our continuing studies of annually laminated marine sediments in anoxic fjords along the west coast of Canada chronicle changes in the Holocene environment as glaciers retreated from this area about 12 ky BP, and are shedding new light on the nature and timing of abrupt "regime" shifts in coastal ocean dynamics and climate. We are refining our knowledge of the interplay between climate, ecosystems, and ocean dynamics in the northeast Pacific Ocean, with new perspectives from a diverse suite of proxy indicators including archaeological evidence from pre-historical aboriginal settlement sites, modern oceanographic and meteorological data, and landscape changes associated with recent record-breaking storms and sea surges. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene record on this coast also marks dramatic changes in sea level, with implications for the possibility of early human migration routes and glacial refugia. Excellent chronological control on Holocene paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic conditions along the British Columbia coast is now possible by complementary, yet independent, dating methods of ocean sediments in a giant 40 m piston core which is now being used as a chronological tie point for other proxy records from this area.

Dallimore, A.; Thomson, R. E.; Enkin, R. J.; Baker, J.; McKechnie, I.; Wright, C.

2007-12-01

192

The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

2007-01-01

193

Loading hose for LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kabel- and Metallwerke Gutehoffnungshutte A.G. developed the Flexwell-LNG Tube for the ARGE '76 consortium's offshore LNG plant and storage buoy, which will be connected by four 700 m lines built into a bundle. Modifications were made to a flexible pipe used in regional heating systems to produce the Flexwell-LNG tube. The LNG pipe consists of two corrugated coaxial metal tubes

D. Gerth; K. Schimmelpfennig

1978-01-01

194

Proceedings of the Sudden Oak Death Third Science Symposium Pathogenicity Variation in Two West Coast  

E-print Network

, pathogen and environment, and leaf lesion area in detached bay leaves will be used as the proxy Coast Forest Phytophthoras, Phytophthora nemorosa and P. pseudosyringae, to Bay Laurel1 R.E. Linzer2 important host, bay laurel (Umbellularia californica). Experiments will account for variability in host

Standiford, Richard B.

195

77 FR 50952 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...rule until September 15, 2012, Pacific sardine may be harvested only as part of the live...fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited to 30-percent by weight...

2012-08-23

196

76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...rule until September 15, 2011, Pacific sardine may be harvested only as part of the live...fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited to 30-percent by weight...

2011-07-12

197

75 FR 33733 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...this rule until June 30, 2010, Pacific sardine can only be harvested as part of the live...fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited to 30-percent by weight...

2010-06-15

198

78 FR 51097 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...rule until September 15, 2013, Pacific sardine may be harvested only as part of the live...fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited to 40-percent by weight...

2013-08-20

199

76 FR 11969 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...suspending directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...directed harvest allocation total for Pacific sardine the first seasonal period (January 1-June...this rule. Under this rule, Pacific sardine may be harvested only as part of the...

2011-03-04

200

75 FR 42610 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...rule until September 15, 2010, Pacific sardine can only be harvested as part of the live...fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited to 30-percent by weight...

2010-07-22

201

75 FR 59156 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...rule until January 1, 2011, Pacific sardine can only be harvested as part of the live...fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited to 30-percent by weight...

2010-09-27

202

76 FR 58720 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon...rule until January 1, 2012, Pacific sardine may be harvested only as part of the live...fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited to 30-percent by weight...

2011-09-22

203

Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, Isolated from the West Coast of India.  

PubMed

We announce here the draft genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, a halophilic bacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It was isolated from the sea coast of Aadri, Veraval, Gujarat, India. Its genome contains genes for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a substitute for petroleum plastics. PMID:25593258

Bharadwaj Sv, Vamsi; Shrivastav, Anupama; Dubey, Sonam; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

2015-01-01

204

Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, Isolated from the West Coast of India  

PubMed Central

We announce here the draft genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, a halophilic bacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It was isolated from the sea coast of Aadri, Veraval, Gujarat, India. Its genome contains genes for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a substitute for petroleum plastics. PMID:25593258

Bharadwaj SV, Vamsi; Shrivastav, Anupama; Dubey, Sonam; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar

2015-01-01

205

Biological observations on the bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus from deep waters off the south-west coast of India.  

PubMed

Biological data are presented for the poorly known bristly catshark Bythaelurus hispidus based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea at depths of 200-500?m off the south-west coast of India. One hundred and sixty-two individuals, which ranged from 120 to 366?mm total length (L(T)), were collected for this study. Size-at-maturity (L??) for females and males was estimated at 252 and 235?mm L(T), respectively. The reproductive mode of B. hispidus was aplacental viviparity, which is the rarest reproductive mode within the Scyliorhinidae and is considered to be the most advanced of the three reproductive modes occurring within this family. Dietary analysis of stomach contents revealed B. hispidus feeds on a variety of prey, primarily fishes. PMID:23639155

Akhilesh, K V; White, W T; Bineesh, K K; Ganga, U; Pillai, N G K

2013-05-01

206

Interannual variability in phytoplankton pigment distribution during the spring transition along the west coast of North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A 5-year time series of coastal zone color scanner imagery (1980-1983, 1986) is used to examine changes in the large-scale pattern of chlorophyll pigment concentration coincident with the spring transition in winds and currents along the west coast of North America. The data show strong interannual variability in the timing and spatial patterns of pigment concentration at the time of the transition event. Interannual variability in the response of pigment concentration to the spring transition appears to be a function of spatial and temporal variability in vertical nutrient flux induced by wind mixing and/or the upwelling initiated at the time of the transition. Interannual differences in the mixing regime are illustrated with a one-dimensional mixing model.

Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.

1989-01-01

207

An analysis of historical Mussel Watch Programme data from the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town.  

PubMed

The concentrations of metals in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) prevalent along the west coast of the Cape Peninsula, Cape Town are presented. The mussels were sampled during the routine "Mussel Watch Programme" (MWP) between 1985 and 2008. Levels of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Hg, Fe and Mn at Cape Point, Hout Bay, Sea Point, Milnerton and Bloubergstrand were analysed for autumn and spring and showed consistent similar mean values for the five sites. There was a highly significant temporal (annual and seasonal) difference between all metals as well as a significant difference in metal concentrations between the five sites. The concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb were higher than previous investigations and possibly indicative of anthropogenic sources of metals. The results provide a strong motivation to increase efforts in marine pollution research in the area. PMID:25127737

Sparks, Conrad; Odendaal, James; Snyman, Reinette

2014-10-15

208

Plant distribution in relation to soil properties of reclaimed lands on the West Coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant species distribution was studied on five reclaimed lands and one intertidal flat (control) on the western coast of Korea.\\u000a Nineteen soil properties were analyzed. Of these, soil moisture, electrical conductivity, and levels of Na and Cl had the\\u000a greatest effect on plant distribution. The plant species were divided into four groups, according to the amount of soil moisture\\u000a found

Byeong Mee Min; Joon-Ho Kim

1999-01-01

209

Distribution of Sargassum muticum on the North West coast of Spain: Relationships with urbanization and community diversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Invasions are common in coastal marine environments where proximity to urban areas should influence the number of non-native organisms due to the likelihood of unintentional introductions from urban centers. Invasive species are widely recognised as important agents of global change, and can colonize new habitats and even cause local extinction of native species. This study was focused on the invasive marine macroalga Sargassum muticum, a problematic invasive species on the West coast of America and in European waters. An intensive survey was carried out along the Galician coast (North West of Spain) from March to August 2008 to determine the current distribution of this species, and its relationship with level of urbanization and native macroalgal diversity. We sampled the presence of S. muticum and native macroalgae in the mid and low intertidal zones of twenty rocky shores distributed along ten rias. Rias were grouped into high and scarcely urbanized based on their population density. Results indicated that S. muticum was present in nine out of the ten rias, confirming its presence in most of the intertidal rocky shores of Galicia twenty years after it was first observed. The presence of S. muticum was not related to the degree of urbanization of the rias, and its distribution and abundance did not seem to be influenced by diversity or functional groups of native algae. In addition, there was a great variability in the percentage cover, number and length of individuals amongst localities and rias suggesting that both large-scale and local processes may play a role in the distribution of this species. This study highlights the importance of future research into the distribution and impact of introduced algae and proves the urgent need for monitoring programmes and increasing efforts to prevent and control new introductions.

Incera, Mónica; Olabarria, Celia; Cacabelos, Eva; César, Javier; Troncoso, Jesús S.

2011-04-01

210

The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009–10 El Niño. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009–10 winter was similar to the last significant El Niño of 1997–98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009–10 El Niño did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997–98 and two significant non-El Niño winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009–10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997–98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009–10 El Niño is principally linked to the El Niño Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Niño), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

2011-01-01

211

The impact of the 2009-10 El Ni??o Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches  

USGS Publications Warehouse

High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009-10 El Nio. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009-10 winter was similar to the last significant El Nio of 1997-98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009-10 El Nio did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997-98 and two significant non-El Nio winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009-10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997-98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009-10 El Nio is principally linked to the El Nio Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Nio), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Barnard, P.L.; Allan, J.; Hansen, J.E.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Ruggiero, P.; Doria, A.

2011-01-01

212

Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management  

PubMed Central

Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the ‘home range’ (HR) and ‘core areas’ (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

Irvine, Ladd M.; Mate, Bruce R.; Winsor, Martha H.; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Bailey, Helen

2014-01-01

213

Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.  

PubMed

Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

2014-01-01

214

PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN…

CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

215

Feeding ecology of the Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis fulva) in the Sg. Labu River on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding ecology of the Pacific Golden Plover (Pluvialis fulva) in the Sg. Labu river near the Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula was studied in March and April of 1994. The plovers had two foraging sites, a polychaete-feeding and a mussel-feeding site, which were located at a distance of about 1 km from

Kazuaki Kato; Koji Omori; Masaaki Yoneda

2000-01-01

216

Long-term variations in abundance and distribution of sewage pollution indicator and human pathogenic bacteria along the central west coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Safe water quality criteria on the load and types of microbial populations are important for human use from fishery, tourism and navigational viewpoints. To understand the variations in sewage pollution indicator and certain human pathogenic bacteria, data collected from various locations along central west coast of India during 2002–2007 were analyzed. Water and sediment samples were examined for total viable

V. Rodrigues; N. Ramaiah; S. Kakti; D. Samant

2011-01-01

217

The influence of industrial effluents on intertidal benthic communities in Panweol, Kyeonggi Bay (Yellow Sea) on the west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of industrial wastes on benthic infaunal communities were assessed for an intertidal mudflat near Panweol on the west coast of Korea. Species number and density have decreased sharply compared with values available for these communities before this area was heavily industrialized. At a site near the outfall of a sewage treatment plant almost all pre-existing macrobenthic infauna have disappeared,

In-Young Ahn; Young-Chul Kang; Jin-Woo Choi

1995-01-01

218

76 FR 5144 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast Homebasing and To Announce...facilities and functions to homebase the F-35C Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) aircraft...proposal, a total of seven active-duty F/A-18C Hornet aircraft squadrons and...

2011-01-28

219

Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered subtidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reproduction of the commercial sea urchinParacentrotus lividus (Lamarck) from contrasting habitats on the west coast of Ireland was examined from May 1986 through August 1988. Urchins were collected intertidally from an exposed rocky shore and subtidally from a protected bay. Monthly measurements of the gonad index and histological examination of the gonads demonstrated thatP. lividus has an annual reproductive cycle.

M. Byrne

1990-01-01

220

Groundwater Management and the Cost of Reduced Surface Water Deliveries to Urban Areas: The Case of the Central and West Coast Basins of Southern California  

E-print Network

recycling) Source: BEC calculations. Table 8 expresses the net benefitBenefits, 2009-2030 (million $s) West Coast Central CWCB Basin Basin Total Scenario 1 (20,0000 AF recycling)recycling) Source: BEC calculations. Figure 13 shows the distribution of net benefits

Sunding, David L.; Hamilton, Stephen F; Ajami, Newsha K

2009-01-01

221

Map of southern Florida peninsula. The localities indicated on the west coast have felt the effects of periodic Red-Tide outbreaks.  

E-print Network

indicated on the west coast have felt the effects of periodic Red-Tide outbreaks. COVER- -Masses of floating fish killed by the Florida Red Tide. 28' 27· 26· 25' 80' #12;THE FLORIDA RED TIDE In November 1946 and tide in reddis h- colored patches of sea water extending 10 to 14 miles offshore , fede r al and state

222

Selection of areas for protecting rare plants with integration of land use conflicts: A case study for the west coast of Newfoundland, Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the west coast of Newfoundland (Canada) about 40% of the provincially rare plant species are not protected within the system of three national parks and two ecological reserves existing in the region. This study examines how heuristic algorithms can be used for selecting areas filling this gap while minimizing potential land use conflicts. One algorithm selected 78 areas of

Patrick Nantel; André Bouchard; Luc Brouillet; Stuart Hay

1998-01-01

223

Partitioning of food resources amongst 18 abundant benthic carnivorous fish species in marine waters on the lower west coast of Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volumetric contributions made by prey and plant material to the diets of 4 elasmobranch and 14 teleost species, collected seasonally by trawling from waters along ca. 200 km of the lower west coast of Australia, have been compared. These benthic carnivores, which were all abundant and collectively contributed 83% to the total number of fish caught, represented nine families

M. E Platell; I. C Potter

2001-01-01

224

Association and distribution of the ciliate Orchitophrya stellarum with asteriid sea stars on the west coast of North America.  

PubMed

The association of the scuticociliate Orchitophrya stellarum with 3 species of asteriid sea stars from the west coast of North America was studied by flushing the gonopore region with seawater and spawning the sea stars, along a latitudinal gradient of 2549 km between Pigeon Point, California, and Kodiak, Alaska. Asterias forbesii and A. rubens from the Isles of Shoals, New Hampshire (east coast), were also sampled. The ciliate was found on the aboral surface of both sexes of reproductively ripe Evasterias troschelii, Leptasterias spp., and Pisaster ochraceus with a maximum intensity of association occurring at Cape Arago, Oregon, and Clallum Bay and Manchester Dock, Washington. A survey of gonad smears and hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections indicated that the ciliate was only present in males. Spring-spawning E. troschelii and P. ochraceus are more negatively impacted by the ciliate than are winter-spawning Leptasterias spp. as judged by a skewed sex ratio and sex size differences, which may be associated with seasonal differences in water temperature affecting the growth rate of O. stellarum. The external morphology of O. stellarum appears to be similar throughout the geographical range surveyed. PMID:18714682

Stickle, William B; Kozloff, Eugene N

2008-06-19

225

Distribution of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata, Benthesicymidae) off the west coast of Mexico and notes on its morphology  

PubMed Central

Abstract A large series of specimens of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata; Benthesicymidae) was collected during an extensive survey of deep-water invertebrate fauna off western Mexico. In total, 61 males and 122 females (M:F ratio = 1:2) from 44 sampling stations were examined, considerably increasing the number of known specimens and sampling localities for this species which is widely distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The collection is the largest available for this species to date and presents first records from off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and a slight increase of the northernmost record within the Gulf of California. On the whole, females grew larger than males. The petasma of males of different sizes and the female thelycum of Benthesicymus tanneri are illustrated. The petasma of Benthesicymus tanneri presents a ventrolateral crescent-shape process otherwide found only in Benthesicymus tirmiziae Crosnier, 1978 and in Benthesicymus bartletti S.I. Smith, 1882. A key to the four species of Benthesicymus presently known from the eastern Pacific is presented. PMID:25632254

Hendrickx, Michel E.; Papiol, Vanesa

2015-01-01

226

Post-glacial Paleo-oceanographic and Paleo-climatic Conditions and Linkages Along the West Coast of Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Along the west coast of Canada, our continuing studies of annually laminated marine sediments in anoxic fjords illustrate the changing environment as glaciers retreated from this area about 12 ka y BP. New data from mid-coastal British Columbia expands our knowledge of the interplay between climate and ocean dynamics in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, and defines the evolution of modern climate conditions as ice receded from the coast, followed by the establishment of modern oceanographic and climatic conditions about 6,000 ky BP. The Late Pleistocene and Holocene record also marks dramatic changes in sea level, climate, coastal oceanographic dynamics and glacial sedimentary source and transport, with implications for the possibility of early human migration routes and glacial refugia. Changes in pre-historical aboriginal settlement sites and food sources also give indications of a dynamic Holocene land and seascape as modern conditions became established. Excellent chronological control is provided by complementary yet independent dating methods including radiocarbon dates on both plants and shells, identification of the Mazama Ash, varve counting and paleomagnetic/paleosecular variation correlations.

Dallimore, A.; Enkin, R. J.; McKechnie, I.

2006-12-01

227

Tsunami-generating rock fall and landslide on the south coast of Nuussuaq, central West Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the afternoon of 21 November 2000 the village of Saqqaq in central West Greenland was hit by a series of giant waves. Ten small boats were destroyed, but luckily neither humans nor dogs were killed. The following day a police inspection by helicopter revealed that the giant waves were caused by a major landslide at Paatuut, c. 40 km

Stig A. Schack Pedersen; Lotte Melchior Larsen; Trine Dahl-Jensen; Hans F. Jepsen; Gunver Krarup

2002-01-01

228

Year-round West Nile Virus Activity, Gulf Coast Region, Texas and Louisiana  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in 11 dead birds and two mosquito pools collected in east Texas and southern Louisiana during surveillance studies in the winter of 2003 to 2004. These findings suggest that WNV is active throughout the year in this region of the United States. PMID:15498169

Parsons, Ray; Siirin, Marina; Randle, Yvonne; Sargent, Chris; Guzman, Hilda; Wuithiranyagool, Taweesak; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Bala, Adil A.; Haas, Keith; Zerinque, Brian

2004-01-01

229

Patterns of species diversity in estuarine benthic communities along teh US west coast  

EPA Science Inventory

Estuaries in the Pacific North West (PNW) were recently classified by whether the estuary is river- or ocean-dominated, the extent of intertidal to subtidal environments, and spatial salinity patterns. We examine whether these characteristics predict patterns of soft-sediment, m...

230

Evidence of Possible Precursor Events for Mega-thrust Earthquakes on the West Coast of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Megathrust earthquakes in western North America may be preceded by precursors several years ahead of the main event. For example on March 27, 1964, a 9.2 magnitude (on the Richter scale) earthquake occurred on the coast of Alaska. Changes in foraminifera and diatom biotas provided evidence of a precursor to this earthquake, thereby detailing a previously unknown sequence of events. We describe further evidence from marshes in Turnagain Arm, Alaska, USA and farther south in Netart's Bay, Oregon, USA; this is the first time that two widely spaced locations have been examined for precursors. The Alaska earthquake offers the possibility to compare a modern sequence (1964) of events with the geologic record. The Netart's Bay marsh has experienced no modern earthquake that could be used for comparison, but the nature of mega-thrust earthquakes implies that the modern and ancient events should be physically similar. The new cores examined from Turnagain Arm include both the 1964 earthquake and an event identified and dated at 1800yBP. The foraminifera and thecamoebian biota change from a forest sequence to a mildly brackish sequence just before the 1964 event; this zone was dated as being 15 years or less in length using Pb210 and Cs dating techniques. The event at 1800yBP was also associated with a similar transition indicating a small subsidence just before the major subsidence event. In Netart's Bay a new core was taken from a previously cored site because the chronology had already been determined by carbon-14 dating and also because at least four events were known to have occurred over the last 3000 years. The new core had four visual lithological transitions of which three were from marsh peat to mineralic deposits (possibly deposited by tsunamis) and back to a marsh deposit. Foraminifera indicated that these units represented high marsh transition to lower marsh, the earthquake event, and then rebounding back into marsh deposits. Sand deposits with either no or few foraminifera marked the tsunami/earthquake intervals. These transitions in two widely separated geographical areas indicate that similar mechanisms operate for large megathrust earthquakes from Alaska to Northern California in the Cascadia Subduction Zone thus implying that precursor events also occur and be detected by foraminiferal zonations all along this area as well. In a recent newspaper article scientists from the west coast suggested that "slow" or "silent" earthquakes they had measured with tiltmeters might be indicators of megathrust earthquakes. The transitions we document may be the prehistoric representations of these "silent" quakes. Foraminiferal evidence may help provide more accurate positioning of seismometers along the west coast of North America and therefore lead to more precise and timely earthquake predictions.

Scott, D. B.; Hawkes, A.; Lipps, J. H.

2003-12-01

231

Assessment of contamination, distribution and chemical speciation of trace metals in water column in the Dakar coast and the Saint Louis estuary from Senegal, West Africa.  

PubMed

The water column from Dakar coast and Saint Louis estuary in Senegal, West Africa, was sampled in order to measure the contamination level by trace metals. The speciation of metals in water allowed performing a distribution between dissolved and particulate trace metals. For the dissolved metals, the metallic concentration and repartition between the organic fraction and the inorganic fraction were performed. The results show that the pollution of the estuary was more serious than in Dakar coast for Co, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn; while, Cd and Cu were higher in Dakar coast. A strong affinity between metals and suspended particles has been revealed. Dissolved metals that have a tendency to form organic metal complexes are in decreasing order: Cd, Zn, Pb, Co=Cr=Mn, Cu and Ni. The results showed that the mobility of trace metals in estuary is controlled by dissolved organic carbon, while in coast it depends on chlorides. PMID:25038980

Diop, Cheikh; Dewaelé, Dorothée; Diop, Mamadou; Touré, Aminata; Cabral, Mathilde; Cazier, Fabrice; Fall, Mamadou; Diouf, Amadou; Ouddane, Baghdad

2014-09-15

232

Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched  

SciTech Connect

World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

NONE

1997-10-20

233

New LNG process scheme  

SciTech Connect

A new LNG cycle has been developed for base load liquefaction facilities. This new design offers a different technical and economical solution comparing in efficiency with the classical technologies. The new LNG scheme could offer attractive business opportunities to oil and gas companies that are trying to find paths to monetize gas sources more effectively; particularly for remote or offshore locations where smaller scale LNG facilities might be applicable. This design offers also an alternative route to classic LNG projects, as well as alternative fuel sources. Conceived to offer simplicity and access to industry standard equipment, This design is a hybrid result of combining a standard refrigeration system and turboexpander technology.

Foglietta, J.H.

1999-07-01

234

Continental microseismic intensity delineates oceanic upwelling timing along the west coast of North America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biological productivity of coastal upwelling regions undergoes marked interannual variability as marine ecosystems respond to changes in the prevailing winds. Determination of the principal metrics that define the upwelling cycle—the spring transition, when ocean conditions switch from downwelling- to upwelling-favorable, and the Fall Transition, when conditions return to downwelling-favorable—is essential for understanding changes in coastal productivity. Here we demonstrate that upwelling in the northern California Current System may be delineated by changes in microseismic activity recorded at a broadband seismological station in southwestern British Columbia. Observed high correlation between microseismic intensity and offshore bottom pressure fluctuations at ~0.2 Hz confirms a direct link to regional wind-wave generation. Comparison of transition times derived from coincident 20 year records of microseismic intensity and alongshore wind stress for the British Columbia-Oregon coast suggests that seismically derived times may be more representative of coastal upwelling than times derived using traditional methods.

Thomson, Richard E.; Heesemann, Martin; Davis, Earl E.; Hourston, Roy A. S.

2014-10-01

235

[Abundance of sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) on North, East and West coasts of Margarita Island (Venezuela) ].  

PubMed

The sea urchin roe reach a very high price in the international fish product market favoring the increase in the catches of this resource and overfishing in some countries. In the Island of Margarita (Venezuela) some species, Lytechinus variegatus (Lamarck) among others, are consumed as food but studies to determine abundance of the resource are unknown. Nine sample stations (depth less than 2 m) on the North, East and West coast of Margarita Island were visited in six different occasions between February/1998 and February/1999 to study the population density (urchins/m2) of L. variegatus. Using a quadrat (0.25 m2) thrown 8 times over seagrasses (Thalassia testudinum) beds and over submerged rocks and the urchins removed by dive. The diameter of each specimen was measured and returned to the sea. The water temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen of each site was measured. Were collected a total of 2,073 urchins with a diameter ranging from 11.0 to 84.5 mm and population density between 1 to 52 urchins/m2. The mean size of specimens collected in the stations was between 30.44 and 55.09 mm and average density fluctuated between 3.2 to 43.2 urchins/m2. The station where sea urchins were found to be most abundant was the North coast (Manzanillo fishing villae) where they live on rocks with a density (38 a 52/m2) far over the values previously cited for the Caribbean sea and Florida. PMID:12216495

Gómez Gaspar, Alfredo

2002-01-01

236

Variability in growth, development and reproduction of the non-native seaweed Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyceae) on the Irish west coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compared seasonal growth, development and reproduction of the invasive brown macroalga Sargassum muticum in habitats with different wave exposure on the Irish west coast. Three field sites with different degrees of wave exposure were chosen for monthly observations to reflect different habitats that were characteristic of the Irish west coast. Growth and receptacle development differed considerably between sites. Growth and receptacle development was lower at the most sheltered site. Here, S. muticum showed signs of early fragmentation in April/May during the two years of investigation (2007 and 2008), whilst the population at an exposed site developed normally and plants grew to a maximum average length of 163 cm by July, with the onset of fragmentation in August. Sargassum muticum in a tide pool exhibited a similar seasonal growth cycle as plants at the exposed open shore site. Overall growth however was stunted, with plants reaching a maximum length of only 30-40 cm in July. Receptacle development was also inhibited at the sheltered site, with a maximum of only 10% of plants found to be fertile during spring and summer 2008, while plants at the exposed site and the tide pool exhibited 100% plant fertility by August. An extensive occurrence of the native epiphyte Pylaiella littoralis on S. muticum was noticed during field sampling at the sheltered study site which may have contributed to inhibited development of S. muticum observed in this area. Seasonal biomass production, photosynthetic activity and plant/frond ratio development were contrasted between Sargassum muticum at the open shore and the tide pool. Sargassum muticum biomass production in the tide pool was 3.5 times lower than that of plants on the open shore. Receptacle development and seasonal photosynthetic activity were similar for tide pool and open shore plants, irrespective of morphological differences. Highest photosynthetic rates (fluorescence yield, Yo) were measured during active growth in February and lowest values during development of reproductive tissue and senescence. Numbers of S. muticum plants on the open shore decreased significantly during the year, whilst frond number per plant increased, possibly suggesting self-thinning through shading processes. The high variability in Sargassum muticum productivity and reproductive development between habitats suggests that the degree of competition and impact on native flora could be site-specific, and their local effect on displacements will require further investigations.

Baer, Julia; Stengel, Dagmar B.

2010-12-01

237

Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable populations very long time-series of population size estimates are necessary to determine interaction strength. From a management perspective, a more permanent grey seal population in Kattegat-Skagerrak is likely to increase the predation pressure on overfished regional cod populations, and also lead to higher prevalence of the cod parasite Pseudoterranova decipiens, which uses grey seal as end host. From a population ecology perspective, abundant Baltic grey seal in this region would facilitate the mixing of grey seals from the North Atlantic and the Baltic Sea, with unknown implications for the genetically divergent Baltic population.

Svensson, Carl Johan

2012-07-01

238

Sedimentology of latero-frontal moraines and fans on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposures through the LGM latero-frontal moraine loops at sites along the west coast of South Island, New Zealand reveal a depositional environment that was dominated by the progradation of steep fronted, debris flow-fed fans, manifest in crudely stratified to massive diamictons, arranged in sub-horizontal to steeply dipping clinoforms and containing discontinuous bodies of variably sorted, stratified sediment (LFA 1). The fans were constructed by debris-covered glaciers advancing over outwash plains, as recorded by well stratified and horizontally bedded gravels, sands and diamicts (LFA 0). The ice-contact slopes of the fans are offlapped by retreat phase deposits in the form of glacilacustrine depo-centres (LFA 2), which record the existence of moraine-dammed lakes. Interdigitation of lake rhythmites and subaerial to subaqueous sediment gravity flow deposits documents intense debris-flow activity on unstable moraine/fan surfaces. Glacier readvances in all catchments are documented by glacitectonic disturbance and localized hydrofracturing of LFA 2, followed by the emplacement of schist-dominated debris flow-fed fans (LFA 3) inside and over the top of the earlier latero-frontal moraine/fan loops. Contorted and disturbed bedding in LFA 3 reflects its partial deposition in supraglacial positions. Clast lithologies in LFAs 1 and 3 reveal that two distinct transport pathways operated during moraine construction, with an early period of latero-frontal fan construction involving mixed lithologies and a later period of ice-contact/supraglacial fan construction dominated by schist lithologies from the mountains. These two periods of deposition were separated by a period of moraine abandonment and paraglacial reworking of ice-contact slopes to produce LFA 2. The occurrence of LFA 3 at all sites indicates that the glacier readvance phase responsible for its deposition was not localized or glacier-specific, and involved the transfer of large volumes of schist, possibly due to rock slope failures, onto glacier surfaces. The absence of any sediment that could be unequivocally classified as subglacial till reflects the dominance of debris flow and glacifluvial processes in latero-frontal moraine construction in this hyper-humid west coast setting.

Evans, David J. A.; Shulmeister, James; Hyatt, Olivia

2010-12-01

239

The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño on West Coast beaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term monitoring programs at a series of beaches in California, Oregon and Washington were used to evaluate beach evolution associated with the El Niño winter of 2009-10, and to relate the observed coastal change to past winters, including the last major El Niño in 1997-98. At the California study sites, analysis of Lidar (1997-98) and semi-annual or greater high-resolution beach and nearshore surveys (2004-10) shows that coastal change during the winter of 2009-10 broadly rivals that in 1997-98, and that the 2009-10 winter storms collectively forced the most beach erosion since high-resolution monitoring began in 2004. Along the Oregon and Washington coasts, many beaches exhibited classic El Niño shoreline responses, with significant shoreline retreat occurring immediately north of jetties and tidal inlets as well as the southern ends of pocket beaches and littoral cells. In Washington in particular, these areas eroded rapidly during the winter of 2009-10, comparable to the response seen in the El Niño winter of 1997-98. Wave buoy data from buoys in California and Washington that captured both the 1997-98 and 2009-10 El Niño show that the two events were comparable in wave energy as measured by the mean wave year (1 July- 30 June) energy flux (Fig. 1). The increased wave energy in 2009-10 had significant impacts on coastal infrastructure throughout the region; for example, in San Francisco the Great Highway was severely undercut by wave action, resulting in a $5 million emergency remediation project. In Washington, approximately 195 m of road was eroded along the entrance to Willapa Bay and southern Grayland Plains. While the impacts of the 2009-10 winter were substantial, impacts on the coast were moderated by an unusually mild wave climate in 2008-9 (Fig. 1), which left beaches more accreted prior to the severe wave season of 2009-10. As climate change accelerates sea level rise and potentially increases the magnitude and frequency of storms in mid-latitudes, the beach erosion seen in 2009-10 will become less unusual, making it critical that we continue to monitor beach morphology to provide data for coastal managers and to improve our understanding of beach dynamics. Figure 1. Yearly mean wave energy flux relative to the mean since each buoy’s deployment offshore of Washington (Grays Harbor), San Francisco (Point Reyes), and Santa Barbara (Harvest, Anacapa Passage).

Barnard, P.; Kaminsky, G. M.; Hansen, J. E.; Allan, J. C.; Ruggiero, P.; Hoover, D. J.

2010-12-01

240

Distribution and character of upper mesozoic subduction complexes along the west coast of North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Structurally complex sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and intrusive igneous rocks characterize a nearly continuous narrow band along the Pacific coast of North America from Baja California, Mexico to southern Alaska. They occur in two modes: (1) as complexly folded but coherent sequences of graywacke and argillite that locally exhibit blueschist-grade metamorphism, and (2) as melanges containing large blocks of graywacke, chert, volcanic and plutonic rocks, high-grade schist, and limestone in a highly sheared pelitic, cherty, or sandstone matrix. Fossils from the coherent graywacke sequences range in age from late Jurassic to Eocene; fossils from limestone blocks in the melanges range in age from mid-Paleozoic to middle Cretaceous. Fossils from the matrix surrounding the blocks, however, are of Jurassic, Cretaceous, and rarely, Tertiary age, indicating that fossils from the blocks cannot be used to date the time of formation of the melanges. Both the deformation of the graywacke, with accompanying blueschist metamorphism, as well as the formation of the melanges, are believed to be the result of late Mesozoic and early Tertiary subduction. The origin of the melanges, particularly the emplacement of exotic tectonic blocks, is not understood. ?? 1978.

Jones, D.L.; Blake, M.C., Jr.; Bailey, E.H.; McLaughlin, R.J.

1978-01-01

241

The disregarded West: diet and behavioural ecology of olive baboons in the Ivory Coast.  

PubMed

Despite living under environmental conditions considerably distinct from those of savannah baboons (Papio spp.) in East and southern Africa, very little is known about western Papio populations. We monitored the abundance and group sizes of olive baboons (P. anubis) in the savannah-forest mosaic of the Comoé National Park, northern Ivory Coast, and observed 2 habituated groups of different sizes. Against expectations for the kind of habitat, the individual density was low, yielding only 1.2 baboons/km(2). The groups were small, comprising on average 15 individuals, and the proportion of 1-male groups (50-63%) was remarkably high. One-male groups were more female biased than multi-male groups. The baboons were highly frugivorous, spending about 50% of their feeding time on fruits and seeds of at least 79 woody plant species. The 2 habituated groups had comparatively large home ranges and used forests more often than expected by random. We argue that regular subgrouping of the larger focal group and different habitat quality countervailed inter-group variations. Differences from other study sites, however, are not completely explained by current models of baboon (socio)ecology. It appears that the social organization of olive baboons is more flexible than assumed from data on East African populations. PMID:17855793

Kunz, Britta K; Linsenmair, K Eduard

2008-01-01

242

Biomarker pigment signatures in Cochin back water system - A tropical estuary south west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sedimentary biomarker pigments around Cochin estuary situated in the southwest coast of India were determined by HPLC. Fucoxanthin, an indicator of diatom was observed to be the most abundant carotenoid pigment in the estuary. Dinoflagellate derived carotenoid pigment peridinin was confined in the southern part of estuary and zeaxanthin pigment indicative of cyanobacteria were more found in sites influenced by anthropogenic activities. One compound having close similarity to fucoxanthin was also detected. Alloxanthin (cryptophyceae), chl b (green algae), canthaxanthin, neoxanthin, lutein and peridinin isomer were also detected by spectra and corresponding algal class were identified. The highest concentration of chl a (11.01 ?g g-1) found near to the anthropogenic affected area while the lowest chl a (0.65 ?g g-1) was recorded in industrial area. Degradation products of chl a, such as pheophorbide and pheophytin were observed and principal mode of mechanism of degradation were derived. Higher pheopigments content than chl a, reflects a density trapping of dead cells and early degradation of phytopigments from grazing activities.

Aneeshkumar, N.; Sujatha, C. H.

2012-03-01

243

Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with Special Reference to a Novel Clade from Japan  

PubMed Central

Background A dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is known as a potential producer of Palytoxin derivatives. Palytoxin is the most potent non-proteinaceous compound reported so far. There has been a growing number of reports on palytoxin-like poisonings in southern areas of Japan; however, the distribution of Ostreopsis has not been investigated so far. Morphological plasticity of Ostreopsis makes reliable microscopic identification difficult so the employment of molecular tools was desirable. Methods/Principal Finding In total 223 clones were examined from samples mainly collected from southern areas of Japan. The D8–D10 region of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (D8–D10) was selected as a genetic marker and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Although most of the clones were unable to be identified, there potentially 8 putative species established during this study. Among them, Ostreopsis sp. 1–5 did not belong to any known clade, and each of them formed its own clade. The dominant species was Ostreopsis sp. 1, which accounted for more than half of the clones and which was highly toxic and only distributed along the Japanese coast. Comparisons between the D8–D10 and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, which has widely been used for phylogenetic/phylogeographic studies in Ostreopsis, revealed that the D8–D10 was less variable than the ITS, making consistent and reliable phylogenetic reconstruction possible. Conclusions/Significance This study unveiled a surprisingly diverse and widespread distribution of Japanese Ostreopsis. Further study will be required to better understand the phylogeography of the genus. Our results posed the urgent need for the development of the early detection/warning systems for Ostreopsis, particularly for the widely distributed and strongly toxic Ostreopsis sp. 1. The D8–D10 marker will be suitable for these purposes. PMID:22164222

Sato, Shinya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Uehara, Keita; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Tawong, Wittaya; Hariganeya, Naohito; Smith, Kirsty; Rhodes, Lesley; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yosuke; Suda, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

2011-01-01

244

Annual Bacterioplankton Biomasses and Productivities in a Temperate West Coast Canadian Fjord  

PubMed Central

Bacterioplankton numbers, biomasses, and productivities, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton productivities, were assayed from 1 March 1984 to 12 August 1985 through a 250-m-deep seawater column in Howe Sound, a temperate fjord-sound on the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada. Primary production during this 18-month period was 845 g of C m?2. Bacterial production was assayed over this same period as 193 g of C m?2 (thymidine incorporation) and 77 g of C m?2 (frequency of dividing cells). Bacterial productivities per cubic meter were usually greater in the euphotic zone than in deeper aphotic water, but when integrated through the water column, approximately half of the bacterial production occurred in the deeper aphotic portion. Bacterial production occurred throughout the year, although at reduced rates in late fall and early winter; primary production almost ceased during late fall and early winter. Because of this heterotrophic bacterioplankton production was a very large portion of the microbial (bacterial plus phyto-plankton) production at this time. In mid-summer bacterial production was a small proportion of the microbial production. Because of this asynchrony in peaks and troughs of bacterial and phytoplankton production through the year, data comparison is best done over an annual cycle. On this basis the bacterial production in the Howe Sound water column was between 23 and 9% of the phytoplankton production when a bacterial C to biovolume ratio of 0.107 pg of C ?m?3 was assumed; the corresponding values were 64 and 29% when a ratio of 0.300 pg of bacterial C ?m?3 was assumed. PMID:16347360

Albright, L. J.; McCrae, S. K.

1987-01-01

245

Spatio-temporal variability of tidal asymmetry due to multiple coastal constructions along the west coast of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At least 19 remarkable dikes and land reclamations have been constructed since 1970 along the west coast of Korea, which resulted in a reduction in tidal flat area of almost 50%. Both the reduction in tidal flats and the artificially simplified coastal line have distorted the spatio-temporal tidal hydrodynamics; to quantify this, we analyzed and evaluated tidal asymmetry by phase differences of the principal semi-diurnal lunar constituent M2 and its first over-tide M4. Moreover, we applied the ADCIRC model to quantitatively investigate near- and far-field impacts on tidal variations using the gamma parameter, tidal energy flux, and dissipation rate. Through this study, we found that the tidal regime around the Incheon harbor area in Gyeonggi Bay has changed from ebb- to flood-dominant due to multiple nearby reclamations, in particular to the construction of the Siwha dike. The Saemangeum dike caused near-field de-amplification of M2 but far-field amplification in the Shandong area of China. In addition to allowing a traditional asymmetry approach using phase difference, analyses based on the gamma parameter and tidal energy variations could distinctly improve spatial understanding of anthropogenic impacts on coastal tidal hydrodynamics.

Suh, Seung Won; Lee, Hwa Young; Kim, Hyeon Jeong

2014-12-01

246

Mapping the U.S. West Coast surface circulation: A multiyear analysis of high-frequency radar observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nearly completed U.S. West Coast (USWC) high-frequency radar (HFR) network provides an unprecedented capability to monitor and understand coastal ocean dynamics and phenomenology through hourly surface current measurements at up to 1 km resolution. The dynamics of the surface currents off the USWC are governed by tides, winds, Coriolis force, low-frequency pressure gradients (less than 0.4 cycles per day (cpd)), and nonlinear interactions of those forces. Alongshore surface currents show poleward propagating signals with phase speeds of O(10) and O(100 to 300) km day-1 and time scales of 2 to 3 weeks. The signals with slow phase speed are only observed in southern California. It is hypothesized that they are scattered and reflected by shoreline curvature and bathymetry change and do not penetrate north of Point Conception. The seasonal transition of alongshore surface circulation forced by upwelling-favorable winds and their relaxation is captured in fine detail. Submesoscale eddies, identified using flow geometry, have Rossby numbers of 0.1 to 3, diameters in the range of 10 to 60 km, and persistence for 2 to 12 days. The HFR surface currents resolve coastal surface ocean variability continuously across scales from submesoscale to mesoscale (O(1) km to O(1000) km). Their spectra decay with k-2 at high wave number (less than 100 km) in agreement with theoretical submesoscale spectra below the observational limits of present-day satellite altimeters.

Kim, Sung Yong; Terrill, Eric J.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Jones, Burt; Washburn, Libe; Moline, Mark A.; Paduan, Jeffrey D.; Garfield, Newell; Largier, John L.; Crawford, Greg; Kosro, P. Michael

2011-03-01

247

Inter-annual variations in wave spectral characteristics at a location off the central west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inter-annual variations in wave spectrum are examined based on the wave data measured at 9 m water depth off the central west coast of India from 2009 to 2012 using a wave rider buoy. The temporal variation of the spectral energy density over a calendar year indicates similar variation in all the four years studied. The inter-annual variations in wave spectrum are observed in all months with larger variations during January to February, May and October to November due to the changes in wind-sea. The seasonal average wave spectrum during the monsoon (June-September) is single-peaked and the swell component is high in 2011 compared to other years. The annual averaged wave spectrum had higher peak energy during 2011 due to the higher spectral energy present during the monsoon period. During the non-monsoon period, two peaks are predominantly observed in the wave spectra; with the average peak at 0.07 Hz corresponding to the swells from the Indian Ocean and another at 0.17 Hz due to the local wind field.

Sanil Kumar, V.; Anjali Nair, M.

2015-02-01

248

Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.  

PubMed

Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found. PMID:25863629

Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

2015-09-15

249

A numerical analysis of landfall of the 1979 red tide of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall of these populations at the coast in our model matches shoreline data sets as well. The simulated vertical movement of K. brevis, in response to light-cued migration and nocturnal mixing, also mimics these aspects of the next fall red tide in 1980, suggesting that sunrise populations may provide the strongest surface signal, for detection of red tides by remote sensors aboard aircraft and satellites. Once a mature red tide is formed, a light-regulated maximal growth rate of 0.15 day -1, reflecting nutrient-limitation, and no other loss processes may be an adequate description of population dynamics above the 30-40 m isobaths, where blooms of K. brevis originate. Within shallow waters at the 10-m isobath, however, an apparent larger growth rate of 0.80 day -1—as a presumed consequence of frontal aggregations—must be offset by unknown processes of algal mortality. Likely candidates for cumulative, biomass-dependent losses are UV-B irradiation, microbial-induced lysis, and unselective grazing pressure from copepods, protozoans and heterotrophic dinoflagellates.

Walsh, John J.; Haddad, Kenneth D.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Weisberg, Robert H.; Li, Zhenjiang; Yang, Huijun; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Bissett, W. Paul

2002-01-01

250

Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters.

Najihah, R.; Effendi, D. M.; Hairunnisa, M. A.; Masiri, K.

2014-02-01

251

Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

Howe, John T.

1986-01-01

252

Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.  

PubMed

Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress. PMID:23856298

Pawar, Prabhakar R

2013-10-15

253

Circulation changes and teleconnections between glacial advances on the west coast of New Zealand and extended spells of drought years in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twentieth century changes in the terminal position of the Franz Josef Glacier on the west coast of New Zealand are compared with an area-averaged mean annual rainfall series for the summer rainfall region of South Africa. Distinctive teleconnections are evident in an out-of-phase relationship between the two series, each of which exhibits an oscillation of 18-20 years. Periods of glacial

P. D. Tyson; A. P. Sturman; B. B. Fitzharris; S. J. Mason; I. F. Owens

1997-01-01

254

Dioxin-like compounds in HPLC-fractionated extracts of marine samples from the east and west coast of Sweden: Bioassay and instrumentally-derived TCDD equivalents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipophilic extracts of sediment, settling particulate matter (SPM) and blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) samples, collected at coastal locations on the east and west coast of Sweden, were HPLC-separated into three fractions containing 1. monoaromatic\\/aliphatic, 2. diaromatic (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs\\/Fs)), and 3. polyaromatic compounds (e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)). The fractions were tested for

Magnus Engwall; Dag Broman; Carina Näf; Yngve Zebühr; Björn Brunström

1997-01-01

255

Observational evidence from direct current measurements for propagation of remotely forced waves on the shelf off the west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use data from six Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) moorings deployed during March-September 2008 on the continental shelf and slope off Bhatkal, Goa, and Jaigarh on the central west coast of India to present evidence for poleward propagation of shelf or coastal-trapped waves (CTWs). Wave propagation is seen on the shelf in the 20-40-day, 10-14-day, and 3-5-day-period bands. The lag from south to north indicates that remote forcing is important even at periods as short as 4 days. Using QuikSCAT wind data, we show that the contribution of remote forcing to the shelf West Indian Coastal Current (WICC) is significant even when the local alongshore wind is strong, as during the summer-monsoon onset during May-June, and forces a strong local response that masks the effect of remote forcing. Forced wave calculations using CTW theory show that remote forcing of the WICC is present at all times, but is most striking when the local winds are weak, as during March-April. The CTW calculations show that the source region for the remote forcing may extend beyond the west coast into the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka. On the slope, propagation is seen only at the 4-day period. At higher periods, the slope WICC decorrelates rapidly along the coast, but upward phase propagation, implying downward propagation of energy associated with poleward propagation, is evident even at these higher periods.

Amol, P.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, S. G.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Fernando, V.; Shetye, S. R.; Mukherjee, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Khalap, S.; Satelkar, N. P.

2012-05-01

256

Intra-coastal ballast water flux and the potential for secondary spread of non-native species on the US West Coast.  

PubMed

Ballast water is a dominant mechanism for the interoceanic and transoceanic dispersal of aquatic non-native species (ANS), but few studies have addressed ANS transfers via smaller scale vessel movements. We analyzed ballast water reporting records and ANS occurrence data from four US West Coast port systems to examine patterns of intra-coastal ballast water transfer, and assess how ballast transfers may have influenced the secondary spread of ANS. In 2005, one third of the vessels arriving to the US West Coast originated at one of four West Coast port systems (intra-coastal traffic). These vessels transported and discharged 27% (5,987,588 MT) of the total ballast water volume discharged at these ports that year. The overlap of ANS (shared species) among port systems varied between 3% and 80%, with the largest overlap occurring between San Francisco Bay and LA/Long Beach. Our results suggest that intra-coastal ballast water needs further consideration as an invasion pathway, especially as efforts to promote short-sea shipping are being developed. PMID:19108853

Simkanin, Christina; Davidson, Ian; Falkner, Maurya; Sytsma, Mark; Ruiz, Gregory

2009-08-01

257

Combined use of PAH levels and EROD activities in the determination of PAH pollution in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the extent of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollution by measuring PAH levels and 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activities in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) samples caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught in August 2008-2011. The levels of 13 PAHs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the liver of fish. Most of the measured PAHs had three rings (low molecular weight). The frequencies of detection of PAHs were higher in fish samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream Mouth than those from Sakarya River Mouth, Amasra and Kefken. EROD activities and cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein level were also measured in the fish liver microsomes. Highly elevated EROD activities and CYP1A levels were measured in the mullet samples caught from Zonguldak Harbour and Gülüç Stream than those from Amasra and Kefken. The detection of PAHs in the liver of fish samples shows recent exposure to PAHs. The chemical analyses of PAHs and EROD activity results together reflected the extent of PAH pollution in the livers of fish caught from the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. The results indicate that Zonguldak Harbour is the most polluted site in the West Black Sea coast of Turkey. PMID:25339526

Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Sapmaz, Canan; Kaleli, Gizem; Turna, Sema; Yenisoy-Karaka?, Serpil

2015-02-01

258

Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (<10%) mature with increasing sychronicity and are spawned in midwinter. The reasons for this distinct pattern of oogenesis and winter spawning remain unclear, although the potential influence of environmental cues and the role of endogenous factors in relation to this sea pen's deep-sea habit are discussed. Whilst the duration of oogenesis is prolonged (>12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 ?m), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

2009-03-01

259

Sclerochronology of Holocene oyster shells (Crassostrea gigas) from the West Coast of Bohai Sea, China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sclerochronology, the study of periodic increments in skeletal organisms, can decipher the life history and environmental records preserved in fossil shells. Although there have been a number of studies that apply isotopic analyses to shells in open ocean and fresh water, investigations for brackish environments are rare. One of the common inhabitants in estuaries is the Crassostrea oyster. Kirby et al. (1998) demonstrated a close correspondence between the ligamental increments of convex and concave bands and yearly ^18O cycles; Andrus and Crowe (2000) found a close correspondence between translucent growth bands on the cross-section of the hinge and yearly ^18O cycles. They conclude that the morphological features on hinge and growth bands on the cross-section are formed annually and can be used to determine accurately age and growth rate in this species. However, Surge et al. (2001) could not find that these morphologic features have seasonal significance in the C. virginica shells. Therefore, these concave ridges are not reliable independent proxies of seasonality. These studies were carried out with C. virginica shells; none was studied with nature C. gigas, which was widely distributed along the Pacific coastal area. C. gigas has been introduced from its native home to all over the world, ranging from North America to Australia and Europe; it has become an important commercial harvest in many of these places. Buried Holocene oyster shells of C. gigas were sampled from a huge buried oyster reef on the West of Bohai Sea, China. One of these shells was selected for high resolution micro-sampling and stable isotope analyses testing the assumption that C. gigas ligamental increments are annual in nature. We analyzed 236 consecutive samples from the shell to show that morphologic features both on hinge and cross-section are annual by comparing them to the ^18O profiles. We tested the assumption that the morphologic features of C.gigas are delineated by convex tops and concave bottoms on hinge and corresponding translucent growth bands on cross-section. The shell has 13.5 ligamental increments, based on 13.5 convex bands and 13 concave bottoms on hinge. Convex tops correspond to ^18O minima (summers), whereas concave bottoms correspond to ^18O maxima, which were formed during the low temperature of winter in the study area. We demonstrate that the ligamental increments of convex tops, concave bottoms and translucent growth bands in the studied C. gigas shell are suitable indicators of annual growth increments. The life spans, growth rates, and the timing of death can be determined from the ligament increments and isotope profiles of buried oyster shells.

Fan, C.; Koeniger, P.; Wang, H.; Frechen, M.

2009-04-01

260

High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (N2) to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2) fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway besides photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16-25° W, 17-24° N). This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. Besides this a diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2 was investigated. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008, respectively. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Island towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled. In 2007 additionally four days were sampled with a high resolution of one sample per hour. Our results clearly indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas N2 fixation could not be identified as a H2 source during these two cruises. With our experimental setup we could demonstrate that variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced and biased by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and the origin of air masses. This means for further investigations that just measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of a diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. However, measurements of H2 mixing ratios, which are easy to conduct online during ship cruises could be a helpful tool to easily identify production areas of biological precursors such as VOC's for further investigations.

Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Röckmann, T.

2012-12-01

261

High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2) to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2) fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway followed by photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16-25° W, 17-24° N). This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Islands towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled to cover differing oceanic regions such as upwelling and oligotrophic regimes. In 2007, additionally, four days were sampled at high resolution of one sample per hour to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2. Our results indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas oceanic N2 fixation could not be identified as a source for atmospheric H2 during these two cruises. The variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and also affected by a varying origin of air masses. This means for future investigations that only measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of an atmospheric diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. Nevertheless, measurements of atmospheric H2 mixing ratios, which are easy to conduct online during ship cruises, could be a useful indicator of production areas of biological precursors such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for further investigations.

Walter, S.; Kock, A.; Röckmann, T.

2013-05-01

262

Late Pleistocene glacial stratigraphy of the Kumara-Moana region, West Coast of South Island, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the South Island of New Zealand, large piedmont glaciers descended from an ice cap on the Southern Alps onto the coastal plain of the West Coast during the late Pleistocene. The series of moraine belts and outwash plains left by the Taramakau glacier are used as a type section for interpreting the glacial geology and timing of major climatic events of New Zealand and also as a benchmark for comparison with the wider Southern Hemisphere. In this paper we review the chronology of advances by the Taramakau glacier during the last or Otira Glaciation using a combination of exposure dating using the cosmogenic nuclides 10Be and 36Cl, and tephrochronology. We document three distinct glacial maxima, represented by the Loopline, Larrikins and Moana Formations, separated by brief interstadials. We find that the Loopline Formation, originally attributed to Oxygen Isotope Chronozone 4, is much younger than previously thought, with an advance culminating around 24,900 ± 800 yr. The widespread late Pleistocene Kawakawa/Oruanui tephra stratigraphically lies immediately above it. This Formation has the same age previously attributed to the older part of the Larrikins Formation. Dating of the Larrikins Formation demonstrates there is no longer a basis for subdividing it into older and younger phases with an advance lasting about 1000 years between 20,800 ± 500 to 20,000 ± 400 yr. The Moana Formation represents the deposits of the last major advance of ice at 17,300 ± 500 yr and is younger than expected based on limited previous dating. The timing of major piedmont glaciation is restricted to between ˜25,000 and 17,000 yr and this interval corresponds to a time of regionally cold sea surface temperatures, expansion of grasslands at the expense of forest on South Island, and hemisphere wide glaciation.

Barrows, Timothy T.; Almond, Peter; Rose, Robert; Keith Fifield, L.; Mills, Stephanie C.; Tims, Stephen G.

2013-08-01

263

Distributions and bioconcentration characteristics of perfluorinated compounds in environmental samples collected from the west coast of Korea.  

PubMed

As part of an ongoing study of the status and trends of contaminants in the Yellow Sea, during May of 2009, the concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were determined in water (n=15), sediment (n=12), soil (n=13), and biota (n=74) from estuarine and coastal areas along the west coast of Korea. Of the 12PFCs monitored, PFOS and PFOA were the most frequently detected compounds in water. Greater concentrations of PFCs were found in waters from the inner regions of sea dikes in three artificial lakes, Shihwa, Asan, and Sapgyo, than outer regions. Concentrations were also comparable in two estuarine areas, which indicated that most PFCs in coastal areas originated from industrial and local regions and river water flowing through estuaries. Concentrations of PFCs in soils and sediments were generally less than limits of quantification and were generally less than those measured in biota. Compound-specific bioaccumulation of PFBS and PFOS had the greatest BCF values in crab, while in fish it was PFOS and PFDA, and in gastropods and bivalves it was PFHxS. Distributions of BCFs for PFOS in body-parts of crab showed the greatest values in soft tissues followed by shells and then legs. Distribution among tissues and organs of fishes was more variable than those observed for crab. When compared to a similar study conducted by our group in 2008, concentrations of PFCs in water samples were significantly less in 2009. However, there was little change in bioconcentration from sediments into benthic organisms. Finally, we conducted the assessment of potential adverse effects for PFCs on aquatic life by use of current and previous reported data. PMID:22955048

Naile, Jonathan E; Khim, Jong Seong; Hong, Seongjin; Park, Jinsoon; Kwon, Bong-Oh; Ryu, Jong Seong; Hwang, Jin Hwan; Jones, Paul D; Giesy, John P

2013-01-01

264

Carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of suspended particulate organic matter in Zuari Estuary, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spatio-temporal variations of the ?13C and ?15N of suspended particulate organic matter (SPOM), along with ancillary chemical and hydrographic parameters, have been examined monthly for one year (October 2010 to September 2011) at a total of seven stations to refine the understanding of SPOM sources and biogeochemical pathways in the tropical Zuari Estuary, west coast of India. The dynamic nature of C and N cycling in estuaries is reflected in the isotopic variation of SPOM as a function of space and time. The results exhibit marked seasonality, with the autochthonous component and the terrestrial component being the major SPOM sources during periods of low and high river discharges, respectively. Spatially, enrichments of ?13C and ?15N from the head (?13C = - 29.6‰, ?15N = 1.78‰, C/N = 7.09) to the mouth (?13C = - 20.9‰, ?15N = 5.77‰, C/N = 6.12) of the estuary indicate downstream reduction of terrigenous influence. The mean C:N ratios varied between 4 and 9 over the study period with low values during the monsoon, in spite of large terrestrial input, which can be attributed to microbial modification of terrestrial SPOM. A significant positive correlation of ?13C with salinity suggests the reliability of ?13C as a biogeochemical tracer for organic matter provenance. Carbon:chlorophyll plots reveal suppressed autochthonous production during the southwest monsoon which may be attributed to the rapid flushing time, light-limitation due to cloud cover and high water-column turbidity.

Bardhan, Pratirupa; Karapurkar, S. G.; Shenoy, D. M.; Kurian, S.; Sarkar, A.; Maya, M. V.; Naik, H.; Varik, S.; Naqvi, S. W. A.

2015-01-01

265

Abundance and Size Distribution of the Sacoglossan Elysia viridis on Co-Occurring Algal Hosts on the Swedish West Coast  

PubMed Central

Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp.) at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host. PMID:24647524

Baumgartner, Finn A.; Toth, Gunilla B.

2014-01-01

266

Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna of the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh.  

PubMed

Heavy metal concentrations in some macrobenthic fauna have been reported for the first time from the Sundarbans mangrove forest, south west coast of Bangladesh, in the northern part of Bay of Bengal. The concentration of Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in macrobenthos ranged from 235 ± 10.11 to 1,051 ± 38.42, 3.66 ± 0.89 to 7.55 ± 1.29, 76.8 ± 8.55 to 98.5 ± 6.49, 0.46 ± 0.11 to 0.859 ± 0.2 and 4.66 ± 1.17 to 6.77 ± 2.1 ?g/g, respectively. Significant variations (p???0.05) in heavy metal concentrations have been observed among the mud crab, mudskipper and gastropod. However, heavy metal burdens did not vary significantly among the hermit and horseshoe crabs. In mud crab, horseshoe crab and gastropod, heavy metal concentrations were recorded in the sequence: Fe > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd. Hermit crab and mudskipper contained heavy metals in the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Fe and Zn concentrations were found significantly (p???0.05) higher in macrobenthos. The lead (Pb) concentration found in the edible portion of macrobenthos exceeded the international permissible limits certified by the WHO. Bioconcentration factors >1.00 obtained for Fe (17.05 in mudskipper) and Cd (1.87 in gastropod) indicated that these metals were highly bioaccumulated and biomagnified in benthic fauna of Sundarbans. The findings of this study refer to the potential impact of heavy metals in the mangrove ecosystem of Bangladesh. PMID:20711859

Ahmed, Kawser; Mehedi, Yousuf; Haque, Rezaul; Mondol, Pulakesh

2011-06-01

267

Dependence of Wind Turbine Curves on Atmospheric Stability Regimes - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Tall Wind Farm  

SciTech Connect

Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, convective or neutral, mean wind speed (U) and turbulence ({sigma}{sub U}) may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 m to 120 m). This variation can cause a single turbine to produce difference amounts of power during time periods of identical hub height wind speeds. The study examines the influence that atmospheric mixing or stability has on power output at a West Coast North American wind farm. They first examine the accuracy and applicability of two, relatively simple stability parameters, the wind shear-exponent, {alpha}, and the turbulence intensity, I{sub u}, against the physically-based, Obukhov length, L, to describe the wind speed and turbulence profiles in the rotor area. In general, the on-site stability parameters {alpha} and I{sub u} are in high agreement with the off-site, L stability scale parameter. Next, they divide the measurement period into five stability classes (strongly stable, stable, neutral, convective, and strongly convective) to discern stability-effects on power output. When only the mean wind speed profile is taken into account, the dependency of power output on boundary layer stability is only subtly apparent. When turbulence intensity I{sub u} is considered, the power generated for a given wind speed is twenty percent higher during strongly stable conditions than during strongly convective conditions as observed in the spring and summer seasons at this North American wind farm.

Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Sharp, J; Zulauf, M

2009-08-24

268

Bacterial production, glucosidase activity and particle-associated carbohydrates in Dona Paula bay, west coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Size-fractionated bacterial production, abundance and ?- and ?- glucosidase enzyme activities were studied with respect to changes in hydrography, total suspended matter (TSM), chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen ratio (POC:PON), 1.5 M NaCl-soluble and 10 mM EDTA-soluble carbohydrates (Sal-PCHO and CPCHO) and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) in the surface waters from July 1999-2000 at a shallow coastal station in Dona Paula Bay, west coast of India. The bulk of the total bacterial production and glucosidase activity were associated with particles (75% and >80%, respectively). Total bacterial production was linearly correlated to chlorophyll a ( r = 0.513; p < 0.05) whereas enzyme activity was significantly correlated to TSM (?-glucosidase: r = 0.721 ( p < 0.001); ?-glucosidase: r = 0.596 ( p < 0.01)). Both ?-glucosidase ( r = 0.514; p < 0.05) and ?-glucosidase enzymes ( r = 0.598; p < 0.01) appeared to be involved in the degradation of CPCHO and Sal-PCHO, respectively. Changes in ?-glucosidase/?-glucosidase ratios highlighted the varying composition of particulate organic matter. The bacterial uptake of 14C-labeled bacterial extracellular carbohydrate measured over 11 days showed a strong linear correlation between 14C-uptake and bacterial production using tritiated thymidine. The turnover rate of 14C-labeled carbohydrate-C was 0.52 d -1, higher than the estimated annual mean potential carbohydrate carbon turnover rate of 0.33 ± 0.2 d -1. Our study suggests that carbohydrates derived from sediments may serve as an important alternative carbon source sustaining the bacterial carbon demand in the surface waters of Dona Paula Bay.

Bhaskar, P. V.; Bhosle, N. B.

2008-11-01

269

Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

2009-04-01

270

Late Pleistocene coastal loess deposits of the central west coast of North America: Terrestrial facies indicators for marine low-stand intervals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coastal loess deposits measured in sea cliffs, bay cliffs, road cuts and boreholes (62 sites) are compiled for the states of Washington, Oregon, and California in the central west coast of North America (1700 km in length). The loess-enriched deposits are recognized by (1) substantial abundances of silt (30-90% by weight) and (2) depositional settings in uplifted marine terraces or dune fields that are situated well above alluvial floodplains at the coast. Total loess thickness above the MIS5a marine terrace, or 80 ± 20 ka basal TL age, ranges from 0.1 to 8.0 m in 46 dated sites. Loess deposits reach maximum thickness (5-8 m) in the vicinities of glacial outwash plains in the highest latitudes. Loess thickness in the middle and lower latitudes increases with proximity to 1) large river mouths (>3 × 106 mt yr-1 modern suspended sediment discharge) and 2) broad shelf widths (>10 km distance from 0 to -100 m depth). Coastal loess deposits dated by TL or radiocarbon (37 samples) range from ˜250 to 11 ka in age, but generally fall into the MIS4-2 marine low-stand intervals (32 dates between 77-15 ka). The coastal loess facies represent marine low-stand intervals in coastal Quaternary sequences from the central west coast of North America.

Peterson, Curt D.; Grathoff, Georg H.; Reckendorf, Frank; Percy, David; Price, David M.

2014-03-01

271

Regional and global context of the Late Cenozoic Langebaanweg (LBW) palaeontological site: West Coast of South Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The palaeontological site of Langebaanweg (LBW) is internationally renowned for its prolific, diverse and exceptionally well preserved Mio-Pliocene vertebrate faunas. The site is located on the southern West Coast of South Africa which represents a passive intraplate, trailing edge setting. The southern African subcontinent is also removed from glacial influence and has experienced no Cenozoic volcanic activity. Rates of vertical crustal motion are consequently low and Late Cenozoic shoreline datums at LBW chiefly reflect glacio-eustatic sea level history. The primary aim of this study is to clarify the chronology as well as the regional and global context of LBW and to review previous work on these aspects. LBW is ideally situated to document the complex interactions of ocean, atmosphere and land and their respective influence on climate evolution, given its location near the coast and mix of marine, estuarine and terrestrial faunas and depositional settings. This paper also provides a background to the study of the vast existing faunal collections and a guide to undiscovered fossil deposits. Towards these ends, the first detailed geological/topographic maps of the site and surrounds, accompanied by a summary stratigraphic column are provided. Virtual geological modelling using a subsurface database has clarified the spatial and temporal relationships of sedimentary facies, as well as their depositional settings. The geological and palaeontological record at LBW tracks and documents the major regional and global climatic/oceanographic events of the Late Cenozoic. During the Oligocene drawdown in sea levels, the landscape was etched by river incision. Fluctuating sea levels of the Neogene periodically reversed the trend from erosion to deposition, preserving contemporary faunas and floras in the Oligocene palaeovalleys. Earlier Miocene pollen from fluvial facies indicates a humid sub-tropical climate, reflecting a warm southern Atlantic Ocean. The abrupt late Middle Miocene global cooling (Monterey Excursion) coincided with intensified cold upwelling in the Benguela Current and extensive phosphate authigenesis. A globally documented Early Pliocene highstand possibly related to the shoaling of the Isthmus of Panama reached ~ 90 m above sea level (asl), implying extensive melting of the cryosphere. Palaeomagnetic data in tandem with global sea level reconstructions suggested an age of ~ 5.15 ± 0.1 Ma for the faunas and a correlation with the earlier part of this transgression. A subtropical C3 vegetation is indicated by the faunas and floras, but with a significant contribution by sclerophytic fynbos pointing to a cooler and more seasonal climate than in the Miocene. A mid-Pliocene highstand to ~ 50 m asl truncated the Early Pliocene succession at LBW and the globally documented Late Pliocene highstand to ~ 30 m asl saw the Atlantic shoreline approaching LBW for the last time. With the progressive climatic cooling and instability of the terminal Pliocene, culminating in the growth of the Arctic ice cap, strengthening southerly winds driven by a tighter coiled South Atlantic Anticyclone deposited extensive coastal dune fields over the region.

Roberts, David L.; Matthews, Thalassa; Herries, Andrew I. R.; Boulter, Claire; Scott, Louis; Dondo, Chiedza; Mtembi, Ponani; Browning, Claire; Smith, Roger M. H.; Haarhoff, Pippa; Bateman, Mark D.

2011-06-01

272

United States West Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

273

Meteorological characteristics and overland precipitation impacts of atmospheric rivers affecting the West coast of North America based on eight years of SSM/I satellite observations  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The pre-cold-frontal low-level jet within oceanic extratropical cyclones represents the lower-tropospheric component of a deeper corridor of concentrated water vapor transport in the cyclone warm sector. These corridors are referred to as atmospheric rivers (ARs) because they are narrow relative to their length scale and are responsible for most of the poleward water vapor transport at midlatitudes. This paper investigates landfalling ARs along adjacent north- and south-coast regions of western North America. Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/ I) satellite observations of long, narrow plumes of enhanced integrated water vapor (IWV) were used to detect ARs just offshore over the eastern Pacific from 1997 to 2005. The north coast experienced 301 AR days, while the south coast had only 115. Most ARs occurred during the warm season in the north and cool season in the south, despite the fact that the cool season is climatologically wettest for both regions. Composite SSM/I IWV analyses showed landfalling wintertime ARs extending northeastward from the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas the summertime composites were zonally oriented and, thus, did not originate from this region of the tropics. Companion SSM/I composites of daily rainfall showed significant orographic enhancement during the landfall of winter (but not summer) ARs. The NCEP-NCAR global reanalysis dataset and regional precipitation networks were used to assess composite synoptic characteristics and overland impacts of landfalling ARs. The ARs possess strong vertically integrated horizontal water vapor fluxes that, on average, impinge on the West Coast in the pre-cold-frontal environment in winter and post-cold-frontal environment in summer. Even though the IWV in the ARs is greater in summer, the vapor flux is stronger in winter due to much stronger flows associated with more intense storms. The landfall of ARs in winter and north-coast summer coincides with anomalous warmth, a trough offshore, and ridging over the Intermountain West, whereas the south-coast summer ARs coincide with relatively cold conditions and a near-coast trough. ARs have a much more profound impact on near-coast precipitation in winter than summer, because the terrain-normal vapor flux is stronger and the air more nearly saturated in winter. During winter, ARs produce roughly twice as much precipitation as all storms. In addition, wintertime ARs with the largest SSM/I IWV are tied to more intense storms with stronger flows and vapor fluxes, and more precipitation. ARs generally increase snow water equivalent (SWE) in autumn/winter and decrease SWE in spring. On average, wintertime SWE exhibits normal gains during north-coast AR storms and above-normal gains during the south-coast AR storms. The north-coast sites are mostly lower in altitude, where warmer-than-normal conditions more frequently yield rain. During those events when heavy rain from a warm AR storm falls on a preexisting snowpack, flooding is more likely to occur. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.

Neiman, P.J.; Ralph, F.M.; Wick, G.A.; Lundquist, J.D.; Dettinger, M.D.

2008-01-01

274

Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.  

PubMed

Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies ?g(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock. PMID:24681359

Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

2014-06-01

275

Seasonal Patterns of Flood, Wind, and Wave Coherence Along the US West Coast: Implications for Sediment Dispersal and Deposition.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Small rivers with mountainous catchments account for over half of the terrigenous material delivered to the coastal ocean. Dispersal, deposition, and cycling of sediments and associated nutrients ultimately influence shelf carbon budgets. Recent work on collision margins revealed that these small rivers flood during energetic ocean conditions, creating conditions conducive to dispersal of sediments via multiple sediment transport mechanisms. Furthermore, the relative timing of the peak flood and peak wave conditions influences dispersal and depositional patterns. Our study sought to identify patterns of fluvial and oceanic coherence along the US west coast by analyzing 10 years (1996-2006) of NOAA buoy, Climate Prediction Center storm track, and USGS gauge data. Discharge, buoy data, and storm tracks for the Umpqua, Eel, Salinas, and Santa Clara rivers and their adjacent shelves revealed temporal and spatial coherence patterns of wave event and flood magnitude, frequency, and timing. The seasonal period of energetic waves for each river-shelf system began 1-2 months earlier than the flood season (November) and extended 1 month beyond the end of flood season (May). There was also a seasonal disconnect in the timing of peak wave energy (December) and peak floods (January to February). Peak flood activity occurred in January on the Umpqua and Eel Rivers, and in February for the Salinas and Santa Clara Rivers. Flooding and wave events were more frequent and greater in magnitude on the Eel and Umpqua river shelves. The Salinas and Santa Clara rivers displayed lower fluvial inputs, but Salinas River shelf wave events were greater in magnitude. The magnitude and timing of peak waves and peak discharges during floods varied characteristically for each river-shelf system. Peak discharge and peak wave magnitude during floods generally decreased from December to May, indicating that dispersal and depositional patterns vary over the season. Additionally, the timing between peak river discharges and peak waves during floods revealed that waves tend to be most energetic before the peak discharge on the Eel and Umpqua Rivers. Peak waves generally occurred after the peak discharge on the Salinas and Santa Clara Rivers. The timing of waves and floods for each river-shelf system was correlated with storm movement and characteristic wind patterns. For example, from January through May, storm tracks shifted northward of the Eel River shelf, resulting in a wind shift from south to north winds, and an increasing disconnect between peak wave energy and peak discharge.

Kniskern, T. A.; Warrick, J. A.; Farnsworth, K. L.

2008-12-01

276

Numerical Simulation and Optimazation of Small Scale LNG Plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LNG20 is a small-scale natural gas liquefier. Its capacity is 20 cube meters LNG per day. This liquefier could be used for the pipeline gas, coalbed gas, oil field gas liquefaction and peakshaving plant for town gas gate station and natural gas power plant. Two processing cycles are applied to LNG20, nitrogen expander cycle and mixed refrigerant cycle. In this report, two feed gases are the target sources; one is the pipeline gas in "West-to-east pipeline gas" in a gate station in Zhejiang province and coalbed gas in Northeast China. The numerical simulation and optimization for the LNG20 were carried out to obtain the design parameters.

Li, H. Y.; Jia, L. X.; Fan, Q. H.; Yin, Q. S.

2006-04-01

277

Aspects of the biology of the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei (Proscylliidae: Carcharhiniformes) from the south-west coast of India.  

PubMed

Biological data are presented for the pygmy ribbontail catshark Eridacnis radcliffei based on specimens collected from the by-catch of the commercial deep-sea shrimp trawl fishery operating in the Arabian Sea off the south-west coast of India. A total of 549 individuals, from 101 to 257 mm total length (L(T)) and 2·2 to 56 g, were collected. The L(T) at first maturity (L(T50)) of females and males was estimated at 183 and 170 mm, respectively, and analysis of stomach contents revealed that E. radcliffei feeds primarily on crustaceans. PMID:22880745

Akhilesh, K V; Bineesh, K K; White, W T; Pillai, N G K

2012-08-01

278

LNG infrastructure and equipment  

SciTech Connect

Sound engineering principals have been used by every company involved in the development of the LNG infrastructure, but there is very little that is new. The same cryogenic technology that is used in the manufacture and sale of nitrogen, argon, and oxygen infrastructure is used in LNG infrastructure. The key component of the refueling infrastructure is the LNG tank which should have a capacity of at least 15,000 gallons. These stainless steel tanks are actually a tank within a tank separated by an annular space that is void of air creating a vacuum between the inner and outer tank where superinsulation is applied. Dispensing can be accomplished by pressure or pump. Either works well and has been demonstrated in the field. Until work is complete on NFPA 57 or The Texas Railroad Commission Rules for LNG are complete, the industry is setting the standards for the safe installation of refueling infrastructure. As a new industry, the safety record to date has been outstanding.

Forgash, D.J.

1995-12-31

279

LNG annotated bibliography  

SciTech Connect

This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

1982-09-01

280

75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

In a final rule published May 26, 2010, the Coast Guard amended Letter of Intent (LOI) and Waterway Suitability Assessment (WSA) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities. The amendment triggered information collection requirements affecting these facilities. The Coast Guard now announces that the collection of information has been approved by the......

2010-09-03

281

On the warm bias along the South-West African Coast in coupled models : an oceanic perspective  

E-print Network

Coupled ocean/atmosphere simulations exhibit systematic warm biases over the South West African (SWA) coastal region. Recent investigations indicate that coastal ocean dynamics may play an important role in determining the ...

Wang, Jinbo, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

282

Size distribution, growth and production of Sargassum thunbergii in an intertidal zone of Padori, west coast of Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers an estimation of population parameters by mathematical equations on the basis of size distribution and biomass obtained from a field survey. Sargassum thunbergii, a dominant alga in t he surf zone of Korean coast, was investigated from June 1990 to August 1991. We divided the population into interval groups according to the time of recruitment. A separation

Chul-Hwan Koh; Yonghwan Kim; Seong-Gil Kang

1993-01-01

283

The Longspine Thornyhead Fishery along the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada: Portrait of a Developing Fishery  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fishery for thornyhead Sebastolobus spp. started in the early 1990s along the Pacific coast of Canada, primarily in response to market demand from Japan. As the fishery evolved, the deepwater longspine thornyhead S. altivelis became a desirable species because it is easily targeted and commands high prices. Its congener, shortspine thornyhead S. alascanus, largely remained a bycatch species in

Rowan Haigh; Jon T. Schnute

2003-01-01

284

RENAL COCCIDIOSIS AND OTHER PARASITOLOGIC CONDITIONS IN LESSER SNOW GOOSE GOSLINGS AT THA-ANNE RIVER, WEST COAST HUDSON BAY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goshings, approxinuateh: 5 weeks of age, were collected muear the mouthu of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, durimig mnid-Auugust 1991. Mamuy dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goshings from near the coast, where imabitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater

S. Gomis; A. B. Didiuk; J. Neufeld; G. Wobeser

285

CALWATER-2 An Experiment Exploring the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two phenomena that play key roles in the variability of the water supply and the incidence of extreme precipitation events along the West Coast of the United States are: 1) Atmospheric rivers (ARs), which deliver much of the precipitation associated with major storms along the U.S. West Coast, and 2) Aerosols--from local sources as well as those transported from remote continents--which can modulate western U.S. precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of extreme precipitation and its effects, including the provision of beneficial water supply. This presentation summarizes science gaps associated with (1) the evolution and structure of ARs including cloud and precipitation processes and air-sea interaction, and (2) aerosol interaction with ARs and the impact on precipitation, including locally-generated aerosol effects on orographic precipitation along the U.S. West Coast. A set of science investigations, called CalWater 2, have been proposed over the next several years to fill these gaps including a targeted set of aircraft and ship-based measurements and associated evaluation of data over regions offshore of California and in the eastern Pacific for an intensive observing period between December 2014 and March 2015. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program and NOAA are coordinating on deployment of airborne and ship-borne facilities for this period, including a DOE-sponsored study called ACAPEX (ARM Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Experiment) that was proposed in the context of CalWater 2. A broad 5-year vision of an interagency effort to address these science gaps will be presented, and informal input into this planning is being solicited through this presentation, including consideration of potential synergistic connections to other relevant activities. The CalWater 2 white paper was prepared by a team of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers, reflecting the breadth of processes involved and the expertise needed to make new progress. The motivation is largely based upon findings that have emerged in the last few years from airborne and ground-based studies, including CalWater and the Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT). The proposed observing strategy would build on these advances and employ airborne, ship-, and ground-based assets together with satellite observations to address the scientific objectives. The approach takes advantage of recent investments in new instrumentation, such as the new sophisticated instrumentation developed by UC San Diego to measure the chemical composition of nucleated aerosols, and also in observing systems, including HMT, the NASA Global Hawk, and relevant satellite and airborne remote sensing observing systems.

Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.; Cayan, D. R.; Dettinger, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; Leung, L.; Rosenfeld, D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Spackman, J.; Waliser, D. E.

2013-12-01

286

LNG to the year 2000  

SciTech Connect

By 2000, about 190 MM metric-tpy of LNG will be moving in world trade, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer By the year 2000, approximately 190 million metric tons per year of LNG will be moving in worldwide trade. Production of LNG will be spread throughout most of the world, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer. LNG will be delivered only to the heavily industrialized areas of North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. The success of any LNG project will be dependent on its individual economics, market needs, financial planning, and governmental permit processes. We hope industry will be able to put together the LNG projects required to meet the quanitities of production forecast here for the year 2000.

Davenport, S.T.

1984-04-01

287

New Tooth Enamel Isotopic Data from the West Coast of South Africa and a Comparison of Terrestrial and Marine Records of Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Plio-Pleistocene transition marks a change in the Earth's climate from relative global warmth to colder temperatures with the initiation of glacial-interglacial cycles. Proxy records from marine cores off SW Africa archive changes in ocean upwelling and terrestrial vegetation that suggest increased aridity across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Today, the SW African coast has a Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ) and is dominated by C3 vegetation, which results from the regional high-pressure system and upwelling in the Benguela Current. While marine records provide an integrated perspective on regional responses to global climate change, terrestrial paleoclimate records are needed to assess the effects of these changes in a heterogeneous environment like southern Africa. Archeological and paleontological sites can provide useful proxies of paleoclimate, but many southern African sites are poorly dated or postdate the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Langebaanweg (LBW, ~5 Ma) and Elandsfontein (EFT, ~1.0-0.6 Ma) are sites on the SW coast of South Africa that are rich in fossil mammals and represent landscapes where surface water was more prevalent than it is in today's dry coastal environment. Fossil teeth of large herbivores (e.g. hippopotamids, giraffids, bovids, rhinocerotids, suids and equids) are preserved at both sites and enable isotopic studies of vegetation and climate across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. In this study, carbon and oxygen isotopic data are reported for 100 fossil teeth (11 herbivore taxa) at EFT and are compared to published isotopic data from early Pliocene teeth from LBW for many of the same genera. ?13C values of the EFT tooth enamel range from 13 to 8‰ (VPDB) and ?18O values range from -2 to +3‰ (VPDB). Among the EFT data, there are consistent differences in the distribution of both ?13C and ?18O values among the sampled taxa. When the EFT and LBW isotopic results are compared, ?13C values from the two sites are similar within each taxonomic group. However, ?18O values of the EFT teeth are more than 2‰ higher than ?18O values of LBW teeth for each herbivore family that was sampled. Enamel ?13C values from LBW and EFT indicate herbivore diets that were dominated by C3 vegetation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Mesowear studies of teeth suggest that the West Coast of South Africa was a forested environment with seasonal grasses during the Pliocene but that it supported trees, fynbos and grasses in the mid-Pleistocene. The isotopic indications of C3 diets among grazers from both sites suggest that a WRZ must have existed across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. The positive shift in ?18O values of fossil tooth enamel between the early Pliocene and the mid-Pleistocene on the West Coast of South Africa might suggest a change in the oxygen isotopic composition of rainfall and a decrease in the amount of rainfall across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Excluding diagenesis, these conclusions are consistent with marine records. This study indicates the potential for using the stable isotope records from fossil teeth from the West Coast of South Africa to evaluate how the intensification of the Benguela Upwelling System, which is well documented in the marine records, affected terrestrial ecosystems across the Plio-Pleistocene transition.

Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Stynder, D. D.; Bishop, L. C.; Forrest, F.; Braun, D. R.

2012-12-01

288

Depositional record of trace metals and degree of contamination in core sediments from the Mandovi estuarine mangrove ecosystem, west coast of India.  

PubMed

The concentrations of seven trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co, Pb and Zn) in three sediment cores were analysed to assess the depositional trends of metals and their contamination level in the Mandovi estuary, west coast of India. All sediment cores showed enrichment of trace metals in the upper part of core sediments and decrease in concentration with depth, suggesting excess of anthropogenic loading (including mining activities) occurred during the recent past. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images distinguished the shape, size and structure of particles derived from lithogenic and anthropogenic sources in core sediments. The geo-accumulation index (Igeo) values indicate that Mandovi estuary is 'moderately polluted' with Pb, whereas 'unpolluted to moderately polluted' with Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn. The comparative analysis of trace metals revealed that Fe and Mn were highly enriched in the Mandovi estuary compared to all other Indian estuaries. PMID:25510546

Veerasingam, S; Vethamony, P; Mani Murali, R; Fernandes, B

2015-02-15

289

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127.319 Navigation...Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be...

2010-07-01

290

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling...ensure that— (1) The marine transfer area for LNG is under the...

2013-07-01

291

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling...ensure that— (1) The marine transfer area for LNG is under the...

2012-07-01

292

33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling...ensure that— (1) The marine transfer area for LNG is under the...

2014-07-01

293

Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

2014-01-01

294

Field Signatures of the SE-Asian Mega-Tsunami along the West Coast of Thailand Compared to Holocene Paleo-Tsunami from the Atlantic Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Andaman-Sumatra Tsunami of Dec. 26, 2004, was by far the largest tsunami catastrophe in human history. An earthquake of 9 to 9.3 on the Richter scale, the extension of waves over more than 5000 km of ocean and run-ups up to 35 m are its key features. These characteristics suggest significant changes in coastal morphology and high sediment transport rates. A field survey along the west coast of Thailand (Phuket Island, Khao Lak region including some Similan Islands, Nang Pha mangrove areas and Phi Phi Don Islands) seven to nine weeks after the tsunami, however, discovered only small changes in coastal morphology and a limited amount of dislocated sediments, restricted to the lower meters of the tsunami waves. This is in striking contrast to many paleo-tsunami's events of the Atlantic region. Explanations for this discrepancy are sought in: a. Mechanics of the earthquake. A rather slow shock impulse on the water masses over the very long earthquake zone, b. Shallow water in the earthquake zone, and c. Bathymetry of the foreshore zone at the impacted sites. Shallow water west of Thailand has diminished wave energy significantly. The differences in geomorphological and sedimentological signatures of this tsunami compared with many paleo-tsunami worldwide makes it unsuitable to be used as a model for old and future tsunami imprints by an event of this extreme energy and extension.

Kelletat, Dieter; Scheffers, Sander R.; Scheffers, Anja

2007-03-01

295

Using Multi-Scenario Tsunami Modelling Results combined with Probabilistic Analyses to provide Hazard Information for the South-WestCoast of Indonesia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Indonesia is located at one of the most active geological subduction zones in the world. Following the most recent seaquakes and their subsequent tsunamis in December 2004 and July 2006 it is expected that also in the near future tsunamis are likely to occur due to increased tectonic tensions leading to abrupt vertical seafloor alterations after a century of relative tectonic silence. To face this devastating threat tsunami hazard maps are very important as base for evacuation planning and mitigation strategies. In terms of a tsunami impact the hazard assessment is mostly covered by numerical modelling because the model results normally offer the most precise database for a hazard analysis as they include spatially distributed data and their influence to the hydraulic dynamics. Generally a model result gives a probability for the intensity distribution of a tsunami at the coast (or run up) and the spatial distribution of the maximum inundation area depending on the location and magnitude of the tsunami source used. The boundary condition of the source used for the model is mostly chosen by a worst case approach. Hence the location and magnitude which are likely to occur and which are assumed to generate the worst impact are used to predict the impact at a specific area. But for a tsunami hazard assessment covering a large coastal area, as it is demanded in the GITEWS (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project in which the present work is embedded, this approach is not practicable because a lot of tsunami sources can cause an impact at the coast and must be considered. Thus a multi-scenario tsunami model approach is developed to provide a reliable hazard assessment covering large areas. For the Indonesian Early Warning System many tsunami scenarios were modelled by the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) at different probable tsunami sources and with different magnitudes along the Sunda Trench. Every modelled scenario delivers the spatial distribution of the inundation for a specific area, the wave height at coast at this area and the estimated times of arrival (ETAs) of the waves, caused by one tsunamigenic source with a specific magnitude. These parameters from the several scenarios can overlap each other along the coast and must be combined to get one comprehensive hazard assessment for all possible future tsunamis at the region under observation. The simplest way to derive the inundation probability along the coast using the multiscenario approach is to overlay all scenario inundation results and to determine how often a point on land will be significantly inundated from the various scenarios. But this does not take into account that the used tsunamigenic sources for the modeled scenarios have different likelihoods of causing a tsunami. Hence a statistical analysis of historical data and geophysical investigation results based on numerical modelling results is added to the hazard assessment, which clearly improves the significance of the hazard assessment. For this purpose the present method is developed and contains a complex logical combination of the diverse probabilities assessed like probability of occurrence for different earthquake magnitudes at different localities, probability of occurrence for a specific wave height at the coast and the probability for every point on land likely to get hit by a tsunami. The values are combined by a logical tree technique and quantified by statistical analysis of historical data and of the tsunami modelling results as mentioned before. This results in a tsunami inundation probability map covering the South West Coast of Indonesia which nevertheless shows a significant spatial diversity offering a good base for evacuation planning and mitigation strategies. Keywords: tsunami hazard assessment, tsunami modelling, probabilistic analysis, early warning

Zosseder, K.; Post, J.; Steinmetz, T.; Wegscheider, S.; Strunz, G.

2009-04-01

296

Hurricane Frederic tidal floods of September 12-13, 1979, along the Gulf Coast, West Pensacola quadrangle, Florida  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Shown on the West Pensacola topographic map are floodmarks elevations left by Hurricane Frederic tides of September 12-13, 1979, along the eastern shore of Perdido Bay in the vicinity of West Pensacola, Florida. Most of the damage in this area was due to minor flooding and high winds. Still water elevations ranged from about 5 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum in the sheltered areas to about 7.5 feet in areas subject to wind setup. Storm-tide frequency and records of annual maximum tides at Mobile, Alabama, since 1772, are presented. Offshore winds reached about 160 miles per hour. A wind-velocity of about 145 miles per hour was recorded near Dauphin Island, Alabama. (USGS)

Franklin, Marvin A.; Bohman, Larry R.

1980-01-01

297

Geochemical-mineralogical-characteristics of the pre-Holocene sediments in Haenam Bay, west coast of Korea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of pre-Holocene core sediments from Haenam Bay, southwest coast of Korea, were examined for post-depositional diagenetic changes and used to assess the provenance of fine-grained sediments in the region. The geochemical and mineralogical compositions of the sediments vary very little with core depth (Holocene to pre-Holocene age), except for the upper part of the pre-Holocene sedimentary layer. In this case, smectite and chlorite are depleted, presumably due to intensive subaerial weathering and low pH conditions. Highly mobile elements (Ca, Mg, Na and K) were likely removed with the breakdown of labile minerals, such as carbonate minerals, feldspar, and clay minerals, during subaerial exposure of this layer, resulting in low weathering indices. In particular, the low smectite content (<5%) and low V/Al ratio (<13) suggest that the Holocene and pre-Holocene sediments along the southwestern coast of Korea did not originate from mainland China but rather mostly from the Korean Peninsula. This aspect has been a subject of debate since the mid-1970s.

Lim, D. I.; Kim, H. N.; Jung, H. S.

2002-12-01

298

Using CHEMTAX to evaluate seasonal and interannual dynamics of the phytoplankton community off the South-west coast of Portugal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CHEMTAX was used to assess the relative contribution of the main phytoplankton classes to the total concentration of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) from the waters off SW coast of Portugal. Sampling campaigns were carried out during all seasons from 2008 to 2012, at three stations located 2, 10 and 18 km from the coast. Samples were taken from the surface, mid-Secchi and Secchi depth, for the determination of Chl a and other phytoplanktonic pigments by HPLC. Supporting data were also obtained including dissolved inorganic nutrients, salinity, transparency, temperature and upwelling indices. The CHEMTAX results were also related to microscopy counts and also spectral analysis of absorption of other samples from the same sampling campaigns. The pigment results showed that diatoms dominated from early spring to summer, coinciding with upwelling conditions, while cryptophytes, prymnesiophytes and prasinophytes dominated in autumn and winter, coinciding with seasonal stratification. Although the contribution of cyanobacteria to total Chl a was generally low, there were occasional sampling campaigns where it was exceptionally high, but these appeared not to be related to upwelling. Dinoflagellates and chrysophytes were minority groups although the pigment marker peridinin that was used to distinguish dinoflagellates was not adequate for distinguishing all the members of this group. CHEMTAX was particularly useful for discriminating between the smaller (0-20 ?m) classes of the microplankton that could not be easily identified by microscopy.

Goela, P. C.; Danchenko, S.; Icely, J. D.; Lubian, L. M.; Cristina, S.; Newton, A.

2014-12-01

299

Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast of Arabian Sea during Indian summer monsoon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over the coast of Arabian Sea, Goa (15°21'N, 73°51'E) in India. These observations were collected, in association with the surface layer turbulent parameters for the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX). In the summer monsoon period, concentration of CO2 was in the range of 550-790 mg m - 3 whereas the water vapour was in the range of 17.5-24.5 g m - 3. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has been performed on these observations to investigate the spectral behaviour of CO2 and water vapour. The relation between CO2 and water vapour on various atmospheric scales has been proposed. CO2 and water vapour observations confirmed the existence of periodicities of large (11, 8 days), meso (5 days) and micrometeorological (20 min) scales.

Dharmaraj, T.; Patil, M. N.; Waghmare, R. T.; Ernest Raj, P.

2012-08-01

300

Explosive east coast cyclogenesis over the west-central North Atlantic Ocean - A composite study derived from ECMWF operational analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes the observational aspects of explosive east-coast cyclogenesis using composites constructed from the daily global analyses generated and archived by ECMWF. An explosively deepening storm or bomb is defined as an extratropical cyclone whose mean sea-level pressure falls at least 1 mb/h for 24 h. The ECMWF data sets are used to examine the three-dimensional kinematic and thermodynamic structure of bombs over the entire depth of the troposphere. The evolution and structure of the composite bomb is diagnosed using a moving coordinate system consisting of a box with dimensions of 35 x 35 deg of latitude-longitude. The results reveal that explosive cyclogenesis is a baroclinic phenomenon in which the rapid development in the presence of strong upper tropospheric forcing is most likely enhanced by a highly destabilized lower troposphere.

Manobianco, John

1989-01-01

301

The coastal mosaic of ocean acidification: The influence of upwelling, riverine input, and geography along the US West Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean acidification shows clear potential to decrease calcification in a wide range of marine organisms. However, many questions remain about the natural temporal and spatial variability of the carbonate system, particularly in coastal systems. To understand the natural variability of the carbonate system in the California Current, we have developed a broad scale coastal transect (47 sites) from the US-Canada border to San Diego. These sites are sampled from the shore, where waters are interacting with rocky intertidal and sandy beach ecosystems. Our "coast wide" transect is sampled twice per year for a suite of water chemistry parameters (T, S, O2, pH, DIC, TA, oxygen isotopes). We observe seasonal differences in water chemistry, for example an overall decrease in pH during upwelling (May) vs. non-upwelling conditions (September). Additionally, the influence of riverine input is very apparent at the coast, with plumes of fresh, high pH, low alkalinity water observed at the San Francisco Bay and Columbia River mouths. We also observed a wide range of pH (7.6-8.6), with the most acidic waters found in the Northern California-Southern Oregon upwelling region (38N-45N). At individual sites along this transect, we are collecting carbonate system data at higher resolution. For example, an oceanographic mooring located 1 km offshore of BML has been monitoring pH and pCO2 on an hourly basis since November 2010. This mooring is coupled with intertidal pH and water chemistry measurements at the shore on Bodega Head. These linked mooring and shore-based investigations allow for direct comparisons of offshore water to intertidal conditions.

Hill, T. M.; Gaylord, B.; Miller, S. H.; Russell, A. D.; Sanford, E.

2011-12-01

302

LNG -- Technology on the edge  

SciTech Connect

With immense promise and many supporters, LNG as a vehicular fuel is still, a nascent industry. In about two years, an array of LNG engines should be commercially available, and infrastructure greatly expanded. These developments should reduce the present premium of LNG equipment, greatly improving industry economics. The most propitious sign for LNG-market developed lies in the natural gas industry`s recently refined strategy for natural gas vehicles. The new strategy targets the right competitor--diesel, not gasoline. It also targets the right market for an emerging fuel--high-fuel-usage fleets made up of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, often driven long distances. But problems persist in critical areas of development. These problems are related to the materials handling of LNG and the refueling of vehicles. The paper discusses the studies on LNG handling procedures, its performance benefits to high-fuel use vehicles, economic incentives for its use, tax disadvantages that are being fought, and LNG competition with ``clean`` diesel fuels.

Alexander, C.B.

1995-10-01

303

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

2013-01-01

304

Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

2015-02-01

305

Food utilisation by coastal fish assemblages in rocky and soft bottoms on the Swedish west coast: Inference for identification of essential fish habitats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of essential fish habitats (EFHs) is widely accepted for conservational and management purposes. EFHs are often considered as high quality habitats for fisheries species and subsequently of high values for society. In this study, fish and Substrate-Associated Prey (SAP) were sampled during the productive summer season 1998 (fish) and 2003 and 2004 (SAP) in shallow coastal rocky- and soft-bottom habitats on the Swedish west coast. The aim was to study the spatial and monthly variation of SAP as well as abundance and biomass of fish, and to examine if food items found in the diet of the fish assemblage were derived from SAP. We also examined if the diet of Ctenolabrus rupestris, a resident and abundant fish species in the shallow coastal habitats, and the diet of four seasonally abundant and commercially important fish species ( Gadus morhua, Pleuronectes platessa, Salmo trutta and Scomber scombrus) were derived from SAP. There were significantly higher mean species number and abundance of the SAP assemblage on rocky compared to soft bottoms and the highest values were found on the rocky bottoms in August and in the shallowest (0-3 m) depth strata. There were no significant differences in number of fish species caught in the two habitats, although mean number of fish and mean biomass were significantly higher on rocky bottoms. Both habitats showed the same seasonal variation and the highest values of number of fish species, abundance and biomass were observed in June. On rocky bottoms, gastropods and amphipods were the most frequent food items in the diet of the entire fish assemblage and these items were also the most abundant SAP in this habitat. The dominant food items of the soft-bottom fish assemblage were decapods and fish, which were not common SAP. However, except for S. scombrus, the diet of the selected fish species showed a strong association to the SAP availability. Gadus morhua displayed the strongest association to SAP on rocky bottoms and P. platessa and C. rupestris to SAP on soft bottoms. Further, for C. rupestris, multivariate statistical analysis showed a significant association to the SAP assemblage on both rocky and soft bottoms. These results provide vital new information for the management and conservation of Essential Fish Habitats on the Swedish west coast.

Stål, Johan; Pihl, Leif; Wennhage, Håkan

2007-02-01

306

Provenance of the heavy mineral-enriched alluvial deposits at the west coast of the Red Sea. Implications for evolution of Arabian-Nubian crust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic record of detrital zircons from the active alluvial fans at the west coast of the Red Sea. The Ras Manazal alluvial fan (primarily composed of zircon, magnetite with some rutile, ilmenite and monazite) yielded a relatively restricted age population ranges from 765 to 666 Ma. These ages and present-day drainage pattern is consistent that the sediments are primarily derived from erosion of nearby subduction related granitoids in the immediate west (i.e., not more than 50 km from the Red Sea coast) of the fan. In contrast, approximately 160 km south, at the Egypt-Sudan border, the Wadi Diit fan is relatively more enriched in ilmenite and REE-bearing phases (e.g., thorite, monazite, xenotime, garnet, etc.) and yielded five zircon age populations of (1) 824-733 Ma, (2) 730-705 Ma, (3) 646-608 Ma, (4) 516-500 Ma, and (5) 134-114 Ma. The age populations 1-3 if coupled with the present-day drainage pattern can be related to the earlier subduction related and later post collision granitoids in the southern part of the South Eastern Desert and Gebeit terrane of northern Sudan. Sparse Early Cretaceous zircons (134-114 Ma) are derived from the Mesozoic volcanic suits in the source region. However, the age group 516-500 Ma is enigmatic. Wadi Diit zircons are primarily derived from granitoids in the broad S-N directed Hamisana Shear Zone and its subordinate SW to NE directed Onib-Sol-Hamed Suture Zone. These shear zones provided pathways for the present-day drainage system for sediment transportation to the Wadi Diit and adjacent coastal region. We infer that the ca. 500 Ma late-stage magmatic zircons represent a hitherto unknown magmatic event, possibly related to the shear heating associated with the crustal scale shear zones. This implies that the shear zones in the South Eastern Desert and northern Sudan remained thermally active as late as ?500 Ma. The time resolved hafnium composition (?Hf (t)) of both fans varies from +3.5 to +13.5. Our new U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic composition suggests that the detrital zircons were derived from the Neoproterozoic juvenile crust. This is consistent with the Neoproterozoic juvenile igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Eastern Desert and northern Sudan.

Mahar, Munazzam Ali; Ibrahim, Tarek M. M.; Goodell, Philip C.

2014-12-01

307

Evidence of Late Holocene Cyclic Events of Subsidence and Uplift from West Coast of Andaman Island, Andaman Islands, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area located about 2.0-2.5 km inland along the western coast of Andaman Island, experienced marginal subsidence during 2004 Sumatra-Andaman (Mw 9.3) earthquake, was found inundated during 2005. Near sub-surface sediment stratigraphy revealed signatures of land-level changes that occurred during 3000-1000 years BP. The bottom most thick layer of clayey silt (unit a) suggested a long term calm and stable deep environment spanned before the earliest event recorded from the study area. Event I caused major coseismic uplift in this region as indicated by the sharp basal contact of the overlying thick peaty horizon (unit b), afterwards there occurred coseismic subsidence followed by Event II, where subsidence prevailed for a long time span due to successive post-seismic subsidence as reflected by the fining upward sequence within the silty-sandy thick horizon (unit c, unit d, and unit e). During that period depositional environment had changed from shallow (silty sand) to deep (clayey silt) as a consequence of continuing subsidence after the probable Event II. Recurrence of Event I type earthquake as Event III caused major coseismic uplift in the region leading to the formation of the top thick peaty horizon (unit f) with a sharp basal contact that also remained stable for a long time span. Cycle repeated due to recurrence of Event II type earthquake as Event IV (2004), which caused coseismic as well as post-seismic subsidence and thus the area get converted into tidal-marsh leading to the deposition of top sandy soil (unit g). However it has been noticed that after 2005, the area again started rising from the subsidence as indicated by the GPS observations and the same also reflected in coastal geomorphology and sedimentology. AMS ages of rhizome/charcoal and OSL ages of the sediments suggest that the Event-II occurred during 3000-3500 years BP and a gradual subsidence had spanned during 1100-230 years BP. We report here the evidence of past land level changes observed until 2011 along the western coast of Andaman Island.

Khan, Afzal; Malik, Javed N.

2014-05-01

308

Observations, Analysis and Modeling of the Tohoku Tsunami in the Far-Field: US West Coast and New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe observations, analysis and modeling of the March 11, 2001 Tohoku tsunami in the far field based on field surveys conducted immediately after the event. In California, significant damage occurred in Crescent City and Santa Cruz harbors with moderate to minor damage at maritime facilities throughout the state. The largest surges coincided with low tide, however, tsunami effects persisted through the day and the highest water levels were recorded at high tide 16 - 22 hours later. New Zealand experienced similar effects; several docks and boats were damaged at Tutukaka Marina with some significant overland flooding at Port Charles. Strong currents, surges and broken mooring lines were observed at other locations and persisted throughout the tide cycle. Tide gauge records from California and New Zealand were analyzed for spectral content. Spectral analysis of tide gauge records from the event showed the long duration of the tsunami in the far-field. Preliminary results show clearly the difference in tsunami duration for open coast versus locations in natural or man made harbors. The spectral content of the tsunami signal as recorded on opposite corners of the Pacific Ocean is compared for this event and the 2010 Chilean tsunami.

Borrero, J. C.; Greer, S. D.; Pickett, V.; Bell, R.; Lynett, P. J.; Barberopoulou, A.; Legg, M. R.; Dengler, L.; Wilson, R. I.

2011-12-01

309

Albedo patterns and gypsum generation in the central Namib Desert - Land, sea and air interactions on an arid West Coast  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the central Namib Desert, dune-free surfaces are separated abruptly from a sea of yellow and red sand dunes at the Kuiseb River canyon. The off-white hues of the dune-free area result from anomalously high surficial gypsum enrichment. Satellite imagery indicates that the gypsum surfaces are associated with lower surface maximum temperatures than those of the darker dune surfaces to the south. One of various sources of sulfate for the gypsum bodies is oceanic H2S, supplied to desert land-surfaces by regular fog incursions. Since fog events are widespread along the coast, the question of anomalous gypsum accumulations north of the dune sea arises. Satellite imagery, in conjunction with more detailed handheld photography from the space shuttle, indicates that the penetration of fog inland is significantly greater over the gypsum surfaces than it is over the dunes. It is postulated that the thermal gradient between these surfaces generates a heat low centered over the northern part of dune sea and that this enhances fog and H2S advection on its north side onto the nearby dune-free zone. In such a system, gypsum/caliche surfaces reinforce advection of fog over themselves in a positive feedback mode.

Wilkinson, M. J.; Helms, D. R.; Whitehead, V. S.

1992-01-01

310

Renal coccidiosis and other parasitologic conditions in lesser snow goose goslings at Tha-anne River, west coast Hudson Bay.  

PubMed

Lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) goslings, approximately 5 weeks of age, were collected near the mouth of Tha-anne River, Northwest Territories, Canada, during mid-August 1991. Many dead goslings had been observed in the area from 1988 to 1990. Goslings from near the coast, where habitat degradation by grazing geese was severe, were smaller, weighed less, and had a greater prevalence of renal coccidiosis (Eimeria truncata) and cecal nematode (Trichostrongylus spp.) infection than did goslings from inland areas, where habitat destruction was not evident. Prevalence of infection with intestinal cestodes was greater at inland than at coastal sites. Prevalences of gizzard nematodes (Epomidiostomum spp.) and Leucocytozoon spp. were not significantly different at the two sites. Histological examination of kidneys and examination of kidney homogenates for oocysts were more sensitive methods than gross examination of the kidneys for detecting renal coccidial infection. The number of oocysts present in droppings was not a good indicator of the severity of renal coccidial infection in individual birds; however, the average number of oocysts in droppings was indicative of the average severity of infection among groups of goslings. PMID:8827676

Gomis, S; Didiuk, A B; Neufeld, J; Wobeser, G

1996-07-01

311

International LNG report/Developments proceed slowly in world LNG industry  

SciTech Connect

A discussion of developments in the world LNG industry covers U.S. developments, including the Pipeline Safety Act of 1979, the National Fire Protection Association's 1979 edition of Standard 59A for the production, storage, and handling of LNG, and progress in the permitting of major LNG import projects changes in U.S. rules on LNG pricing; LNG accidents, including the grounding of the LNG carrier Vertical BarEl Paso Paul Kaise.

Hale, D.

1980-03-01

312

The impact of different hydrographic conditions and zooplankton communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composition and abundance of zooplankton were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks ( Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. Zooplankton was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Sørkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the abundance of prey preferred by Little Auks, Arctic Calanus glacialis copepodids stage V, among zooplankton was similar in both localities. However, there was much more of Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus on the shelf outside Magdalenefjorden compared to Hornsund, resulting in different abundance ratios of Arctic to Atlantic copepods in the two areas (1:14 and 1:1, respectively). Even greater differences between the two areas occurred in the ratio of C. glacialis CV to other zooplankters, amounting to 1:40 in Magdalenefjorden and 1:6 in Hornsund. In both Little Auk colonies food brought by parents to their chicks contained mainly C. glacialis CV, albeit the proportion of this copepod in meals was significantly higher in Hornsund. Meals delivered to Little Auk chicks in Hornsund had also higher zooplankton numbers, biomass and energy content. In Magdalenefjorden, on the other hand, a higher number of feedings and longer duration of foraging trips were recorded. These differences became more apparent with increasing energy requirements of the fast growing nestlings. This was probably a consequence of lower relative abundance of the Little Auks’ preferred prey in the sea adjacent to Magdalenefjorden colony. It seems that searching for the preferred food items, such as C. glacialis, among abundant but less favored C. finmarchicus, may require more time and energy demanding foraging behavior. As a consequence, foraging effort of the Little Auk parents from Magdalenefjorden was higher, and feeding efficiency lower, than those of birds from Hornsund. Increasing influx of warm Atlantic waters that bring boreal zooplankton to the Arctic Seas may have negative impacts on Little Auks’ time and energy budgets and eventually on their breeding success and range of breeding distribution.

Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Walkusz, Wojciech; Karnovsky, Nina; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Cisek, Malgorzata; Stempniewicz, Lech

2010-10-01

313

Assessing the health of the U.S. west coast with a regional-scale application of the Ocean Health Index.  

PubMed

Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment. PMID:24941007

Halpern, Benjamin S; Longo, Catherine; Scarborough, Courtney; Hardy, Darren; Best, Benjamin D; Doney, Scott C; Katona, Steven K; McLeod, Karen L; Rosenberg, Andrew A; Samhouri, Jameal F

2014-01-01

314

Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous Allocladus-Brachyphyllum-Pagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated Weichselia-Onychiopsis-Gleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two ‘biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

2013-09-01

315

Strong Endemism of Bloom-Forming Tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with Description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta)  

PubMed Central

Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent. PMID:25329833

Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

2014-01-01

316

A retrospective analysis of contamination and periphyton PICT patterns for the antifoulant irgarol 1051, around a small marina on the Swedish west coast.  

PubMed

Irgarol is a triazine photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor that has been used in Sweden as an antifouling ingredient since the 1990s. Early microcosm studies indicated that periphyton was sensitive to irgarol at concentrations regularly found in harbours and marinas. However, field studies of irgarol effects on the Swedish west coast in 1994, using the pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) approach, failed to detect any effects of the toxicant in the field. A PICT study involves sampling of replicate communities in a gradient of contamination, and a comparison of their community tolerance levels, with an increase being an indication that sensitive species have been eliminated and replaced by more tolerant ones. Typically, short-term assays are used to quantify the community tolerance levels. Later PICT studies in the same area over a 10 year period demonstrate that irgarol tolerance levels have increased, although the contamination pattern has been stable. Our results support the hypothesis that that the PICT potential was low initially, due to a small differential sensitivity between the community members, and that a persistent selection pressure was required to favour and enrich irgarol-tolerant species or genotypes. PMID:18996545

Blanck, Hans; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Grönvall, Frederick; Dahl, Björn; Guijarro, Karell Martinez; Birgersson, Göran; Kylin, Henrik

2009-02-01

317

Phylogenetic study and barcoding of the blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, found on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia using the COI gene.  

PubMed

Blood cockles are among the most economically important brackish water invertebrates found in Malaysia. However, our knowledge of blood cockle phylogeny and systematics is rudimentary, especially for the species Tegillarca granosa. It is unclear, for instance, whether the cockles occurring on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia constitute a single species, or multiple, phylogenetically distinct species. We performed the first DNA molecular phylogenetic analysis of T. granosa to distinguish it from other related species found in other parts of the world and to create a DNA database for the species. An approximately 585-nucleotide fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome oxidase I, COI) was sequenced for 150 individual cockles, representing 10 populations: three from the north, four from the central part and three from the southern part of peninsular Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting dataset yielded tree topologies that not only showed the relationship between T. granosa and its closest relatives but its position in the evolutionary tree. Three mitochondrial clades were evident, each containing an individual genus. Using the mutation rate of the COI gene, the divergence time between T. granosa and its closest related species was estimated to be 460 thousand years ago. This study provides a phylogenetic framework for this ecologically prominent and commercially important cockle species. PMID:21732288

Chee, S Y; Devakie, M N; Siti Azizah, M N

2011-01-01

318

Strong Endemism of bloom-forming tubular Ulva in Indian West Coast, with description of Ulva paschima Sp. Nov. (Ulvales, Chlorophyta).  

PubMed

Ulva intestinalis and Ulva compressa are two bloom-forming morphologically-cryptic species of green seaweeds widely accepted as cosmopolitan in distribution. Previous studies have shown that these are two distinct species that exhibit great morphological plasticity with changing seawater salinity. Here we present a phylogeographic assessment of tubular Ulva that we considered belonging to this complex collected from various marine and estuarine green-tide occurrences in a ca. 600 km stretch of the Indian west coast. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic reconstructions using ITS nrDNA revealed strong endemism of Indian tubular Ulva, with none of the Indian isolates forming part of the already described phylogenetic clades of either U. compressa or U. intestinalis. Due to the straightforward conclusion that Indian isolates form a robust and distinct phylogenetic clade, a description of a new bloom-forming species, Ulva paschima Bast, is formally proposed. Our phylogenetic reconstructions using Neighbor-Joining method revealed evolutionary affinity of this new species with Ulva flexuosa. This is the first molecular assessment of Ulva from the Indian Subcontinent. PMID:25329833

Bast, Felix; John, Aijaz Ahmad; Bhushan, Satej

2014-01-01

319

Phylogenetic diversity of archaeal 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase genes from tropical estuarine sediments on the central west coast of India.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic diversity analyses of archaeal 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (AamoA) genes were carried out on sediment samples from the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries on the central west coast of India. The 16S rRNA gene libraries revealed quite high diversity of archaea in these sediments compared to previous reports from tropical and temperate estuarine sediments. Uncultured members of Crenarchaeota accounted for approximately 78% of 433 archaeal 16S rRNA gene clones from both of the estuaries. We detected archaeal 16S and amoA gene-related organisms capable of ammonia oxidation. Among Crenarchaeota, marine group I (MG I) was the most predominant. Clones matching the uncultured methanobacteria were predominant among the ribogroups of Euryarchaeota. Our results indicate that archaeal diversity in tropical estuarine sediments is influenced by the mangrove vegetation bordering the lower stretches of both estuaries. Higher diversity may be related to elevated land drainage during the monsoon, particularly in the Mandovi estuary sediments. Also, the diversity of AamoA sequences was higher in Mandovi sediments than those from Zuari and other tropical and/or temperate estuaries studied previously. PMID:20144707

Singh, Sanjay K; Verma, Pankaj; Ramaiah, Nagappa; Chandrashekar, Anil A; Shouche, Yogesh S

2010-04-01

320

Assessing the Health of the U.S. West Coast with a Regional-Scale Application of the Ocean Health Index  

PubMed Central

Management of marine ecosystems increasingly demands comprehensive and quantitative assessments of ocean health, but lacks a tool to do so. We applied the recently developed Ocean Health Index to assess ocean health in the relatively data-rich US west coast region. The overall region scored 71 out of 100, with sub-regions scoring from 65 (Washington) to 74 (Oregon). Highest scoring goals included tourism and recreation (99) and clean waters (87), while the lowest scoring goals were sense of place (48) and artisanal fishing opportunities (57). Surprisingly, even in this well-studied area data limitations precluded robust assessments of past trends in overall ocean health. Nonetheless, retrospective calculation of current status showed that many goals have declined, by up to 20%. In contrast, near-term future scores were on average 6% greater than current status across all goals and sub-regions. Application of hypothetical but realistic management scenarios illustrate how the Index can be used to predict and understand the tradeoffs among goals and consequences for overall ocean health. We illustrate and discuss how this index can be used to vet underlying assumptions and decisions with local stakeholders and decision-makers so that scores reflect regional knowledge, priorities and values. We also highlight the importance of ongoing and future monitoring that will provide robust data relevant to ocean health assessment. PMID:24941007

Best, Benjamin D.; Doney, Scott C.; Katona, Steven K.; McLeod, Karen L.; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Samhouri, Jameal F.

2014-01-01

321

Metal concentrations in two bioindicator fish species, Merlangius merlangus, Mullus Barbatus, captured from the West Black Sea coasts (Bartin) of Turkey.  

PubMed

The Black Sea is very vulnerable to originating from land based human activities and its health is equally dependent on the coastal and non-coastal states of its basin. Total concentrations of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, nickel, aluminum, iron, manganese, boron and chromium concentrations were determined in Merlangius merlangus (whiting) and Mullus barbatus found in Amasra in the West Coast of the Black Sea (Turkey). The metal contents that were measured in head and muscle was expressed in ?g g(-1) wet weight. On average, while the highest Fe (344.25 ?g g(-1)), Mn (10.35 ?g g(-1)), Cr (0.96 ?g g(-1)) and Al (76.77 ?g g(-1)) concentrations were measured in the heads of M. merlangus and the highest Zn (77.99 ?g g(-1)), Cu(8.53 ?g g(-1)), B (44.83 ?g g(-1)), Ni (1.96 ?g g(-1)), Cd (0.40 ?g g(-1)) and Pb (6.80 ?g g(-1)) concentrations were detected in the muscles of M. merlangus. There were significant differences between metal levels of muscles in these two species. In terms of permissible levels reported by WHO FAO and TSE, there is not any risk for human consumption for both M. merlangus and M. barbatus, for Pb. PMID:21785875

F?nd?k, Ö; Çiçek, E

2011-10-01

322

North American LNG Project Sourcebook  

SciTech Connect

The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

NONE

2007-06-15

323

Evidence from acoustic imaging for submarine volcanic activity in 2012 off the west coast of El Hierro (Canary Islands, Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report precursory geophysical, geodetic, and geochemical signatures of a new submarine volcanic activity observed off the western coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands. Submarine manifestation of this activity has been revealed through acoustic imaging of submarine plumes detected on the 20-kHz chirp parasound subbottom profiler (TOPAS PS18) mounted aboard the Spanish RV Hespérides on June 28, 2012. Five distinct "filament-shaped" acoustic plumes emanating from the flanks of mounds have been recognized at water depth between 64 and 88 m on a submarine platform located NW El Hierro. These plumes were well imaged on TOPAS profiles as "flares" of high acoustic contrast of impedance within the water column. Moreover, visible plumes composed of white rafts floating on the sea surface and sourcing from the location of the submarine plumes were reported by aerial photographs on July 3, 2012, 5 days after acoustic plumes were recorded. In addition, several geophysical and geochemical data support the fact that these submarine vents were preceded by several precursory signatures: (i) a sharp increase of the seismic energy release and the number of daily earthquakes of magnitude ?2.5 on June 25, 2012, (ii) significant vertical and horizontal displacements observed at the Canary Islands GPS network (Nagoya University-ITER-GRAFCAN) with uplifts up to 3 cm from June 25 to 26, 2012, (iii) an anomalous increase of the soil gas radon activity, from the end of April until the beginning of June reaching peak values of 2.7 kBq/m3 on June 3, 2012, and (iv) observed positive peak in the air-corrected value of 3He/4He ratio monitored in ground waters (8.5 atmospheric 3He/4He ratio ( R A)) at the northwestern El Hierro on June 16, 2012. Combining these submarine and subaerial information, we suggest these plumes are the consequence of submarine vents exhaling volcanic gas mixed with fine ash as consequence of an event of rapid rise of volatile-rich magma beneath the NW submarine ridge of El Hierro. These precursory signals have revealed important to improve and optimize the detection of early warning signals of volcanic unrest episodes at El Hierro.

Pérez, Nemesio M.; Somoza, Luis; Hernández, Pedro A.; de Vallejo, Luis González; León, Ricardo; Sagiya, Takeshi; Biain, Ander; González, Francisco J.; Medialdea, Teresa; Barrancos, José; Ibáñez, Jesús; Sumino, Hirochika; Nogami, Kenji; Romero, Carmen

2014-12-01

324

LNG plants in the US and abroad  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT`s LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

1992-12-31

325

The Impact of the 2006 Java Tsunami on the Australian Coast: Post-tsunami Survey at Steep Point, West Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed assessment of the impact of a far-field tsunami on the Australian coastline was carried out in the Steep Point region, West Australia, following the July 17th 2006 Java tsunami. Tsunami impact was surveyed by collating eye-witness accounts, measuring run-up heights, local flow depths, inundation distances and examining tsunami deposit sedimentology. The tsunami inundated the Steep Point coastline close to low tide. It caused widespread erosion in the littoral zone, extensive vegetation damage and destroyed several campsites (including transporting a large vehicle ten metres inland. Eye-witnesses reported three waves in the tsunami wave train, the second being the biggest. Tsunami wave height, inundation and run-up were determined on the basis of eye-witness accounts, debris lines, vegetation damage and the occurrence of fish, starfish, corals and sea urchins well above high tide mark. A topographic survey was performed using a handheld global positioning system (GPS) receiver and a dumpy level with stadia capability to record the extent of the inundation and run-up. Maximum recorded run-up was approximately ten metres above mean sea level (the highest ever recorded for a tsunami in Australia), maximum wave height was three metres, whilst maximum inundation distance was approximately 200 m from the shoreline. The tsunami deposited up to 14 centimetres of sand over back beach dune systems. The deposits were studied in 25 trenches. In some cases, evidence for individual waves was preserved as normally graded sequences mantled by a layer of fine silts and organics. These data will be used to enhance our ability to interpret palaeotsunami deposits, improve the understanding of the tsunami hazard to Australia and to validate tsunami inundation models.

Prendergast, A. L.

2006-12-01

326

Aerosol patterns and aerosol-cloud-interactions off the West African Coast based on the A-train formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, spatial and temporal aerosol patterns off the Western African coast are characterized and related to cloud properties, based on satellite data Atmospheric aerosols play a key role in atmospheric processes and influence our environmental system in a complex way. Their identification, characterization, transport patterns as well as their interactions with clouds pose major challenges. Especially the last aspect reveals major uncertainties in terms of the Earth's radiation budget as reported in the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC, 2007). Western and Southern Africa are dominated by two well-known source types of atmospheric aerosols. First, the Saharan Desert is the world's largest aeolian dust emitting source region. Second, biomass burning aerosol is commonly transported off-shore further south (Kaufman et al., 2005). Both aerosol types influence Earth's climate in different manners and can be detected by the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer) sensor onboard the EOS platforms as they propagate to the Central and Southern Atlantic. The motivation of this study was to reveal the seasonal pattern of the Saharan dust transport based on an observation period of 11 years and trying to explain the meteorological mechanisms. North African dust plumes are transported along a latitude of 19°N in July and 6°N in January. The seasonally fluctuating intensities adapt to the annual cycle of wind and precipitation regimes. A strong relationship is found between the spatial shift of the Azores High and the Saharan dust load over the middle Atlantic Ocean. Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness products of Terra MODIS and NCEP-DOE (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) Reanalysis II data are used for this purpose. The relationship between aerosol and cloud droplet parameters is blurred by high sensitivities to aerosol size and composition (Feingold, 2003; McFiggans et al., 2006) as well as meteorological context (Ackerman et al., 2004). Satellite data from the A-train formation, including the Aqua, CloudSat and CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation) are used to analyze aerosol-cloud-interactions in detail, along with re-analysis data to constrain by meteorological conditions. Information about the vertical and geographical distribution of different aerosol types and cloud parameters will lead to a process-oriented understanding of these issues on a regional scale. Ackerman, A., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., & Toon, O. (2004). The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing. Nature, 432(December), 1014-1017. doi:10.1038/nature03137.1. Feingold, G. (2003). First measurements of the Twomey indirect effect using ground-based remote sensors. Geophysical Research Letters, 30(6), 1287. doi:10.1029/2002GL016633 IPCC. (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Interfovernmental Panel on climate Change. Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M.Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA. Kaufman, Y. J., Koren, I., Remer, L. A., Tanré, D., Ginoux, P., & Fan, S. (2005). Dust transport and deposition observed from the Terra-Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spacecraft over the Atlantic Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 110(D10), 1-16. doi:10.1029/2003JD004436 McFiggans, G., Artaxo, P., Baltensperger, U., Coe, H., Facchini, M. C., Feingold, G., Fuzzi, S., et al. (2006). The effect of physical and chemical aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 6(9), 2593-2649. doi:10.5194/acp-6-2593-2006

Fuchs, Julia; Bendix, Jörg; Cermak, Jan

2013-04-01

327

Mapping of coastal aquifer vulnerable zone in the south west coast of Kanyakumari, South India, using GIS-based DRASTIC model.  

PubMed

The south west coast of Kanyakumari district in Tamil Nadu, India, is significantly affected by seawater intrusion and diffusion of pollutants into the aquifers due to unregulated beach placer mining and other anthropogenic activities. The present study investigates the vulnerability of the coastal aquifers using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based DRASTIC model. The seven DRASTIC parameters have been analyzed using the statistical equation of this model to demarcate the vulnerable zones for aquifer contamination. The vulnerability index map is prepared from the weighted spatial parameters, and an accounting of total index value ranged from 85 to 213. Based on the categorization of vulnerability classes, the high vulnerable zones are found near the beach placer mining areas between Manavalakurichi and Kodimanal coastal stretches. The aquifers associated with settlements and agricultural lands in the middle-eastern part have experienced high vulnerability due to contaminated water bodies. Similarly, the coastal areas of Thengapattinam and Manakudi estuary and around the South Tamaraikulam have also been falling under high vulnerability condition due to backwater and saltpan. In general, the nearshore region except the placer mining zone and the backwater has a moderately vulnerable condition, and the vulnerability index values range from 149 to180. Significantly, the northern and northeastern uplands and some parts of deposition zones in the middle-south coast have been identified as low to no vulnerable conditions. They are structurally controlled by various geological features such as charnockite, garnet biotite gneiss and granites, and sand dunes, respectively. The aquifer vulnerability assessment has been cross-verified by geochemical indicators such as total dissolved solids (TDS), Cl(-), HCO?(-), and Cl(-)/HCO?(-) ratio. The high ranges of TDS (1,842--3,736 mg/l) and Cl(-) (1,412--2,112 mg/l) values are well correlated with the observed high vulnerable zones in the study area. The Cl(-)/HCO?(-) ratio (7.13 to 12.18) of the high vulnerable zone obviously indicates deterioration of the aquifer contamination. Sensitivity analysis has also been performed to evaluate sensitivity of the individual DRASTIC parameters to aquifer vulnerability. This reveals the net recharge rate and groundwater table depth are becoming more sensitive to aquifer contamination. It is realized that the GIS is an effective platform for aquifer vulnerability mapping with reliable accuracy, and hence, the study is more useful for sustainable water resource management and the aquifer conservation. PMID:25407988

Kaliraj, S; Chandrasekar, N; Peter, T Simon; Selvakumar, S; Magesh, N S

2015-01-01

328

[Lipid and fatty acid profile of Perna viridis, green mussel (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in different areas of the Eastern Venezuela and the West Coast of Trinidad].  

PubMed

The species Perna viridis is a highly consumed species, which fast growth makes it an interesting aquaculture alternative for Venezuelan and Trinidad coasts. With the aim to contribute with its nutritional value information, this study analyzed lipid and fatty acid contents from samples taken in five locations from Eastern Venezuela and three from Trinidad West Coast. Total lipids were extracted and quantified, from a pooled sample of 100 organisms per location, by standard gravimetric methods, and their identification and quantification was done by TLC/FID (Iatroscan system). Furthermore, the esterified fatty acids of total lipid, phospholipids and triacylglycerols were identified and quantified by gas chromatography. Eastern Venezuela samples from Los Cedros, La Brea and Chaguaramas showed the highest total lipid values of 7.92, 7.74 and 7.53, respectively, and the minimum values were obtained for La Restinga (6.08%). Among lipid composition, Chacopata samples showed the lowest phospholipid concentration (48.86%) and the maximum values for cholesterol (38.87%) and triacylglycerols (12.26%); besides, La Esmeralda and Rio Caribe samples exhibited maximum phospholipids (88.71 and 84.93 respectively) and minimum cholesterol (6.50 and 4.42%) concentrations. Saturated fatty acids represented between 15.04% and 65.55% within total lipid extracts, with maximum and minimum values for La Esmeralda and Chacopata, respectively. Polyunsaturated results resulted between 7.80 and 37.18%, with higher values in La Brea and lower values in La Esmeralda. For phospholipids, saturated fatty acids concentrations varied between 38.81 and 48.68% for Chaguaramas and Chacopata samples, respectively. In the case of polyunsaturated fatty acids, these varied between non detected and 34.51%, with high concentrations in Los Cedros (27.97%) and Chaguaramas (34.51%) samples. For the triacylglycerols, the saturated fatty acids composition oscillated between 14.27 and 53.80% with low concentrations for Chacopata and high concentration for La Restinga; the polyunsaturated fatty acids were between 4.66 and 35.55% with lower values for Chacopata and higher values for Chaguaramas samples. P. viridis is recommended for human being consumption, according to the high content of unsaturated fatty acids found for this species. PMID:21516644

Koftayan, Tamar; Milano, Jahiro; D'Armas, Haydelba; Salazar, Gabriel

2011-03-01

329

76 FR 2677 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Docket No. CP10-477-000] Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project January 7, 2011...to the environmental analysis of Southern LNG Company, LLC's (Southern) LNG...

2011-01-14

330

Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment.  

PubMed

We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique - taken from the published literature - and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 10(4) cells L(-1)) varied considerably (sensitivity-Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity-Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)-improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%). PMID:22180667

Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A

2011-01-17

331

Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment  

PubMed Central

We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique – taken from the published literature – and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 104 cells L?1) varied considerably (sensitivity—Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity—Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of uncertainties (i.e. few cases of false-negatives and false-positives: ~30%)—improved positive predictive values (~60%) were also observed along with good negative predictive values (~80%). PMID:22180667

Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A.

2011-01-01

332

Recommended research on LNG safety  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

1981-03-01

333

LNG to CNG refueling stations  

SciTech Connect

While the fleet operator is concerned about the environment, he or she is going to make the choice based primarily on economics. Which fuel provides the lowest total operating cost? The calculation of this costing must include the price-per-gallon of the fuel delivered, as well as the tangible and intangible components of fuel delivery, such as downtime for vehicles during the refueling process, idle time for drivers during refueling, emissions costings resulting from compressor oil blow-by, inclusion of non-combustible constituents in the CNG, and energy consumption during the refueling process. Also, the upfront capital requirement of similar delivery capabilities must be compared. The use of LNG as the base resource for the delivered CNG, in conjunction with the utilization of a fully temperature-compressed LNG/CNG refueling system, eliminates many of the perceived shortfalls of CNG. An LNG/CNG refueling center designed to match the capabilities of the compressor-based station will have approximately the same initial capital requirement. However, because it derives its CNG sales product from the {minus}260 F LNG base product, thus availing itself of the natural physical properties of the cryogenic product, all other economic elements of the system favor the LNG/CNG product.

Branson, J.D. [ECOGAS Corp., Austin, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

334

Numerical study of sea fogs off the west coast of the Korean Peninsula using a Single Column Model coupled with WRF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sea fog is a weather phenomenon that usually occurs below a marine boundary layer. Over the past several decades, efforts have been made to understand clearly the physical mechanisms of formation, evolution and dissipation of sea fogs using numerical modeling. Recently, 3D numerical simulations with a very high horizontal and vertical resolution have been carried out using mesoscale models to identify the influences of the turbulent mixing within PBL, radiative cooling at the fog top, even aerosols, on the formation of sea fogs. However, expensive computation cost is a big concern for these 3D model simulations with high resolution. Alternatively approach is to use a 1D model, i.e., single column model. However, a typical 1D model does not resolve the horizontal advection and pressure gradient force and therefore it is limited to radiation fog studies. More recent approach is to couple a 1D model with a 3D model to compensate for the limitation of a 1D model. In this study, WRFV3.1.1 is used as a 3D model and Cloud Layers Unified By Binormals (CLUBB) is employed as a 1D model. For the 3D simulation, three nested domains of 18 km, 6 km, 2 km are used along with 64 layers in the vertical. Horizontal advections of heat and moisture, geostrophic winds and vertical motion produced every hour from WRFV3.1.1 are provided as an external forcing into the 1D model, CLUBB. CLUBB is designed for studying stable boundary layer as well as convective boundary layer and also supports sophisticated double moment microphysics (e.g., Khairoutdinov and Kogan scheme, and Morrison scheme). Several sea fog events observed in the eastern part of the Yellow Sea near the west coast of Korea are simulated and the effects of radiative cooling and turbulence are examined and a sensitivity tests of microphysics are done using CLUBB. Detailed results will be presented in the conference.

Kim, C.; Yum, S. S.

2010-12-01

335

Assessment of topographic and drainage network controls on debris-flow travel distance along the west coast of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To better understand controls on debris-flow entrainment and travel distance, we examined topographic and drainage network characteristics of initiation locations in two separate debris-flow prone areas located 700 km apart along the west coast of the U.S. One area was located in northern California, the other in southern Oregon. In both areas, debris flows mobilized from slides during large storms, but, when stratified by number of contributing initiation locations, median debris-flow travel distances in Oregon were 5 to 8 times longer than median distances in California. Debris flows in Oregon readily entrained channel material; entrainment in California was minimal. To elucidate this difference, we registered initiation locations to high-resolution airborne LiDAR, and then examined travel distances with respect to values of slope, upslope contributing area, planform curvature, distance from initiation locations to the drainage network, and number of initiation areas that contributed to flows. Results show distinct differences in the topographic and drainage network characteristics of debris-flow initiation locations between the two study areas. Slope and planform curvature of initiation locations (landslide headscarps), commonly used to predict landslide-prone areas, were not useful for predicting debris-flow travel distances. However, a positive, power-law relation exists between median debris-flow travel distance and the number of contributing debris-flow initiation locations. Moreover, contributing area and the proximity of the initiation locations to the drainage network both influenced travel distances, but proximity to the drainage network was the better predictor of travel distance. In both study areas, flows that interacted with the drainage network flowed significantly farther than those that did not. In California, initiation sites within 60 m of the network were likely to reach the network and generate longtraveled flows; in Oregon, the threshold was 80 m.

Coe, Jeffrey A.; Reid, Mark E.; Brien, Dainne L.; Michael, John A.

2011-01-01

336

Sources and distribution of organic matter in thirty five tropical estuaries along the west coast of India-a preliminary assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies characterizing the sources of organic matter (OM) to the west coast of India (WCI) and its continental shelf are limited. This study examined sedimentary OM in 35 estuaries along the WCI using molecular biomarkers (lignin phenol), elemental ratio (C/N), and stable carbon isotope (?13C) values. Multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, identified similar sedimentary chemical properties among the estuaries and their distribution patterns highlight the strong control of geographical provenance on sedimentary OM composition from south to north along the WCI. Results of an end-member mixing model reveal that terrigenous sources (C3 plants, C4 plants, and soil) contribute ?80% of estuarine OM, with the remaining 20% derived from marine sources (marine plankton and estuarine macrophytes). In the estuaries of large rivers, such as the Narmada and Sabarmati rivers, C4 plants and soil OM were found to be the dominant contributors of OM, which is likely the result of an abundance of C4 vegetation and agriculture in their catchment areas. High OC (organic carbon content) of sediments (0.5-5%) from the WCI estuaries indicates that large amounts of OM are present in the sediments. The sources of OM (plant and soil) shift substantially throughout the study area, corresponding to changes in land use patterns along the Western Ghats. Sediments with low nitrogen contents (C/N > 15-20) and degraded lignin ((Ad/Al)V = 0.4-0.6 and DHBA/V = 0.16-0.34) were observed in all estuaries, indicating humification and/or degradation of OM originating from terrestrial plants (bio-degradation) and soil (de-mineralization). The collective results of this study illustrate the benefits of using biomarkers (lignin phenols) along with C/N and ?13C values for evaluating land use changes and the impacts of land use changes on aquatic ecosystems.

Pradhan, U. K.; Wu, Ying; Shirodkar, P. V.; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Guosen

2014-12-01

337

Integrating Remote Sensing, Field Observations, and Models to Understand Disturbance and Climate Effects on the Carbon Balance of the West Coast U.S.  

SciTech Connect

GOAL: To develop and apply an approach to quantify and understand the regional carbon balance of the west coast states for the North American Carbon Program. OBJECTIVE: As an element of NACP research, the proposed investigation is a two pronged approach that derives and evaluates a regional carbon (C) budget for Oregon, Washington, and California. Objectives are (1) Use multiple data sources, including AmeriFlux data, inventories, and multispectral remote sensing data to investigate trends in carbon storage and exchanges of CO2 and water with variation in climate and disturbance history; (2) Develop and apply regional modeling that relies on these multiple data sources to reduce uncertainty in spatial estimates of carbon storage and NEP, and relative contributions of terrestrial ecosystems and anthropogenic emissions to atmospheric CO2 in the region; (3) Model terrestrial carbon processes across the region, using the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model, and an atmospheric inverse modeling approach to estimate variation in rate and timing of terrestrial uptake and feedbacks to the atmosphere in response to climate and disturbance. APPROACH: In performing the regional analysis, the research plan for the bottom-up approach uses a nested hierarchy of observations that include AmeriFlux data (i.e., net ecosystem exchange (NEE) from eddy covariance and associated biometric data), intermediate intensity inventories from an extended plot array partially developed from the PI's previous research, Forest Service FIA and CVS inventory data, time since disturbance, disturbance type, and cover type from Landsat developed in this study, and productivity estimates from MODIS algorithms. The BIOME-BGC model is used to integrate information from these sources and quantify C balance across the region. The inverse modeling approach assimilates flux data from AmeriFlux sites, high precision CO2 concentration data from AmeriFlux towers and four new calibrated CO2 sites, reanalysis meteorology and various remote sensing products to generate statewide estimates of biosphere carbon exchange from the atmospheric point of view.

B.E. Law; D. Turner; M. Goeckede

2010-06-01

338

Introduction to LNG vehicle safety. Topical report  

SciTech Connect

Basic information on the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is assembled in this report to provide an overview of safety issues and practices for the use of LNG vehicles. This document is intended for those planning or considering the use of LNG vehicles, including vehicle fleet owners and operators, public transit officials and boards, local fire and safety officials, manufacturers and distributors, and gas industry officials. Safety issues and mitigation measures that should be considered for candidate LNG vehicle projects are addressed.

Bratvold, D.; Friedman, D.; Chernoff, H.; Farkhondehpay, D.; Comay, C.

1994-03-01

339

Method for processing LNG for rankine cycle  

SciTech Connect

A method is disclosed for processing lng using a mixed heat medium for performing a rankine cycle to gasify the lng. The medium is prepared by batch distillation using only lng. The method comprises the steps of condensing an upflow vapor in a single distillation column employing part of the lng in an lng batch distillation cycle, venting one fraction having low boiling point components mainly containing methane, and accumulating the other fractions containing ethane and components heavier than ethane. The supply of lng to be distilled in the column is halted. A total condensing operation is performed in which the other fractions are sequentially condensed by part of the lng at the condenser to sequentially recover and mix each component with the other fractions. Lng is added as the methane component to the recovered mixture of components to prepare a mixed heat medium consisting of components selected from hydrocarbons having 1-6 carbon atoms, or hydrocarbons having 1-6 carbon atoms and nitrogen. The mixed heat medium is stored. A mixed heat medium vapor generated by heat input to the stored mixed heat medium is condensed by lng and returned to the mixed heat medium; collection and complete gasification of the low boiling point components mainly containing methane and the lng is gasified by condensation to provide an lng vapor gas. Lng is gasified by performing the rankine cycle with the mixed heat medium.

Aoki, I.; Matsumoto, O.

1983-06-14

340

Keys to modeling LNG spills on water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they

D. W. Hissong

2007-01-01

341

LNG decision making approaches compared  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hazard zones associated with LNG handling activities have been a major point of contention in recent terminal development applications. Debate has reflected primarily worst case scenarios and discussion of these. This paper presents results from a maximum credible event approach. A comparison of results from several models either run by the authors or reported in the literature is presented. While

Robin Pitblado; John Baik; Vijay Raghunathan

2006-01-01

342

Consequences of LNG Marine Incidents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The LNG industry in the US is currently facing challenges obtaining approvals for new receiving terminals. A factor of concern at public meetings relates to the potential hazards associated with marine transport accidents or terrorist events. The purpose of this study is to develop a range of well conceived maximum credible failure cases from accidental or terrorism causes and to

R M Pitblado; J Baik; G J Hughes; C Ferro; S J Shaw

2004-01-01

343

Thermal Hazard from LNG Fireballs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accidents with many hydrocarbon materials such as propane, butane and gasoline frequently result in the formation of fireballs. The shipment of liquified natural gas (LNG) involves large quantities of fuel which, in the event of an accident, could ignite to form a fireball. Depending on atmospheric conditions, the thermal effects from such a fireball could produce third degree skin burns

H. C. HARDEE; D. O. LEE; W. B. BENEDICK

1978-01-01

344

Comparison between the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and thermal balloon ablation in the treatment of menorrhagia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of endometrial thermal ablation and the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the management of menorrhagia. Study design: Fifty women attending a gynaecology clinic at a District General Hospital in south-west England were randomised to either surgical treatment using thermal ablation (Thermochoice, Gynecare) or medical treatment using a LNG-IUS (Mirena, Schering Healthcare). A pictorial menstrual chart

Julian W. Barrington; Angamuthu S. Arunkalaivanan; Mohammed Abdel-Fattah

2003-01-01

345

LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)  

SciTech Connect

The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

1992-01-01

346

Diatoms (Class Bacillariophyceae) and geochemistry from annually laminated mid-Holocene sediments, west coast Canada: insights into abrupt climate change in the past  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 115-year record of annually laminated sediments from Effingham Inlet, a small anoxic fjord on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (49?N, 125?W), was analyzed for diatoms (species and abundances) and geochemistry (C and N isotopes, organic C and trace elements Ag, Cd, Re and Mo) from a piston core. The sediments were radiocarbon dated at approx. 4200-4400 years before present (yr BP) and show diatom enriched varves in the lower 70 years, with a sudden transition to diatom impoverished varves above. In the lower section, varves are thick (2-5 mm) and consist of well-defined Thalassiosira-Skeletonema-Chaetoceros spring bloom successions. Diatom concentrations average at 787 ± 733 million valves/g of dry sediment, del 15N at 7.0 ± 0.5 per mil, and organic C at 5.2 ± 0.5 wt. %. In the upper section, the varves are thinner (1-2 mm), do not clearly show the seasonal diatom succession, and contain increased terrigenous detritus. Diatom concentrations average at 388 ± 202 million valves/g with an increased relative abundance of benthic and freshwater taxa, del 15N at 7.3 ± 0.6 per mil and organic C at 5.7 ± 0.5 wt. %. Values of del 13C for both sections are similar, averaging at -24.0 ± 0.5 per mil. The trace element concentrations are quite variable throughout the section. However, several thin (<1 cm) nonlaminated intervals show decreased diatom abundances with concomitant increases in trace element concentrations, suggesting short-lived changes in surface productivity, upwelling and nutrient delivery, and/or anoxic conditions. The abrupt transition from diatom-rich to diatom-poor varves could reflect a shift in dominance of the North Pacific High and Aleutian Low atmospheric pressure systems over the northeast Pacific Ocean, not unlike the well-documented 1976/1977 climate regime shift which showed a change in upwelling and nutrient delivery. A transition between warm and sunny climates to cooler and wetter regimes at around 4000 yr BP has been noted in previous paleoenvironmental studies from British Columbia and the northern hemisphere in general. The Effingham Inlet sediment record data will also be compared with modern sediment trap data from the inlet.

Chang, A.; Pedersen, T. F.

2009-04-01

347

Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some ecoregions, harvest reductions below current levels will sequester more carbon than additional harvest removals for bioenergy. References: Hudiburg, T., B. E. Law, D. P. Turner, J. Campbell, D. Donato, and M. Duane. 2009. Carbon dynamics of Oregon and Northern California forests and potential land-based carbon storage. Ecological Applications 19:163-180. Waring, R. H., and J. F. Franklin. 1979. Evergreen Coniferous Forests of the Pacific Northwest. Science 204:1380-1386.

Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

2012-12-01

348

Future scenarios of land-use and land-cover change in the United States--the Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Detecting, quantifying, and projecting historical and future changes in land use and land cover (LULC) has emerged as a core research area for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Changes in LULC are important drivers of changes to biogeochemical cycles, the exchange of energy between the Earth’s surface and atmosphere, biodiversity, water quality, and climate change. To quantify the rates of recent historical LULC change, the USGS Land Cover Trends project recently completed a unique ecoregion-based assessment of late 20th century LULC change for the western United States. To characterize present LULC, the USGS and partners have created the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) for the years 1992, 2001, and 2006. Both Land Cover Trends and NLCD projects continue to evolve in an effort to better characterize historical and present LULC conditions and are the foundation of the data presented in this report. Projecting future changes in LULC requires an understanding of the rates and patterns of change, the major driving forces, and the socioeconomic and biophysical determinants and capacities of regions. The data presented in this report is the result of an effort by USGS scientists to downscale the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) to ecoregions of the conterminous United States as part of the USGS Biological Carbon Sequestration Assessment. The USGS biological carbon assessment was mandated by Section 712 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. As part of the legislative mandate, the USGS is required to publish a methodology describing, in detail, the approach to be used for the assessment. The development of future LULC scenarios is described in chapter 3.2 and appendix A. Spatial modeling is described in chapter 3.3.2 and appendix B and in Sohl and others (2011). In this report, we briefly summarize the major components and methods used to downscale IPCC-SRES scenarios to ecoregions of the conterminous United States, followed by a description of the Marine West Coast Forests Ecoregion, and lastly a description of the data being published as part of this report.

Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Griffith, Glenn; Acevedo, William; Bennett, Stacie; Bouchard, Michelle; Reker, Ryan; Ryan, Christy; Sayler, Kristi L.; Sleeter, Rachel; Soulard, Christopher E.

2012-01-01

349

Temporal trends of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids and their sulfonamide-based precursors in herring from the Swedish west coast 1991-2011 including isomer-specific considerations.  

PubMed

A method was developed for simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkane sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and their sulfonamide-based precursors (perfluoroalkane sulfonamidoacetic acids (FASAAs), sulfonamides (FASAs), and sulfonamidoethanols (FASEs)) in fish muscle. Extraction was performed with acetonitrile followed by a clean-up and fractionation step and instrumental analysis by UPLC/MS/MS and GC/MS. Time trends of PFSAs and their precursors in herring muscle samples originating from the Kattegat at the west coast of Sweden were investigated covering the years 1991-2011. The following analytes were detected, all with decreasing or unchanged trends between 1991 and 2011: Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid (PFBS, below the method detection limit (

Ullah, Shahid; Huber, Sandra; Bignert, Anders; Berger, Urs

2014-04-01

350

The application of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) to suppress LNG vapor and LNG pool fire thermal radiation  

E-print Network

.............................................................. 72 4.5.10 Flow Meter ....................................................................................... 72 4.5.11 LNG Volumetric Flow Measurement .............................................. 72 4.5.12 Non-cryogenic Liquid Volumetric Flow...]. _______________ This dissertation follows the style of Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2? ? Source: [1] Figure 1. Energy source in the US There are several potential hazards that could arise from an LNG spill and have been identified as follows: ? Cryogenic hazards LNG...

Suardin, Jaffee Arizon

2009-05-15

351

Puerto Rico`s EcoElectrica LNG/power project marks a project financing first  

SciTech Connect

On Dec. 15, 1997, Enron International and Kenetech Energy Services achieved financial close on the $670 million EcoElectrica liquefied natural gas terminal and cogeneration project proposed for Puerto Rico. The project involves construction of a liquefied natural gas terminal, cogeneration plant, and desalination unit on the southern coast of Puerto Rico, in the Penuelas/Guayanilla area. EcoElectrica will include a 500-mw, combined-cycle cogeneration power plant fueled mainly by LNG imported from the 400 MMcfd Atlantic LNG project on the island of Trinidad. Achieving financial close on a project of this size is always a time-consuming matter and one with a number of challenges. These challenges were increased by the unique nature of both the project and its financing--no project financing had ever before been completed that combined an LNG terminal and power plant. The paper discusses the project, financing details and challenges, key investment considerations, and integrated project prospects.

Lammers, R. [Enron International, Houston, TX (United States); Taylor, S. [Kenetech Energy Systems Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1998-02-23

352

Floating LNG terminal and LNG carrier interaction analysis for side-by-side offloading operation  

E-print Network

Floating LNG terminals are a relatively new concept with the first such terminal in the world installed this year. The hydrodynamic interaction effects between the terminal and a LNG carrier in a side-by-side offloading arrangement is investigated...

Kuriakose, Vinu P.

2005-11-01

353

Environmental and Economical Evaluation of Integrating NGL Extraction and LNG Liquefaction Technology in Iran LNG Project  

E-print Network

The combination of changing global markets for natural gas liquids (NGL) with the simultaneous increase in global demand for liquefied natural gas (LNG) has stimulated an interest in the integration of NGL recovery technology with LNG liquefaction...

Manesh, M. H. K.; Mazhari, V.

354

COGAS propulsion for LNG ships  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propulsion of liquefied natural gas (LNG) ships is undergoing significant change. The traditional steam plant is losing favor because of its low cycle efficiency. Medium-speed diesel-electric and slow-speed diesel-mechanical drive ships are in service, and more are being built. Another attractive alternative is combined gas and steam turbine (COGAS) drive. This approach offers significant advantages over steam and diesel propulsion. This paper presents the case for the COGAS cycle.

Wiggins, Edwin G.

2011-06-01

355

Optimizing PT Arun LNG main heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of a LNG liquefaction unit has been increased by upgrading the refrigeration system, without making changes to the main heat exchanger (MHE). It is interesting, that after all modifications were completed, a higher refrigerant circulation alone could not increase LNG production. However, by optimizing the refrigerant component ratio, the UA of the MHE increased and LNG production improved. This technical evaluation will provide recommendations and show how the evaluation of the internal temperature profile helped optimize the MHE operating conditions.

Irawan, B. [PT Arun NGL Co., Sumatra (Indonesia)

1995-12-01

356

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2010-10-01

357

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to...

2010-10-01

358

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2012-10-01

359

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2014-10-01

360

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to...

2013-10-01

361

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2012-10-01

362

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2011-10-01

363

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2013-10-01

364

49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181 Section 193...Capacity § 193.2181 Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum...

2011-10-01

365

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to...

2012-10-01

366

49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623...STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG storage tank must be inspected or tested to...

2014-10-01

367

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2014-10-01

368

49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019 Section 193.2019... General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving...

2013-10-01

369

Potential for long-term LNG supplies to the United States  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed here include: (1) terminal capacity; (2) potential sources for US LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports; (3) LNG liquefaction and transportation capacity; (4) historical US LNG imports; (5) LNG supply costs; (6)delivered cost of future LNG imports.

Lihn, M.L.

1992-02-01

370

LNG links remote supplies and markets  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas.

Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N. [Mobil LNG Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Rethore, T.J. [Arthur D. Little Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

1997-06-02

371

Strategic evaluation central to LNG project formation  

SciTech Connect

An efficient-scale, grassroots LNG facility of about 6 million metric tons/year capacity requires a prestart-up outlay of $5 billion or more for the supply facilities--production, feedgas pipeline, liquefaction, and shipping. The demand side of the LNG chain requires a similar outlay, counting the import-regasification terminal and a combination of 5 gigawatts or more of electric power generation or the equivalent in city gas and industrial gas-using facilities. There exist no well-developed commodity markets for free-on-board (fob) or delivered LNG. A new LNG supply project is dedicated to its buyers. Indeed, the buyers` revenue commitment is the project`s only bankable asset. For the buyer to make this commitment, the supply venture`s capability and commitment must be credible: to complete the project and to deliver the LNG reliably over the 20+ years required to recover capital committed on both sides. This requirement has technical, economic, and business dimensions. In this article the authors describe a LNG project evaluation system and show its application to typical tasks: project cost of service and participant shares; LNG project competition; alternative project structures; and market competition for LNG-supplied electric power generation.

Nissen, D. [Poten and Partners Inc., New York, NY (United States); DiNapoli, R.N. [Merlin Associates, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yost, C.C. [Merlin Associates, Houston, TX (United States)

1995-07-03

372

Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

Chandler, K. [Battelle (US); Norton, P. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (US); Clark, N. [West Virginia University (US)

2001-01-25

373

Reserves hike to buoy Bontang LNG  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that a redetermination of reserves in an Indonesian production sharing contract (PSC) will boost liquefied natural gas sales for an Indonesian joint venture (IJV) of Lasmo plc, Union Texas (South East Asia) Inc., Chinese Petroleum Corp. (CPC), and Japex Rantau Ltd. The Indonesian reserves increase involves the Sanga PSC operated by Virginia Indonesia Co., a 50-50 joint venture of Lasmo and Union Texas. Union Texas holds a 38% interest in the IJV and Lasmo 37.8%, with remaining interests held by CPC and Japex. meantime, in US LNG news: Shell LNG Co. has shelved plans to buy an added interest in the LNG business of Columbia Gas System Inc. Panhandle Eastern Corp. units Trunkline Gas Co., Trunkline LNG Co., and Panhandle Eastern Pipe Line Co. (PEPL) filed settlement agreements with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to recover from customers $243 million in costs associated with Panhandle's Trunkline LNG operation at Lake Charles, Louisiana.

Not Available

1992-07-27

374

Direct application of west coast geothermal resources in a wet corn milling plant supplementary analyses and information dissemination. Final report, addendum  

SciTech Connect

In an extension to the scope of the previous studies, supplementary analyses were to be performed for both plants which would assess the economics of geothermal energy if coal had been the primary fuel rather than oil and gas. The studies include: supplementary analysis for a coal fired wet corn milling plant, supplementary analysis for an East Coast frozen food plant with coal fired boilers, and information dissemination activities.

Not Available

1982-03-19

375

North to Alaska: Evidence for conveyor belt transport of Dungeness crab larvae along the west coast of the United States and Canada  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We propose and evaluate the hypothesis that Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) larvae from the northwestern coast of the United States and Canada can be transported northward to southeastern Alaska. Larvae collected in southeastern Alaska during May and June 1997-2004 had abundances and stages that varied seasonally, interannually, and spatially. An unexpected presence of late-stage larvae in spring raises a question regarding their origin, and the most plausible explanation is that they hatched off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts and were transported to southeastern Alaska. Buoy drift tracks support the hypothesis that larvae released off the northern Washington and British Columbia coasts during the peak hatching season can be physically transported to southeastern Alaska, arriving as late-stage larvae in May and June, when local larvae are only beginning to hatch. A northward spring progression of monthly mean 7??C SST isotherms and phytoplankton blooms provide further evidence that environmental conditions are conducive for larval growth and metabolism during the transport period. The proposed larval transport suggests possible unidirectional gene flow between southern and northern populations of Dungeness crabs in southeastern Alaska. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Park, W.; Douglas, D.C.; Shirley, T.C.

2007-01-01

376

33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile 1.2, at Osterville, shall operate as...

2012-07-01

377

Duffy Negative Antigen Is No Longer a Barrier to Plasmodium vivax – Molecular Evidences from the African West Coast (Angola and Equatorial Guinea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPlasmodium vivax shows a small prevalence in West and Central Africa due to the high prevalence of Duffy negative people. However, Duffy negative individuals infected with P. vivax have been reported in areas of high prevalence of Duffy positive people who may serve as supply of P. vivax strains able to invade Duffy negative erythrocytes. We investigated the presence of

Cristina Mendes; Fernanda Dias; Joana Figueiredo; Vicenta Gonzalez Mora; Jorge Cano; Bruno de Sousa; Virgílio E. do Rosário; Agustin Benito; Pedro Berzosa; Ana Paula Arez

2011-01-01

378

A NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF LANDFALL OF THE 1979 RED TIDE OF KARENIA BREVIS ALONG THE WEST COAST OF FLORIDA. (R827085)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall o...

379

LNG fire and vapor control system technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

1982-06-01

380

LNG -- A paradox of propulsion potential  

SciTech Connect

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been demonstrating its viability as a clean-burning alternative fuel for buses and medium- and heavy-duty trucks for the past 30 years. The first known LNG vehicle project began in San Diego in 1965, When San Diego Gas and Electric converted 22 utility trucks and three passenger vehicles to dedicated LNG. A surge in LNG vehicle project activity over the past five years has led to a fairly robust variety of vehicles testing the fuel, from Class 8 tractors, refuse haulers and transit buses to railroad locomotives and ferry boats. Recent technology improvements in engine design, cryogenic tanks, fuel nozzles and other related equipment have made LNG more practical to use than in the 1960s. LNG delivers more than twice the driving range from the same-sized fuel tank as a vehicle powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). Although technical and economic hurdles must be overcome before this fuel can achieve widespread use, various ongoing demonstration projects are showing LNG`s practicality, while serving the vital role of pinpointing those areas of performance that are the prime candidates for improvement.

McKay, D.J.

1995-12-31

381

Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals  

SciTech Connect

LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

1999-07-01

382

Study of gelled LNG. Final technical report  

SciTech Connect

Research involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and an examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigation included (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics as well as (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system. The safety-related criterion for successful application of gelled LNG is the substantial reduction of the Maximum Distance to the Lower Flammability Limit, MDLFL. This will be achieved by first, gel-inhibition of the hydrodynamic pooling and spreading of the spill, and second, the suppressed thermal transport properties of the GELNG relative to those of LNG. The industrial scale gelation study evaluated a design capable of producing 11,000 gallons (LNG tank truck) of gel in two hours. The increased cost of gelation using this equipment was estimated at $0.23/10/sup 6/ Btu for plants with liquefaction facilities. The technical results of this study are supportive of the conclusion that gelation of LNG will reduce, relative to ungelled LNG, the hazard associated with a given size spill. Parameters of interest to the LNG facility operator (such as pumpability) are not significantly affected by gelation, and the impact on LNG delivery cost appears to be small, about 5%. Thus, the initial assumption that gelation would provide a practical means to enhance safety is supported by the results of this study. Larger scale, comparative spill tests of LNG and GELNG are now required to confirm the safety aspects of use of the gelled material.

Rudnicki, M I; Cabeal, J A; Hoffman, L C; Newton, R A; Schaplowsky, R K; Vander Wall, E M

1980-01-01

383

World economic growth pushing LNG use  

SciTech Connect

Natural gas, especially liquefied (LNG), is in position to participate in the energy growth now being triggered by strong worldwide economic growth, increasingly open markets, and expanding international trade. Natural gas is abundant, burns cleanly, and is highly efficient in combined-cycle, gas-turbine power plants. Moreover, the comparative remoteness of much of the resource base to established and emerging markets can make LNG a compelling processing and transportation alternative. Discussed here are the resource distribution and emerging market opportunities that can make LNG attractive for monetizing natural-gas reserves.

Brown, R.L. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States); Clary, R. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-06-02

384

Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report  

SciTech Connect

Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

Battelle

1999-07-01

385

Late Quaternary glacial history of the Pennell Coast region, Antarctica, with implications for sea-level change and controls on ice sheet behavior; and, Late Quaternary statigraphic evolution of the west Louisiana continental shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Pennell Coast continental shelf is isolated from West Antarctic Ice Sheet drainage; for an ice sheet to ground in this region it must flow over the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. Features observed indicate that ice grounded on the Pennell shelf. Cores from the shelf sampled till, a pelletized unit, glacial-marine sediments, contourite deposits, and diatomaceous muds. The timing of ice sheet grounding is revealed by radiocarbon dates that indicate the ice sheet was grounded on the shelf during the Last Glacial Maximum and has a retreat history that differs from nearby drainage areas. Comparison to sea-level curves suggests that melting ice from the region contributed to the Holocene sea-level rise and that formation of that ice contributed to the fall in sea level immediately prior to the Last Glacial Maximum. Comparison between the Pennell Coast and drainage outlets of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet allows examination of controls on ice sheet behavior. There is a consistent pattern of erosional features on the crystalline bedrock of the inner shelf, mega-scale glacial lineations on the sedimentary strata of the outer shelf, and drumlins between the two. The troughs in the areas of sedimentary substrate are interpreted to have been occupied by fast-flowing ice and those in the areas of crystalline substrate by slower-moving ice. The Pennell shelf differs in that it has both crystalline and sedimentary substrates but no drumlins or lineations. Possible reasons for this difference include the size of the drainage basin, the narrow continental shelf, and the high sand content of the tills. Core and seismic data were used to conduct an analysis of the west Louisiana outer shelf depositional systems formed during the last glacial-eustatic cycle. Differences in deltaic deposition in the area illustrate the complex relationship between depositional patterns and sea-level change. Particularly salient is the difference between the two primary sequence boundaries. The oldest sequence boundary is a major erosional surface. The youngest sequence boundary is characterized by much smaller channels and is primarily an interfluve feature. The observed variations in each system can be used to refine sequence-stratigraphic models.

Wellner, Julia Smith

386

AIR QUALITY IMPACTS OF LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS IN THE SOUTH COAST AIR BASIN OF CALIFORNIA  

SciTech Connect

The effects of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on pollutant emission inventories and air quality in the South Coast Air Basin of California were evaluated using recent LNG emission measurements by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Southern California Gas Company (SoCalGas), and with a state-of-the-art air quality model. Pollutant emissions can be affected by LNG owing to differences in composition and physical properties, including the Wobbe index, a measure of energy delivery rate. This analysis uses LNG distribution scenarios developed by modeling Southern California gas flows, including supplies from the LNG receiving terminal in Baja California, Mexico. Based on these scenarios, the projected penetratino of LNG in the South Coast Air Basin is expected to be limited. In addition, the increased Wobbe index of delivered gas (resulting from mixtures of LNG and conventional gas supplies) is expected to cause increases smaller than 0.05 percent in overall (area-wide) emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx). BAsed on the photochemical state of the South Coast Air Basin, any increase in NOx is expected to cause an increase in the highest local ozone concentrations, and this is reflected in model results. However, the magnitude of the increase is well below the generally accepted accuracy of the model and would not be discernible with the existing monitoring network. Modeling of hypothetical scenarios indicates that discernible changes to ambient ozone and particulate matter concentrations would occur only at LNG distribution rates that are not achievable with current or planned infrastructure and with Wobbe index vlaues that exceed current gas quality tariffs. Results of these hypothetical scenarios are presented for consideration of any proposed substantial expansion of LNG supply infrastructure in Southern California.

Carerras-Sospedra, Marc; Brouwer, Jack; Dabdub, Donald; Lunden, Melissa; Singer, Brett

2011-07-01

387

THE DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF THE LARVAL STAGES OF THE MYCTOPHID BENTHOSEMA GLACIALE (REINHARDT) IN THE CELTIC SEA AND WEST COAST OF IRELAND IN 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the distribution and abundance of Benthosema glaciale larvae as part of the EU-funded project 'Ichthyoplankton-based indices of abundance of spring-spawning commercial fish populations in Western European waters' (INDICES). The larvae were abundant and widespread and were recorded mainly west of the shelf break. The area of maximum abundance of larvae showed a northward migration as the spawning season

Silvana Acevedo; Julie M. Fives

388

Characterization of weathering profile in granites and volcanosedimentary rocks in West Africa under humid tropical climate conditions. Case of the Dimbokro Catchment (Ivory Coast)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In granitic rocks, various models of weathering profile have been proposed, but never for the hard rocks of West Africa. Besides, in the literature there is no description of the weathering profile in volcanosedimentrary rocks. Therefore, we propose three models describing the weathering profiles in granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks for hard rock formations located in West Africa. For each of these models proposed for granitic and volcanosedimentary rocks of the Dimbokro catchment, vertical layered weathering profiles are described, according to the various weathering and erosion cycles (specific to West Africa) that the geological formations of the Dimbokro catchment experienced from the Eocene to the recent Quaternary period. The characterization of weathering profiles is based on: i) bedrocks and weathering profile observations at outcrop, and ii) interpretation and synthesis of geophysical data and lithologs from different boreholes. For each of the geological formations (granites, metasediments, and volcanic rocks), their related weathering profile model depicted from top to bottom comprises four separate layers: alloterite, isalterite, fissured layer, and fractured fresh basement. These weathering profiles are systematically covered by a soil layer. Though granites, metasediments and volcanic rocks of the Dimbokro catchment experience the same weathering and erosion cycles during the palaeoclimatic fluctuations from Eocene to recent Quaternary period, they exhibit differences in thickness. In granites, the weathering profile is relatively thin due to the absence of iron crust which protects weathering products against dismantling. In metasediments and volcanic rocks iron crusts develop better than in granites; in these rocks the alterite are more resistant to dismantling.

Koita, M.; Jourde, H.; Koffi, K. J. P.; da Silveira, K. S.; Biaou, A.

2013-06-01

389

77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Export Study AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION...12-156-LNG] SUMMARY: The Office of Fossil Energy (FE) of the Department of Energy...Regulatory Activities, Office of Fossil Energy, P.O. Box 44375,...

2012-12-11

390

Damage-detection system for LNG carriers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System utilizes array of acoustical transducers to detect cracks and leaks in liquefied natural gas (LNG) containers onboard ships. In addition to detecting leaks, device indicates location and leak rate.

Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

1978-01-01

391

Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

Not Available

2004-07-01

392

Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants  

SciTech Connect

This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1998-12-31

393

LNG production for peak shaving operations  

SciTech Connect

LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

Price, B.C.

1999-07-01

394

LNG ventures raise economic, technical, partnership issues  

SciTech Connect

The author feels that natural gas will remain a competitive energy alternative and the preferred fuel for many residential and industrial customers around the globe. The article attempts to explain where liquefied natural gas will fit into the global picture. The paper discusses the growth in the Asia-Pacific region; the complex interactions in a LNG project involving buyers, sellers, governments, financial institutions, and shipping companies; the cost of development of such projects; and the elements of a LNG venture.

Acord, H.K. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1995-07-03

395

Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature and local topography effects on coastal fog: Case study of 21-22 January 2008 event on the west coast of Morocco  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life cycle of fog over coastal regions is very sensitive to the heterogeneity of the landform and to the vicinity to the Ocean. Thus, the influence of the sea surface temperature (SST) and local topography on the evolution of a coastal fog is assessed in this study by performing sensitivity experiments. To achieve this, the numerical simulations are performed with the three-dimensional research model Meso-NH. This fog event occurred at the Grand Casablanca region, in the northwest coast of Morocco, during the night of 21-22 January 2008 and last more than 12 hours. It was analyzed using standard meteorological observations from the two synoptic stations of the region, the observed radio-sounding at the coastal station, the MSG satellite imagery and the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis. The numerical simulation reproduced well the main features of this fog event since its formation to its dissipation. The numerical results demonstrated that this fog event was of a radiation type over land, due to the nocturnal radiative cooling and the turbulence. And one hour later near the coast, the fog was resulting from base lowering of Stratus low cloud, due to the cloud top cooling and the vertical turbulent mixing. The sensitivity experiments to SST demonstrate that varying SST in space and time affects the spatial distribution of the fog layer over an area of about 20km around the coast. Besides, the SST governs the thermodynamic fluxes at the air-sea interface, and then affects the life cycle of this fog event, in particular in the mature and dissipation phases. On the other hand, the sensitivity experiments to local coastal topography demonstrated its impact on the speed and direction of wind in the boundary layer during the different phases of the life cycle of this fog event. Then, it was found that the heterogeneities of terrain over the coastal regions affect the horizontal extension of this fog event during the mature phase and its evolution during the dissipation stage.

Bari, Driss; Bergot, Thierry; El Khlifi, Mohamed

2014-05-01

396

GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall - Duration: 0:37.  

NASA Video Gallery

A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

397

Investigation of sea level anomalies related with NAO along the west coasts of Turkey and their consistency with sea surface temperature trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-known that North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is one of the large-scaled climate modes effective in the Northern Hemisphere, has a considerable affect on the water resources and climatic indicators especially in the Mediterranean basin. In recent years, also crucial studies about the sea level rise in relation to climate change have been accelerated. Turkey has about 20 modernized tide gauge stations equipped with permanent GPS receivers and targets to contribute to global sea level rise studies in the future. The aim of this study is to find out the effects of North Atlantic Oscillation on the national shores using the data of four tide-gauge stations located on the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts of Turkey. Implications from these four tide gauges would motivate researches to take into account the effect of NAO in calculating the true sea level rise at the national coasts. While studying the sea level changes, vertical crustal movement has been observed using the data of tide gauge GPS stations, and this situation has been taken into consideration in the evaluation of sea levels. Besides, in order to investigate the influences of thermal expansion on sea levels, sea surface temperature data of the meteorology stations near the tide gauges have been evaluated. The homogeneity of the data sets was analyzed using four statistical tests. As a result, all of the meteorology stations' temperature series and tide gauges' data are subjected to trend detection after the homogeneity analysis. Eventually, the effects of North Atlantic Oscillation on both sea levels and sea surface temperatures have been introduced. The study results indicate high correlation between North Atlantic Oscillation and the sea level and sea surface temperature events. It is seen that the linear correlation between the sea level trends of the considered stations and the sea surface temperature data of the related meteorology stations is considerably significant.

Dogan, Mustafa; Cigizoglu, H. Kerem; Sanli, D. Ugur; Ulke, Asli

2014-08-01

398

Geochemistry and age of Ivory Coast tektites and microtektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ivory Coast tektites were first reported in 1934 from a geographically restricted area at Ivory Coast, West Africa. Although some additional specimens have been found later, the total number remains small (a few hundred). The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana is most likely the source crater for the Ivory Coast tektites, based on the finding that the tektites and the

Christian Koeberl; Richard Bottomley; Billy P. Glass; Dieter Storzer

1997-01-01

399

Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

2014-01-01

400

Duffy Negative Antigen Is No Longer a Barrier to Plasmodium vivax – Molecular Evidences from the African West Coast (Angola and Equatorial Guinea)  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium vivax shows a small prevalence in West and Central Africa due to the high prevalence of Duffy negative people. However, Duffy negative individuals infected with P. vivax have been reported in areas of high prevalence of Duffy positive people who may serve as supply of P. vivax strains able to invade Duffy negative erythrocytes. We investigated the presence of P. vivax in two West African countries, using blood samples and mosquitoes collected during two on-going studies. Methodology/Findings Blood samples from a total of 995 individuals were collected in seven villages in Angola and Equatorial Guinea, and 820 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Equatorial Guinea. Identification of the Plasmodium species was achieved by nested PCR amplification of the small-subunit rRNA genes; P. vivax was further characterized by csp gene analysis. Positive P. vivax-human isolates were genotyped for the Duffy blood group through the analysis of the DARC gene. Fifteen Duffy-negative individuals, 8 from Equatorial Guinea (out of 97) and 7 from Angola (out of 898), were infected with two different strains of P. vivax (VK210 and VK247). Conclusions In this study we demonstrated that P. vivax infections were found both in humans and mosquitoes, which means that active transmission is occurring. Given the high prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, we may speculate that this hypnozoite-forming species at liver may not be detected by the peripheral blood samples analysis. Also, this is the first report of Duffy negative individuals infected with two different strains of P. vivax (VK247 and classic strains) in Angola and Equatorial Guinea. This finding reinforces the idea that this parasite is able to use receptors other than Duffy to invade erythrocytes, which may have an enormous impact in P. vivax current distribution. PMID:21713024

Mendes, Cristina; Dias, Fernanda; Figueiredo, Joana; Mora, Vicenta Gonzalez; Cano, Jorge; de Sousa, Bruno; do Rosário, Virgílio E.; Benito, Agustin; Berzosa, Pedro; Arez, Ana Paula

2011-01-01

401

Demonstration of a Real Time Capability to Produce Tidal Heights and Currents for Naval Operational Use: A Cast Study for the West Coast of Africa (Liberia)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents an existing capability to produce operationally relevant products on sea level and currents from a tides/storm surge model for any coastal region around the world within 48 hours from the time of the request. The model is ready for transition to the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) for potential contingency use anywhere around the world. A recent application to naval operations offshore Liberia illustrates this. Mississippi State University, in collaboration with the University of Colorado and NAVOCEANO, successfully deployed the Colorado University Rapidly Relocatable Nestable Tides and Storm Surge (CURReNTSS) model that predicts sea surface height, tidal currents and storm surge, and provided operational products on tidal sea level and currents in the littoral region off south-western coast of Africa. This report summarizes the results of this collaborative effort in an actual contingency use of the relocatable model, summarizes the lessons learned, and provides recommendations for further evaluation and transition of this modeling capability to operational use.

Mehra, Avichal; Anantharaj, Valentine; Payne, Steve; Kantha, Lakshmi

1996-01-01

402

Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west  

E-print Network

Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west 2013 Environment Report RL 01/13 Cefas Report RL 01/13 Final report Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west Cumbrian coast, 2012 C.E., Rumney, P. and Papworth, G.P., 2013. Radiological Habits Survey: Barrow and the south-west Cumbrian coast

403

LNG shipments in 1994 set records  

SciTech Connect

Worldwide LNG shipments by ocean-going vessels in 1994 increased to 1,619 voyages, according to an LNG shipping industry statistical annual. LNG Log 20 published the recently compiled 1994 data in the last quarter of 1995. The publication is from the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators Ltd., London. The year`s total was 8.8% more than for 1993 and the most in 35 years of records. The trips were made and the vessels loaded and discharged without report of serious safety or environmental incident, says the publication. Of the voyages completed during the year, 596 were to European receiving terminals (up 2.8% over 1993), and 1,003 went to the Far East (an increase of 10.7%); shipments to the US, however, dropped to 20, from 32 in 1993. This paper shows that the 1,619 voyages represent 3.6 million nautical miles logged by 78 vessels active during the year. These ships pumped ashore record annual volumes of approximately 144.3 million cu m of LNG, 110.1 million cu m (76.3%) of which went to Far Eastern customers. The paper also summarizes containment systems in use in 1994 and since LNG began to be shipped in 1959.

NONE

1996-01-15

404

A small-scale oceanic eddy off the coast of West Africa studied by multi-sensor satellite and surface drifter data, and by a numerical model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution satellite images and oceanographic field measurements have revealed that oceanic eddies with diameters ranging from 1 to several hundred km are ubiquitous phenomena in the World's ocean. While eddies with horizontal scales above 100 km have been studied extensively using altimeter data, only few papers exist dealing with observations of eddies with horizontal scales below 50 km. These small-scale eddies cannot be resolved by conventional altimeters, but they can be observed from space by high-resolution optical/infrared sensors and by synthetic aperture radars (SARs). In this paper we report about a single small-scale cyclonic (cold) eddy which was generated at the headland of Cap-Vert off the coast of Senegal following a sudden freshening of the trade winds. Due to favorable cloud conditions, we were able to track the time evolution of the eddy for 31 days by satellite images acquired in the visible/ infrared band. Furthermore, the eddy was also imaged during this period by a space-borne SAR. Cold eddies become visible on SAR images via the change in the small-scale sea surface roughness caused by the damping of short surface waves by biogenic surface films or/and by the change of the stability of the air-sea interface. Biogenic surface films consist of surface-active material secreted by biota in the cold eddy. The satellite data we are using are from the MODIS sensor onboard the American Aqua satellite, the AVHHR sensor onboard the European MetOp satellite, and the Advanced SAR (ASAR) onboard the European Envisat satellite. The sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (CHL) maps derived from MODIS data show that the eddy propagated from its birth place at Cap-Vert in the Senegal upwelling region westward into the open North Atlantic. During the 31 days of satellite observations, the eddy moved 200 km westward thereby carrying nutrients from the upwelling region into the oligotrophic North Atlantic, where it caused enhanced CHL concentration. Maximum CHL concentration was encountered few days after the eddy generation, which is consistent with a delayed plankton growth following nutrient supply into the euphotic zone within the eddy. Furthermore, we recorded the movement of the eddy also by a satellite-tracked surface drifter. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a small-scale eddy has been tracked over such a long time period by high-resolution satellite images and simultaneously by a surface drifter. Model calculations carried out with the "Mercator" ocean circulation model show that the generation of the small-scale eddy was linked to a sudden increase of the trade winds. This wind event caused enhanced southward flow and upwelling at the coast of Senegal. The model calculations show further that the eddy was generated by flow separation at the headland of Cap-Vert.

Alpers, Werner; Brandt, Peter; Lazar, Alban; Dagorne, Dominique; Sow, Bamol; Faye, Saliou; Hansen, Morten; Rubino, Angelo; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Bremer, Patrice

2013-04-01

405

USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Geological Survey's Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) project, in collaboration with the California Geological Survey, the California Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and other agencies and institutions are developing a Tsunami Scenario to describe in detail the impacts of a tsunami generated by a hypothetical, but realistic, M9 earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula. The overarching objective of SAFRR and its predecessor, the Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project, is to help communities reduce losses from natural disasters. As requested by emergency managers and other community partners, a primary approach has been comprehensive, scientifically credible scenarios that start with a model of a geologic event and extend through estimates of damage, casualties, and societal consequences. The first product was the ShakeOut scenario, addressing a hypothetical earthquake on the southern San Andreas fault, that spawned the successful Great California ShakeOut, an annual event and the nation's largest emergency preparedness exercise. That was followed by the ARkStorm scenario, which addresses California winter storms that surpass hurricanes in their destructive potential. Some of the Tsunami Scenario's goals include developing advanced models of currents and inundation for the event; spurring research related to Alaskan earthquake sources; engaging the port and harbor decision makers; understanding the economic impacts to local, regional and national economy in both the short and long term; understanding the ecological, environmental, and societal impacts of coastal inundation; and creating enhanced communication products for decision-making before, during, and after a tsunami event. The state of California, through CGS and Cal EMA, is using the Tsunami Scenario as an opportunity to evaluate policies regarding tsunami impact. The scenario will serve as a long-lasting resource to teach preparedness and inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

2012-12-01

406

Shoreline changes and morphology of spits along southern Karnataka, west coast of India: A remote sensing and statistics-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The changes in shoreline positions and morphology of spits along the Karnataka coast, western India, are investigated for the period from 1910 to 2005 using multi-dated satellite images and topomaps. The study area has been divided into four littoral cells, and each cell into a number of transects at uniform intervals. The rate of change in shoreline position has been estimated using the statistical linear regression method and cross-validated with regression coefficient ( R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) methods. Past and future shoreline positions have been demarcated and future positions of shoreline are estimated for time periods of 10- and 24-years. The study reveals that (i) about 57% of transects exhibit ± 10 m RMSE values, indicating better agreement between the estimated and satellite-based shoreline positions, and (ii) transects closer to the cell boundaries exhibit about 50% uncertainties in shoreline change rate estimations. Based on RMSE values, the influence of natural processes and anthropogenic factors on shoreline changes has been evaluated. The cells/transects dominated by natural processes reveal low RMSE values, whereas the cells/transects influenced by anthropogenic activities such as sand mining, construction of coastal structures, exhibit higher RMSE values. However, the variation in RMSE values is not significant if the total number of transects is considered. Significant changes in morphology of spits have been recorded. Spits demonstrate variations in areal extent, i.e., length and area, if 1910 and 1967 are considered separately as base years. The present study demonstrates that combined use of satellite imagery and statistical techniques such as linear regression and RMSEs can be very useful in quantifying shoreline changes and spit morphology.

Kumar, Avinash; Narayana, A. C.; Jayappa, K. S.

2010-08-01

407

Archaeological Remains Accounting for the Presence and Exploitation of the North Atlantic Right Whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese Coast (Peniche, West Iberia), 16th to 17th Century  

PubMed Central

The former occurrence of the North Atlantic right whale Eubalaena glacialis on the Portuguese coast may be inferred from the historical range of that species in Europe and in NW Africa. It is generally accepted that it was the main prey of coastal whaling in the Middle Ages and in the pre-modern period, but this assumption still needs firming up based on biological and archaeological evidence. We describe the skeletal remains of right whales excavated at Peniche in 2001–2002, in association with archaeological artefacts. The whale bones were covered by sandy sediments on the old seashore and they have been tentatively dated around the 16th to 17th centuries. This study contributes material evidence to the former occurrence of E. glacialis in Portugal (West Iberia). Some whale bones show unequivocal man-made scars. These are associated to wounds from instruments with a sharp-cutting blade. This evidence for past human interaction may suggest that whaling for that species was active at Peniche around the early 17th century. PMID:24505251

Teixeira, António; Venâncio, Rui; Brito, Cristina

2014-01-01

408

The morphology and genetic characterization of Iheringascaris goai n. sp. (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae) from the intestine of the silver whiting and spotted catfish off the central west coast of India.  

PubMed

In this study a new species of nematode, Iheringascaris goai n. sp., is reported from two fish hosts, including silver whiting, Sillago sihama, and spotted catfish, Arius maculatus, caught off the Central West Coast of India at Goa. The new species can be differentiated morphologically from I. inquies, the most closely related species collected from cohabiting marine fish. The distinguishing characteristics are distinct cuticular striations, a unilateral excretory system, the presence of dentigerous ridges on the inner margin of the lips and the ratio of oesophagus to body length. In males, the ratio of spicules to body length is higher and the number of pre-anal papillae is less in comparison to those in I. inquies. In addition, the tail curves ventrad in males, while in females, the vulva is post-equatorial. The sequence alignment of 18S rDNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I with sequences of known species selected from the same superfamily shows a significant difference. The morphological and molecular differences reported here can, therefore, be used to assign the specimen to a new species. PMID:21846431

Malhotra, A; Jaiswal, N; Malakar, A K; Verma, M S; Singh, H R; Lakra, W S; Malhotra, S K; Shamsi, S

2012-09-01

409

Archive of Digital Boomer Sub-bottom Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 97LCA01, 97LCA02, and 97LCA03, West-Central and East Coast Florida, February through July 1997  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From February through July of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys of several Florida water bodies as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. These areas include Lakes Dosson, Halfmoon and Round in west-central Florida and Sebastian Inlet and Indian River Lagoon on the east coast of the State. Field activity 97LCA01 was conducted in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD), and field activities 97LCA02 and 97LCA03 were conducted in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer sub-bottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report.

Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Metz, Patricia A.; Tihansky, Ann B.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

2011-01-01

410

Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence West (COSEE-West)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The COSEE center for ocean science integration and outreach for the west coast of the U.S. Site includes information on the COSEE West partners, its mission, goals, upcoming activities, including workshops, and additional resources. Site also links to three curriculum supplements.

411

Raley's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results  

SciTech Connect

Raley's, a large retail grocery company based in Northern California, began operating heavy-duty trucks powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 1997, in cooperation with the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) sponsored a research project to collect and analyze data on the performance and operation costs of eight of Raley's LNG trucks in the field. Their performance was compared with that of three diesel trucks operating in comparable commercial service. The objective of the DOE research project, which was managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel fuel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

Chandler, K. (Battelle); Norton, P. (NREL); Clark, N. (West Virginia University)

2000-05-03

412

Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

1982-07-01

413

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2010-07-01

414

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2010-10-01

415

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2014-10-01

416

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2011-07-01

417

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2012-10-01

418

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2013-10-01

419

46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854 ...LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main...

2011-10-01

420

Exergy recovery during LNG regasification: Electric energy production – Part one  

Microsoft Academic Search

In LNG regasification facilities, for exergy recovery during regasification, an option could be the production of electric energy recovering the energy available as cold. The authors propose an innovative process which uses a cryogenic stream of LNG during regasification as a cold source in an improved CHP plant (combined heat and power). Considering the LNG regasification projects in progress all

Celidonio Dispenza; Giorgio Dispenza; Vincenzo La Rocca; Giuseppe Panno

2009-01-01

421

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2013-07-01

422

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2014-07-01

423

33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section 127.321 Navigation...Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person...

2012-07-01

424

a Baseline Study of Physico-Chemical Parameters and Trace Metals in Waters of Manakudy, South-West Coast of India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transport of trace metals from the land to ocean has a number of different routes and efficiencies. The sources of toxic elements into the rivers to be debouched into the sea through estuaries are either weathered naturally from the soils and rocks or introduced anthropogenically from point or non-point sources, in labile form or in particulate form. However, recent studies indicate that the transport of trace elements to the aquatic environment is much more complex than what has been thought. The chemistry and ecology of an estuarine system are entirely different from the fluvial as well as the marine system. Estuarine environment is characterized by a constantly changing mixture of salt and freshwater. In the present study area Manakudy estuary is situated about 8 kilometres north west of Kanyakumari (Latitude N 08 05 21.8 and Longitude E 077 29 03.7). To gain a better understanding of the geochemical behavior of physico-chemical parameters and trace elements in the estuary and to examine variations in associated chemical changes, 20 water samples were collected throughout the Manakudy estuary, a minor river in south-western India. These samples, collected in typical dry season during 2012, were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters, dissolved major and trace elements. Our results show that dissolved Na, Mg, Ca and Cl behave conservatively along the salinity gradient. The concentration of nutrients is normal and they are due to the higher organic activity in soils as well as faster rates of chemical weathering reaction in the source region. The concentration of major ions is due to tidal influence and it increases with salinity and the nutrients do behave non-conservatively due to biogenic removal. The conservative behaviour of the trace metals with salinity has been strongly affected by the introduction of these metals by external sources. Even though the trace metals in the contaminated water have been removed and incorporated in sediments due to flocculation, the concentration of these metals did not decrease. S.MUTHUSAMY M.sc.,M.phil., RESEARCH SCHOLAR UNIVERSITY OF MADRAS CHENNAI,TAMILNADU INDIA

Subramanian, M.; Muthumanikkam, J.

2013-05-01

425

Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.  

SciTech Connect

The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

2005-04-01

426

Low-salinity pools at Barbados, West Indies: Their origin, frequency, and variability  

E-print Network

1 Low-salinity pools at Barbados, West Indies: Their origin, frequency, and variability Peter S-temperature recorders moored off the west coast of Barbados, West Indies, from May 1996 to November 1997 revealed to the reef along the island's west coast. 1 Now at Division of Marine Biology and Fisheries, Rosenstiel

427

Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa.

Not Available

1992-11-16

428

LNG plant design in the 1990`s  

SciTech Connect

Advances in LNG plant design are needed to improve LNG chain economics. Improving the economics is essential to insure the feasibility of proposed and future projects and will compel new developments. This paper discusses anticipated changes and their significance. Topics include: Technology and Plant Design; Train Capacity; Reliability/Availability. Likely improvements in technology include: new and improved computation and analytical tools; larger and more efficient compressors and mechanical drivers; increased plant life expectancy; improved gas treating for H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and mercury removal; and the application of recent equipment developments. Train capacities are becoming larger, resulting in improved economics. Discussion on size, bottlenecks, compressor and turbine configurations, economics, and construction techniques are included. Closely related to train capacity and design are the reliability and availability of each LNG train and of the plant common facilities. Methods of analysis and design are presented to attain the desired availability for each train and the entire complex, and to optimize the complete LNG chain (production, liquefaction and storage, shipping, and receiving).

Coyle, D.A.; Durr, C.A.; Vega, F.F. de la; Hill, D.K. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, TX (United States); Collins, C. [M.W. Kellogg Co., Middlesex (United Kingdom)

1995-11-01

429

46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cargo tank carrying methane (LNG) can withstand the pressure build up due to boil-off for 21 days, the pressure in the cargo... (c) Boilers, inert gas generators, and combustion engines in the main propelling machinery space that use boil-off...

2010-10-01

430

Technology advances keeping LNG cost-competitive  

SciTech Connect

LNG plants, often very expensive in the past, will in the future need to cost less to build and operate and yet maintain high safety and reliability standards, both during construction and operation. Technical advancements, both in the process and in equipment scaling, manufacturing, and metallurgy, will provide much of the impetus for the improved economics. Although world energy demand is predicted to grow on average of about 2% annually over the next decade, LNG is expected to contribute an increasing portion of this growth with annual growth rates averaging about 7%. This steep growth increase will be propelled mainly by the environmentally friendlier burning characteristics of natural gas and the strong industrial growth in Asian and pacific Rim countries. While LNG is emerging as the fuel of choice for developing economies, its delivered cost to consumers will need to stay competitive with alternate energy supplies if it is to remain in front. The paper discusses LNG process development, treating process, equipment developments (man heat exchanger, compressors, drivers, and pressure vessels), and economy of scale.

Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Ghazal, F.P.; Silverman, A.J. [Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, TX (United States); Myers, S.D. [Mobil Oil Corp., Fairfax, VA (United States)

1997-06-02

431

LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities  

SciTech Connect

The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A. [Mobil Shipping and Transportation, Fairfax, VA (United States)

1997-06-02

432

Large Neighborhood Search for LNG Inventory Routing  

E-print Network

to the above problem can also be used to evaluate the effects of pooling shipping ... travel time (including berth time) from terminal j to terminal j for voyage ... This section describes the time-space network formulation for the LNG IRP ...... in Distribution Logistics, volume 619 of Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical.

2011-12-15

433

Bound Improvement for LNG Inventory Routing  

E-print Network

delivery schedule can be key to optimize the economics of an LNG project; .... which all ships are traveling from production terminals and return back to ... a time-space network formulation proposed in Savelsbergh and Song [2008]. ..... decomposition procedure encounters the typical tailing-off effect of DW decomposition.

2013-10-29

434

LNG imports make strong recovery in 1996; exports increase also  

SciTech Connect

LNG imports to the US jumped in 1996 as Algerian base-load plants resumed operations following major revamps. Exports from Alaska to Japan grew by nearly 4% over 1995. Total LNG imports to the US in 1996 were 40.27 bcf compared to 17.92 bcf in 1995, an increase of 124.8%. Algeria supplied 35.32 bcf; Abu Dhabi, 4.95 bcf. About 82.3% of the imported LNG was received at Distrigas Corp.`s terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Pan National terminal in Lake Charles, LA. LNG imports during 1995 fell to such a low level not because of depressed US demand but because of limited supply. The paper discusses LNG-receiving terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports.

Swain, E.J. [Swain (Edward J.), Houston, TX (United States)

1998-01-19

435

LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010  

SciTech Connect

The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world`s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia.

True, W.R.

1998-02-09

436

Can the byssus of green-lipped mussel Perna viridis (Linnaeus) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia be a biomonitoring organ for Cd, Pb and Zn? Field and laboratory studies.  

PubMed

Concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in total soft tissues (ST) and byssus (BYS) of the green-lipped mussel Perna viridis from 11 different geographical locations off the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The metal concentrations distributed between the BYS and ST were compared. The results of this study indicated that higher levels of Cd (1.31 microg/g), Pb (38.49 microg/g) and Zn (206.52 microg/g) were accumulated in the BYS than in the total ST (Cd: 0.29 microg/g; Pb: 8.27 microg/g; Zn: 102.6 microg/g). Semi-static and short period controlled laboratory experiments were also conducted for the accumulation and depuration of Cd, Pb and Zn in the total ST and BYS of P. viridis. The ratios (BYS/ST) for Pb and Cd from the laboratory experiments showed that the total ST accumulated more metals than the BYS. Therefore, these laboratory results disagreed with those found for the field samples. However, the laboratory results for the Zn ratio (BYS/ST) agreed with those of the field samples. It was evident that when compared to the ST, the BYS was a more sensitive biomonitoring organ for Zn while it could be a complementary organ for Cd and Pb in the total ST. Since total ST of P. viridis had been reported to have regulative mechanism for Zn, its BYS can be used as a biomonitoring organ for the identification of coastal areas exposed to Zn pollution. PMID:12705949

Yap, C K; Ismail, A; Tan, S G

2003-07-01

437

20072200350/ 1966 1970 1974 1978 1982 1986 1990 1994 1998  

E-print Network

Movements from North America to Asia 1,000TEU West Coast East Coast & Gulf Loading (1) #12; CO2LNG LNG LNG 12.5 25 1100(14) 1 16 #12; #12; (DME) #12; #12; #12; #12; (International) #12; #12; #12; LNG #12

Ishii, Hitoshi

438

Sandy Coasts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Waves play a major role in breaking down and building up coastline features. But other factors, including tides, currents, and sediment type, also determine how erosional and depositional processes shape coastlines. This interactive feature introduces viewers to the landforms and features associated with sandy coasts. Typically located on passive margins in areas characterized by low wave energy, a wide continental shelf, and high offshore sediment influence, they develop depositional features such as extensive beaches and dunes, barrier islands, and sand spits.

439

The Coast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students explore the unique ecosystems and culture found along the Georgia coast and the Georgia barrier islands. Students are introduced to marine organisms and coastal ecology in class at school, then have the opportunity to see it all first hand on the trip to the University of Georgia Marine Station on Skidaway Island. Hands-on activities, simulations, inquiry labs, group learning, field trip, review and assessment through projects, tests, and a notebook are included.

Sharon Radford (Paideia School REV)

1995-06-30

440

Nippon Kokan technical report No. 42, December 1984: overseas. LNG technology special issue  

SciTech Connect

Contents INCLUDE: fracture toughness of 9% Ni steel and safety of LNG storage tank; fatigue strength and safety assessment of membrane components; comparison of LNG carriers of membrane tank system and spherical tank system; diesel-driven LNG carrier with reliquefaction plant; construction of TGZ MK I system LNG carrier model tank and its cryogenic tests; vacuum insulation test using LNG model tank; estimation of impact pressure and hydrodynamic force due to sloshing in LNG carrier; Higashi-Ohgishima LNG receiving facility for the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.; design of LNG receiving facility; receiving and circulation control system of Higashi-Ohgishima LNG terminal; welding procedure of LNG pipelines; the design method of inground LNG storage tank; the design method of aboveground LNG storage tank; various applications of LNG tank roll-over simulation program ROSP.

Not Available

1984-01-01

441

First LNG from North field overcomes feed, start-up problems  

SciTech Connect

Qatar Gas LNG is the first LNG project in the gas-development program of the world`s largest gas reservoir, North field. The LNG plant was completed within the budget and schedule. The paper discusses the LNG plant design, LNG storage and loading, alternative mercaptan removal, layout modification, information and control systems, training, data management systems, start-up, and performance testing.

Redha, A.; Rahman, A.; Al-Thani, N.H. [Qatar Liquefied Gas Co., Doha (Qatar); Ishikura, Masayuki; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1998-08-24

442

First LNG from North field overcomes feed, start-up problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Qatar Gas LNG is the first LNG project in the gas-development program of the world`s largest gas reservoir, North field. The LNG plant was completed within the budget and schedule. The paper discusses the LNG plant design, LNG storage and loading, alternative mercaptan removal, layout modification, information and control systems, training, data management systems, start-up, and performance testing.

A. Redha; A. Rahman; N. H. Al-Thani; Masayuki Ishikura; Yoshitsugi Kikkawa

1998-01-01

443

UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST Cape Coast, Ghana  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CAPE COAST Cape Coast, Ghana College of Charleston Bilateral Exchange Program Site). Two of the most important historical sites in Ghana, Elmina and Cape Coast Castle, are only to this historic town and the cradle of education in Ghana. Cape Coast is now a growing tourist town with rich

Young, Paul Thomas

444

Oceanography of West Madagascar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

John, Bemiasa

2014-05-01

445

LNG pump anti-slam device  

SciTech Connect

In pumping LNG (liquefied natural gas) from one receiver to another, eg., from a vessel's tank to a shore installation, it is conventional to use a submerged pump, a riser pipe connecting the pump to a stop valve and flexible joint connecting the stop valve to a header. If a pocket of gaseous lng is present in the riser pipe, when the pump commences its operation, the advancing column of liquid in the riser pipe slams against the stop valve and may damage it. The invention provides the improvement of a removable or bypassable flow restrictor incorporated between the pump and the riser pipe, permitting to ensure that the riser pipe is completely liquid-filled, before the pump commences to operate.

Tornay, E.G.

1980-05-27

446

High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG  

DOEpatents

A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

Morrow, Charles W. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-04-18

447

Costs are estimated for LNG terminals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Typical direct costs (in constant 1977 U.S. dollars with inflation neglected) for the major units of an LNG base-load terminal include $35 million for marine and unloading facilities; $20\\/bbl of storage capacity; $34,500\\/million std cu ft\\/day for vaporization and sendout facilities that use sea water at a 10°F allowable temperature drop and $50,000\\/million std cu ft\\/day at a 5°F allowable

Dinapoli

1978-01-01

448

Technical efforts focus on cutting LNG plant costs  

SciTech Connect

LNG demand is growing due to the nuclear setback and environmental issues spurred by concern about the greenhouse effect and acid rain, especially in the Far East. However, LNG is expensive compared with other energy sources. Efforts continue to minimize capital and operating costs and to increase LNG plant availability and safety. Technical trends in the LNG industry aim at reducing plant costs in pursuit of a competitive LNG price on an energy value basis against the oil price. This article reviews key areas of technical development. Discussed are train size, liquefaction processes, acid gas removal, heavy end removal, nitrogen rejection, refrigeration compressor and drivers, expander application, cooling media selection, LNG storage and loading system, and plant availability.

Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi [Chiyoda Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

1995-07-03

449

Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

450

WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP  

E-print Network

as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States-SINK CHARACTERIZATION AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM-BASED MATCHING PIERCOLLABORATIVEREPORT October 2007 CEC-500 ten Hope Office Manager Energy System Research Martha Krebs Deputy Director ENERGY RESEARCH