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Sample records for west siberia russia

  1. Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnachev, S.; Skripkin, A.; Baranov, V.; Zakharov, S.

    2015-02-01

    The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability.

  2. 3-D Monarch reservoir modelling as a development tool: West Salym field, Western Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, R.B.; Van Kuyk, A.; Van Lieshout, J. )

    1996-01-01

    The Salym fields are located in the central part of the West Siberia basin. The basin developed during the Triassic and contains an almost complete stratigraphic succession from the Jurassic to the Quaternary. The main oil reserves in the Salym fields are located in the Lower Cretaceous proprading deltaic complex. The principal reservoir section in the West Salym field is interpreted as marginal marine. Shoreface, mouthbar, fluvial channel and crevasse-splay subenvironments are recognised. Due to this range of depositional environments and average (exploration) well spacing of 5 km, 3-D modelling of depositional geometries is essential to determine the reservoir architecture and reservoir property trends prior to full-scale field development.

  3. 3-D Monarch reservoir modelling as a development tool: West Salym field, Western Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, R.B.; Van Kuyk, A.; Van Lieshout, J.

    1996-12-31

    The Salym fields are located in the central part of the West Siberia basin. The basin developed during the Triassic and contains an almost complete stratigraphic succession from the Jurassic to the Quaternary. The main oil reserves in the Salym fields are located in the Lower Cretaceous proprading deltaic complex. The principal reservoir section in the West Salym field is interpreted as marginal marine. Shoreface, mouthbar, fluvial channel and crevasse-splay subenvironments are recognised. Due to this range of depositional environments and average (exploration) well spacing of 5 km, 3-D modelling of depositional geometries is essential to determine the reservoir architecture and reservoir property trends prior to full-scale field development.

  4. Oil field experiments of microbial improved oil recovery in Vyngapour, West Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Murygina, V.P.; Mats, A.A.; Arinbasarov, M.U.; Salamov, Z.Z.; Cherkasov, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments on microbial improved oil recovery (MIOR) have been performed in the Vyngapour oil field in West Siberia for two years. Now, the product of some producing wells of the Vyngapour oil field is 98-99% water cut. The operation of such wells approaches an economic limit. The nutritious composition containing local industry wastes and sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was pumped into an injection well on the pilot area. This method is called {open_quotes}nutritional flooding.{close_quotes} The mechanism of nutritional flooding is based on intensification of biosynthesis of oil-displacing metabolites by indigenous bacteria and bacteria from food industry wastes in the stratum. 272.5 m{sup 3} of nutritious composition was introduced into the reservoir during the summer of 1993, and 450 m3 of nutritious composition-in 1994. The positive effect of the injections in 1993 showed up in 2-2.5 months and reached its maximum in 7 months after the injections were stopped. By July 1, 1994, 2,268.6 tons of oil was produced over the base variant, and the simultaneous water extraction reduced by 33,902 m{sup 3} as compared with the base variant. The injections in 1994 were carried out on the same pilot area.

  5. Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

  6. Petroleum habitat of East Siberia, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. In the Lena-Tunguska province, rifts that developed during Riphean time are filled by thick sedimentary rocks, in which petroleum deposits have formed. In Early Cambrian time a barrier reef extended across the East Siberian craton from southeast to northwest. A lagoon to the west of this reef was the site of thick rhythmic salt deposits, which are the main seals for petroleum in the province. The sedimentary sections of the platform cover ranges in age from Late Proterozoic to Permian. More than 25 oil and gas fields have been discovered in the province, all in Riphean through Lower Cambrian rocks. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  7. The peculiarities of water acidification in European Russia and Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseenko, T. I.; Gashkina, N. A.; Dinu, M. I.; Kremleva, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Studies have proven the anthropogenic acidification of waters developing over the spacious territories of European Russia and West Siberia. The acidification is exhibited by the waters of small lakes characterized by bedrock consisting of granite and quartz formations. The acidified lakes of high water transparency, pH values below 6, and the prevalence of strong acids in the anion composition account for 4.4% of 201 lakes of European Russia and 8.2% of 166 explored lakes in the taiga and tundra regions of western Siberia. The main factor causing the development of acidification over the European Russia is the emission of technogenic sulfur by metallurgical smelteries. As for western Siberia, this is the combustion of associated gas at oil-producing enterprises. These processes combined with natural factors determine the complicated mechanism of anthropogenic acidification of waters.

  8. Tickborne Pathogen Detection, Western Siberia, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Rar, Vera A.; Fomenko, Natalia V.; Dobrotvorsky, Andrey K.; Livanova, Natalya N.; Rudakova, Svetlana A.; Fedorov, Evgeniy G.; Astanin, Vadim B.

    2005-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus (n = 125) and Dermacentor reticulatus (n = 84) ticks from Western Siberia, Russia, were tested for infection with Borrelia, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia, Bartonella, and Babesia spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays with subsequent sequencing. I. persulcatus ticks were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (37.6% 4.3% [standard deviation]), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4% 1.4%), Ehrlichia muris (8.8% 2.5%), and Bartonella spp. (37.6% 4.3%). D. reticulatus ticks contained DNA of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (3.6% 2.0%), Bartonella spp. (21.4% 4.5%), and Babesia canis canis (3.6% 2.0%). Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and their mixed infections were observed among I. persulcatus, whereas B. garinii NT29 DNA was seen in samples from D. reticulatus. Among the I. persulcatus ticks studied, no Babesia spp. were observed, whereas B. canis canis was the single subspecies found in D. reticulatus. PMID:16318722

  9. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  10. Radioactive Elements in Soils of Siberia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskaya, N. V.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. N.; Strakhovenko, V. D.; Malikova, I. N.; Shcherbakov, B. L.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Aturova, V. P.

    2012-04-01

    The Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk In the course of long-term research a great deal of information on the content of natural and artificial radionuclides in soils of the Siberian regions has been obtained and summarized (Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Yakutia, Khakassia, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk Oblasts and a number of other Siberian regions). The content level of U(Ra), Th and K in soil of studied areas is within the range of values obtained for soil of other areas of Russia and the world and defined, first of all, by radioactivity of parent rocks. The authors have studied the total level of specific activity for 137Cs most completely in soils of different Siberian regions. The maximum density of such sites with global fallouts (nuclear air explosions in Novaya Zemlya, Lop Nor, Semipalatinsk etc.) is typical for the areas of Altai Territory and Buryatia Republic. Elevated level of radiocesium (to 1000 and more than Bq/kg) is characteristic for the sites adjacent to the area of NFP (Seversk, Zheleznogorsk). Our data obtained in determination of plutonium in soils of different Siberian regions excess remarkably its background accepted for Siberia. Particularly high accumulation levels of Pu in soil were observed in the zones of NFP operation (Seversk, Tomsk Oblast; Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the sites of accidents fallouts at underground nuclear explosions in Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Abnormally high ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soils of Sakha republic, Aginsk Buryatia Autonomous District, Krasnoyarsk Territory has engaged our attention.

  11. East Siberia and Bering Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On June 5, 2001 MODIS captured this true-color image of Eastern Siberia and the Bering Strait. To the right of the image is the western tip of Alaska's St. Lawrence Island. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  12. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

  13. Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17Years of Field Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes

  14. An aborted Triassic Ocean in west Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplonov, Sergei

    1988-12-01

    A small buried oceanic basin named the Obsky paleo-ocean has been found in West Siberia. It developed from 235 to 218 m.y. during the Triassic by rift propagation and seafloor spreading inside the west Siberian region of the continent. During the postspreading period the Obsky paleo-ocean did not collapse but instead was covered intact by a layer of sediments with a thickness of up to 15 km. This conclusion is based on detailed interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Striped magnetic anomalies marking the paleo-ocean spreading have been separated from the total magnetic field. They have been dated and interpreted within the framework of the Vine-Matthews concept. Seismic and gravitational data have permitted delineation of the Obsky paleo-ocean depression and contouring of the basement relief within its bounds. Investigation of the Obsky paleo-ocean basalts by means of deep boreholes has indicated that they are chemically similar to oceanic tholeiites and has also confirmed the presence of strong residual magnetism in them. Spreading of the Obsky paleo-ocean was a stage in the initial disintegration of Pangea at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary. The presence of a north trending buried spreading center along the axial zone of West Siberia accounts for many features of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the region and its present-day structure.

  15. Temporal variation in prevalence and abundance of metacercariae in the pulmonate snail Lymnaea stagnalis in Chany Lake, West Siberia, Russia: long-term patterns and environmental covariates.

    PubMed

    Yurlova, Natalia I; Vodyanitskaya, Svetlana N; Serbina, Elena A; Biserkov, Valko Y; Georgiev, Boyko B; Chipev, Nesho H

    2006-04-01

    Infrapopulations of trematode metacercariae were monitored in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis over 17 yr (1982-1999) at Chany Lake, Novosibirskaya Oblast', Russia. Eighteen trematode species were recorded. Patterns of occurrence varied from 4 species (Echinoparyphium aconiatum, Echinoparyphium recurvatum, Moliniella anceps, and Cotylurus cornutus) that persisted at relatively high prevalence (> 60% of samples) across sites, seasons, and years, to species that were very rare and sporadic in occurrence. The stability of the 4 common species was probably because of their occurrence either in a wide range of definitive hosts or in a host adapted to the extreme abiotic changes that occurred from year to year in these wetlands. The prevalence and mean abundance of C. cornutus were negatively correlated with water level in the wetlands; its prevalence was also correlated with water temperature. The mean abundance of M. anceps was positively correlated with water level. The most probable explanation for the cyclic dynamics of infections of the common species is change in population sizes and densities of definitive and intermediate hosts, which mediated cyclic alterations in water levels. PMID:16729680

  16. Magnetic and gravity anomaly patterns related to hydrocarbon fields in northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Piskarev, A.L.; Tchernyshev, M.Yu.

    1997-05-01

    A study of the features of gravity and magnetic fields in the vicinity of oil and gas reservoirs in West Siberia demonstrated a spatial relationship with the hydrocarbon deposits. The relevant magnetic and gravity anomalies cover approximately 900,000 km{sup 2} in northern West Siberia. Amplitude and frequency were investigated initially using double Fourier spectrum (DFS) analysis. This was followed by (1) application of transformations, filtering, and moving windows analysis; (2) compilation of maps of regional and local anomalies, and potential field derivatives; and (3) investigation of the distribution of parameters in areas of known deposits. Hydrocarbon deposits are located mostly at the slopes of positive regional gravity and magnetic anomalies which are interpreted as relating to deep riftogenic structures. At the same time, it is established that the location of hydrocarbon depositions coincides commonly with local gravity and magnetic minima generated by lows in basement density and magnetization. All known hydrocarbon deposits in northern West Siberia are in areas characterized by comparatively high gradients of constituent of gravity anomalies with a wavelength of about 90--100 km. These newly revealed links between reservoirs and potential field parameters may be a means to predict new discoveries in poorly explored territories and seas, primarily in Russia`s Arctic shelf.

  17. A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

  18. Drilling results in West Siberia from expedition crews

    SciTech Connect

    Sagers, M.J.

    1987-10-01

    The practice of flying in drilling crews and other specialized teams from the older oil-producing regions of the country to augment local drilling efforts in the West Siberian oil fields has been employed almost since the beginning of the region's development. This was due to the rapid pace at which the West Siberian fields were being developed and the lack of infrastructure and labor resources in this pioneering region. By the beginning of the 11th Five-Year Plan in 1981, 10 drilling units from 6 regional production administrations were operating in West Siberia using the expeditionary method. An extremely large amount of drilling has been accomplished by the expeditionary drilling teams. A total of 49 million meters of hole have been drilled in the last 10 years, 36% of the total volume of drilling in West Siberia during this period. 2 tables.

  19. Three new species of myrmecophilous scutacarid mites (Acari: Scutacaridae) from Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of myrmecophilous mites of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acariformes: Pygmephoroidea: Scutacaridae), S. lasiophilus sp. nov., S. myrmicinus sp. nov., and S. crinitus sp. nov. are described from ants and their nests in Tyumen Province, Western Siberia, Russia. PMID:26623897

  20. Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

  1. Crude oils of the northern region of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkhchiyan, M.A.; Driatskaya, Z.V.; Kaminskii, E.F.; Titkina, G.I.

    1983-03-01

    This article presents results of studies of the physiocochemical characteristics and hydrocarbon compositions of crude oils from the northern oil and gas province. It establishes that the oils are all nearly identical in properties (with the exception of the Russkaya crude from the Cenomanian deposits) and that they differ from the crudes and products obtained in other oil and gas districts of West Siberia. The crudes from the northern region are low-sulfur (below 0.5%), and that the potential content of distillates below 350/sup 0/C is extremely high, reaching levels of 91% and 84% by weight for the Kharvutte and Tarko-Salinsk crudes, respectively. It is recommended that these crudes should be segregated from the others of West Siberia in order to take advantage of their particular qualities.

  2. High-boiling arenes of Paleozoic petroleum of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Golovko, A.K.; Kam'yanov, V.F.; Korobitsina, L.L.; Kurakolova, E.A.; Rusinova, G.V.; Petrov, Al. A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of petroleum deposits have been found recently in the southern regions of West Siberia, in carbonate reservoirs of the Paleozoic age; certain aspects of increasing petroleum output in the field are related to these deposits. The general characteristics of Paleozoic petroleums of West Siberia are fairly varied, these petroleums usually have lower sulfur and resin contents but contain more was than petroleums from the Mesozoic deposits in the upper strata. No detailed study has so far, apparently, been carried out of the hydrocarbon composition of higher fractions of Paleozoic petroleums of the regio using physico-chemical methods. Accordingly, the composition of aromatic components of medium and high-boiling petroleum distillates of the Maloich deposit are examined since these are one of the first Paleozoic deposits put to industrial use.

  3. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) in Russia (Siberia, Kamchatka).

    PubMed

    Przybo?, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta; Bieliavskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were found in Russia. P. primaurelia was recorded in Tulun (Siberia, Irkutsk region) and in three stands situated on the Kamchatka peninsula: in Lake Chalaktyrskoye, in the Valley of Geysers, and Petropavlovsk Kamchatski. P. biaurelia was also found in Tulun and in two stands in the vicinity of Lake Baikal and the Buriatia region. P. dodecaurelia was recorded in Cheboksary in European Russia and in other stands situated in Asian Russia: Novosibirsk, the vicinity of Lake Baikal, Buriatia, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, Lake Chalaktyrskoye, and Nalychevo). These data extend the ranges of species of the P. aurelia complex in Russia, however, this large territory remains understudied. PMID:23767291

  4. Giant gas field of northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

  5. Peatland classification of West Siberia based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentieva, I.; Glagolev, M.; Lapshina, E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing interest in peatlands for prediction of environmental changes requires an understanding of its geographical distribution. West Siberia Plain is the biggest peatland area in Eurasia and is situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. West Siberian taiga mires are important globally, accounting for about 12.5% of the global wetland area. A number of peatland maps of the West Siberia was developed in 1970s, but their accuracy is limited. Here we report the effort in mapping West Siberian peatlands using 30 m resolution Landsat imagery. As a first step, peatland classification scheme oriented on environmental parameter upscaling was developed. The overall workflow involves data pre-processing, training data collection, image classification on a scene-by-scene basis, regrouping of the derived classes into final peatland types and accuracy assessment. To avoid misclassification peatlands were distinguished from other landscapes using threshold method: for each scene, Green-Red Vegetation Indices was used for peatland masking and 5th channel was used for masking water bodies. Peatland image masks were made in Quantum GIS, filtered in MATLAB and then classified in Multispec (Purdue Research Foundation) using maximum likelihood algorithm of supervised classification method. Training sample selection was mostly based on spectral signatures due to limited ancillary and high-resolution image data. As an additional source of information, we applied our field knowledge resulting from more than 10 years of fieldwork in West Siberia summarized in an extensive dataset of botanical relevés, field photos, pH and electrical conductivity data from 40 test sites. After the classification procedure, discriminated spectral classes were generalized into 12 peatland types. Overall accuracy assessment was based on 439 randomly assigned test sites showing final map accuracy was 80%. Total peatland area was estimated at 73.0 Mha. Various ridge-hollow and ridge-hollow-pool bog complexes prevail here occupying 34.5 Mha. They are followed by lakes (11.1 Mha), fens (10.7 Mha), pine-dwarf-shrub sphagnum bogs (9.3 Mha) and palsa complexes (7.4 Mha).

  6. Magnetic declination measurements over European Russia and Siberia in the 18th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raspopov, O. M.; Meshcheryakov, V. V.

    2011-12-01

    The paper presents the history of measurements of the geomagnetic field parameters over the territory of Russia in the 18th century derived from archival and literature sources. Topographical mapping of the European territory and neighboring seas of the Russian Empire from the late 17th to the mid 18th century during which magnetic measurements were made was of great importance for determining magnetic declination. The magnetic declination in Siberia and its neighboring seas was measured for the first time during the first expedition of V. Bering in 1728 and then during his second expedition (the Great Northern Expedition) in 1733-1742. Magnetic measurements were carried out along the northern coast of Siberia and in the Bering Sea. The academic group of the expedition performed magnetic declination measurements over southern regions of Siberia (Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Nerchinsk, Yakutsk, etc.) in 1735 and 1736. During the second half of the 18th century, Russian expeditions determined geographical coordinates of the cities of European Russia and carried out magnetic declination measurements for them. During these expeditions Inokhodtsev paid attention to the anomalous magnetic declination in the Kursk region. In his opinion, the anomaly could have been caused by the presence of iron ore.

  7. High-latitude regions of Siberia and Northeast Russia in the Paleogene: Stratigraphy, flora, climate, coal accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmetiev, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    The geological structure and development history of superposed depressions on the Arctic coast of East Siberia and Bering Sea region (Chukotka, Koryakiya, northern Kamchatka) in the Early Paleogene are considered with the analysis of their flora and climatic parameters. The paleofloral analysis revealed thermophilic assemblages that reflect phases of maximum warming at the Paleocene-Eocene transition and in the Early Eocene. The appearance of thermophilic plants (Magnoliaceae, Myrtaceae, Lauraceae, Araliaceae, Loranthaceae, and others) in the Siberian segment of the Arctic region is explained by the stable atmospheric heat transfer from the Tethys to higher latitudes and absence of the latitudinal orographic barrier (Alpine-Himalayan belt). The plants migrated to high latitudes also along the meridional seaway that connected the Tethys with the Arctic Ocean via marine basins of the Eastern Paratethys, Turgai Strait, and West Siberia. The migration from the American continent was realized along the southern coast of Beringia under influence of a warm current flowing from low latitudes along the western coast of North America. The palm genus Sabal migrated to northern Kamchatka and Koryakiya precisely in this way via southern Alaska. In the Oligocene, shallow-water marine sediments in high-latitude regions were replaced by terrestrial facies. The Late Oligocene was marked by maximum cooling. Coal accumulation in Northeast Russia through the Paleogene is reviewed.

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Four European Subtype Strains of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Eastern Siberia, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Melnikova, Olga V.; Karan, Ludmila S.; Andaev, Evgeny I.; Balakhonov, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    Three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains were isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks, and one was isolated from a shrew in the territory of eastern Siberia (Russia). The level of sequence identity compared to Neudoerfl (the European prototype strain) is 97.2 to 97.3%. PMID:26089416

  9. Complete Genome Sequences of Four European Subtype Strains of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Eastern Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Adelshin, Renat V; Melnikova, Olga V; Karan, Ludmila S; Andaev, Evgeny I; Balakhonov, Sergey V

    2015-01-01

    Three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains were isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks, and one was isolated from a shrew in the territory of eastern Siberia (Russia). The level of sequence identity compared to Neudoerfl (the European prototype strain) is 97.2 to 97.3%. PMID:26089416

  10. Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. )

    1993-09-01

    Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

  11. Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

  12. Radioisotope contaminations from releases of the Tomsk-Seversk nuclear facility (Siberia, Russia).

    PubMed

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F; Pourcelot, L; Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Le Roux, G; Rhikvanov, L P; Stille, P; Renaud, Ph; Mezhibor, A

    2008-04-01

    Soils have been sampled in the vicinity of the Tomsk-Seversk facility (Siberia, Russia) that allows us to measure radioactive contaminations due to atmospheric and aquatic releases. Indeed soils exhibit large inventories of man-made fission products including 137Cs (ranging from 33,000 to 68,500 Bq m(-2)) and actinides such as plutonium (i.e. 239+240Pu from 420 to 5900 Bq m(-2)) or 241Am (160-1220 Bq m(-2)). Among all sampling sites, the bank of the Romashka channel exhibits the highest radioisotope concentrations. At this site, some short half-life gamma emitters were detected as well indicating recent aquatic discharge in the channel. In comparison, soils that underwent atmospheric depositions like peat and forest soils exhibit lower activities of actinides and 137Cs. Soil activities are too high to be related solely to global fallout and thus the source of plutonium must be discharges from the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) plant. This is confirmed by plutonium isotopic ratios measured by ICP-MS; the low 241Pu/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios with respect to global fallout ratio or civil nuclear fuel are consistent with weapons grade signatures. Up to now, the influence of Tomsk-Seversk plutonium discharges was speculated in the Ob River and its estuary. Isotopic data from the present study show that plutonium measured in SCC probably constitutes a significant source of plutonium in the aquatic environment, together with plutonium from global fallout and other contaminated sites including Tomsk, Mayak (Russia) and Semipalatinsk (Republic of Kazakhstan). It is estimated that the proportion of plutonium from SCC source can reach 45% for 239Pu and 60% for 241Pu in the sediments. PMID:17996340

  13. Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, G I; Friedmann, E I; Gilichinsky, D A

    1995-10-01

    We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods. PMID:11542910

  14. Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

    1995-01-01

    We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

  15. Spatial and Temporal Variability of CO2 and CH4 Concentrations in the Atmospheric Surface Layer over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Alexander V.; Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of greenhouse gas behavior in the atmosphere plays a key role in predicting the global changes of Earth's climate. In this connection, of particular importance is the study of the distribution of sources/sinks of trace gases in the atmospheric surface layer over the different regions of the globe. In order to fill a gap in the data on greenhouse gas concentrations in Russia, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan) and Institute of Atmospheric Optics (IAO SB RAS, Russia) established a network for GHG monitoring (JR-STATION, Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network). Gas analyzers and meteorological sensors were mounted at radio relay towers located in different regions of West Siberia. The checking equipment was placed in containers at the tower base. In the containers, the climatic parameters optimal for gas analyzer operation were maintained. The work on the network development started in 2001. Since at each of the sites the measurement duration could be different, in this paper we present the data of the greenhouse gas monitoring for eight sites which give the primary idea on the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric surface layer over West Siberia. The analysis of the data showed that the average increase in concentration of carbon dioxide by results of our measurements in this territory increases within 1.95 - 2.53 ppm/year, depending on the area. The analysis of long-term data testifies about existence of growth of concentration of methane within 3.2 - 7.2 ppb / year. The presence of a distributed network of the sites operating in the monitoring regime makes it possible not only to investigate the temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 at each site and to determine the spatial differences between the concentrations by comparing the data, but also to plot the distribution charts for different moments of time. This work was supported by the Global Environment Research Account for National Institutes of the Ministry of the Environment (Japan), the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  16. Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

  17. Distribution of trace gases and aerosols in the troposphere over West Siberia and Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ndlec, Philippe; Ancellet, Grard; Pelon, Jacques; Berchet, Antoine; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Belan, Sergey B.; Penner, Johannes E.; Balin, Yurii S.; Kokhanenko, Grigorii; Davydov, Denis K.; Ivlev, Georgii A.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Kozlov, Alexander S.; Chernov, Dmitrii G.; Fofonov, Alexader V.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Tolmachev, Gennadii

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is affected by climate change much stronger than other regions of the globe. Permafrost thawing can lead to additional methane release, which enhances the greenhouse effect and warming, as well as changes of Arctic tundra ecosystems. A great part of Siberian Arctic is still unexplored. Ground-based investigations are difficult to be carried out in this area due to it is an out-of-the-way place. So, in spite of the high cost, aircraft-based in-situ measurements can provide a good opportunity to fill up the gap in data on the atmospheric composition over this region. The ninth YAK-AEROSIB campaign was focused on the airborne survey of Arctic regions of West Siberia. It was performed in October 2014. During the campaign, the high-precision in-situ measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, O3, black carbon and aerososls, including aerosol lidar profiles, have been carried out in the Siberian troposphere from Novosibirsk to Kara Sea. Vertical distributions of the above atmospheric constituents will be presented. This work was supported by LIA YAK-AEROSIB, CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  18. Distribution and diversity of Nosema bombi (Microsporidia: Nosematidae) in the natural populations of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) from West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Vavilova, Valeriya; Sormacheva, Irina; Woyciechowski, Michal; Eremeeva, Natalia; Fet, Victor; Strachecka, Aneta; Bayborodin, Sergey I; Blinov, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Nosema bombi is an obligate intracellular parasite of bumblebees (Hymenoptera, Bombus spp.), which has significant negative effect on individual bumblebees, colony fitness, and development. Recently, several new genetic variants of N. bombi without a defined taxonomic status were identified in natural bumblebee populations from Russia, China, and several European countries, as well as N. ceranae, originally isolated from honey bees, was described in bumblebee species. Thus, it is required to investigate more Nosema variability in bumblebee populations for identifying new genetic Nosema variants. In our study, we used several methods such as total DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning, sequencing, and comparative and phylogenetic analysis to investigate a prevalence of N. bombi and its diversity in the natural populations of bumblebees across West Siberia. DNA was extracted from intestinal bumblebee tissues. Identification of the parasite was conducted, using PCR with primers specific for the ribosomal RNA gene cluster and methionine aminopeptidase 2 gene of N. bombi followed by sequencing. Seven hundred twenty-seven individual bumblebees belonging to 16 species were tested; 64 specimens revealed presence of the parasite. Prevalence of Nosema bombi infection was different in each region and varied from 4 to 20 %. No infection was found in Bombus agrorum (n = 194) and Bombus equestris (n = 132), both common bumblebees in West Siberia. Three different genetic variants of the same species, N. bombi, were identified. The first variant belonged to N. bombi (AY008373) identified by Fies et al. (J Apicult Res 40:91-96, 2001), second (N. bombi WS2) was identical to the West Siberian variant identified by Szentgyrgyi et al. (Polish Journal of Ecology 59:599-610, 2011), and the last variant, N. bombi WS3, was new. The results led us to suggest that the prevalence of the N. bombi is related to the population structure of bumblebees and distribution of the particular genetic variants of N. bombi. PMID:26063531

  19. The tectonic evolution of West Siberia: an attempt at a geophysical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplonov, Sergei V.

    1995-05-01

    An interpretation of the tectonic evolution of West Siberia is presented, based on new high-precision geophysical data, corroborated, wherever possible, with key geological data. The basement of the West Siberian Basin is a heterogeneous and multi-aged mosaic containing five types of tectonic unit: (1) convergent systems, i.e. extinct island arcs and marginal seas or continental margin arcs; (2) microcontinents; (3) relict ocean basins; (4) rifts; (5) aborted oceans. The basement developed in two distinct stages under different tectonic regimes. (1) During the Late Precambrian and the whole of the Paleozoic, subduction of the Paleo-Asiatic and Uralian oceans produced new continental crust that was gradually accreted to the margins of the European, Siberian and Kazakhstan continents. Initially separated by great distances, these continents converged and by Early Mesozoic time formed the Laurasian part of Pangea. However, collision was incomplete, and in the central part of West Siberia, small relict basins containing Paleozoic ocean crust were preserved. (2) For a limited period during the Early Mesozoic, a second tectonic regime operated. The newly formed West Siberian basement began to disintegrate as a result of rifting, which progressed to sea-floor spreading in the Obsky paleo-ocean and the Yenisei-Khatanga Trough. The structures generated under these earlier regimes controlled the subsequent passive evolution of West Siberia during Mesozoic and Cenozoic time.

  20. Bryozoans from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Upper Devonian) of the Tom-Kolyvansk area (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikova, Zoya

    2010-10-01

    Nine bryozoan species are described from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Late Devonian) from Western Siberia, Russia, namely: Leptotrypella pojarkovi Orlovski, 1961, Rhombopora subtilis Nekhoroshev, 1977, Klaucena lalolamina Yang, Hu, Xia, 1988, Eofistulotrypa famennensis sp. n., Atactotoechus cellatus sp. n., Nikiforopora jurgensis sp. n., Eridotrypella tyzhnovi sp. n., Mediapora elegans sp. n., and Klaucena gracilis sp. n. The studied assemblage shows palaeogeographical affinity with Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Transcaucasia, China, and the United States of America.

  1. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  2. Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2006-01-01

    Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of u

  3. A population-based study of the associations of stroke occurrence with weather parameters in Siberia, Russia (1982-92).

    PubMed

    Feigin, V L; Nikitin, Y P; Bots, M L; Vinogradova, T E; Grobbee, D E

    2000-03-01

    Previous studies have established a seasonal variation in stroke occurrence, but none have assessed the influence of inclement weather conditions on stroke incidence in a general population of Russia. We performed a stroke population-based study in the Oktiabrsky District of Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia. Included in the analysis were 1929 patients with their first occurrence of ischemic stroke (IS), 215 patients with their first occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 64 patients with their first occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH): all patients were aged between 25 and 74 years. The cumulative daily occurrence of total strokes and stroke subtypes was evaluated in relation to aggregated daily mean values of ambient temperature, relative humidity and air pressure by means of Poisson regression analysis to estimate the rate ratio (RR) with corresponding confidence interval (CI) and to identify the weather parameters of most importance. In a multivariate analysis, with adjustment for the effects of season, solar and geomagnetic activity, and age of the patients, low ambient temperature (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.05-1.66) and mean value of air pressure (RR 0.986; 95% CI 0.972-0.999) were important predictors of IS occurrence, while mild ambient temperature (RR 1.52; 95% CI 1. 04-2.22) was an important predictor of ICH occurrence. No relationship between SAH occurrence and any one of the weather parameters studied was revealed. There was no interaction between any meteorological variables that was statistically significant. Inclement weather conditions are associated with the occurrence of IS and ICH in Siberia, Russia. Among the meteorological parameters studied, low ambient temperature and mean air pressure are the most important predictors of IS occurrence, whereas the occurrence of ICH is associated with mild ambient temperature. There is no association between any one of the weather parameters studied and the occurrence of SAH. PMID:10809937

  4. Origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale, Yamal Peninsula, Siberia, Russia: contrasting views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, D.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Godin, E.; M-Lepage, J.; Stephani, E.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The origin of permafrost and ground ice of the Cape Marre-Sale polar station area, Western Yamal Peninsula, Russia, has been debated for decades. This can be explained by the extremely complex morphology of sedimentary strata and cryofacies exposed along the costal bluffs. Here, we report massive ice observations realized during summer 2012 as well as numerous laboratory and field analysis previously conducted on the massive ice bodies and reported in the literature. Our objective is to present contrasting views currently being proposed to explain the origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale. Several types of massive ice bodies can be observed along the exposures. One striking cryofacies observed shows alternating cm-thick ice lenses and cm-to-dm thick bands of sediment-rich ice, which are commonly folded with an amplitude of several meters. This very ice-rich cryofacies is interpreted either as buried basal ice of the Eurasian ice-sheet or alternatively as massive segregated ice formed during epigenetic permafrost aggradation. This cryofacies comprised meters large clasts of stratified sand with organics, with some of these stratifications being folded and faulted and showing boudinage structure. The location of these large sand clasts within the foliated ice-rich massive ice could be explained either by glacio-tectonic activity (glacio-dislocation during ice flow) or alternatively by regional tectonic activity. Large m-thick and meters-long pure ice bodies were also observed within the foliated massive ice. The first type is withish and contains a very large amount of air bubbles without any clear orientation. The second type is made of blueish to clear ice and contains a few air bubbles and rare, randomly distributed, fine-grained sediment inclusions suspended in the ice. Ice crystallography revealed the presence of large (cm) ice crystals in both types of ice. These pure ice bodies cross-cut the massive foliated ice. They could be interpreted as refrozen water trapped in intra-glacial tunnels formed within the basal ice (oxygen-rich water and suspension freezing of fine-grained sediments) of the ice-sheet or alternatively as groundwater injection (and subsequent refreezing) during freezing of taliks following lake drainage. Finally, wedge-shaped massive ice can also be observed near the top of the exposures. The first type is yellowish, vertically foliated, extends downward for several meters in the massive foliated ice and contains a significant amount of fine-grained sediment. This is either interpreted as Pleistocene ice wedge (frost-cracking) or alternatively as hydrolaccolith formed by the upward intrusion/expulsion of water within the foliated massive ice, likely due to the joint action of groundwater, permafrost aggradation and tectonic processes. The second type of wedge ice is withish in color and foliated and has been interpreted unanimously as Holocene ice wedges (frost-cracking). The contrasting views presented here represent new and reasonable working hypothesis to explain the genesis of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale. These hypotheses have considerable implications for the reconstruction of paleoclimates and paleoenvironments of Western Siberia.

  5. Middle Jurassic sand reservoirs of Tazovskoe field (West Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurasov, I. A.

    2012-12-01

    Perspectives of Tazovskoe field Jurassic strata development are associated with lithological and mineralogical characteristics of reservoirs, which are the main reserve of the region, because of the high rate of depletion of the most prolific Cenomanian gas pools. Tazovskoye field is multibedded and is unique in terms of hydrocarbon reserves. Middle Jurassic strata occur everywhere and are represented by rocks of the Tyumenskaya formation, comprising layers J2 - J5. The producing horizons are composed of sandstones, sandy siltstones, cemented by shaly-carbonate cement mass. According to laboratory data, the Jurassic reservoirs are characterized by a wide range of porosity (up to 22.5%) and mainly low permeability (up to 2 mD), except for a few samples of J3 reservoir with permeability up to 100-150 mD. Test objects were the core samples taken from 7 intervals of the well T-83 and logging data from 4 intervals of wells 73, 93 in the Tazovskoye field. Depth and core recovery from T-83 well of the Tazovskoye field are shown in Table 1. Total linear core recovery from the Jurassic strata was 79.4 m. Late Bajocian-Bathonian alluvial-lacustrine strata compose the first regressive cycle of sedimentation in the Tazovskoye field. They are represented by alternating thin sandy, siltstone-sandy, siltstone, shaly-siltstone, siltstone-shaly, and shaly rocks with coal interbeds. They include three main productive formations: J2, J3 and J4. Above in the vertical section, the Upper Jurassic rocks occur, while lower, basal strata of the Callovian stage overlay them with a distinct unconformity. In the Upper Jurassic time, the main transgression phase of the Jurassic period occurred over the whole territory of the Western Siberia. These strata are built by non-uniform alternating sandstones, siltstones and shales with coal interbeds of the continental genesis (alluvial-lacustrine); The reservoirs contain cyclites that as a rule have binary structure, less often - ternary structure: the lower element of cyclites is represented by sandy and siltstone-sandy strata formed in a channel and in a point-bar, the upper element of cyclites is represented by siltstone, siltstone-shaly, shaly, and carbonaceous-shaly strata formed in the floodplain or in lacustrine-boggy sedimentation environment; The producing strata of J2-J4 formations are characterized in general by moderate porosity (11-17%) and low permeability (1 mD); This genetic type of the Middle Jurassic reservoirs is typical throughout the Pur-Taz petroleum region, as well is possible for the Nadym-Pur petroleum region, except for the most eastern areas of Nadym, where these rocks have flysch nature, and therefore one can predict their presence in adjacent fields, where the Jurassic reservoirs are not discovered yet.Core recoveries from T83 well;

  6. Assessment of Mesozoic-Kainozoic climate impact on oil-source rock potential (West Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iskorkina, A. A.; Isaev, V. I.; Terre, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    Based on paleotemperature modeling, the evaluation of the effect of Neo-Pleistocene permafrost rock thickness on geothermal regime of the Bazhenov deposits has been performed. It has been stated that permafrost about 300 m in thickness must be considered for appropriate reconstruction of geothermal history of source rocks in the south-east areas of West Siberia. This condition is relevant to a consistent consideration of oil-generation phase history and can prevent underestimation (to 25%) of hydrocarbon-in-place resources.

  7. The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Walsh, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system contains approximately 85% of the discovered oil in the West Siberian basin. The source is the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation, a 30 meter thick highly bituminous shale covering 2.3 million square kilometers. It has a 10% average total organic carbon content. Approximately 80% is Type II kerogen. Maturation modeling yields time series maps of oil and gas generation. Approximately 40% of Bazhenov organic matter converted to hydrocarbons, with peak generation occurring in the Paleogene Period. Hydrocarbon expulsion from the Bazhenov was high, around 80%. Secondary migration efficiency was low, between 5% to 10% on average across the basin, although higher in the structured Middle Ob region. The reservoirs of the system are vertically stacked sandstones and occasionally siltstones in the Neocomian Megion and Vartov formations (and their equivalents). Reservoir sizes, continuities and quality are highly variable and sealed by locally extensive interbedded shales. There are three principal plays in the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, defined by trapping mechanism: the {open_quote}on-structure{close_quotes} play, which contains most discovered fields and the {open_quotes}off-structure,{close_quotes} which consists of combination and stratigraphic traps. Finally, there is the Bazhenov shale play, in which the fractured Bazhenov shale forms a self-sourced reservoir. Mass balance calculations indicate the range of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system. Mapping of generation and migration on palinspastically restored surfaces at the time of peak generation indicates the areas and magnitude of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system.

  8. The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Walsh, D.B. )

    1996-01-01

    The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system contains approximately 85% of the discovered oil in the West Siberian basin. The source is the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation, a 30 meter thick highly bituminous shale covering 2.3 million square kilometers. It has a 10% average total organic carbon content. Approximately 80% is Type II kerogen. Maturation modeling yields time series maps of oil and gas generation. Approximately 40% of Bazhenov organic matter converted to hydrocarbons, with peak generation occurring in the Paleogene Period. Hydrocarbon expulsion from the Bazhenov was high, around 80%. Secondary migration efficiency was low, between 5% to 10% on average across the basin, although higher in the structured Middle Ob region. The reservoirs of the system are vertically stacked sandstones and occasionally siltstones in the Neocomian Megion and Vartov formations (and their equivalents). Reservoir sizes, continuities and quality are highly variable and sealed by locally extensive interbedded shales. There are three principal plays in the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, defined by trapping mechanism: the [open quote]on-structure[close quotes] play, which contains most discovered fields and the [open quotes]off-structure,[close quotes] which consists of combination and stratigraphic traps. Finally, there is the Bazhenov shale play, in which the fractured Bazhenov shale forms a self-sourced reservoir. Mass balance calculations indicate the range of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system. Mapping of generation and migration on palinspastically restored surfaces at the time of peak generation indicates the areas and magnitude of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system.

  9. Geochemical features of two-phase hydrocarbon-pool formation in northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Gushchin, V.A.; Ryl'kov, A.V.

    1987-09-01

    Gas-condensate pools that have oil rings occur widely in West Siberia, and much attention has been given to their formation and occurrence. Virtually all possible processes producing such pools have been found to occur here, from the single entry of saturated fluid into a trap followed by differentiation as the formation pressure falls to separate entry in different sequences for the oil and gas. The authors use the content of aromatic hydrocarbons as an index of the migration of oil and gas. Arene distributions in the light fractions of oils and condensates from the Neocomian beds in West Siberia are largely related to features of fluid generation and migration. Two-phase pools containing primary condensates occur in these beds, which is explained by a model based on different forms of fluid migration. They are controlled not only by fluid generation features (different ratios of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon) but also by the relationships in time and space between the clayey and sandy rocks, which give rise to qualitative differences in consolidation and thus to differences in fluid migration in zones adjoining the reservoirs and in zones farther away.

  10. Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation, position of ecosystems in the landscape (lateral migration) and types of bedrocks [2]. The results allow better understanding of the coupling between biogeochemical cycles of carbon and major and trace elements in peat soils in order to predict the future changes in both concentrations and stocks of chemical elements in the Western Siberia peat bog systems under climate warming.

  11. Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins

    SciTech Connect

    Mogutcheva, N.K.

    2009-06-15

    Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

  12. Genetic integrity of four species of Leptidea (Pieridae, Lepidoptera) as sampled in sympatry in West Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Solovyev, Vladimir I.; Ilinsky, Yury; Kosterin, Oleg E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In southern West Siberia, as many as four Leptidea Billberg, 1820 species are present sympatrically: Leptidea amurensis (Mntris, 1859), Leptidea morsei (Mntris, 1859), Leptidea sinapis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Leptidea juvernica Williams, 1946. The two latter were recently recognised as nearly sibling species on morphological and molecular characters. Specimens intermediate as to their subtle diagnostic characters occurring in West Siberia and elsewhere were interpreted as resulted from limited introgression. This supposition was tested via populational morphological and molecular analysis of spring brood specimens of all the four species taken from a limited (4.5 0.2 km) area in the suburbs of Novosibirsk. The samples were analysed with respect to the genitalic morphology, external characters, three nuclear (CAD, H1 gene and ITS2) and one mitochondrial (COI) molecular markers, infection of the intracellular maternally inherited bacterial symbiont Wolbachia Hertig, 1836 and its wsp gene coding for a hypervariable surface protein. Interspecific variation of the nuclear CAD and ITS2 sequences and the mitochondrial COI gene in Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea juvernica turned out concordant. The absence of molecular evidence of introgression suggests genetic integrity of these two species and allows their reliable identification by molecular characters. The genitalic (lengths of the saccus and valva) and external characters (wing pattern) of males overlap in Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea juvernica, as identified by molecular markers and thus are not so helpful in actual species identification. Only the ductus bursae length showed no overlap and can be used for identification of females. The histone H1 gene appeared five times less variable over the four studied species than COI, and found to be identical in species Leptidea sinapis and Leptidea juvernica. Wolbachia infection was found in all studied species. We identified three wsp variants of Wolbachia: 1) wsp-10 allele in Leptidea amurensis, Leptidea sinapis, Leptidea juvernica; 2) a very similar wsp-687 allele in Leptidea sinapis; and 3) wsp-688, highly divergent to the previous ones, in Leptidea morsei. PMID:26312129

  13. Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

  14. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vartanyan, Sergey L.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Karhu, Juha A.; Possnert, Gran; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.

    2008-07-01

    We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period of mammoth isolation on Wrangel Island and their ultimate extinction, which we attribute to natural causes. The absence of dates between 9-12 ka probably indicates a period when mammoths were absent from Wrangel Island. Long bone dimensions of Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island indicate that these animals were comparable in size to those on the mainland; although they were not large animals, neither can they be classified as dwarfs. Occurrence of mammoth Holocene refugia on the mainland is suggested. Based on other species of the Mammoth fauna that have also been radiocarbon on Wrangel Island, including horse, bison, musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, it appears that the mammoth was the only species of that fauna that inhabited Wrangel Island in the mid-Holocene.

  15. Benthic bioindicators from the lakes of Northern Yakutia (Siberia, Russia) in paleoclimatic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanov, O. N.; Nazarova, L. B.; Frolova, L. A.; Pestryakova, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    High latitude regions are particularly affected by global climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are known to respond quickly and sensitively to such changes (Carpenter et al., 1992; Findlay et al. 2001; Smol et al., 2005). This effect is especially dramatic in regions with continental climates such as Northern and Eastern Siberia. In 2008, Russian-German expedition investigated 33 lakes of Kolyma river basin, North-Eastern Yakutia. The region of investigation is located in the mouth of Kolyma river between approximately 68°2' and 69°4' N and between 159°8' and 161°9' E. It's a most north-eastern region of Yakutia, so it's suitable for paleolimnological investigations. The investigated lakes are situated along the 200 km transect crossing 3 vegetation zones: polygonal tundra, forest tundra and northern taiga. The main aims were establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions by using aquatic organisms, investigation of limnological variables and the influence of the environmental conditions on distribution of aquatic organisms in Yakutian lakes. The modern benthic fauna of the lakes is represented by 89 taxa from 14 taxonomic groups. The most abundant group was Mollusca. The most taxonomically diverse group was Chironomidae. A unique for this region species were discovered, such as Cincinna kamchatica, Physa jarochnovitschae, Colymbetes dolabratus, Ilybius wasastjernae, Xestochironomus sp., Agrypnia sp. etc. Cluster analysis of taxonomical composition of the benthic fauna of these lakes showed high dependency to vegetation zones. The highest levels of hydrobiological indexes (Shannon, Evenness, species richness) were registered in forest tundra. CCA analysis showed that the most influential factors in species distribution were climate-dependant factors, such as mean Tair of July, pH and water depth. Data from taxonomical analysis of Chironomidae group were used for establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

  16. The Holocene environmental history of the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (northeastern Siberia, Russia) reconstructed from high-resolution pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, S.; Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Diekmann, B.

    2009-04-01

    The study presented here is part of the IPY project 106 "Lake Records of late Quaternary Climate Variability in northeastern Siberia" and the German Research Foundation project RI 809/17-1,2 "Late Quaternary environmental history of interstadial and interglacial periods in the Arctic reconstructed from bioindicators in permafrost sequences in NE Siberia". Both projects focus on generating high-resolution vegetation and climate proxy records mainly from lacustrine sediments along a north-south transect from Yakutia, Republic of Russia. This region is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere - "Pole of Cold". Radiocarbon-dated pollen records from Lake Billyakh (6517'N, 12647'E; 340 m a.s.l.) located in the central part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains were used to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes. The longest and oldest sediment core from the lake reaches back to >30 kyr BP, thus covering the last two Late Pleistocene Interstadials in Siberia. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction of the core PG 1756, which covers the last 15 kyr BP, suggest that open cool steppe and grass and sedge tundra communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer trees in the regional vegetation during the last glaciation. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae), alder (Duschekia fruticosa) and willow (Salix) species, is dated to 13.5-12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the last glaciation, particularly during the Allerd Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon), spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies) pollen, indicating mid-Holocene spread of boreal forest communities in response to climate amelioration and degradation of the permafrost layer.

  17. Origin of the gas-condensate deposits and prediction of the phase state of hydrocarbons in northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Nemchenko, N.N.; Rovenskaya, A.S.

    1987-05-01

    In northern West Siberia, a zone of petroleum accumulation has been identified, embracing the Nadym-Pur, Pur-Tazovskiy, Gydanovsk, and Yamal' petroliferous regions. A characteristic feature of this zone is the development of a thick (up to 2000 m) Cretaceous complex, with which the bulk of the gas and gas-condensate resources of West Siberia is associated. The origin of the gas-condensate deposits, discovered over a wide range from Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) to Jurassic, with differing hydrocarbon composition and amount of condensate, has been inadequately investigated, but nevertheless it has great significance in predicting the phase state of the hydrocarbons in the deposits and the reliability of estimating the reserves. The paper discusses the origin of these gas condensates from petroleum and coal deposits. 5 references.

  18. Chemostratigraphy of early Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnevskaya, Irina; Pisareva, Natalia; Kanygina, Nadejda; Proshenkin, Artem

    2014-05-01

    One of the biggest Proterozoic sedimentary basins in Russia is around the Siberian platform. This study about little part of them - Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Southwestern margin of Siberian Platform). Thise geological structure is ancient and very difficult for reaserch. It is a collage of different blocks: volcanic arcks, ophiolite complexes and sedimentary rocks of various ages and degrees of metamorphism. Sedimentary complexes of Siberian platform are outcropping along Angara River and its tributary. Neoproterozoic ones are presented by terrigenous-carbonate rocks of Tungusik and Oslyan groups. Despite the long study history of the area is still controversial question of time of formation of these rocks. As determination of the age of Precambrian sedimentary rocks is very difficult, Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy appears to be the only approach to establish the age of carbonate sequences. All Rb-Sr author's data was investigated by the method of selective dissolution with the preliminary removal of epigenetic carbonate phases. The isotope dilution method with mixed 87Rb + 84Sr spike was used to determine Rb and Sr concentrations in both fractions on the MI 1201AT mass spectrometer. Sr isotope ratios were measured on the Finnigan MAT-262 (BAC CU, Irkutsk, Russia) and Triton Plus (IGG UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia). The C-O isotopic composition in carbon samples was measured on the Finnigan MAT-253 equipment. The main criteria for integrity were correlations of impurity-elements (Mn, Fe, Sr) and stable isotopes (C, O) with each other. The less altered rocks of the Tungusik Group are characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7055-0.7058, and wide variations in the ?13CPDB values from 0 to +5o [1]. The primary 87Sr/86Sr of Dashka Formation (Oslyan Group) is 0.7057 - 0.7060 and ?13CPDB value varies in interval 3.7-4.3o like in upper part of Tungusik Group. High positive values of ?13CPDB indicate that carbonates had accumulated in warm sea, without a long period of cold weather. Comparison of isotopic (Sr, C) characteristics Dashka Formation carbonates show identity of these indicators with Tungusik Group rocks. In addition can be compared with carbonate sequences of: Minyar Formation (Pb-Pb age of 780 85 dolomites Ma [2]) Karatav Group in Southern Ural (87Sr/86Sr 0.7055-0.7056, ?13CPDB +2.4 + ... 3.0 ), also the Reynolds Point Formation of Shaler Group (about 840 million years; [3]) and the lower part of Little Dal Formation in Canada (more than 780 million years [4]). Such agreement chemostratigraphic characteristics of these formations is the basis for their correlation and allows to consider that carbonate rocks of Oslyan and Tungusik groups had deposited in the first half of Neoproterozoic (1000 - 800 million years ago). The work was supported by the RFBR (projects nos. 12-05-00569, 12-05-33076) and the Presidium of SB RAS (project no. 68). 1. Vishnevskaya et al. 2012, Doklady Earth Sci. 443 (2), 431-435 2. Ovchinnikova et al. 2000 Stratigr. Geol. Cor. 8 (6), 3-19 3. Asmerom et al. 1991 Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 55 (10), 2883-2894 4. Halverson et al., 2007 Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol. 256 (3-4), 103-129

  19. Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the middle floodplain. Correlation analysis between element concentrations, grain-size distribution and carbon content revealed a direct dependence of the element distribution within all soil profiles on its mineralogical composition. Based on the obtained results we suggest that there are negligible atmospheric depositions caused by human activity on the investigation site. Therefore this data can provide a point of comparison against man-made influences on permafrost-affected landscapes and also on similar pristine areas in the Arctic region.

  20. Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2013-11-01

    The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3 s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This has already profoundly altered the discharge rates of the Lena River. But the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea have also been hypothesized to undergo considerable compositional changes, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of the phytoplankton communities. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic phytoplankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and food web interactions within the delta have to be established. In 2010, as part of the AWI Lena Delta programme, the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels of the delta (Trofimov, Bykov and Olenek) as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small, shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykov channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore. Of the five stations in this area, three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects, on the other hand, salinities varied between 5 and 30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and chlorophytes. In contrast, in the stratified stations the plankton was mostly dominated by dinoflagellates, ciliates and nanoflagellates, with only an insignificant diatom component from the genera Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira (brackish as opposed to freshwater species). Ciliate abundance was significantly coupled with the abundance of total flagellates. A pronounced partitioning in the phytoplankton community was also discernible with depth, with a different community composition and abundance above and below the thermocline in the stratified sites. This work is a first analysis of the phytoplankton community structure in the region where Lena River discharge enters the Laptev Sea.

  1. Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2013-02-01

    The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a~continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This is likely to profoundly change the discharge rates of the Lena River and the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients, DOC and importantly methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of and interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, forming the basis of the food web. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic plankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and linked foodweb interactions within the delta need to be established. As part of the AWI Lena Delta Programme in 2010 the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small a shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykovskaya channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore (transect 3). Of the five stations in this area three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects on the other hand salinities varied between 5-30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and chlorophytes, in those stations characterized by river outflow (stations in the Lena itself and in coastal transect 3). In contrast in the stratified stations the plankton was mostly dominated by dinoflagellates, ciliates and nanoflagellates, with only an insignificant diatom component from the genera Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira (brackish as opposed to freshwater species). Ciliate abundance was significantly coupled with the abundance of total flagellates. A pronounced partitioning in the phytoplankton community was also discernible with depth, with a different community composition and abundance above and below the thermocline in the stratified sites. This work represents the first attempt at analyzing the phytoplankton structure of the region of freshwater influence at confluence Lena-Laptev sea.

  2. Investigations of adaptation mechanisms of different halophytes types in different soil salinity conditions (Southern Central Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyusar, Natalia; Pechurkin, Nickolay

    High salt concentration in the soil is one of the limiting factors affecting plant growth and development. However, there are plants that are physiologically adapted to high salts concen-trations -halophytes. Studies of halophytes reveals mechanisms of adaptation to this factor. Investigations were conducted in the steppe zone of Southern Central Siberia (Russia, Khaka-sia), nearest coastal zone of the Lake Kurinka. The work was carried on route and stationary methods. As a results was conducted about 100 geobotanical descriptions, was defined species composition, covering, vertical and horizontal structure of plant communities, the productivity of above ground dry phytomass. As a result of field work was identified various types of plant communities, that are located on soils with a salinity degree are 0,2 -7,16 g / l. Type of saline -sulfate-sodium. Suaeda plant communities was located in the meadow-saline soil (soil salinity degree 5 -7 g / l). The dominant is euhalophyte Suaeda linifolia Pall. and subdominant is glycohalophyte Puccinellia tenuissima. A plant community has two layers. Total covering is 50 -55During the study period (2004 -2009), the change was observed in the soil salinity degree in the range of 2.27 -7.16 g / l. The plan community productivity varied from 99 to 201 g/m2 by years of research. Also was noted that the salt amount in the plants biomass varies depending on the type of halophyte. In the cells of euhalophyte Suaeda linifolia the salt amount was 10-35The investigation noted that relations between the main photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) have changes depending on the type of halophyte. Thus, in typical glycohalophyte Puccinellia tenuissima, Elytrigia repens and Phragmites australis chlorophyll content remained relatively high during the summer period and were 0,74, 0,61 and 0,53

  3. Investigating the Human Dimension of Unprecedented Global Climate Change in northeastern Siberia, Russia: Understandings, Perceptions and Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crate, S.

    2009-12-01

    An urgent challenge of the 21st century is to investigate understandings, perceptions and responses of populations confronting the local effects of global climate change. This paper describes the most recent results of one such project working with rural native Viliui Sakha communities, Turkic-speaking horse & cattle breeders in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The research questions are: 1) What local effects of global climate change are Viliui Sakha communities observing, how are Viliui Sakha perceiving these changes and how are the changes affecting both their subsistence survival and their cultural orientations? 2) What local knowledge exists about past climate perturbations and how does that knowledge influence contemporary adaptation to global climate change? 3) How can anecdotal (local) knowledge and regional scientific knowledge about the local effects of global climate change be integrated to enhance both local adaptive responses and policy efforts? The four-village, three-year study is a collaborative effort involving the active participation of the targeted communities, field assistants, native specialists, an in-country research team and an international collaborator. The project is founded on the PIs 20 years of ongoing research and work with rural Viliui Sakha communities and on her fluency in both the Sakha and Russian languages. A central focus of this project is the integration of local and scientific knowledges. We are documenting local knowledge on the community, elder and archival levels. We are collaborating with scientists in Yakutsk for regional scientific data. Our project team has just returned from the second summer of field work and this presentation will cover the project results to date. Hayfields are inundated with water.

  4. Distribution of GHG over West Siberia: airborne and tower network observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, M. Yu.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.; Belan, B. D.; Maksyutov, Sh.; Sasakawa, M.; Watai, T.; Shimoyama, K.; Sutoh, H.; Davydov, D. K.

    2009-04-01

    In spite of high confidence level in understanding of greenhouse effect on climate change there is a lack of measurement data over significant part of the Northern Hemisphere. Taking into account the importance of the global climate changes and international cooperation in this field, NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) and IAO (Institute of Atmospheric Optics) combined their efforts in the framework of Joint Japanese-Russian Project on GHG monitoring to fill up this gap at least over West Siberia, which occupies a significant part of Northern Eurasia. This monitoring consists of airborne and tower network observations. Airborne study of vertical distribution of greenhouse gases nearby Novosibirsk (between 54°05'N-81°50'E and 54°35'N-82°40'E) has been started on July 1997. Monthly flight observation have been conducted at an altitude from 500 to 7000 km. The 11-year airborne study nearby Novosibirsk has revealed a positive trend in CO2 mixing ratio (>15 ppm) and the absence of a definite trend for CH4. Minimum of CO2 concentration is typically observed at the end of July. Highest annual amplitudes of CO2 mixing ratio (up to 40 ppm) are observed in the atmospheric boundary layer. During recent years a tower network (8 towers) for carbon dioxide and methane monitoring was established in West Siberia. This network covers several climatic zones from steppes in the south to northern taiga in the north (51°N to 63°N and 62°E to 82°E). In this paper we present the first results of the diurnal, seasonal, and annual behavior of these greenhouse gases in the surface atmospheric layer over West Siberia Diurnal behavior of CO2 mixing ratio showed its maximum amplitude in July and its minimum amplitude in January. Concentration gradient between northern and southern regions remains during the whole year. Carbon dioxide mixing ratio has a pronounced annual behavior with a maximum in December and a minimum in July-August. It starts to decrease on March, and this process becomes more intensive from May until July. Since the beginning of September and until December intensity of CO2 sink is smaller than the rate of its emission. Diurnal behavior of the CH4 mixing ratio is mainly neutral during the year except for the late spring and beginning of the summer when a significant one is observed. There is a CH4 concentration gradient directed from south to north with a difference in concentration from 100 to 340 ppb. In the annual behavior of CH4 concentration two maxima and two minima are observed in the center of the region under study (maxima: July and December-January; minima: April-May and October). At northern sites the main maximum is also observed in winter with one-month lag with respect to central regions. Summer maximum over southern regions is not so intensive and observed in August. Amplitude of annual behavior at northern sites is 200 ppb, and 100-120 ppb at southern. The most interannual variability is 150 ppb and observed during main and secondary maxima.

  5. Runoff generation and storage dynamics of a polygonal tundra catchment, Lena River Delta, northern Siberia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbig, Manuel; Boike, Julia; Langer, Moritz; Schreiber, Peter; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Kutzbach, Lars

    2013-04-01

    Present understanding of the hydrology of catchments underlain by permafrost is still insufficient to correctly predict ecological impacts brought about by climate change. Ice-wedge polygonal tundra is a typical landscape type of the continuous permafrost zone and is characterised by a pronounced micro- but a flat meso-topography. It consists of polygon sub-catchments with low-lying centres and surrounding elevated rims that feature a range of connectedness to other polygons and the inter-rim surface drainage network of troughs above degraded ice-wedges. This pattern distinguishes the hydrology of polygonal tundra from other permafrost-affected landscapes. Therefore, this study aims to define the hydrological functions of characteristic landscape units of polygonal tundra (i.e. polygon rims, centres, and troughs). We examine runoff generation and water storage dynamics in a small polygonal tundra catchment in northern Siberia (0.6 km2) by analysing spatially distributed water balances together with catchment runoff dynamics between May and August 2011. Despite the evapotranspiration rate (137.9 mm) exceeding precipitation (108.6 mm), and the low topographic gradient, lateral outflow (60.9 mm - 167.4 mm) considerably influenced the water storage of the main landscape units within the catchment. Low polygon centres with intact rims stored snow melt water longer than either polygons with degraded rims or the troughs. The micro-topography of the rims and the associated soil thaw dynamics determined the magnitude and the timing of outflow through the blocking function of frozen soils. These dynamics controlled the redistribution of storage water within the catchment during the summer. Hydraulic conductivity in the rims declines by three orders of magnitude within the first 15 cm of the soil. The high conductivities in the shallow soil layers cause a rapid shallow subsurface drainage of rainwater towards the depressed centres and troughs. Once the rims are deeply thawed, the re-release of storage water from the centres through deeper and less conductive layers helps maintain a high water table in the surface drainage network of troughs throughout the summer. In turn, catchment runoff was mainly controlled (R2 = 0.99, RMSE = 0.34 L s-1, N = 2165) by the water level (i.e. hydraulic gradient) in this drainage network, and baseflow was maintained throughout the study period. The interconnected network contracts and expands in relation to the water level. Together with sharp declines of hydraulic conductivity within the upper soil layers, this catchment characteristic favours the observed exponential increase of catchment runoff with ascending water levels in the network. This relationship promotes enhanced runoff as a response to large, infrequent inputs of rain or snow melt water whereas vertical water fluxes dominate during periods of frequent but homogeneously distributed rain events of smaller magnitude. This study shows that a nested approach is suitable to identify characteristic hydrological processes at different scales and to assess how the hydrological functions of the main landscape units interact on the catchment scale. The results emphasise the need to account for micro-topography of polygonal tundra and temporal distributions of precipitation and evapotranspiration when investigating the storage and runoff dynamics, and the interactions with carbon or energy fluxes.

  6. The first uranium-thorium dating of the Middle Neopleistocene peat in West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, F. E.; Laukhin, S. A.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Kuznetsov, V. Yu.; Shilova, G. N.; Chernov, S. B.; Zherebtsov, I. E.; Levchenko, S. B.

    2010-07-01

    For a sample from the roof of peat (0-2 cm) located in a reference section for the Middle Neopleistocene in West Siberia near the village of Krivosheino, we obtained an exorbitant value of 14C date ?53.9 ka B.P. (LU-6024). In the peat proper, the 230Th/U dates obtained by the isochronous method are 195.2 10.8/9.1 ka B.P. for the L/L model and 204.1 17/13 ka B.P. for the TSD model. The palynospectra of the peat characterize, from the bottom up, birch forests with fir and spruce participation; then spruce forests with fir; next spruce-cedar forests, similar to the middle taiga subzone. In the clay, the following palynospectra have been examined: forb-gramineous grasslands and light forests with spruce and Betula fruticosa. In the upper part of clays, the palynospectra reflect the evolution of swampy, birch, light forests with spruce participation. The conclusion is made that the studied part of the section formed at the end of the Samarovo Ice Age and in the last third of the Taz Ice Age. The break in sedimentation related to the erosion contact covers a part of the Samarovo Ice Age and the first two-thirds of the Taz Ice Age.

  7. Mid-late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda, southern West Siberia: vegetation, climate and humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Nourgaliev, Danis; Palagushkina, Olga; Papin, Dmitry; Frolova, Larisa

    2012-08-01

    An environmental reconstruction of mid-late Holocene vegetation, climate and lake dynamics was inferred from pollen and diatom records of Lake Big Yarovoe in Kulunda, southern West Siberia. The reconstruction suggests a general prevalence of steppe during the last 4.4 ka. Under a relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.4 and 3.75 ka BP. The largest development of conifer forest started in Kulunda after 3.75 ka BP. The onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by the dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in the lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominant in Kulunda, along with a sharp reduction of conifers. These results are in agreement with the general pattern of the Holocene environmental history of the surrounding areas, including the Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. The penetration of coniferous forest into the Kulunda steppe after 3.75 ka BP was related to its geographical location northwest of the Altai Mountains. The economic activities of the ancient population of Kulunda depended on the environmental changes during the Holocene.

  8. Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt west of the Baykit high are probable source rocks. Their areal distribution extends from the foldbelt into the foredeep along the province?s western margin. Potential source rocks also are present in platform depressions in eastern areas of the province. Hydrocarbon generation and migration west of the province started as early as Riphean time, before the beginning of the deformation in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt that occurred about 820?850 million years ago. However, the presently known oil and gas accumulations were formed after deposition of the Lower Cambrian salt seal. Available data allow identification of only one assessment unit, and it covers the entire TPS area. Undiscovered oil and gas resources are moderate, primarily due to the poor quality of reservoir rocks. However, the reserve growth in the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone may be large and may exceed the volume of undiscovered resources in the rest of the province. Most oil and gas resourcesareexpectedtobeinstructuralandstratigraphictrapsin Riphean carbonate reservoirs. Vendian clastic reservoirs are probably gas-prone.

  9. Chineysky Layered Intrusion with unique V and PGE-Cu ores (Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalskiy, Bronislav; Krivolutskaya, Nadezda

    2010-05-01

    South of the Siberian platform is an extraordinary metallogenic province. Many giant deposits of different genetic types are concentrated here: Udokan (Cu), Chiney (Ti-Fe-V, Pd-Cu), Katugin (Ta, Nb), Sulumat (Fe) etc. It is his considered this massif is the largest component of the Proterozoic volcanic-plutonic system of the Kodar-Udokan district. Chineisky massif located among Cu-rich sedimentary rocks is represented by interlayering horizons of gabbronorite and titanomagnetite gabbro in its lower zone and gabbro and anorthosite in the upper zone.The intrusive rocks were proved to be genetically interrelated and show certain similar geochemical features: they have elevated TiO2 concentrations and have similar trace element patterns and (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios (1.5-2.3 and 1.87-2.06, respectively). The Chineisky massif is thought to have been formed by the successive emplacement of genetically similar basic magmas, which produced four rock groups with fine and coarse layering and cyclicity of variable rank (micro-rhythms, rhythms, units, and series). The results of cluster analysis indicate that the rocks can be classified into 13 petrochemical types. The phase and chemical characteristics of the parental melts of these compositions were simulated with the use of the COMAGMAT-3.5 computer model, which was also applied to evaluate the composition of the most primitive initial magma of the whole Chineisky massif. Our results indicate that the primitive magma was heterogeneous (olivine + plagioclase titanomagnetite + melt) at a temperature of approximately 1130 C. The initial melt had a ferrobasaltic composition and was close to saturation with magnetite at ~NNO 0.5 The basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Luktur pluton are supposed to be the Mg-rich fraction of the parental melt. Gravimetric and magnetic geophysical data show that ultrabasic and basic rocks occur at shallow depths at the Chiney pluton and around it. These facts show the existence of huge magmatic system in Late Proterozoic. There are two types of commercial mineralization in the Chiney massif: Fe-Ti-V and Cu with precious metals. Nowadays the Chiney massif comprises the largest V recourses in Russia. The iron ores are concentrated in the central part of the intrusion and are represented by two varieties: disseminated and massive (the early-magmatic type); veins and irregular bodies (the late-magmatic type). Sulfide minerals occur as accessory disseminations in all rocks of the massif, but their higher concentrations are distributed locally. The copper commercial mineralization is confined to the contact zone of gabbroids with the host rocks, so endo-and exocontact ores are determined. The disseminated mineralization predominates sharply. Vein bodies are distributed in the limited region and localized at a small distance from the bottom of the intrusion. The main ore mineral is chalcopyrite, that is very unusual for Cu-Ni deposits (Cu/Ni=10-100, Pd/Pt=3 in ores). The major minerals are pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Many rare minerals of noble metals (Ag, Au, PGE) were found too. In general, the minerals consist of compounds of Pd with Bi, Te, Sb, Sn, As, and Ni; compounds of Pt with As, S, and Fe; a compound of Rh with As-S, as well hessite (Ag2Te) and Au-Ag-(Hg) alloys. It was found froodite; sobolevskite; kotulskite; sudburyite; stibiopalladinite; mertieite II; isomertieite; paolovite; michenerite; arsenopalladinite; merenskiite; majakite et ctr. References 1. Gongalskiy B.I., N.A. Krivolutskaya, A.A. Ariskin, G.S. Nikolaev.// Geochemistry International. 2008. Vol. 46. No. 7. P. 637-665. 2. Gongalskiy B. I., Yu. G. Safonov, N. A. Krivolutskaya, V. Yu. Prokof'ev, and A. A. Yushin. A // Doklady Earth Sciences. 2007.Vol. 415, No. 5. P. 671-674.

  10. Trace element speciation and origin of colloids in surface waters of subarctic zone (NW of Russia and Central Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Vasukova, E. V.; Shirokova, L. S.; Dupre, B.

    2008-12-01

    Geochemistry of trace elements (TE) in boreal regions attracts large attention of researchers in view of on- going environmental changes that can affect both the fluxes of these elements to the ocean, their speciation and thus their bioavailability. Most of trace elements in waters of boreal zone are transported via organic and organo-mineral colloids. In order to better understand the processes of colloids formation in surface waters draining watersheds of various lithology and permafrost abundance, comparative study of TE speciation in various geographic zones is necessary. In this work we attempted to generalize the typical features of trace element speciation in boreal arctic and subarctic zones assessed via in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration. Surface waters of three circumpolar regions in Arkhangelsk region, NW Russia and Central Siberia were studied using unique and rigorous procedure via combination of in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration (1 kDa, 3.5 kDa, 10 kDa, 100 kDa, 0.22 µm, 0.45 µm, 1 μm, 5 µm). In both filtrates and dialysates, all major and trace elements and dissolved organic carbon were analyzed. In all studied regions, three typical features of colloid speciation have been revealed: i) high proportion of large-size colloids (10 kDa - 0.22 μm and 0.22 μm - 5 µm), mostly composed of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides stabilized by organic matter; ii) presence of organic-rich, small size colloids and conventionally "dissolved" substances (< 1 kDa and 1 - 10 kDa), presumably, fulvic acids, and iii) strong association of all trivalent and tetravalent elements with large-size mineral colloids. Results of the present work allow distinguishing between two possible pathways of colloids formation: 1) Groundwater-borne Fe(II) oxidation and TE coprecipitation in the presence of organic matter originated from plant litter and peat layers of surface horizons at the surface redox front between anoxic groundwaters and surficial OM-rich waters of the riparian zone, and 2) Plant litter-borne Fe(II) and TE originated from decomposing plant litter and mosses and coprecipitating together in the very surface horizons above the permafrost layer. The first pathway is typical for non-permafrost bearing zones such as European Russian Arctic where as in Central Siberia, plant litter degradation in surficial horizons is largely responsible for colloids formation. In both cases, dissolved organic matter in the form of essentially fulvic acids helps to stabilize the mineral colloids and prevents the aggregation of Fe oxyhydroxides. As a result, conventional thermodynamic modeling of TE association with dissolved organic matter can be misleading for these systems, where the processes of irreversible coprecipitation, not reversible complexation/adsorption on the surface, control the TE interaction with colloids. It is anticipated that knowledge of speciation of metal pollutants and organic carbon both in surficial fluids and in the permafrost ice and soils will allow the prediction of metals bioavailability change induced by permafrost thawing and human pollution - for example, around the smelters located in the arctic-zone. Elaborated models can be extended to other permafrost- bearing territories of the world which are likely to be highly sensitive to the global warming.

  11. Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 20002011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 20002011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 20002011). Results Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (20002011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed. PMID:24350064

  12. Global Lessons from Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Jan L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a visit by two U.S. social studies educators to schools in Krasnoyarsk, a city in Siberia, Russia. Discusses economic and social changes brought about by the end of the Cold War. Recommends more international and global education for both Russia and the United States. (CFR)

  13. Deciduous shrub growth and the greening of the Arctic in West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2010-12-01

    Salix lanata and Alnus fruticosa are common and widespread shrub species in the low arctic tundra zone of West Siberia. They often occur in similar local habitats with the live portions of genets up to 100 years old. We have recently established that growth rings of S. lanata provide an excellent proxy for summer temperature. In that study our data were derived from shrubs growing on organic soils near the arctic coast of the Nenets Autonomous Okrug (NAO), west of the Ural Mountains. East of the Urals, in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO), climate is more continental and sandy soils provide a relatively nutrient-poor substrate for plant growth. By sampling two different species side by side on the Yamal Peninsula, we shed light on the relationship between deciduous shrubs and growing season temperatures in the last half century or so, a period of pronounced regional warming. We discern differences in the climate signal within a single species (S. lanata) as well as between it and a neighboring species with a strongly overlapping ecological amplitude (A. fruticosa). July is the main month for temperature correlation in Alnus, whereas Salix responds to June-July-August temperatures in both regions. The high correlations of shrub growth with summer temperature (r > 0.7 over the period 1956-2004) strongly suggest a link between increased shrub growth and recent decadal warming in both regions (~2C). Both species showed significant correlation with the regional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), although it was somewhat lower in YNAO compared to NAO, probably due to the relative land cover (10% vs. 20%, respectively) of erect shrubs in both areas, which affects their overall contribution to the NDVI. In both regions Salix lanata biomass peaks in the second half of July. Hand-held leaf area index data from Yamal indicate a significant difference between loamy/clayey and sandy sites. We hypothesized that this same variation would be evident at the regional scale by comparing the chronologies of relatively sandy sites on Yamal with the extremely organic soils of Varandei. Our findings confirm that the increase in erect shrub growth is significant in both regions, albeit the absolute growth (in mm) is lower in Yamal relative to Varandei. We conclude that deciduous boreal forest should be included in the range of future scenarios used to assess the probable feedbacks of vegetation to the climatic system that result from global warming at northern high latitudes. The reason is that low shrub thickets can transform in situ to erect shrub thickets/forest.

  14. Carbon accumulation in peatlands of West Siberia over the last 2000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilman, David W.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Smith, Laurence C.; Reimer, Paula J.

    2009-03-01

    We use a network of cores from 77 peatland sites to determine controls on peat C content and peat C accumulation over the last 2000 years (since 2 ka) across Russia's West Siberian Lowland (WSL), the world's largest wetland region. Our results show a significant influence of fossil plant composition on peat C content, with peats dominated by Sphagnum having a lower C content. Radiocarbon-derived C accumulation since 2 ka at 23 sites is highly variable from site to site, but displays a significant N-S trend of decreasing accumulation at higher latitudes. Northern WSL peatlands show relatively small C accumulation of 7 to 35 kg C m-2 since 2 ka. In contrast, peatlands south of 60N show larger accumulation of 42 to 88 kg C m-2. Carbon accumulation since 2 ka varies significantly with modern mean annual air temperature, with maximum C accumulation found between -1 and 0C. Rates of apparent C accumulation since 2 ka show no significant relationship to long-term Holocene averages based on total C accumulation. A GIS-based extrapolation of our site data suggests that a substantial amount (40%) of total WSL peat C has accumulated since 2 ka, with much of this accumulation south of 60N. The large peatlands in the southern WSL may be an important component of the Eurasian terrestrial C sink, and future warming could result in a shift northward in long-term WSL C sequestration.

  15. Soil microbiological composition and its evolution along with forest succession in West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naplekova, Nadezhda N.; Malakhova, Nataliya A.; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Natural forest succession process in West Siberia is mostly initiated by fire disturbance and involves changing tree species composition from pioneer species to late succession trees. Along with forest aging, litter and forest biomass accumulate. Changes of the soil nitrogen cycle between succession stages, important for plant functioning, have been reported in a number of studies. To help understanding the mechanism of the changes in the soil nitrogen cycle we analyzed soil microbiological composition for soil profiles (0-160 cm) taken at sites corresponding to three forest succession stages: (1) young pine, age 18-20 years, (2) mid age, dark coniferous, age 50-70 years, (3) mature, fir-spruce, age 170-180 years. Soil samples were taken from each soil horizon and analyzed in the laboratory for quantity and species composition of algae and other microorganisms. Algae community at all stages of succession is dominated by species typical for forest (pp. Chlorhormidium, Chlamydomonas, Chloroccocum, Pleurochloris, Stichococcus). Algae species composition is summarized by formulas: young forest C14X10Ch9H2P4Cf1B2amph4, mid age X16C15Ch10H4P4Cf1B2amph4, mature X24C22Ch17H10P2amph5Cf1, with designations C -- Cyanophyta, X -- Xantophyta, Ch -- Chlorophyta, B -- Bacillariophyta. Diversity is highest in upper two horizons and declines with depth. Microorganism composition on upper 20 cm was analyzed in three types of forests separately for consumers of protein (ammonifiers) and mineral nitrogen, fungi, azotobacter, Clostridium pasteurianum, oligonitrophylic (eg diazotrophs), nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Nitrogen biologic fixation in the mature forest soils is done mostly by oligonitrophyls and microorganisms of the genus Clostridium as well as сyanobacteria of sp. Nostoc, but the production rate appears low. Concentrations (count in gram soil) of nitrogen consumers (eg ammonifiers), oligonitrophyls, Clostridium and denitrifiers increase several fold from young forest to mid age, and from mid age to mature forest. On the contrary, azotobacter disappears in mature forest while nitrifiers decline by several times from young to mid age forest. Large variation in microbiological activity was observed between sites reaching different succession stage, however further studies are needed to discriminate between effects of the site productivity and forest age.

  16. Modeling of regional meteorological fields with high spatial resolution for West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Vasiliy; Gordov, Evgeny

    2010-05-01

    As well known, global climate changes are inhomogeneous that is most clearly pronounced in the northern regions of the Earth. To study these inhomogeneities and trends, it is necessary to analyze climate changes in the ?? century in the specific region. Now data of different reanalyses (USA, Europe, Japan), as well as observational data from weather stations, are used for such an analysis. Modeling data validity is mostly determined by amount of assimilated measurement data and by weather station network density. For example, for the 2nd edition of USA reanalysis, data of only 300 weather stations of Russian Federation have been used, where most stations are located in European part of the country. Comparison of meteorological fields obtained using reanalysis to measurements of Rosgidromet weather stations gives significant discrepancy. Reanalyses spatial resolution does not allow studying local inhomogeneities that inherent to regional climate changes. Therefore to study local climate dynamics in Siberian region, it is necessary to calculate meteorological fields with higher spatial resolution. Modern mesoscale meteorological models that use reanalyses archives and assimilate measurements of weather stations can solve this problem. We calculated fields of climatic characteristics for West Siberia for the period from 1960 to 2000. The regional weather forecast WRF model (http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/modeling/wrf/index.php) and data assimilation system WRF-VAR (WRFDA) have been installed and debugged on the base of multiprocessor computational complex. Vertical boundary conditions, as well as initial conditions are formed using ERA-40 reanalysis data. NCEP data and USGS map with spatial resolution of 9.25 km are used for the lower boundary, measurements of weather stations, located within calculation area, are used for observation nudging. As a result of the model run, we have meteorological fields, which are reanalysis fields' projections with high spatial resolution (10 km) corrected by weather stations' measurements. Primary analysis of the data obtained allows us to depict changes of climatic characteristics in local areas not as smoothed disturbances (as in reanalysis fields), but as local inhomogeneities that have specific geographical reference to specific regional ecosystem. Key parameters characterizing the main local climate dynamics trends will be chosen for further analysis and processing. The work has been partially supported by SB RAS integration projects Nos. 50 and 66.

  17. Lithology and petroleum prospects of Jurassic-Neocomian bituminous deposits of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Ushatinskiy, I.N.

    1982-10-01

    In western Siberia, hydrocarbon exploration focuses on the sequence of bituminous, essentially clay rocks, from which significant oil flows have been obtained in Salym and some other areas. In this paper, a recently discovered reservoir horizon and hydrocarbon deposit of this type is discussed. In these bituminous deposits, the laminar clays possess the least density and the greatest porosity and permeability. These laminar clays serve as the main reservoir rock, whereas the highly bituminous massive siliceous clays are the source rocks of the petroleum. The areas in Siberia where the favorability for occurrence of this type of geologic sequence are also discussed. (JMT)

  18. Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Russia Meets the West

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajda, Joseph

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.

  19. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).

    PubMed

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone. PMID:25773245

  20. Soviet Development Policy in Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shabad, Theodore

    1978-01-01

    Examines how Soviet economic planners and policymakers cope with the geographic dichotomy of a concentration of population and economic activity in European Russia and the concentration of natural resources in sparsely populated Siberia. (Author/DB)

  1. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  2. A new species of Alopecosa Simon, 1885 (Araneae, Lycosidae)from the Altai Mountains (South Siberia, Russia).

    PubMed

    Fomichev, Alexander A; Logunov, Dmitri V

    2015-01-01

    Alopecosa Simon, 1885 is a large genus of wolf spiders containing more than 166 named species (World Spider Catalog 2015), of which 81 valid species have been recorded from the territory of ex-USSR (Mikhailov 2013). In the mountains of South Siberia, to which the Altai Mts belong, 35 species of Alopecosa have been recorded to date (Mikhailov 2013), but findings of some of them require confirmation upon reference to the pertinent material. Yet, some authors (e.g., Marusik & Kovblyuk 2011) argue that the genus Alopecosa is a paraphyletic taxon that needs to be split up into a number of separate genera. PMID:26623918

  3. Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2003-01-01

    The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms during Neocomian time. The clastic material was transported by a system of rivers dominantly from the eastern provenance. Sandstones within the Neocomian clinoforms contain the principal oil reservoirs. The thick continental Aptian?Cenomanian Pokur Formation above the Neocomian sequence contains giant gas reserves in the northern part of the basin. Three total petroleum systems are identified in the West Siberian basin. Volumes of discovered hydrocarbons in these systems are 144 billion barrels of oil and more than 1,300 trillion cubic feet of gas. The assessed mean undiscovered resources are 55.2 billion barrels of oil, 642.9 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 20.5 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. The largest known oil reserves are in the Bazhenov-Neocomian total petroleum system that includes Upper Jurassic and younger rocks of the central and southern parts of the basin. Oil reservoirs are mainly in Neocomian and Upper Jurassic clastic strata. Source rocks are organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation. Most discovered reserves are in structural traps, but stratigraphic traps in the Neocomian clinoform sequence are pro-ductive and are expected to contain much of the undiscovered resources. Two assessment units are identified in this total petroleum system. The first assessment unit includes all conventional reservoirs in the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Jurassic to the Cenomanian. The second unit includes unconventional (or continuous), self-sourced, fractured reservoirs in the Bazhenov Formation. This unit was not assessed quantitatively. The Togur-Tyumen total petroleum system covers the same geographic area as the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, but it includes older, Lower?Middle Jurassic strata and weathered rocks at the top of the pre-Jurassic sequence. A Callovian regional shale seal of the Abalak and lower Vasyugan Formations separates the two systems. The Togur-Tyumen system is oil-prone; gas reserves are insignificant. The principal o

  4. Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there are quite a few cases of the use of woodland valuable in recreational and forestry respects for dacha or country-cottage construction. From fast change the pattern of ownership on ground is necessary urgent inventory of being available ground resources, including with the purposes of creation of new especially protected territories. It is important to emphasise, that to guards should be subject not only sites so-called quot.; untouched quot.; a nature, but also area with different overgrowth succession stages agricultural lands, where biodiversity raises.

  5. Genesis of carbonates within Abalak and Bazhenov formations (West Siberia), revealed from stable carbon and oxygen isotopes distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A.; Blinova, V.; Kalmikov, G. A.; Balushkina, N. S.

    2013-12-01

    Upper Jurassic deposits of Bazhenov formation are the main source rocks of the West Siberia Basin. Now the Bazhenov suite is intensively investigated not only as a source rock, but as unconventional reservoir of oil due to its vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The rocks of Bazhenov formation are composed of four main units: silica minerals, clay (predominantly hydromica), kerogen and carbonates. To predict the distribution of different lithological units it is important to reveal their genesis and facial conditions during their formation. One of the reservoir types is presented by cavernous-porous carbonates. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes investigations has been carried out to reveal origin of carbonate material in Late Abalak - Bazhenov time. Four genetic types of carbonates have been subdivided according to mineralogical composition and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes distribution: 1) belemnites and other faunal remains; 2) secondary dolomites of Bazhenov formation; 3) secondary calcite filling cracks and composing inclusions of Abalak deposits; 4) methane-derived authigenic carbonates of Abalak formation. The first three types are presented by normal marine carbonates according to their carbon isotopes composition. Light oxygen isotopes composition indicates high temperatures during their precipitation (diagenesis). The fourth type is characterized by light carbon isotopes composition, which indicates presence of isotopically light biogenic CO2 in the environment. According to oxygen isotopic composition the carbonate material is primary and precipitated in subsurface conditions. Such carbon and oxygen isotopes composition is characteristic for methane-derived carbonates formed in the areas of active fluids discharge to the seafloor (cold seeps) as a result of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). Thus in Late Jurassic time active fluid escape to the sea floor took place in the West Siberia Basin.

  6. Distribution and color variation of gyrfalcons in Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, C.H.; Pendleton, G.W.; Panteleyev, A.V.; Rebrova, I.V.; Markin, Y.M.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west of the Ural Mountains. Frequencies were as follows: European Russia 4% white, 50% gray (the remainder were intermediates); western Siberia 0% white, 58% gray; central Siberia 15% white, 42% gray; and eastern Siberia 47% white, 33% gray. Remarkably, in the easternmost subregion, white birds predominated even near the southernmost extension. Because the northernmost portions of the species' range in continental Russia are in central Siberia where white variants were rare, we propose that a better predictor of the white variant is longitude, not latitude. White birds were most frequent at the eastern reaches of both the Palearctic and Nearctic. The best environmental correlates of this distribution pattern may be the southward bending thermal isoclines proceeding eastward toward Greenland or Kamchatka, where both land masses are bathed by cold oceanic currents of Arctic origin. By contrast, the western reaches of both land masses are bathed by warm currents. In these western reaches, Gyrfalcon summer distribution is displaced northward and dark variants predominate. The breeding range of the Gyrfalcon, determined by mapping the locations of the specimens we examined, differs little from the range proposed in 1951.

  7. Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2.7%, Clostridia spores, Giardia cysts, pathogenic bacteria, Rotavirus – up to 0.8%. Of a total of 56 chemical pollutants analyzed in water samples from centralized water supply systems, 32 pollutants were found to be in excess of hygienic limits, with the predominant pollutants being Fe (up to 55%), Cl (up to 57%), Al (up to 43%) and Mn (up to 45%). Conclusion In 18 selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East Category I and II water reservoirs, water sources (centralized – underground, surface; non-centralized) and drinking water are highly contaminated by chemical and biological agents. Full-scale reform of the Russian water industry and water security system is urgently needed, especially in selected regions. PMID:24350065

  8. Investigations of the Nizhnekanskiy granitoid massif (Middle Siberia, Russia) as a promising territory for deep geological disposal of HLW: Results of pre-exploration stages of the work

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.B.; Shabalev, S.I.; Savonenkov, V.G.; Lyubtseva, E.F.; Rogozin, Y.M.

    1999-07-01

    To decide the final fate of high-level radioactive wastes that are in Krasnoyarsk Land, Russia, and, most importantly the wastes from a weapons complex at the Mining-Chemical Combine (MCC, Krasnoyarsk-26), suitable sites for geological disposal of the wastes are being sought in Middle Siberia. The ultimate goal is to select one site for development of a repository for these wastes. As a result of complex geological-geophysical work completed to date, the two most promising sites are in the northern part of the Nizhnekanskiy granitoid massif (the Yenisei Ridge). These sites are approximately 25 km from the MCC. Based on geotectonic analysis and electrical surveying data, these sites are composed of low-permeability biotite granite that extends to relatively great depth. At present, both sites are undergoing more detailed studies to define the most suitable one for detailed geological exploration. Radiogeochemical studies showed that granitoid rock samples from the massif exhibited high retention for major long-lived radionuclides in the wastes. The general results of the investigations are presented.

  9. Multivariate data base for the solution of geologic problems in exploring for oil and gas in West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shpil'Man, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Exploration data bases are distinguished in that many data elements change continuously over geologic time. Also, for maximum practical utility in exploration, the data base must be distributed. The data base developed by Tyumengeologiya on the West Siberian basin is composed of three fundamental elements. The first elemental covers the overall geologic structure of the basin, including tectonic, stratigraphic, and geomorphologic entities. This contains primary data and the results of analysis, which provide a geologic framework for the other two elements of the data base. The second block contains temporally stable data (e.g., identification numbers for wells, reservoirs, fields, etc.). The third block provides the mechanism for updating the other blocks with the newest observations from wells, laboratory analysis, seismic, and other sources. Ability to update not only primary data, but the tectonic and stratigraphic framework in the first block, is the key to successful, practical operation. There is a large degree of coincidence between the principles and architecture of the data base developed in West Siberia and those used by western oil and gas companies. This extends not only to the interdependence between elements of the data base, but also reflects a common understanding of the nature of the geologic problems that are analyzed through the use of computer data bases in the exploration for oil and gases.

  10. Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean rate of tree line upward migration has been about 0.35 m/yr (with a range of 0.21-0.58), which translates to a tree line response to temperature of about 55 m/deg C.

  11. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial resolution. However, we recognize that the extent of Yedoma deposits presented in this database is not complete for a global assessment, because Yedoma deposits also occur in the Taymyr lowlands and Chukotka, and in parts of Alaska and northwestern Canada.

  12. [About the signumanistics of medical units and departments of North-West of Russia].

    PubMed

    2012-07-01

    Armbands, indicating belonging of the military man to the Armed forces, to separate type, alliance or military unit or department, are an integral part of modern military uniform. Author presents some armbands of military-medical units and departments locating on the North-West of Russia. Different variants of the armbands are suggested. Rules of construction and adoption of the armbands are recommended according to heraldic laws and directive documents. The article allows to learn about famous armbands of military-medical service and is of special interest to further development of heraldic theme of units and departments of medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. PMID:23038962

  13. A reconstruction of the thawing of the permafrost during the last 170 years on the Taimyr Peninsula (East Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedotov, A. P.; Phedorin, M. A.; Enushchenko, I. V.; Vershinin, K. E.; Melgunov, M. S.; Khodzher, T. V.

    2012-12-01

    Reconstructing the temporal and spatial changes in climate on a seasonal basis during the past few centuries may help us better understand the modern-day interplay between natural and anthropogenic climate variability. The objective of this paper is to reconstruct the thawing of the permafrost at 71N in Arctic Siberia during the termination of the Little Ice Age and the subsequent Recent Warming period. Sediment samples from two lakes on the Taimyr Peninsula were analysed by high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at a scan resolution of 1 mm, and pollen analyses were conducted. The depth-age models of the cores were constructed using 210Pb and 137Cs activity according to the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The lake sediment cover of these lakes began to form ca. 1840. We defined three periods of increased permafrost thawing during the last 170 years. The first maximum of permafrost melting occurred from 1870 to 1880, the second episode was from 1900 to 1930 and the third began between 1960 and 1965. During these periods, the maxima of permafrost melting occurred with a specific time lag following.

  14. Climatic extremes in the north of the west Siberia: millennium chronicle inferred from tree rings.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlanova, L.; Hantemirov, R.; Shiyatov, S.; Schweingruber, F.

    2003-04-01

    Extreme climatic events, like frosts and temperature drops, have a strong effect on the functioning of subarctic ecosystems. The best tool for long reconstruction of climatic extremes in the northern regions of Siberia is anatomical analysis of annual rings of trees, and specially shrubs. Frost and light rings of living and dead individuals of Siberian juniper (Juniperus sibirica Burgsd.) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) growing at the upper (Polar Ural mountains) and polar (Yamal Peninsula) tree lines in the northwest Siberia have been studied to reconstruct summer frosts and many days abrupt fall of temperature during the second half of growing season over the past 1250 years. The oldest living branches of Siberian juniper we are found 840 years old, the oldest living Siberian larches in this region are 500 years old. However dead stems and branches remain for long centuries. Therefore the chronologies of pathological structures, produced using both living and dried-off stems and branches, are more than 1000-year length. In found juniper, the presence of frost rings provides evidence for frosts that occurred in July. Generally in the same summer larches form frost- or light-rings. Long term and pronounced air temperature drop in the middle of very warm period in the second half of July is the factor responsible for fluctuations of wood density (false rings) in annual rings of juniper and larch. Based on these relationships we can interpret incidence of pathological structures in terms of strong temperature abnormalities. Conclusion has been made, that in July the most severe frosts took place in 801, 1109, 1259, 1278, 1328, 1453, 1466, 1481, 1601, 1783, 1857, and 1882 AD. Pronounced temperature drops in the middle of July took place in 1555, 1610, 1621, 1919, 1947 AD. Comparison our data with data from other regions of the world have been shown that there is agreement in the timing of extreme temperature events of 800-801, 1109, 1258-1259, 1453, 1466, 1585, 1601, 1783, 1884, 1912 and 1992 AD over several regions. Most probably these extremes have been caused by major volcano eruptions, e.g. summers 1259 (El Chichon), 1453 (Kuwae), 1601 (Huaynaputina), 1783 (Laki).

  15. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland, northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Zubrzycki, S.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2014-01-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to buffer and immobilize substances of natural and anthropogenic origin to prevent their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since Arctic ecosystems are considered to be highly sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterises background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5-69.5 N), representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on the element content of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest median concentrations of Fe and Mn were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) while the highest median values of Ni, Pb and Zn were found in soils of both the ice-complex and the Holocene estuarine terrace of the Lena River delta region, as well as in the southernmost study unit of the hinterland area. Detailed observations of trace metal distribution on the micro scale showed that organic matter content, soil texture and iron-oxide contents influenced by cryogenic processes, temperature, and hydrological regimes are the most important factors determining the metal abundance in permafrost-affected soils. The observed range of trace element background concentrations was similar to trace metal levels reported for other pristine northern areas.

  16. Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5 N-69.5 N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to background levels reported for other pristine arctic areas and did not exceed mean global background concentrations examined for the continental crust as well as for the world's soils.

  17. Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the West Siberia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the basin. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, mature source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in {open_quotes}snapshots{close_quotes} by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of West Siberia.

  18. Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the West Siberia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D. )

    1996-01-01

    Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the basin. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, mature source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in [open quotes]snapshots[close quotes] by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of West Siberia.

  19. MDBT estimation ratio for transformation organic matter ratio in Bazhenov Formation of Western Siberia (Tomsk Oblast, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, I.; Samoilenko, V.; Oblasov, N.; Fadeeva, S.

    2015-02-01

    The Bazhenov Formation is the main source rock in the West Siberian Basin, because of high organic-rich Bazhenov black shales, with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 10-15wt.% generally. Based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis data, the initial generative potential for a significant part of West Siberian Bazhenov Formation organic matter (OM) is from 10 to 60% expended. Most West Siberian oils are in the Bazhenov Formation due to very high oil potential (initial hydrogen index = 710mgHC/gTOC) and widespread regional distribution). Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) does not correctly indicate the transformation ratio (TR) of the OM in Bazhenov black shales. However, GC-MS analysis of extracts indicated a good correlation between some molecular maturity and Rock-Eval maturity parameters. Molecular maturity parameters based on naphthalenes and phenanthrenes are not applicable for Bazhenov Formation OM. While the parameters based on 4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1- methyldibenzothiophene ratio (4MDBT/1MDBT) is applicable in estimating the hydrocarbon potential of Bazhenov Formation black shales and, consequently, provides more reliable information about marine OM TR than does Ro. The 4MDBT/1MDBT ratio is more consistent and precise than pyrolysis data. Therefore, it is more applicable in the case of scarcity of core samples throughout the whole formation.

  20. Paragenesis of unusual Fe-cordierite (sekaninaite)-bearing paralava and clinker from the Kuznetsk coal basin, Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grapes, Rodney; Korzhova, Sophia; Sokol, Ella; Seryotkin, Yurii

    2011-08-01

    Sekaninaite (XFe > 0.5)-bearing paralava and clinker are the products of ancient combustion metamorphism in the western part of the Kuznetsk coal basin, Siberia. The combustion metamorphic rocks typically occur as clinker beds and breccias consisting of vitrified sandstone-siltstone clinker fragments cemented by paralava, resulting from hanging-wall collapse above burning coal seams and quenching. Sekaninaite-Fe-cordierite (XFe = 95-45) is associated with tridymite, fayalite, magnetite, clinoferrosilite and mullite in paralava and with tridymite and mullite in clinker. Unmelted grains of detrital quartz occur in both rocks (<3 vol% in paralavas and up to 30 vol% in some clinkers). Compositionally variable siliceous, K-rich peraluminous glass is <30% in paralavas and up to 85% in clinkers. The paralavas resulted from extensive fusion of sandstone-siltstone (clinker), and sideritic/Fe-hydroxide material contained within them, with the proportion of clastic sediments ? ferruginous component. Calculated dry liquidus temperatures of the paralavas are 1,120-1,050C and 920-1,050C for clinkers, with calculated viscosities at liquidus temperatures of 101.6-7.0 and 107.0-9.8 Pa s, respectively. Dry liquidus temperatures of glass compositions range between 920 and 1,120C (paralava) and 920-960C (clinker), and viscosities at these temperatures are 109.7-5.5 and 108.8-9.7 Pa s, respectively. Compared with worldwide occurrences of cordierite-sekaninaite in pyrometamorphic rocks, sekaninaite occurs in rocks with XFe (mol% FeO/(FeO + MgO)) > 0.8; sekaninaite and Fe-cordierite occur in rocks with XFe 0.6-0.8, and cordierite (XFe < 0.5) is restricted to rocks with XFe < 0.6. The crystal-chemical formula of an anhydrous sekaninaite based on the refined structure is | {{{K}}_{0.02} } |({{Fe}}_{1.54}^{2 + } {{Mg}}_{0.40} {{Mn}}_{0.06} )_{Upsigma 2.00}M [({{Al}}_{1.98} {{Fe}}_{0.02}^{2 + } {{Si}}_{1.00} )_{Upsigma 3.00}^{T1} ({{Si}}_{3.94} {{Al}}_{2.04} {{Fe}}_{0.02}^{2 + } )_{Upsigma 6.00}^{T2} {{O}}_{18} ].

  1. Influencing of covers (peat, snow mosses) on the frost heave by the example of Yamburg (the North of West Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazina, D.; Yampolskiy, G.

    2009-04-01

    The frost heave is the one of the widespread and intensively influencing on the objects process. It's also one of the reasons of forming the cryogenic relief. Analytics methods and frost heave map composition, which connected with landscape, cryolithology and geology conditions - the most effective decision of this problem. Now a lot of considerable trends were found out in The Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Yamal and Tazovskiy peninsulas, and they have shown the increase of temperature on 0.02 - 0.06 C per one year and about 0,7C per one year in East Siberia. We have studied frost heave in different areas, and calculation of the general frost heave deformation has shown that in West Siberia it's about 40 cm, in East Siberia up to 2m. The Yamburg gas field characterized as the syngenetic type of continuous permafrost area with the sincryogenetic sandshale deposits which are found almost on the all geomorphological levels. This factors are determinates the widespread occurrence of cryolithology factors, especially frost heaving. The frost heave on the Yamburg in the singenetic permafrost happens because of deep seasonal thawing to 1,5m. We have had a set of experiments to determine influencing of peat cover on frost heave. In the laboratory we were modeling conditions of "closed system" with fragmentary freezing. The results have shown that the most influencing cover - peat, while the moss has no affects on the frost heave. The results could be comparing with calculating data which were received for this region, for example in the cold years the peat cover influencing will be lower than in warmer and in the future we could expected the enormous increasing of deformation. Sand deposits which are presents here in itself are not apply to heaving soils, but in case of widespread development of peat and with high dispersion of deposits they are also heaving every season. The maximum ice content was registered in peat or on the contact mineral ground - peat. For the appraisal of experimental data also were done calculations of seasonal frozen layer thickness, in the system sandy clay-clay 2,1m, on the boggy area with peat - 0, 95 m, and with the high thickness of peat on the sandy clay-sand 1m, corresponding to it the frost heaving value will be change, which is confirmed by experiment. These experiments have shown that peat is the most affecting cover on the frost heave and also peat is the most widespread cover in this region. In transition of landscapes including the human intervention most of the natural territorial complexes in tundra interchange to the peats with various thicknesses, therefore it's necessary to pay special attention for interaction peat cover and soils systems and to peat cover influencing for development of cryogenic process.

  2. Desk study of the proposed Petroleum Resource Management and Assessment project for the Western Siberia Administration, Russia. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    The United States Trade and Development Program (TDP) is considering the provision of funds to allow a U.S. firm or firms to be hired to conduct a feasibility study on a Petroleum Resource Management and Assessment project in Russia's West Siberian Basin. To evaluate whether or not to fund the study, TDP contracted a Desk Study to evaluate the concept of the project; cost out the scope of work for the feasibility study; estimate the potential exports of U.S. equipment and services during project implementation; and make a recommendation as to whether TDP should fund the study. The goal of the feasibility study would be to stem the rapid decline in oil and gas production which has resulted in a well-publicized hard currency crisis.

  3. The Incidence of West Nile Disease in Russia in Relation to Climatic and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Platonov, Alexander E.; Tolpin, Vladimir A.; Gridneva, Kristina A.; Titkov, Anton V.; Platonova, Olga V.; Kolyasnikova, Nadezhda M.; Busani, Luca; Rezza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Since 1999, human cases of West Nile fever/neuroinvasive disease (WND) have been reported annually in Russia. The highest incidence has been recorded in three provinces of southern European Russia (Volgograd, Astrakhan and Rostov Provinces), yet in 20102012 the distribution of human cases expanded northwards considerably. From year to year, the number of WND cases varied widely, with major WND outbreaks in 1999, 2007, 2010, and 2012. The present study was aimed at identifying the most important climatic and environmental factors potentially affecting WND incidence in the three above-mentioned provinces and at building simple prognostic models, using those factors, by the decision trees method. The effects of 96 variables, including mean monthly temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, etc. were taken into account. The findings of this analysis show that an increase of human WND incidence, compared to the previous year, was mostly driven by higher temperatures in May and/or in June, as well as (to a lesser extent) by high August-September temperatures. Declining incidence was associated with cold winters (December and/or January, depending on the region and type of model). WND incidence also tended to decrease during year following major WND outbreaks. Combining this information, the future trend of WND may be, to some extent, predicted, in accordance with the climatic conditions observed before the summer peak of WND incidence. PMID:24464233

  4. Jurassic Bazhenov Unit in the Salym oil field, West Siberia - An excellent source rock and fractured shale reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Petzoukha, Y.; Rovenskaya, A.; Zonn, M.; Kononkov, A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Unit covers approximately 1 million km{sup 2} of West Siberia and is an excellent source rock. This Unit has proved to be a prolific shale reservoir in 14 local highs with the Salym oil field the major discovery. More than 300 wells have been drilled to date in this area, covering approximately 5800 km{sup 2}. The Bazhenov formation is composed of calcerous, organic-rich mudstone and siliceous hale lithofacies. Producing capacities of individual wells range from a few barrels daily to a maximum of 1000 bbl/day, and occasionally reaching 10,000 bbl/day. On average the porosity is 6.1%. The rock matrix is virtually impermeable and oil flow occurs via various types of fractures. All production is water free. The initial formation pressure ranges from normal hydrostatic to abnormally high, reaching 4060 and 6525 psi, respectively, at 2800 m depth. The temperature ranges from 180 to 280{degree} at depths from 2750 to 2950 m. The oil density varies between 30 and 46{degree} API, and the sulfur content ranges from 0.08 to 0.48%. The range of CO{sub 2} content in the associated gas is between 0.2 and 11.5%. Material of marine origin was the precursor organic matter of the kerogen for the Bazhenov Unit. The organic carbon content is high, ranging from 5 to 7% and occasionally reaching 15-20%. These are type II kerogens. The Bazhenov source rocks generate in situ high quality paraffin-base oils.

  5. Seismo-geological models of stratigraphic sequences and their application to oil and gas exploration in west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, O.M. )

    1993-09-01

    In west Siberia, large structural prospects for oil exploration have been exhausted. Further discoveries are expected to be made in small to medium structural traps and in lithostratigraphic traps. Prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps is based on new seismo-geological models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences. In middle Paleozoic rocks, small hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in structural highs; the reservoirs are composed of fractured vuggy carbonates. Seismostratigraphic criteria for prediction of such traps are uncertain. The Lower-Middle Jurassic sequence consists of continental and partially of marine clastic rocks. The sequence is believed to contain considerable hydrocarbon resources in lithostratigraphic traps in basal sandstones and in pinch-out zones of Lower Jurassic sandstones. In the upper part of the sequence, oil pools have been discovered in channel sandstone bodies. Two different areas of oil accumulations are found in the Callovian-Oxfordian sequence. The Bazhenov Formation bituminous shales of Volgian-Berriasian contain sporadically distributed fractured-porous reservoirs. Accumulations in these reservoirs are characterized by irregular oil saturation. The Neocomian sequence consists of rocks deposited on the shallow-water shelf and on the basinal slope. Seismo-geological data indicate that the sequence is prospective for discovery of hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps. The clinoform consists of laterally prograding strata; most prospective are frontal and depocentral parts of the strata which contain sandstone reservoirs of medium to poor quality. Lithostratigraphic traps in the shelf sequence can be found in the marginal parts of the paleoshelf where regional pinch-out zones and sandstones lenses are common. The Aptian-Cenomanian sequence deposited under terrestrial and coastal conditions is dominantly gas prone. New hydrocarbon discoveries in this sequence are expected in structural traps.

  6. Norilsk, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Norilsk is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and the northernmost city in Siberia. The city was founded in the 1930s as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex, sitting near the largest nickel-copper-palladium deposits on Earth. Mining and smelting of nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium are the major industries. The nickel ore is smelted on site at Norilsk. The smelting is directly responsible for severe pollution, generally acid rain and smog. By some estimates, 1 percent of the entire global emissions of sulfur dioxide comes from this one city. Heavy metal pollution near Norilsk is so severe that it is now economically feasible to mine the soil, which has been polluted so severely that it has economic grades of platinum and palladium.

    The image was acquired July 21, 2000, covers an area of 36.9 x 37.6 km, and is located at 69.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; et al

    2015-06-03

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations.more » Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multiyear or multidecade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.« less

  8. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-06-03

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr⁻¹) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multiyear or multidecade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.

  9. WETCHIMP-WSL: intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr-1), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr-1), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr-1) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multiyear or multidecade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.

  10. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Joe; Bohn, Theodore

    2015-04-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux dataset, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. We found that: a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 0.54 Tg CH4 y-1), inversions (6.06 1.22 Tg CH4 y-1), and in situ observations (3.91 1.29 Tg CH4 y-1) largely agreed; b) forward models using inundation products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; c) the interannual timeseries of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and e) multi-year or multi-decade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.

  11. WETCHIMP-WSL: intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux dataset, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. We found that: (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12 year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 0.54 Tg CH4 y-1), inversions (6.06 1.22 Tg CH4 y-1), and in situ observations (3.91 1.29 Tg CH4 y-1) largely agreed, (b) forward models using inundation products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions, (c) the interannual timeseries of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models, (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multi-year or multi-decade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.

  12. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  13. [The spread of hantaviruses in western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Iakimenko, V V; Dekonenko, A E; Mal'kova, M G; Kuz'min, I V; Tantsev, A K; Dzagurova, T K; Tkachenko, E A

    2000-01-01

    Studies made in west Siberia established the existence of at least 4 hantavirus types: Puumala, Tula, Topografov, and Dobrava/Belgrade. The authors detected Puumala virus genovariants in voles, Tula virus in sagebrush and narrow-skulled voles, and Topografov virus in Siberian lemmings. The etiological role of the hantavirus Dobrada/Belgrade was defined in the structure of morbidity of hemorrhagic fever with the renal syndrome. In Russia, hantaviruses were first detected in mites: a hantavirus antigen was found in one of the enzyme immunoassayed pools of the mole mites (Haemogamasus ambulans) collected from the Siberian lemming brooding burrow in the near-floodplain habitats of the transitional Yenisei tundras in southwest Taimyr. PMID:10981407

  14. Ferrotochilinite, 6FeS 5Fe(OH)2, a new mineral from the Oktyabr'sky deposit, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Sereda, E. V.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Britvin, S. N.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Bryzgalov, I. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral, ferrotochilinite, ideally 6FeS 5Fe(OH)2, was found at the Oktyabr'sky Mine, Oktyabr'skoe Cu-Ni deposit, Noril'sk, Krasnoyarsk krai, Siberia, Russia. It is associated with ferrovalleriite, magnetite and Fe-rich, chlorite-like phyllosilicate in the cavities of pentlandite-mooihoekite-cubanite ore with subordinate magnetite and chalcopyrite. Ferrotochilinite occurs as flattened on [001], prismatic to elongated lamellar crystals up to 0.1 0.5 3.2 mm, typically split and curved. Aggregates (up to 6.5 mm in size) are fanlike, rosette-like, or chaotic. Ferrotochilinite is dark bronze. The streak is black. The luster is moderately metallic. The Mohs' hardness is ca. 1; VHN is 13 kg/mm2. Cleavage is {001} perfect, micalike. Individuals are flexible, inelastic. D(calc) = 3.467 g/cm3. In reflected light, ferrotochilinite is gray, with the hue changing from pale beige to bluish; bireflectance is distinct. Anisotropy is distinct, with gray bluish to yellowish beige rotation colors. No internal reflections. Reflectance values [ R min- R max, % (?, nm)] are: 11.6-11.4 (470), 11.2-12.4 (546), 11.1-13.6 (589), 11.0-15.5 (650). The IR spectrum shows the presence of (OH) groups bonded with Fe cations and the absence of H2O molecules. Chemical composition (wt %; electron probe; H content is calculated) is as follows: 0.02 Mg, 61.92 Fe, 0.03 Ni, 0.09 Cu, 19.45 S, 16.3 O, 1.03 H calc; the total is 98.84. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 6 S atoms is: Mg0.01Fe10.96Ni0.005Cu0.015S6(OH)10.07 = (Fe5.98Cu0.0015Ni0.005)?6S6(OH)9.80(Fe{4.89/2+}Mg0.01)?4.90(OH)9.80Fe{0.09/3+}(OH)0.27. Ferrotochilinite is monoclinic, space group is C2/ m, Cm or C2, the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 5.463(5), b = 15.865(17), c = 10.825(12) , ? = 93.7(1), V = 936(3) 3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, - I[ hkl]) are: 10.83-13[001], 5.392-100[002], 3.281-7[023], 2.777-7[150], 2.696-12[004, ], 2.524-12[, ], 2.152-8[134, 153], 1.837-11[135, ]. Ferrotochilinite is a structural analog of tochilinite, with Fe2+ instead of Mg in the hydroxide part. The type specimen is deposited in Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  15. Radiogenic argon distribution within a mineral grain: implications for dating of hydrothermal mineral-forming event in Sludyanka complex, Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Ivan S; Rasskazov, Sergei V; Ivanov, Alexei V; Reznitskii, Leonid Z; Brandt, Sergei B

    2006-06-01

    Usually, in age-determination procedures, the experimenter is interested in the mean concentrations of parent and daughter substances. However, the structure of a solution of the Fick's diffusion equation enables one to specify a procedure, allowing, through macroscopic experiments, one to determine the distribution of radiogenic argon (as well as any of other isotopes) within a mineral grain. Argon, influenced in the geological past by a metamorphic event, has a half-sinusoidal distribution, whereas argon preserved in geological time has a rectangular distribution. The ratio of the quantity of argon of the first type to the total argon is called an alpha-factor. It is believed that this coefficient can be of great interest for geochronological studies, being a symptom of virtual Ar losses and the time instant, at which they happened. A laboratory procedure and a mathematical algorithm to determine the alpha-factor are developed. As an example, a determination of the alpha-factor on a vein-phlogopite from the well-studied Sludyanka deposit, Southern Baikal, Siberia, Russia, is described. Rb-Sr isochron age on phlogopite-calcite-apatite paragenetic assemblage yielded 460+/-7 Ma and is constrained by U-Pb zircon ages of 471+/-1 and 447+/-2 Ma, respectively, on an emplacement of early syenites and monzonites and later 'post-phlogopitic' pegmatites [E.B. Salnikova, S.A. Sergeev, A.B. Kotov, S.Z. Yakovleva, R.H. Steiger, L.Z. Reznitskiy, E.P. Vasil'ev. U-Pb zircon dating of granulite metamorphism in the Sludyanskiy complex, Eastern Siberia. Gondwana Res., 1, 195-205 (1998). L.Z. Reznitskii, G.P. Sandimirova, Y.A. Pakhol'chenko, S.V. Kuznetsova. The Rb-Sr age of phlogopite deposits in Sludyanka, southern Baikal region. Dokl. Earth Sci., 367, 711-713 (1999). L.Z. Reznitskii, A.B. Kotov, E.B. Salnikova, E.P. Vasil'ev, S.Z. Yakovleva, V.P. Kovach, A.M. Fedoseenko. The age and time span of the origin of phlogopite and lazurite deposits in the Southwestern Baikal area: U-Pb geochronology. Petrology, 8, 66-76 (2000).]. In this study, the phlogopite gave an apparent K-Ar age of 365.6+/-10.4 Ma which has no geological meaning. The alpha-factor of 0.27 was derived from a laboratory kinetic experiment. The age determined by the rectangularly distributed argon corresponded to alphax0.129 nmm3/g (total radiogenic argon in the sample)=94.17 nmm3/g, and an age of approximately 274 Ma (e.g. a period without any argon losses). Here, at the first sight, we deal with common argon losses not conjugated with any geological event, because after 447 Ma only lower temperature (in a range of 50-300 degrees C) hydrothermal processes were recorded. A paragenetic phlogopite-bearing vein mineral, hyalophane, having a disturbed Rb-Sr isotopic system, however, yielded 40Ar/39Ar subplateau age of 271+/-2 Ma [V.V. Ivanenko, M.I. Karpenko, M.A. Litsarev. Age of the Sludyanka phlogopite deposits (in Russian; data of the 39Ar-40Ar method). In Geological Series 5, pp. 92-98, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moskva (1990).], marking similar timing of the K-Ar isotopic system closure. This indicates that K-Ar isotopic system in the phlogopite was not closed (or was partially reset) long after its crystallisation and closing of the Rb-Sr system, in spite of the fact that the crystal was not affected by processes having temperatures above the accepted closure temperatures for micas. There seems to have acted an exchange mechanism of OH-groups between surrounding fluid and hydrocrystal structure. Thus the argon loss did not occur, spontaneously, but argon particles seem to have been captured and carried to the mineral surface by vacancies formed during displacements of OH-groups. PMID:16707319

  16. Bracketing the range of lake and wetland methane emissions rates in West Siberia using models, in situ observations, and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Kim, H.-S.; Glagolev, M.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K.; Podest, E.; Chen, X.; Livneh, B.; Lettenmaier, D.

    2012-04-01

    Large uncertainties exist in estimates of global lake and wetland methane emission rates, due in part to their large spatial and temporal heterogeneity and also due to the sparseness of in situ observations. This is especially true of lakes and inundated wetlands, for which ebullition is a major methane pathway. Here we use a large-scale coupled land-atmosphere model and remote sensing observations to bracket the range of possible emissions rates from lakes and wetlands in West Siberia. Our modeling framework consists of a large-scale hydrology model (Variable Infiltration Capacity; VIC), extended to handle carbon cycling and methane emissions, coupled to an atmospheric tracer-transport model (NIES Chemical Tracer Model; CTM) driven by NCAR/NCEP reanalysis fields. In the model, "permanent" lake areas are prescribed by the Global Lake and Wetland Database, bias-corrected to account for small lakes. Seasonal inundation of wetlands is dynamic and has been calibrated to match an inundation dataset derived from remote sensing (AMSR-E and Qscat). We calibrated the model's wetland methane emissions to match in situ observations from a large dataset collected in West Siberia between 2006 and 2010. Lake emission rates are prescribed in several scenarios that span the range of observed rates reported in the literature. We explore the relative sizes of various sources of uncertainty in simulated methane emissions: uncertainty in inundated area, parameter uncertainty in the methane emissions model, and the range of possible lake emissions rates. Using values from different ends of the spectrum of these uncertainty sources leads to markedly different spatial patterns of methane emissions across West Siberia. These emissions are ingested by the atmospheric tracer model to produce maps of atmospheric methane concentrations. We compare the resulting spatial patterns of methane concentrations with remotely-sensed observations from the AIRS and GOSAT satellite sensors and explore the implied likelihoods of the different lake and wetland emissions rates. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. [Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].

    PubMed

    Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

    2012-01-01

    In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded. PMID:22567967

  18. [The genotyping of the West Nile virus in birds in the far eastern region of Russia in 2002-2004].

    PubMed

    Ternovo?, V A; Protopopova, E V; Surmach, S G; Gazetdinov, M V; Zolotykh, S I; Shestopalov, A M; Pavlenko, E V; Leonova, G N; Loktev, V B

    2006-01-01

    Samples from 20 species of trapped and dead birds were collected in the Far Eastern Region in 2002-2004 and were analyzed by the anti-WNV MAb-modified immunoenzyme assay for antigen detection and RT-PCR for viral RNA detection. Five positive samples from cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) and two positive samples from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) were found in both tests. The sequencing of the 322 bp fragments of protein E gene showed 99-99.67% homology with the strain WNV/LEIV-VlgOO-27924 of the WNV isolated in Volgograd, Russia, 2000. Additionally, five positive samples from birds (Pica pica, Corvus macrorhynchos, Larus crossirostris, Parus minor, Emberiza spodocephala) collected in autumn 2004 were found during screening with anti-WNV MAb-modified ELISA. These results confirm that the WNV is circulating in the Far Eastern Region of Russia and outbreaks of WN fever in humans may be possible. This demonstrates that the genotype 1a of the West Nile virus could spread in the southern regions of the Far East by migrating birds and introduction of the WNV into other southern regions of the Asian part of Russia are probably. PMID:17094656

  19. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) [11]; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits [11]. Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°С and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits [11]; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons [14]. Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15]. Analyses of cores of some zircons from granodiorites of Lupveem batholith indicate Precambrian age of protolith (717, 1070.4 and 1581.5 m.a.) [15]. 40Ar-39Ar age of synmetamorphic biotite varies from 108 to 103 m.a. [15]. Intrusive rocks of Alarmaut dome are represented by wide spectrum of rocks: diorites, Q diorites, Q monzodiorites, granodiorites, tonalites, granites. Granodiorites and granites contain mafic enclaves of monzonites and Q monzonites. SiO2 contents in rocks of Alarmaut dome varies from 58,55% in diorites to 71,3% in granites; in enclaves - from 54,6% in monzonites to 61.89% in Q monzonites. Granitoids are normal and subalkaline rocks according to SiO2 vs K2O+Na2O and belong to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series according to K2O vs SiO2. They are mainly metaluminous rocks (ASI < 1.0). REE patterns of intermediate rocks are characterized by LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and insignificant negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=8,42-15,69; Eu/Eu*=0,66-0,94). Granodiorites and granites REE patterns are more enriched in LREE, more depleted in HREE and have deeper negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=11,48-45,6; Eu/Eu*=0,47-0,81). REE patterns of monzonites from enclaves in granites and granodiorites are similar to patterns of host rocks. REE patterns of intermediate rocks and granodiorites are well correlated with those of "mafic root" rocks of K2 Kigluaik pluton from the core part of the same name gneiss dome, Seward Peninsula, Alaska [16], and K1-2 granitoids of Chauna fold zone, West Chukotka [17]. Spidergrams of granitoids and enclaves are similar and characterized by LILE, LREE enrichment and Nb, Sr, P, Ti depletion, typical for supra-subduction magmatites. On F1-F2 diagram [18], separating granitoids by geodynamic settings, granitoids fall in the field of collisional granites; on Rb vs Y+Nb diagram, along the boundary between the fields of syncollisional granites and volcanic arc granites, but within the field of postcollisional [19]. Geochronological and structural data indicate temporal relation between magmatism, metamorphism and deformations, accompanying formation of dome structure. Structural data also indicate the dome formation between two regional strike-slips. Strike-slip deformations of terminal stage of collision might have resulted in local zones of extensions [6, 8]. Intrusive contacts of studied granitoid plutons with already deformed host deposits indicate their postcollisional origin. Wide petrographical spectrum of granitoids, hornblende and biotite existence in granites, metaluminous high-K and shoshonite character, biotites compositions allow belonging them to high-K granites of I-type. Appearance of I-type granites in postcollisional setting is usually related to crustal anatexis under the influence of hot asthenospheric mantle due to delamination of lower parts of lithosphere. At the same time the processes of mingling of magmas of different composition, assimilation, fractional crystallization take place. Thus, in tectonic scenario of Alarmaut dome formation except dominating submergence of Chukotka microcontinent margin beneath the structures of North-Asian craton active margin we should assume slab-breakoff or delamination of lithospheric mantle which might have facilitated heat transfer, necessary for melting of granite magma. Aptian-Albian volcanism, localized in postcollisional extensional structures, confirms this assumption. Interrelations of major oxides in granitoids show that compositions of Alarmaut intermediate rocks fall in the fields of melts, experimentally obtained during partial melting of amphibolites, and compositions of granodiorites and granites, along the boundary zone of partial melts of greywackes and dacites, tonalites. Heterogeneity of granitoids source composition or different level of magma contamination by ancient crustal material is confirmed by Sr-Nd data. It is expressed in significant dispersal of ɛNd(Т) and 87Sr/86Sr values in granitoids. Work is carried out at the financial support of RFBR (projects № 07-05-00255, 08-05-00547), leading scientific school NSh-3172.2008.5, Programs of basic researches ONZ RAS 6. References 1. Parfenov L.M. Continental margins and island arcs of Mesozoides of North-East Asia. Novosibirsk, 1984. 192 p. (in Russian) 2. Zonenshain L.P., Kuz'min M.I., Natapov L.M. Tectonics of lithospheric plates of USSR territory // М.: Nauka, 1990. V. 2. 327 p. (in Russian) 3. Sokolov S.D. Classification and hierarchy of fold constructions. М. GEOS. 2008. P.71-100. (in Russian) 4. Seslavinsky K.B. South-Anyui suture zone (West Chukotka) // Dokl. AN USSR. 1979. V. 249. P. 1181-1185 (in Russian) 5. Natal'in B.A. Early Mesozoic eugeosynclinal systems in the northern part of Circum-Pacifica. М.: Nauka. 1984. 136 p. (in Russian) 6. Sokolov S.D., Bondarenko G.Ye., Morozov O.L.,. Shekhovtsov V.A., Glotov S.P.,. Ganelin A.V., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R. The South Anyui Suture, NE Arctic Russia: facts and problems to solve. Tectonic Evolution of the Bering Shelf-Chukchi Sea-Arctic Margin and Adjacent Landmasses. Geol. Soc. Amer. Spec. Paper, 2002, 360. P. 209-224 7. Sokolov S.D., Bondarenko G.E., Morozov O.L., Luchitskaya M.V. Tectonics of junction zone between Verkhoyan-Chukotka and Koryak-Kamchatka fold // Byul. MOIP. Otd. Geol. 2001. V. 76. Is.6. P.24-37. (in Russian) 8. Bondarenko G.E. Tectonics and geodynamic evolution of Mesozoides of north framework of Pacific Ocean. М.: MGU, 2004. 46 p. (in Russian) 9. Til'man S.M. Comparative tectonics of Mesozoides of northern part of Pacific rim. Novosibirsk: Nauka. 1973. 325 p. (in Russian) 10. Grantz A., Moore T. E., Roeske S.M. Gulf of Alaska to Arctic Ocean: Geological Society of America Continental-Ocean Transect A-3, scale 1:500,000. Menlo Park, California, 1991, 72 р. 11. Sadovsky A.I. Geologic map of USSR, scale 1:200000. Anyui-Chauna series. Paper R-58-XXVII, XXVIII. (Ed: Gel'man M.L.) Explanatory report. Leningrad: VSEGEI, 1970, 84 p. (in Russian) 12. Gel'man M.L. Phanerozoic granite-metamorphic domes at Russian North-East. Paper 2. Magmatism, metamorphism and migmatization in Late Mesozoic domes // Pacific geology. 1996. V. 15. № 1. P. 84-93. (in Russian) 13. Bering Strait Geologic Field Party, Koolen metamorphic complex, NE Russia: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Bering Strait region // Tectonics, vol. 16, no. 5, p. 713-729 14. Bondarenko G.E., Luchitskaya M.V. Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Alarmaut rise // Byul. MOIP. Otd. Geol. V. 78. Is. 3. P. 25-38. (in Russian) 15. Katkov S.M., Strikland A., Miller E.L. Age of granite batholiths in the Anyui-Chukotka Foldbelt // Doklady. Earth Sciences. 2007. Vol. 414. № 4. P. 515-518. 16. Amato J.M., Wright J.E. Potassic mafic magtism in the Kigluaik gneiss dome, northern Alaska: a geochemical study of arc magmatism in an extensional tectonic setting // J. Geophys. Res. 1997. Vol.102. N B4. P.8065-8084 17. Tikhomirov P.L., Luchitskaya M.V., Kravchenko-Berezhnoy I.R. Comparison of Cretaceous granitoids of the Chaun tectonic zone to those of the Taigonos Peninsula, NE Asia: rock chemistry, composition of rock forming minerals, and conditions of formation // Stephan Mueller series. Geology and Tectonic Origins of Northeast Russia: A Tribute to Leonid Parfenov (in press) 28. Velikoslavinsky S.D. Geochemical typification of acid magmatic rocks of leading geodynamic settings // Petrology. 2003. V. 11. № 4. P.363-380. (in Russian) 19. Pearce J.A. Sources and settings of granitic rocks // Episodes. 1996. V. 19. N. 4. P. 120-125

  20. Palaeomagnetism and geochronology of mafic dykes in south Siberia, Russia: the first precisely dated Early Permian palaeomagnetic pole from the Siberian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisarevsky, S. A.; Gladkochub, D. P.; Donskaya, T. A.; De Waele, B.; Mazukabzov, A. M.

    2006-11-01

    New palaeomagnetic and geochronological data from mafic dykes emplaced into the basement of the Siberian Craton on the southwestern coast of the Baikal Lake are present. The concordant zircon U-Pb SHRIMP age of these dykes is 275 +/- 4 Ma. Palaeomagnetic study of the dykes isolated a stable primary remanence with steep upward direction supported by a positive baked contact test. The palaeomagnetic pole (50.5N, 121.4E, A95 = 16.7) is the first precisely dated Siberian pole between ~360 and 260 Ma. It falls near the interpolated Siberian APWP and suggests that Siberia had not joined Eurasia by 275 Ma. The studied dykes are the first reported evidence of Permian magmatic activity in the cratonic part of southern Siberia. They are probably related to the prominent 300-260 Ma magmatic event recognized in Trans-Baikalia. The comparison of our new result with recently published palaeomagnetic data from Trans- Baikalia suggests that differential movements between the Siberian Craton and blocks of Trans-Baikalia around 275 Ma are unlikely. This confirms tectonic models considering Trans-Baikalia as an Andean-type active margin of the Siberian continent in Permian times.

  1. Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 20002011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengrd, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 20002011. Results Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 2343% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security. PMID:24471055

  2. Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

    2012-04-01

    The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found between EC and pH on the one hand , and soil moisture content on the other. However, soil moisture content in the topsoil appeared to have a major influence on the crop water stress index, which on its turn affected the leaf area index, the fresh biomass and the mean plant height. The crop leaf color as detected by a regular digital camera appeared to be correlated with pH and EC properties of the soil. The visible light band ratios red/green and blue/green correlated well with the crop water stress index. More research is necessary to prove if this relation is applicable in different environments, and for different crops. A confirmation of these findings would offer scope to increase the spatial support of this technique using satellite images.

  3. Assessment of the fate of radioactive contaminants in the Ob River, Siberia, Russia. Final report, 1 June 1995--31 May 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, F.L.

    1999-06-29

    This project has studied the distribution of particle reactive natural and artificial radionuclides in sediment cores of the Ob River, Siberia in order to determine the release and transport of nuclides from nuclear weapons related activities of the former Soviet Union. The Ob River drainage basin houses the bulk of the former Soviet Union`s weapons production facilities (Mayak and Tomsk-7) as well as the major test site of Semipalatinsk. In addition, some 2 billion curies of nuclear waste from weapons production are stored or have been released to the environment in this area. The potential for catastrophic future releases from poorly maintained tanks and open storage ponds is real. This project has sought to develop a history of transport and deposition of nuclides released from these plants, and to use these data as a basis for estimating delivery to the Arctic Ocean and to predict rates of transport in the event of future releases.

  4. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the mammoth fauna in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called mammoth fauna with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59 and 57N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a mixed type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called mammoth savannas. PMID:21738409

  5. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59 and 57N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas". PMID:21738409

  6. Lymphocytes with multiple chromosomal damages in a large cohort of West Siberia residents: Results of long-term monitoring.

    PubMed

    Druzhinin, Vladimir; Bakanova, Maria; Fucic, Aleksandra; Golovina, Tatiana; Savchenko, Yana; Sinitsky, Maxim; Volobaev, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    Cells with specific multiple chromosome aberrations, defined as rogue cells (RC) have been described in different populations, predominantly those exposed to radiation. The frequency, etiology and related health risks have still not been elucidated due to their low frequency of occurrences and rarely performed studies. This study reports RC frequency using chromosome aberration (CA) assay in peripheral lymphocytes in the group of 3242 subjects, during a 30-year long follow-up study in a general rural and urban population, children environmentally exposed to radon, occupationally exposed population and lung cancer patients from the Kemerovo region (Siberia, Russian Federation). Results show that the highest RC frequency was present in children environmentally exposed to radon and the lowest in the general urban population. Total frequency of CA did not correlate with frequency of RC. Genotoxic analysis of air and water samples excluded anthropogenic pollution as a possible cause of genome damage and RC frequency. In 85% of RCs, double minutes, observed in a large number of human tumors, were present. Results of CA analysis suggested that radon and its decay products (alpha-emitters) were the leading factors causing RC in subjects exposed to high LET radiation. Thus, RC may be a candidate biomarker for exposure to this type of radiation. PMID:26731314

  7. Russia: Forest policy during transition

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Russia is a recognized leader in forest conservation, research, and development. This book analyzes the country`s forest sector and the severe management problems that threaten its socioeconomic stability and environmental integrity. It outlines the significance of Russia`s forest resources, review the sector`s performance, identifies the key challenges, proposal and agenda for forest sector reform, and assesses the need for assistance from the international community. The book`s main focus is on Siberia and the Far East. Tables, boxes, and figures show various factors that contribute to and are affected by Russia`s environmental problems and the expected reforms in the forest sector.

  8. The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

  9. Intercomparison of the Wetchimp-Wsl Wetland Methane Models over West Siberia: How Well Can We Simulate High-Latitude Wetland Methane Emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A. V.; Glagolev, M.; Ito, A.; Kaplan, J. O.; Kleinen, T.; Maksyutov, S. S.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Schroeder, R.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Zhuang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of these emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This is particularly true at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over this century. Despite the importance of wetland methane emissions to the global carbon cycle and climate dynamics, global models exhibit little agreement as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in both wetland area and emissions per unit area driven by a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across West Siberia make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Model Intercomparison Project focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 17 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux dataset, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. Findings include: a) estimates of total CH4 emissions from both models and inversions spanned almost an order of magnitude; b) forward models using inundation alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; and c) aside from these area-driven biases, disagreement in flux per unit wetland area was the main driver of forward model uncertainty. We examine which forward model approaches are best suited towards simulating high-latitude wetlands and make recommendations for future modeling, remote sensing, and field campaigns to reduce model uncertainty.

  10. Enriched Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic signatures in the Dovyren layered intrusion ( eastern Siberia, Russia): Evidence for source contamination by ancient upper-crustal material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Yu. V.; Neymark, L.A.; Ritsk, E. Yu; Nemchin, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and Nd-, Sr- and Pb-isotopic ratios are reported for the Dovyren layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the northern Baikal region, eastern Siberia. Sm-Nd internal isochrons for an olivine gabbro from the layered series and a gabbronorite from a sill at the bottom of the Dovyren intrusion yield ages of 673 ?? 22 and 707 ?? 40 Ma, respectively. Initial isotopic ratios: 87Sr/86Sr (673) from 0.7101 to 0.7135, ??Nd(673 Ma) from - 16.3 to - 14.1, 206Pb/204Pb from 16.80 to 17.14, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.477 to 15.501 and 208Pb/204Pb from 37.17 to 37.59, are similar to those of late Archean-early Proterozoic upper continental crust, but do not appear to be a result of wallrock assimilation in the magma chamber. These isotopic features, as well as high K, Rb and LREE and low Ti concentrations in the calculated composition of the Dovyren parental magma, may be explained by subduction of sediments derived from upper continental crust into depleted mantle and subsequent melting of the metasomatized peridotite.

  11. Genetic variability of Rickettsia spp. in Ixodes persulcatus/Ixodes trianguliceps sympatric areas from Western Siberia, Russia: Identification of a new Candidatus Rickettsia species.

    PubMed

    Igolkina, Yana P; Rar, Vera A; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Malkova, Marina G; Tancev, Aleksey K; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Epikhina, Tamara I; Tikunova, Nina V

    2015-08-01

    Rickettsia spp. are the causative agents of a number of diseases in humans. These bacteria are transmitted by arthropods, including ixodid ticks. DNA of several Rickettsia spp. was identified in Ixodes persulcatus ticks, however, the association of Ixodes trianguliceps ticks with Rickettsia spp. is unknown. In our study, blood samples of small mammals (n=108), unfed adult I. persulcatus ticks (n=136), and I. persulcatus (n=12) and I. trianguliceps (n=34) ticks feeding on voles were collected in two I. persulcatus/I. trianguliceps sympatric areas in Western Siberia. Using nested PCR, ticks and blood samples were studied for the presence of Rickettsia spp. Three distinct Rickettsia species were found in ticks, but no Rickettsia species were found in the blood of examined voles. Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae DNA was detected in 89.7% of unfed I. persulcatus, 91.7% of engorged I. persulcatus and 14.7% of I. trianguliceps ticks. Rickettsia helvetica DNA was detected in 5.9% of I. trianguliceps ticks. In addition, a new Rickettsia genetic variant was found in 32.4% of I. trianguliceps ticks. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, gltA, ompA, ?mpB and sca4 genes was performed and, in accordance with genetic criteria, a new Rickettsia genetic variant was classified as a new Candidatus Rickettsia species. We propose to name this species Candidatus Rickettsia uralica, according to the territory where this species was initially identified. Candidatus Rickettsia uralica was found to belong to the spotted fever group. The data obtained in this study leads us to propose that Candidatus Rickettsia uralica is associated with I. trianguliceps ticks. PMID:26190452

  12. Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004

    PubMed Central

    Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia. PMID:23056064

  13. Immunological parameters and gene polymorphisms (C-590T IL4, C-597A IL10) in severe bronchial asthma in children from the Krasnoyarsk region, West Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Smolnikova, Marina V.; Smirnova, Svetlana V.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Tyutina, Olga S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bronchial asthma is a common disease caused by interplay between multiple determinants, including genetic and immune variations. Objective To investigate the main indices of humoral and cellular branches of immunity, features of cytokine regulation and cytokine genes in children with atopic bronchial asthma (BA) with different levels of disease control. Design Fifty children with controlled BA (CBA) and 50 with uncontrolled BA (UBA) were analyzed. Mean age in the sample was 13.362.24 years. A control group of healthy children (n=50) was also studied. All individuals were Russians (Eastern Slavs) from the Krasnoyarsk Territory, West Siberia. Diagnoses, severity and level of disease control were defined according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) recommendations. The lymphocytes were counted in blood using fluorescent microscopy. Humoral branch indices and cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-?) in blood serum were measured by ELISA. Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ?590 position of the IL4 and ?597 position of the IL10 gene was performed by restriction fragment length analysis. Results No statistically significant differences in total IgE and cytokines blood levels were found in CBA and UBA. However, significant differences between the groups were found for CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts. The T-590 allele of the IL4 gene, which is responsible for an increased serum level of IL-4, showed a tendency to an association with UBA. A decreased level of IL-10 enhances control over BA, which proves its association with the allelic variant A-597 IL10. Conclusion Our data show that children with UBA have higher counts of CD3+ cells and an increase of sub-population of CD4+-cells as well as higher levels of IgE, IL-4 and TNF-? in blood serum as compared to CBA. Polymorphisms of the IL4 and IL10 genes are associated with allergic inflammation in UBA. PMID:23984295

  14. West Siberian oil production in the mid-1990s

    SciTech Connect

    Sagers, M.J.

    1994-11-01

    A Western specialist on the liquid fuel industries and resources of Russia surveys trends in and factors affecting output in Russia`s most important oil-producing region, accounting for nearly 70% of the country`s production in 1994 and a similar share of oil reserves. A prolonged decline in oil output in the region, starting in 1988, appears to be bottoming out as a function of efforts to rehabilitate idle wells and liberalized regulations governing oil exports. A focus is on documenting trends in production within a series of region production associations charged with operation of specific fields (of widely variable age and reserves) in West Siberia and on surveying Western participation in joint ventures involved in field development for deposits characterized by difficult conditions. Official projections of West Siberian crude oil output based on various assumptions regarding rates of investment, well rehabilitation, exploratory drilling, secondary recovery, etc. are reviewed and evaluated. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  15. Continuous measurements of methane from a tower network over Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasakawa, M.; Shimoyama, K.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Suto, H.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.; Saeki, T.; Koyama, Y.; Maksyutov, S.

    2010-11-01

    ABSTRACT We have been conducting continuous measurements of Methane (CH4) concentration from an expanding network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe and wetland biomes of Siberia since 2004. High daytime means (>2000 ppb) observed simultaneously at several towers during winter, together with in situ weather data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, indicate that high pressure systems caused CH4 accumulation at subcontinental scale due to the widespread formation of an inversion layer. Daytime means sometimes exceeded 2000 ppb, particularly in the summer of 2007 when temperature and precipitation rates were anomalously high over West Siberia, which implies that CH4 emission from wetlands were exceptionally high in 2007. Many hot spots detected by MODIS in the summer of 2007 illustrate that the contribution of biomass burning also cannot be neglected. Daytime mean CH4 concentrations from the Siberian tower sites were generally higher than CH4 values reported at NOAA coastal sites in the same latitudinal zone, and the difference in concentrations between two sets of sites was reproduced with a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport model. Simulations of emissions from different CH4 sources suggested that the major contributor to variation switched from wetlands during summer to fossil fuel during winter.

  16. Regional Modeling of Permafrost Evolution in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadyozhina, E. D.; Shkolnik, I. M.; Pavlova, T. V.; Molkentin, E. K.; Semioshina, A. A.; Kattsov, V. M.

    2008-12-01

    The analysis of current seasonal thawing/freezing ground characteristics and their changes under warmer climate conditions using VMGO Regional Climate Model (RCM) scenario for European part of Russia, West and East Siberia has been conducted. The late 20th century permafrost simulation using the RCM output has been validated against observations in the region of East Siberian transect. The results are compared with the calculations based on the GCM climate data. The differences between GCM and RCM simulations are discussed. It has been shown that the use of higher spatial resolution of vegetation distribution and topography in the RCM gives a realistic representation of regional ground temperatures. The most significant permafrost degradation is projected at the southern boundary of the permafrost area. The correlation between seasonal freezing/thawing depths and meteorological characteristics of warm and cold seasons has been studied. The ground temperature at different levels has been calculated for the mid and late 21st century.

  17. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic developments make the tour unique and very attractive for BSc and MSc students and soil science professionals. Detailed information about the next tour is under: www.uni-goettingen.de/soilrus

  18. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N.

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation protection infrastructure and general preparation of the site for construction of the facilities for the removal of the SNF. This paper describes the development and implementation of the strategy and work to improve the safe and secure management of SNF, preparing it for retrieval and removal from Andreeva Bay. (authors)

  19. Vertical distribution of trace gas species in the troposphere over the south of West Siberia: comparison of airborne in situ measurements and satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belov, Vladimir V.; Gridnev, Yurii V.; Davydov, Denis K.; Machida, Toshinobu; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Ndlec, Philippe; Fofonov, Alexander V.

    2014-05-01

    A comparison of the vertical distributions of O3, CO, CO2 and CH4 derived from the airborne in situ measurements and satellite observations over the southern part of West Siberia is presented. In this study we used data of monthly research flights of 'Optik' TU-134 aircraft laboratory carried out from 2012 to 2013 and data retrieved from measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument on-board the MetOp satellite. It was found that differences in ozone mixing ratios between the airborne and satellite data can vary from +3 to +18 ppb at 0.5 km AGL and form -8 to -37 ppb at 7 km AGL, and relative ones ranged from +8 to +30 % and from -12 to -88 %, respectively. Differences in CO concentrations varied from +32 to +103 ppb at 0.5 km height and from -18 to +23 ppb at 3 km. Relative differences were in the range from -4 to +48 % at 0.5 km and from -8 to +20 % at 7 km. The maximal difference in all CH4 profiles reached 150 ppb in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the minimal one was -10 ppb. The average relative difference varied between +2.8 and -0.5 %. The average difference in CO2 concentration lies within 1.5 ppm, while individual profiles are incommensurable. Maximal and minimal differences during the all flights were observed in the atmospheric boundary layer (+10 and -12 ppm or +2.3 and -3.3%, respectively). In the free troposphere, relative difference decreased down to 1.0%. This work was funded by Research funds for Global Environmental Monitoring in NIES (Japan), CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590).

  20. Evolution of Mesozoic fluvial systems along the SE flank of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Buslov, Micha M.; Davies, Clare; Richards, Keith; Safonova, Inna

    2008-07-01

    The Mesozoic stratigraphy in the subsurface of the West Siberian Basin contains prolific hydrocarbon accumulations, and thus the depositional environments of marine and marginal marine Jurassic and Cretaceous age sediments are well-established. However, no information is currently available on strata of equivalent age that crop out along the SE basin margin in the Mariinsk-Krasnoyarsk region, despite the potential of these exposures to supply important information on the sediment supply routes into the main basin. Detailed sedimentological analysis of Jurassic-Cretaceous clastic sediments, in conjunction with palaeo-botanical data, reveals five facies associations that reflect deposition in a range of continental environments. These include sediments that were deposited in braided river systems, which were best developed in the Early Jurassic. These early river systems infilled the relics of a topography that was possibly inherited from earlier Triassic rifting. More mature fluvial land systems evolved in the Mid to Late Jurassic. By the Mid Jurassic, well-defined overbank areas had become established, channel abandonment was commonplace, and mudrocks were deposited on floodplains. Coal deposition occurred in mires, which were subject to periodic incursions by crevasse splay processes. Cretaceous sedimentation saw a renewed influx of sand-grade sediment into the region. It is proposed that landscape evolution throughout the Jurassic was driven simply by peneplanation rather than tectonic processes. By contrast, the influx of sandstones in the Cretaceous is tentatively linked to hinterland rejuvenation/ tectonic uplift, possibly coeval with the growth of large deltaic clinoform complexes of the Neocomian in the basin subsurface.

  1. High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets socialecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Forbes, Bruce C.; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejrvi, Elina

    2009-01-01

    Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience. PMID:20007776

  2. High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social-ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Bruce C; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejärvi, Elina

    2009-12-29

    Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience. PMID:20007776

  3. Experiential Perestroika: The Russia Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proudman, Bill; Pavlova, Alona

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, an educational exchange program sponsored by the Association for Experiential Education (AEE) sent six educators from North America to Russia to conduct workshops for students and teachers on concepts of experiential learning. As a result of this cooperative exchange, Altai Regional Educational Center (Siberia) was created to coordinate

  4. Myrmecophilous pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea) associated with Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Khaustov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    Twenty four species of pygmephoroid mites (Acari: Pygmephoroidea: Neopygmephoridae, Scutacaridae, Microdispidae) are recorded from the ant Lasius flavus (Fabricius) or from its nests from Western Siberia and Crimea. Four of them of the genus Scutacarus Gros, 1845 (Acari: Scutacaridae), S. insolitus sp. nov., S. heterotrichus sp. nov., S. moseri sp. nov. and S. sibiriensis sp. nov. are described as new for science. Four species of scutacarid mites are recorded for the first time in Russia. The comparison of pygmephoroid mite communities associated with Lasius flavus from Crimean and West Siberian populations and notes on phoresy of pygmephoroid mites on ants are provided. PMID:26624715

  5. Multilingual Education in South Siberia: National Schools in the Republics of Altai and Tyva

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Joan F.

    2012-01-01

    Subtractive bilingualism is widespread throughout Siberia, with indigenous youth often more proficient in Russian than in their non-Russian local languages. Siberia's national schools, which are secondary schools offering instruction in local languages of Russia, provide critical institutional support for minority languages. The goal of this

  6. Return to Siberia: The 2008 Kotuykan River Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In the September-October 2007 issue of'The Earth Observer [volume 19, Number 4, pp. 13-21] we presented an article entitled "Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account." In that article we shared excerpts from a blog that chronicled the adventures of a team of scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science as they embarked on a three-week adventure in the wilds of Siberia in hopes of collecting measurements to validate data from satellites flying 700 km overhead. The same team, plus a couple new participants, headed back to Siberia this past sumner and we are now pleased to present the continuation of their story. For more background details on the expedition to Siberia or if you missed the first part of the story, please refer to the previous article.

  7. Land-use Changes on Peatlands in Russia and Green House Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirin, A.; Minaeva, T.; Chistotin, M.; Glagolev, M.; Suvorov, G.

    2009-04-01

    Russia possesses vast areas of peatlands and associated paludified shallow peat lands, over 8 and 20% respectively. The country is the largest World peatland nation, and thus could be responsible for the large part of GHG exchange between peatlands and the atmosphere. Russian peatlands present a high variety of natural conditions from permafrost mires to bogs, fens and swamps within boreal, temperate, steppe and semi-arid zones, which have quite different rates of GHG flux, emitting or absorbing carbon dioxide and methane. Many regions of Russia still contain vast areas of virgin mires but in the central European part of Russia, West Siberia and Far East the appreciable part of peatlands was already modified. Peatlands were used in a broad spectrum of human activities connected with direct water level draw-down: peat extraction for different purposes (up to 1.5 million ha), drainage for agriculture, and drainage for forestry (each over 3 million ha). Many peatlands all the over the country were affected by infrastructure development (by road, pipe line construction etc.) with related changes of their hydrology and GHG fluxes. These land uses are under consideration of LULUFC issues of UNFCCC, and peat excavation is directly included in IPCC 2006 Guidelines as a main wetland/peatland land use activity related to climate change mitigation. General estimates and geographical distribution of peatlands drained for agriculture and forestry as well as peatlands under excavation, extracted or abandoned are given based on existing statistical and sectoral information. GHG fluxes from disturbed peatlands are analyzed using available Russian data and the results of specially organized observations in 2004-2008 in the pilot regions in Central European Russia and West Siberia which included a variety of modified and virgin control sites.

  8. Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small international team of remote sensing and forest ecosystem scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science set off on a three-week scientific expedition through the heart of the remote, wild forests of Siberia. They traveled southward down the Kochechum River observing the gradual transition from tundra to taiga, taking inventory of plant species along the way, and making ground-truth measurements to validate data being collected by several NASA satellites flying 700 kilometers overhead.

  9. Novel Lyssaviruses Isolated from Bats in Russia

    PubMed Central

    Botvinkin, Alexandr D.; Poleschuk, Elena M.; Borisova, Tatyana I.; Gazaryan, Suren V.; Yager, Pamela; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    Two new rabies-related viruses were discovered in Russia during 2002. Viruses were isolated from bats in Eastern Siberia near Baikal Lake and in the western Caucasus Mountains. After preliminary antigenic and genetic characterization, we found that both viruses should be considered as new putative lyssavirus genotypes. PMID:14720408

  10. Toward the problem of oil and gas bearing capacity of the East Tom-Kolyvan structural zone (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolbova, N. F.; Maerkov, P. O.

    2014-08-01

    The vast depression in the east Tom-Kolyvan folded zone (West Siberia) has been identified by the geophysical data. The well which uncovered 4000 m deep profile of the Jurassic and Paleozoic deposits has been drilled. The relevance of the research is the oil\\gas-bearing capacity evaluation of the discovered depression in this West Siberia area.

  11. International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

    2009-04-01

    During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network. Specific emphasis was made on the study of permafrost soils. Throughout the course students were exposed to a wide range of field techniques, including surveying, coring, geothermal monitoring, thaw-depth measurements, landscape characterization, geomorphologic investigations, soil description and classification according to International, Russian, German, and U.S. classification schemes, and hydrologic and botanical field investigations. Significant portion of the course curriculum was devoted to problems of industrial development in permafrost regions. Pipelines, material sites, operating gas wells, processing plants, pump stations, and permafrost engineering testing facilities associated with three major gas fields (Yamburg, Yubileinoe, and Zapolyarnoe) were visited as part of the field excursions. Several meetings with Russian gas industry executives and workers were arranged to openly discuss economic and political issues associated with GasProm activities in West Siberia. The field work was complemented by daily lectures prepared by instructors and students, covering a wide range of topics. Students also participated in active permafrost research through daily data collection and analysis activities. Analysis of the diverse data sets obtained during the course was conducted at Moscow State University, presented in a series of detailed reports. The data collected by students were contributed to the international IPY permafrost monitoring programmes. Several students have presented results of their research at the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost and other national and international scientific meetings. This presentation describes research and educational activities of the IUCP, provides results of student research, and outlines the plan for the future.

  12. Ongoing climatic extreme dynamics in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Shulgina, T. M.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Recent investigations indicate not only large changes in averaged climatic characteristics (Kabanov and Lykosov, 2006, IPCC, 2007; Groisman and Gutman, 2012), but more frequent occurrence and stronger impacts of climatic extremes are reported as well (Bulygina et al., 2007; IPCC, 2012: Climate Extremes, 2012; Oldenborh et al., 2013). This paper provides the results of daily temperature and precipitation extreme dynamics in Siberia for the last three decades (1979 - 2012). Their seasonal dynamics is assessed using 10th and 90th percentile-based threshold indices that characterize frequency, intensity and duration of climatic extremes. To obtain the geographical pattern of these variations with high spatial resolution, the sub-daily temperature data from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and daily precipitation amounts from APHRODITE JMA dataset were used. All extreme indices and linear trend coefficients have been calculated using web-GIS information-computational platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) developed to support collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts (Gordov et al., 2012). Obtained results show that seasonal dynamics of daily temperature extremes is asymmetric for tails of cold and warm temperature extreme distributions. Namely, the intensity of warming during cold nights is higher than during warm nights, especially at high latitudes of Siberia. The similar dynamics is observed for cold and warm day-time temperatures. Slight summer cooling was observed in the central part of Siberia. It is associated with decrease in warm temperature extremes. In the southern Siberia in winter, we also observe some cooling mostly due to strengthening of the cold temperature extremes. Changes in daily precipitation extremes are spatially inhomogeneous. The largest increase in frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation is observed in the north of East Siberia. Negative trends related to precipitation amount decrease are found in the central West Siberia and in the south of East Siberia. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research projects (11-05-01190 and 13-05-12034), SB RAS Integration project 131 and project VIII.80.2.1., the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation contract 8345 and grant of the President of Russian Federation (decree 181).

  13. On-Going Temperature Extremes in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Temperature trends (grows up to 0.5 C per decade), more frequent occurrence of temperature extremes provoked serious natural disasters (2010 heat waves in Russia, 2013 flood in Russia's Far East) led to socio-economical impact (crop damages, infrastructure failures, respectively). To get reliable knowledge on location, frequency and magnitude of observed extremes we have studied daily max/min temperature trends based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis data (0,250,25). This dataset is most accurately reproduces observed temperature behavior in the region. Statistical analysis of daily temperature time series (1979-2012) indicates the asymmetric changes in distribution tails of such extreme indices as warm/cold days/nights. Namely, the warming during winter cold nights is stronger than during warm nights, especially over the north of Siberia. Increases in minimum temperatures are more significant than in maximum temperatures. Warming determined at the high latitudes of the region is achieved mostly due to winter temperature changes. South area of Siberia has slightly cooling during winter and summer. Results obtained provide regional decision-makers with detailed high spatial and temporal resolution climatic information required for adaptation and mitigation measures development. Calculations presented have been realized using information-computational web-GIS system "Climate" (http://climate.scert.ru/) which automatically generates the archive of calculated fields ready for multidisciplinary studies of regional climate change impacts. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the RFBR (13-05-12034, 14-05-00502), SB RAS 131 and VIII.80.2.1.) and grant of the President of RF (? 181).

  14. Aluminium phosphate and phosphate-sulphate minerals in kyanite schists of the Ichetuyskoye area, West Transbaikalia, Russia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbrodin, Ivan A.; Ripp, German S.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium phosphate and aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals occur as disseminated crystals and fine-grained aggregates in kyanite schists near Ichetuyskoye, in the Dzhida basin (West Transbaikal region, Russia). Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a metamorphic evolution through prograde and retrograde stages. Lazulite-scorzalite and trolleite in association with kyanite, quartz, muscovite, paragonite, topaz, rutile, magnetite and hematite formed during the prograde stage. More than 25 minerals identified in schists are genetically related to the retrograde stage. Some phosphates and all of the APS minerals belong to the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. Electron-microprobe data reveal the presence of wide compositional variations and complex solid-solution series among the members. The main crystal-chemical variations of the APS solid-solution series in the alunite supergroup concern the relative proportions of svanbergite, woodhouseite, goyazite, crandallite, florencite-(Ce) and natroalunite. Chemical analyses of APS minerals indicate extremely high amounts of LREE, Sr, Ba, Ca and Na. In some cases, APS minerals have compositions of Ba and Ca,Ba phosphates- sulphates.

  15. Glacier Evolution in the Altai Mountains, South-West Siberia, for the Last Half Century (with use of Geo-Informational Catalogue)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surazakov, A. B.; Narojniy, Y. K.; Nikitin, S. A.; Aizen, V. B.

    2003-12-01

    To systemize and analyze the information for the period from 1835 to present on altitudinal distributions of glaciers, exposition, their numbers and surface areas in basins, volumes, genetic classification, location of lower and upper level of glaciers, average firn line position and main morphometric characteristics, DataBase on glacier dynamics in the Altai Mountains (AGDB) has been developed in ArcGIS Format [Tomsk State University, Russia]. Data from Glacier Catalogue [1962], topographic maps with the scale of 1:25000 and 1:50000 and air photos, which fixed glaciers' state on 1952, were digitized. Instrumental observational data on glacier tongue retreat from twenty glaciers since 1835, and radio-echo sounding measurements of 120 glacier volumes were also digitized in the AGDB. Modern state of Altai glaciers and their changes since 1952 were assessed from Resurs space images and partially from instrumental observations. Based on estimation from Resurs for the period from 1952 to 1998, the value of Altai glacier retreating was about 56.9 km2, i.e. 7.1 % of total area, varied from 4 % for valley glaciers to 16 % for glaciers of flat mountain tops. Retreat of 2-8 m per year was accompanied by their 10% mass loss. The slightest degradation occurred in inner (central) part of the glacier system, in the heads of river basins with large-scale glaciation, e.g., in the Katunski, Nothern-Chuiski and Southern-Chuiski ranges, amounting to 6.3%. These are the highest regions, reaching up to 4506 m., and 80% of Altai's glaciers are located there. In the river basins with relatively small-glacierized areas, at the peripheral regions, e.g., Kurai, Chihacheva ranges, the degradation reached its maximum values up to 22%.

  16. Arctic ozone loss in Siberia in 2011 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, V.; Tsvetkova, N.; Yushkov, V.; Nakajima, H.; Ivlev, G.; Makshtas, A.; Tereb, N.; Goutail, F.; Pazmino, A.; Pommereau, J.-P.

    2013-03-01

    The atmospheric ozone plays an important role in understanding of the processes occurring in the atmosphere and changes in the climate. Total ozone observations in Siberia were performed by Brewer MKIV No. 049 spectrophotometer in Tomsk, Western Siberia and SAOZ UV-Vis spectrometers deployed along the Arctic Circle in Salekhard aerological station since 1998 and Zhigansk aerological station in Eastern Siberia since 1991. We also use 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in winter-spring period at the Salekhard aerological station at the in Western Siberia and ECC-6A sondes at the drifting North Pole station NP-38 in the Central Arctic area. During the winter-spring season in 2011, Arctic ozone in the 19-21 km altitude region was observed to be more than 70% less that typical values. In the winter-spring of 2012, on the other hand, Arctic conditions were overall much warmer than in 2011, and no evidence of significant ozone loss was seen above the Asiatic regions of Russian Federation. The aim of the paper is to describe which and where these measurements were carried out and illustrate their performances by some examples of ozone data measured in Western and Eastern Siberia, Russia such as that which occurred in the winter-spring season of 2011.

  17. Pangeghtellghet (Visits to Siberia).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneshiro, Vera, Ed.

    This reader contains eight stories in St. Lawrence Island Yupik about visits by St. Lawrence Island people to their relatives and friends in Siberia over a quarter of a century ago. The book, which is intended for use in advanced levels of reading instruction, is part of a series of Siberian Yupik reading materials. (AMH)

  18. Neurosurgery in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Krivoshapkin, Alexey L; Zelman, Vladimir L

    2012-02-01

    There is archaeological evidence that the first neurosurgical procedure in what is now known as Siberia was performed in 8005 ± 100 B.C. According to signs of bone growth, perhaps more than half of the individuals who received the ancient trepanations survived. In Siberia, the first operations on the human brain and spinal cord were performed in 1909 at Tomsk University Hospital by the outstanding Russian surgeon and professor Vladimir M. Mysh. Professor Mysh initially moved from Saint Petersburg to Tomsk and later to Novosibirsk. Nicolay N. Burdenko, the founder of Russian neurosurgery and the Moscow Neurosurgical Institution, began his medical education at the Tomsk Imperial University. In the 1950s, Professor Ksenia I. Kharitonova exerted her great influence upon the development of neurosurgery in Siberia. Since 1955, and for 30 years thereafter, Professor Kharitonova was recognized as a principal leader of Siberian neurosurgery. She applied every effort to spread neurosurgical knowledge, and she popularized best practices around Siberia and the Far East. Perestroika deconstructed and ultimately eliminated the orderly system of neurosurgical service in the Soviet Union. From another perspective, the process opened the window to the world. Fully equipped centers and clinics with state-of-the-art techniques for neuro-oncology, cerebrovascular diseases, neurotrauma, and spinal pathology management in Novosibirsk, Barnaul, Kemerovo, and Irkutsk were enabled. PMID:22387212

  19. A review of myrmecophilous mites of the family Microdispidae (Acari, Heterostigmatina) of Western Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Khaustov, Alexander A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Five species of myrmecophilous microdispid mites (Acari: Microdispidae) are recorded from Western Siberia, Russia. Unguidispus lasii Kurosa, 1979, Unguidispus japonicus Kurosa, 1979, Caesarodispus minutus (Sevastianov, 1981), and Caesarodispus samsinaki (Mahunka, 1967), comb. n. are reported from Russia for the first time. Unguidispus polyctenus (Sevastianov, 1969) and Caesarodispus samsinaki are redescribed. The keys to species of the genera Unguidispus Mahunka, 1970 and Caesarodispus Mahunka, 1977 are provided. PMID:25493064

  20. Comparison of the Impact of the Arctic Oscillation and East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection on Interannual Variation in East Asian Winter Temperatures and Monsoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2014-01-01

    The large-scale impacts of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) teleconnection on the East Asian winter climate anomalies are compared for the past 34 winters focusing on 1) interannual monthly to seasonal temperature variability, 2) East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and 3) the Siberian high (SH) and cold surge. Regression analysis reveals warming by AO and EA/WR over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. The EA/WR impact is found to be comparable to the AO impact in affecting the East Asian temperature and monsoon. For example, warm (cold) months over mid-latitude East Asia during the positive (negative) AO are clearly seen when the AO and EA/WR are in the same phase. Near zero correlation is found between temperature and the AO phase when both teleconnections are in an opposite phase. The well-known negative relationship between SH and the AO phase is observed significantly more often when the AO is in the same phase with the EA/WR. Also, the indices of EAWM, cold surge, and SH are found to be more highly negative-correlated with the EA/WR rather than with the AO. The advective temperature change and associated circulation demonstrate that the anomalous large-scale field including the SH over the mid-latitude Asian inland is better represented by the EA/WR, influencing the East Asian winter climates. These results suggest that the impact of EA/WR should be considered more important than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

  1. Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  2. Dragon Lake, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  3. Geographic Assessment Of Permafrost Bearing Capacity In Siberia Under Warming Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskyi, D.

    2009-12-01

    More than 75% of engineering structures on permafrost in Russia are built according to the First Construction Principle, which relies on the freezing strength (bearing capacity) of the frozen ground to support structures. For given surface and subsurface conditions, the bearing capacity depends strongly on the active layer thickness (ALT) and the temperature at the top of the permafrost (TTOP), both of which are strongly affected by the atmospheric climate. Increases in TTOP and ALT resulting from climatic warming can significantly reduce the bearing capacity of the frozen soil and the stability of engineered structures. We have developed a set of parameterizations to estimate the bearing capacity of frozen soils as function of TTOP and ALT, according to Russian Construction Rules and Regulations. The effect of climate on TTOP and ALT was estimated by an equilibrium permafrost model. Here, we present results from a geographic assessment of changes in the bearing capacity of permafrost soils attributable to observed climatic change in Siberia. Changes in bearing capacity for the last forty years were evaluated for several large settlements and industrial centers, representing different geographical conditions of the Russian Arctic. GIS-based landscape approach was used to apply model at the regional and continental scales to spatially assess changes in the permafrost temperature, the active-layer thickness and the bearing capacity in the North of West Siberia and for the entire Russian continuous permafrost zone. Substantial (up to 25%) loss in the bearing capacity of frozen soils is evident throughout the Russian permafrost zone. This in turn undermines the stability of infrastructure built on permafrost.

  4. THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motomura, Masumi

    The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

  5. Artemia cyst production in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinenko, Liudmila I.; Litvinenko, Aleksandr I.; Boiko, Elena G.; Kutsanov, Kirill

    2015-11-01

    In Western Siberia (Russia) there are about 100 Artemia lakes with total area over 1 600 km2. Geographically these lakes are located between 51-56N and 61-82E. In general these lakes are shallow (depth less than 1.5 m), small or medium size (0.1 to 10 km2); they are chloride; their total salinity is from 40 to 250 g/L. The harvesting of cysts per year is only in 20-40 lakes. In Russia 550 tons of dry Artemia cysts (14%-18% of the world production) were harvested annually. This includes about 350 tons in the Altai region and 200 tons in other regions. During our regular 20-year study period the cyst harvest was: 95 tons in Kurgan; 65 tons in Omsk, 20 tons in Novosibirsk, 20 tons in Tyumen. Ways of increasing cyst harvest in Russia are considered in this article. During the last 30 years the harvest of cysts in Russia has increased from 7-20 to 500-600 tons. A significant influence of dryness of the year was found on productivity in selected lakes, but taken for all the lakes together, the relationship was not significant. The optimal salinity for productivity of cysts in the lakes was determined. Analysis of productivity of the lakes and the harvesting results showed that the stocks of cysts are underutilized by approximately 1.7 times.

  6. Genesis of the West Siberian basin and its petroleum geology: A recent interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-11-01

    A prominent Western specialist on the geology of the oil and gas deposits of Russian provides an interpretation of the genesis of the West Siberian basin, relying, in part, on most recent Russian studies as well as information made available in 1994 evaluating the reserves of Russia`s most important producing province. From Late Carboniferous through Middle Jurassic time, the region of West Siberia passed through orogenic, rift, and early platform stages. A domal high was present in the region during the orogenic stage, arising from crationization of the Ural-Mongolian fold belt. Early Triassic rifting was part of a global rifting event and was a precursor to the subsequent crustal sagging that produced the West Siberian basin. The Early-Middle Jurassic was a time of cyclical marine and continental deposition, the sea moving back and forth from the north. The Talinskoye oil field occurs in Lower-Middle Jurassic sandstones that have the form of a river channel that extends more than 200 km. The Priobskoye field is associated with a Lower Cretaceous clinoform that has been traced N-S for more than 300 km. It is suggested that: (a) the oil in the Lower Cretaceous Neocomian sandstones was sourced by bituminous clays that interfinger with these sandstones on the west; and (b) that Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian gas was sourced in part by deeply buried Paleozoics and by overlying Upper Cretaceous Turonian clays. Predicted discoveries in West Siberia include several thousand small fields with reserves of less than 10 million tons, 250 to 300 medium-sized fields, and several large fields with 30 to 100 million tons. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  7. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  8. Peculiarities of strength and deformability properties of clay soils in districts of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimenko, Sergey; Efimenko, Vladimir; Sukhorukov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The article demonstrates the methodology of the substantiation of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils for the design of pavements by strength conditions in II, III, and IV road-climatic zones in West Siberia. The main purpose of the work is to ensure the quality of the design of roads in newly developed regions of Russia. To achieve this goal the following problems have been solved: the dislocation of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been specified, zoning of the investigated territory for the design of roads has been detailed; regularities of changes in strength and deformability characteristics of clay subgrade soils of their moisture have been established; the territorial normalization of the calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability of clay subgrade soils in relation to the allocated road districts has been carried out. Specification of boundary lines of road-climatic zones has been implemented on the basis of the taxonomic system "zone-subzone-road district". The calculated values of moisture, strength, and deformability characteristics of clay soils, established and differentiated according to road-climatic zones, will ensure the required level of the reliability of transport infrastructure facilities during the life cycle of roads.

  9. Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

    2013-09-01

    On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

  10. Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia.

    PubMed

    Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoykhet, Yakov N; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Odnokurtsev, Valeriy A; Loskutova, Kyunnyay S; Lukmanova, Gulnur I; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Spiridonov, Sergey; Alshinecky, Mikhail V; Sivkova, Tatyana N; Andreyanov, Oleg N; Abramov, Sergey A; Krivopalov, Anton V; Karpenko, Sergey V; Lopatina, Natalia V; Dupal, Tamara A; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus. PMID:23985385

  11. From Siberia to Mars

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Friedmann, E I; Meyer, M A

    1991-01-01

    Because Mars is so similar to Earth, planetary scientists looking for answers to questions like these often use analogous environments on Earth to help them design future Mars missions. Such terrestrial sites, however remote, are still much more accessible than Mars. Field studies in such places give us a chance to test and refine instruments and procedures, develop overall concepts and collect baseline data to compare with actual results from Mars. Perhaps the best terrestrial analogue to the martian permafrost lies in northeastern Siberia. Freezing conditions have persisted here for over 3 million years. Although young by martian standards, these are among the oldest continuously frozen localities on Earth. They also hold something remarkable: not only organic residues, but also large numbers of viable bacteria (up to 100 million per gram of frozen soil), preserved for 3 million years in ice. PMID:11540067

  12. Russia to seek foreign partners in three fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that Russia plans in coming months to call for international tenders covering joint venture development of two oil fields and one oil and gas/condensate field in western Siberia. None has seen extensive drilling. Here are details on the fields: North Priob field is in the KhantiMansi autonomous district of the Tyumen region, one of the most industrially developed oil producing areas of western Siberia. Salim field also is in the KhantiMansi autonomous district of the Tyumen region.

  13. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  14. Biogeochemical phosphorus mass balance for Lake Baikal, southeastern Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, E.; Granina, L.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive data for Lake Baikal have been synthesized into a geochemical mass balance for phosphorus (P). Some of the P budget and internal cycling terms for Baikal have been compared to similar terms for oligotrophic Lake Superior, mesotrophic Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and the Ocean. Lake Baikal has a large external source of fluvial P compared to the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Ocean. The major tributary to Lake Baikal has experienced substantial increases in organic P loading during the past 25 years. This, coupled with potential P inputs from possible phosphorite mining, may threaten Baikal's oligotrophic status in the future. Water-column remineralization of particulate organic P is substantially greater in Lake Baikal than in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This is probably due to the great water depths of Lake Baikal. There is a gradient in P burial efficiency, with very high values (80%) for Lake Baikal and Lake Superior, lower values (50%) for Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and a low value (13%) for the Ocean. The accumulation rate of P in Lake Baikal sediments is somewhat greater than that in the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea, and much greater than in the Ocean. Benthic regeneration rates are surprisingly similar for large lacustrine and marine environments and supply less than 10% of the P utilized for primary production in these aquatic environments.

  15. Interrelations of global change and Siberia regional climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Kabanov, M. V.; Krupchatnikov, V. N.; Lykosov, V. N.; Martynova, Yu. V.; Shulgina, T. M.

    2012-04-01

    Some results of analysis of recent observations and coupled climatic model projections of Siberia climate, surface hydrology and vegetation dynamics under global changes are reported. Special attention is paid to surface temperature behavior, circulation regime changes that play a significant role in Northern Eurasia/Arctic Climate System and to feedbacks between regional climate and the terrestrial surface hydrology and vegetation. In particular, significant positive trends of growing season length accompanied by statistically significant increase of sum of the growing degree day temperatures and precipitation are occurring over the south of West Siberia. It might lead to an increase of vegetation productivity in this region. Results of a comparative analysis of observational and modeled time series for surface temperature in Siberia are presented as well. It reveals a number of stable periodicities in the observed changes of average annual temperature and statistically significant correlation of these periodicities with the planetary indices such as North Atlantic Oscillations and Southern Oscillations (in the Pacific Ocean). Also a role of regional biosphere (including the surface air layer, the vegetation layer, soil, and hydrosphere) in 21st century regional and global climate formation is studied. In particular feedbacks generated by variations of some parameters of the atmosphere and surface hydrology are assessed and analyzed. Still many important impacts of climate change on regional environment can not be quantified due to multiple environmental and human factors coming into play and additional study is required to better understand both the impacts and generated by those in Siberia feedbacks to the Earth system.

  16. Circulation patterns governing October snowfalls in southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednorz, Ewa; Wibig, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    This study is focused on early fall season in southern Siberia (50-60 N) and is purposed as a contribution to the discussion on the climatic relevance of October Eurasian snow cover. Analysis is based on the daily snow depth data from 43 stations from years 1980-2012, available in the database of All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information—World Data Centre. The snow cover season in southern Siberia starts in early autumn and the number of days with snowfall varies from less than 5 days in the southernmost zone along the parallel 50 N to more than 25 days in the northeastern part of the analyzed area. October snowfall in southern Siberia is associated with occurrence of negative anomalies of sea level pressure (SLP), usually spreading right over the place of recorded intense snowfall or extending eastward from it. Negative anomalies of air temperature at the 850 hPa geopotential level (T850) occurring with increased cyclonic activity are also observed. Negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions. Counterclockwise circulation around low-pressure systems transports cold Arctic air from the north or even colder Siberian polar air from the east, to the west, and northwest parts of cyclones, and induces negative anomalies of temperature. The pattern of T850 anomalies during heavy snowfalls in the eastern part of the southern Siberia is shifted counterclockwise in regard to SLP anomalies: the strongest negative T850 anomalies are located west or northwest of the SLP depressions.

  17. Eastern Siberia terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1942-01-01

    The following folio of terrain intelligence maps, charts and explanatory tables represent an attempt to bring together available data on natural physical conditions such as will affect military operations in Eastern Siberia. The area covered is the easternmost section of the U.S.S.R.; that is the area east of the Yenisei River. Each map and accompanying table is devoted· to a specialized set of problems; together they cover such subjects as geology, construction materials, mineral fuels, terrain, water supply, rivers and climate. The data is somewhat generalized due to the scale of treatment as well as to the scarcity of basic data. Each of the maps are rated as to reliability according to the reliability scale on the following page. Considerable of the data shown is of an interpretative nature, although precise data from literature was used wherever possible. The maps and tables were compiled  by a special group from the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the Intelligence Branch of the Office, Chief of Engineers, War Department.

  18. Reanalysis Data Evaluation to Study Temperature Extremes in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, T. M.; Gordov, E. P.

    2014-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes are strongly pronounced in Siberia by significant warming in the 2nd half of 20th century and recent extreme events such as 2010 heat wave and 2013 flood in Russia's Far East. To improve our understanding of observed climate extremes and to provide to regional decision makers the reliable scientifically based information with high special and temporal resolution on climate state, we need to operate with accurate meteorological data in our study. However, from available 231 stations across Siberia only 130 of them present the homogeneous daily temperature time series. Sparse, station network, especially in high latitudes, force us to use simulated reanalysis data. However those might differ from observations. To obtain reliable information on temperature extreme "hot spots" in Siberia we have compared daily temperatures form ERA-40, ERA Interim, JRA-25, JRA-55, NCEP/DOE, MERRA Reanalysis, HadEX2 and GHCNDEX gridded datasets with observations from RIHMI-WDC/CDIAC dataset for overlap period 1981-2000. Data agreement was estimated at station coordinates to which reanalysis data were interpolated using modified Shepard method. Comparison of averaged over 20 year annual mean temperatures shows general agreement for Siberia excepting Baikal region, where reanalyses significantly underestimate observed temperature behavior. The annual temperatures closest to observed one were obtained from ERA-40 and ERA Interim. Furthermore, t-test results show homogeneity of these datasets, which allows one to combine them for long term time series analysis. In particular, we compared the combined data with observations for percentile-based extreme indices. In Western Siberia reanalysis and gridded data accurately reproduce observed daily max/min temperatures. For East Siberia, Lake Baikal area, ERA Interim data slightly underestimates TN90p and TX90p values. Results obtained allows regional decision-makers to get required high spatial resolution (0,250,25) climatic information products from the combined ERA data. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the RFBR (13-05-12034, 14-05-00502), SB RAS Integration projects (131, VIII.80.2.1.) and grant of the President of RF (? 181).

  19. Seabirds of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konyukhov, N.B.; Bogoslovskaya, L.S.; Zvonov, B.M.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted seabird surveys along the entire coast of the Chukotka Peninsula (northwestern Siberia, Russia) from 1983 to 1991. We present the first comprehensive descriptions of the distribution and size of Chukotkan seabird colonies. Thirteen species of seabirds were recorded breeding on the peninsula, with an additional 13 migrant or vagrant species. Our estimate that at least 3 300 000 seabirds breed on the Chukotka Peninsula demonstrates the importance of this region to arctic seabird populations. Colony size and species composition may be determined by availability of adequate breeding sites, access to foraging areas, and variable ice conditions.

  20. Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S. ); Belonin, M.D. )

    1996-01-01

    Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and Rocky Mountain basins of the U.S., and in the Timan-Pechora, West Siberia, East Siberia, and North and South Caspian basins of the former Soviet Union. Deep natural gas resources are regularly assessed by the All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute (VNIGRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of their normal research activities. Both VNIGRI and the USGS employ similar assessment methods involving play (or zone) analysis using geological data and based on an analysis of confirmed and hypothetical plays using field-size distributions, discovery-process models, and statistical estimation procedures that yield probabilistic estimates of undiscovered accumulations. Resource estimates for the deep structural and statigraphic plays of the Anadarko basin and deep Paleozoic zones in the Timan-Pechora basin are compared and contrasted using both methods. Differences in results of assessments between VNIGRI and USGS arise due to (1) the way in which plays/zones are defined, (2) different geochemical models for hydrocarbon generation as applied to hypothetical plays, (3) variations in the ways in which statistical estimation procedures are applied to plays and regions, and (4) differences in economic and technologic assumptions, reserve growth calculations, and accumulation size limits and ranges.

  1. Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Belonin, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and Rocky Mountain basins of the U.S., and in the Timan-Pechora, West Siberia, East Siberia, and North and South Caspian basins of the former Soviet Union. Deep natural gas resources are regularly assessed by the All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute (VNIGRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of their normal research activities. Both VNIGRI and the USGS employ similar assessment methods involving play (or zone) analysis using geological data and based on an analysis of confirmed and hypothetical plays using field-size distributions, discovery-process models, and statistical estimation procedures that yield probabilistic estimates of undiscovered accumulations. Resource estimates for the deep structural and statigraphic plays of the Anadarko basin and deep Paleozoic zones in the Timan-Pechora basin are compared and contrasted using both methods. Differences in results of assessments between VNIGRI and USGS arise due to (1) the way in which plays/zones are defined, (2) different geochemical models for hydrocarbon generation as applied to hypothetical plays, (3) variations in the ways in which statistical estimation procedures are applied to plays and regions, and (4) differences in economic and technologic assumptions, reserve growth calculations, and accumulation size limits and ranges.

  2. Mapping forest succesion types in Siberia with Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S. S.; Sedykh, V.; Kleptsova, I.; Frolov, A.; Silaev, A.; Kuzmenko, E.; Farber, S.; Kuzmik, N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Fedorov, A.; Nikolaeva, S.

    2013-12-01

    We develop a forest typology system based on dynamic vegetation approach and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), one in Central Siberia and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas covered with analysis of the ground truth and inventory data, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects published in literature. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information seem to be a promising way to complement Landsat data, including SAR-based biomass maps and terrain data

  3. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. [Distribution of viruses from the Californian encephalitis serogroup (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus) in the northern expanses of Russia].

    PubMed

    L'vov, S D; Gromashevskiĭ, V L; Morozova, T N; Aristova, V A; Skvortsova, T M; Galkina, I V; L'vov, D K; Butenko, A M; Mitchell, K D; Savage, H M; Selivanov, Ia M; Egorov, N Ia; Androsov, I A; Tugutov, L D; Cherniavskiĭ, V F; Mikhaĭlova, N B; Mayer, V A; Galimov, V R; Sokolova, N G; Andronova, O N; Semenov, V B; Baĭluk, F N; Pogorelyĭ, Iu D; Fadeev, E S; Grekov, E I

    1997-01-01

    The study was carried out in 1983-1991 and covered a territory of about 10 x 10(6) km2 in various physico-geographic areas (East Fennoscandia, Northern Russian Plain, West Siberia, Central Siberia, North-Eastern Siberia, and Northern Pacific Region) in the Arctic, Subarctic, Northern-Central-Southern taiga, forest-steppe, and steppe in Northern Russia. A total of 251 strains were isolated from 1391,900 mosquitoes, identified as the California group snowshoe hare (83), Inkoo (44), and Tahyna (2) viruses; 122 strains were not completely identified. Some of the strains with uncommon antigenic composition can be natural reassortants. Fifty-two percent of strains were isolated from Aedes communis and the associate species of mosquitoes, other hosts were A. excrucians (8%), A. cantans (6.25%), A. flavescens (6.25%), A. ciprius (6.25%), A. punctor (4.5%), A. vexans (4.5%), A. cataphylla (3.6%), A. nigripes (3.6%), and A. hexodontus (2.6%). The infection rate of mosquitoes was 0.009% in the tundra, 0.012% in forest-tundra, 0.01% in Northern taiga, 0.02% in Central taiga, 0.017% in Southern taiga, 0.026% in forest-steppe, and 0.097% in steppe. The epidemic season is one month in the tundra (from the beginning of July till the beginning of August), two months in Northern taiga (July-August), and three months in Central taiga (from the second half of June till the beginning of September). The highest infection rate of mosquitoes was observed at the end of the epidemic season in all regions. SSH strains prevailed to the East from the Enisei river, whereas to the West and in the Subarctic regions INK virus predominated, SSH being rare; in the taiga the distribution was quite the opposite. TAH virus was virtually absent. Human morbidity was observed in all territories studied. The immune stratum of adult population is about 30% in the tundra and forest-tundra and about 50% in Northern and Central taiga. PMID:9424850

  5. Mapping wetland and forest landscapes in Siberia with Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Landsat data availability provides opportunity for improving the knowledge of the Siberian ecosystems necessary for quantifying the response of the regional carbon cycle to the climate change. We developed a new wetland map based on Landsat data for whole West Siberia aiming at scaling up the methane emission observations. Mid-summer Landsat scenes were used in supervised classification method, based on ground truth data obtained during multiple field surveys. The method allows distinguishing following wetland types: pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bogs or ryams, ridge-hollows complexes, shallow-water complexes, sedge-sphagnum poor fens, herbaceous-sphagnum poor fens, sedge-(moss) poor fens and fens, wooded swamps or sogra, palsa complexes. In our estimates wetlands cover 36% of the taiga area. Total methane emission from WS taiga mires is estimated as 3.6 TgC/yr,which is 77% larger as compared to the earlier estimate based on partial Landsat mapping combined with low resolution map due to higher fraction of fen area. We make an attempt to develop a forest typology system useful for a dynamic vegetation modeling and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in West and East Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas where ample ground truth and inventory data are available, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exists for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Forest classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills.

  6. Carbon accumulation in West Siberian Mires, Russia Sphagnum peatland distribution in North America and Eurasia during the past 21,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turunen, Jukka; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Tolonen, Kimmo; PitkNen, Aki

    2001-06-01

    The rates of carbon (C) accumulation and the role of fires in the C dynamics of the major types of boreal West Siberian mires were investigated. Detailed analysis of dry bulk density, C, and N concentration and age of the peat layers were used to determine C accumulation rates throughout the Holocene. The average long-term apparent rate of carbon accumulation (LORCA) at 11 studied sites was 17.21.0 (SE) g m-2 yr-1, ranging from 12.1 to 23.7 g m-2 yr-1, and the total apparent carbon sink 11.8 Tg yr-1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) for Russian raised string bogs (68.5 million hectares). These estimates of C accumulation in West Siberian mires are roughly a half of the earlier estimates for these boreal mires. Differences in LORCA for three major mire types in the study area, the ridge-hollow pine bogs, Sphagnum fuscum pine bogs, and dwarf-shrub pine bogs, were not significant. The age versus depth (measured as cumulative carbon from the surface downward) curve was slightly convex, indicating a general declining trend in LORCA with decreasing age. About 55% of the present carbon store was already accumulated about 6000 cal. BP. The most intensive expansion phase of the study area occurred between 7000 and 8000 cal. BP. The subsequent lateral expansion has been very slow in the later Holocene. The charcoal data indicated that these mires have burned only 2-3 times during the past 7000-8000 cal. BP, and only a strip of a few meters along the mire margins has burned relatively frequently. No evidence of significant carbon losses due to fires could be found. The charcoal layers at the mire margins suggest a declining trend in burning rates during the later Holocene.

  7. Bees of the genus Sphecodes Latreille 1804 of Siberia, with a key to species (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae).

    PubMed

    Astafurova, Yulia V; Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-one species of the bee genus Sphecodes Latreille are recorded from Siberia. Sphecodes schwarzi Astafurova & Proshchalykin, sp. nov. is described from Tyva Republic and Mongolia (Dornod Aimag). Five species: Sphecodes alternatus Smith, 1853, S. reticulatus Thomson, 1870, S. rufiventris (Panzer, 1798), S. pinguiculus Prez, 1903, and S. spinulosus Hagens, 1875 are newly recorded from the Asian part of Russia and seven species: S. ferruginatus Hagens, 1882, S. hyalinatus Hagens,1882, S. longulus Hagens, 1882, S. miniatus Hagens, 1882, S. nippon Meyer, 1922, S. puncticeps Thomson, 1870, and S. scabricollis Wesmael, 1835 are recorded for the first time from Siberia. Sphecodes angarensis Cockerell, 1937 is newly synonymized under S. gibbus (Linnaeus, 1758). Illustrated keys for males and females of all species from Siberia and neighbouring Mongolia are provided. PMID:26624777

  8. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, Tamara M.; Genina, Elena Yu; Gordov, Evgeny P.

    2011-10-01

    The spatiotemporal pattern of the dynamics of surface air temperature and precipitation and those bioclimatic indices that are based upon factors which control vegetation cover are investigated. Surface air temperature and precipitation data are retrieved from the ECMWF ERA Interim reanalysis and APHRODITE JMA datasets, respectively, which were found to be the closest to the observational data. We created an archive of bioclimatic indices for further detailed studies of interrelations between local climate and vegetation cover changes, which include carbon uptake changes related to changes of vegetation types and amount, as well as with spatial shifts of vegetation zones. Meanwhile, analysis reveals significant positive trends of the growing season length accompanied by a statistically significant increase of the sums of the growing degree days and precipitation over the south of West Siberia. The trends hint at a tendency for an increase of vegetation ecosystems' productivity across the south of West Siberia (55-60N, 59-84E) in the past several decades and (if sustained) may lead to a future increase of vegetation productivity in this region.

  9. Forest dieback in Russia: Causes, distribution and implications for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Krankina, O.N. . Dept. of Forest Science); Dixon, R.K. . Environmental Research Lab.); Shvidenko, A.Z. ); Selikhovkin, A.V. )

    1994-12-01

    The Russian Federation with its great expanse of forest land plays a prominent role in the global environment. Over 20% of the world's forest resources and about one-half of boreal forest are located on Russian territory. Forest dieback following natural or anthropogenic disturbance is a significant factor in boreal forest dynamics. The leading causes of dieback are forest fires and adverse weather conditions. Although natural disturbance accounts for the greater part of dieback, anthropogenic factors are significant in increasing susceptibility of forests to stress natural agents. In industrially developed regions air pollution, harvesting, major constructions, and mining are directly responsible for forest dieback. Since factors of forest dieback are closely interrelated a single cause of dieback is often impossible to establish. In 1991 the largest proportion of forest dieback occurred in the southern part of Europe-Urals and West Siberia as well as in the Far East. Data on forest dieback is available only for monitored forest, which constitutes 60% of the total forest land in Russia, so, these values should be regarded as fairly conservative. Decline of forests is estimated to affect additionally about 2 [times] 10[sup 6] ha per year. Projected global climate change is likely to dramatically increase forest decline and dieback.

  10. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will occur during the forecasted period. This is resolved using an interactive method that continually updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability to classify fire severity on burn scar areas for predicting carbon release better over the vast areas of Russia. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as key independent variables. Modern wildfire prevention programs cannot be successful unless they are fully supported by fire-danger analysis acquired from detailed daily fire-danger mapping. This enables better coordination and potential success of limited suppression forces. Currently the existing network of weather stations in Russia, especially in remote areas, does not allow for the estimation of fire danger over the entire country. Thus, northern forests are deprived of badly needed fire protection information because of the lack of weather stations. Remote sensing analysis and diagnosis of forest fire danger conditions is an emerging field both in Russia and abroad. V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, located in Krasnoyarsk, is supporting research this field and is proposing the development of methodology for generating daily fire weather danger maps based on the digital multispectral images obtained from satellites. This will allow the computation of fire danger for remote areas without the need for supplementary on-ground weather stations. KEYWORDS: Fire weather danger system, meteorological data, remote sensing data, wildfires, Siberian boreal forests.

  11. From Russia with Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Ruth Corey

    2005-01-01

    As leader of a People-to-People tour to Russia, and one whose family history is linked to the cataclysmic history of 20th-century Russia, Ruth Corey, felt a special responsibility to introduce her traveling companions to Russia, and Russian Montessorians to her cohorts. Her traveling companions were a group of 15 Montessori teachers, committed to

  12. Petroleum geology of east Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W. )

    1991-03-01

    Two oil-gas provinces are present in East Siberia: the Lena-Tunguska in the central, southern, and western parts, and the Khatanga-Viluy along the northern and eastern margins. The provinces developed as rift-sag features in late Proterozoic and Paleozoic time. The identified oil and gas deposits of the Lena-Tunguska province appear to be associated with a Proterozoic rift that extends east-northeast across the southern part of the basin. These deposits are in upper Proterozoic and Cambrian sandstones and carbonate rocks, sealed by Cambrian salt and argillites. The oil and gas deposits of the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are within foreland downwarps that developed in connection with docking of crustal plates during the Mesozoic: during the Triassic on the north and during the Cretaceous on the east. The source of the petroleum in the immature rocks of the southeastern Lena-Tunguska province is uncertain, perhaps being derived from rocks in a downwarp to the south or from source beds that are now beneath a conjectured thrust sheet. This province has both oil and gas pools, but is gas prone in general. The source beds for the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are Permian and Mesozoic in age; the province is gas prone. More than 40 oil and gas fields have now been discovered in East Siberia.

  13. Fire Impact on Carbon Emissions on Logged and Unlogged Scots pine Forest Sites in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, G.; Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Fires cover millions ha of boreal forests of Russia annually, mostly in Siberia. Wildfire and forest harvesting are the major disturbances in Siberia's boreal zone. Logged areas appear to be highly susceptible to fire due to a combination of high fuel loads and accessibility for human-caused ignition. Fire spreading from logging sites to surrounding forest is a common situation in this region. Changing patterns of timber harvesting increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildfire on changing climate and on air quality. Fire effects on pine stands and biomass of surface vegetation were estimated on logged and unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Fires occurring on logged areas were typically of higher severity than those in unlogged forests, but the specific effects of fire and logging varied widely among forest types and as a result of weather patterns during and prior to the fire. Consumption of surface and ground fuels in spring fires was 25% to 50% of that in summer fires. Estimated carbon emissions due to fire were 2-5 times higher on logged areas compared to undisturbed sites. Post-fire soil respiration decreases found for both site types partially offset carbon losses. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions in Siberia.

  14. Close genetic relationships in vast territories: autosomal and X chromosome Alu diversity in Yakuts from Siberia.

    PubMed

    Rocan-Arj, Ares; Rodrguez-Botigu, Laura; Esteban, Esther; Theves, Catherine; Evdokimova, Larissa E; Fedorova, Sardana A; Gibert, Morgane; Crubezy, Eric; Moral, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Twelve autosomal and 8 X chromosome Alu markers were genotyped for the first time in 161 Central and West Yakuts to test their ability to reconstruct the genetic history of these populations, the northernmost Turkic-speaker ethnic group living in Siberia. Autosomal data revealed that both groups showed extremely close genetic distances to other populations of Siberian origins that occupied areas from Lake Baikal, the ancestral place of origin of Yakuts, to North Siberia, their current territories. Autosomal and X chromosome data revealed some discrepancies on the genetic differentiation and the effective sizes of Central and West Yakuts. Such discrepancies could be related to the patrilineal and occasionally polygamous structure of these populations. Autosomal and X Alu markers are informative markers to reconstruct population past demography and history, but their utility is limited by the available data. This study represents a contribution for further investigations on these populations. PMID:24466640

  15. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Petroleum geology of East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    The unmetamorphosed geologic section of the East Siberian region consists of upper Proterozoic clastic and carbonate sediments; Cambrian evaporites, carbonates, and black shales; Ordovician to permian clastic and carbonate sediments; Triassic basaltic flows and intrusives; and Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic sediments. During the Cambrian, a barrier reef extended across the region. Salt and anhydrite were deposited in the vast lagoon to the southwest behind this reef. The structure is typical of platforms; broad, gentle warps are complicated by smaller highs. The total area of East Siberia that is potentially favorable for oil and gas is 3.23 million km/sup 2/ (1.24 million mi/sup 2/). Deposits in the Lena-Tunguska province are in stratigraphic traps in Proterozoic to Cambrian clastic and carbonate sediments sealed by Cambrian salt and in anticlinal structures in areas of salt tectonics. Source beds seem to be Proterozoic. Pools in the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are in anticlines in Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. Source beds are Permian carbonaceous shale. Most discoveries have been of gas; however, several fields have oil rings. The traps appear to have been filled by oil at one time. Undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources of East Siberia are assessed, at 90% probability, within the range of 2.2-14.6 billion bbl of oil and 72-278 tcf of gas. Mean estimates are 7.3 billion bbl of oil and 158 tcf of gas, respectively. Gas-hydrate deposits in the Lena-Vilyuy province, where permafrost is more than 400 m thick, are estimated to contain 27 tcf of possibly recoverable gas.

  17. Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Drought displaced movement of North American pintails into Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.

    1973-01-01

    During the years 1954-70, 230 pintails (Anas acuta) banded in North America were reported from eastern Asia, primarily Siberia. Most of the birds were shot on the breeding grounds in May. The movement into eastern Asia of pintails banded in the interior of North America was directly correlated with the overflight of the southern portion of the breeding range in North America (r = +0.73**); this overflight resulted from drought conditions (Smith 1970). Thus, the magnitude of the pintail movement into eastern Asia is believed to be dependent upon water conditions some 3,000 miles away. A higher percentage of the pintails banded in the west was reported from eastern Asia, although the recovery rate index was not significantly correlated with the percentage of pintails found in northern Canada and Alaska (r = +0.46 NS). Apparently, a portion of the pintails which winter in the western United States annually nest in Siberia, regardless of water conditions on the North American breeding grounds.

  19. [Experience in predicting malaria epidemiological parameters in Russia in the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Malkhazova, S M; Shartova, N V; Krainov, V N

    2012-01-01

    An attempt was made to create a model for the tertian malaria situation in European Russia and Western Siberia. Prediction was done on the basis of the data of climate modeling within the CMIP3 project by the IPCC A2 scenario, which revealed that there would be better conditions for malaria pathogen development in the mid-21st century, suggesting an increased epidemic danger. PMID:22536731

  20. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  1. Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.

    2007-05-01

    The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of Rodinia soon after 800 Ma and continued to be so until very near the end of the Palaeozoic, when it became an integral part of the Pangea Supercontinent. The boundaries of the cratonic core of the Siberian Terrane (including the Patom area) are briefly described, together with summaries of some of the geologically complex surrounding areas, and it is concluded that all of the Palaeozoic underlying the West Siberian Basin (including the Ob-Saisan Surgut area), Tomsk Terrane, Altai-Sayan Terranes (including Salair, Kuznetsk Alatau, Batenov, Kobdin and West Sayan), Ertix Terrane, Barguzin Terrane, Tuva-Mongol Terrane, Central Mongolia Terrane Assemblage, Gobi Altai and Mandalovoo Terranes, Okhotsk Terrane and much of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma region all formed parts of peri-Siberia, and thus rotated with the main Siberian Craton as those areas were progressively accreted to the main Siberian Terrane at various times during the latest Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic. The Ertix Terrane is a new term combining what has been termed the "Altay Terrane" or "NE Xinjiang" area of China, and the Baytag, Baaran and Bidz terranes of Mongolia. The Silurian Tuvaella brachiopod fauna is restricted only to today's southern parts of peri-Siberia. Thus, allowing for subsequent rotation, the fauna occurs only in the N of the Siberian Terrane, and, as well as being a helpful indicator of what marginal terranes made up peri-Siberia, is distinctive as being the only Silurian fauna known from northern higher latitudes globally. In contrast, the other terranes adjacent to peri-Siberia, the North China Terrane, the Manchurides terranes (including the Khingan-Bureya Massif area), the Gurvanshayan Terrane, the Ala Shan Terrane, the Qaidam-Qilian Terrane, the Tarim Terrane, the Junggar Terrane, the Tien Shan terranes and the various Kazakh terranes, did not become part of the Siberian Terrane assemblage until they accreted to it in the Upper Palaeozoic or later during the formation of Pangea. The Farewell Terrane of Alaska includes typical Lower and Middle Palaeozoic Siberian endemic faunas, but its Palaeozoic position is unknown. Cambrian to Early Silurian palaeomagnetic poles from the southern and northern parts of the Siberian Craton differ, but can be matched with an Euler pole of 60°N, 120°E and a rotation angle of 13°. We link this observation with Devonian rifting in the Viljuy Basin near the centre of the craton and also postulate that this rifting rejuvenated an older Precambrian rift zone, since 1-1.1 Ga poles from southern and northern Siberia differ as much as 23° around the same Euler pole. A revised Palaeozoic apparent polar wander (APW) path is presented for the Siberian Craton in which pre-Devonian poles are corrected for Viljuy Basin rifting. There is also much Late Devonian tectonic activity in the Altai-Sayan area, which may be linked. The APW path implies that Siberia was located at low southerly latitudes at the dawn of the Palaeozoic and slowly drifted northward (< 4 cm/yr.). A velocity burst is noted near the Ordovician-Silurian boundary (ca. 13 cm/yr between 450 and 440 Ma), whilst the Mid-Silurian and younger history is characterized by steady clockwise rotation (totalling about 75°) until the Late Permian. The Late Palaeozoic convergence history between Siberia and Baltica (Pangea) is hard to quantify from palaeomagnetic data because there are only two reliable poles (at 360 and 275 Ma) between the Early Silurian and the Permo-Triassic boundary. The Mid and Late Palaeozoic APW path for Siberia is therefore strongly interpolated and we discuss two different APW path alternatives that result in two very different convergence scenarios between Siberia and Baltica/Kazakh terranes. There are a newly-constructed succession of palaeogeographic maps of Siberia and its nearby areas at various times from the Cambrian to the Permian as, firstly, the peri-Siberian terranes and, secondly, the remainder of the Central Asian terranes accreted to it. Prior to the Early Ordovician, Siberia was in the southern hemisphere, but after that it drifted northwards and for most of the Phanerozoic it has been one of the few larger terranes in the northern hemisphere. The Cambrian and Ordovician maps are provisional for the Altai-Sayan and Mongolian areas, whose geology is highly complex and whose detailed palaeogeography is unresolved. The terms "Altaids" and "Paleo-Asian Ocean" have been used in so many different ways by so many different authors over so many geological periods that we reject their use. Wider issues considered include the possible links between the Cambrian Radiation (often wrongly termed "Explosion"), when metazoan animals first gained hard parts, and True Polar Wander (TPW). New Early Cambrian palaeomagnetic data from Siberia do not show rapid APW (< 10 cm/yr.) or dramatic velocity changes (< 4 cm/yr). It is concluded that the Cambrian Radiation occurred over a period approaching 20 Myr, and that rapid and large-scale TPW did not take place in the Cambrian. In addition, there are no traces of glaciogenic deposits in the very large area of Siberia during the Neoproterozoic, casting some doubt on the "Snowball Earth" hypothesis.

  2. Effects Of Climate, Permafrost And Fire On Potential Vegetation Change In Siberia In A Warming Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century, which are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Increased permafrost melt and forest fire directly affected by climate warming are predicted to additionally influence vegetation change. Our goal is to model potential vegetation change across Siberia (within the territory between the Urals and Yakutia and between the southern border of Russia and the Arctic ocean) using several Hadley Center climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. To predict vegetation change, we use SiBCliM, our Siberian BioClimatic Model, an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5oC; negative degree days below 0oC; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). All vegetation predictions are corrected for the influence of climate on permafrost active layer depth. Potential fire danger is evaluated using a regression model that relates the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10000) to annual moisture index. Shifts in the climate necessary to support current Siberian vegetation are notable by 2020. Biomes and major tree species are predicted to shift northwards as far as 600-1000 km by 2080. Forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems rather than forests are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of their ability to withstand continuous permafrost. Our model also predicts new temperate broadleaf and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Fire danger is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia, where wildland fires would promote habitats for steppe and forest-steppe. Melting permafrost and fire are the principal mechanisms that facilitate vegetation change, which leads to a new equilibrium between vegetation and climate across Siberia.

  3. Why not biodegradation of oils some West Siberia fields?

    SciTech Connect

    Ablia, E.A.; Guseva, A.N.; Korneva, T.N.; Korneva, I.V.

    1996-10-01

    Oils were investigated from one-pool fields Shaim area, which were produced more than 20 years. Reservoirs-Jurassic clastic and porous rock of the basement; intervals - 1600-1800 m; temperature - less than 50{degrees}C; pressure - normal. The production is conducted in a mode water intrusion with use of surface waters. A comparison of oils from exploration and modem development wells revealed different direction of bulk data change - on the one hand standard relative accumulation of resins, asphaltene and wax without appreciable change of density, with the other - decrease of their concentration and appreciable facilitation of oils. The alkanes C12+ distribution in all oils has changed directly: pristane/phytane ratio from 1.3 up to 1.1-1.0 decreases, BIAS slightly decreases. The processes of biodegradation in all tests are not marked. The absence fixed biodegradation these oils under favorable external conditions can be explained (1) constant surge of {open_quotes}fresh{close_quotes} portions of HC fluid restoring the alkane balance, and, probably, (2) insignificant geological time of effect bacterium for appreciable infringement of this balance.

  4. Siberia-Europe gas line nears completion

    SciTech Connect

    Gurevich, V.

    1983-08-01

    The Soviets export gas pipeline will be commissioned in the fourth quarter of 1983. This is the world's biggest gas pipeline, about 2,800 miles long and valued at $10 billion. Work proceeds well ahead of schedule over the major part of the gas line which is to connect the Urengoi deposits in Siberia with the city of Uzhgorod on the Soviet Union's western border. Part of the gas to be carried by the Siberia-Western Europe line will help meet the Soviet Union's domestic needs.

  5. Specific features in the formation of the population of Siberia.

    PubMed

    Trufakin, V A

    2007-01-01

    Population migration played the main role in the development of the North-East regions of Russia, and the processes of natural moving and reproduction of new generations were their after-effects. It is possible to mark out the main periods of population formation. The period of establishing from the beginning of development (the second half of the XVI century) to the 20th of the last century. The period of accomulation and intensive use of human resources (till the beginning of the 80th of the last century) when the population increased more than twice and reached 28 mln people, 3 mln of them living in the circumpolar regions. To the end of the 20th century the period of inert growth and stabilization of population numbers with the following stage of its decreasing. The main fundamental specific feature of Siberian population is its genetic diversity. This, on the one hand, points out the biological stability of the new generations of Siberian population and, on the other hand, predetermines the formation of peculiar features of pathology and the prevalence of the diseases among various categories and ethnic groups of the population. The intensive use of natural resources in Siberia (including people), inadequate social and economic development of Siberian territories are reflected in high levels of health loss in the population as the result of mortality, disability and morbidity caused by accidents and traumas, diseases of blood circulation system, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases, malignant neoplasms, alcoholism, sexually transmitted diseases (which in some ethnic regions 1,5-5,5 times are above the average index for Russia) . Most of these diseases belong to the category of socially important pathology and reveal the problems of providing living conditions and medical care in these regions. We may suggest that despite of negative trends in health loss in Siberian population it is possible to preserve biological (genetic) stability of the new generations if the state and the society eliminate negative social-economic and ecological consequences of the development of the North-East regions in Russia. PMID:17929608

  6. Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, S.; Sher, A.; Boeskorov, G.; Lazarev, P.; Binladen, J.; Willerslev, E.; Tikhonov, A.

    2009-12-01

    A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them in perfect condition. The fossils, and especially mummies, present a perfect material for genetic studies. Woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.), is one of the symbols of the Ice Age and one of few large mammal species that disappeared from Eurasia about 14 000 years ago. Recently, a substantially complete mummy of woolly rhinoceros was found in permafrost at the Rodinka site near Cherskiy, northeastern Yakutia, Russia (68.76°N, 161.63°E). It is the body of an adult female, weighing almost 900 kg, with the preserved skull, two horns, lower jaw, one ear, and tail. The length of the carcass is about 2 m, the live length of the animal is estimated as more than 3 m. The right legs are partly preserved and the chest and belly cavities are partly empty; almost all hair has been lost. Despite these defects, it is the most complete mummy of woolly rhino ever found in permafrost. A fragment of rib from the body has been AMS dated to 39140±390 BP (OxA-18755). In recent years the Rodinka site has yielded an unprecedented number of woolly rhino fossils and is so far the richest locality for this extinct species. The woolly rhino had a very wide distribution in the Late Pleistocene - from France to the Bering Strait and from China to the high-arctic islands. It was perfectly adapted to the variety of severe periglacial (tundra-steppe) environments. Intriguingly, it was the only large Siberian mammal that never crossed the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska. In the vast lowlands of Arctic Siberia Coelodonta fossils are common, but much less abundant (below 1%) compared to those of other large Ice Age mammals such as mammoth, bison, or horse. The unusual abundance of rhino fossils in the low hills of submontane area confirms an earlier hypothesis that such a terrain was especially attractive for these animals, although they could make long (probably, seasonal) excursions to the North along the plains. The collection of woolly rhino fossils from Cherskiy is now under study by paleontologists and geneticists in Russia, Denmark, and the UK. Research was partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 07-05-00313-a and Far East 09-04-98568-r_vostok_a).

  7. Converbs in the Languages of Eastern Siberia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedjalkov, Igor

    1998-01-01

    Gives an account of converb (adverbial participle or gerund) systems in eight languages from Paleoasiatic and Altaic families spoken in northeastern Siberia. The rich converbal system is not the only relevant and peculiar feature common to the languages, but it is not common in other languages. The characteristics of converbs are described, and

  8. The perils and pitfalls of business in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Spears, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    It is not for the lack of trying that few Western oil companies have profitable operations in Russia. Quite the contrary. Every oil company with a thirst for opportunity has searched that once-forbidden region for deals. This gold rush was triggered by an apparent crying need or Western know-how and capital, but appearances in Russia often widely differ from reality. Hype of early oil ventures set a false tone of promise, but company and company came home poorer and wiser. The gold rush went bust. Now in the fourth year of the West`s involvement in Russia`s oilfields, operators are soberly evaluating their prospects. Even while signals are encouraging the West, like a reduction in export tariffs and some progress on contract law, a remarkable event is occuring that throws out many Western arguments for continuing involvement and investment: On their own, the Russians are arresting their production decline and have increased output. This will have immediate and long term effects on Westerners. First, it lends credibility to Russian voices demanding that Mother Russia not sign away its precious resources to foreigners. Second, it encourages trade barriers to protect domestic industry. Third, it weakens the bargaining position of Westerners. Fourth, it reduces the options available to Western operators. What remains will be E&P opportunities where Western technology and capital really can play a role-complex reservoirs, hostile environments-but poor contract terms.

  9. Planned LLR station in Russia and its impact on the lunar ephemeris accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyev, M.; Yagudina, E.; Torre, J.-M.; Feraudy, D.

    2015-08-01

    Precise modern Lunar Ephemerides (DE/LE, USA; INPOP series, France and EPM-ERA IAA, Russia) are based only on LLR (Lunar Laser Ranging) observations obtained at sixth LLR ground stations during 1969-2013 years. At present there are only four stations active: Grasse (Cerga), McDonald, Apache Point (Apollo) and Matera (Italy). To improve the accuracy of lunar ephemerides the new stations are necessary. Now exist two projects of new LLR stations: Altay (Russia) and Hartebeesthoek in South Africa (1m telescope). La Silla (Chilli) station is very promising but now only under theoretical consideration. In the paper, the impact of a installation of new LLR device on the 3.12 m telescope at Altay station Siberia, Russia is considered. To check the actuality of the project it should be shown, in particular, that the accuracy of the lunar ephemeris will visibly increase. The only way to prove that fact now is the numerical simulation.

  10. [The heterogeneity of the ospa gene of Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii in western Siberia and Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Fomenko, N V; Stronin, O V; Khasnatinov, M A; Danchinova, G A; Bataa, J; Gol'tsova, N A

    2009-01-01

    48 full-length Borrelia garinii and Borrelia afzelii from West Siberia and Mongolia ospA gene nucleotide sequences was determined. Four groups of Borrelia garinii were revealed using the analysis of nucleotide sequences. The most variable ospA gene region was demonstrated to be included in region where the antigenic determinants of protein were encoded. High homology level was shown for nucleotide sequences corresponding to isolates of Borrelia afzelii. PMID:20050161

  11. Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: challenges, approaches and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, Evgeny; Vaganov, Evgeny

    2010-05-01

    Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in the both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Crucial challenges are formed by accelerated warming occurred in Siberia, scare observational network, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence and caused by this specific lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The approaches used to meet these challenges include development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required to generate high resolution data sets in demand, to manage multidisciplinary environmental data and to support of multidisciplinary and "distributed" teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for exchange and sharing of data, models and knowledge. The Climate site of the Enviro-RISKS web portal (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/), providing an access to interactive web-system for regional climate assessment on the base of available meteorological data archives is a prototype of one of key infrastructure elements optimizing the usage of information-computational resources, services and applications is described in details as well as a concept of its transformation to a web based information-computational system provided with GIS functionality. Another element is the mesoscale meteorological model WRF currently used for downscaling results of Reanalyzes and climatic modeling for the targeted region. Statistical analysis of available data sets reveals some remarkable features of on-going changes of regional climatic characteristics including those, which control vegetation dynamics. In particular,it is shown that fields of long-term temperature trends have inhomogeneous structure. One can separate regions with maximum warming rates, which are located mostly in East Siberia. Spatial distribution of seasonally mean temperature changes is specific for seasons. Winter and spring seasons made the main contribution to climate warming. However, autumn became more cool at the vast territories in the north of West and East Siberia. In general, changes are within range -0.5? to +0.5? every 10 years. Currently, efforts of the community involved are concentrated on issues related to regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes. There are three main scientific problems, whose solution is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics and has strong regional socio-economical impact: Permafrost fate, especially its border shift, which seriously threats to infrastructure and might form significant carbon source; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems borders shifts to North, which might change region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime change, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires thus increasing significantly carbon release from the region under study.

  12. First genetic characterization of rotavirus C in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zhirakovskaia, Elena; Tikunov, Artem; Klemesheva, Vera; Loginovskikh, Natalia; Netesov, Sergey; Tikunova, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Rotaviruses C (RVC) cause sporadic cases and outbreaks of diarrhea in humans and animals worldwide. The aim of this study was to monitor RVC during a surveillance study of sporadic cases of viral gastroenteritis in the Novosibirsk and Omsk regions of Russia from 2006 to 2011. A total of 2144 stool samples from children and adults hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis were tested for RVC by RT-PCR. Sixteen RVC-positive stool samples were detected at a rate of 0.6% (13/2037) in children and 2.8% (3/107) in adults. The low detection rate suggested that RVC infection was an uncommon cause of hospitalization in Russia. The complete VP7, VP4, VP6, and NSP4 gene sequences were determined. It was found that RVCs with at least two different genome backgrounds circulated in Siberia. VP4, VP6, and NSP4 gene sequences of most Russian RVC strains clustered with South Asian strains, while the VP7 gene showed a closer relationship to European strains. Meanwhile, only VP4 and NSP4 sequences of the strain Omsk08-386 clustered with South Asian strains, while its VP6 and VP7 sequences clustered with European strains. This is the first genetic characterization of Russian RVC strains and the first report on the prevalence of RVC in the Asian part of Russia. PMID:26773827

  13. Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I.

    2006-05-15

    A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

  14. Wetland classification based on Landsat and its application for methane emission inventory of West Siberian taiga zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleptsova, Irina; Maksyutov, Shamil; Glagolev, Mikhail

    2013-04-01

    Quantification of the wetland methane emissions is complicated by large heterogeneity of the methane emission rates and wetland landscapes. Wetland mapping is important component for assessing the global methane emissions. West Siberia wetlands are the biggest wetland area in Eurasia, are situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. A number of wetland, vegetation and peat maps of the West Siberia were developed in 1970s, but those are not easily applicable for methane emission mapping due to use of the generalized classifications which do not reflect heterogeneity of the landscapes at scales of less than 100 m. In this study, we developed a new wetland typology map based on Landsat imagery and applied it to scaling up the CH4 fluxes measured by a static chamber method. Taking into account relative abundance of different mire types a classification scheme oriented on methane emission estimates was developed. It is based on earlier classifications and consists of the simplest mire units or microlandscapes as the oligotrophic hollows, waterlogged hollows, forested bogs and ridges, fens (including poor fens and swamps) and wetland lakes. Taiga zone of West Siberia was chosen as a primary target for the land cover classification since its large wetland area. 68 Landsat scenes were classified. Totally, wetland area was estimated at 55.7 Mha that is slightly higher than the earlier estimate of 51.5 Mha (Romanova et al., 1977). Methane emission rates vary strongly among the microlandscapes. While the highest amounts are emitted by waterlogged hollows followed by fens, the lowest rates are emitted by elevated landcover units such as forested bogs and ridges. According to our estimates they account for only 3% of the regional flux despite occupying almost 40% of the total wetland area. The oligotrophic and waterlogged hollows as parts of patterned bogs cover more than quarter of the mire territory accounting for almost half of the total CH4 emission. Lakes are widespread over taiga mire systems occupying 16% of the territory and contributing 15% of CH4 flux to the atmosphere. The rest of the territory is mainly occupied by fens, poor fens and swamps (13%) contributing 33% of the total CH4 flux. Applying the new map resulted in total methane emissions from taiga zone of 3.53 TgC/yr which is 87% higher than the former estimates by Glagolev et al. (2011). This considerable revision is caused by the changes in fractional coverages of methane emitting landscapes. Glagolev M, Kleptsova I, Filippov I, Maksyutov S, Machida T. 2011. Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes. ERL 6 045214. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045214 Romanova EA, Bybina RT , Golitsyna EF , Ivanova GM , Usova LI, Trushnikova LG. 1977. Wetland typology map of West Siberian lowland scale 1:2500 000 GUGK: Leningrad, Russia

  15. Effects of Repeated Fires in the Forest Ecosystems of the Zabaikalye Region, Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; Petkov, A.; Barrett, K.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Ivanova, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is the main ecological disturbance controlling forest development in the boreal forests of Siberia and contributing substantially to the global carbon cycle. The warmer and dryer climate observed recently in the boreal forests is considered to be responsible for extreme fire weather, resulting in higher fire frequency, larger areas burned, and an increase of fire severity. Because of the increase of fire activity, boreal forests in some regions may not be able to reach maturity before they re-burn, which means less carbon will be stored in the ecosystem and more will remain in the atmosphere. Moreover, if one fire occurs within a few years of another, some stands will not re-grow at all, and even more carbon will accumulate in the atmosphere. Zabaikalye region located in the south of Siberia is characterized by the highest fire activity in Russia. With a use of the satellite-based fire product we found that there are about 7.0 million hectares in the region burned repeatedly during the last decade. We have investigated a number of sites in-situ in light-coniferous (Scots pine and larch) forests and evaluated the impacts of repeated fires on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration. Substantial decrease of carbon stocks, change of the vegetation structure and composition, and soil erosion were observed in many areas disturbed by repeated fires. At drier sites located in the southern regions repeated fires prohibited successful regeneration and resulted in forest conversion to grassland. Detection and monitoring of changes in the areas of Siberia where repeated fires have caused a major shift in ecosystem structure and function is required for the development of sustainable forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program.

  16. Interaction of Siberia and Baltica at the final stage of amalgamation of the Eurasian part of Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shatsillo, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The probable relative positions of the Siberian and East European cratons (Siberia and Baltica paleocontinents, respectively) during the Early Permian and the pattern of their movements at the stage of consolidation in the structure of the Pangea supercontinent are reconstructed from the paleomagnetic data. The kinematics of Siberia and Baltica indicates that they belonged to different lithospheric plates during the Permian, but since then they could have moved cooperatively. The structural data for the folded zones surrounding these cratons and the kinematical constraints suggest the most probable scenario of the interaction between Siberia and Baltica during the Permian, in which the motion of Siberia relative to Baltica was a clockwise rotation around the Euler pole located in the southwest of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago. This interaction between the paleocontinents agrees with the meridional lengthening, i.e., the squeezing out of the structures whose relics currently compose the basement of the West Siberian Plate along the shear zones in the southern and northern directions, and it is verified by the pattern of formation of some distinctive structures in the Central Asian folded belt and Arctic Region.

  17. Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Forest Dynamics in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, K. J.; Sun, G.; Kharuk, V. I.; Howl, J.

    2011-01-01

    The forested regions of Siberia, Russia are vast and contain about a quarter of the world's forests that have not experienced harvesting. However, many Siberian forests are facing twin pressures of rapidly changing climate and increasing timber harvest activity. Monitoring the dynamics and mapping the structural parameters of the forest is important for understanding the causes and consequences of changes observed in these areas. Because of the inaccessibility and large extent of this forest, remote sensing data can play an important role for observing forest state and change. In Central Siberia, multi-sensor remote sensing data have been used to monitor forest disturbances and to map above-ground biomass from the Sayan Mountains in the south to the taiga-tundra boundaries in the north. Radar images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C)/XSAR mission were used for forest biomass estimation in the Sayan Mountains. Radar images from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1), European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) and Canada's RADARSAT-1, and data from ETM+ on-board Landsat-7 were used to characterize forest disturbances from logging, fire, and insect damage in Boguchany and Priangare areas.

  18. Investigation of ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat culture.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Casey C; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2010-04-01

    Mitochondrial DNA from 14 archaeological samples at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven samples are from three sites, dating to the 8th-12th century AD, that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia. The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The samples are derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represent a number of different skeletal elements and a range of observed preservation. The northern sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from the south, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by archaeological analysis. PMID:20649397

  19. Home Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

  20. Home Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staroverova, T. I.

    2011-01-01

    From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with

  1. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  2. Dating Violence in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysova, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of violence in interpersonal relationships has been little studied in Russia, and the phenomenon of violence between dating partners has not been the object of scientific interest at all. The study on which the present article is based was designed to obtain information about the violence in dating among students enrolled in…

  3. Epoch Difference in the Water Cycle in Siberia: Long-term Variations of the Siberian River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, K.; Ogata, K.; PARK, H.; Tachibana, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Among all the rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean, the three great Siberian rivers; Lena, Yenisei and Ob, are the three largest in terms of water discharge (R), and they are a large source of freshwater. While linear trends of the Rs have been examined in many previous studies, causes of the R variations are still unclear. As pointed out in Fukutomi et al. (2003), during the 1980s to mid-1990s, the observed R of the Lena was negatively correlated with that of the Ob. The precipitation (P) and net precipitation (P-E) also showed negative correlation. These variations were affected by the east-west seesaw pattern of atmospheric circulation and associated moisture transport over Siberia. Our analysis, including records from recent years, revealed that the correlation of the R becomes weak after the mid-1990s, and it was positive during the mid-1950s to 1960s. These results indicated that the relationship between the observed Rs of the Lena and Ob was different in each epoch during the past seven decades. Reconstructed Rs based on the tree-ring during the past two centuries also showed positive and negative correlations in each of the epochs. Interestingly, the correlations were distributed on the negative side. This implies that the east-west seesaw pattern frequently appeared over Siberia. In addition, control simulation with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) suggested that the east-west seesaw pattern appears as an atmospheric internal variability over Siberia. In conclusion, the atmospheric circulation which affects the P variations over Siberia was different in each epoch during the past two centuries, and as a result the relationship between the Rs of the Lena and Ob Rivers were changed in each of the epochs.

  4. Glacier Change at Suntar-Khayata Mountains in North-East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, T.; Enomoto, H.; Kadota, T.; Fedorov, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the enhanced warming in the Arctic Regions owing to the sea-ice decrease and others processes, as a part of the global warming, other snow and ice such as glaciers are also decreasing (SWIPA, 2011) and melting region of Greenland are said to have increased in 2012. It is very important to know the present actual condition and the speed of the changes. Research group in Japan and Russia, started to look into the present state of the glaciers of the North-East Siberia which is one of the blank area in the Arctic Region. The glaciated area in the Sunta-Khayata Mountain Range, which exist at northest Siberia, between the ??cities of Magadan in the Pacific Coast and Oimyakon. The glaciated area is said to be 156 km2 in 1945 and decreased to 162 km2 in 2002/2003 (SWIPA, 2011). This change should be accelerated during the recent ten years, due to the strong warming occurring in the 2000s. In-situ research in this region has been made in IGY period (1957?1959) by Russian Groups?and after that, in year 2000 and 2004?2005 by joint Russian and Japanese Groups. Since old information exists in this region, this is a good area for studying cryospheric changes due to the recent strong warming. A project started in 2011 to obtain glacier basic information and study their changes, and will look into the future variability applying glacier models. Also, mountain environment such as permafrost condition, geomorphology were surveyed. Reconnaissance started in 2011, and field surveys were done in three summers (2012 to 2014). Glacier mass, mass balance changes, glacier-climate relation and past glacier variability is discussed based on glacier measurement, surface mass balance measurement, in-situ climate observation and moraine dating. This is a project between Cold Region Program of JAMSTEC (Yokosuka, Japan), GRENE Project of NIPR (Tokyo, Japan) and Melinikov Permafrost Institute (Yakutsk, Russia).

  5. Estimation of nocturnal222Rn soil fluxes over Russia from TROICA measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezina, E. V.; Elansky, N. F.; Moiseenko, K. B.; Belikov, I. B.; Shumsky, R. A.; Safronov, A. N.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-12-01

    In TROICA (TRanscontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) campaigns (1999-2008), the simultaneous observations of near surface 222Rn concentrations and atmospheric boundary layer thermal structure were performed along the Trans-Siberian Railway across northern Eurasia from Moscow to Vladivostok, including central, southern and far eastern parts of Russia. The data on 222Rn and temperature vertical distribution are used to estimate 222Rn regional scale soil fluxes based on calculations of nocturnal 222Rn accumulation rates in the surface layer under inversion conditions. An effect of seasonal soil thawing on 2-4 times surface 222Rn concentration increase from summer 1999 to autumn 2005 is observed. The estimated 222Rn regional averaged fluxes vary over Russia from 29 ± 8 mBq m-2 s-1 in its so-called European territory to 95 ± 51 mBq m-2 s-1 in the southern area of Siberia. The highest 222Rn fluxes are derived in the regions of high tectonic activity and orogenic belts of central and eastern Siberia and in far eastern Russia. The observed high 222Rn flux variations in specific events show a strong effect of both soil and atmospheric conditions on 222Rn near-surface abundance and the derived seasonal patterns over the continent.

  6. Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov

    SciTech Connect

    Reams, C.A.

    1996-12-01

    Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

  7. Distribution of tropospheric methane over Siberia in July 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohjima, Y.; Wakita, H.; Maksyutov, S.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.; Vinnichenko, N.; Khattatov, V.

    1997-11-01

    Airborne observations of atmospheric methane (CH4) mixing ratio were carried out over Siberia during July 15-30, 1993, using a continuous measurement system. The distribution of CH4 in the upper troposphere at an altitude of about 7 km was highly variable (1.72-1.91 parts per million, or ppm), being affected by intrusion of stratospheric air, long-range transport of CH4 from the source region, and a synoptic-scale mixing process. During flights along nearly constant latitude between Yakutsk (62.10N, 129.50E) and Nizhnevartovsk (60.57N, 76.40E) on July 19 and 28 we observed large-scale enhancements of CH4 from near 90 to 100E with a horizontal scale of more than 500km. Accompanied by high humidity and low mixing ratios of CO2 and O3, the air masses with enhanced CH4 mixing ratio were considered to be affected by lower tropospheric air. The probable source region of the CH4 was inferred to be the West Siberian Lowland, which contains vast wetlands and huge oil/gas fields. The distribution of CH4 in the lower troposphere (0.1-3 km) over the boreal wetlands in the West Siberian Lowland, ranging from 1.85 ppm to 2.75 ppm, showed large accumulations near the ground in the morning. The shortterm temporal variations in the vertical profile of CH4 mixing ratio revealed that the accumulated CH4 was transported to the free troposphere with the growth of the mixed layer. On the other hand, the distribution of CH4 (0.1-1 km) over the tundra areas in the Siberian Arctic was less variable (1.81-1.84 ppm), and little accumulation was observed.

  8. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  9. Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Birmili, W.; Chi, X.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Mikhailov, E.; Panov, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35E, 60.80N, 114 m asl. at a very remote continental site in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties. The instrumentation at the observatory includes a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until March 2011, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of the background CO mixing rations was observed with summer minima around 90 ppb and winter maxima of about 175 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were generally similar to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61N, but showed an earlier onset of the elevated winter values. Episodes of elevated CO and aerosol concentrations, typically lasting for several days, are superimposed on the background seasonal cycle. During winter, these pollution episodes are usually associated with air masses that have passed over the central Siberian region around Omsk and Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During spring and summer, elevated levels of CO and aerosols are often caused by agricultural fires in southern Siberia and Kazakhstan or by forest fires in boreal Siberia. The optical properties of the aerosol showed more pronounced seasonal variability than the aerosol mass and number concentrations. Wintertime aerosols were highly absorbing, with single scattering albedos (SSA) around 0.85, consistent with a dominant fossil fuel combustion source. In contrast, summertime aerosols had very low absorption coefficients with SSA values reaching 0.97. These aerosols were present in airmasses from northern Siberia with low CO mixing ratios, which suggests that they are predominantly of biogenic origin. The lowest particle number concentrations (averaging ~430 cm-3) were present in northern Siberian and Arctic airmasses, with similar values in summer and winter. Chemical analysis shows that sulfates and "black" carbon are elevated in the winter aerosol, while organic carbon from biomass burning and terpenoid oxidation dominate in summer. The measurements at ZOTTO are being continued, in the expectation that long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

  10. Ozone and nitrogen oxides in surface air in Russia: TROICA experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratova, N.; Elansky, N.; Belikov, I.; Shumskiy, R.

    2009-04-01

    The results of measurements of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations over the continental regions of Russia are discussed. The measurements were done during 10 TROICA experiments (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere). The TROICA experiment started in 1995. By the present moment ten expeditions along the Trans-Siberian railroad from Moscow to Vladivostok (around 9300 km) are carried out. We separate data sets into unpolluted and polluted areas to study temporal and spatial features. Moreover we analyzed cities (more then 100 cities). About 50% of all data corresponds to unpolluted conditions. The data collected are used in an analysis of the physical and chemical processes occurring over continental Russia. In this work the estimations of seasonal and daily ozone and NOx distribution were made. The seasonal distribution of ozone for TROICA experiments concentration considerably differs from ozone distribution at Mace Head (Ireland) and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany) stations and well agrees with the ozone distribution at Zotino (Russia, East Siberia). The same concerns also a daily variability. The ozone concentration gradient is presented. Ozone concentration gradually increases in the eastward direction. Its result of the air transport from polluted regions of Europe and ozone depletions, oxidations of CH4 in Siberia, forest fires in Siberia and around Baikal Lake, regional transport of burning products from Northern China. Significant factor of ozone increasing is stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. It appears in TROICA-3 experiment. During several hours ozone concentration was more then 60 ppbv. The areas of photochemical ozone generation in polluted air are also detected. We estimate anthropogenic and natural factors, which are responsible for sharp ozone concentration increasing. Acknowledgments. The work was supported by International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) under contract No. 2770 and by Russian Basic Research Foundation (project No. 07-05-00428).

  11. Evaluation of Seismic Risk of Siberia Territory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The outcomes of modern geophysical researches of the Geophysical Survey SB RAS, directed on study of geodynamic situation in large industrial and civil centers on the territory of Siberia with the purpose of an evaluation of seismic risk of territories and prediction of origin of extreme situations of natural and man-caused character, are pre- sented in the paper. First of all it concerns the testing and updating of a geoinformation system developed by Russian Emergency Ministry designed for calculations regarding the seismic hazard and response to distructive earthquakes. The GIS database contains the catalogues of earthquakes and faults, seismic zonation maps, vectorized city maps, information on industrial and housing fund, data on character of building and popula- tion in inhabited places etc. The geoinformation system allows to solve on a basis of probabilistic approaches the following problems: - estimating the earthquake impact, required forces, facilities and supplies for life-support of injured population; - deter- mining the consequences of failures on chemical and explosion-dangerous objects; - optimization problems on assurance technology of conduct of salvage operations. Using this computer program, the maps of earthquake risk have been constructed for several seismically dangerous regions of Siberia. These maps display the data on the probable amount of injured people and relative economic damage from an earthquake, which can occur in various sites of the territory according to the map of seismic zona- tion. The obtained maps have allowed determining places where the detailed seismo- logical observations should be arranged. Along with it on the territory of Siberia the wide-ranging investigations with use of new methods of evaluation of physical state of industrial and civil establishments (buildings and structures, hydroelectric power stations, bridges, dams, etc.), high-performance detailed electromagnetic researches of ground conditions of city territories, roads, runways, etc., studying of seismic con- dition in large industrial and civil centers and others.

  12. Teleseismic receiver functions imaging of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssof, M.; Thybo, H.; Artemieva, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    We map the lithosphere in Siberia by using the available broadband seismic data for calculation of Ps- and Sp-wave receiver functions (RF). RFs show converted waves from discontinuities in the vicinity of the seismic stations. The main objective is to image the Moho and upper mantle discontinuities, including the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath the study area. We construct the RF using the LQT method (Vinnik, 1977; Kind et al. 1995) in the version by Yuan et al. (1997). Rotation of ray coordinates uses the incidence angles predicted by the AK135 velocity model. This decomposes the wave-field into P, SV and SH components. Converted phases are isolated by iterative, time-domain spiking deconvolution with prewhitening to stabilize the filtering.The RF model images the crustal thickness between 35 and 55 km with a rough Moho topography. Additionally, intracrustal structures are identified by high-frequency S-RFs. Teleseismic converted Ps waves have higher frequency content (0.5-2 Hz) than Sp, which have an upper frequency of 0.1-0.2 Hz, and therefore Ps have about an order of magnitude better resolving power than Sp. The converted Sp-wave rarely resolve intracrustal structure, but can be used for determining Moho depth, and are excellent for detecting relatively broad vertical gradients in velocity, such as expected for a thermally controlled LAB. The combination of both types of RFs allows for independent discontinuity models of the same area in different frequency bands using converted waves with very different raypaths. The two models are coupled through the velocity model used for depth imaging.The results of RF analysis of the crustal and mantle structure will help to build a model for tectonic and geodynamic evolution of different provinces of Siberia. We compare our results to the recent detailed model of crustal structure in the whole of Siberia (SibCrust, Cherepanova et al., 2013) and with seismic models for similar geodynamic settings worldwide.

  13. Alcohol in Russia.

    PubMed

    McKee, M

    1999-01-01

    The contribution that alcohol has made to the large fluctuations in mortality in Russia in recent years is now widely recognized. An association between heavy drinking and Russia is part of popular culture. But what is the reality? This paper reviews the evidence on historical patterns of consumption in Russia, highlighting the difficulties of obtaining valid statistics during the Soviet period (1917-1991). It notes how the state, at various times, encouraged alcohol sales. By the early 1980s, the social cost of heavy drinking was becoming apparent. This led, in 1985, to the imposition of the wide-ranging and initially highly effective anti-alcohol campaign by Mikhail Gorbachev. The features of this campaign and of its subsequent collapse are described. In the 1990s, consumption of alcohol increased rapidly. There has, however, been a recent reduction in alcohol-related deaths. It is concluded that heavy drinking is not an inevitable feature of Russian life and that, as the state has done much to create the present problem, it also has a role to play in resolving it. PMID:10659717

  14. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Michael J.; Shishkin, Mikhail A.; Unwin, David M.; Kurochkin, Evgenii N.

    2003-12-01

    The former Soviet Union covers a vast area of land, and over the last 200 years, many dozens of extraordinary dinosaurs and other fossil amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals have been found in Mesozoic rocks in its territories. The Permo-Triassic of the Ural Mountains of Russia have produced hundreds of superb specimens, and many of the dinosaurs from Mongolia are unique. This is the first compilation in any Western language of this large body of Russian research and the first time so much of this research, previously unexplored by the West, has been introduced in English. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia is written by a unique mix of Russian and Western palaeontologists, and provides an entre to a range of fossil faunas, in particular reptiles, that have been little known outside Russia. It will undoubtedly become a major reference work for all vertebrate palaeontologists.

  15. Seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Liseikin, A. V.; Sigonin, P.

    2013-05-01

    In West and East Siberia a great deal of rivers and big lakes are situated. For oil and gas exploration these places hold much promise. It is very difficult to carry out seismic work in these regions, when temperature is fall down below 40 degrees centigrade. It is necessary to pave ways for technical equipment, to organize shooting operations in some cases, that harming ecology of investigated regions. It is well-known, that at seas and big reservoirs seismic works are carried out with use of air guns as sources and floating or ground cables as receivers. There is a special interest to carry out jointly processing and interpretation of seismic survey and electrical data. We should learn how to carry out such researches at rivers, developed a special combined technology on river seismic and electrical works carrying out. Geophysical Survey SB RAS has been carried out seismic and electrical works at rivers and reservoirs of Siberia for more then 20 years. We had to work in conditions, when depth of a reservoir was more then 10 meters or less then 1 meter. It was necessary to work out or adapt some floating equipment, to create air-guns working on light depths ("Malysh", "Sibiryak"), to create new recording equipment (seismic and electrical variants of "Baikal" equipment) for carrying out work in such conditions. There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe. For the first time it was determined, that the depth of sedimentary cover under Lake Baikal exceeds 14 km. On demands of government and private companies we carried out river works in Common-depth-point method at such rivers as: Ob, Volga, Enisey, Vakh, Lena, Kirenga, Nizhnya Tunguska. Comparison of results got at river profiles with surface ones, crossing the river, showed in difficult surface conditions (central part of the River Lena, the Nizhnya Tunguska) river seismic sections are better then surface sections. It is connected with the fact, that systems of observation with multiplicity of several hundreds could be realized at a river without costs increasing, and it is not necessary to set relief correction. It is also important, that data got at a river profile with length of 1000 km allow to correlate seismic boundaries of separate surface profiles, crossing the river. At mouth of the Enisey River qualitative material up to the depth of 20km was got. At the Lena River, in the region of oil field, complexation of seismic and electrical works was carried out. According to seismic survey data there are determined structural and velocity parameters of the section and, using this information, according to electrical survey data there was determined distribution of conductivity. The obtained results are useful for direct exploration of hydrocarbons. The paper presents the results of development of technology of seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes and showed some data got at the rivers of Siberia There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe.

  16. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling.

    PubMed

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-05-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce the global warming completely and result in a net saving of 100 000 CO2-equivalents per year due to storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill beyond 100 years. Considering other first-order degradation rates for the landfilled organic matter did not overtly affect the results, while assumptions about the top cover oxidation of methane significantly affected the results. This shows the importance of controlling the gas escape from the landfill. PMID:24692457

  17. Genetic Diversity of Freshwater Leeches in Lake Gusinoe (Eastern Siberia, Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Kaygorodova, Irina A.; Mandzyak, Nadezhda; Petryaeva, Ekaterina; Pronin, Nikolay M.

    2014-01-01

    The study of leeches from Lake Gusinoe and its adjacent area offered us the possibility to determine species diversity. As a result, an updated species list of the Gusinoe Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata) has been compiled. There are two orders and three families of leeches in the Gusinoe area: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae) and order Arhynchobdellida (family Erpobdellidae). In total, 6 leech species belonging to 6 genera have been identified. Of these, 3 taxa belonging to the family Glossiphoniidae (Alboglossiphonia heteroclita f. papillosa, Hemiclepsis marginata, and Helobdella stagnalis) and representatives of 3 unidentified species (Glossiphonia sp., Piscicola sp., and Erpobdella sp.) have been recorded. The checklist gives a contemporary overview of the species composition of leeches and information on their hosts or substrates. The validity of morphological identification of each taxon has been verified by phylogenetic approach with a molecular marker adopted for a DNA barcoding of most invertebrates. PMID:25544958

  18. The Coast of Siberia: A Vladivostok Spring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronayne, Betty Lee

    This paper describes experiences of a reference librarian at California State University (Sacramento) who spent three weeks in Vladivostok (Russia) to assess the library and research needs of faculty and students at the Far Eastern State Technical University. After briefly describing the city of Vladivostok and its military role in the Soviet

  19. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  20. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  1. Ozone profile observations in Siberia in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Valery; Balugin, Nikolay; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Alexander; Ivlev, Georgii; Shepelev, Dmitry; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station (66.5N, 66.7E) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation are carried out since January 1997. In 1997-2013 we used electrochemical 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring period to study the ozone loss in the Arctic regions. The results of ozonesonde observation at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In January 2014 we upgraded this ozonesounding station with the new iMet-1 radiosonde and electrochemical 2Z-V7 ozonesonde of Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), USA. The first results of ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in January-March 2014 at Salekhard aerological station will be presented and discussed.

  2. Mid-latitude auroras in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalev, Alexander

    We present characteristics of mid-latitude auroras in Eastern Siberia, recorded at the Geophysical Observatory of ISTP SB RAS during optical observations of airglow in 1989-2013. We analyze dependences of intensities of [OI] atomic oxygen (557.7 and 630 nm) emissions on geomagnetic activity level during different phases of geomagnetic storms. Diurnal distribution of registration of mid-latitude auroras and connection with variations of ionospheric parameters are analyzed too. Possible mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of the main types of mid-latitude auroras are discussed. The study was done under RF President Grant of Public Support for RF Leading Scientific Schools (NSh-2942.2014.5) and RFBR Grant No. 12-05-00024 a.

  3. Oil and gas development in East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Sagers, M.J.

    1994-03-01

    The East Siberian region, which comprises nearly 43% of Russia`s territory (including the Sakha (Yakut) republic), has substantial hydrocarbon potential that is impeded by significant logistical problems, the daunting physical environment, and technical challenges posed by the geological complexity of the region. The area`s three major oil and gas provinces are the Lena-Tunguska (with the greatest potential), Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar. The paper focuses on assessment of reserves, production potential, and history, as well as joint-venture activity involving foreign capital. Foreign investment is targeting gas deposits in the Vilyuy basin and elsewhere in the Sakha republic and small oil deposits serving local markets in the Yakutsk and Noril`sk areas. Forecasts do not envisage substantial production of oil from the region before the year 2010. Future gas production levels are less predictable despite the ambitious plans to export gas from Sakha to South Korea. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Evaluating oil, gas opportunities in western Siberia; Reservoir description

    SciTech Connect

    Connelly, W. ); Krug, J.A. )

    1992-12-07

    In this article, the authors discuss how to use the subsurface data to describe hydrocarbon reservoirs and estimate the original oil in place (OOIP) in western Siberia. The methodology for describing a reservoir and estimating the OOIP in western Siberia is similar to the approach for most reservoirs: Establish stratigraphic correlations across the field; Construct structure maps on key horizons; Construct porosity isopach maps for significant reservoirs; Construct net pay maps; Determine reservoir parameters; and Calculate pore-volume estimates of OOIP.

  5. Is there epidemiology in Russia?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGNThe structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995and 1996were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTSRussian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSIONEpidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

  6. Permarfrost eco-hydrological changes in boreal larch forest manifested by wet climate in eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iijima, Y.; Fedorov, A. N.; Ohta, T.; Kotani, A.; Maximov, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    High-latitude regions in the northern hemisphere have undergone unanticipated environmental changes during the past few decades. Environmental changes in these regions have been substantially impacted by changes in the hydrological cycle, such as precipitation regime, snow distribution and duration, soil water storage, evapotranspiration and river discharge. The present study examines recent changes in continuous permafrost region and evaluates the impact of these changes on boreal larch forests based on intensive hydro-meteorological observation after abrupt increases in depth and moisture within the active layer occurring during periods of increasing precipitation (wet climate) at study sites in eastern Siberia. Field studies were conducted in the Spasskaya-pad Experimental forest (6215'N, 12937', 220m a.s.l.) located approximately 20 km north of Yakutsk in the Republic of Sakha, Russia. The site is located on the highest terrace of the left bank of the Lena River and is covered with a thin layer of Quaternary deposits consisting of alluvial deposits with low content of ice complex. During the last decade, atmospheric anomalies in Arctic may cause intensifying storm activities from summer to early winter in eastern Siberia. An anomalous increase in summer and winter precipitation after 2004 winter was observed in the central Lena River basin. The increased precipitation resulted in warming and wetting of the active layer and near surface permafrost. Deepening of active layer in accordance with saturated soil moisture under the wet climate activates thermokarst subsidence in and around alas lakes and correspondingly causes fatal damage to the growth of boreal (larch) forest in this region. According to multi-year sap flow measurements between 2006 and 2009, transpiration from the forest significantly reduced because the most of the trees standing in the concaved micro-topography and permafrost valley with deeper active layer have been withered and dead after the long waterlogged conditions. Eastern Siberia had large amounts of precipitation and forests here could all be subject to the same negative effects imposed by a saturated active layer. Terrestrial water storage by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery Climate Experiment) satellite has identified an increasing trend in the water storage of Siberian rivers, with the largest increase noted in the central Lena River basin. Reduction of evapotranspiration in spite of increasing in water storage under wet climate forces the active layer to retain moisture. This ecohydrological positive feedback processes likely lead to further enhancement of perennially lasting water storage within the active layer, causing permafrost degradation and, ultimately, the collapse of larch forests.

  7. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  8. Summer Harvest in Saratov, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Saratov Oblast (province) is located in the southeastern portion of the East-European plain, in the Lower Volga River Valley. Southern Russia produces roughly 40 percent of the country's total agricultural output, and Saratov Oblast is the largest producer of grain in the Volga region. Vegetation changes in the province's agricultural lands between spring and summer are apparent in these images acquired on May 31 and July 18, 2002 (upper and lower image panels, respectively) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

    The left-hand panels are natural color views acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Less vegetation and more earth tones (indicative of bare soils) are apparent in the summer image (lower left). Farmers in the region utilize staggered sowing to help stabilize yields, and a number of different stages of crop maturity can be observed. The main crop is spring wheat, cultivated under non-irrigated conditions. A short growing season and relatively low and variable rainfall are the major limitations to production. Saratov city is apparent as the light gray pixels on the left (west) bank of the Volga River. Riparian vegetation along the Volga exhibits dark green hues, with some new growth appearing in summer.

    The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras displayed as red, green and blue respectively. In these images, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and the spring and summer views were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between the two dates. Urban areas and vegetation along the Volga banks look similar in the two seasonal multi-angle composites. The agricultural areas, on the other hand, look strikingly different. This can be attributed to differences in brightness and texture between bare soil and vegetated land. The chestnut-colored soils in this region are brighter in MISR's red band than the vegetation. Because plants have vertical structure, the oblique cameras observe a greater proportion of vegetation relative to the nadir camera, which sees more soil. In spring, therefore, the scene is brightest in the vertical view and thus appears with an overall greenish hue. In summer, the soil characteristics play a greater role in governing the appearance of the scene, and the angular reflectance is now brighter at the oblique view angles (displayed as red and blue), thus imparting a pink color to much of the farmland and a purple color to areas along the banks of several narrow rivers. The unusual appearance of the clouds is due to geometric parallax which splits the imagery into spatially separated components as a consequence of their elevation above the surface.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. These images are a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbits 13033 and 13732, and cover an area of about 173 kilometers x 171 kilometers. They utilize data from blocks 49 to 50 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  9. Variations In The Fine Structure At The Core-mantle Boundary Under Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Andrew R.; Thybo, Hans; Egorkin, Anatoly

    An ultra-low velocity zone (ULVZ) at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) has been observed at a number of locations around the globe. This ULVZ has been proposed to be a layer of enhanced melting and as the source of mantle plumes. In this study we compile mostly short period data recordings from Soviet nuclear explosions, both weapons tests and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs) and quantify the variation in the character of PcP reflections beneath Siberia from over 300 bounce points. Our data include Russian PNE recordings from within Russia and records from stations outside Russia and from arrays such as NORSAR and the Grafenberg array. We identify PcP arrivals from 3 different PNE shots on two different profiles (BATHOLITH and KRA- TON). Station intervals for these profiles are 15 to 20 km with maximum offsets of up to 4400 km giving an effective reflection profile at the CMB. The PcP arrivals typ- ically have durations of up to 2 seconds and as such are longer than expected from a simple-half space reflection from the CMB suggesting the existence of a ULVZ at the CMB. Furthermore, the waveform characteristics vary along the profiles with clear changes in the waveform shape of binned and stacked data over distances of 300 to 400 km (equivalent to about 150 to 200 km at the CMB). The PcP arrivals are relatively consistent between adjacent stations suggesting that local crustal scattering is not re- sponsible for the variations in waveform shape at the CMB. This leaves variations in fine structure (velocity, density or thickness) at the CMB as the most likely cause of the lateral changes in waveform shape. These variations in PcP character suggest a large degree of variability in the nature of the CMB under Siberia and hence of the ULVZ. At least one region where we see anomalous PcP and an ULVZ correlates with the edge of a region of low velocities from global tomography suggesting a possible link between the ULVZ and the mantle above consistent with the proposed connection to mantle plumes.

  10. Variations in the Fine Structure at the Core-Mantle Boundary Under Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, A. R.; Thybo, H.; Egorkin, A.

    2001-12-01

    A compilation of mostly short period data recordings from Soviet nuclear explosions, both weapons tests and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions (PNEs), shows significant variation in the character of PcP reflections beneath Siberia from 300 bounce points. These data include Russian PNE recordings from within Russia, with PcP arrivals identified on 3 different PNE shots on two different profiles (BATHOLITH and KRATON). Station intervals for these profiles are 15 to 20 km with maximum offsets of up to 4400 km giving an effective reflection profile at the core-mantle boundry (CMB). The PcP arrivals typically have durations of up to 2 seconds and as such are longer than expected from a simple-half space reflection from the CMB suggesting the existence of a ULVZ at the CMB. This long duration can be best explained as a result of structure at the CMB, most simply as a combination of the CMB arrival (PcP) and an arrival from the top of the ULVZ above the CMB (PdP). Furthermore, the waveform characteristics vary along the profiles with clear changes in the waveform shape of binned and stacked data over distances of 300 to 400 km (equivalent to about 150 to 200 km at the CMB). The PcP arrivals are relatively consistent between adjacent stations suggesting that local crustal scattering is not responsible for the variations in waveform shape at the CMB. This leaves variations in fine structure (velocity, density or thickness) at the CMB as the most likely cause of the lateral changes in waveform shape. In addition to the PNE data, we have identified PcP arrivals in records from stations outside Russia and from arrays such as Norsar and the Grafenberg array. First arrivals from most PNE and weapons tests are easily identified but PcP arrivals are extremely variable. Stations which have clear PcP arrivals from some shot locations have no arrivals from other shot locations while different stations have very different PcP characteristics from the same shot reflecting the differing locations of the bounce points at the CMB. The PcP arrivals at some offset ranges have amplitudes which are close to that of the primary P arrival. The variations in PcP character suggest a large degree of variability in the nature of the CMB under Siberia.

  11. Investigation Of The Impact Of Freezing On The Scattering Phase Center In Siberia Using ALOS PALSAR And FBD Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiel, Christian; Schmullius, Christiane

    2013-12-01

    In this study we investigate the impact of freezing on the interferometric (InSAR) phase in the forests of Central Siberia, Russia. The analysis was carried out for 11 local test sites, covering a total area of 382 km2. Between 2006 and 2009, 87 Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (ALOS PALSAR) scenes were acquired covering the 11 test sites. From these acquisitions 36 interferograms were computed, all of which feature a temporal baseline of 46 days. 16 interferograms cover frozen conditions and 20 interferograms cover unfrozen conditions. The impact of forest on the InSAR phase was delineated by measuring the phase shift at forest edges. We compare the phase shift with forest heights taken from ministerial forest inventory data for 56 forest stands featuring a high forest density and an average height of 23 m. Further 320 forest edges were investigated, however with no forest inventory information available. For these 320 samples, only the phase shift difference between unfrozen and frozen conditions was analysed. The results demonstrate that under unfrozen conditions the InSAR phase height is located approximately 8 m above the ground. At frozen conditions it is located at about 4 m above the ground. This information is crucial for accurate coherence simulations in Central Siberia.

  12. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  13. Hydrocarbons exploration in east Siberia southern basins

    SciTech Connect

    Resnick, V.S. )

    1991-08-01

    The vast Lena-Tunguska province in the heart of Siberia is among the world's largest and least explored frontier basins. Some encouraging exploration has nevertheless been carried out in the four southern subbasins: PrePatom (PreBaykal) trough, Nepa-Botuobin anticlise, PreSayan-Yenisey basin, and Angara-Lena terrace. Source rocks are essentially Proterozoic, but younger sediments may contribute about 10% of the region's oil potential. Riphean-Cambrian subsalt reservoirs contribute more than 90% of the hydrocarbons discovered, whereas Cambrian salt provides the most common regional seals. The main hydrocarbon later migration occurred in Vendian-Cambrian. Traps include clastic wedging out along favorable structures and carbonate reef-like buildups. Many traps were transformed or destroyed by the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic volcanic activity, whereas Hercynian overthrust tectonics developed new traps in the PrePatom trough. About 30 discoveries, mainly gas and condensates, have been made in the area, but operations are hampered by poor logistics and limited infrastructure.

  14. Compact storage rings Siberia-AS and Siberia-SM synchrotron radiation sources for lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Anashin, V. V.; Arbuzov, V. S.; Blinov, G. A.; Veshcherevich, V. G.; Vobly, P. D.; Gorniker, E. I.; Zinevich, N. I.; Zinin, E. I.; Zubkov, N. I.; Kiselev, V. A.; and others

    1989-07-01

    The paper deals with two projects of compact superconducting storage rings for industrial production of integrated circuits (IC) using x-ray lithography within the 8- to 20-A wavelengths range. The azimuthally symmetric superconducting storage ring Siberia-AS at an energy of 600 MeV is a superconducting analog of VEP-1, one of the earliest storage rings in the world intended for the purposes of high-energy physics. Unlike the conventional design, no iron yoke is used in the storage ring under consideration to form the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit and to close the return magnetic flux---this is performed by some inner and outer superconducting windings. Such a scheme enables the size of the storage ring to be substantially reduced (a cylinder of 2 m in diameter and 2 m long), and as a result, its weight decreases, too (about 10 tons). The eight-magnet storage ring Siberia-SM is of four-order symmetry so that the periodicity element comprises two rectangular magnets and three lenses. Its basic component is a superconducting bending rectangular magnet at a 6-T magnetic field. Two variants of such magnets have been proposed: in the first, the iron yoke is utilized to form the magnetic field and to close the return flux, while the second is an ironless C-shaped magnet manufactured on the basis of original wedgelike coils.

  15. Research on Cryospheric Changes in Suntar-Khayata Mountains in Northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, T.; Takahashi, S.; Enomoto, H.; Fedorov, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    Due to the enhanced warming in the Arctic Regions owing to the sea-ice decrease and others processes, as a part of the global warming, other snow and ice such as glaciers are also decreasing (SWIPA, 2011) and melting region of Greenland are said to have increased in 2012. It is very important to know the present actual condition and the speed of the changes. Research group in Japan and Russia, started to look into the present state of the glaciers of the North-East Siberia which is one of the blank area in the Arctic Region. The glaciated area in the Sunta-Khayata Mountain Range, which exist between the large cities of Magadan in the Pacific Coast and Oimyakon known for its low air temperature, is said to be 156 km2 in 1945 and decreased to 162 km2 in 2002/2003 (SWIPA, 2011). This change should be accelerated during the recent ten years, due to the strong warming occurring in the 2000s. . In-situ research in this region has been made in IGY period (1957-1959) by Russian Groups, and after that, in year 2000 and 2004-2005 by joint Russian and Japanese Groups. Since old information exists in this region, this is a good area for studying cryospheric changes due to the recent strong warming. A new project has started to observe and study the glacier basic information and their changes, the permafrost changes, and look into the future variability applying glacier models. This is a project between Cold Region Program of JAMSTEC (Yokosuka, Japan), GRENE Project of NIPR(Tokyo, Japan) and Melinikov Permafrost Institute (Yakutsk, Russia), started from 2011, and in-situ observation will be done in 2012 and 2013. This presentation will show the research area, main objectives and preliminary results of the initiated project.

  16. Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T.

    1998-12-31

    Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with unpredictable regional and global effects.

  17. [Has Russia gotten worse?].

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    During a 1995 conference on AIDS prevention organized by the U.S. Agency for International Development, undersecretary of state Tim Wirth spoke of the connection between international drug trafficking and the spread of HIV infection. The drug traffickers with their private armies and growing power are a menace to democracy in several countries, not just Latin American nations like Colombia whose problems are known, but others such as South Africa, Nigeria, and Russia. In 1987, most of the countries of the former Soviet Union adopted an AIDS control policy similar to that of Cuba, with universal obligatory screening and identification and location of sexual contacts. Counseling, medical care, and respect for confidentiality were nonexistent. A small number of cases were diagnosed in each country. Most of the countries have discontinued these costly and authoritarian measures. The replacement programs, based on individual initiative, are poorly financed. The drugs available to them are largely limited to AZT, which is locally produced. The unemployment, declining incomes, and arrival of traffickers of all kinds in these countries since the fall of the Soviet Union appear to present ideal conditions for the propagation of AIDS. Drug use and prostitution, increasingly involving men and children as well as women, have flourished. Rates of HIV infection under the circumstances are unlikely to remain low. The division of individuals into groups at risk is unrealistic, because drug users become prostitutes and prostitutes use drugs. The most effective campaign against AIDS in these countries may therefore depend on a merciless campaign against drug trafficking. PMID:12179248

  18. Trace metals in the coals of the East Siberia: Distribution, utilization and environmental aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Pashkov, G.L.; Kuznetsov, P.N.; Kuzmin, V.I.; Boiko, Y.V.; Kontsevoi, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    Three coal basins in East Siberia, the Russia Lena, Kansk-Achinsk and South-Yakutsk basins, are huge coal basins which contain various sorts of both brown and high quality subbituminous and bituminous coals with low ash and sulfur content. The coals have great industrial significance for the production of energy, coke and chemicals. However, these coals are less characterized in terms of the content and distribution of trace metals, some of which are of industrial significance, other metals are toxic and radioactive. The data on the distribution of trace metals in these three coal basins, their geochemical occurrence and the behavior in chemical treatment and burning are presented in the paper. Separate coals were found to contain a large amount of valuable metals such as Ge (up to 1,400 g/ton of ash), V (up to 1,400 g/t), Sc (up to 220 g/t), Nb (up to 280 g/t), Cr (up to 1,300 g/t), Co (up to 320 g/t), Ni (580 g/t) and thus could be an industrial source of metal production. The methods for the extraction of Ge, Sc, Y, Nb and other metals prior or after combustion are described. The aspects of coal characterization in terms of toxic and radioactive impact on the environment are discussed.

  19. Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S.; Gubala, C.P.; Ford, J.

    1995-12-31

    Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

  20. An 84-kyr paleomagnetic record from the sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, J.A.; King, J.W.; Colman, Steven M.; Kravchinsky, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of sediment cores obtained from the Selenga prodelta region of Lake Baikal, Russia. This record, which spans approximately the last 84 kyr, contributes to a better understanding of the nature of geomagnetic field behavior in Siberia and is a useful correlation and dating tool. We demonstrate that the Lake Baikal sediments are recording variations in the geomagnetic field. The directional record displays secular variation behavior with a geomagnetic excursion at 20 ka and additional excursions appearing as large-amplitude secular variation at 41, 61, and 67 ka. Smoothing of the geomagnetic excursion behavior occurs in Lake Baikal sediments owing to the intermediate sedimentation rate (13 cm kyr-1). The Lake Baikal relative paleointensity record correlates to absolute paleointensity data for the last 10 kyr and to relative paleointensity records from the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean for the last 84 kyr. This correlation suggests a strong global (i.e., dipole) component to these records and further supports the reliability of sediments as recorders of relative geomagnetic paleointensity. We show that a relative geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy has a potential resolution of 7 kyr by correlating continental and marine records. The geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy helps constrain the age of the difficult to date Lake Baikal sediments.

  1. Genetic diversity of two haploid markers in the Udegey population from southeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Han-Jun; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Wook

    2010-06-01

    The Udegeys are a small ethnic group who live along the tributaries of the Amur River Basin of southeastern Siberia in Russia. They are thought to speak a language belonging to a subdivision of the Tungusic-Manchu branch of the Altaic family. To understand the genetic features and genetic history of the Udegeys, we analyzed two haploid markers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-chromosomal variation, in 51 individuals (including 21 males) from the Udegey population. In general, the Udegeys' mtDNA profiles revealed similarities to Siberians and other northeastern Asian populations, although a moderate European contribution was also detected. Interestingly, pairwise values of F(ST) and the MDS plots based on the mtDNA variation showed that the Orok and Nivkh inhabiting the very same region of the Udegey were significantly different from the Udegey, implying that they may have been isolated and undergone substantial genetic drift. The Udegeys were characterized by a high frequency (66.7%) of Y chromosome haplogroup C, indicating a close genetic relationship with Mongolians and Siberians. On the paternal side, however, very little admixture was observed between the Udegeys and Europeans. Thus, the combined haploid genetic markers of both mtDNA and the Y chromosome imply that the Udegeys are overall closest to Siberians and northeast Asians of the Altaic linguistic family, with a minor maternal contribution from the European part of the continent. PMID:19953529

  2. Debatable questions of Siberia settlement by early humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmin, Ya. V.; Kazanskii, A. Yu.

    2015-01-01

    Data on the age and natural environment of earliest archaeological sites in Siberia are critically analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the Karama site in the Altai Mountains, whose age was earlier estimated at about 1.77-1.95 Ma. The combination of geological, geomorphological, sedimentological, palynological, and paleomagnetic data makes it possible to determine the lower limit of the age of this object at only about 800 ka. Judging by the results of a preliminary study of the Zasukhino site in Trans-Baikal, early humans could have appeared in Siberia about 1 million years ago, but additional research is required in order to obtain reliable information.

  3. BRDF characteristics of tundra vegetation communities in Yamal, Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Heim, Birgit; Walker, Donald A. Skip; Epstein, Howard; Leibman, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Satellite data from platforms with pointing capabilities (CHRIS/Proba, RapidEye) or from sensors with wide swath (AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS) is influenced by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This effect can cause significant changes in the measured spectral surface reflectance depending on the solar illumination geometry and sensor viewing conditions. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), a German hyperspectral mission with expected launch in 2016, will provide high spectral resolution observations with a ground sampling distance of 30 meters. Since the EnMAP sensor has pointing capabilities, both spectral and directional reflection characteristics need to be taken into account for the algorithms development for vegetation parameters. The 'hyperspectral method development for Arctic VEGetation biomes' (hy-Arc-VEG) project is part of the national preparation program for the EnMAP mission. Within the EnMAP projcect hy-Arc-VEG we developed a portable field spectro-goniometer, named ManTIS (Manual Transportable Instrument for Spherical BRDF observations), for the in-situ measurements of anisotropic effects of tundra surfaces (national and international patent pending - DE 102011117713.6). The goniometer was designed for field use in difficult as well as challenging terrain and climate. It is therefore of low weight, without electrical devices and weatherproof. It can be disassembled and packed into small boxes for transport. The current off-nadir viewing capacity is matched to the EnMAP sensor configuration (up to 30). We carried out spectral field and goniometer measurements on the joint YAMAL 2011 expedition (RU-US-DE) organized by the Earth-Cryosphere Institute (ECI) in August 2011 on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, Russia. The field goniometer measurements (conducted under varying sun zenith angles) as well as field spectro-radiometrical measurements were carried out at the NASA Yamal Land Cover/Land Use Change (NASA Yamal-LCLUC) transects and rleves at Laboravaya (southern Yamal) and Vaskiny Dachi (central Yamal), and at the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site in Vaskiny Dachi. The LCLUC plots are Greening of the Arctic (GOA) sites established in 2007 by Walker et al. (2009). The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site was established by M. Leibman (ECI) in 1993. BRDF processing for the tundra test sites demonstrate the mirror asymmetry in relative azimuth with respect to the principal plane. It also showed that the maximum scattering appears in the backward direction, but that there is no minimal forward scattering. Instead, the forward scattering is characterized by similar to higher reflectance values compared to the nadir position. Moreover, the analysis of the anisotropic behaviour of moss-dominated tundra types with 10 to 15% vascular plant cover show that the BRDF influence on vegetation indices (VI) of low-growing arctic vegetation communities can be up to 15% of the nadir value. The low sun elevation at the arctic latitudes prevents hotspot-effects, but a BRDF normalization still should be taken into account for the development of tundra-adapted vegetation indices. Walker, D.A. et al. (2009): Data Report of the 2007 and 2008 Yamal Expeditions. AGC Data Report. 133.

  4. Genus Leptoiulus Verhoeff, 1894 new to the fauna of the Asian part of Russia, with description of a new species from the Altai and its comparison with the European Leptoiulus trilineatus (C.L. Koch, 1847) (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).

    PubMed

    Mikhaljova, Elena V; Nefediev, Pavel S; Nefedieva, Julia S; Dyachkov, Yuri V

    2015-01-01

    The diplopod genus Leptoiulus Verhoeff, 1894 is new to the fauna of the Asian part of Russia, due to the discovery of L. tigirek sp. nov. from the south-western part of the Altai Province, Siberia. A description of the new species and information on its habitats, numbers and locomotor activity as well as comparison with the European Leptoiulus trilineatus (C.L. Koch, 1847) are presented. PMID:26249903

  5. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

  6. Coast of the East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sea ice is pulling away from the coastline of northeastern Siberia in the east Siberia Sea. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 26, 2002, also the thinning of ice in bays and coves, and the blue reflection of the water from beneath causes the ice to appear bright blue. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.

    PubMed

    Crate, Susan A

    2006-01-01

    Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders. PMID:21847844

  8. A review of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 (Diptera: Muscidae) in Russia.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Vera S; Pont, Adrian C

    2015-01-01

    A key is provided to the 26 species of the genus Drymeia Meigen, 1826 known from Russia and four additional species that may be found in Russia (D. brumalis (Rondani, 1866), D. cantabrigensis (Huckett, 1965), D. gymnophthalma (Hennig, 1963), D. similis (Malloch, 1918)). The key includes the 10 new species here described from the mountains of South Siberia (D. acrostichalis sp. nov., D. aristata sp. nov., D. cilitarsis sp. nov., D. glabra sp. nov., D. grandis sp. nov., D. grisea sp. nov., D. longiseta sp. nov., D. phaonina sp. nov., D. puchokana sp. nov., D. triseta sp. nov.,) and other two new species from the Russian Arctic (D. cristata sp. nov., D. taymirensis sp. nov.). Five species (D. fasciculata (Stein, 1916), D. firthiana (Huckett, 1965), D. groenlandica (Lundbeck, 1901), D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919), D. neoborealis (Snyder, 1949)) are newly recorded from Russia. Three new synonymies are proposed: D. pribilofensis (Malloch, 1921) (syn: D. inaequalis (Malloch, 1922)), D. setibasis (Huckett, 1965) (syn: D. gymnophthalma sibirica (Lav?iev, 1971, unavailable junior secondary homonym) and D. quadrisetosa (Malloch, 1919) (syn: D. amurensis (Lav?iev, 1971)). The male terminalia and the female ovipositors of the new species are illustrated. New faunistic data are given for some previously described species of Russian Drymeia. PMID:26623610

  9. A new model of crustal structure of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanova, Y.; Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.

    2010-12-01

    We report a new model of the structure of the crust in Siberia that encompasses two large tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberian Basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton. The area of study covers a significant part of the north Eurasia and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. The new crustal model is based on our new ("from scratch") compilation of all available reliable seismic data and includes the results of seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data (from the late 1960-ies until present). Seismic structure along seismic profiles is digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with the resolution of seismic models. Structural parameters based on gravity modeling, or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps are excluded from the new crustal database. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition problems and interpretation limitations, a special attention is paid to the data quality problem, and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and provides valuable constraints for geophysical modeling of the mantle structure. We observe important spatial correlations between the crustal structure (thickness of the sediments, the basement, and different crustal layers, and average basement velocities) and tectonic and geological settings. Statistical analysis of age-dependence (we use tectono-thermal ages) of crustal parameters allows for distinguishing the effects of various tectonic processes on the crustal structure. The analysis provides the basis for studies of crustal evolution and geodynamic process in the region where the age of tectonic structures spans over ~4 Ga. Archean terranes have a large (39-44 km) thickness of consolidated crust (excluding sediments), which decreases in Paleo-Mesoproterozoic terranes to 34-42 km. Thickness of consolidated crust in Mesozoic and Cenozoic regions is 32-34 km only. The total crustal thickness (including the sedimentary layer) is the largest in the Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic regions of the Siberian Craton. A block with an unusually thick crust (47-58 km), bounded by the regions of thinned crust, extends in the longitudinal direction across the Siberian craton and cuts major tectonic boundaries which have sublatitudinal orientation. Low surface heat flow (on average around 20-22 microW/m3) and the absence of the high-velocity (Vp>7.2 km/s) lowercrustal layer in the block with the thick crust suggest that eclogitization in the crustal root was subdued, thus allowing preservation of the ultra thick, seismically distinguishable, crust.

  10. START II and the politics of arms control in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Lepingwell, J.W.R.

    1995-12-31

    The arguments for nuclear weapons reduction in the post-Cold War era are compelling, but as the nuclear confrontation has receded, so has the urgency attached to the destruction of nuclear weapons. In Russia, pressing economic and political problems have diverted attention from the nuclear issue, while the polarization of politics has reduced chances for the early ratification of START II. The increasing mistrust of the West in Russian political conservative circles, combined with the cost of disarmament, have given rise to a strong lobby for slowing the arms reduction process. 88 refs. 3 tabs.

  11. Reconstruction of environmental chanees in Holocen in Siberian Arctic, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga; Tumanov, Oleg; Nourgaliev, Danis

    2013-04-01

    The study of Arctic palaeoenvironmental records enables qualitative and quantitative estimations of past climate changes and provides basis for prediction of future changes in the region. The timing of Holocene climate events in North Atlantic region is relatively good studied. In contrast to it, at present there are very few quantitative palaeoclimatic data for eastern Siberia and proxy records from northern Eurasia mostly document environmental changes at low temporal resolution, and are derived from pollen studies. Due to relatively small magnitude of temperature changes throughout the Holocene, reconstructions based on a single proxy must be interpreted with caution. More reliable estimate of the Holocene climate changes can be obtained only by averaging results inferred from several proxies. The basis, however, of all quantitative reconstruction approaches are regional calibration datasets from which the empirical reconstruction model (i.e. the transfer function) will be established. A 380 cm long sediment core from Lake Temje (Central Yakutia, North-Eastern Russia) was studied to infer Holocene palaeoenvironmental change in the extreme periglacial setting of eastern Siberia during the last 10,000 yrs. Data on sediment composition were used to characterize changes in the depositional environment during the ontogenetic development of the Lake Temje. The analysis of fossil chironomid remains and statistical treatment of chironomid data by the application of a newly developed transfer functions provided inferences of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) and water depths (WD). We obtained a qualitative and quantitative reconstruction of Holocene climate in Central Yakutia and recognized three stages of palaeoenvironmental changes: The early Holocene between 10 and 8 kyr BP was characterized by colder-than-today and moist summer conditions. Cryotextures in the lake sediments document full freezing of the lake water during the winter time. A general warming trend started around 8.0 ka BP in concert with enhanced biological productivity and fluctuating lake level. Reconstructed mean TJuly were equal or up to 1.5 C higher than today between 6,700 and 5,000 yrs BP. During the entire late Holocene after 4,800 yrs BP, reconstructed mean TJuly remained below modern value, consistent with climate deterioration. Limnological conditions did not change significantly. The inference of a mid-Holocene climate optimum supports conceptional scenarios of Holocene climatic change in the subpolar part of eastern Siberia and gives evidence of climate teleconnections to the North Atlantic realm. Investigation of lakes, located in the interfluve of Korotaiha and Bolshaya Rogovaya rivers in the east side of Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia using modern hydrobiological and palaeoecological methods has shown that the major compositional changes in diatom, cladoceran and chironomid communities are synchronous. The chironomid-inferred summer temperature show an increase during the last 100 years, which can be related to the end of LIA in the region and support previous investigations.

  12. Methane emission from Western Siberia derived from the integral methane balance in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Vasiliy; Stepanenko, Victor; Okladnikov, Igor

    2013-04-01

    Although a number of estimates of methane emissions from large Earth regions have been proposed, based on either empirical or inverse transport modeling approaches, these emissions still remain highly uncertain motivating the development of new methods of surface flux assessment. In this study a new mathematical formulation for calculation of surface flux of methane, or any other gaseous component of the atmosphere, is developed. In it, the surface flux is retrieved from the integral balance of methane in bounded atmospheric domain. This balance includes the surface flux, the net advective flux through lateral boundaries of the atmospheric domain, methane sink due to oxidation by hydroxyl radical, and the rate of change of total methane amount in the domain. Western Siberia, being on of the most prominent surface methane sources in Northern hemisphere, is used as a test region for the method. The components of methane balance are calculated using methane concentrations and wind speeds from MACC reanalysis at 1.125 deg. grid (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/EU_projects/MACC), and hydroxyl concentrations provided by (Spivakovsky, 2000). The total methane flux from Western Siberia is thus assessed at 6 h resolution for 2001-2011. The time averaged total flux corresponds well to empirical estimates (M Glagolev, 2011) at diurnal and annual timescales. It may be anticipated that the method will be useful in close future when the satellite-retrieved methane concentration profiles will achieve high accuracy. References: Spivakovsky, C. M., et al. (2000), Three-dimensional climatological distribution of tropospheric OH: Update and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 8931- 8980. M Glagolev, I Kleptsova, I Filippov, S Maksyutov and T Machida. Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes. Environ. Res. Lett. 6 (2011) 045214 (7pp). This work is partially supported by the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation (contract#8345), SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant #11-05-01190a, and integrated project SB RAS #131, RFBR grant 11-05-01190-a.

  13. Dynamical Downscaling over Siberia: Is there an added value in representing recent climate conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klehmet, K.; Rockel, B.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of long-term changes and variability of climate variables for the large areal extent of Siberia - covering arctic, subarctic and temperate northern latitudes - is hampered by the sparseness of in-situ observations. To counteract this deficiency we aimed to provide a reconstruction of regional climate for the period 1948-2010 getting homogenous, consistent fields of various terrestrial and atmospheric parameters for Siberia. In order to obtain in addition a higher temporal and spatial resolution than global datasets can provide, we performed the reconstruction using the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (climate mode of the limited area model COSMO developed by the German weather service). However, the question arises whether the dynamically downscaled data of reanalysis can improve the representation of recent climate conditions. As global forcing for the initialization and the regional boundaries we use NCEP-1 Reanalysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction since it has the longest temporal data coverage among the reanalysis products. Additionally, spectral nudging is applied to prevent the regional model from deviating from the prescribed large-scale circulation within the whole simulation domain. The area of interest covers a region in Siberia, spanning from the Laptev Sea and Kara Sea to Northern Mongolia and from the West Siberian Lowland to the border of Sea of Okhotsk. The current horizontal resolution is of about 50 km which is planned to be increased to 25 km. To answer the question, we investigate spatial and temporal characteristics of temperature and precipitation of the model output in comparison to global reanalysis data (NCEP-1, ERA40, ERA-Interim). As reference Russian station data from the "Global Summary of the Day" data set, provided by NCDC, is used. Temperature is analyzed with respect to its climatologically spatial patterns across the model domain and its variability of extremes based on climate indices derived from daily mean, maximum, minimum temperature (e.g. frost days) for different subregions. The decreasing number of frost days from north to south of the region, calculated from the reanalysis datasets and COSMO-CLM output, indicates the temperature gradient from the arctic to temperate latitudes. For most of the considered subregions NCEP-1 shows more frost days than ERA-Interim and COSMO-CLM.

  14. Sizing up the sub-Tommotian unconformity in Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Kaufman, A. J.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Adams, W.

    1995-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks in the western Anabar region, northwestern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolution and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Carbon isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at 1 to 2 m intervals support correlation of the lower Anabar succession (Staraya Reckha and lower Manykai Formations) with sub-Tommotian carbonates of the Ust'-Yu-doma Formation in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, the upper Manykai and most of the overlying Medvezhya Formation appear to preserve a sedimentary and paleontological record of an evolutionary important time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlation of the Anabar section with other northern Siberian successions that contain well-dated volcanic rocks permits the estimate that the sub-Tommotian unconformity in southeastern Siberia spans approximately 3 to 6 m.y. Diverse small shelly fossils (but not archaeocyathans) previously thought to mark the base of the Tommotian Stage evolved sequentially throughout this earlier interval.

  15. Species Diversity and Response to Climate Change across Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugart, H. H.; Shuman, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern Hemisphere's boreal forests, particularly the Siberian boreal forest, may have a strong effect on Earth's climate through changes in dominant vegetation and associated regional surface albedo. Temperature increases have been identified as a driver of compositional change in the Russian forest with documented shifts in treelines and changes in regeneration. Warmer climate will likely convert Siberia's deciduous larch (Larix spp.) to evergreen conifer forests, and the low diversity areas across Siberia are identified as vulnerable to this vegetation shift from deciduous larch to evergreen conifer. A conversion to evergreen conifer dominance within southern Siberia will generate a local positive radiative forcing of 5.1±2.6 W m-2. The forest gap model, FAREAST, simulates Russian boreal forest composition and was used to explore the feedback between climate change and forest composition in vulnerable low diversity areas. FAREAST was used to simulate the impact of changes in temperature and precipitation on total and genus-level biomass at sites across Siberia using multiple variants of the dominant larch to mimic species variability in growth rates. The use of multiple variants of the dominant species can be used to identify species variants which may be more successful under altered climate conditions. Identification of successful varieties of the dominant species will help in active management in efforts to mitigate the effects of climate change, especially the accelerated shift to evergreen dominance.

  16. Crustal structure of Siberia: a new appraisal of old seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanova, Yu; Artemieva, I. M.; Milshtein, E.; Erinchek, Yu. M.; Thybo, H.

    2010-05-01

    We review the structure of the crust and the sedimentary cover in an area that encompasses two largest tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberia basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton, and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. We compiled "from scratch" all available seismic data for the region, from the late 1960-ies until present. Our compilation includes results of seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data; data along seismic profiles are digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with resolution of seismic models. Seismic data on the structure of the sedimentary cover was complemented by borehole data, where available. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition and interpretation, a special attention was paid to this problem and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. We have intentionally excluded unreliable constraints, such as based on gravity modelling or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/ refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and allows examining spatial correlations with tectonic and geological structures, providing the basis for studies of crustal evolution and mantle modeling.

  17. Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

  18. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century

  19. Perspectives on Fire Research Collaboration in Siberia: What Have We Learned; Why Does It Matter; and Where Do We Go from Here?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conard, S. G.

    2010-12-01

    My first experience of the vast taiga forests of Russia, and my first chance to meet and work with Russian fire researchers, was at a 1993 conference and field experiment planned jointly by Johann G. Goldammer from Germany and Valentin V. Furyaev from Russia. This meeting was the beginning of a long and fruitful collaboration among US, Canadian, and Russian fire scientists. We all became increasingly aware of the global signifiance of the circumpolar boreal zone, and of the need for better information on the extent and effects of boreal fires. Wildfires are the dominant disturbance regime in the Russian boreal zone, burning 10 to 20 million hectares per year. These fires are a significant source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and aerosols. Our research team published some of the first remote-sensing based estimates of the extent of fire in Russia and of the potential variability in emissions that could result from different burning conditions. Through a series of 20 prescribed burns we were able to mimic a wide range of burning conditions and obtain information on the impacts on soils, vegetation, and fuel consumption. Based on these experimental fires, we have modeled the effects of weather and fuels on fuel consumption and other factors, and related fire characteristics to emissions, carbon stocks, and soil and vegetation processes. For the past 10 years, we have focused on the ecosystem effects of fires of varying severity in the Scots pine and mixed larch forests of central Siberia, on improved remote-sensing based estimates of burned area and fire effects, and on relating fire weather indices to fire potential and fuel consumption. Logging is an increasingly important disturbance in Russias forests, and logged sites, with their high fuel loads seem particularly susceptible to fire. We are currently studying interactions between logging and fire, with an emphasis on the differences in fuel consumption, emissions, and carbon stocks when fires burn in logged and unlogged areas. Fire activity and emissions are projected to increase substantially in the boreal zone as climate warms. We are currently working to develop a 30-yr fire record for Siberia based on satellite data. We will integrate these data with historic fire weather, emissions, and vegetation data to estimate fuel consumption and emissions from fires in Siberia from 1980 to 2010. We will reconstruct past fire regimes using dendrochronology data for selected sub-regions. The relationships derived through this work will provide a basis for projecting the future effects of changing climate on fire patterns, emissions and carbon cycle in Siberia. This project will provide critical information for input to global change models and for analysis of the regional and global impacts of changing fire regimes in the boreal zone.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups

    PubMed Central

    Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Sukernik, Rem I.; Derbeneva, Olga A.; Volodko, Natalia V.; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D.; Lott, Marie T.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A–D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region. PMID:15638829

  1. Moho topography and crustal heterogeneity in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepanova, Y. V.; Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.

    2013-05-01

    We present a new digital model of the crustal structure of the Archean-Proterozoic Siberian craton and the Paleozoic- Mesozoic West Siberian basin. The model is based on the digitized published seismic profiles. The new compilation represents significant improvement in coverage and resolution with a nominal sample interval of 50 km before interpolation onto a uniform 2x2 degree grid. The crustal model includes depth to Moho, thickness and average P-wave velocity of five crustal layers (sediments, and upper, middle, lower, and lowermost crust) and Pn velocity. Crustal structure shows weak correlation with tectono-thermal age and strong correlation with tectonic setting. The Moho depth generally increases with the age and shows high amplitude undulations at different tectonic areas. Typical Moho depths are 44-46 km in stable Archean crust, 40-42 km in Proterozoic craton and Neoproterozoic/Paleozoic orogens, 35-38 km in extended cratonic crust, and 38-40 km in the West Siberian basin. The crust generally consists of three layers and has no high-velocity lowermost crust (Vp 7.4 km/s), which is observed only in magmatic areas. Average crustal velocity is 6.2-6.4 km/s. It is ranging from <5.8 km/s in deep sedimentary basins to 6.6 km/s around the up-to 54 km thick Anabar shield crust. The upper mantle velocity is heterogeneous. The average velocity is 8.2 km/s in the craton and the West Siberian Basin, lower in areas affected by the Baikalian and Caledonian orogenies, higher in the Tunguska and the Viluy basins, and abnormally high (8.6-8.9 km/s) around kimberlite fields. We discuss the origin of crustal heterogeneity and evolution in Precambrian cratons and major Phanerozoic basins and rift zones.

  2. Numeral Modeling of Smoke Aerosol Interaction with Cloudiness over Catastrophic Wild Fires in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovskaya, O. A.; Malbakhov, V. M.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Shlychkov, V. A.

    2009-04-01

    The increase of burning area in Siberia, the extension of fire season and fires intensity leads to significant carbon emission. One of the important tasks is to describe the spread of smoke aerosol and other combustion products using actual meteorological data and fire state information. A smoke aerosol covers territory a hundreds times larger then the burning area and has an effect on forming of the cloud and sediment formation exactly above the fire zone. Well known that smoke particles are condensation nucleus of water vapor and of water droplets coagulation and of crystallization. The no-hydrostatical model of atmospheric boundary layer, taking into account the phase change in the system vapor-water-ice, was developed for calculation of different scenarios of convective cloudiness forming over catastrophic wild fires. The analysis of remote sensing data relating to catastrophic fires is carried out for Asian part of Russia for the period from 2002 to 2008. The followings regular dependences were of interest: the anomalously dry weather is set during long period on the areas of catastrophic fires the expected reserve cloudiness which would partly suppress such fires does not spread through this areas. Calculations showed that increasing of the smoke aerosol concentration at the top of cloud can result in decreasing of total precipitations amount. The penetration of smoke aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer stimulates rapid water drops crystallization. Clouds with an icy top provide more weak precipitation, than the clouds, which tops consist of mixture of icy crystals, snow and raindrops. This is in accordance with theoretical considerations and experimental investigations of micro physical processes in clouds. Monitoring of meteorological situation from space, cyclones and clouds dynamics, specifies air circulation transformation which takes place above the catastrophic fires area. We can suppose a positive feed-back between heat and mass release and atmospheric processes, resulting in long duration of mass fires in Siberian taiga regions. The numeral modeling of smoke aerosol propagation takes into account the processes of convection, turbulent exchange, humidity, speed and direction of wind. Calculating of spatial and temporal precipitations distribution at the presence of smoke aerosol allowed us to assume, that vertical heat and mass transferring in the mass forest fires region, can appear as the influencing factor on atmospheric circulation in a zonal scale. Using mathematical modeling, we have shown, that the large particles of smoke aerosol, emitted out of the burning area can result in diminishing of thundershowers precipitations in Siberian region. It can be substantial in the mechanism of positive feed-back, resulting in the long mass fires duration. KEYWORDS: mass forest fires, smoke aerosol, atmospheric boundary layer, no-hydrostatical model, precipitation, heat and mass transferring, positive feed-back, boreal Siberia

  3. Russias R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

    2010-05-01

    Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

  4. Volcanism in Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Eichelberger, L. G.

    2008-12-01

    The diverse and robust volcanism of Kamchatka challenges our understanding of subduction zone volcanism on both local volcanic and regional tectonic scales (e.g., AGU Geophysics Monograph 172). One might expect the two North Pacific peninsula/ island arc pairs, Kamchatka Peninsula/ Kuriles and Alaska Peninsula/ Aleutians, to be twins, but there are some important differences as well as similarities. In both cases, the continental margin largely controls the position of the volcanic front on the peninsulas and the associated island arcs are pinned to the peninsula tips. The unusually acute Aleutian-Kamchatka subduction cusp may have formed by jamming and outboard (southeastward) jumping of Bering subduction at about 50 Ma to form the Aleutians, with capture of the Bering microplate by the North American plate. Perhaps the acuteness was augmented by convergence of the Emperor Seamount Chain with the junction. Another outboard (eastward) jump may explain the two lines of volcanoes in Kamchatka, which are partially separated by the rift-like Central Kamchatka Depression. This is thought to have occurred at 7 - 10 Ma when 3 seamounts were accreted as capes to the eastern edge of Kamchatka. But other workers, pointing to east-west chemical trends and persistence of volcanism in the inboard Sredinny Range, prefer to postulate two depths of volatile release from the same intact slab. On the Alaska Peninsula, Quaternary volcanic deposits are discontinuous and even famous Mount Katmai is a volumetric dwarf. The opposite is the case in Kamchatka, where pre-volcanic basement under the young eastern volcanic front is sparsely exposed and Holocene stratovolcanoes rise as high as 4,835 m. Calderas are so numerous they sometimes overlap. Some exhibit repeated andesitic stratovolcano - silicic caldera cycles over remarkably short time frames. Remoteness, international politics, and challenging weather have conspired to make Kamchatka's volcanoes less appreciated by non-Russians than they should be. Among the best natural laboratories for understanding subduction volcanism are: (1) The spectacular edifice collapse/explosive eruption/continuing dome-effusion sequences of Bezymianny (1956) and Shiveluch (1964), which together with Mount St Helens (1980) provide a valuable time series in system evolution; (2) The two-magma, multiple vent eruptions of Tolbachik (1975), Karymsky (1996), and Gorely (1737) interpretable as large dikes interacting with shallow magma pods; (3) Ksudach with 3 caldera-forming eruptions within just the Holocene; (4) Hydrothermally diverse Mutnovsky with strong passive SO2 degassing, fumaroles to 600C, and flanking 50 MWe geothermal production; and (5) The ever-active Kliuchevskoi Volcano, which may demonstrate the requirement of gas-lift to push basalt to the top of its towering, hastily built cone without rupturing it.

  5. Interest representation in soviet policymaking: A case study of a West Siberian energy coalition

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.

    1986-01-01

    Dr. Chung examines a little-known facet of Soviet decision making - pressure group politics and policy formation. He focuses on the ''pro-Siberian'' forces involved with the development of energy resources in West Siberia, an area rich in oil and natural gas. Because West Siberia is a remote and relatively unexplored region, controversy arose over the location of the highest-yielding fields and the allocation of funds and materials. Dr. Chung shows that the decision to accelerate the development of the West Siberian energy complex was influenced strongly by a ''policy coalition'' composed primarily of local officials, enterprise managers, professionals, and academics. Demonstrating that this coalition is a stable and highly active pressure group, he illustrates how it gradually established ascendancy and eventually outflanked opposing elements in the government and planning agencies. He identifies key elements of the coalition's strategy, tracing the steps by which it swung the leadership over to its views on resource allocation.

  6. Genesis of the West Siberian Basin and its petroleum geology: a recent interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    From Late Carboniferous through Middle Jurassic time, the region of West Siberia passed through orogenic, rift, and early platform stages. The Early-Middle Jurassic was a time of cyclical marine and continental deposition. It is suggested that: (a) the oil in the Lower Cretaceous Neocomian sandstones was sourced by bituminous clays that interfinger with these sandstones on the west; and (b) that Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian gas was sourced in part by deeply buried Paleozoics and by overlying Upper Cretaceous Turonian clays. Predicted discoveries in West Siberia include several thousand small fields with reserves of less than 10 million tons, 250 to 300 medium-sized fields, and several large fields with 30 to 100 million tons. -from Author

  7. Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

  8. Fire effects on hydrochemistry of streams draining watersheds with continuous permafrost distribution in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokushkin, Anatoly; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kawahigashi, Masayuki; Viers, Jerome

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires, assumed to be the main disturbance factor in the boreal biome, are tended to increase in frequency and severity under "dry warming" (Conard et al. 2002). Short fire-return interval in larch dominated permafrost terrains of Siberia (Kharuk et al., 2008) exert significant control on ecosystem biogeochemical cycling throughout the complex influences of deforestation, ground vegetation and organic layer combustion as well as deepen soil active layer. Despite extensive research of fire impact on carbon exchange between soil, forest biomass and atmosphere in permafrost affected regions of Siberia, much less is known on the role of fire in control of element transport in rivers and watersheds affected by fire events. To analyze the effect of fires on chemical composition of surface fluids in permafrost zone, fourteen small forested watersheds (3-25 km2) have been selected in mid-stream of Nizhnyaya Tunguska River (Yenissey basin, Central Siberia, Russia). Analysis of larch trees in forest stands of the area demonstrated that presumably all basins were affected by wildfires in the past. Selected watersheds have been influenced by ground fires (>90% of watershed area) ca 110, 60 and 15 years ago (respectively in 1899, 1947 and 1993). Water sampling campaign has been conducted from snowmelt (mid-May) to the start of freezing (mid-October) on weekly and/or monthly interval in 2006-2009. In this study, we analyzed the dissolved loads for major and trace element concentrations. In terms of concentration changes in the course of the year, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC as well as associated elements like Fe, Al, Y and REE) and inorganic ions (e.g. DIC, Cl, Ca, Na, Mg etc.) demonstrated opposite tendencies during a frost-free season in all streams. However, basins with recent fire effect exhibited generally lower DOC concentrations in streams along with much more pronounced seasonal increase in concentrations of inorganic compounds. The increased active layer thickness and major element leaching from mineral soil is the most likely cause of inorganic component concentration increase in watersheds affected by fire events. The larger watersheds have also shown talik (permanently unfrozen zones) formation resulting in deep solute appearance in the surface runoff (high concentrations of Na and Cl ions). Decreased discharge and reduced DOC export in fire-affected watersheds have been suggested to result respectively from larger water-holding capacity of the deepening active soil layer, which developed after the fire events, and the combustion of the organic layer, which is the main DOC source. Thus, under a drier climate, fires impose two limitations of DOC release from watersheds: (1) decreasing mobile C-source (combustion of organic layer), and (2) decreased volume of draining water (increased water-holding capacity of soil). Comparable concentrations of elements in streams draining from watersheds burnt 50 and 100 years ago corroborate earlier estimates of a recovery time of 50 years for ecosystem structures of larch forests of the region.

  9. Structure of extreme precipitation field in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheredko, Natalia N.; Volkova, Marina A.; Zhuravlev, Georgiy G.; Ogurtzov, Leonity A.

    2015-11-01

    The present paper introduces the results of analyzing the space-time structure of extreme characteristics of precipitation in Western Siberia. For each index, with the view of changes evaluation, differences between average values for periods 1951-1980 and 1981-2010 were calculated. The assessment of synchronicity in time and space with the use of factor and cluster analysis showed that changes in precipitation of Western Siberia are determined by global climate-forcing processes only by one-third. When taking into account the results of division into classes, the share of the explained variance increases to 40-60%. The performed classification confirmed an increase in synchronicity when decreasing the territory scale.

  10. Status of forest resources and the environment in Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Danilin, I.; Sokoly, V.

    1997-12-31

    The Siberian forests are considered to be one of the most important biomes on earth. The forested area of Siberia constitutes about 20 percent of the total world forested area and nearly 50 percent of the total world coniferous forested area. About 605 million hectares are covered with stands, these areas make up about 48 percent of the total area. Nearly 450 million hectares are covered with coniferous species. The total growing stock of stemwood is 61.4 billion m{sup 3} as compared to North America - 50.3 billion m{sup 3} of which 51 billion m{sup 3} is made up of coniferous species. About 38.5 billion m{sup 3} (nearly 63 percent) of the growing stock are classified as mature and overmature forests. Nearly 65 percent of the Siberian forests are growing in areas with permafrost and more than 60 percent of the forested areas are classified as mountain forests. The carbon stock, accumulated in forest ecosystems of Siberia, exceeds 94 billion tons in total, with annual carbon sequestration at more than 170 million tons. This sink could be significantly increased by implementation of rational forestry in Siberia. Average stock per 1 ha of mature and overmature stands is 148 m{sup 3}. Average annual growth per 1 ha of forest-forming species is 1.31 m{sup 3}, among them conifers - 1.17 m{sup 3}. Siberia has roughly 40% of its original forests intact (the United States has less than 5% of its ancient forests).

  11. Nonlinear dynamics study of the SIBERIA-2 electron storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Levichev, E.; Sajaev, V.

    1995-09-01

    Dedicated {ital SR} sources with minimized beam emittance possess a great deal of chromaticity. For the latter to be compensated, strong sextupole lenses producing a nonlinear influence on the beam dynamics and giving rise to the limitation of the motion stability area are employed. The paper presents the results concerning the single-particle nonlinear dynamics of SIBERIA-2. We have applied a perturbation theory based on canonical Lie transforms. It enables us to study high order perturbation effects.

  12. The diversity and prevalence of hard ticks attacking human hosts in Eastern Siberia (Russian Federation) with first description of invasion of non-endemic tick species.

    PubMed

    Khasnatinov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Liapunov, Alexander Valeryevich; Manzarova, Ellina Lopsonovna; Kulakova, Nina Viktorovna; Petrova, Irina Viktorovna; Danchinova, Galina Anatolyevna

    2016-02-01

    Hard ticks are the vectors of many pathogens including tick-borne encephalitis virus and the Lyme disease agent Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In Eastern Siberia, Ixodes persulcatus, Dermacentor nuttalli, Dermacentor silvarum and Haemaphysalis concinna are regarded as aggressive to humans. Recently, significant changes in world tick fauna have been reported and this affects the spread of tick-borne pathogens. We studied the current species diversity, population structure and prevalence of tick-borne pathogens of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) that attacked humans in Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk region, Russia). In total, 31,892 individual ticks were identified and analysed during the years 2007-2014. The majority (85.4 %) of victims was bitten by I. persulcatus, 14.55 % of attacks on humans were caused by D. nuttalli and D. silvarum, whereas H. concinna was documented only in 15 cases (0.05 %). The seasonal activity and the age/gender structure of the tick population were studied as well. Among all the studied ticks, three unconventional species, i.e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Amblyomma americanum, were identified. Analysis of tick bite histories indicates at least three events of invasion of non-endemic ticks into the ecosystems of northern Eurasia with harsh continental climates. Invading ticks are able to reach the adult life stage and are aggressive to the local human population. Phylogenetic analysis of mt 16S rRNA gene fragments suggests multiple independent routes of tick migration to Eastern Siberia. Possible implications to human health and epidemiology of tick-borne infections are discussed. PMID:26443685

  13. Long-term trends and changes of soil temperature of recent decade in the permafrost zone of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstiukov, A.

    2013-12-01

    The northern regions of Russia have rich natural resources (oil, gas). In recent years in these areas are increasingly built engineering structure for oil and gas production and their transportation. Current global warming has a great influence on soil condition in the permafrost zone. This can lead to negative effects on buildings and infrastructure which are built on frozen soils. Changes of the soil state in area of permafrost demand serious studying. Next steps have been done for research of this problem: Part 1. a) The daily data set of soil temperature under natural surface at depths up to 320 cm at the Russian meteorological stations has been prepared. The earliest year of data set is 1963, the current version is ending in 2011 (660 stations of Russia). Quality control of original data was performed in creating this data set. b) The data set of computed depth of soil seasonal thawing at the Russian meteorological stations till 2011 has been prepared (107 stations with yearly depth of thawing). Part 2. Changes of soils' condition for the last five decades have been researched based on the prepared data sets. The change of mean annual soil temperature at depths has been researched and soil warming in the vast area for 1963 - 2010 has been shown, the great trends (0,2 0,4C /10 years) increase at 320 cm have been found in Western and Eastern Siberia, and the greatest trends (0,4 0,5C/10 years) are found in their south part. This creates favorable conditions for increase of seasonal thawing depth in a permafrost zone, especially in its south part. The map of average depth of soil seasonal thawing for the same period (1963-2010) was made. It showed that the greatest depths of thawing 300-400 cm were observed near the border of permafrost and the smallest depths 50-250 cm predominate in the area of continuous permafrost. Part 3. Global warming of climate was slowed down from the beginning of the XXI century as it is known from publications. Additional researches of soil temperature change in recent decade showed that positive trends of soil temperature for this decade were changed on negative trends (-0,2 -0,6C/10 years) in the South and the southeast of Western Siberia. The most intensive decrease of soil temperature in this region is observed since 2007. Trends of the thawing depth for permafrost soils were obtained for 2001-2011. Greatest significant positive trends of thawing depth have been obtained in Eastern Siberia (35 cm/year). However, spots with significant negative trends are obtained in central Yakutia, and also to the south of Lake Baikal and near the Kolyma River mouth. Conclusions: 1. Using the Russian daily data set of soil temperature at depths up to 320 cm for last 40-50 years, soil warming is shown over the vast territory of the Russia. Maximum trends at the 320 cm depth are found in the south part of Western and Eastern Siberia. 2. One of the impacts of the current climate changes is the general tendency for the increase in the seasonal thawing depth on the vast territory of Western and Eastern Siberia. 3. In recent decade the tendency of soil temperature decrease has been appeared in south part of Western Siberia near south border of permafrost also decrease of seasonal thawing depth has been appeared in some regions. The work was done with the financial support of RFBR (project 11-05-00691).

  14. Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

    2013-11-01

    Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657000km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P>0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P<0.05) with Ts across 56% of the watershed (r=0.520.09, meanSD), principally in cold areas, and with CMIgy across 9% of the watershed (r=0.450.06), largely in warm areas. Larch ring-width measurements from nine sites revealed that year-to-year (i.e., high-frequency) variation in growth positively correlated (P<0.05) with June temperature (r=0.40) and prior summer CMI (r=0.40) from 1938 to 2007. An unexplained multi-decadal (i.e., low-frequency) decline in annual basal area increment (BAI) occurred following the mid-20th century, but over the NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P>0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r=0.44, P<0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies that projections of future forest distribution and productivity in this area should take into account the interactions of energy and moisture limitations. PMID:23813896

  15. Lidar profiling of aerosol optical properties from Paris to Lake Baikal (Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieudonn, E.; Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.; Shang, X.

    2015-05-01

    In June 2013, a ground-based mobile lidar performed the ~10 000 km ride from Paris to Ulan-Ude, near Lake Baikal, profiling for the first time aerosol optical properties all the way from western Europe to central Siberia. The instrument was equipped with N2-Raman and depolarization channels that enabled an optical speciation of aerosols in the low and middle troposphere. The extinction-to-backscatter ratio (also called lidar ratio or LR) and particle depolarization ratio (PDR) at 355 nm have been retrieved. The LR in the lower boundary layer (300-700 m) was found to be 63 17 sr on average during the campaign with a distribution slightly skewed toward higher values that peaks between 50 and 55 sr. Although the difference is small, PDR values observed in Russian cities (>2%, except after rain) are systematically higher than the ones measured in Europe (<1%), which is probably an effect of the lifting of terrigenous aerosols by traffic on roads. Biomass burning layers from grassland or/and forest fires in southern Russia exhibit LR values ranging from 65 to 107 sr and from 3 to 4% for the PDR. During the route, desert dust aerosols originating from the Caspian and Aral seas regions were characterized for the first time, with a LR (PDR) of 43 14 sr (23 2%) for pure dust. The lidar observations also showed that this dust event extended over 2300 km and lasted for ~6 days. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) show that our results are comparable in terms of aerosol optical thickness (between 0.05 and 0.40 at 355 nm) with the mean aerosol load encountered throughout our route.

  16. Genetic diversity of Ixodes pavlovskyi and I. persulcatus (Acari: Ixodidae) from the sympatric zone in the south of Western Siberia and Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Livanova, Natalia N; Tikunov, Artem Yu; Kurilshikov, Alexander M; Livanov, Stanislav G; Fomenko, Nataliya V; Taranenko, Dmitrii E; Kvashnina, Anna E; Tikunova, Nina V

    2015-11-01

    The most epidemiologically significant tick species in Siberia involved in transmission of a large number of pathogens causing human infectious diseases is Ixodes persulcatus. Ixodes pavlovskyi, being more active, also poses epidemiological threats. These tick species share morphology, activity seasons and geographic distribution range. In this paper, we characterize the geographic and genetic structures of I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi populations inhabiting the southern part of Western Siberia (Russia and Kazakhstan)--the western part of I. pavlovskyi distribution range. The data are based on six distinct Ixodes tick populations. Analysis of the concatenated mitochondrial marker sequences (16S rRNA and COI) and the nuclear sequence (ITS2) showed genetic polymorphisms in both I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks inhabiting the sympatric zone. We could not determine the phylogeographic structure of I. pavlovskyi populations whereas for I. persulcatus significant within-region variance was shown. Notably, the abundance of I. persulcatus ticks negatively correlates with nucleotide and haplotype diversity in the concatenated sequence of mitochondrial gene (16S rRNA and COI) fragments. This is the first description of the genetic polymorphism of I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi ticks coexisting in a sympatric zone based on analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear markers. PMID:26201397

  17. Stability and biodegradability of humic substances from Arctic soils of Western Siberia: insights from 13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejarque, E.; Abakumov, E.

    2015-11-01

    Arctic soils contain large amounts of organic matter which, globally, exceed the amount of carbon stored in vegetation biomass and in the atmosphere. Recent studies emphasize the potential sensitivity for this soil organic matter (SOM) to be mineralised when faced with increasing ambient temperatures. In order to better refine the predictions about the response of SOM to climate warming, there is a need to increase the spatial coverage of empirical data on SOM quantity and quality in the Arctic area. This study provides, for the first time, a characterisation of SOM from the Gydan Peninsula in the Yamal Region, Western Siberia, Russia. On the one hand, soil humic acids and their humification state were characterised by measuring the elemental composition and diversity of functional groups using solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Also, the total mineralisable carbon was measured. Our results show that there is a uniformity of SOM characteristics throughout the studied region, as well as within soil profiles. Such in-depth homogeneity, together with a predominance of aliphatic carbon structures, suggests the accumulation in soil of raw and slightly decomposed organic matter. Moreover, results on total mineralisable carbon suggest a high lability of these compounds. The mineralisation rate was found to be independent of SOM quality, and to be mainly explained solely by the total carbon content. Overall, our results provide further evidence on the fundamental role that the soils of Western Siberia may have on regulating the global carbon balance when faced with increasing ambient temperatures.

  18. Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vibe, Yulia

    2014-05-01

    The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

  19. Spatio-temporal dynamics of climatic extreme indices over Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, Tamara; Gordov, Evgeny; Genina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays numerous investigations are aimed at analysis of regional climatic extremes becoming more pronounced under climate change. In particular, obtained results indicate decrease of number of frost days and increase of growing season length over the most part of Siberian territory, and precipitation intensity increases in the northern part of Siberia [1]. To obtain the complete pattern of ongoing changes in climatic extremes the following indices dynamics should be analyzed: percentage of days when minimum/maximum temperature less than 10th percentile, percentage of days minimum/maximum temperature greater than 90th percentile, maximum length of dry/wet spell. Climatic extreme assessments are obtained based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis and APHRODITE JMA data for the time period from 1979 to 2007. These datasets reproduce the statistics of observed climate features in Siberia more accurately [1]. Modern techniques of mathematical statistics are used for analysis of the temporal and spatial behavior of above mentioned climatic characteristics. Data analysis has been done using computational-geoinformational web-system for analysis of regional climatic change [2]. Surface temperature and precipitation extreme assessments obtained for Siberian territory can help to get a better understanding of current changes in the biosphere and socio-economic aspects. Partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 11-05-01190a), SB RAS projects VIII.80.2.1 and 131, and the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science grant # 8345 is acknowledged. 1. Shulgina T.M., Genina E.Yu., Gordov E.P. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia // Environmental Research Letters, 2011. - DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045210. - 7 p. 2. Evgeny Gordov et al. Development of Information-Computational Infrastructure for Environmental research in Siberia as a baseline component of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) Studies / Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences // Series: Springer Environmental Science and Engineering. Ed.: Groisman, Pavel Ya., Gutman, Garik. Vol. XII, 2013. P. 19-55.

  20. 65 FR 49967 - District Heating Mission to Russia; Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2000-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration District Heating Mission to Russia; Extension AGENCY: International Trade..., 1997. District Heating Mission to Russia, Moscow and St Petersburg, Russia, October 15-21,...

  1. [The Siberian and Far-Eastern subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus registered in Russia's Asian regions: genetic and antigen characteristics of the strains].

    PubMed

    Pogodina, V V; Bochkova, N G; Karan', L S; Trukhina, A G; Levina, L S; Malenko, G V; Druzhinina, T A; Lukashenko, Z S; Dul'ke?t, O F; Platonov, A E

    2004-01-01

    Agar gel precipitation test with cross-adsorbed immune sera was used for the antigenic differentiation of strains of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Fifty strains of the Far East TBEV serotype and 46 strains of the Siberian (Aina) TBEV serotype were isolated from Ixodes persulcatus, which is the main vector of the above TBEV subtypes in the Asian and European parts of Russia. The fragment of the envelope protein gene was sequenced for TBEV strains. Sequences of new-group strains of the Siberian subtypes isolated from 3 patients with chronic TBE and from brain tissues of 4 deceased patients were determined. Lethal TBE outcomes were registered in Siberia (Irkutsk Region and Krasnoyarsk Territory) and in Russia's European part (Yaroslavl Region). PMID:15293507

  2. Peat archives from Siberia: Synchrotron beam scanning with X-ray fluorescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phedorin, M. A.; Bobrov, V. A.; Zolotarev, K. V.

    2007-05-01

    We used a new approach to measure the downcore distribution of some major and trace elements that record the Holocene history of peat-forming processes in peat from the Elovka mesotrophic swamp (West Siberia). The approach implies continuous non-destructive scanning of natural wet-core fragments under a sharp synchrotron beam combined with measurements of the excited X-ray fluorescence, in attempt to avoid errors due to the loss of volatiles abundant in peat. The obtained data are in good agreement with the results of the certified methods of neutron activation gamma-spectrometry (INAA) and classical SR XRF, though, as we expected, there is some discrepancy in the contents of volatiles (Br, Zn) which are most probably lost in INAA and/or in ignition. The precision of the suggested SR XRF scanning resolved the variability of 18 elements in the peat-core deposited during 0-8 kyr bp at no worse than 30 years in most cases. The distribution of the measured elements provided a clue to the evolution of peat deposition environments that controlled biogenic production, aerosol input, post-depositional processes, and Ca mineralization associated with pore water circulation in soil during the non-mesotrophic stages of the swamp history.

  3. Ice Complex formation in arctic East Siberia during the MIS3 Interstadial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, Sebastian; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Rudaya, Natalia; Andreev, Andrei A.; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Hls, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    A continuous 15 m long sequence of Ice Complex permafrost (Yedoma) exposed in a thermo-cirque at the southern coast of Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago, Dmitry Laptev Strait) was studied to reconstruct past landscape and environmental dynamics. The sequence accumulated during the Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) Interstadial between >49 and 29 ka BP in an ice-wedge polygon. The frozen deposits were cryolithologically described and sampled on a vertical bluff between two ice wedges. According to sedimentological and geochronological data, the section is subdivided into three units which correlate with environmental conditions of the early, middle, and late MIS3 period. Palynological data support this stratification. The stable isotope signature of texture ice in the polygon structure reflects fractionation due to local freeze-thaw processes, while the signature of an approximately 5 m wide and more than 17 m high ice wedge fits very well into the regional stable-water isotope record. Regional climate dynamics during the MIS3 Interstadial and local landscape conditions of the polygonal patterned ground controlled the Ice Complex formation. The sequence presented here completes previously published MIS3 permafrost records in Northeast Siberia. Late Quaternary stadial-interstadial climate variability in arctic West Beringia is preserved at millennial resolution in the Ice Complex. A MIS3 climate optimum was revealed between 48 and 38 ka BP from the Ice Complex on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island.

  4. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  5. Birds of the Indigirka River Delta, Russia: Historical and biogeographic comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Esler, Daniel; Degtyarev, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    We documented the breeding status and relative abundance of all avian species on the coastal portion of the Indigirka River Delta during spring and summer 1993-95. Data on avifaunal composition were then compared to data from adjacent areas from Eastern Siberia to the Chukotka Peninsula to evaluate how species composition changes longitudinally within the arctic and typical tundra zones of northern Russia. We recorded 63 species on the Indigirka River Delta, 37 (58.7 %) of which were confirmed breeders during at least one of the three years. Five new species were recorded breeding (Arenaria interpres, Calidris acuminata, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Stercorarius parasiticus, and Asio flammeus), and 13 previously unrecorded species were observed during this study. We also identified several species of rare or threatened status in Russia and North America, including Branta bernicla, Somateria fischeri, Polysticta stelleri, and Rhodostethia rosea. We used parsimony and distance matrix methods to compare the breeding species richness on the Indigirka River Delta to that of six other Russian Arctic areas. Biogeographic comparisons revealed the presence of two clades in the Russian Arctic: the Lena River Delta east to Chaun Delta and the Chukotka Peninsula.

  6. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, K.A.; Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in significant contamination of the environment in western Siberia. The radioactive releases to surface waters and the surficial environment from the Mayak site are the largest known in the world. However, they are dwarfed by the amounts of liquid wastes injected into the subsurface at Tomsk and Krasnoyarsk since the early 1960s. This paper provides the status of efforts by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to quantify the regional hydrogeologic context for potential contaminant migration from areas in western Siberia. The West Siberian Basin is the largest platformal basin and region of low relief on earth. Ground water in the West Siberian Basin is contained in a single geologic structure (i.e., a single basin). Hydrogeologic cross sections indicate that freshwater wedges are present in both unconfined and confined aquifers (as well as in Paleozoic rocks) in the highland regions that rim the basin. The authors developed a 13-layer, finite-element computer model of the West Siberian Basin primarily based on GIS integration of data from geologic studies. The top of the hydrologic system was assumed to coincide with a water table derived from smoothed topography and surface-water occurrences; precipitation supplied the water, and the topographic gradient of the water table supplied the driving force for ground-water flow. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that (1) the major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks; and (2) ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between the major rivers. Their results suggest that contaminants entering the confined aquifer system may eventually migrate to the surface, discharging within major rivers, rather than remaining confined for long travel distances within the basin sediments.

  7. Russia [Teachers Guide and Student Readings].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA. Intercultural Understanding Project.

    This teaching unit, one of a series of curriculum guides on different world areas for use at the secondary level, treats the culture and history of Russia, oftentimes comparing it with that of the United States. Major teaching objectives are to have students compare and contrast basic geographic, cultural, and historical information on Russia and…

  8. Russia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and ... About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to ...

  9. Fe-U-PGE-Au-Ag-Cu Deposits of the Udokan-Chiney Region (East Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Murashov, K.; Nistratov, S.; Gryazev, S.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Cupriferous sandstones-shales and magmatic copper-nickel deposits mark out the western and southern boundaries of the Siberian Craton accordingly. Of special interest are the Paleoproterozoic deposits of the Udokan-Chiney mining district (Gongalskiy, Krivolutskaya, 2008). Copper reserves and resources of this region are estimated at more than 50 Mt. Half of them is concentrated at the unique Udokan Deposit and the second half is distributed among sedimentary (Unkur, Pravoingamakitskoye, Sakinskoye, Krasnoye, Burpala) and magmatic deposits of the Chiney (Rudnoye, Verkhnechineyskoye, Kontaktovoye), Luktur and Maylav massifs. Results. It was established that the ores are characterized by similarity in chemical composition (main, major and rare elements that are Ag, Au, PGE) and mineral assemblages with varying proportions. It is important to emphasize that Fe role in mineralization was previously ignored. Meanwhile the Udokan deposit contains 10 Mt of magnetite metacrystals so as chalcocite ores may contain up to 50% magnetite too. It has been recently found that the Chiney titanomagnetite ores comprise commercially significant uranium and rare-earth metal concentrations (Makaryev et al., 2011). Thus the Udokan-Chiney region comprises Cu, Fe, Ti, V, U, REE, Ag, Au, PGE. These deposits differ from similar objects, the Olympic Dam in particular, by a much smaller content of fluid-bearing minerals. Copper mineralization at the Udokan is represented by chalcocite-bornite ores. They occur as ore beds conformable with sedimentary structures or as cross-cutting veins. The central zones of the former are often brecciated. They are rimmed by fine magnetite, bornite, and chalcocite dissemination. Bornite-chalcopyrite and chalcopyrite-pyrite veins are known at the lower levels of the Udokan ore bed. Such ore compositions are predominant in other ore deposits in sedimentary rocks (Pravoingamakitskoye, Unkur) and have a hydrothermal origin. Silver grades are up to 370 g/t in grab samples (Gongalskiy et al., 2008a). The long-lived Udokan-Chiney ore-magmatic has small areal extent of explosive rocks and breccias (n*10 m) with massive sulfide veins (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) which are similar to Sudbury offset dikes. While the same vertical zones at the Rudnoye deposit have been confirmed over 0.5 km downward from the lower contact of the Chiney massif. Conclusions. Multielement and similar mineralogical composition ores of different deposits in the Udokan-Chiney area reflect long evolution of ore processes in very movable block of the crust. Observed combination of magmatic, sedimentary and partially hydrothermal deposits is a result of the telescoping of a wide range of metals into a limited area.

  10. A long-living species of the hydrophiloid beetles: Helophorus sibiricus from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo (Siberia, Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Fik?ek, Martin; Prokin, Alexander; Angus, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The recent hydrophiloid species Helophorus (Gephelophorus) sibiricus (Motschulsky, 1860) is recorded from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo assigned to the Ombinsk Formation. A detailed comparison with recent specimens allowed a confident identification of the fossil specimen, which is therefore the oldest record of a recent species for the Hydrophiloidea. The paleodistribution as well as recent distribution of the species is summarized, and the relevance of the fossil is discussed. In addition, the complex geological settings of the Kartashevo area are briefly summarized. PMID:22259280

  11. Paleoceanographic Studies in the Sea of Okhotsk - Implications for the Glaciation History of NE Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuernberg, D.; Tiedemann, R.; Kaiser, A.; Biebow, N.

    2003-04-01

    The extent of the Late Weichselian glaciation in the Russian Arctic is discussed controversely even today. The most extreme "Grosswald"-model of extended long-lived ice sheets and domes covering large areas of N- and NE-Siberia including the Sea of Okhotsk, however, contradicts to our marine-geological studies in the Sea of Okhotsk. Detailed studies on stable oxygen isotopes and on ice-rafted detritus (IRD, defined as >63um) from a variety of Sea of Okhotsk sediment records helped us to further constrain the glaciation history of NE-Siberia for the last ca. 160.000 years. IRD is continuously present in all our sediment records over the entire time period covered, with strongly enhanced IRD accumulation rates during glacial periods. Icebergs serving as transport agents for the large amount of IRD can be ruled out for both the modern situation as well as for the last glacial (stages 2-4), mainly due to the fact that large glacier systems ashore were not present. Seasonally varying and highly mobile sea ice is suggested to serve as the dominant transport mechanism to distribute IRD basin-wide. Coastal adfreezing is presumably the most important entrainment mechanism for IRD into sea ice. Consistent with the modern sea-ice pattern in the Sea of Okhotsk, highest accumulation rates of IRD appear in the northern and western parts. Here, sea ice formation is driven by cool NW-winds, freshwater contribution, and polynya processes. The eastern part, instead, is characterized by low IRD accumulation rates. The intrusion of the relatively warm and shallow Kamtchatka Current prevents sea ice formation off Kamtchatka even during winter times. The modern pattern of sea-ice distribution is apparently relatively stable during the stages 1-5, as indicated by various time slice reconstructions of IRD showing marked west-east gradients in IRD distribution. During glacial stage 6, instead, the main depositional center of IRD shifted from the northwestern Sea of Okhotsk to the eastern part off Kamchatka. Accumulation rates of IRD contemporaneously increased by a factor of 2 to 3 compared to the last glacial. The change in the depositional center of IRD suggests that transport mechanisms changed considerably. We speculate that during stage 6, calving icebergs from the strongly glaciated Kamtchatka Peninsula provided large amounts of IRD to the eastern part of the Sea of Okhotsk. Anomalously light stable oxygen isotopes of planktonic foraminifera during stage 6.3 and during Termination II undoubtedly point to significant meltwater discharge presumably originating from Kamtchatka, supporting the assumption of pronounced glaciation of Kamtchatka Peninsula.

  12. The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM. PMID:18254941

  13. The Bazhenovo Suite, a unique natural oil reservoir. [Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimuk, A.A.; Karogodin, Y.N.

    1982-03-01

    In the Mesozoic section of Western Siberia, the oil and gas reservoirs are confined to terrigenous silt-sand formations. The Upper Jurassic bituminous argillites of the Bazhenovo Suite are an exception, and the only clay-argillite reservoir rocks ever discovered. The thickness of the Bazhenovo argillites is comparatively small, varying from 5-10 to 20-40 meters. From these rocks in many areas light, high-quality oil has been obtained, including commercial quantities with maximum yields of more than 370 m/sup 3//day. (JMT)

  14. [Transformation of soil organic matter in microarthropod community from the Northern Taiga of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Mordkovich, V G; Berezina, O G; Liubechanski?, I I; Andrievski?, V S; Marchenko, I I

    2006-01-01

    Recolonization of defaunated soil by springtails as well as by gamasid and oribatid mites and the changes in organic matter content of soil were studied in the northern taiga. After a one-year exposure in gauze bags (1.7 mm mesh), the abundance of microarthropods was higher but the number of species was lower compared to the surrounding soil. Large surface and litter forms did not colonize the samples, while the number of small and/or soil forms was higher. Soil samples inaccessible for microarthropods (0.15 mm mesh) were depleted of organic carbon compared to both surrounding soil and recolonized samples. The content of humic and fulvic acids was higher in the samples inaccessible to microarthropods. Humification processes prevailed in soils in the absence of microarthropods. PMID:16521545

  15. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  16. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  17. Review: mass spectrometry in Russia.

    PubMed

    Zaikin, Vladimir G; Sysoev, Alexander A

    2013-01-01

    The present review covers the main research in the area of mass spectrometry from the 1990s which was about the same time as the Russian Federation emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union (USSR). It consists of two main parts-application of mass spectrometry to chemistry and related fields and creation and development of mass spectrometric technique. Both traditional and comparatively new mass spectrometric methods were used to solve various problems in organic chemistry (reactivity of gas-phase ions, structure elucidation and problems of identification, quantitative and trace analysis, differentiation of stereoisomers, derivatization approaches etc.), biochemistry (proteomics and peptidomics, lipidomics), medical chemistry (mainly the search of biomarkers, pharmacology, doping control), environmental, petrochemistry, polymer chemistry, inorganic and physical chemistry, determination of natural isotope ratio etc. Although a lot of talented mass spectrometrists left Russia and moved abroad after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the vitality of the mass spectral community proved to be rather high, which allowed the continuation of new developments in the field of mass spectrometric instrumentation. They are devoted to improvements in traditional magnetic sector mass spectrometers and the development of new ion source types, to analysis and modification of quadrupole, time-of-flight (ToF) and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) analyzers. The most important achievements are due to the creation of multi-reflecting ToF mass analyzers. Special attention was paid to the construction of compact mass spectrometers, particularly for space exploration, of combined instruments, such as ion mobility spectrometer/mass spectrometer and accelerating mass spectrometers. The comparatively young Russian Mass Spectrometry Society is working hard to consolidate the mass spectrometrists from Russia and foreign countries, to train young professionals on new appliances and regularly holds conferences on mass spectrometry. For ten years, a special journal Mass-spektrometria has published papers on all disciplines of mass spectrometry. PMID:24378462

  18. West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Grant L; Marfin, Anthony A; Lanciotti, Robert S; Gubler, Duane J

    2002-09-01

    West Nile (WN) virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and human, equine, and avian neuropathogen. The virus is indigenous to Africa, Asia, Europe, and Australia, and has recently caused large epidemics in Romania, Russia, and Israel. Birds are the natural reservoir (amplifying) hosts, and WN virus is maintained in nature in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle primarily involving Culex sp mosquitoes. WN virus was recently introduced to North America, where it was first detected in 1999 during an epidemic of meningoencephalitis in New York City. During 1999-2002, the virus extended its range throughout much of the eastern parts of the USA, and its range within the western hemisphere is expected to continue to expand. During 1999-2001, 142 cases of neuroinvasive WN viral disease of the central nervous system (including 18 fatalities), and seven cases of uncomplicated WN fever were reported in the USA. Most human WN viral infections are subclinical but clinical infections can range in severity from uncomplicated WN fever to fatal meningoencephalitis; the incidence of severe neuroinvasive disease and death increase with age. Serology remains the mainstay of laboratory diagnosis. No WN virus-specific treatment or vaccine is available. Prevention depends on organised, sustained vector mosquito control, and public education. PMID:12206968

  19. Direct observations of reactive atmospheric gases at ZOTTO station in the middle of Siberia as a base for large-scale modeling of atmospheric chemistry over Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Shtabkin, Yury; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Pankratova, Natalia; Vasileva, Anastasia; Rakitin, Vadim; Heimann, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Direct observations of atmospheric air composition are very important for a comprehensive understanding of atmospheric chemistry over Northern Eurasia and its variability and trends driven by abrupt climatic and ecosystem changes and anthropogenic pressure. Atmospheric air composition (including greenhouse gases and aerosols), its trends and variability is still insufficiently known for most of the nearly uninhabited areas of Northern Eurasia. This limits the accuracy of both global and regional models, which simulate climatological and ecosystem changes in this highly important region. From that point of view, the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in the middle of Siberia (near 60N, 90E), launched in 2006 and governed by a scientific international consortium plays an important role providing unique information about concentrations of greenhouse and reactive trace gases, as well as aerosols. Simulations of surface concentrations of O3, NOx and CO performed by global chemical-transport model GEOS-Chem using up-to-date anthropogenic and biogenic emissions databases show very good agreement with values observed at ZOTTO in 2007-2012. Observed concentration of ozone has a pronounced seasonal variation with a clear peak in spring (40-45 ppbv in average and up to 80 ppbv in extreme cases) and minimum in winter. Average ozone level is about 20 ppbv that corresponds to the background conditions. Enhanced concentration in March-July is due to increased stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. In autumn and winter distribution of ozone is close to uniform. NOx concentration does not exceed 1 ppb that is typical for background areas but may vary by order and some more in few hours. Higher surface NOx(=NO+NO2) concentrations during day time generally correspond to higher ozone when NO/NO2 ratio indicates on clean or slightly polluted conditions. CO surface concentration has a vivid seasonal course and varies from about 100 ppb in summer till 150 ppb in winter. But during polluted cases which are quite regular CO may increase till 400 ppb and more. Most uncertainties are due to the wild fires, which are often in different regions of Siberia. Numerical assessment of climatically important natural and anthropogenic emission sources influencing observed CO and O3 concentrations and their seasonal variability was made using GEOS-Chem model. According to the results, during the cold period CO concentrations in the surface layer is largely driven atmospheric transport from anthropogenic sources in Western Europe (up to 20 ppb), south of European Russia (up to 35 ppb) and south-western Siberia (up to 28 ppb). During the warm season they are usually affected by air transport from eastern Siberia, where the main contribution to the CO emissions are biogenic VOC oxidation (up to 15 ppb) and wildfires (up to 12 ppb). Transport of pollutants from south-western Siberia can add about 2,5 ppb to the ozone summer level in Central Siberia. In wintertime this factor leads to a reduced surface ozone level by 2 ppb. The contribution of large remote emission sources (Europe) is estimated within 1 ppb. Generally the simulation results indicate a significant role of long-range air transport in addition to regional natural and anthropogenic sources of air pollution which determine the total balance of surface CO. These processes need to be considered in quantitative analyses of the factors that determine the long-term photochemical system evolution in the lower troposphere over the continental regions of Northern Eurasia. This work was supported by the Russian Scientific Fund under grant 14-47-00049.

  20. Thermokarst lake waters across the permafrost zones of western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manasypov, R. M.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Shirokova, L. S.

    2014-07-01

    This work describes the hydrochemical composition of thermokarst lake and pond ecosystems, which are observed in various sizes with different degrees of permafrost influence and are located in the northern part of western Siberia within the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. We analysed the elemental chemical composition of the lake waters relative to their surface areas (from 10 to 106 m2) and described the elemental composition of the thermokarst water body ecosystems in detail. We revealed significant correlations between the Fe, Al, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and various chemical elements across a latitude gradient covering approximately 900 km. Several groups of chemical elements that reflect the evolution of the studied water bodies were distinguished. Combining the data for the studied latitude profile with the information available in the current literature demonstrated that the average dissolved elemental concentrations in lakes with different areas depend specifically on the latitudinal position, which is presumably linked to (1) the elements leached from frozen peat, which is the main source of the solutes in thermokarst lakes, (2) marine atmospheric aerosol depositions, particularly near the sea border and (3) short-range industrial pollution by certain metals from the largest Russian Arctic smelter. We discuss the evolution of the chemical compositions observed in thermokarst lakes during their formation and drainage and predict the effect that changing the permafrost regime in western Siberia has on the hydrochemistry of the lakes.

  1. Integrated satellite and geochemical studies in northern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bidzhiyev, R.A.; Lyapina, G.G.; Rozhnova, T.A.; Vanin, A.L.

    1987-07-01

    The complex of physicogeographical conditions in northern Siberia limit the possibilities for wide usage of traditional geological-geophysical methods. In such regions, poorly studied and difficult of access, one means of increasing the efficiency of petroleum-exploration work may be the use of remote sensing methods in association with terrestrial geochemical and geological-geomorphic studies. Over the last 10 years, the authors in company with other geologists have carried out satellite-based surveys in northern Siberia. As a result, they have succeeded in revealing new elements in the tectonic structure, of value in the more successful resolution of problems associated with predicting petroleum resource. This relates primarily to fault tectonics and also to the recognition of major and especially local anticlinal structures activated in recent time. The basis for the application of geochemical methods for prospecting hydrocarbon resources within deciphered local structures relates to the hypotheses on the filtration-diffusion mass-transfer of hydrocarbon gases from pools into the overlying sediments up to the present surface and their concentration in surface waters, soils, and vegetation. Results are discussed. 3 references.

  2. Evaluating oil, gas ventures in W. Siberia: Feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, J.A. ); Connelly, W. )

    1993-02-08

    This article discusses the methodology and calculations used in performing the economic evaluations for a typical western Siberia oil project venture. The discussion of taxes, funds, depreciation, and costs assumes the venture is a stock company and that economics are calculated on a project basis. Most ventures available to western companies are delineated oil fields that are not yet developed or producing. The authors focus on this type of property. The required elements for an economic evaluation include original-oil-in-place (OOIP) and recoverable reserves; development plan and associated production forecast; and capital requirements and operating costs. The level of evaluation-i.e., screening, preliminary feasibility study, Technical Efficiency of Organization (TEO), or full feasibility study-determines the detail needed for each of these elements. Several economic analyses of a venture should be made to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative development plans, joint venture deal terms, capital requirements, operating costs, product prices, and taxation variables. The first three parts of this five part series dealt with (1) log and core data, (2) reservoir description and (3) flow tests and reservoir performance, and provided a technical foundation for the evaluation of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia.

  3. Russia's energy policy: A framing comment

    SciTech Connect

    Aslund, A.

    2006-05-15

    A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

  4. Development of stable isotope manufacturing in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokidychev, A.; Pokidycheva, M.

    1999-12-01

    For the past 25 years, Russia has relied heavily on the electromagnetic separation process for the production of middle and heavy mass stable isotopes. The separation of most light isotopes had been centered in Georgia which, after the collapse of the USSR, left Russia without this capability. In the mid-1970s, development of centrifuge technology for the separation of stable isotopes was begun. Alternative techniques such as laser separation, physical-chemical methods, and ion cyclotron resonance have also been investigated. Economic considerations have played a major role in the development and current status of the stable isotope enrichment capabilities of Russia.

  5. Ride West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Kinder-artists at Oakhurst Elementary love rodeo time, which is an annual event in Fort Worth, Texas. The spirit of the Old West pervades as children don jeans, hats, boots, and bandannas to be a cowboy or cowgirl for the day. Furthermore, Fort Worth is a city that celebrates not only its history as "Cowtown" but also the fine arts! An amazing

  6. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)

  7. Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Ndlec, Philippe

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra-fine particles were even lower than ones observed in the polar FT. Summarising the data obtained during two intensive measurement campaigns carried out over the vast territory of Siberia we can draw the conclusion that remote Siberian troposphere is a relatively efficient source of recently formed particles. Measurements carried out in the FT (3-7 km) showed that about 44% of them satisfied criteria of new particle formation. At the same time, more favourable conditions are observed between 5 and 7 km (48%). The present work was funded by ANR grant BLAN06-1_137670, CNRS, CEA, the French Ministry of Research, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (YAK-AEROSIB project) and by RFBR (grants 07-05-00645, 08-05-10033 and 08-05-92499) and by the Norwegian Research Council as part of POLARCAT-Norway. Flights over Baikal Lake were financed by Russian Government (State Contract No 02.515.11.5087). Young, L.H., Benson, D.R., Montanaro, W.M., Lee, S.H., Pan, L.L., Rogers, D.C., Jensen, J., Stith, J.L., Davis, C.A., Campos, T.L., Bowman, K.P., Cooper,W.A., Lait, L.R., 2007. Enhanced new particle formation observed in the northern midlatitude tropopause region. Journal of Geophysical Research 112. doi:10.1029/2006JD008109

  8. New and little-known species of Arachnospila (subgenus Ammosphex) (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae) from East Siberia.

    PubMed

    Loktionov, Valery M; Lelej, Arkady S

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen species are listed. Five new species: Arachnospila (Ammosphex) kasparyani sp. nov. (Tuva), A. (A.) maxim sp. nov. (Tuva, Khakassia), A. (A.) moczari sp. nov. (Tuva), A. (A.) scythia sp. nov. (Tuva), A. (A.) sibirica sp. nov. (Tuva, Republic of Altai) are described and illustrated. Arachnospila (Ammosphex) eoabnormis Lelej, 1995, A. (A.) orientausa Loktionov & Lelej, 2011, and A. (A.) mongolopinata Wolf, 1981 are newly recorded from East Siberia. The distribution of eight species in East Siberia is enlarged. The revised key of 24 species in males from East Siberia and Russian Far East is given. PMID:25661607

  9. Improvements in progress for Russia`s new PSA law

    SciTech Connect

    Pugliaresi, L.; Hensel, A.C.

    1996-03-25

    Russian legislation making production sharing agreements (PSAs) fully legal under Russian law passed the upper house of the Russian Parliament (Federal Council) on December 19, 1995, was signed into law by President Boris Yeltsin on December 31, 1995, and took effect on January 11, 1996. While PSA legislation remains the central legal basis for large scale investment in the Russian petroleum sector, company views towards investment in this sector are tied to much more than the extent of legal guarantees. Investor attitudes are also shaped by expectations regarding political stability, behavior of Russian regulatory authorities, and prospects for the Russian economy. Furthermore, Western investors in the petroleum sector have some experience in dealing with the Russian government and existing frameworks for investment, particularly the joint venture (JV) deals with Russian entities and the often changing regulatory and tax treatment of these ventures. It is the view of the authors that attitudes among some Western companies in Russia on the political and economic environment may be too pessimistic and shaped more by press reports than actual conditions. News reports on violence, political instability, and a disastrous economy are not entirely borne out by the facts. Russian, of course, faces serious political and economic problems which must be carefully evaluated, but the overall outlook is much more complex, and some positive developments are underway. This paper reviews the economic, oil production and industry outlook as a result of the PSA law.

  10. The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

  11. Public health nursing education in Russia.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

    2003-07-01

    The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis. PMID:12873058

  12. Contradicting climate versus vegetation history in NE-Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, M.; Zech, R.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Siberia may play a key role for the climate on the entire Earth. The classical Milankovitch Theory suggests that changes in summer insolation due to the Earth' orbital parameters caused build-up of snow and ice over the extensive continental masses at high northern latitudes. Various positive feedback mechanisms, like surface albedo and sequestration/release of atmospheric carbon dioxide in/from frozen, organic-rich soils, could then be responsible for the onset of global glaciations. More recently, high northern latitudes have also gained a lot of attention due to the potential of their soils and peats to release large amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. The Siberian ecosystems may turn into significant greenhouse gas sources as global warming continues and causes melting of permafrost and mineralisation of soil organic material that has been built up and stored over thousands of years. Quaternary scientists are therefore searching for long-term and continuous archives in order to reconstruct the Siberian climate and landscape history. A wide range of different analytical tools (e.g. different dating techniques, elemental composition, mineralogy, magnetic properties, grain size distribution, characterisation of organic matter and palynology) is used to infer palaeoclimatically and palaeoecologically relevant information. All of these methods have their advantages and their disadvantages. For instance, pollen analyses allow a high taxonomic differentiation, but variable pollination rates of different plant species, influx of long-distance transported pollen, and variable preservation of different pollen taxa have to be considered. Concerning the interpretation of pollen spectra in NE-Siberia, arboreal pollen, especially larch pollen, are traditionally considered to be warm plant taxa', hence the occurrence of these pollen in archives is interpreted as reflecting warm interglacial or interstadial conditions. We have recently presented a multi-proxy analytical characterisation and palaeoclimatic interpretation of a loess-like permafrost palaeosol sequence (the Tumara Palaeosol Sequence, TPS) in NE-Siberia (Zech et al., 2008, Geoderma 143(3-4), pp. 281-295). Accordingly, the TPS developed on a Middle Pleistocene fluvio-glacial terrace, comprises a sequence of glacial and interglacial/-stadial palaeosols and represents the last ~240,000 years. Palaeosols with higher contents of organic matter (Corg up to 2.5%) are correlated with glacial periods, whereas palaeosols with low contents of organic matter (Corg ~0.5%) are correlated with interglacial periods. This Corg pattern is explained with a thinner active permafrost layer, water logging and reduced organic matter degradation during glacials. However, the reconstructed vegetation history based on unpublished alkane biomarker and pollen analyses seems to be at odds with the climate history based on the pedologic features. Namely in the lower part of the TPS, we found evidence for forest vegetation and abundant Larix pollen in the stratigraphic unit correlated with the Late Saalian glaciation (130-160 ka BP) (Svendsen et al., 2004, Quaternary Science Reviews 23(11-13), pp. 1229-1271) and the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. Trees, especially larch, are traditionally regarded as warm plant taxa' in NE-Siberia. Interestingly, similar severe discrepancies between the vegetation history and the geochemically derived chronostratigraphy have also been described for the sediments from Crater Lake El'gygytgyn (Lozhkin et al., 2007, Journal of Paleolimnology 37, pp. 135-153), the latter certainly being the most continuous and long-term archive in the study area. In order to explain these discrepancies, we suggest that various palaeoclimatic parameters, like temperature, precipitation, and seasonality, differently affected (i) glaciations, (ii) pedogenetic conditions and (iii) vegetation history, respectively. (i) Concerning glaciations, NE-Siberia is characterised by an extreme continental climate with very low winter temperatures causing several hundreds of meters of permafrost. Nevertheless, the Verkhoyansk Mountains in the study area are not glaciated today because precipitation is too low to support a positive glacial mass balance. Hence, NE-Siberian glaciations in the past have not been only driven by changes of temperature, but have been also very sensitive to changes of precipitation. (ii) Similarly, pedogenetic conditions have not been only prone to temperature changes, especially summer temperature changes, but also depended largely from the degree of water logging of the topsoils and the thickness of the active permafrost layer. This is controlled by both temperature and precipitation. Hence, the correlation of palaeosol sequences like the TPS with the glacial history should be valid. (iii) On the contrary, Siberian vegetation is generally assumed to depend mainly on July temperature and the annual sum of days with mean-temperatures above 5C. Provided that the chronology of the TPS is correct, we therefore propose that trees grew in NE-Siberia during the humid' Late Saalian glaciation, reflecting relatively warm summer temperatures. The glaciation and the high Corg contents in the respective palaeosols indicate increased precipitation and water logged topsoils. The discrepancies between the geochemically derived chronostratigraphies on the one hand and the biomarker and pollen based vegetations histories on the other hand can be considered to be complementary rather than contradicting results. They might have huge potential to increase our understanding of climate and environmental changes in NE-Siberia.

  13. Impact of current climate on soil condition changes in the permafrost zone of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstiukov, Artem

    2013-04-01

    In the permafrost zone climate changes have a great influence on soil condition. This can lead to negative effects on buildings and infrastructure. In this zone structures are built on frozen soils. Their strength properties depend on their thermal condition. For research of this problem: 1. The daily data set of soil temperature under natural surface at depths up to 320 cm at the Russian meteorological stations has been prepared. Current version is ending in 2010 (458 stations of WMO). 2. The yearly data set of computed depth of soil seasonal thawing at the Russian stations till 2010 has been prepared (74 stations of WMO). 3. Changes of soils' condition for the last five decades have been researched based on the prepared data sets. The change of mean annual soil temperature at depths has been researched and soil warming in the vast area for 1963 - 2010 has been shown, the great trends (0,2 - 0,4 /10 years) increase at 320 cm have been found in Western and Eastern Siberia, and the greatest trends (0,4 - 0,5/10 years) have been found in their south part. The greatest loss of the load-carrying capacity of foundations can be during a warm season. During the warm season the analysis of soils' temperature trends at depth 320 cm has shown that the greatest soils' warming is observed in south part of Siberia (0,4 - 0,6 /10 years). Trends which are more than 0,6/10 years are found in the Baikal lake area, also in the Amur river region. So, favorable conditions for increase of seasonal thawing depth in a permafrost zone, especially in its south part, have been shown. The map of average depth of soil seasonal thawing for 1963-2010 was made. It showed the following: the greatest depths of thawing 300-400 ?m were observed near the border of permafrost, the smallest depths 50-250 ?m predominate over the area of continuous permafrost. Thawing depth changes for 2001-2010 compared with 1971-1980 were researched. Prevail significant increase of thawing depth in Eastern Siberia (increase in 40-120 cm for different stations) and more moderate increase in the north part of the Russian Far East were showed. Trends of average thawing depth for 1963-2010 have been obtained. The greatest significant positive trends have been found in the north part of Eastern Siberia (3-4cm/year) and also in the Russian Far East (2-3cm/year). Conclusions: 1. The 40-50 years long observations show soil warming down to the 320 cm depth over the vast territory of the Russia. 2. The general tendency for the increase in the seasonal thaw depth on the vast territory of Eastern and Western Siberia is one of the impacts of the current climate changes. 3. The increase of seasonal thawing depth of permafrost soils in the basement of buildings can lead to deformation of the basements and buildings and their further destruction.

  14. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

  15. Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some findings of those projects will be presented in the report. The information-computational infrastructure is aimed to manage multidisciplinary environmental data and to generate high resolution data sets on demand. One of its key elements, optimizing the usage of information-computational resources, services and applications is the climatic web portal under development. The prototype (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/) is now providing an access to an interactive web- GIS system for climate change assessment on the base of available meteorological data archives in the selected region. SIRS education and training program is run via annual organization in the region either international multidisciplinary conference with elements of young scientists school ENVIROMIS or young scientists school and collocated international conference CITES (http://www.scert.ru/en/conferences/). All the listed above activities have an international dimension whose enlargement might significantly assist in profound understanding of regional and global consequences in on-going Siberia processes.

  16. Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, J. C.; Birmili, W.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Juergens, N.; Kisilyakhov, Y.; Panov, A.; Andreae, M. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35E, 60.80N, 114 m asl. in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties at a very remote, continental site. The instrumentation at the observatory comprises a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until May 2008, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of CO was observed with summer minima around 80 ppb and winter maxima of about 180 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were comparable to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61N. Periods of elevated CO concentrations, typically lasting for one to three days, interrupted the mean annual cycle. Backward trajectories computed with the NOAA HYSPLIT model indicated changes of air mass origin associated with the CO peaks. It was found, that for several peaks air masses have passed over the region of Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During summer, very sharp peaks of CO concentration with no change of air mass origin were observed. In this case, local wild fires are most likely the cause of the increase of CO concentrations. This general picture was confirmed by the output of the MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model that predicted CO concentrations in good agreement with the measured CO concentration at the ZOTTO site, resembling the typical annual cycle of CO concentrations. Furthermore, some of the peaks related to changes of the air mass origin were also predicted by the model, while the peaks presumably caused by wild fires were not found. The optical properties of the aerosol showed intense variations over the observation period. Episodes with strongly elevated absorption coefficients and particle concentrations occurred between periods of typical background readings. Using gaseous tracers, especially CO, and back-trajectories, these episodes could be traced to anthropogenic emission regions. The combination of CO concentration and aerosol properties with the determination of the air mass origin enables us to distinguish between continental background air and air masses being influenced by anthropogenic activities. Long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

  17. Soil Organic Matter in Forest Ecosystems of the Forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhortova, Liudmila

    2010-05-01

    Our study was conducted on 17 forest sample plots in the forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. They were covered by larch/feather moss/shrub and larch/grass forest types growing on cryozems and podburs (Cryosols). The investigation was aimed at estimating soil organic matter storage and structure in forest ecosystems growing along the northern tree line. Such ecosystems have low rates of exchange processes and biological productivity. Estimating soil carbon in these forest types is important for a deeper understanding of their role in biogeochemical cycles and forecasting consequences of climate changes. Soil organic matter was divided into pools by biodegradation resistance level and, hence, different roles of these pools in biological cycles. The soil organic matter was divided into an easily mineralizable (LMOM) fraction, which includes labile (insoluble) (LOM) and mobile (soluble) (MOM) organic compounds, and a stable organic matter fraction that is humus substances bound with soil matrix. The forest-tundra soil carbon was found to total 30.9 to 125.9 tons/ha. Plant residues were the main part of the soil easily mineralizable organic matter and contained from 13.3 to 62.4% of this carbon. Plant residue carbon was mainly allocated on the soil surface, in the forest litter. Plant residues in the soil (dead roots + other "mortmass") were calculated to contribute 10-30% of the plant residues carbon, or 2.5-15.1% of the total soil carbon. Soil surface and in-soil dead plant material included 60-95% of heavily decomposed residues that made up a forest litter fermentation subhorizon and an "other mortmass" fraction of the root detritus. Mobile organic matter (substances dissolved in water and 0.1N NaOH) of plant residues was found to allocate 15-25% of carbon. In soil humus, MOM contribution ranged 14 to 64%. Easily mineralizable organic matter carbon appeared to generally dominate forest-tundra soil carbon pool. It was measured to contribute 57% of the total soil carbon on average, stable humus hence containing only 43% (from 13 to 63%) of the total carbon. This ratio between the main forest-tundra soil carbon pools might be attributed to a small soil depth of thawing and a low rate of plant residue decomposition that enhance easily mineralizable organic matter accumulation. Ecosystems of taiga zones showed different ratios between easily mineralizable and stable organic matter carbon: 53 and 47% in northern taiga (cryogenic soils), 49 and 51 % in central taiga, and 45 and 55 % in southern taiga, respectively. This study is funded by RFFI (project ? 09-04-98004), and SB RAS Integrated project ? 50.

  18. Emission of greenhouse gases from geographically isolated wetlands of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovatskaya, E.; Dyukarev, E.; Veretennikova, E.

    2014-12-01

    Wetlands are integral components of landscapes with specific nutrient dynamics and carbon sequestration potentials, which frequently differ, based on hydroperiod and seasonal hydropattern, as well as the constituent concentration of inputs, site-specific storages and vegetation structures. Human modifications have the potential to significantly alter controls on carbon dynamics. This study focused on determining carbon emissions (CO2 and CH4) from geographically isolated peatlands within the Ob-Tom River Interfluve area of Western Siberia affected by water diversion for municipal use by the city of Tomsk, Russia. Two oligotrophic wetlands within the study area were selected for site-specific CO2 studies, the Timiryazevskoe (16 ha) and Kirsanovskoe wetlands (29 ha), both affected by the Tomsk water intake (177 water wells 250 000 m3 water daily). Measurements of СО2 and CH4 emissions from peat surfaces were carried out bi-monthly in growing periods from 2008-2013 in two dominate vegetation zones, pine- shrub-sphagnum phytocenosis (ryam) and sedge-sphagnum fens. СО2 emissions were measured using OPTOGAS-500.4 infrared gas analyzer and dark chamber. Methane emissions were measured using static chamber method. Air samples were collected by syringes and analyzed at gas chromatograph Shimadzu-GC14B. Observations were accompanied by measurement of air temperature and humidity, surface temperature, peat temperature at various depths and the water table level. CО2 emission over the vegetative growing period had clearly pronounced seasonal dynamics with maximum values in the middle of the growing season (mid-July) and minimum values in spring and autumn. The average total flux over the studied period is 123±55 gС/m2 at sedge-sphagnum fen of Kirsanovskoe wetland and 323±66 gС/m2 at fen of Timiryazevskoe wetland. Total СО2 flux for the snow-free period at ryam sites of Timiryazevskoe and Kirsanovskoe wetlands is 238±84 and 260±47 gС/m2 accordingly. Methane emission from the surface of isolated wetlands for the snow-free period varies from 0.3±1.1 to 2.9±2.3 gC/m2 on ryam sites of Kirsanovskoe and Timiryazevskoe wetlands respectively. The total CH4 flux on sedge-sphagnum fen varies from 2.5±3.0 at Kirsanovskoe wetlands to 31.6±26.3 gC/m2 at Timiryazevskoe wetland.

  19. Phylogeography and sympatric differentiation of the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) complex in Siberia as revealed by mtDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Alekseyev, S S; Bajno, R; Gordeeva, N V; Reist, J D; Power, M; Kirillov, A F; Samusenok, V P; Matveev, A N

    2009-08-01

    Sequence variation in the mtDNA control region of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma from 56 Siberian and North American populations was analysed to assess their phylogeographic relationships and the origins of sympatric forms. Phylogenetic trees confirm the integrity of phylogroups reported in previous mtDNA studies except that the Siberian group does not separate as a single cluster. Haplotype network analysis indicates the proximity of Siberian and Atlantic haplotypes. These are considered as one Eurasian group represented by the Atlantic, east Siberian (interior Siberia including Transbaikalia, Taimyr) and Eurosiberian (Finland, Spitsbergen, Taimyr) sub-groups. Salvelinus alpinus with presumably introgressed Bering group (malma) haplotypes were found along eastern Siberian coasts up to the Olenek Bay and the Lena Delta region, where they overlap with the Eurasian group and in the easternmost interior region. It is proposed that Siberia was colonized by S. alpinus in two stages: from the west by the Eurasian group and later from the east by the Bering group. The high diversity of Eurasian group haplotypes in Siberia indicates its earlier colonization by S. alpinus as compared with the European Alps. This colonization was rapid, proceeded from a diverse gene pool, and was followed by differential survival of ancestral mtDNA lineages in different basins and regions, and local mutational events in isolated populations. The results presented here support a northern origin of Transbaikalian S. alpinus, the dispersion of S. alpinus to the Lake Baikal Basin from the Lena Basin, segregation of S. alpinus between Lena tributaries and their restricted migration over the divides between sub-basins. These results also support sympatric origin of intralacustrine forms of S. alpinus. PMID:20738544

  20. Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin`s moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers.

  1. Mapping of Geographically Isolated Wetlands of Western Siberia Using High Resolution Space Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, E.; Pologova, N.; Dyukarev, A.; Lane, C.; Autrey, B. C.

    2014-12-01

    Using the remote sensing data for integrated study of natural objects is actual for investigation of difficult to access areas of West Siberia. The research of this study focuses on determining the extent and spectral signatures of isolated wetlands within Ob-Tom Interfluve area using Landsat and Quickbird space images. High-resolution space images were carefully examined and wetlands were manually delineated. Wetlands have clear visible signs at the high resolution space images. 567 wetlands were recognized as isolated wetlands with the area about 10 000 ha (of 2.5% of the study area). Isolated wetlands with area less 2 ha are the most frequent. Half of the total amount of wetlands has area less than 6.4 ha. The largest isolated wetland occupies 797 ha, and only 5% have area more than 50 ha. The Landsat 7 ETM+ data were used for analysis of vegetation structure and spectral characteristics of wetlands. The masked isolated wetlands image was classified into 12 land cover classes using ISODATA unsupervised classification. The attribution of unsupervised classification results allowed us to clearly recognize 7 types of wetlands: tall, low and sparse ryams (Pine-Shrub-Sphagnum community), open wetlands with shrub, moss or sedge cover, and open water objects. Analysis of spectral profiles for all classes has shown that Landsat spectral bands 4 and 5 have higher variability. These bands allow to separate wetland classed definitely. Accuracy assessment of isolated wetland map shows a good agreement with expert field data. The work was supported by grants ISTC № 4079.

  2. Methane emissions from the West Siberian wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksyutov, S.; Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Sabrekov, A.; Peregon, A.; Machida, T.

    2010-12-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas contributing as much as 20% of the anthropogenic radiative forcing in the contemporary atmosphere. Therefore estimation of the relative contribution of different methane sources to the atmosphere is a crucial task in addressing the problem of global warming. Mires are the main natural source of methane. West Siberia gains the especial importance in this respect as one of the most paludified region in the world with the mire area of 68.5 Mha or 27% of this region area. Since the previously published estimations of the regional flux varied widely from 2 to 22 MtCH4y-1, long-term and large-scale investigations of CH4 emission were organized in this study. More than 1500 methane flux measurements were made during the summer-autumn of 2007-2010. All variety of wetland types was reduced to 8 microlandscape types: palsas, ryams (dwarf pine-shrub-sphagnum communities), ridges, eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic hollows, peat mats and wetland ponds. Mire micro-landscapes of 30 key sites distributed in 7 zones (tundra, forest-tundra, north, middle and south taiga, sub-taiga and forest-steppe) of West Siberia were observed. Methane fluxes were measured by the static chamber method. Emission data were generalized into spatial emission model. The model is based upon a fractional area coverage map of mire micro-landscapes, methane emission periods for each zone and methane flux probability density distributions for each microlandscape type in these zones. The methane emission map with the resolution 0.50.5 was created. It was confirmed that palsas, ryams and ridges had the lowest methane fluxes (1st/2nd/3rd quartiles are -0.04/0/0.04 mgCH4m-2h-1 for palsas, 0/0.04/0.28 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ryams, 0/0.09/0.37 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ridges) while the peat mats, poor fens and fens had the highest fluxes (2.74/4.65/6.11 mgCH4m-2h-1 for peat mats, 1.15/3.35/6.21 mgCH4m-2h-1 for fens combined with poor fens). Highest methane fluxes, reaching hundreds of mgCH4m-2h-1, were observed in shallow ponds. Oligotrophic hollows of middle and south taiga as well as south taiga eutrophic hollows and ponds appeared as the most significant regional methane sources accounting for about 50% of the annual methane flux from West Siberia mires. The latest version of emission model estimates the total flux from all Western Siberia mires at 3.21 MtCH4y-1.

  3. Fire Danger Estimation in Siberia Using SMOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    One of the most important tasks of fire monitoring is to forecast the conditions that determine the possibility of occurrence and spread of fire in forests. Weather fire danger assessment is mainly based on the analysis of the meteorological parameters recorded by weather stations. The main drawback of such a method for the fire danger assessment is an absence of regular network of weather stations. This situation takes place, for example, in Siberia. The area of possible interpolation of weather stations data is generally up to 30 km. The analysis of the existing network of weather stations shows that there should be an interpolation in the zone up to 100 - 150 km between weather stations which restricts the correctness of weather fire danger distribution maps for the forest zone of Siberia. The area of research associated with the development of methodologies for the forest fire danger assessment remains urgent today. To solve this problem it is necessary to perform a geospatial analysis of fire distribution and distribution of forest fuel moisture which can only be done with the involvement of satellite monitoring. This can provide the necessary spatial coverage and frequency of data updates. Over the past 30 years the technical means of remote sensing and methods of land cover moisture measurement were developed. In 2009 the SMOS spacecraft was launched by the European Space Agency, equipped with microwave radiometer operating at the frequency of 1.4 GHz. Moisture is restored based on the angular dependence of the brightness of temperatures measured by spacecraft (Level 1C product). Geospatial analysis of the relationship between occurrence of fires, burned areas as well as fire radiative power during the fire season and land cover moisture measured by SMOS was performed. Daily updated database of forest fires detected using MODIS radiometer over the fire seasons of 2010 - 2012 as well as the land cover moisture data obtained from SMOS measurements were used in the analysis. The study area covered the territory of Siberia, including areas where extreme fire behavior was observed. Also the time series of land cover moisture measured by SMOS satellite and weather fire danger indices calculated using ground weather stations were compared. The results showed that in most cases the relationship between moisture and fire danger index values can be found. The increase in soil moisture was accompanied by a reduction of weather fire danger indices values. The highest correlation coefficients between moisture measurements and fire danger indices were obtained for southern regions (-0.5 - -0.6), however for the stations located in the central and northern regions the relationship was weaker. The analyses indicated that it was difficult to obtain a reliable relationship between remote sensed land cover moisture and fire weather indices for the whole territory of Siberia. However such dependencies can be apparent for individual regions.

  4. The Dynamics of Ionospheric D Region over East Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazimirovsky, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Some main results of experimental investigations of the dynamical regime of the ionospheric D-region over East Siberia are presented. Regular measurements of horizontal ionospheric drifts by the radio method of closely spaced receivers, using a long wavelength transmitter operating at a frequency of 200 kHz, were carried out near Irkutsk, USSR, since 1975. The seasonal and inter-annual variations of prevailing wind (zonal and meridional), and amplitudes and phases of semi-diurnal tides are investigated. Evidence is presented to show the response of D-region dynamics to stratospheric warmings. Planetary and gravity waves are found in the wind field. Comparison with results of analogous measurements in Central Europe (Collm, GDR) reveals a longitudinal effect on the dynamical regime of the mid-latitude lower thermosphere.

  5. Main phytostratigraphic boundaries in the Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogutcheva, N. K.

    2014-05-01

    The study of the large collections of plant remains gained from cores of numerous boreholes drilled in Western Siberia made it possible to determine the taxonomic composition of the Jurassic flora of this region, the stages of its evolution, and the sequence of floral assemblages, which characterize the regional stratigraphic horizons indirectly correlated via series of parallel faunal, microfaunal, spore and pollen zonal scales with a general stratigraphic scale. The compositions of floral assemblages was established in the Hettangian-lower part of the upper Pliensbachian, upper part of the upper Pliensbachian, lower Toarcian, upper Toarcian, Aalenian, Bajocian, Bathonian, and Callovian-Oxfordian sediments. Criteria were elaborated to substantiate the Triassic-Jurassic and Lower-Middle Jurassic boundaries. Lithologically and biostrati-graphically, the Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary is poorly expressed.

  6. Kurchatov IAE dedicated SR facility SIBERIA status report and SR instrumentation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Nesterikhin, Y.Y. )

    1992-01-01

    The SIBERIA facility in Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, U.S.S.R. is discussed. The experimental stations, beamlines and the necessary synchrotron radiation{minus}instrumentation is created by the

  7. Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations). This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia). Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today. PMID:20100333

  8. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n. sp., Veteronostocale medium n. sp., Filiconstrictosus cephalon n. sp., and Partitiofilum yakschinii n. sp.

  9. Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  10. The first record of "spelaeoid" bears in Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Andrei V.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Davydov, Sergey P.; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Nikolskiy, Pavel A.

    2011-08-01

    For a long time, "spelaeoid" (cave-bear-like) bears, Ursus ( Spelearctos) spp., were believed to be almost purely European animals. Their geographic range has recently been extended to the east, in southern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Kirghizia, Mongolia and Korea. Two unexpected new findings, presented here in detail, significantly change existing views on the distribution of cave bears; both were found in North-Eastern Siberia, far beyond the Arctic Circle, more than 1500 km to the north-east of the previously accepted range. One of the fossils is a mandible, found near the town of Cherskiy at 68.73°N, 161.38°E. The analysis of local geology and accompanying mammal fossils suggests that it comes from the Olyorian Fauna (Early to early Middle Pleistocene). Morphologically, the Cherskiy mandible is closest to Ursus savini, a small middle Pleistocene cave bear from the British Cromer Forest-bed Formation, but differs in having a slightly more advanced dentition, and thus it is described as a new subspecies Ursus savini nordostensis. Another newly recognized fossil of the "spelaeoid" bear is an astragalus found at the Oskhordokh site at 67.54°N, 135.67°E, on a large gravel bar on the right bank of the Adycha River. This specimen is attributed to Ursus cf . deningeri. The paper also presents an interesting example of the interaction between classical and "molecular" palaeontology. The new finds significantly change existing ideas on the ecology and evolution of cave bears, some of the most remarkable members of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna.

  11. Analysis of the landscape structure in the tundra zone for western Siberia based on satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubyatnikov, L. L.; Zarov, E. A.; Kazantsev, V. S.; Filippov, I. V.; Gavrilov, G. O.

    2015-12-01

    The landscape structure are investigated for typical and southern tundra subzones of western Siberia based on satellite images from Landsat and WorldView. The microlandscape types for the considered regions are selected and areas of microlandscapes are defined on the basis of satellite information and accounting data of field studies. The areas of the main wetland landscapes in the different types of bogs in northwestern Siberia are defined.

  12. The Migration Behavior of College Students in Siberia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorbacheva, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Given the conditions of the aging of the population of Russia there has been a steady decline in the size of the population, and starting in 2006 that includes a decline in the size of the working-age population. This is a very serious problem in regard to the social and economic development of the country, and the ways to solve the problem will

  13. Why Russia is not a state

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  14. The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the East-Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) during the last decade (1999-2009): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Valentin; Shakhova, Natalia; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Orjan; Anderson, Leif; Semiletov, Igor

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on he ESAS which is poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2009). Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. We suggest that rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed.. It has been found that 1) carbon dioxide and methane fluxes are significant (and non-counted) components of the carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean; 2) transport of eroded terrestrial material plays a major role in the accumulation of carbon in the ESAS (Dudarev et al., Gustafsson et al., Vonk et al., Sanchez-Garcia et al., Charkin et al., Semiletov et al., this session) ; 3) the seabed is a major CH4 source over the ESAS (N.Shakhova et al., this session); 3) eroded carbon is biodegradable (all reports, this session); 4) oxidation of eroded carbon onshore and offshore is a strong source of carbon dioxide (Piko et al. and Semiletov et al., this session). Thus studying carbon cycling in the East Siberian Arctic marginal seas has a high scientific priority in order to establish the carbon budget and evaluate the role of the Arctic region in global carbon cycling, especially in the coastal zone where the redistribution of carbon between terrestrial and marine environments occurs and the characteristics of carbon exchange with atmosphere are unknown. Initial scientific plan for the next decade is discussed. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (since 1994), International (Soros) Scientific Foundation, ISF (1994-1995), Russian Government and ISF (1995), McArthur Foundation (2000-2001), FEBRAS/RAS (since 2003), IARC (since 2001), NSF (since 2003), NOAA (since 2005), SU (since 2007), and Wallenberg Foundation (since 2008).

  15. Agroclimatic potential in central Siberia in an altered 21st century climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N.; PArfenova, E.; Lysanova, G. I.

    2011-12-01

    Humans traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-1990, 1990-2010 from historical data and for 2020 and 2080 from HadCM3 B1 and A2 projections. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia was predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future climatic resources in Siberia would provide potential growth for a variety of crops that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops, nonexistent today, may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming. Adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

  16. Stratigraphic evidence for the Siberia-Laurentia connection and Early Cambrian rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelechaty, Shane M.

    1996-08-01

    Vendian to Cambrian age sedimentary rocks of the northern Siberian craton record Early Cambrian rifting from 543 to 530 Ma and the onset of regional thermal subsidence in early Tommotian time. A similar tectonic history in the Franklinian basin of northern Canada and Greenland supports the possibility that both basins formed conjugate margins. This correlation constrains both the configuration of the Siberia-Laurentia connection, also supported by paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic data from Siberia, and timing of continental breakup, which is further supported by regional trilobite biostratigraphy. Prior to breakup, Siberia and Laurentia formed a coherent continent that rifted from a western landmass (Australia Antarctica India South China) at 720 Ma, forming a continuous passive margin along western Siberia-Laurentia. Nearly orthogonal to this margin, the 723 Ma Natkusiak volcanic rocks and Franklin dike swarm in northern Canada are suggested to represent a failed rift that extended into Siberia-Laurentia. Subsequent Early Cambrian separation of Siberia-Laurentia was possibly influenced by crustal heterogeneity created by the failed rift.

  17. The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E.; Soja, A. J.

    2009-10-01

    Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

  18. Stability and biodegradability of organic matter from Arctic soils of Western Siberia: insights from 13C-NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejarque, E.; Abakumov, E.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic soils contain large amounts of organic matter which, globally, exceed the amount of carbon stored in vegetation biomass and in the atmosphere. Recent studies emphasise the potential sensitivity for this soil organic matter (SOM) to be mineralised when faced with increasing ambient temperatures. In order to better refine the predictions about the response of SOM to climate warming, there is a need to increase the spatial coverage of empirical data on SOM quantity and quality in the Arctic area. This study provides, for the first time, a characterisation of SOM from the Gydan Peninsula in the Yamal Region, Western Siberia, Russia. On the one hand, soil humic acids and their humification state were characterised by measuring the elemental composition and diversity of functional groups using solid-state 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Also, the total mineralisable carbon was measured. Our results indicate that there is a predominance of aliphatic carbon structures, with a minimal variation of their functional-group composition both regionally and within soil depth. This vertical homogeneity and low level of aromaticity reflects the accumulation in soil of lowly decomposed organic matter due to cold temperatures. Mineralisation rates were found to be independent of SOM quality, and to be mainly explained solely by the total carbon content. Overall, our results provide further evidence on the sensitivity that the soils of Western Siberia may have to increasing ambient temperatures and highlight the important role that this region can play in the global carbon balance under the effects of climate warming.

  19. Space Biology in Russia Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

    At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the biosatellite outer wall, was examined to determine the effect of high temperatures produced by aerodynamic heating during reentry.

  20. Heterotrophic soil respiration in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shchepashchenko, D.; Mukhortova, L.; Shvidenko, A.; McCallum, I.

    2011-12-01

    Soil respiration (SR) is one of the largest fluxes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It varies substantially in spatial and temporal resolution depending on climate, soil, vegetation, land use and disturbances. We have built a system which assesses SR based on all available sources of information: Soil map 2.5 Mio scale (Fridland, 1988); Landcover 1 km2 resolution (Schepaschenko et al., 2010); a database of SR in situ measurements (3592 records over the globe from 1109 studies, the substantial part of non-Russian measurements was taken from Bond-Lamberty and Thomson, 2010); climatic parameter reanalysis for 1974-2009 (FOODSEC, 2011). The procedure of SR assessment comprised of 1) build regression models of total SR dependent upon climatic parameters and soil type based on the SR database and climatic variables in the year of SR measurements; 2) regional, vegetation type, current level of NPP, land use and disturbances corrections of the models; and 3) model of root contribution to the total SR dependent upon vegetation type. The system of SR assessment provides estimation for the Russian territory with spatial resolution of 1 km and temporal resolution of 1 year. It can absorb new initial data and provide advanced assessment in the future. The average heterotrophic SR flux for the Russian territory is 3.4 Pg C yr-1 with interannual deviation up to 20%. The average SR flux distribution by region, natural zone and vegetation type is shown in the table. The SR map can be found at http://russia.geo-wiki.org.
    Average heterotrophic soil respiration flux, g C m-2 yr-1

  1. Struggling to survive in Russia.

    PubMed

    Gadasina, A

    1997-01-01

    Abortion has long been the traditional method of family planning (FP) in Russia. Today, abortions are free, but contraception is not. The birth rate has decreased between 1989 and 1995, and the death rate has increased. The present economic situation has had a marked adverse effect on women who are expected to juggle jobs, household duties, and child care responsibilities. In order to survive, women sometimes must engage in work that compromises their health. Many women have resorted in prostitution, and this has caused an unprecedented explosion in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, especially syphilis. The number of people newly registered as HIV-positive in the first half of 1997 exceeded the total for 1996. While sex education is still restricted, erotica and pornography is widely available. Cases of syphilis are increasing among the young, and, in 1996, about 2500 girls under age 15 gave birth and an equal number had abortions. Only 12% of all pregnant women and 25% of newborn infants can be considered healthy. In 1994, the government launched a FP program that is being carried out by a few public and private organizations. One of these, the Russian FP Association, has created more than 50 branches in different regions, opened youth centers, and provided sex education and reproductive health counseling. The overall effort has led to a 27% reduction in abortions, and a 25% reduction in abortion mortality. These efforts, however, have been opposed by "pro-life" forces and by the Communist wing of the government that reduced the budget. The FP Association is fighting back by lobbying and explaining the need for its work. PMID:12293463

  2. [Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunski?, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization. PMID:25563005

  3. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  4. Continuous measurements of aerosol particles in Arctic Russia and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Eija; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Brus, David; Lihavainen, Heikki; Laurila, Tuomas; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Viisanen, Yrj; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Ivakhov, Victor; Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71o 36' N; 128o 53' E) on the shore of the Laptev Sea has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol physical properties, which have been successfully continued since summer 2010. These, together with the FMI measurements in Pallas station in northern Finland since 1999, provide important information on the year-round Arctic aerosol concentrations and properties. Here, we will present the annual cycle of Arctic aerosol concentrations, which is characterized by winter minimum and spring and summer maxima. We will show the most important Arctic aerosol source regions and their variability with seasons. Also, we will look the processes such as new particle formation, which takes frequently place at both the two stations and in particular in spring season.

  5. Moult migration of emperor geese Chen canagica between Alaska and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.; Syroechkovskiy, E.E., Jr.; Kondratyev, A.V.; Eldridge, W.D.; Lappo, E.

    2007-01-01

    We studied reproductive success and post-breeding movements of 32 adult female emperor geese Chen canagica that were marked with satellite radio transmitters on their nesting area on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska 2000-2004. All 16 females that failed to successfully reproduce departed the YKD and moulted remiges either on the north coast of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia (n=15), or on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska (n=1). Of 16 females that successfully nested, one migrated to Russia following hatch whereas the remainder stayed on the YKD. While moulting on the Chukotka Peninsula, emperor geese with satellite transmitters primarily used coastal lagoons west of Kolyuchin Bay. We observed 21,150 adult-plumaged emperor geese during aerial surveys in Chukotka in 2002. Most (95%) were in the same region used by geese that had been marked with satellite transmitters in Alaska. The number of emperor geese observed in Russia was comparable to our estimate of ???20,000 adults that either do not nest or nest unsuccessfully each year on the YKD, suggesting that most nonproductive adults, or ???28% of the adult population departs the YKD to moult elsewhere. The number of moult migrants may be substantially higher in years of poor reproductive success or if adult-plumaged birds that are not of breeding age also leave the YKD. Moult migration of emperor geese between Alaska and Russia is likely substantially greater than previously believed. Russian moulting habitats are important to the North American population of emperor geese and events that affect survival of geese in Russia could impact population trends on the YKD. Protection of coastal lagoons on the north coast of Chukotka is warranted. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  6. Respiration fluxes in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurbatova, Juliya

    2014-05-01

    Soil, tree stems and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56N 33E) during growing seasons of 2002 - 2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere-biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all of the years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability ranging from 0.7 to 10 mkmol m-2s-1. Generally soil respiration depended on soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. Stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September and in October it dramatically decreased. Tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3-5 mkmolm-2s-1 for dominant trees and about 1-2 mkmolm-2s-1 for subdominant trees. Respiration of living tree stems was about 10-20% of ER.

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistant Strains from Russia

    PubMed Central

    Ilina, Elena N.; Shitikov, Egor A.; Ikryannikova, Larisa N.; Alekseev, Dmitry G.; Kamashev, Dmitri E.; Malakhova, Maja V.; Parfenova, Tatjana V.; Afanasev, Maxim V.; Ischenko, Dmitry S.; Bazaleev, Nikolai A.; Smirnova, Tatjana G.; Larionova, Elena E.; Chernousova, Larisa N.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Mardanov, Andrei V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Skryabin, Konstantin G.; Govorun, Vadim M.

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is a growing problem in many countries. The availability of the complete nucleotide sequences of several MTB genomes allows to use the comparative genomics as a tool to study the relationships of strains and differences in their evolutionary history including acquisition of drug-resistance. In our work, we sequenced three genomes of Russian MTB strains of different phenotypes drug susceptible, MDR and XDR. Of them, MDR and XDR strains were collected in Tomsk (Siberia, Russia) during the local TB outbreak in 19981999 and belonged to rare KQ and KY families in accordance with IS6110 typing, which are considered endemic for Russia. Based on phylogenetic analysis, our isolates belonged to different genetic families, Beijing, Ural and LAM, which made the direct comparison of their genomes impossible. For this reason we performed their comparison in the broader context of all M. tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank. The list of unique individual non-synonymous SNPs for each sequenced isolate was formed by comparison with all SNPs detected within the same phylogenetic group. For further functional analysis, all proteins with unique SNPs were ascribed to 20 different functional classes based on Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). We have confirmed drug resistant status of our isolates that harbored almost all known drug-resistance associated mutations. Unique SNPs of an XDR isolate CTRI-4XDR, belonging to a Beijing family were compared in more detail with SNPs of additional 14 Russian XDR strains of the same family. Only type specific mutations in genes of repair, replication and recombination system (COG category L) were found common within this group. Probably the other unique SNPs discovered in CTRI-4XDR may have an important role in adaptation of this microorganism to its surrounding and in escape from antituberculosis drugs treatment. PMID:23437175

  8. Total ozone and ozone profile observations by SAOZ, Brewer and ozonesondes in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Valery; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Aleksander; Tereb, Nikolay; Ivlev, Georgii; Savinykh, Vladimir; Shepelev, Dmitry; Goutail, Florence; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Pazmino, Andrea; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    Daily total ozone measurements are carried out in Kislovodsk, Obninsk, European Russia, and in Tomsk, Central Siberia, using the Brewer MKII #043, Brewer MKII #044 and Brewer MKIV #049 spectrophotometers. The accuracy of routine total ozone observation at direct sun measurement is 2-3%. Under cloudless conditions at air mass factor less than 4, the accuracy of total ozone direct sun measurements approaches 1%. The SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenitale) is UV-visible (300-650 nm) diode array spectrometer developed at the Service d'Aeronomie, CNRS, France for monitoring stratospheric ozone and NO2. Zenith sky measurements of atmospheric gases at twilight (86°< solar zenith angle < 91°) are used. There are 15 SAOZ instruments in the SAOZ network around the world. Two instruments are located at the Arctic Circle in Russia at Zhigansk since 1992 and Salekhard since 1998. The accuracy of total ozone measurement is 6% and 10% for nitrogen dioxide observations. The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station are carried out since 1997. Currently, we use 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring periods. The results of ozonesounding at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In December 2012 and in January 2013 we plan to upgrade this ozonesounding station with the iMet-1 radiosonde and ECC 2Z-V7 ozonesonde. This type of ozonesonde will be used in the winter-spring season of 2013. The resulting total ozone and ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in 2012 and in January-March 2013 by the SAOZ, Brewer and ozonesode instruments will be presented and discussed.

  9. Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistant strains from Russia.

    PubMed

    Ilina, Elena N; Shitikov, Egor A; Ikryannikova, Larisa N; Alekseev, Dmitry G; Kamashev, Dmitri E; Malakhova, Maja V; Parfenova, Tatjana V; Afanas'ev, Maxim V; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Bazaleev, Nikolai A; Smirnova, Tatjana G; Larionova, Elena E; Chernousova, Larisa N; Beletsky, Alexey V; Mardanov, Andrei V; Ravin, Nikolai V; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Govorun, Vadim M

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is a growing problem in many countries. The availability of the complete nucleotide sequences of several MTB genomes allows to use the comparative genomics as a tool to study the relationships of strains and differences in their evolutionary history including acquisition of drug-resistance. In our work, we sequenced three genomes of Russian MTB strains of different phenotypes--drug susceptible, MDR and XDR. Of them, MDR and XDR strains were collected in Tomsk (Siberia, Russia) during the local TB outbreak in 1998-1999 and belonged to rare KQ and KY families in accordance with IS6110 typing, which are considered endemic for Russia. Based on phylogenetic analysis, our isolates belonged to different genetic families, Beijing, Ural and LAM, which made the direct comparison of their genomes impossible. For this reason we performed their comparison in the broader context of all M. tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank. The list of unique individual non-synonymous SNPs for each sequenced isolate was formed by comparison with all SNPs detected within the same phylogenetic group. For further functional analysis, all proteins with unique SNPs were ascribed to 20 different functional classes based on Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). We have confirmed drug resistant status of our isolates that harbored almost all known drug-resistance associated mutations. Unique SNPs of an XDR isolate CTRI-4(XDR), belonging to a Beijing family were compared in more detail with SNPs of additional 14 Russian XDR strains of the same family. Only type specific mutations in genes of repair, replication and recombination system (COG category L) were found common within this group. Probably the other unique SNPs discovered in CTRI-4(XDR) may have an important role in adaptation of this microorganism to its surrounding and in escape from antituberculosis drugs treatment. PMID:23437175

  10. [Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) in Russia].

    PubMed

    Telitschkin, Igor

    2004-01-01

    The German Dr Theodor Billroth, one of the greatest surgeons of all times, was of a noble, considerate and attentive character. He was an amiable man who had great interests in the arts. Billroth was well known among the Russian people and was invited to perform an operation on one of Russia's most loved poets Nikolai Alexejewich Nekrassow. In 1877 Billroth went to St Petersburg and operated on Nekrossow. Although the patient improved, the cancer he suffered from could not be dealt with completely, yet this was the only treatment possible. This event is not very well known in Germany, Russia and other countries, only a small number of people, who have studied Nekrassow's life, are aware of these circumstances.Theodor Billroth visited Russia on a number of occasions about which there is little information available. He showed interest in many cultural events and places, spent time with the royal family, and performed some minor operations. PMID:15633281

  11. Flooding of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  12. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  14. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 80 km (50 miles) x 100 km (62 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: View toward the East Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  15. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 93.0 x 105.7 kilometers ( 57.7 x 65.6 miles) Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 Image courtesy NASA/JPL/NIMA

  16. The Influences of Land Surface Properties on Soil Thermal Regimes in the Low Arctic of Northwestern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epstein, H. E.; Frost, G. V., Jr.; Matyshak, G. V.; Walker, D. A.; Meakem, V. M.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the feedbacks among climate, permafrost, and vegetation is crucial for assessments of arctic ecosystem vulnerability and response to climate change, and for development of sustainable engineering and management methods associated with infrastructure. Vegetation, snow cover, and near-surface soil organic layers are key determinants in regulating the energy exchange between the atmosphere and the deeper soils. Here we present high-temporal resolution soil thermal regime data over annual time extents for multiple sites at two locations in the Low Arctic of northwestern Siberia. At a location near Nadym, Russia, we measured soil temperatures at various depths in the soil profile (down to 60 cm) at three sites: 1) a boreal forest stand with lichen understory and a shallow organic layer (8 cm), 2) a young, cryoturbated Sphagnum peatland with soil organic layers to 40 cm depth, and 3) an old Sphagnum peatland with deep organic soil horizons (58+ cm). At a location near Kharp, Russia, we measured soil temperatures at 5 and 20 cm depth for sites along a chronosequence of tall alder shrub expansion, from short-statured tundra to mature and old alder stands, with deeper organic layers. The deeper snow accumulation at the Nadym forest site kept winter soil temperatures dramatically warmer than the peatland soils, up to 8 °C difference, but the shading of the forest tended to cool the surface during the summer. The overall effect of the forest was cooler summer soils in the near-surface layers, yet warmer summer soils at the deeper layers (20-60 cm). The forest location had substantially greater thawing degree days at depth (20-60 cm), compared to the Sphagnum peatlands. At the Kharp site, mature alder shrub stands cooled summer soil temperatures relative to shorter tundra by up to 8 °C (at 20 cm depth), yet warmed winter soils by greater than 10 °C. Mature and old shrubland locations had reduced thawing degree days at 20 cm depth relative to short-statured vegetation. Both datasets suggest that the surface and soil organic layers play a key role in buffering active layer deepening in the summer, potentially preventing permafrost from degradation with warming temperatures; therefore, land management efforts that support and maintain thick organic layers are essential for permafrost stability.

  17. Quantitative estimates of Mid- to late Holocene Climate Variability in northeastern Siberia inferred from chironomids in lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard; Pestrjakova, Ludmila; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Subetto, Dmitry

    2010-05-01

    Yakutia (Russia, northeastern part of Eurasia) represents one of Earths most extreme climatic settings in the world with deep-reaching frozen ground and a semiarid continental climate with highest seasonal temperature contrasts in the northern hemisphere. The amplitude of temperature variations around the year sometimes exceeds 100oC. There are few examples of quantitative palaeoecological studies in Siberia and these data have to be tested by quantitative studies from other sites in this region, inferred from different proxies and using regional calibration datasets and temperature models that are still lacking. Chironomid midges (Insecta, Diptera, Chironomidae) have been widely used to reconstruct past climate variability in many areas of Western Europe and North America. A chironomid-mean July air temperature inference model has been developed, based on a modern calibration set of 200 lakes sampled along a transect from 110 to 159 E and 61 to73 N in northern Russia. The inference model was applied to sediment cores from 2 lakes in the Central Yakutia in order to reconstruct past July air temperatures. The lacustrine records span mid- to late Holocene. The downcore variability in the chironomid assemblages and the composition of organic matter give evidence of climate-driven and interrelated changes in biological productivity, lacustrine trophic states, and lake-level fluctuations. Three phases of the climate development in Central Yakutia can be derived from the geochemical composition of the lake cores and according to the inferred from chironomid assemblages mean July air ToC. Content of organic matters reached maximal values in the period between 7000-4500 yBP. Sedimentation rate is especially high, numerous molluscs shells are found in sediments. All this along with the reconstructed air temperature confirmed that Mid Holocene optimum in Central Yakutia took place in this period with the maximal temperatures up to 4oC above present day ToC. Strong faunistic changes take place after 4500 yBP. Temperature reconstruction has shown that around 4500 ka BP air temperature went down up to 2oC below modern temperature. These observations confirm end of Holocene climate optimum at this time. The lake status record reveals a long-term trend towards lake-level lowering in the course of climate deterioration after 4.2 cal. ka BP and reduced evaporation as well as progressive sediment infill. This long-term trend is overprinted by short-term fluctuations at centennial time scales with high lake levels and decreased biological productivity during cool climate spells with reduced evaporation, as also observed in modern thermokarst lakes of Central Yakutia.

  18. Land Change in Russia since 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beurs, K.; Ioffe, G.; Nefedova, T.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural reform has been an important anthropogenic change process shaping landscapes in European Russia since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most evident side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. While land abandonment as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union is relatively well documented, few studies have investigated the unfolding process of abandonment that results from rural population declines. Russias population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050 and population dynamics are predicted to play a significant role structuring rural landscapes across European Russia. While often treated as a unified whole with respect to agricultural reform, significant regional diversity exists in Russia. Official statistics at the rayon (county) level are typically skewed toward large-scale farming and farm data from important household productions are summarized into regional averages. In addition, data at sub-district level can often only be obtained by visiting rural administrators in person. Large scale official data thus need to be interpreted with caution. Here we present data collected during the summer of 2010 from representative settlements and enterprises in selected counties within the oblasts (states) of Kostroma and Samara. These field data will provide an initial overview of the economic and social state in modern rural western Russia. We will combine the field data with established socio-demographic observations as well as satellite observations at multiple scales to understand the effect of global change and to project future developments.

  19. Spatial and interannual variability of dissolved organic matter in the Kolyma River, East Siberia, observed using satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Claire G.; Frey, Karen E.; Rogan, John; Holmes, Robert M.

    2011-09-01

    The Kolyma River basin in northeastern Siberia, the sixth largest river basin draining to the Arctic Ocean, contains vast reserves of carbon in Pleistocene-aged permafrost soils. Permafrost degradation, as a result of climate change, may cause shifts in riverine biogeochemistry as this old source of organic matter is exposed. Satellite remote sensing offers an opportunity to complement and extrapolate field sampling of dissolved organic matter in this expansive and remote region. We develop empirically based algorithms that estimate chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Kolyma River and its major tributaries in the vicinity of Cherskiy, Russia. Field samples from July 2008 and 2009 were regressed against spectral data from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus. A combination of Landsat band 3 and bands 2:1 resulted in an R2 of 0.78 between measured CDOM and satellite-derived predictions. Owing to the strong correlation between CDOM and DOC, the resulting maps of the region show strong interannual variability of both CDOM and DOC, and important spatial patterns such as mixing zones at river confluences and downstream loading of DOC. Such variability was previously unobserved through field-based point observations and suggests that current calculations of DOC flux from the Kolyma River to the Arctic Ocean may be underestimates. In this era of rapid climate change, permafrost degradation, and shifts in river discharge, remote sensing of CDOM and DOC offers a powerful, reliable tool to enhance our understanding of carbon cycling in major arctic river systems.

  20. Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. PMID:23459685

  1. Comparison of observed and different reanalysis climatic characteristics over Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, T.; Genina, E.; Gordov, E.

    2012-04-01

    Today numerous investigations have confirmed that warming over Siberian territory is significant and it inevitably would influence environment in the region. But it is impossible to obtain detailed pattern of climatic changes in the region using only in-situ measurements because there are gaps in observations and station network is sparse. Global climatic modeling archives (different reanalyses) would help solving this problem but they give scattered results leading to climate change assessment uncertainties. Thus, it is urgent to assess accuracy with which global climatic models reconstruct regional climate and to choose an archive which is closest to the observed meteorological parameters. To achieve this goal, we developed a technique for comparison reanalyses and observational data at the weather stations locations. This technique provides: analysis of time series comprehension, selection of homogeneous observational series and removal of series having gaps; choice of a proper interpolation method (bilinear interpolation, third-order polynomial, inverse distance weighted, modified Shepard's interpolation, and basic geostatistical kriging); assessment of differences between reanalyses data reconstructed at weather station locations and data observed at these stations using a set of approved statistical methods (ME, RMSE, chi-square). The technique developed has been applied to compare NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP II, ECMWF ERA-40, ECMWF ERA Interim, and APHRODITE JMA datasets with the data observed at weather stations in Siberia (55°-130°E, 50°-75°N) over period of 1979 - 2007. In particular, to describe air temperature and precipitation amount in Siberia, we selected 59 observational time series which meet the above requirements (less than 5 % gaps in the series). Reanalyses data have been reconstructed at these stations locations using modified Shepard's interpolation which gives the least deviation for different-size grids. Air temperature difference between ECMWF (ERA-40, ERA INTERIM) and NCEP (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP II) reanalyses was in average 0.3 °C with increase of data difference with latitude. Comparison of air temperature from the above reanalyses datasets and 59 observational series has shown that the ECMWF ERA INTERIM dataset is in a good agreement with the observations. Analysis of precipitation amount from ERA INTERIM and APHRODITE JMA archives has revealed that they are twice different. Comparison between reanalyses and observational data has shown that APHRODITE JMA dataset is closest to the observations (difference of 30-80 mm) [1]. Now we study dynamics of wind and pressure fields obtained with different reanalyses datasets using the comparison technique described above. The results obtained would provide reliable information for assessment of climate dynamics in the region and basis for validation of existing and new regional climatic models. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 10-07-00547a and 11-05-01190a) and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (contract 07.514.11.4044). [1] Shulgina T.M., Genina E.Yu., Gordov E.P. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia // Environmental Research Letters, 2011. - DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045210. - 7 p.

  2. United States/Russia Space Cooperation Documentary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents the initiative to develop a multinational, permanent space research laboratory. Historical background on the U.S. and Soviet manned space flight program as well as joint efforts such as the Apollo-Soyuz link up is shown. The current initiative will begin with collaborative missions involving NASA's space shuttle and Russia's Mir space station, and culminate in a permanently manned space station involving the U.S., Russia, Japan, Canada, and ESA. Shown are computer simulations of the proposed space station. Commentary is provided by the NASA administrator, former astronauts, cosmonauts, and Russian and American space experts.

  3. Siberia Integrated Regional Study information-computational and instrumental infrastructure development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Kabanov, M. V.; Krutikov, V. A.; Kuzin, V. I.; Lykosov, V. N.; Okladnikov, I.; Titov, A. G.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Reported are several important steps in development of information-computational and instrumental infrastructure of the NEESPI mega-project Siberia Integrated Regional Study, which is devoted to investigation of global change impact on Siberia environment and related feedback. Firstly, development of scientific and technological basis and creation of a reference network for monitoring of climatic changes in Siberia is planned for 2012-2017. The network will include 12 reference monitoring stations equipped with modern instrumentation for monitoring spread across Siberia as well as data center aimed at storage of instrumental and modeling data and providing an access to those. The stations will be created at the following sites: Barnaul (Aktru), Chita (Arakhley), Irkutsk (Mondy), Khaty-Mansiisk (Shapsha), Krasnoyarsk (Zotino), Kyzyl (Dolinnaya), Nadym (Polyarnaya), Novosibirsk (Chany), Tomsk (Vasyuganie), Tomsk (Akademgorodok), Ulan-Ude (Istomino) and Yakutsk (Spasskaya Pad') and supported in operation by relevant SB RAS research Institutes and Siberian Universities. Also a suite of models is under development now, which will comprise global and regional climatic and meteorological models run at the Siberian Supercomputer Center. The CLEARS (CLimate and Environment Analysis and Research System) information-computational web-GIS is planned to be deployed at the data center and used for analysis of recent and future climatic and environmental changes in Siberia. Altogether these components will form a SB RAS megascience facility aimed at detailed monitoring of on-going natural and climatic processes on this territory and prognoses of their dynamics in future. It should create an information basis for decision-making on future socio-economic development of Siberia. It will also improve significantly efficiency of international scientific cooperation in Siberia.

  4. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem sustainability could be decreased by better slash removal in the Angara region, removal of trees killed by fire in the Zabaikal region, and tree planting after fires in drier conditions where natural regeneration is hampered by soil overheating and grass proliferation.

  5. Aircraft measurements of the concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO and the carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios of CO2 in the troposphere over Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Sugawara, Satoshi; Inoue, Gen; Machida, Toshinobu; Makshyutov, Shamil; Mukai, Hitoshi

    1997-02-01

    About 370 air samples were collected using aircraft in the troposphere over Russia in the summers of 1992, 1993, and 1994. These were then analyzed for the CO2, CH4, N2O and CO concentrations, as well as for ?13C and ?18O of CO2. Measured vertical profiles of tropospheric CO2 showed that the concentration increased with height over all locations. In the lower troposphere over the wetland and taiga regions, extremely low CO2 concentrations of 335-345 parts per million by volume (ppmv) were often observed. Measured values of ?13C and the CO2 concentration were negatively correlated with each other, the rate of change in ?13C with respect to the CO2 concentration being about -0.05/ppmv. This implies that the variations in the CO2 concentration observed over Russia in the summer are primarily caused by terrestrial biospheric activities. In the middle and upper troposphere, the CO2 concentration and ?13C showed systematic differences between each other in 1992, 1993, and 1994, probably due to their secular changes. The ?18O and CO2 observed in the lowest part of the troposphere over east and west Siberia were also negatively correlated with each other, with the rate of change in ?18O with respect to CO2 estimated to be about -0.1 l/ppmv. This relation may be caused by isotopic equilibrium of oxygen in CO2 with soil water through respiration of living plants and decomposition of organic matter and with chloroplast water in leaves through photosynthesis of living plants. In contrast to CO2, the CH4 concentration decreased with height. Extremely high CH4 concentrations were observed over the west Siberian lowland, owing to a large amount of CH4 emitted from wetlands. The N2O concentrations were fairly constant through the troposphere over all locations covered by this study, with an average value of about 311 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The CO concentrations also showed vertical profiles, with a small gradient over natural wetlands, taiga, and tundra. High values of the CH4, CO, and CO2 concentrations were observed over Moscow, owing to emissions of the respective gases by human activities in an urban area. It was also found that over natural wetlands and tundra the CO2 and CH4 concentrations were negatively correlated with each other, reflecting a strong biospheric CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions from wetlands. The relationship between the CH4 and CO concentrations was strongly positive over areas with their anthropogenic and natural sources; the relationship was only slightly positive over wetlands, possibly due to CO emissions from wetlands and/or photochemically produced CO.

  6. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en espaol Qu es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  7. Studying of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere over Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timkovsky, I. I.; Elanskii, N. F.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Shumskii, R. A.

    2010-06-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation into the atmosphere play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and participate in the formation and growth of aerosol particles that affect the atmospheric radiation balance and the earth’s climate. A number of VOCs, such as isoprene, monoterpene, methylvinylketone, and methacrolein, whose surface concentrations were measured between Moscow and Vladivostok in the course of the Transcontinental Observations into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (TROICA-12) experiment in July-August 2008, are considered. For the first time in Russia, a PTR-MS proton mass-spectrometer was used to measure the VOC concentrations. The continuous series of VOC concentrations in the atmosphere over the Trans-Siberian Railway were obtained, and the characteristic features of their variations were determined. The spatial distribution of the concentrations of biogenic VOC was compared with a map of Russia’s forests. It was found that the maximum concentrations of isoprene between Moscow and Vladivostok correspond to the zones of broad-leaved forests in the Far East and Primorskii Krai, and the maximum concentrations of monoterpene correspond to coniferous forests in Siberia. The obvious correlation between the concentrations of isoprene and the total concentration of methylvinylketone and methacrolein was revealed.

  8. Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

    2014-12-01

    Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.510.52Bqkg(-1)(131)I, 0.920.04Bqkg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.510.07Bqkg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. PMID:25201085

  9. Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students

  10. Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  11. Smoke and Clouds over Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Several mountain ranges and a portion of the Amur River are visible in this set of MISR images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 during Terra orbit 7452. The view from MISR's 70-degree forward-looking camera is at the top left; the 26-degree forward-looking view is at the top right. The larger image at the bottom is a stereo 'anaglyph' created using the cameras at two intermediate angles. To view the stereo image in 3-D you need red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over your left eye. All of the images are oriented with north to the left to facilitate stereo viewing. Each image covers an area about 345 kilometers x 278 kilometers.

    The Amur River, in the upper right, and Lake Bolon, at the top center, are most prominent in the 26-degree view due to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and cranes and a stopover for large numbers of migratory birds. About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to agricultural uses. Other notable features in these images are several mountain chains, including the Badzhal'skiy to the left of center and the Bureiskiy in the lower left.

    Smoke plumes from several forest fires can be seen. They are especially apparent in the 70-degree view where the smoke's visibility is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some smaller plumes above and to the right of the image centers. In the upper images the hazy region in the vicinity of these smaller plumes has the appearance of low-altitude smoke, but depth perception provided by the stereo anaglyph shows that it is actually a distinct layer of high-altitude cirrus clouds. Whether the cirrus is related to the fires is uncertain. It is possible, however, for the fires have to have heated the lower atmosphere enough to create bubbles of hot air. As such bubbles rise, they can force stable, nearly saturated air above to move even higher, triggering the formation of ice clouds. Visualization of other three-dimensional characteristics of the scene, such as the intermediate-altitude layer of cumulus clouds along the left side, is made possible by the stereo imagery.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  12. Vulnerability of east Siberia's frozen carbon stores to future warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostyanov, D. V.; Ciais, P.; Krinner, G.; Zimov, S. A.

    2008-05-01

    East Siberia's permafrost contains about 500 GtC of frozen highly labile carbon deposits, a so-called Yedoma. Using a permafrost carbon cycle model we analyzed mobilization of this huge carbon stock in a future warming. Conditions necessary to trigger the irreversible Yedoma thawing maintained by deep respiration and methanogenesis are studied. Once started, this process could release 2.0-2.8 GtC yr-1 during years 2300-2400 transforming 75% of initial carbon stock into CO2 and methane. The time when the fast deep-soil decomposition starts is inversely proportional to the warming rate, while the corresponding (critical) temperature anomaly slightly increases at larger warming rates. This second-order effect is due to the deep-soil heat storage caused by external warming, which leads to more homogeneous soil heating when the warming is slower, and so a smaller external warming is needed to thaw the permafrost. The effect of specific microbial heat that accompanies oxic decomposition is of comparable importance to that of the warming rate on the critical temperature anomaly, while it is of minor importance on the time when deep decomposition starts.

  13. External Sq currents in the India-Siberia region

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, W.H. ); Arora, B.R. ); Schiffmacher, E.R.

    1993-03-01

    The Sq current systems for quiet days of 1976 and 1977 were studied for observatories established near 76[degrees]E longitude in the northern hemisphere. A special sperical harmonic analysis technique was used to separate the internal and external contributions of the quiet field variations and to determine the equivalent external current contours responsible for the Sq field variations on the sixth and twenty-first of each month. The average ratio of the external to internal spectral power was 6.7 in 1976 and 7.4 in 1977. Focus positions for the India-Siberia region external Sq current vortex, near 22[degrees] to 29[degrees], were found to be at lower geomagnetic latitudes than for Europe and North America. The usual mid-latitude vortex current, reaching 11.0 to 13.2 [times] 10[sup 4] A in summertime, disappeared completely during winter months in both the years. The Sq current position was affected clearly by the off-spin axis position of the north geomagnetic pole. Throughout the 2 years, the authors also found small current vorticies near 70[degrees] to 80[degrees] geomagnetic latitude, which have been ascribed to auroral region activity on quiet days. 19 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

    2007-02-10

    One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

  15. Early Cambrian palaeogeography and the probable Iberia Siberia connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubanov, Alexander P.

    2002-07-01

    The end of the Proterozoic-beginning of the Cambrian is marked by some of the most dramatic events in the history of Earth. The fall of the Ediacaran biota, followed by the Cambrian Explosion of skeletonised bilaterians, a pronounced shift in oceanic and atmospheric chemistry and rapid climatic change from 'snowball earth' to 'greenhouse' conditions all happened within a rather geologically short period of time. These events took place against a background of the rearrangement of the prevailing supercontinent; some authors view this as a sequence of individual supercontinents such as Mesoproterozoic Midgardia, Neoproterozoic Rodinia and Early Cambrian Pannotia. Assembled in the Mesoproterozoic, this supercontinent appears to have existed through the Neoproterozoic into the Early Cambrian with periodic changes in configuration. The final rearrangement took place during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition with the Cadomian and related phases of the Pan-African orogeny. The distribution of Early Cambrian molluscs and other small shelly fossils (SSF) across all continents indicates a close geographic proximity of all major cratonic basins that is consistent with the continued existence of the supercontinent at that time. Subsequently, Rodinia experienced breakup that led to the amalgamation of Gondwana, separation of Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia and some small terranes and the emergence of oceanic basins between them. Spreading oceanic basins caused a gradual geographic isolation of the faunal assemblages that were united during the Vendian-Early Cambrian.

  16. Future biogeochemical forcing in Eastern Siberia: cooling or warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneth, A.; Olin, S.; Makkonen, R.; Paasonen, P.; Holst, T.; Kajos, M.; Kulmala, M.; Maximov, T.; Miller, P. A.; Schurgers, G.

    2014-07-01

    Over-proportional warming in the northern high latitudes, and large carbon stocks in boreal and (sub)arctic ecosystems have raised concerns as to whether substantial positive climate feedbacks from biogeochemical process responses should be expected. Such feedbacks occur if increasing temperatures lead to e.g., a net release of CO2 or CH4. However, temperature-enhanced emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) have been shown to contribute to a cooling feedback via growth of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and related aerosol forcings. Combining measurements in Eastern Siberia with model-based estimates of vegetation and permafrost dynamics, BVOC emissions and aerosol growth, we show here that the additional climate forcing from changes in ecosystem CO2 balance and BVOC-SOA interactions nearly cancel on a regional scale. The interactions between emissions and vegetation dynamics that underlie individual forcing estimates are complex and highlight the importance of addressing ecosystem-climate feedbacks in consistent, process-based model frameworks that account for a multitude of system processes.

  17. Coupled Hydroclimatic and Lake Change Patterns in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrd Karlsson, J.; Lyon, S. W.; Destouni, G.

    2014-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes are dependent on permafrost. Thermokarst lakes and wetlands dominate the peat-forming lowlands of the Nadym and Pur river basins in Western Siberia. Recent warming and potential permafrost thaw has initiated fluctuations in the number and total area of lakes in these basins. We use remote sensing (Landsat images) to distinguish spatially explicit changes. Further, through coupled analysis of hydrological data, we also identify characteristic patterns of lake-area and hydroclimatic change and assess the role of permafrost in such patterns. Our results reveal spatially heterogeneous lake-change patterns with drained lakes appearing alongside stable lakes. Such heterogeneity likely indicates permafrost thaw as a main driver of change rather than shifts in precipitation and evapotranspiration, which would yield more homogenous change patterns. The total area and number of lakes fluctuated over time with both appearing and disappearing lakes and a high number of drainage events. However, the size distribution of lakes remained essentially constant over the investigated time periods. The role of permafrost degradation on thermokarst lakes appears to be localized and thereby not detectable in basin-averaged properties of the entire Nadym and Pur basins. Regardless, specific sub-basins can exhibit long-term sustained lake change with coupled hydroclimatic changes. These locations are vital as they offer clear windows to consider the possible manifestations of global climate change and its influence on biogeochemical cycles and carbon effluxes.

  18. Display technologies in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doane, William J.; Cladis, Patricia E.; Curtin, Christopher; Larimer, James; Slusarczuk, Marko; Talbot, Jan B.; Yaniv, Ziv

    1994-12-01

    This report is a review of advanced display research, development, and manufacturing activity in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. Topics covered include: liquid crystal display materials and related technologies; liquid crystal and other non-emissive displays; vacuum fluorescent, electroluminescent, field emission, and other emissive displays; and phosphors and other emissive materials. Also included is a review of infrastructure and business issues related to the display industry in the former Soviet Union. The panel found promising technologies in projection systems (e.g., the 'quantoscope' - utilizing an e-beam pumped laser), Supertwisted Nematic (STN) Liquid Cristal Displays (LCD) manufacturing at several locations in Russia and Belarus, developing capabilities and plans for future Active Matrix Liquid Cristal Display (AMLCD) production in all three countries, and a strong vacuum-fluorescent production capability in Saratov, Russia. Most significantly, the panel found many advanced concepts under development at basic research laboratories throughout the three countries visited; these research efforts are now in jeopardy due to insufficient funding, an uncertain business climate and deteriorating infrastructure. Nevertheless, there are many promising opportunities for foreign investment in display technology and manufacturing in Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus.

  19. Education in the Fate of Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borisenkov, V.P.; Kraevskii, V.V.; Valeev, G.Kh.; Avtonomova, N.S.; Evdokimov, A.K.; Shchedrina, T.G.; Belomestnova, N.V.; Beliaeva, M.A.; Shimina, A.N.; Karmanchikov, A.J.; Korol, A.D.; Varnavskaia, N.Ia.; Berezhnova, E.V.; Daniliuk, A.Ia.; Anua, R.G.; Sidorina, T.Iu.; Tarba, I.D.; Arlamov, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Education in the fate of today's Russia was the topic of a scientific seminar titled "Philosophy, Education, and Society," held in the summer of 2007 in the city of Gagra by the editors of the journals "Voprosy filosofii" and "Pedagogika," the Moscow N.E. Bauman State Technical University, and the Russian Academy of Education. Philosophers,

  20. The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from

  1. 77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... on July 1, 2011 (76 FR 38694) and determined on October 4, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 64107, October 17, 2011). The Commission transmitted its determination in this review to... COMMISSION Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  2. Education and Society in the New Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anthony, Ed.

    This collection of essays examines the changes that have occurred in Russia since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. A historical perspective is used to show that many of the changes were underway during perestroika and that post-Soviet developments are an extension of those changes. The book is divided into four sections. Section 1, "The Soviet…

  3. An Overview of Teacher Education in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, William E.

    This paper describes the experience of an educational psychologist who completed a Fulbright Lectureship at Moscow State Pedagogical University in Russia during April and May of 1993. The chaotic situation brought about by the dramatic and rapid changes that have taken place since the collapse of the Soviet Union has resulted in hyperinflation,

  4. Education and Society in the New Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anthony, Ed.

    This collection of essays examines the changes that have occurred in Russia since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. A historical perspective is used to show that many of the changes were underway during perestroika and that post-Soviet developments are an extension of those changes. The book is divided into four sections. Section 1, "The Soviet

  5. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Detlev H; Tkachenko, Evgeniy A; Morozov, Vyacheslav G; Yunicheva, Yulia V; Pilikova, Olga M; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K

    2015-12-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  6. Mapping Russia: Geographic and Cultural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khachikian, Arthur

    For people living in the 20th century, Russia has been associated with images of communism, the Bolshevik Revolution, totalitarian regimes and leaders, and the fears and stereotypes of the Cold War era. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the liberal revolutions of the 1980s-1990s have provided an opportunity to

  7. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  8. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... nitrate from Russia (71 FR 17080). The Commission is now conducting a second review to determine whether... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information is... (65 FR 37759, June 16, 2000). Following five-year reviews by Commerce and the Commission,...

  9. Life-Threatening Sochi Virus Infections, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Tkachenko, Evgeniy A.; Morozov, Vyacheslav G.; Yunicheva, Yulia V.; Pilikova, Olga M.; Malkin, Gennadiy; Ishmukhametov, Aydar A.; Heinemann, Patrick; Witkowski, Peter T.; Klempa, Boris; Dzagurova, Tamara K.

    2015-01-01

    Sochi virus was recently identified as a new hantavirus genotype carried by the Black Sea field mouse, Apodemus ponticus. We evaluated 62 patients in Russia with Sochi virus infection. Most clinical cases were severe, and the case-fatality rate was as high as 14.5%. PMID:26584463

  10. Agroclimatic potential across central Siberia in an altered twenty-first century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Lysanova, G. I.; Soja, A. J.

    2011-10-01

    Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and are likely to be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed potential climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-90 and 1990-2010 using historic data and data taken from 2020 and 2080 HadCM3 B1 and A2 scenarios. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future Siberian climatic resources could provide the potential for a great variety of crops to grow that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km/decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops nonexistent today may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming. Adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

  11. Short Communication: Molecular Epidemiology, Phylogeny, and Phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1, a Recently Originated HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form Spreading in Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Shcherbakova, Nadezhda S.; Shalamova, Lyudmila A.; Delgado, Elena; Fernndez-Garca, Aurora; Vega, Yolanda; Karpenko, Larissa I.; Ilyichev, Alexander A.; Sokolov, Yuri V.; Shcherbakov, Dmitry N.; Prez-lvarez, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The HIV-1 epidemic in Russia is dominated by the former Soviet Union subtype A (AFSU) variant, but other genetic forms are circulating in the country. One is the recently described CRF63_02A1, derived from recombination between a CRF02_AG variant circulating in Central Asia and AFSU, which has spread in the Novosibirsk region, Siberia. Here we phylogenetically analyze pol and env segments from 24 HIV-1 samples from the Novosibirsk region collected in 2013, with characterization of three new near full-length genome CRF63_02A1 sequences, and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) and the demographic growth of CRF63_02A1 using a Bayesian method. The analyses revealed that CRF63_02A1 is highly predominant in the Novosibirsk region (81.2% in pol sequences) and is transmitted both among injecting drug users and by heterosexual contact. Similarity searches with database sequences combined with phylogenetic analyses show that CRF63_02A1 is circulating in East Kazakhstan and the Eastern area of Russia bordering China. The analyses of near full-length genome sequences show that its mosaic structure is more complex than reported, with 18 breakpoints. The tMRCA of CRF63_02A1 was estimated around 2006, with exponential growth in 20082009 and subsequent stabilization. These results provide new insights into the molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1. PMID:25050828

  12. Short communication: Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1, a recently originated HIV-1 circulating recombinant form spreading in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, Nadezhda S; Shalamova, Lyudmila A; Delgado, Elena; Fernndez-Garca, Aurora; Vega, Yolanda; Karpenko, Larissa I; Ilyichev, Alexander A; Sokolov, Yuri V; Shcherbakov, Dmitry N; Prez-lvarez, Luca; Thomson, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Russia is dominated by the former Soviet Union subtype A (A(FSU)) variant, but other genetic forms are circulating in the country. One is the recently described CRF63_02A1, derived from recombination between a CRF02_AG variant circulating in Central Asia and A(FSU), which has spread in the Novosibirsk region, Siberia. Here we phylogenetically analyze pol and env segments from 24 HIV-1 samples from the Novosibirsk region collected in 2013, with characterization of three new near full-length genome CRF63_02A1 sequences, and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) and the demographic growth of CRF63_02A1 using a Bayesian method. The analyses revealed that CRF63_02A1 is highly predominant in the Novosibirsk region (81.2% in pol sequences) and is transmitted both among injecting drug users and by heterosexual contact. Similarity searches with database sequences combined with phylogenetic analyses show that CRF63_02A1 is circulating in East Kazakhstan and the Eastern area of Russia bordering China. The analyses of near full-length genome sequences show that its mosaic structure is more complex than reported, with 18 breakpoints. The tMRCA of CRF63_02A1 was estimated around 2006, with exponential growth in 2008-2009 and subsequent stabilization. These results provide new insights into the molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1. PMID:25050828

  13. A combined oxygen and silicon diatom isotope record of Late Quaternary change in Lake El'gygytgyn, North East Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, George E. A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Juschus, Olaf; Melles, Martin; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Sloane, Hilary J.

    2010-03-01

    Determining the response of sites within the Arctic Circle to long-term climatic change remains an essential pre-requisite for assessing the susceptibility of these regions to future global warming and Arctic amplification. To date, existing records from North East Russia have demonstrated significant spatial variability across the region during the late Quaternary. Here we present diatom ? 18O and ? 30Si data from Lake El'gygytgyn, Russia, and suggest environmental changes that would have impacted across West Beringia from the Last Glacial Maximum to the modern day. In combination with other records, the results raise the potential for climatic teleconnections to exist between the region and sites in the North Atlantic. The presence of a series of 2-3 decreases in ? 18O diatom during both the Last Glacial and the Holocene indicates the sensitivity of the region to perturbations in the global climate system. Evidence of an unusually long Holocene thermal maximum from 11.4 ka BP to 7.6 ka BP is followed by a cooling trend through the remainder of the Holocene in response to changes in solar insolation. This is culminated over the last 900 years by a significant decrease in ? 18O diatom of 2.3, which may be related to a strengthening and easterly shift of the Aleutian Low in addition to possible changes in precipitation seasonality.

  14. Seismic and density heterogeneities of lithosphere beneath Siberia: Evidence from the Craton long-range seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, E. A.; Suvorov, V. D.; Pavlov, E. V.; Mishenkina, Z. R.

    2015-03-01

    The estimate of seismic lithosphere thickness in Siberia remains controversial in spite of long-range controlled-source data available from peaceful nuclear explosions (PNE). Published models of layered upper mantle based on this evidence fail to unambiguously constrain the asthenospheric depth. The observed velocity changes may be due either to vertical layering or to lateral heterogeneity, which are difficult to discriminate because of large (1000 km) PNE spacing. Among the upper mantle models, obtained with reference to Moho velocities derived from higher-resolution chemical explosion data, we focus especially on lateral density heterogeneity. The model reveals three velocity layers, with velocities 8.0-8.5 km/s in Layer 1, 8.6-8.7 km/s in Layer 2, and ∼8.5 km/s in Layer 3. Layers 2, which varies strongly in thickness, may consist of dense eclogite, judging by the high velocities. Its base may correspond to the base of the lithosphere underlain by the lower-velocity asthenospheric material of Layer 3. The lateral variations in velocity within Layer 1 and in thickness of Layer 2 correlate with major tectonic units: the West Siberian basin, the Tunguska basin with the Permian-Triassic continental flood basalts (the large igneous province of Siberian Traps), as well as the Vilyui basin and the Yakutian kimberlite province. Isostasy in the West Siberian and Vilyui basins results in thick sediments and thin crust, while the large depths of the basement and the intra-crustal discontinuity in the Tunguska basin isostatically compensate the elevated surface topography due to voluminous lavas. The magmatism left its imprint in the mantle as an attenuated "eclogitic layer" beneath the Tunguska basin. However, the available data are still insufficient to understand the exact causes of this attenuation, because mantle conditions may have changed during the elapsed 250 m.y. since then.

  15. Vegetation Structure Changes in the South Part of Western Siberia at the End of XX Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, E.; Pologova, N. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, A. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

    2010-12-01

    Understanding human impact on changes in vegetation composition and structure can be performed using analysis of space images obtained from high resolution satellite sensors. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early succession stages, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data obtained in various seasons and years. The studied area of the first test site (Bakchar) is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site Tomsk covered by cultivated lands and dark coniferous forest complexes. Vegetation classification was made using NELDA project legend (www.fsl.orst.edu/nelda). The main part of Site Bakchar is occupied by tree dominated classes (66%). Wetlands occupy about 43% of the area. Part of herbaceous vegetation is rather low (9%). Site Tomsk has completely different structure of classes. More than one-half of the area (52%) is covered by cultivated lands. Forests occupy 42% of the area. Wetlands (9%) exist in the Ob-Tom interfluve and left bank of the Ob river. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed to reveal dynamics in vegetation cover. Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 at site Bakchar are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have damaged forests between 1990 and 1999 in stripes oriented from south-west to north -east in the prevailing wind direction. Tree cutting in 1999-2007 was significantly smaller than in previous time due to depression in economical activity. Mature forests cover only small part of the site Tomsk. Tree cutting activity at site Tomsk in 1990-1999 is lower than at site Bakchar. Strong winds were in 2003, 2005, and 2007. It results to significant forest damages at area of 3100 ha in the northern part of Ob-Tom interfluve. Some invasion of young trees in to abandoned agricultural lands also can be found for both sites at comparison of 1999 and 2007 images. After 1999 many agricultural lands stopped to plug, transformed to unmanaged meadows (grassland) and now occupying by young birch. Small burned areas are exists on the studied territory primary at drainage peatlands but fires does not affect forests significantly. Work was performed under project Human Impact on Land-cover Changes in the Heart of Asia supported by Asia-Pacific Network (ARCP2009-02CMY).

  16. Luminescence Chronology of Late Quaternary Glaciations in the Verkhoyansk Mountains, NE Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauch, G.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Popp, S.; Diekmann, B.; Spector, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Verkhoyansk Mountains in North-Eastern Siberia are the eastern most mountain systems in northern Eurasian which receive precipitation mainly from the west. Late Quaternary glaciations in the area therefore not only reflect local climate changes but also change on the Eurasian continent to the west. Especially the Eurasian ice-sheet should have had a profound influence on the available moisture. The Verkhoyansk Mountains stretches for about 1500km from the Laptev Sea Coast at 72N to Central Yakutia at 56N, parallel to the large Lena and Aldan Rivers. The recent climate conditions in the area with mean temperatures in January of -40C and +20C in July represent a very continental environment. Precipitation values are around 700mm on the western side and only 130mm and less east of the mountains. Today only small valley glaciers are present in the northern part of the mountain system and larger ones in the Suntar Chajata area a south eastern branch of the Verkhoyansk Mountains. Here, maximum elevations are around 3000m asl. while in most other parts maximum elevations are around 2000m asl. and less. Previous investigations based on radiocarbon dating in the 1960s and 70s highlighted several Late Quaternary glaciations in the central part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains at 64N. Three major ice advances have been dated to the global last glacial maximum (gLGM, 20-18ka) and to the middle and early part of the last glacial cycle. However, new geomorphology mapping and dating by the use of Infrared Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL) indicate up to five large glacial advances on the western side of the mountains which are all older than the gLGM. The uppermost terminal moraine, which has been the smallest advance in terms of glacier length, has been deposited at least 50ka before present. The second terminal moraine several tens of kilometers downstream of the upper moraine has not been dated up to now. Aeolian cover sediments yielded an age of 46.8 3.7ka, but according to the stratigraphic position of the sediments the moraine has been formed prior the moraine upstream. The third terminal moraine which has been deposited in the western foreland of the Mountains has an IRSL age of 80 to 90ka. An age of 100 to 120ka has been attributed to the fourth moraine. This one has been strongly eroded by fluvial and fluvioglacial processes and is only partly preserved. The outermost moraine which represents the largest glacier extend has been formed at the end of the previous glacial cycle. IRSL dating point to a formation of this moraine around 135ka. Glaciations on the eastern side of the Verkhoyansk Mountains are much smaller and only partly preserved. This indicates a dominant moisture source from the west throughout the Late Quaternary. This assumption is supported by the elevation of cirque floors in the area. Generally, the elevation of cirque floors is much lower on the western side of the Verkhoyansk Mountains than on the eastern side. Taking into account the results of the geomorphological mapping and the IRSL dates it can be assumed that the Verkhoyansk Mountains have been extremely dry during the gLGM. This prevented a glaciation in the area. Moisture was most probably blocked by the large Eurasian Ice sheet and especially by its western sector. In the early part of the last glacial cycle the western sector of the Eurasian ice sheet was much smaller allowing moisture bearing air masses to reach the Verkhoyansk Mountains and supporting the buildup of large valley glaciers. With the growth of the ice sheet the moisture supply to the Verkhoyansk Mountains was reduced and the glaciations in the east of Siberia became smaller. East of the Verkhoyansk Mountains in the Russian Far East, moisture coming from the Pacific lead to the formation of glaciers during the global last glacial maximum.

  17. New Holocene refugia of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia: updated extinction patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plicht, J.; Molodin, V. I.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Vasiliev, S. K.; Postnov, A. V.; Slavinsky, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    We obtained new data on the existence of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia during the Holocene. Bones and antler of giant deer from new localities in western (Baraba forest steppe) and eastern (Angara River basin) Siberia are dated by radiocarbon, ranging 7900-10,300 BP (ca 8800-12,200 cal BP). Based on these data, we can extend the 'Siberian' Early Holocene habitat of giant deer at least 2400 km to the east compared to previous works. The final extinction of giant deer turned out to be more complex than it was previously thought, with perhaps relatively large refugium in Western Siberia at 7900-7000 BP (ca 8800-7900 cal BP) which was reduced to the Trans-Urals region at 7000-6800 BP (ca 7900-7600 cal BP).

  18. Correlation between active deformations in the crust and upper mantle of Mongolia-Siberia mobile area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankov, Vladimir; Parfeevets, Anna; Lukhnev, Andrey; Miroshnitchenko, Andrey; Ashurkov, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    We analyzed the degree of vertical coherention of the deformations on different levels of the earth crust and upper mantle in Mongolia-Siberia mobile area and surroundings using several strain indicators: - direction of the elongation axes of GPS derived horizontal strain field (Lukhnev et al., in press); - direction of SHmin of the present-day stress-tensors, calculating using earthquake focal mechanisms data; - direction of SHmin of the Late Cenozoic stress tensors, reconstructing using microtectonic data (383 tensors); - direction of upper mantle anisotropy (φ), deduced from SKS splitting (Gao et al., 1994, 1997; Dricker et al., 2002; Oreshin et al., 2002; Barruol et al., 2008). The first two parameters can be considered as indicators of short term deformation and the last two - as indicators of long term one. We exclude the directions of mantle anisotropy which are interpreted as ancient PR and PZ structures influence. We part the area under study on western (Tuva, Western Mongolia) and eastern (South Siberian platform, Baikal rift system, Central Mongolia) main divisions. The data show that the peak of SHmin direction of the Late Cenozoic stress tensors within western division is about N285°W which is in consistent with the mean direction of mantle anisotropy. The tendency of the mantle anisotropy direction changing from sublatitudinal in the west of the division to NW-SE in the east should be underlined. The main directions of elongation axes and SHmin of present-day stress field are very similar (about N310°W). Within eastern division the main direction of SHmin of the Late Cenozoic stress field varies from WNW-SSE (Tunka section of Baikal rift system) to NNW-SSE (NE part of Baikal rift system). The general direction of mantle anisotropy for most part of the structures, including South Siberian platform, is similar to mean SHmin direction of tectonic stress. The main directions of GPS derived elongation axes and SHmin of present-day stress field are close to azimuth N310°W. Local deviations of φ in Goby Altay range and Hangay dome are in agreement with deviations of crustal deformation parameters. We can conclude that in every case active deformation in the crust correlates with deformation in the upper mantle. The most probable origin of both crustal and upper mantle deformations is the influence of mantle flow drag on the basis of the lithosphere and its interaction with NNE compression forces from India-North Eurasia convergence.

  19. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in Southwestern Siberia: combined effects of plant species and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Augusto, L.; Derrien, D.; Gallegos, N.; Lashchinskiy, N.; Milin, S.; Nikitich, P.; Raudina, T.; Rusalimova, O.; Zeller, B.; Barsukov, P.

    2012-06-01

    The Russian boreal forest, which mainly consists of extensive forests in Siberia, is the largest continuous forest region on Earth and represents 70 % of the world's boreal forest. Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deeper to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of forest ecosystems are thus required. Relative contributions of organic and inorganic P and, consequently, P availability in forest ecosystems depend on decomposition processes, which could be strongly affected by vegetation composition, temperature, precipitation, and their changes due to a warming climate. The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate P status of surface and deep forest soil horizons from two contrasted biomes in Southwestern Siberia (i.e. forest steppe in the West Siberian plain and blackish ("chernevaya" in Russian) taiga in the low Salair mountains) and (2) assess the effects of vegetation (siberian fir stand, common aspen stand and herbs in a forest gap) and local climate on soil P fractions. Results revealed high contents in total P (645-1042 mg kg-1 in the surface mineral soils) and available inorganic P (diffusive phosphate ions in one week = 83-126 mg kg-1). In addition, there was an accumulation of diffusive phosphate ions in the subsoils resulting from differences between soil horizons in total inorganic P and soil properties. Consequently, deeper root systems may mine substantial amounts of available P for the trees and the potential enhanced growth and C sequestration due to climate change should thus a~priori not be P-limited. High proportions of total organic P (47-56 % of total P in the surface mineral soils) show that decomposition processes potentially play a significant role in P availability. Results show that decomposition processes are affected by vegetation (deciduous broadleaved trees, evergreen coniferous, herbs) and local climate (precipitations; snow cover with its isolating effect on soil). Results on the effects of plant species and local climate improved our understanding of the potential effects of climate change on P availability through warming and vegetation redistribution.

  20. On Eulimnogammarus messerschmidtii, sp. n. (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from Lake Baikal, Siberia, with redescription of E. cyanoides (Sowinsky) and remarks on taxonomy of the genus Eulimnogammarus.

    PubMed

    Bedulina, Daria S; Takhteev, Vadim V; Pogrebnyak, Svyatoslav G; Govorukhina, Ekaterina B; Madyarova, Ekaterina V; Lubyaga, Yulia A; Vereshchagina, Kseniya P; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Luckenbach, Till

    2014-01-01

    A new amphipod species of the endemic fauna of Lake Baikal (East Siberia, Russia), Eulimnogammarus messerschmidtii sp. n., from the littoral zone of the northern part of the lake is described. The species is characterized by the presence of a group of spines with dense setae on the last 4 body segments. The basal peduncular segment of antenna 1 bears bunches of dense setae without spines, uropods 3 are covered by dense simple setae without plumose setae and the outer ramus has a second small article. The body length of sampled specimens ranges from 7.5 to 18 mm. Population analysis at one of the sampling points revealed a spring-summer reproduction period for this species. This species was previously erroneously identified as E. cyanoides. E. cyanoides is here redescribed in details based on the lectotype. The differences between E. messerschmidtii sp. n., E. cyanoides and other closely related Eulimnogammarus species are described. The taxonomy of the genus Eulimnogammarus is discussed. PMID:25081795

  1. Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ of points into 3 groups of agrolandscapes, which have high, medium and low medium agronatural potential. Thus the typological landscape and agrolandscape medium scale map had been worked out, estimation of agronatural potential, and the map had been worked out on the base of detailed agrolandscape research and study of natural geosystems of Minusinskaya Basin. Consideration of agronatural potential of a territory helps to determine regions of perspective development of its separate types, proceeding from presents of natural and economical preconditions. Successful development of agriculture is mainly connected with the right agrolandscape use. That is why the optimum variant of land use could be and should be found with the definite ratio of transformational organizational-economical and adaptive landscape-ecological measures, which could allow abruptly increase the potential of their self-regulation. REFERENCES: 1. G. I. Lysanova landscape analyses of agronatural potential of geosystems. - Irkutsk, 2001. - 187 p. 2. V. A. Nikolaev Regional agrolandscape research // Natural complexes and agriculture. - Voprosy geografii. - M.: Mysl, 1984. - Coll. 124. - P. 73-83.

  2. Main results obtained by the Siberia Regional Project of GAME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, T.; Fukushima, Y.

    2002-12-01

    GAME(GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment) selected one of their field experiment site in Siberia. Importance of this area was, first, its large area on Eurasia, second, potential effect of fresh water supply to the Arctic Ocean, thirdly, this region is one center of the recent intense warming. In order to progress the study, we set up the following objectives. 1) Clarify the physical processes of the land-surface/atmosphere interacting system. 2) Clarify the characteristics and variability of regional energy/water cycle. 3) Obtain the climate trend and land-surface change during the past 50 years. 4) Improve and develop atmospheric and hydrological models 5) Collection and archive of regional ground based/satellite data. 6) Establishment of observational network for long-term variation study, and development of hardware. The 1st phase of the study was 1996-2001, and from 2002 to 2004, 2nd phase emphasizing on integration is continued. Among the drainage in Siberia, Lena River was selected and following main results were obtained. (1) Land surface processes at three local sites: Heat water exchange study was made at three sites (Tundra: Tiksi, Flat taiga:Yakutsk, Mountaineous taiga:Tynda) for multiple years. They all showed strong influence of frozen ground (permafrost) to the heat/ water balance at patch scale. Snow cover had strong influence to hydrological process at Tundra and Mountaineous taiga, but it was masked at Flat Taiga. In Flat taiga, rhythm of heat flux to atmosphere is regulated strongly by foliation of leaves. Grassland (called alas) in comparison with nearby forest show different seasonal progress of fluxes, higher evaporation and low sensible heat at small young alas, and lower evaporation at vastly cultivated alas. Inter-annual variation of evaporation seem to be small in the Flat taiga forest compared with Tundra, although soil moisture show strong inter-annual variability, mainly due to the result of active function of the trees. In dry years trees used the soil moisture at deep depth. (2) Land/surface atmosphere interaction at flat taiga: According to the aircraft observation of heterogenous land surface at 100km scale including Lena River, distribution of low level heat/water fluxes (100m) show complex pattern influenced by characteristics of boundary layer and local circulation. (3) Precipitation recycling: Stable Isotope analysis show the seasonal change in the character of precipitation recycling, weaker in the early summer and stronger in late summer (August) in this area. (4) Hydrological models sensitivity tests: Hydrological models were developed applicable to the large drainage, and result showed that drainage is more sensitive to change in precipitation than to air temperature. (5) Development of automated year-round observation system: Automated observation system made success in acquiring year-round meteorological and ground surface data at the three local observation sites

  3. Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnecker, Jrg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme activities. Since microorganisms produce enzyme according to their nutrient demand, enzyme activities can enhance nutrient cycling differently in distinct soil horizons.

  4. Thermokarst Lake Carbon Storage and Transport near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Griffin, C. G.; Zimov, N.

    2013-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes are prevalent features across the pan-Arctic landscape. As the Arctic climate warms further, thermokarst lakes currently situated in continuous permafrost will likely increase in size and number. Shifting lake distributions may have significant impacts on the land-atmosphere exchange of carbon, as these lakes act as reservoirs and conduits that store and transport carbon and other organic material across the landscape. Using field data collected in the Kolyma River basin in the continuous permafrost region near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia, we investigate the carbon dynamics of four thermokarst lakes in the Y4 watershed, a small, upland drainage area. Through bathymetric mapping of these four lakes, total lake volume was calculated. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen were collected across horizontal transects and subsequently integrated with these total volume measurements to determine physical characteristics of the lakes. Additionally, water samples were collected at various stations and depths for analyses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). With these physical and biogeochemical measurements in concert, we investigated the ability for these lakes to store and transport carbon through the Y4 watershed. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of CDOM concentrations in these lakes provides an understanding of the lability and molecular weight of the organic matter as well as potential light transmittance through the water column. This watershed area provides a representative example of the potential for thermokarst lakes in yedoma regions to process and move carbon across the landscape and ultimately to larger systems such as the Kolyma River basin. This baseline characterization of regional lakes will lead to a better understanding of how further warming and permafrost instability may impact the carbon dynamics of thermokarst lakes and ultimately how they function in the broader biogeochemical and hydrological systems throughout the region.

  5. Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland☆

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Bárta, Jiří; Čapek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Šantrůčková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A.; Richter, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH4+ using an array of 15N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling. PMID:24302785

  6. Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Bárta, Jiří; Capek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Santrůčková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A; Richter, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH4 (+) using an array of (15)N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling. PMID:24302785

  7. Persistent organochlorines in air and water from East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S.; Ouchi, E.; Tatsukawa, R.; Timonin, A.

    1995-12-31

    In order to assess the east Siberia for persistent organochlorine (POC) contaminations such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs, the residue levels in air and water collected from Chaun, Magadan, Khabarovsk and Listvyanka during 1992--1993 have been determined. The levels of atmospheric PCBs and DDTs concentrations in Magadan and Khabarovsk were one to two orders of magnitude higher than the global baseline levels, while the prominent contaminations in water were found in Listvyanka which is in the southwest coast of Lake Baikal. The results suggest that these areas are exposed by different local sources. Chaun, located in the coast of Chaunskaya Guba (Gulf) facing the East Siberian Sea, exhibited the lowest POCs residues. Apart from the concentrations, aerial PCB congener compositions varied with the total concentration levels. Khabarovsk air, where the highest PCB levels (2,860 pg/M{sup 3}) were found, contained mainly tetra and pentachlorobiphenyls. In contrast, samples from Chaun (36--160 pg/M{sup 3}) showed the higher predominance of di and trichlorinated congeners and Magadan air (320--880 pg/M{sup 3}) was a mixed type for both the air. Regarding DDTs composition, high percentages of p,p{prime}-DDT to total DDT compounds in the air from Magadan and Khabarovsk indicate the recent usage. Annual concentrations of aerial POCs in Listvyanka were strongly dependent on air temperature. Hence, heats of vaporization (desorption) for POCs were calculated from the relationships between logarithmic concentrations (partial pressure) and inverse temperatures. The values ranged from 26 kJ/mol to 43 kJ/mol in order of HCB < {alpha}-HCH < {gamma}-HCH < p,p{prime}DDE < total PCBs < p,p{prime}DDT. In addition, highly chlorinated PCBs tended to show higher values than the less chlorinated PCBs. The heats of vaporization estimated from the field survey were lower than those from the laboratory experiments previously reported.

  8. Agroclimatic potential in central Siberia in an altered 21st century climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E.; Lysanova, G.

    2012-04-01

    The largest temperature increases are currently found in Northern Hemishpere upper latitudes, and this is where temperature increases from climate change are predicted to be the greatest in the future. Alteration of boreal and Arctic landscapes is already apparent, particularly in Siberia. In this work, we will explore the current spatial and temporal patterns of agriculture potential in Siberia and then investigate potential future agriculture dynamics. Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. It is predicted that forests will move northwards in a warmer climate and be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. Climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia are analyzed based on the hypothesis that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models are used to determine crop range and regression models are constructed to determine crop yield, and these are applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-1990, 1990-2010 using historic data and for 2020 and 2080 using HadCM3 B1 and A2 projections. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future climatic resources in Siberia would provide potential growth for a variety of crops that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops, nonexistent today, may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming but would also result in different feedbacks to the atmosphere and climate systems, in terms of an altered landscape albedo, substantially modified hydrological regimes and an extended and altered fire regime. However, adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

  9. Features in planning the development of oil deposits of Western Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Baturin, Yu.Ye.; Mayer, V.P.; Telishev, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The review sheds light on the experience in organizing deposit development planning in the SibNIINP institute. The features of planning for development of the oil deposits of Western Siberia are shown. The methodology for planning is given, along with criteria for selecting the optimal variant of development, for selecting the technique and a technique for rating the technological development indicators. An automated system for development planning in the SibNIINP is examined. The system for development of a number of oil deposits in Western Siberia is shown.

  10. Yana ring structure, North-Eastern Siberia: A possible counterpart of coronae on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burba, G. A.

    1993-01-01

    An arch of Verkhoyansky Range in NE Siberia, Russia is considered as W and S parts of the rim of the large ring structure, referred hereafter as Yana Ring Structure (YRS). It has general appearance similar to coronae on Venus and could be considered as the terrestrial counter part of coronae. The structure is located between 63 and 70 deg N, 125 and 140 deg E. The outer diameter of YRS (between the rim feet) is 680-700 km. The rim crest diameter is 500-520 km. The inner diameters (between the inner feet of the rim) is 320-350 km. The rim of YRS consist of the following topographic features: W segment is Orulgan Range (N part of Verkhoyansky Range), SW and S segments consist of S part of Verkhoyansky Range, SE segment is Elginskoye Ploskogorye (Tableland), E segment is Chersky Range (its part W of Indigirka River), NE segment is Selennyakhsky Range, and NW segment is Kular Range. Inside this ring of mountains Yanskoye Ploskogorye (Tableland) is located. The circular outlines of YRS are marked with the large river valleys located outside: Lena River (lower of Aldan River mouth) is located W from YRS, Aldan River (lower of Amga River mouth) is from S, Indigirka River (between 64 and 67 deg N lat) is from E, and Selennyakh River (the part running N to S) is from NE. The ring patterns inside the mountaineous rim of YRS are marked with the tributaries of Yana River. The largest ring here, 300 km in diameter, consists of Bytangay (with Bellyakh) River at W, Nelgese and Derbeke Rivers at S/SE, and Tuostakh River at E. The typical altitudes of YRS mountain rim are 1000-2000 m. The maximal ones are: 2400 m in W part of the rim, 2300 m in S, 1600 m in SE, 2200-2500 m in E, and 1300-1500 m in N. The central part of YRS have typical altitudes of 400-600 m. There are lowlands with altitudes 50-200 m to the S, W, N, and NW outside YRS Oymyakonskoye Nagorye (Highland) is located SE of YRS at 500-1500 m altitudes. It should be recognized from this description YRS have a general appearance of circular highland with its central plateau located 1000-2000 m lower than surrounding mountain rim, but 300-400 m higher than plains of lowlands located outside the rim. Such topographic patterns are typical for coronae on Venus. The diameter of YRS is equal to the largest coronae on Venus. There are only 3 or 4 structures of such or larger size on the whole Venus. This calls to compare morphology and geologic evolution of YRS with morphology and models of coronae evolutions especially the largest ones, to search the similarities and/or differences in geologic histories of the structures on the Earth and Venus.

  11. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia.

    PubMed

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-03-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  12. Urbanization data of Samara city, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Boori, Mukesh Singh; Choudhary, Komal; Kupriyanov, Alexander; Kovelskiy, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    A method has been developed for urbanization by using satellite data and socio-economic data. These datasets consists three decade Landsat images and population data. A detailed description using flow chart is given to show how to use this data to produce land use/cove maps. The land use/cove maps were used to know the urban growth in Samara City, Russia. PMID:26937466

  13. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes that control change in this understudied region, particularly those concerning the primary components that influence regional climate (i.e. cloud cover, precipitation) and responses and feedbacks to and from terrestrial and aquatic systems. This provides a strong impetus for the SIRS project. SIRS was initiated at a boreal forest conference in Krasnoyarsk in 2002 under the auspices of the IGBP and ESSP regional strategy by Will Steffen (IGBP) and the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS). Russian and foreign scientific activities continued under the Siberian Center for Environmental Research and Training (SCERT) in 2003. In 2005, the Siberian Branch of the Russian National Committee (SB RNC) for IGBP endorsed these activities and recommended investigations focus on four major themes: quantification of the terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas budget, with a focus on the exchange between biota and atmosphere; monitoring and modeling of regional climate change impacts; development of SIRS informational-computational infrastructure; and development of a regional strategy of adaptation to and mitigation of the negative consequences of global change. SIRS development [10, 11] supports Siberian Earth science investigations funded by the RAS Foundation for Basic Research, the European Commission (EC), the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). SB RNC is responsible for SIRS advances, and SCERT hosts the Committee office and houses major SIRS informational-computational infrastructure development. NEESPI (www.neespi.org/) serves as an IGBP and World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) external project, and as a NEESPI mega-project, SIRS has organized distribution centers in Krasnoyarsk and Tomsk to support NEESPI activity, and has coordinated training and educational activity aimed at young scientists. SIRS approaches and outcomes Organizational activity The 'Siberian Geosphere-Biosphere Program: integrated regional study of contemporary natural and climatic changes' is one of several funded interdisciplinary projects, and it serves to unite regional studies from 14 RAS and SB RAS institutes and 5 universities. In the course of this and similar national1 and international projects, ENVIROMIS and ENVIROMIS-2 (Environmental Observations, Modelling and Information Systems) was formed, which is the SIRS professional community comprising regional, national and international specialists dealing with Siberian environmental dynamics studies. Results of those and parallel projects were analyzed in by coordinated activities: 'Enviro-RISKS-Man-induced Environmental Risks: monitoring, management and remediation of man-made changes in Siberia' [12]. Currently, a new set of SB RAS integrated2 and international projects within the Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Study (APN) and ISTC are under way. While a number of projects have been initiated and clustered under the SIRS umbrella and their results and data are distributed through the SIRS web portal (http://sirs.scert.ru/), the organizational SIRS infrastructure is inadequate. SIRS has neither SB RAS stable funding nor a dedicated Project Office. Both obstacles are a major concern for the SIRS governing body. Information-computational infrastructure development The SIRS informational-computational infrastructure, which is currently under extensive development, is designed to stimulate national and international cooperative Earth science investigations, easily exchange data and knowledge, coordinate activities, and optimize the usage of resources, services and applications [13]. The infrastructure is organized as a set of thematic, bilingual (Russian and English), internet-accessible informational-computational systems, the first of which is the scientific web portal ATMOS (http://atmos.iao.ru/). ATMOS is an integrated set of distributed topical websites, combining standard multimedia information with research databases, models and analytical tools for on-line use and visualization, designed primarily for atmospheric physics and chemistry (http://risks.scert.ru/)3 [12, 14]. These powerful tools have already promoted understanding of the interactions between Siberian ecosystems, the atmosphere and human dynamics, under the impact of global climate change. For example, the climate site of the Enviro-RISKS portal (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/) processes unique data sets, from monitoring and modeling regional meteorology, atmospheric pollution transformation/transport and climate, all of which are significant for dynamic regional assessments. This is a user-friendly, interactive web system that can be used for regional climate change assessment and visualization based upon standard meteorological data. All major reanalysis and climatic characteristics are provided (surface air temperature, pressure, humidity, precipitation, soil moisture, and geopotential height), and the users can (but do not need to) access the data files directly but freely receive the results of their analyses through the Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS; www.iges.org/grads/) or Interactive Data Language (IDL; www.ittvis.com/idl/). Specific spatial and temporal domains can be selected, as well as a wide range of statistical analyses, data manipulations, and visualization tools (including animation) that may be required for global, continental, and regional climate change assessments. The SIRS infrastructure has become an indispensable tool, providing researchers with an open platform (portal plus tools) that may be used, adapted, enriched or altered on the basis of the specific scientific applications in regions of Siberia, the Russian Federation, and the northern exatropics. SIRS capacity building/young scientists' education/training The SIRS educational capacity building programme includes ENVIROMIS biannual Multidisciplinary Conference, CITES (Computational and Information Technologies for Environmental Sciences) biannual Young Scientists' School (YSS) and international conferences [15]. These include lecture courses for young scientists, training sessions, invited lectures and thematic workshops (www.scert.ru/en/conferences/). The first event was organized in 2000, and thereafter each year 50-70 young scientists from Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States participate in CITES and ENVIROMIS conferences. These events are organized to support multidisciplinary education, contain no parallel sessions, are composed of about 50% students, and all presentations are posted to assist future professional activity. In the first years, these activities were supported internationally (INTAS, the EC International Cooperation Program within FP5 and FP6); however, recent activities have been supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, the RF Ministry of Education and Science and the SB RAS. Some results gained in the course of SIRS projects being carried out, and current challenges While some findings on regional climate dynamics were reported in the EGU 2009 NEESPI session and in manuscripts listed on the NEESPI website (www.neespi.org/science/NEESPI_publications.pdf), a majority of them have been published in Russian journals and are still unknown in the international climatic community. However, additional reports can be found in the Enviro-RISKS final scientific report [16], mainly in the third volume devoted to climate change, terrestrial ecosystems and hydrology (www.dmi.dk/dmi/sr08-05-3.pdf). We have already established that temperatures have increased, particularly in the winter in Eastern Siberia (0.5°/decade), and the number of frost days (~1 day yr-1) and growing season length has also increased (~1 day yr-1) [17, 18]. Even more troubling is the potential for these transient phenomena to manifest themselves as nonlinear reactions to ongoing climatic change [19]. There are three main scientific research challenges to the SIRS community, which are also very important from a regional socio-economic point of view and for the global carbon cycle. Permafrost fate, especially its border shift, seriously threatens infrastructure and might form a significant carbon and methane source to the atmosphere. Climate-related drying would alter biogenic emissions in peatlands that have been deposited over millennia and would increase the potential for peat fires which cannot be extinguished. Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime change, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus changing significantly the carbon, terrestrial and hydrologic cycle of the region. Desert-steppe-forest-tundra ecosystem borders northward shifts, which will also change regional input into the global carbon and radiation balance and give rise to serious socio-economical consequences for local populations (i.e. alter potential agricultural lands). New in situ instrumentation, data sets, models and research are required to address these challenges. The SB RAS has adopted a long-term integrated project 'Development of the basic network for monitoring of natural and climatic processes in Siberia' to establish a network of dedicated sites and stations equipped with modern instrumentation to monitor environmental changes in the region. One example is the Zotino tall tower observatory (ZOTTO) launched a few years ago (www.sfu-kras.ru/science/achievement/zotto/public) [20]. It is anticipated that together with ZOTTO, the future SB RAS network will serve as an important source of reliable environmental data for analyses. Another important SIRS objective is the development of a high-resolution regional climate model that properly takes into account specifics of this region (e.g., presence of permafrost, interaction of the biosphere and terrestrial hydrology, etc). Development of an integrated model was recently discussed at the NEESPI Workshop (www.scert.ru/en/conferences/cites2009/) by leading SIRS specialists and their German and US partners. Conclusions Devoted to regional-global linkages, understanding, monitoring and assessment of global change impacts on a regional level, SIRS targets provide substantiated recommendations for regional decision makers to understand and work towards mitigating the negative effects of climate change for Siberia and its population. This approach will allow the Siberian Branch of the Russian National Committee for IGBP to perform its mission, ensuring the growth of scientific knowledge of the dynamic Siberian environment and its subsystems, and to develop a solid basis for mitigation and adaptation strategies for the negative consequences of global change. 1 For example, 'Complex monitoring of the Great Vasyugan Bog: modern state and development processes investigations' and 'Ecological problems of Siberian cities'. 2 For example, 'Models of biosphere change based on the boreal ecosystems' carbon balance using field and satellite data observations' and 'Information technologies, mathematical models and methods for monitoring and control of ecosystems intended for stationary, mobile and remote observations'. 3 'Environmental observations, modeling and information systems' (http://enviromis.scert.ru/) and 'Man-induced environmental risks: monitoring, management and mitigation of man-made changes in Siberia (Enviro-RISKS)'. References [1] Brasseur G 2003 IGBP Newsletter No 50 (June 2002) IGBP II - Special Edition Issue 3rd IGBP Congress Overview Global Change Newsletter No 55 pp 2-4 [2] 2005 Bulletin of the Russian National Committee for the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme 4 [3] Ippolitov I I, Kabanov M V, Komarov A I and Kuskov A I 2004 Patterns of modern natural-climatic changes in Siberia: observed changes of annual temperature and pressure Geogr. Nat. Resources 3 90-6 [4] Volodin E M and Dianskii N A 2003 Response of a coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model to increased carbon dioxide Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics 239 170-86 [5] Groisman P Y et al 2009 The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership: an example of science applied to societal needs Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 90 671-88 [6] Shiklomanov and Lammers R L 2009 Record Russian river discharge in 2007 and the limits of analysis Environ. Res. Lett. 4 045015 [7] Tchebakova N M, Parfenova E and Soja A J 2009 The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate Environ. Res. Lett. 4 045013 [8] Soja A et al 2007 Climate-induced boreal forest change: predictions versus current observations Global Planet. Change 56 274-96 [9] Groisman P Y and Bartalev S V 2007 Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI): science plan overview Global Planet. Change 56 215-34 [10] Gordov E P and Begni G 2005 Siberia integrated regional study development Comput. Technol. 10 149-55 [11] Gordov E P, Begni G, Heiman M, Kabanov M V, Lykossov V N, Shvidenko A Z and Vaganov E A 2006 Siberia integrated regional study as a basis for international scientific cooperation Comput. Technol. 11 16-28 [12] Baklanov A and Gordov E P 2006 Man-induced environmental