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1

Spatial displacement of Odonata in south-west Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account is presented of mass dragonfly migrations observed previously in Russia and West Siberia in particular. A mass migration in Libellula quadrimaculata is described in detail. It occurred on 1 July 1981 in the south-western part of the West Siberian Plain in the valley of the Ishym River. From 1968 to 2008 we studied population dynamics, spatial distribution

Anatoly Haritonov; Olga Popova

2011-01-01

2

High-resolution sequence stratigraphic analysis and sea-level interpretation of the middle and upper Jurassic strata of the Nyurolskaya depression and vicinity (southeastern West Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present the first application of high-resolution sequence stratigraphic analysis to the Jurassic Vasyugan deposits of West Siberia. On the basis of wireline logs, lithologies, and sedimentary facies we identified a series of third-order depositional sequences that formed on a low-gradient siliciclastic ramp in shallow marine to paralic environments. Our sequence stratigraphic framework helped to properly distinguish

O. V. Pinous; D. L. Sahagian; B. N. Shurygin; B. L. Nikitenko

1999-01-01

3

Radioactive Elements in Soils of Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk In the course of long-term research a great deal of information on the content of natural and artificial radionuclides in soils of the Siberian regions has been obtained and summarized (Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Yakutia, Khakassia, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk Oblasts and a number of other Siberian regions). The content level of U(Ra), Th and K in soil of studied areas is within the range of values obtained for soil of other areas of Russia and the world and defined, first of all, by radioactivity of parent rocks. The authors have studied the total level of specific activity for 137Cs most completely in soils of different Siberian regions. The maximum density of such sites with global fallouts (nuclear air explosions in Novaya Zemlya, Lop Nor, Semipalatinsk etc.) is typical for the areas of Altai Territory and Buryatia Republic. Elevated level of radiocesium (to 1000 and more than Bq/kg) is characteristic for the sites adjacent to the area of NFP (Seversk, Zheleznogorsk). Our data obtained in determination of plutonium in soils of different Siberian regions excess remarkably its background accepted for Siberia. Particularly high accumulation levels of Pu in soil were observed in the zones of NFP operation (Seversk, Tomsk Oblast; Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the sites of accidents fallouts at underground nuclear explosions in Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Abnormally high ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soils of Sakha republic, Aginsk Buryatia Autonomous District, Krasnoyarsk Territory has engaged our attention.

Baranovskaya, N. V.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. N.; Strakhovenko, V. D.; Malikova, I. N.; Shcherbakov, B. L.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Aturova, V. P.

2012-04-01

4

Lichens from Baikal region (Siberia) new to Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen lichens new to Russia are reported from the Baikal Region (Siberia). Nine of them (Bryonora pruinosa, Catillaria detractula, Clauzadea metzleri, Heppia adriatica, Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea, Koerberia biformis, Lichinella nigritella, Pannaria ahlneri, Vestergrenopsis isidiata) are new to Asia. Their distributions and ecological requirements are briefly discussed.

Tatiana Makryl

1999-01-01

5

East Siberia and Bering Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On June 5, 2001 MODIS captured this true-color image of Eastern Siberia and the Bering Strait. To the right of the image is the western tip of Alaska's St. Lawrence Island. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

2002-01-01

6

A new taxon of birds (Aves) from the Early Cretaceous of Western Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent decades numerous findings, mostly from the Early Cretaceous of China, have changed traditional conceptions about the diversity and evolution of the most ancient Aves. Findings of Mesozoic birds in Russia are extremely rare. Here we describe a new bird from the Lower Cretaceous (Barremian–Aptian, Ilekskaya Svita) Shestakovo-1 locality (southern Western Siberia, Russia), that has also yielded dinosaurs, mammals,

Evgeny N. Kurochkin; Nikita V. Zelenkov; Alexandr O. Averianov; Sergei V. Leshchinskiy

2011-01-01

7

Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. (Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

8

Siluro-Devonian paleomagnetic results from the Tuva Terrane (southern Siberia, Russia): implications for the paleogeography of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New paleomagnetic data from seven sections of Siluro-Devonian age sedimentary sequences in the Tuva Terrane (south Siberia, Russia) reveal the presence of up to three different components of magnetization. Component A is of recent or Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic origin, and component B, identified unambiguously in 25 samples from one section, yields a sample mean direction (Declination/Inclination) of 300.6/-54.7 (k = 42.2, ?95 = 4.5°) in geographic and 283.9/-63.5 (k = 45.4, ?95 = 4.3°) in stratigraphic coordinates. However, since the results of the fold test are inconclusive, no further attempt has been made to assign an age to this magnetization. Component C, with unblocking temperatures of 500°-680°C, is identified in all seven sections and with dual polarity. After bedding correction, the section mean directions all plot along a common small circle in stereographic projection with a mean inclination of 42.1° (N = 7 sites, k = 184.2, ?95 = 2.9°). It passes the inclination-only fold test, the within-site fold test (both on the 95% significance level) and the reversal test and is thus interpreted as being primary in origin and Siluro-Devonian in age. Adopting the normal polarity option for component C yields a paleolatitude of 24°N (±2°) for the Tuva Terrane. On the basis of geological evidence, the Tuva Terrane was clearly accreted to Siberia by early Silurian times. The results obtained in this study, therefore, indicate lower paleolatitudes for Siberia than those predicted from previously published Apparent Polar Wander Paths for the Siberian Platform and demonstrate that Siberia was positioned between the equator and 30°N during latest Silurian/earliest Devonian times. These new results are also supported by paleoecological and paleoclimatological evidence. The dispersion of declinations along a small circle is indicative of clockwise block rotations within the Tuva Terrane of up to 72° with respect to Siberia.

Bachtadse, V.; Pavlov, V. E.; Kazansky, A. Y.; Tait, J. A.

2000-06-01

9

Giant gas field of northern West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m³ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m³ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m³ or

J. D. Grace; G. F. Hart

1986-01-01

10

Influenza A (H15N4) Virus Isolation in Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events. PMID:23283950

Sivay, Mariya V.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y.; Sharshov, Kirill A.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Shestopalov, Aleksander M.

2013-01-01

11

Seewis Virus: Phylogeography of a Shrew-Borne Hantavirus in Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Hantaviral antigens were originally reported more than 20 years ago in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in European and Siberian Russia. The recent discovery of Seewis virus (SWSV) in this soricid species in Switzerland provided an opportunity to investigate its genetic diversity and geographic distribution in Russia. Methods Lung tissues from 45 Eurasian common shrews, 4 Laxmann's shrews (Sorex caecutiens), 3 Siberian large-toothed shrews (Sorex daphaenodon), 9 pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus), 28 tundra shrews (Sorex tundrensis), and 6 Siberian shrews (Crocidura sibirica), captured in 11 localities in Western and Eastern Siberia during June 2007 to September 2008, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Results Hantavirus L and S segment sequences, detected in 11 S. araneus, 2 S. tundrensis, and 2 S. daphaenodon, were closely related to SWSV, differing from the prototype mp70 strain by 16.3–20.2% at the nucleotide level and 1.4–1.7% at the amino acid level. Alignment and comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed an intrastrain difference of 0–11.0% and 0% for the L segment and 0.2–8.5% and 0% for the S segment, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis, using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of SWSV strains in Western and Eastern Siberia. Conclusions This is the first definitive report of shrew-borne hantaviruses in Siberia, and demonstrates the impressive distribution of SWSV among phylogenetically related Sorex species. Coevolution and local adaptation of SWSV genetic variants in specific chromosomal races of S. araneus may account for their geographic distribution. PMID:20426688

Abramov, Sergey A.; Gutorov, Valery V.; Dupal, Tamara A.; Krivopalov, Anton V.; Panov, Victor V.; Danchinova, Galina A.; Vinogradov, Vladislav V.; Luchnikova, Ekaterina M.; Hay, John; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

2010-01-01

12

Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. (ZapSibNIGNI, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

13

Vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in two saline lakes Shira and Shunet (South Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of meromictic lakes is that several physicochemical and biological gradients affect the vertical distribution of\\u000a different organisms. The vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in saline, fishless meromictic\\u000a lakes Shira and Shunet (Siberia, Russia) is quite different mainly because both mean depth and maximum depth of lakes differ\\u000a as well as their salinity levels differ. The

Andrey G. DegermendzhyEgor; Egor S. Zadereev; Denis Yu. Rogozin; Igor G. Prokopkin; Yuri V. Barkhatov; Alexander P. Tolomeev; Elena B. Khromechek; Jan H. Janse; Wolf M. Mooij; Ramesh D. Gulati

2010-01-01

14

Babesia DNA detection in canine blood and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in southwestern Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Babesia infection was studied in 21 blood samples of dogs with symptoms of babesiosis and among 72 Dermacentor reticulatus and 70 Ixodes persulcatus ticks from southwestern Siberia, Russia. Babesia DNA was detected by hemi-nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene with subsequent direct sequencing. All of the analyzed canine blood samples and three D. reticulatus, but none from I. persulcatus ticks studied were shown to contain Babesia DNA. Nucleotide sequences of the Babesia 18S rRNA gene fragment of 354 bp long for all 24 positive samples appeared to belong to the subspecies Babesia canis canis and differed only at three positions. The Babesia nucleotide sequences from 17 canine blood samples and from one D. reticulatus tick were identical to each other and to previously known B. canis canis from canine blood in Slovenia. Four canine blood samples and the second tick sample contained a mixture of two nucleotide sequences previously found in canine blood. B. canis canis nucleotide sequence from the third tick differed in the unique nucleotide transition and could correspond to a new genetic variant. Thus, the main etiological agent of canine babesiosis in Novosibirsk region is B. canis canis, and D. reticulatus, but not I. persulcatus, ticks could serve as a vector of this infectious agent. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the B. canis canis nucleotide sequences from ticks. PMID:16187898

Rar, V A; Maksimova, T G; Zakharenko, L P; Bolykhina, S A; Dobrotvorsky, A K; Morozova, O V

2005-01-01

15

Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

1995-01-01

16

Outbreak of West Nile virus infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999.  

PubMed Central

From July 25 to October 1, 1999, 826 patients were admitted to Volgograd Region, Russia, hospitals with acute aseptic meningoencephalitis, meningitis, or fever consistent with arboviral infection. Of 84 cases of meningoencephalitis, 40 were fatal. Fourteen brain specimens were positive in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, confirming the presence of West Nile/Kunjin virus. PMID:11266303

Platonov, A. E.; Shipulin, G. A.; Shipulina, O. Y.; Tyutyunnik, E. N.; Frolochkina, T. I.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Yazyshina, S.; Platonova, O. V.; Obukhov, I. L.; Zhukov, A. N.; Vengerov, Y. Y.; Pokrovskii, V. I.

2001-01-01

17

Middle Jurassic sand reservoirs of Tazovskoe field (West Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspectives of Tazovskoe field Jurassic strata development are associated with lithological and mineralogical characteristics of reservoirs, which are the main reserve of the region, because of the high rate of depletion of the most prolific Cenomanian gas pools. Tazovskoye field is multibedded and is unique in terms of hydrocarbon reserves. Middle Jurassic strata occur everywhere and are represented by rocks of the Tyumenskaya formation, comprising layers J2 - J5. The producing horizons are composed of sandstones, sandy siltstones, cemented by shaly-carbonate cement mass. According to laboratory data, the Jurassic reservoirs are characterized by a wide range of porosity (up to 22.5%) and mainly low permeability (up to 2 mD), except for a few samples of J3 reservoir with permeability up to 100-150 mD. Test objects were the core samples taken from 7 intervals of the well T-83 and logging data from 4 intervals of wells 73, 93 in the Tazovskoye field. Depth and core recovery from T-83 well of the Tazovskoye field are shown in Table 1. Total linear core recovery from the Jurassic strata was 79.4 m. Late Bajocian-Bathonian alluvial-lacustrine strata compose the first regressive cycle of sedimentation in the Tazovskoye field. They are represented by alternating thin sandy, siltstone-sandy, siltstone, shaly-siltstone, siltstone-shaly, and shaly rocks with coal interbeds. They include three main productive formations: J2, J3 and J4. Above in the vertical section, the Upper Jurassic rocks occur, while lower, basal strata of the Callovian stage overlay them with a distinct unconformity. In the Upper Jurassic time, the main transgression phase of the Jurassic period occurred over the whole territory of the Western Siberia. These strata are built by non-uniform alternating sandstones, siltstones and shales with coal interbeds of the continental genesis (alluvial-lacustrine); The reservoirs contain cyclites that as a rule have binary structure, less often - ternary structure: the lower element of cyclites is represented by sandy and siltstone-sandy strata formed in a channel and in a point-bar, the upper element of cyclites is represented by siltstone, siltstone-shaly, shaly, and carbonaceous-shaly strata formed in the floodplain or in lacustrine-boggy sedimentation environment; The producing strata of J2-J4 formations are characterized in general by moderate porosity (11-17%) and low permeability (1 mD); This genetic type of the Middle Jurassic reservoirs is typical throughout the Pur-Taz petroleum region, as well is possible for the Nadym-Pur petroleum region, except for the most eastern areas of Nadym, where these rocks have flysch nature, and therefore one can predict their presence in adjacent fields, where the Jurassic reservoirs are not discovered yet.Core recoveries from T83 well;

Kurasov, I. A.

2012-12-01

18

West Nile encephalitis in Russia 1999-2001: were we ready? Are we ready?  

PubMed

In 1963-1993, several strains of West Nile virus (WNV) were isolated from ticks, birds, and mosquitoes in the southern area of European Russia and western Siberia. In the same regions, anti-WNV antibody was found in 0.4-8% of healthy adult donors. Sporadic human clinical cases were observed in the delta of the Volga River. In spite of this, WNV infection was not considered by the health authorities as a potentially emerging infection, and the large WNV outbreak in southern Russia, started in late July 1999, was not recognized in a timely fashion. First evidence suggesting a WNV etiology of the outbreak was obtained by IgM ELISA on September 9. Two weeks later, the specific WNV RT-PCR was developed and WNV disease was confirmed in all 14 nonsurvivors from whom brain tissue samples were available. Retrospective studies of serum samples by IgM ELISA indicated WNV etiology in 326 of 463 survivors with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Moreover, 35 of 56 patients who contracted aseptic meningitis in 1998 had a high titer of WNV IgG antibody, so the WNV infection seems to have been introduced into the Volgograd region before 1999. A complete sequence (AF317203) of WN viral RNA, isolated from the brain of one Volgograd fatality, and partial sequences of an envelope E gene from other nonsurvivors showed that the Volgograd isolate had the greatest homology (99.6%) with WN-Romania-1996 mosquito strain RO97-50. PMID:11797768

Platonov, A E

2001-12-01

19

Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

NONE

1997-12-01

20

Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of u

Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2006-01-01

21

Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins  

SciTech Connect

Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

Mogutcheva, N.K. [Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics & Mineral Resource, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15

22

Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation, position of ecosystems in the landscape (lateral migration) and types of bedrocks [2]. The results allow better understanding of the coupling between biogeochemical cycles of carbon and major and trace elements in peat soils in order to predict the future changes in both concentrations and stocks of chemical elements in the Western Siberia peat bog systems under climate warming.

Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

2012-04-01

23

Physical and chemical stability of nanostructured lipid drug carriers (NLC) based on natural lipids from Baikal region (Siberia, Russia).  

PubMed

At the turn of the millennium, a new generation of lipid nanoparticles for pharmacology was developed, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The features of NLC structure which allow the inclusion of natural biologically active lipids in the NLC matrix open a wide prospect for the creation of high performance drug carriers. In this study NLC formulations were developed based on natural lipids from the Siberia region (Russia): fish oil from Lake Baikal fish; polyunsaturated fatty acid fractions and monounsaturated and saturated fatty acid fractions from fish oil and Siberian pine seed oil. Formulation parameters of NLC such as as type of surfactant and storage conditions were evaluated. The data obtained indicated high physical stability of NLC formulated on the basis of pure fish oil stabilized by Tween 80 and NLC formulated on the basis of free fatty acids stabilized by Poloxamer 188. The good chemical stability of the lipid matrix and the high concentrations of the biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the NLC developed open wide prospects for their use in pharmaceutics and cosmetics. PMID:21699068

Averina, E S; Müller, R H; Popov, D V; Radnaeva, L D

2011-05-01

24

Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

2013-04-01

25

First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea. PMID:24382145

Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

2014-08-01

26

Tree-ring dating of meteorite fall in Sikhote-Alin, Eastern Siberia - Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with the fall of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite on the morning of 12 February 1947, at about 00:38 h Utrecht, in a remote area in the territory of Primorsky Krai in Eastern Siberia (46°09?36?N, 134°39?22?E). The area engulfed by the meteoritic fall was around 48 km2, with an elliptic form and thousands of craters. Around the large craters the trees were torn out by the roots and laid radially to the craters at a distance of 10-20 m; the more distant trees had broken tops. This research investigated through dendrocronology n.6 Scots pine trees (Pinus Sibirica) close to one of the main impact craters. The analysis of growth anomalies has shown a sudden decrease since 1947 for 4-8 years after the meteoritic impact. Tree growth stress, detected in 1947, was analysed in detail through wood microsection that confirmed the winter season (rest vegetative period) of the event. The growth stress is mainly due to the lost crown (needle lost) and it did not seem to be caused due to direct damages on trunk and branches (missing of resin ducts).

Fantucci, R.; Di Martino, Mario; Serra, Romano

2012-01-01

27

Genetic characterization of an isolate of HIV type 1 AG recombinant form circulating in Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Before 2008, HIV-1 subtype A was the predominant genetic variant in the Novosibirsk oblast of Russia as well as in most parts of this country. However, a rapid spread of the recombinant HIV-1 02_AG form has been reported in Novosibirsk since 2009. We have analyzed the genome of the 10.RU.6637 isolate, a HIV-1 02_AG recombinant form, which represents a monophyletic cluster of the HIV-1 variants widespread in this region. Phylogenetic analysis has shown that the Siberian 10.RU.6637 isolate displays the highest sequence identity to the HIV-1 subtype AG forms circulating in Uzbekistan. However, recombination analysis of 10.RU.6637 has demonstrated that this isolate is a recombinant form between HIV-1 subtype A and CRF02_AG, differing in its genetic structure from both the CRF02_AG reference sequences and the Central Asian variants of HIV-1 02_AG. PMID:22903393

Baryshev, P B; Bogachev, V V; Gashnikova, N M

2012-12-01

28

Investigating the Human Dimension of Unprecedented Global Climate Change in northeastern Siberia, Russia: Understandings, Perceptions and Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An urgent challenge of the 21st century is to investigate understandings, perceptions and responses of populations confronting the local effects of global climate change. This paper describes the most recent results of one such project working with rural native Viliui Sakha communities, Turkic-speaking horse & cattle breeders in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The research questions are: 1) What local effects of global climate change are Viliui Sakha communities observing, how are Viliui Sakha perceiving these changes and how are the changes affecting both their subsistence survival and their cultural orientations? 2) What local knowledge exists about past climate perturbations and how does that knowledge influence contemporary adaptation to global climate change? 3) How can anecdotal (local) knowledge and regional scientific knowledge about the local effects of global climate change be integrated to enhance both local adaptive responses and policy efforts? The four-village, three-year study is a collaborative effort involving the active participation of the targeted communities, field assistants, native specialists, an in-country research team and an international collaborator. The project is founded on the PI’s 20 years of ongoing research and work with rural Viliui Sakha communities and on her fluency in both the Sakha and Russian languages. A central focus of this project is the integration of local and scientific knowledges. We are documenting local knowledge on the community, elder and archival levels. We are collaborating with scientists in Yakutsk for regional scientific data. Our project team has just returned from the second summer of field work and this presentation will cover the project results to date. Hayfields are inundated with water.

Crate, S.

2009-12-01

29

Interception by sphagnum in a bog mire catchment of central West-Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrology of mires (pristine peatland ecosystems) hardly has been analyzed quantitatively. The general idea, that mires can retain precipitation water (‘sponge effect') has never been proved by real field data. Missing data for evaluation of these properties are actual evapotranspiration, water conductivity and interception of rainwater by peatland mosses and peat layers below. The newly opened Mukhrino Field Station, located in the centre of West Siberia (60,9oN, 68,7oE) at the margin of a giant mire complex gave the opportunity to start quantitative hydrological research. Water stage dynamics in mires has been recorded with pressure loggers in mires and in lysimeters to analyse the evapotranspiration, interception and the water balance. Air and water temperature and precipitation has been recorded simultaneously. By 1-Dimensional modelling interception appeared to be the most important water loss for mires. As expected, mostly snowmelt determined discharge dynamics of the studied peatland catchment area. Rainfall events resulted in relatively fast response in catchment discharge. The so-called ‘sponge effect' of mire systems could not be verified this time.

Bleuten, W.; Filippov, I.

2009-04-01

30

Review of the millipede genus Sibiriulus Guli?ka, 1972, with descriptions of three new species from Altai, Siberia, Russia (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).  

PubMed

The genus Sibiriulus Guli?ka, 1963, which has hitherto been known to comprise only four species, is rediagnosed and shown to include seven species from Siberia, Russia. Three species are described here as new to science: S. latisupremus sp. nov., S. baigazanensis sp. nov., S. aktashensis sp. nov. The species Sibiriulus profugus (Stuxberg, 1876) is recorded in the fauna of the Altai Province and the Republic of Altai for the first time. All currently known species of Sibiriulus are keyed and mapped, including the new species.  PMID:25283646

Mikhaljova, Elena V; Nefediev, Pavel S; Nefedieva, Julia S; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B; Dyachkov, Yuri V

2014-01-01

31

Chineysky Layered Intrusion with unique V and PGE-Cu ores (Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South of the Siberian platform is an extraordinary metallogenic province. Many giant deposits of different genetic types are concentrated here: Udokan (Cu), Chiney (Ti-Fe-V, Pd-Cu), Katugin (Ta, Nb), Sulumat (Fe) etc. It is his considered this massif is the largest component of the Proterozoic volcanic-plutonic system of the Kodar-Udokan district. Chineisky massif located among Cu-rich sedimentary rocks is represented by interlayering horizons of gabbronorite and titanomagnetite gabbro in its lower zone and gabbro and anorthosite in the upper zone.The intrusive rocks were proved to be genetically interrelated and show certain similar geochemical features: they have elevated TiO2 concentrations and have similar trace element patterns and (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios (1.5-2.3 and 1.87-2.06, respectively). The Chineisky massif is thought to have been formed by the successive emplacement of genetically similar basic magmas, which produced four rock groups with fine and coarse layering and cyclicity of variable rank (micro-rhythms, rhythms, units, and series). The results of cluster analysis indicate that the rocks can be classified into 13 petrochemical types. The phase and chemical characteristics of the parental melts of these compositions were simulated with the use of the COMAGMAT-3.5 computer model, which was also applied to evaluate the composition of the most primitive initial magma of the whole Chineisky massif. Our results indicate that the primitive magma was heterogeneous (olivine + plagioclase titanomagnetite + melt) at a temperature of approximately 1130 C. The initial melt had a ferrobasaltic composition and was close to saturation with magnetite at ~NNO 0.5 The basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Luktur pluton are supposed to be the Mg-rich fraction of the parental melt. Gravimetric and magnetic geophysical data show that ultrabasic and basic rocks occur at shallow depths at the Chiney pluton and around it. These facts show the existence of huge magmatic system in Late Proterozoic. There are two types of commercial mineralization in the Chiney massif: Fe-Ti-V and Cu with precious metals. Nowadays the Chiney massif comprises the largest V recourses in Russia. The iron ores are concentrated in the central part of the intrusion and are represented by two varieties: disseminated and massive (the early-magmatic type); veins and irregular bodies (the late-magmatic type). Sulfide minerals occur as accessory disseminations in all rocks of the massif, but their higher concentrations are distributed locally. The copper commercial mineralization is confined to the contact zone of gabbroids with the host rocks, so endo-and exocontact ores are determined. The disseminated mineralization predominates sharply. Vein bodies are distributed in the limited region and localized at a small distance from the bottom of the intrusion. The main ore mineral is chalcopyrite, that is very unusual for Cu-Ni deposits (Cu/Ni=10-100, Pd/Pt=3 in ores). The major minerals are pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Many rare minerals of noble metals (Ag, Au, PGE) were found too. In general, the minerals consist of compounds of Pd with Bi, Te, Sb, Sn, As, and Ni; compounds of Pt with As, S, and Fe; a compound of Rh with As-S, as well hessite (Ag2Te) and Au-Ag-(Hg) alloys. It was found froodite; sobolevskite; kotulskite; sudburyite; stibiopalladinite; mertieite II; isomertieite; paolovite; michenerite; arsenopalladinite; merenskiite; majakite et ctr. References 1. Gongalskiy B.I., N.A. Krivolutskaya, A.A. Ariskin, G.S. Nikolaev.// Geochemistry International. 2008. Vol. 46. No. 7. P. 637-665. 2. Gongalskiy B. I., Yu. G. Safonov, N. A. Krivolutskaya, V. Yu. Prokof'ev, and A. A. Yushin. A // Doklady Earth Sciences. 2007.Vol. 415, No. 5. P. 671-674.

Gongalskiy, Bronislav; Krivolutskaya, Nadezda

2010-05-01

32

Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011  

PubMed Central

Background The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011). Results Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed. PMID:24350064

Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

2013-01-01

33

Re-enrichment of West European Depleted Uranium Tails in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1996, depleted uranium tails from West European enrichers Urenco and Eurodif are being sent to Russia for re-enrichment. In Russia, the imported tails are, instead of natural uranium, fed into surplus enrichment cascades. The product obtained from re-enrichment is mostly natural-equivalent uranium plus some reactor-grade low-enriched uranium. These products are sent back to Urenco and Eurodif, while the secondary

Peter Diehl

34

Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action in Russia. In March 2006,  

E-print Network

Articles Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action pipeline scheduled to pass within 800 me- ters (m) of Lake Baikal's shoreline, and, within days, President Putin announced the pipeline would be rerouted outside the lake's watershed (Cullison 2007).In July 2007

Dever, Jennifer A.

35

Genesis of carbonates within Abalak and Bazhenov formations (West Siberia), revealed from stable carbon and oxygen isotopes distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper Jurassic deposits of Bazhenov formation are the main source rocks of the West Siberia Basin. Now the Bazhenov suite is intensively investigated not only as a source rock, but as unconventional reservoir of oil due to its vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The rocks of Bazhenov formation are composed of four main units: silica minerals, clay (predominantly hydromica), kerogen and carbonates. To predict the distribution of different lithological units it is important to reveal their genesis and facial conditions during their formation. One of the reservoir types is presented by cavernous-porous carbonates. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes investigations has been carried out to reveal origin of carbonate material in Late Abalak - Bazhenov time. Four genetic types of carbonates have been subdivided according to mineralogical composition and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes distribution: 1) belemnites and other faunal remains; 2) secondary dolomites of Bazhenov formation; 3) secondary calcite filling cracks and composing inclusions of Abalak deposits; 4) methane-derived authigenic carbonates of Abalak formation. The first three types are presented by normal marine carbonates according to their carbon isotopes composition. Light oxygen isotopes composition indicates high temperatures during their precipitation (diagenesis). The fourth type is characterized by light carbon isotopes composition, which indicates presence of isotopically light biogenic CO2 in the environment. According to oxygen isotopic composition the carbonate material is primary and precipitated in subsurface conditions. Such carbon and oxygen isotopes composition is characteristic for methane-derived carbonates formed in the areas of active fluids discharge to the seafloor (cold seeps) as a result of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). Thus in Late Jurassic time active fluid escape to the sea floor took place in the West Siberia Basin.

Yurchenko, A.; Blinova, V.; Kalmikov, G. A.; Balushkina, N. S.

2013-12-01

36

Russia Escalates Chechen War, Risks Reprisals from the West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Late last week, Russian forces launched a massive bombardment of the Chechen capital, inaugurating a new offensive using more high-powered artillery than had been previously employed in the conflict. Chances for a peaceful resolution diminished earlier this month when Yeltsin rejected appeals from Western leaders to find a political settlement to the strife. Yeltsin and Russian officials insist that they are fighting Muslim terrorists, while Western leaders point to collateral damage of Chechen civilians and the mass exodus of over 200,000 Chechen refugees in recent months. Meanwhile, the situation is sure to be the primary subject of talks begun yesterday between Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov and Knut Vollebaek, chairman of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Recently, the head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) suggested that Russia's actions in Chechnya could affect the release of the IMF's next loan installment of 630 million dollars to Moscow. Russia has reacted with outrage to the proposal of such a linkage. The conflict has also worsened Russia's relations with its neighbor Georgia as officials accuse the Georgian government of allowing the movement of rebel troops and supplies back and forth across their mountainous border with Chechnya. Georgia steadfastly denies any collusion with the rebels.

Charbonneau, David D.

37

Chromosome 12q24.3 controls sensitization to cat allergen in patients with asthma from Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

In Russian population of Siberia asthma is usually concomitant with high sensitization to indoor allergens (cat, dog and house dust mites), overproduction of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and airway hyperreactivity. Definition of genes that predispose to development of various sub-components of the asthma phenotype is important for understanding of etiology of this disease. To map genes predisposing to asthma, we tested 21 microsatellite markers from candidate chromosomal regions in 136 Russian nuclear families with asthma from Siberia. We performed non-parametric analysis for linkage with asthma, total IgE, specific IgE to cat, dog, and dust mites, and spirometric indices (FEV1 (%) - percentage of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1s, FVC (%) - percentage of predicted forced vital capacity, and FEV1/FVC (%) - Tiffenau index). The most significant linkage was to the candidate region on chromosome 12. Locus controlling cat-specific IgE, which is the most abundant in asthma patients from Siberian population, mapped within the interval between 136 and 140 cM on chromosome 12q24.3, with the suggestive linkage at the marker D12S1611 (LOD=2.23, P=0.0007). Total IgE was also linked to this region (D12S1611 - LOD=1.12, P=0.012). FEV1 (%) exceeded LOD>1 threshold for significance with the same locus 12q24.3, but with the peak at a more proximal region at 111.87 cM (D12S338 - LOD=1.21, P=0.009). Some evidence of linkage (LOD>1.0) was also detected for asthma at 6p21.31 (D6S291) and total IgE at 13q14.2 (D13S165). These data indicate that the locus 12q24.3 is the most promising candidate for identification of asthma genes in Russian population of Siberia. PMID:19450622

Gusareva, Elena S; Bragina, Elena Ju; Buinova, Svetlana N; Chernyak, Boris A; Puzyrev, Valery P; Ogorodova, Ludmila M; Lipoldová, Marie

2009-06-30

38

Sphagnum peatland development at their southern climatic range in West Siberia: trends and peat accumulation patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A region of western Siberia is vulnerable to the predicted climatic change which may induce an important modification to the carbon balance in wetland ecosystems. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of peat (carbon) accumulation and its patterns at the southern climatic range of Sphagnum peatlands in western Siberia. Visible and physical features of peat and detailed reconstructions of successional change (or sediment stratigraphies) were analysed at two types of forest peatland ecotones, which are situated close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. Our results suggest that Siberian peatlands exhibit a general trend towards being a carbon sink rather than a source even at or near the southern limit of their distribution. Furthermore, two types of peat accumulation were detected in the study area, namely persistent and intermittent. As opposed to persistent peat accumulation, the intermittent one is characterized by the recurrent degradation of the upper peat layers at the marginal parts of raised bogs. Persistent peat accumulation is the case for the majority of Sphagnum peatlands under current climatic conditions. It might be assumed that more peat will accumulate under the 'increased precipitation' scenarios of global warming, although intermittent peat accumulation could result in the eventual drying that may change peatlands from carbon sinks to carbon sources.

Peregon, Anna; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

2007-10-01

39

Food and water security issues in Russia II: Water security in general population of Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East, 2000-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Poor state of water supply systems, shortage of water purification facilities and disinfection systems, low quality of drinking water generally in Russia and particularly in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East have been defined in the literature. However, no standard protocol of water security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Study design and methods Uniform water security indicators collected from Russian official statistical sources for the period 2000–2011 were used for comparison for 18 selected regions in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East. The following indicators of water security were analyzed: water consumption, chemical and biological contamination of water reservoirs of Categories I and II of water sources (centralized – underground and surface, and non-centralized) and of drinking water. Results Water consumption in selected regions fluctuated from 125 to 340 L/person/day. Centralized water sources (both underground and surface sources) are highly contaminated by chemicals (up to 40–80%) and biological agents (up to 55% in some regions), mainly due to surface water sources. Underground water sources show relatively low levels of biological contamination, while chemical contamination is high due to additional water contamination during water treatment and transportation in pipelines. Non-centralized water sources are highly contaminated (both chemically and biologically) in 32–90% of samples analyzed. Very high levels of chemical contamination of drinking water (up to 51%) were detected in many regions, mainly in the north-western part of the Russian Arctic. Biological contamination of drinking water was generally much lower (2.5–12%) everywhere except Evenki AO (27%), and general and thermotolerant coliform bacteria predominated in drinking water samples from all regions (up to 17.5 and 12.5%, correspondingly). The presence of other agents was much lower: Coliphages – 0.2–2.7%, Clostridia spores, Giardia cysts, pathogenic bacteria, Rotavirus – up to 0.8%. Of a total of 56 chemical pollutants analyzed in water samples from centralized water supply systems, 32 pollutants were found to be in excess of hygienic limits, with the predominant pollutants being Fe (up to 55%), Cl (up to 57%), Al (up to 43%) and Mn (up to 45%). Conclusion In 18 selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and Far East Category I and II water reservoirs, water sources (centralized – underground, surface; non-centralized) and drinking water are highly contaminated by chemical and biological agents. Full-scale reform of the Russian water industry and water security system is urgently needed, especially in selected regions. PMID:24350065

Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Evengard, Birgitta; Nilsson, Lena M.

2013-01-01

40

Multivariate data base for the solution of geologic problems in exploring for oil and gas in West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Exploration data bases are distinguished in that many data elements change continuously over geologic time. Also, for maximum practical utility in exploration, the data base must be distributed. The data base developed by Tyumengeologiya on the West Siberian basin is composed of three fundamental elements. The first elemental covers the overall geologic structure of the basin, including tectonic, stratigraphic, and geomorphologic entities. This contains primary data and the results of analysis, which provide a geologic framework for the other two elements of the data base. The second block contains temporally stable data (e.g., identification numbers for wells, reservoirs, fields, etc.). The third block provides the mechanism for updating the other blocks with the newest observations from wells, laboratory analysis, seismic, and other sources. Ability to update not only primary data, but the tectonic and stratigraphic framework in the first block, is the key to successful, practical operation. There is a large degree of coincidence between the principles and architecture of the data base developed in West Siberia and those used by western oil and gas companies. This extends not only to the interdependence between elements of the data base, but also reflects a common understanding of the nature of the geologic problems that are analyzed through the use of computer data bases in the exploration for oil and gases.

Shpil'Man, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.M. (West Siberian Geologic Research Institute, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

1991-03-01

41

Distribution and color variation of gyrfalcons in Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west of the Ural Mountains. Frequencies were as follows: European Russia 4% white, 50% gray (the remainder were intermediates); western Siberia 0% white, 58% gray; central Siberia 15% white, 42% gray; and eastern Siberia 47% white, 33% gray. Remarkably, in the easternmost subregion, white birds predominated even near the southernmost extension. Because the northernmost portions of the species' range in continental Russia are in central Siberia where white variants were rare, we propose that a better predictor of the white variant is longitude, not latitude. White birds were most frequent at the eastern reaches of both the Palearctic and Nearctic. The best environmental correlates of this distribution pattern may be the southward bending thermal isoclines proceeding eastward toward Greenland or Kamchatka, where both land masses are bathed by cold oceanic currents of Arctic origin. By contrast, the western reaches of both land masses are bathed by warm currents. In these western reaches, Gyrfalcon summer distribution is displaced northward and dark variants predominate. The breeding range of the Gyrfalcon, determined by mapping the locations of the specimens we examined, differs little from the range proposed in 1951.

Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, C.H.; Pendleton, G.W.; Panteleyev, A.V.; Rebrova, I.V.; Markin, Y.M.

1992-01-01

42

Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean rate of tree line upward migration has been about 0.35 m/yr (with a range of 0.21-0.58), which translates to a tree line response to temperature of about 55 m/deg C.

Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

2013-01-01

43

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

Klett, T.R.

2011-01-01

44

Genetic variability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks and voles from Ixodes persulcatus/Ixodes trianguliceps sympatric areas from Western Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in different mammals. The presence of A. phagocytophilum was assayed in Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes trianguliceps ticks and Myodes spp. voles from two I. persulcatus/I. trianguliceps sympatric areas in the Omsk region (Western Siberia, Russia). In total, A. phagocytophilum was found in 42/108 (38.9%) of vole blood samples, 13/34 (38.2%) of I. trianguliceps ticks removed from voles, 1/12 (8.3%) of I. persulcatus removed from voles, and 18/279 (7.2%) of questing I. persulcatus. GroESL operon sequence analysis of positive samples revealed three distinct A. phagocytophilum genetic groups previously identified in ticks and mammals in Russia. Genetic group 1 was found in 6/36 (16.7%) of sequenced positive blood samples; this group was previously revealed in I. persulcatus and Myodes spp. voles in different regions of Russia. Genetic group 2 was found in 30/36 (83.3%) of sequenced positive blood samples and all positive I. trianguliceps; this group was previously revealed only in Myodes spp. voles and common shrews (Sorex araneus) in I. persulcatus/I. trianguliceps sympatric areas in the Northern Ural. Genetic group 3 was found in all positive questing I. persulcatus and one blood sample; this group was previously revealed in I. persulcatus and Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus). We suppose that I. trianguliceps is the most probable vector for A. phagocytophilum of group 2. Analysis of the msp4 gene, intergenic region DOV1, and some other genetic loci has shown that isolates from different genetic groups significantly differ in all studied loci and that A. phagocytophilum of group 2 is closely related to A. phagocytophilum isolates revealed in voles and I. trianguliceps in Europe. A. phagocytophilum of groups 1 and 2 are the most similar to each other, while A. phagocytophilum of group 3 clusters with European A. phagocytophilum isolates from I. ricinus and various mammalian species. PMID:25113979

Rar, Vera A; Epikhina, Tamara I; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Malkova, Marina G; Tancev, Aleksey K; Bondarenko, Evgeny I; Ivanov, Mikhail K; Tikunova, Nina V

2014-10-01

45

CETP gene polymorphism in the caucasian population of West Siberia and in groups contrast by total serum cholesterol levels.  

PubMed

TaqIB polymorphism of the gene encoding cholesterol ester transporting protein (CETP) was analyzed in the Caucasian population of West Siberia and in groups contrast by total serum cholesterol content. The patients were selected for the study from the main sample of HAPIEE project (9600 examined subjects aged 45-69 years, 50% men). Analysis was carried out in 293 patients with high levels of total cholesterol (>300 mg/dl), 293 patients with normal and low levels of total cholesterol (<200 mg/dl), and 265 patients represented the population sample (mean level of total cholesterol 235.8±43.9 mg/dl). The frequencies of B1B1, B1B2, and B2B2 genotypes in the population were 27.5, 54.8, and 17.7%, respectively. The incidence of allele B2 was 45.1, 45.2, and 50.2% in the population and in groups with normal and high total cholesterol levels, respectively (p>0.05). Associations of CETP gene TaqIB (rs708272) polymorphism with HDL cholesterol levels was detected in groups with high and low total cholesterol levels (p=0.014 and p=0.008). CETP gene TaqIB polymorphism B2B2 genotype was associated with high level of HDL cholesterol and a more favorable lipid profile. PMID:25073458

Shakhtshneider, E V; Kulikov, I V; Maksimov, V N; Ragino, Yu I; Ivanova, M V; Voevoda, M I

2014-07-01

46

Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N-69.5° N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to background levels reported for other pristine arctic areas and did not exceed mean global background concentrations examined for the continental crust as well as for the world's soils.

Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

2013-02-01

47

Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant.  

PubMed

We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

Pavlova, S V; Tchabovsky, A V

2011-01-01

48

Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant  

PubMed Central

Abstract We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

Pavlova, S.V.; Tchabovsky, A.V.

2011-01-01

49

Norilsk, Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Norilsk is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and the northernmost city in Siberia. The city was founded in the 1930s as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex, sitting near the largest nickel-copper-palladium deposits on Earth. Mining and smelting of nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium are the major industries. The nickel ore is smelted on site at Norilsk. The smelting is directly responsible for severe pollution, generally acid rain and smog. By some estimates, 1 percent of the entire global emissions of sulfur dioxide comes from this one city. Heavy metal pollution near Norilsk is so severe that it is now economically feasible to mine the soil, which has been polluted so severely that it has economic grades of platinum and palladium.

The image was acquired July 21, 2000, covers an area of 36.9 x 37.6 km, and is located at 69.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

50

[About the signumanistics of medical units and departments of North-West of Russia].  

PubMed

Armbands, indicating belonging of the military man to the Armed forces, to separate type, alliance or military unit or department, are an integral part of modern military uniform. Author presents some armbands of military-medical units and departments locating on the North-West of Russia. Different variants of the armbands are suggested. Rules of construction and adoption of the armbands are recommended according to heraldic laws and directive documents. The article allows to learn about famous armbands of military-medical service and is of special interest to further development of heraldic theme of units and departments of medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. PMID:23038962

2012-07-01

51

The political Economy of Russia's Economic Transition Problems since 1991 and their implications for Russia's Relations with the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our paper we seek address the problem of Russia's recent economic failure in terms that seek to identify obstructions within the existing order, but from the premise that the concept of transition may be inappropriate. We argue that the concept of transition in relations to Russia is largely a construct that has been framed by western perspectives and that

Alan Jones; Grahame Fallon

52

Sub-fossil cladoceran remains from the sediment of the lakes in Arctic Siberia, Russia: relationship to physical and chemical variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lakes examined in this study are located on the catchment area of Anabar river in the north-west part of Yakutia (Russia), just west of the Lena River. All presented samples and data were obtained in frame of a joint Russian-German expedition to Yakutia in summer 2007. The study sites included 35 lakes that were distributed along a broad north-south transect across northwest Yakutia, Russia, ranging from latitude 71° 50' to 73° 39'. This transects captures considerable changes in geology, vegetation, and climate. The studied lakes are shallow thermokarst lakes with maximal depths of about 10 m (mean 4.27±0.76). The waters were dominated by Ca-Mg, Fe and HCO3, but the ion concentration was generally low in all studied waters. From the initial 35 localities, only 31 contained a sufficient number of cladoceran remains for reasonable quantification. From these, a total of 28 cladoceran taxa representing 14 genera were identified, comprising predominantly littoral chydorid species. Species richness (i.e. the total number of taxa per lake) ranged between 5 (07-SA-05, 07-SA-14, 07-SA-18) and 20 (07-SA-24), with a mean of 9, and was not significantly correlated with any of the measured environmental variables. With forward selection and Monte Carlo permutation tests (999 permutations), RDA identified a minimal subset of four environmental variables that explained a significant (p ? 0.05) amount of the variation in the species data. These variables are TJuly, water depth, SO42-, Si4+. RDA axis 1 (? = 0.174) and axis 2 (? = 0.157) were both significant and explained almost all of the relationships between the cladoceran taxa and measured environmental variables (85.8%). Distributions of the cladoceran taxa, however, revealed major shifts in abundance in relation to the temperature along our transect. Constrained cluster analysis (CONISS), based on the structure of cladoceran community, disclosed three groups of lakes in the tundra and forest-tundra zones of the north-western part of Yakutia. Frontiers of divisions, separated on the basis structure of sub fossil cladoceran assemblages along a temperature gradient completely coincided with landscape zoning on the basis vegetative communities (typical tundra, southern tundra, forest-tundra).

Frolova, Larisa; Nazarova, Larisa; Herzschuh, Ulrike

2010-05-01

53

Ferrotochilinite, 6FeS · 5Fe(OH)2, a new mineral from the Oktyabr'sky deposit, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mineral, ferrotochilinite, ideally 6FeS · 5Fe(OH)2, was found at the Oktyabr'sky Mine, Oktyabr'skoe Cu-Ni deposit, Noril'sk, Krasnoyarsk krai, Siberia, Russia. It is associated with ferrovalleriite, magnetite and Fe-rich, chlorite-like phyllosilicate in the cavities of pentlandite-mooihoekite-cubanite ore with subordinate magnetite and chalcopyrite. Ferrotochilinite occurs as flattened on [001], prismatic to elongated lamellar crystals up to 0.1 × 0.5 × 3.2 mm, typically split and curved. Aggregates (up to 6.5 mm in size) are fanlike, rosette-like, or chaotic. Ferrotochilinite is dark bronze. The streak is black. The luster is moderately metallic. The Mohs' hardness is ca. 1; VHN is 13 kg/mm2. Cleavage is {001} perfect, micalike. Individuals are flexible, inelastic. D(calc) = 3.467 g/cm3. In reflected light, ferrotochilinite is gray, with the hue changing from pale beige to bluish; bireflectance is distinct. Anisotropy is distinct, with gray bluish to yellowish beige rotation colors. No internal reflections. Reflectance values [ R min- R max, % (?, nm)] are: 11.6-11.4 (470), 11.2-12.4 (546), 11.1-13.6 (589), 11.0-15.5 (650). The IR spectrum shows the presence of (OH) groups bonded with Fe cations and the absence of H2O molecules. Chemical composition (wt %; electron probe; H content is calculated) is as follows: 0.02 Mg, 61.92 Fe, 0.03 Ni, 0.09 Cu, 19.45 S, 16.3 O, 1.03 H calc; the total is 98.84. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 6 S atoms is: Mg0.01Fe10.96Ni0.005Cu0.015S6(OH)10.07 = (Fe5.98Cu0.0015Ni0.005)?6S6(OH)9.80(Fe{4.89/2+}Mg0.01)?4.90(OH)9.80Fe{0.09/3+}(OH)0.27. Ferrotochilinite is monoclinic, space group is C2/ m, Cm or C2, the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 5.463(5), b = 15.865(17), c = 10.825(12) Å, ? = 93.7(1)°, V = 936(3) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are: 10.83-13[001], 5.392-100[002], 3.281-7[023], 2.777-7[150], 2.696-12[004, ], 2.524-12[, ], 2.152-8[134, 153], 1.837-11[135, ]. Ferrotochilinite is a structural analog of tochilinite, with Fe2+ instead of Mg in the hydroxide part. The type specimen is deposited in Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Pekov, I. V.; Sereda, E. V.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Britvin, S. N.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Bryzgalov, I. A.

2013-12-01

54

[Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].  

PubMed

In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded. PMID:22567967

Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

2012-01-01

55

Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

2008-01-01

56

Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia Using a Focus Reduction Neutralization Test  

PubMed Central

West Nile (WN) virus has been spreading geographically to non-endemic areas in various parts of the world. However, little is known about the extent of WN virus infection in Russia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, which is closely related to WN virus, is prevalent throughout East Asia. We evaluated the effectiveness of a focus reduction neutralization test in young chicks inoculated with JE and WN viruses, and conducted a survey of WN infection among wild birds in Far Eastern Russia. Following single virus infection, only neutralizing antibodies specific to the homologous virus were detected in chicks. The neutralization test was then applied to serum samples from 145 wild birds for WN and JE virus. Twenty-one samples were positive for neutralizing antibodies to WN. These results suggest that WN virus is prevalent among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia. PMID:21363987

Murata, Ryo; Hashiguchi, Kazuaki; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ivanov, Leonid I.; Leonova, Galina N.; Takashima, Ikuo

2011-01-01

57

Eimeria Species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Arctic Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus parryii ) and Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%),

Robert S. Seville; Clint E. Oliver; Andrew J. Lynch; Michelle C. Bryant; Donald W. Duszynski

2005-01-01

58

Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000–2011. Results Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23–43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security. PMID:24471055

Dudarev, Alexey A.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

2013-01-01

59

Migrations of dragonflies (Odonata) in the south of the West Siberian plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a summary of mass dragonfly migrations observed previously in Russia, in particular in West Siberia. From\\u000a 1969 to 2009, the authors studied the dynamics of dragonfly population, their spatial distribution and movements in the West\\u000a Siberian forest-steppe. The main studies were conducted in the Lake Chany basin (the Biological Station of the Institute of\\u000a Animal Systematics and

A. Yu. Kharitonov; O. N. Popova

2011-01-01

60

Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”. PMID:21738409

Zinovyev, Evgeniy

2011-01-01

61

Assessment of the fate of radioactive contaminants in the Ob River, Siberia, Russia. Final report, 1 June 1995--31 May 1999  

SciTech Connect

This project has studied the distribution of particle reactive natural and artificial radionuclides in sediment cores of the Ob River, Siberia in order to determine the release and transport of nuclides from nuclear weapons related activities of the former Soviet Union. The Ob River drainage basin houses the bulk of the former Soviet Union`s weapons production facilities (Mayak and Tomsk-7) as well as the major test site of Semipalatinsk. In addition, some 2 billion curies of nuclear waste from weapons production are stored or have been released to the environment in this area. The potential for catastrophic future releases from poorly maintained tanks and open storage ponds is real. This project has sought to develop a history of transport and deposition of nuclides released from these plants, and to use these data as a basis for estimating delivery to the Arctic Ocean and to predict rates of transport in the event of future releases.

Sayles, F.L.

1999-06-29

62

Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) and red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%), and Eimeria morainensis (77%). A single species, Eimeria tamiasciuri (91%), was recovered from red squirrels. Eimerians recovered from arctic ground squirrels represent new host records, and the single species from red squirrels is a new geographic record. Alaskan arctic ground squirrel prevalence was higher for E. callospermophili (Alaska = 22% vs. Russia = 9%), E. cynomysis (34% vs. 2%), and E. lateralis (27% vs. 4%), but not E. morainensis (78% vs. 76%). PMID:17089755

Seville, Robert S; Oliver, Clint E; Lynch, Andrew J; Bryant, Michelle C; Duszynski, Donald W

2005-08-01

63

Temporal variations in soil–atmosphere methane exchange after fire in a peat swamp forest in West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temporal variations in methane (CH4) exchange between the soil and the atmosphere during a period of 3 years after a forest fire were estimated by combining field measurements of CH4 flux with an analysis of satellite images. The study area was located in a boreal peat swamp forest in the West Siberian plain that experienced a severe fire in the summer

Tomoko Nakano; Wataru Takeuchi; Gen Inoue; Masami Fukuda; Yoshifumi Yasuoka

2006-01-01

64

Multivariate data base for the solution of geologic problems in exploring for oil and gas in West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration data bases are distinguished in that many data elements change continuously over geologic time. Also, for maximum practical utility in exploration, the data base must be distributed. The data base developed by Tyumengeologiya on the West Siberian basin is composed of three fundamental elements. The first elemental covers the overall geologic structure of the basin, including tectonic, stratigraphic, and

V. I. ShpilMan; V. M. Yakovlev

1991-01-01

65

[The genotyping of the West Nile virus in birds in the far eastern region of Russia in 2002-2004].  

PubMed

Samples from 20 species of trapped and dead birds were collected in the Far Eastern Region in 2002-2004 and were analyzed by the anti-WNV MAb-modified immunoenzyme assay for antigen detection and RT-PCR for viral RNA detection. Five positive samples from cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) and two positive samples from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) were found in both tests. The sequencing of the 322 bp fragments of protein E gene showed 99-99.67% homology with the strain WNV/LEIV-VlgOO-27924 of the WNV isolated in Volgograd, Russia, 2000. Additionally, five positive samples from birds (Pica pica, Corvus macrorhynchos, Larus crossirostris, Parus minor, Emberiza spodocephala) collected in autumn 2004 were found during screening with anti-WNV MAb-modified ELISA. These results confirm that the WNV is circulating in the Far Eastern Region of Russia and outbreaks of WN fever in humans may be possible. This demonstrates that the genotype 1a of the West Nile virus could spread in the southern regions of the Far East by migrating birds and introduction of the WNV into other southern regions of the Asian part of Russia are probably. PMID:17094656

Ternovo?, V A; Protopopova, E V; Surmach, S G; Gazetdinov, M V; Zolotykh, S I; Shestopalov, A M; Pavlenko, E V; Leonova, G N; Loktev, V B

2006-01-01

66

Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

2008-08-01

67

Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found between EC and pH on the one hand , and soil moisture content on the other. However, soil moisture content in the topsoil appeared to have a major influence on the crop water stress index, which on its turn affected the leaf area index, the fresh biomass and the mean plant height. The crop leaf color as detected by a regular digital camera appeared to be correlated with pH and EC properties of the soil. The visible light band ratios red/green and blue/green correlated well with the crop water stress index. More research is necessary to prove if this relation is applicable in different environments, and for different crops. A confirmation of these findings would offer scope to increase the spatial support of this technique using satellite images.

Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

2012-04-01

68

The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

Lim, Young-Kwon

2014-01-01

69

Mechanism of formation of hydrocarbon basins: the West Siberia, Volga-Urals, Timan-Pechora basins and the Permian Basin of Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many authors suggest that a large role in the formation of hydrocarbon basins is played by stretching or thrust loading. Our previous analysis (Artyushkov and Baer, 1983, 1984a,b, 1986) has revealed a large number of deep basins on continental crust in fold belts that were formed by rapid subsidence without significant stretching or thrust loading. This paper shows that the hydrocarbon basins of West Siberia, Volga-Urals, Timan-Pechora and the Permian Basin in Texas pertain to the same basin type. Water-loaded basins, ~ 0.3-0.5 km deep, were produced in these regions by rapid subsidence (in ? 1 Ma). Shallow-water and deeper-water strata cover the same area in the basins which precludes significant stretching during the subsidence. There was no folding in the adjacent regions ai the epochs of the subsidence, which precludes thrust loading. A short duration of the subsidence precludes a significant role of thermal relaxation. Rapid subsidence was commonly preceded by slight crustal uplift. In the Volga-Urals and Timan-Pechora it was also preceded by slight volcanism. We suggest destruction of the lower crust under asthenospheric upwelling to the base of the crust as a cause of rapid subsidence. The asthenospheric upwelling strongly increases the heat flow which ensures hydrocarbon maturation at shallow depth. Activization of local tectonic movements from crustal heating occurs after rapid subsidence which produces numerous traps for hydrocarbons. Deposition of highly organic rocks (good source rocks) and the formation of reefs and/or clinoforms (good reservoirs) commonly occur after rapid subsidence. Deposition of shales and evaporites (good seals) takes place in deeper-water basins formed by rapid subsidence. Diapirism of the latter rocks produces additional hydrocarbon traps. The combination of all the above effects associated with rapid subsidence produces very favourable conditions for the generation and preservation of hydrocarbons. Almost all large hydrocarbon fields in the basins considered are located in regions of rapid subsidence. There are no large fields in the adjacent sedimentary basins formed by slow subsidence, although the sediment thickness is commonly high.

Artyushkov, Eugene V.; Baer, Michael A.

1986-02-01

70

Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen

M. V. Luchitskaya; S. D. Sokolov; G. E. Bondarenko; S. M. Katkov

2009-01-01

71

High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (?13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (?13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

2012-01-01

72

Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic developments make the tour unique and very attractive for BSc and MSc students and soil science professionals. Detailed information about the next tour is under: www.uni-goettingen.de/soilrus

Kuzyakov, Yakov

2013-04-01

73

Return to Siberia: The 2008 Kotuykan River Expedition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the September-October 2007 issue of'The Earth Observer [volume 19, Number 4, pp. 13-21] we presented an article entitled "Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account." In that article we shared excerpts from a blog that chronicled the adventures of a team of scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science as they embarked on a three-week adventure in the wilds of Siberia in hopes of collecting measurements to validate data from satellites flying 700 km overhead. The same team, plus a couple new participants, headed back to Siberia this past sumner and we are now pleased to present the continuation of their story. For more background details on the expedition to Siberia or if you missed the first part of the story, please refer to the previous article.

Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

2009-01-01

74

Potential carbon release from permafrost soils of Northeastern Siberia  

E-print Network

Potential carbon release from permafrost soils of Northeastern Siberia K O U S H I K D U T TA *1), Russia Abstract Permafrost soils are an important reservoir of carbon (C) in boreal and arctic ecosystems. Rising global temperature is expected to enhance decomposition of organic matter frozen in permafrost

Neff, Jason

75

Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small international team of remote sensing and forest ecosystem scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science set off on a three-week scientific expedition through the heart of the remote, wild forests of Siberia. They traveled southward down the Kochechum River observing the gradual transition from tundra to taiga, taking inventory of plant species along the way, and making ground-truth measurements to validate data being collected by several NASA satellites flying 700 kilometers overhead.

Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

2007-01-01

76

Toward the problem of oil and gas bearing capacity of the East Tom-Kolyvan structural zone (Western Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast depression in the east Tom-Kolyvan folded zone (West Siberia) has been identified by the geophysical data. The well which uncovered 4000 m deep profile of the Jurassic and Paleozoic deposits has been drilled. The relevance of the research is the oil\\gas-bearing capacity evaluation of the discovered depression in this West Siberia area.

Stolbova, N. F.; Maerkov, P. O.

2014-08-01

77

Ties That Do Not Bind: Russia and the International Liberal Order  

E-print Network

Russia and other states (including the states of the West that espouse liberal economicsgrounded in economics. Germany has been Russia’s largestRussia that has the lowest GES score. 599 More importantly, the narrow focus on economics

Krickovic, Andrej

2012-01-01

78

Aircraft and tower measurements of CO2 concentration in the planetary boundary layer and the lower free troposphere over southern taiga in West Siberia: Long-term records from 2002 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

situ measurements of the vertical distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) carried out with a light aircraft over a tower site (Berezorechka; 56°08'45?N, 84°19'49?E) in the taiga region of West Siberia from October 2001 to March 2012 document the detailed seasonal and vertical variation of CO2 concentrations during daytime. The variation appears to be controlled mainly by the CO2 flux from taiga ecosystems and the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). We calculated average CO2 concentrations in the PBL and the lower free troposphere (LFT), both of which show clear seasonal cycles and an increasing long-term trend. Seasonal amplitude in the PBL had a larger value (29 ppm) than that in the LFT (14 ppm), demonstrating strong CO2 source-sink forcing by the taiga ecosystems. Mean CO2 concentrations during 13:00-17:00 local standard time observed at the four levels of the tower (5, 20, 40, and 80 m) showed lower CO2 concentrations than that observed in the PBL by aircraft during June-August (growing season). This negative bias decreased with increasing inlet height such that the minimum difference appeared at the 80-m inlet (-2.4 ± 0.8 ppm). No such bias was observed during other months (dormant season). The daytime CO2 flux, based on multiple vertical profiles obtained on a single day, ranged from -36.4 to 3.8 µmol m-2 s-1 during July-September. There was a clear difference in the fluxes between the morning and afternoon, suggesting that these data should be considered examples of fluxes during several daytime hours from the West Siberian taiga.

Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.

2013-08-01

79

Effects of mining industry waste waters on a shallow lake ecosystem in Karelia, north-west Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mining company Karelian Pellet in NW Russia extracts iron ore and processes it locally into iron pellets. The production operations have effects on the environment in the form of air pollution (SO2 and dust) and waste water emissions. The waste waters from the process and the mining pits are let out into a dammed basin, formerly the natural Lake

Ismo J. Holopainen; Anna-Liisa Holopainen; Heikki Hämäläinen; Minna Rahkola-Sorsa; Victoria Tkatcheva; Markku Viljanen

2003-01-01

80

Neurosurgery in Siberia.  

PubMed

There is archaeological evidence that the first neurosurgical procedure in what is now known as Siberia was performed in 8005 ± 100 B.C. According to signs of bone growth, perhaps more than half of the individuals who received the ancient trepanations survived. In Siberia, the first operations on the human brain and spinal cord were performed in 1909 at Tomsk University Hospital by the outstanding Russian surgeon and professor Vladimir M. Mysh. Professor Mysh initially moved from Saint Petersburg to Tomsk and later to Novosibirsk. Nicolay N. Burdenko, the founder of Russian neurosurgery and the Moscow Neurosurgical Institution, began his medical education at the Tomsk Imperial University. In the 1950s, Professor Ksenia I. Kharitonova exerted her great influence upon the development of neurosurgery in Siberia. Since 1955, and for 30 years thereafter, Professor Kharitonova was recognized as a principal leader of Siberian neurosurgery. She applied every effort to spread neurosurgical knowledge, and she popularized best practices around Siberia and the Far East. Perestroika deconstructed and ultimately eliminated the orderly system of neurosurgical service in the Soviet Union. From another perspective, the process opened the window to the world. Fully equipped centers and clinics with state-of-the-art techniques for neuro-oncology, cerebrovascular diseases, neurotrauma, and spinal pathology management in Novosibirsk, Barnaul, Kemerovo, and Irkutsk were enabled. PMID:22387212

Krivoshapkin, Alexey L; Zelman, Vladimir L

2012-02-01

81

Dragon Lake, Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

82

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Malformations among Newborns in Monchegorsk (North-West Russia): a Register-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia) and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 new-borns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM. Significance for public health Cardiovascular malformation is one of the most common groups of birth defects. It is considered an important public health issue, as these malformations are the main cause of infant deaths in developed countries. Precise estimates about the prevalence and perinatal survival are needed to organise and plan health care for such newborns. Our study is the first report from the Russian Federation based on data from population-based birth registers. PMID:25343136

Postoev, Vitaly A.; Talykova, Ljudmila V.; Vaktskjold, Arild

2014-01-01

83

Rickettsial diseases in Russia.  

PubMed

Currently, several rickettsioses are officially being reported in the Russian Federation. These are epidemic typhus and Brill-Zinsser disease, both caused by Rickettsia prowazekii which has a historic prevalence in Russia. Nowadays only single sporadic cases of R. prowazekii infection are reported. The last significant outbreak occurred in 1997 in a mental nursing home, where 29 cases were identified. Registered morbidity of typhus in Russia varies from 0 to 0.01 per thousand for the last decade. Siberian tick typhus, caused by R. sibirica, is registered on a large territory from Pacific coasts to Western Siberia, and its incidence continuously increases, varying between 2.5 and 4.0 thousand officially registered cases per year. Astrakhan spotted fever, caused by R. conorii subsp. caspia has been recognized since 1983. Recently, Far Eastern tick-borne rickettsiosis, caused by R. heilongjiangensis, has been described. Several other pathogenic spotted fever group rickettsiae have been detected and isolated from ticks in Russia; however, they have not yet been linked with clinical cases in these regions. PMID:17114680

Tarasevich, Irina V; Mediannikov, Oleg Y

2006-10-01

84

[Results of studies of human dirofilariasis in Russia].  

PubMed

Human dirofilariasis is a pressing health problem in Russia. By 2014, there have been as many as 850 Dirofilaria repens-infested people living in 42 subjects of the Russian Federation. One of the favorable factors for circulation and spread of invasion is a temperature of above +20-24 degrees C; when the latter is maintained during at least 20 days there may be 1.-1.5 circulations of invasion in the carrier and a 2.8-fold increase in transmission intensity. The border ofa dirofilariasis area with a temperate climate is southward to 58 degrees N in European Russia and West Siberia and southward to 50 degrees N in the Far East. The conditions in the human body have been found to be more favorable for the development of Dirofilaria than considered before and allow the helminth to achieve sexual maturity and to propagate. If man has microfilaremia, he may be a source of invasion. It is necessary to examine venous blood by the enrichment method and, if possible, polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay, which make it possible to establish a diagnosis in occult invasion and to identify a pathogen species. PMID:25286541

2014-01-01

85

Increased Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus (WNV) by Glycosylation of Envelope Protein and Seroprevalence of WNV in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia  

PubMed Central

In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glycosylation of West Nile (WN) virus E-protein may be associated with enhanced pathogenicity and higher replication of WN virus. The results indicate that E-protein glycosylation allows the virus to multiply in a heat-stable manner and therefore, has a critical role in enhanced viremic levels and virulence of WN virus in young-chick infection model. The effect of the glycosylation of the E protein on the pathogenicity of WN virus in young chicks was further investigated. The results indicate that glycosylation of the WN virus E protein is important for viral multiplication in peripheral organs and that it is associated with the strong pathogenicity of WN virus in birds. The micro-focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) in which a large number of serum samples can be handled at once with a small volume (15 ?L) of serum was useful for differential diagnosis between Japanese encephalitis and WN virus infections in infected chicks. Serological investigation was performed among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia using the FRNT. Antibodies specific to WN virus were detected in 21 samples of resident and migratory birds out of 145 wild bird samples in the region. PMID:24351738

Kariwa, Hiroaki; Murata, Ryo; Totani, Masashi; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

2013-01-01

86

Aluminium phosphate and phosphate-sulphate minerals in kyanite schists of the Ichetuyskoye area, West Transbaikalia, Russia: crystal chemistry and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium phosphate and aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals occur as disseminated crystals and fine-grained aggregates in kyanite schists near Ichetuyskoye, in the Dzhida basin (West Transbaikal region, Russia). Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a metamorphic evolution through prograde and retrograde stages. Lazulite-scorzalite and trolleite in association with kyanite, quartz, muscovite, paragonite, topaz, rutile, magnetite and hematite formed during the prograde stage. More than 25 minerals identified in schists are genetically related to the retrograde stage. Some phosphates and all of the APS minerals belong to the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. Electron-microprobe data reveal the presence of wide compositional variations and complex solid-solution series among the members. The main crystal-chemical variations of the APS solid-solution series in the alunite supergroup concern the relative proportions of svanbergite, woodhouseite, goyazite, crandallite, florencite-(Ce) and natroalunite. Chemical analyses of APS minerals indicate extremely high amounts of LREE, Sr, Ba, Ca and Na. In some cases, APS minerals have compositions of Ba and Ca,Ba phosphates- sulphates.

Izbrodin, Ivan A.; Ripp, German S.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.

2011-01-01

87

Flooding in Central Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

88

Economic change, crime, and mortality crisis in Russia: regional analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify which aspects of socioeconomic change were associated with the steep decline in life expectancy in Russia between 1990 and 1994. Design: Regression analysis of regional data, with percentage fall in male life expectancy as dependent variable and a range of socioeconomic measures reflecting transition, change in income, inequity, and social cohesion as independent variables. Determination of contribution of deaths from major causes and in each age group to changes in both male and female life expectancy at birth in regions with the smallest and largest declines. Setting: Regions (oblasts) of European Russia (excluding Siberia and those in the Caucasus affected by the Chechen war). Subjects: The population of European Russia. Results: The fall in life expectancy at birth varied widely between regions, with declines for men and women highly correlated. The regions with the largest falls were predominantly urban, with high rates of labour turnover, large increases in recorded crime, and a higher average but unequal distribution of household income. For both men and women increasing rates of death between the ages of 30 and 60 years accounted for most of the fall in life expectancy, with the greatest contributions being from conditions directly or indirectly associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The decline in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s cannot be attributed simply to impoverishment. Instead, the impact of social and economic transition, exacerbated by a lack of social cohesion, seems to have played a major part. The evidence that alcohol is an important proximate cause of premature death in Russia is strengthened. Key messages The fall in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s has not affected all parts of the country equally The greatest falls have been in some of the wealthiest regions, suggesting that impoverishment is not a sufficient explanation Much of the deterioration can be explained by labour force turnover, crime rates (which can be considered a proxy measure of social cohesion), and income inequality Alcohol is a major factor in many of the additional deaths Understanding changes in mortality in central and eastern Europe during the transition (from a communist to a capitalist system) may shed light on determinants of health in the West PMID:9685275

Walberg, Peder; McKee, Martin; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Chenet, Laurent; Leon, David A

1998-01-01

89

ORIGINAL PAPER Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines for neglected northern Siberia (Russia), Arctic Alaska (USA), and the Canadian Arctic, extends over seven coastal Large-scale operations conducted mainly in estuaries and river deltas. Most of the catches have traditionally not been

Pauly, Daniel

90

Moscow, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

91

The Fatal Splitting. Symbolizing Anxiety in Post-Soviet Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on written interviews with young people collected in 1997-1999 in Barnaul (Siberia), this article explores structural and rhetorical patterns employed in the young people's descriptions of the New Russian woman, usually associated with a small group of rich and successful people in Russia ('New Russians'). As the essay demonstrates, the image of the New Russian woman can be seen

Serguei Alex. Oushakine

2001-01-01

92

Russia Profile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The availability of high-quality news reporting on the Internet continues to improve, though at times finding reputable sources can still be difficult for certain parts of the world. Russia Profile is one such source, as it is produced by the Independent Media group, which is responsible for publishing The Moscow Times along with a number of other magazines across Russia. The goal of this website is to both broaden the scope of news coming out of Russia and "to provide a platform for an informed discussion of issues related to or concerning Russia". From the site's homepage, visitors can read about the latest from Russia Profile, view a calendar of events, and subscribe for free to the print edition of Russia Profile. Visitors can also participate in a number of online forum discussions.

93

THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

Motomura, Masumi

94

Two Virtual Journeys: Siberia Diary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though most people have returned to work and school, the opportunity for travel and adventure still exists...via computer. Washington Post correspondents Robert G. Kaiser and Lucian Perkins are in the midst of a month-long expedition through Siberia, sending back dispatches on and photographs off the people and natural resources along the way. A few of the places their journey has taken them are the town of Chita, along the Chinese border, Irkutsk on Lake Baikal, and Siberia's wealthiest city, Surgut. The site is arranged so that readers can choose a featured dispatch and then see oodles of photographs, learn facts, and understand issues about the dispatch location. Interesting examples of the dispatches include "Aids Orphans," "City of Uranium," and "A River Feast." Helpful links to related news and information, and a section where readers can email questions to Kaiser and Perkins round out Siberia Diary.

Kaiser, Robert G., 1943-; Perkins, Lucian.

2001-01-01

95

Biogeochemical phosphorus mass balance for Lake Baikal, southeastern Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive data for Lake Baikal have been synthesized into a geochemical mass balance for phosphorus (P). Some of the P budget and internal cycling terms for Baikal have been compared to similar terms for oligotrophic Lake Superior, mesotrophic Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and the Ocean. Lake Baikal has a large external source of fluvial P compared to the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Ocean. The major tributary to Lake Baikal has experienced substantial increases in organic P loading during the past 25 years. This, coupled with potential P inputs from possible phosphorite mining, may threaten Baikal's oligotrophic status in the future. Water-column remineralization of particulate organic P is substantially greater in Lake Baikal than in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This is probably due to the great water depths of Lake Baikal. There is a gradient in P burial efficiency, with very high values (80%) for Lake Baikal and Lake Superior, lower values (50%) for Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and a low value (13%) for the Ocean. The accumulation rate of P in Lake Baikal sediments is somewhat greater than that in the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea, and much greater than in the Ocean. Benthic regeneration rates are surprisingly similar for large lacustrine and marine environments and supply less than 10% of the P utilized for primary production in these aquatic environments.

Callender, E.; Granina, L.

1997-01-01

96

“Eating Hay”: The Ecology, Economy and Culture of Viliui Sakha Smallholders of Northeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary rural Viliui Sakha of northeastern Siberia, Russia, are a Turkicspeaking people practicing horse and cattle breeding\\u000a in the subarctic. This article details their story of survival in the north as one not only of adapting a southern subsistence\\u000a to an extreme climate but also to the effects of Russian colonization, Soviet collectivization, and post-Soviet decentralization.\\u000a In the post-Soviet period

Susan A. Crate

2008-01-01

97

Mapping forest succesion types in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a forest typology system based on dynamic vegetation approach and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), one in Central Siberia and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas covered with analysis of the ground truth and inventory data, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects published in literature. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information seem to be a promising way to complement Landsat data, including SAR-based biomass maps and terrain data

Maksyutov, S. S.; Sedykh, V.; Kleptsova, I.; Frolov, A.; Silaev, A.; Kuzmenko, E.; Farber, S.; Kuzmik, N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Fedorov, A.; Nikolaeva, S.

2013-12-01

98

Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia.  

PubMed

In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus. PMID:23985385

Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoykhet, Yakov N; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Odnokurtsev, Valeriy A; Loskutova, Kyunnyay S; Lukmanova, Gulnur I; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Spiridonov, Sergey; Alshinecky, Mikhail V; Sivkova, Tatyana N; Andreyanov, Oleg N; Abramov, Sergey A; Krivopalov, Anton V; Karpenko, Sergey V; Lopatina, Natalia V; Dupal, Tamara A; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

2013-11-01

99

Mapping wetland and forest landscapes in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat data availability provides opportunity for improving the knowledge of the Siberian ecosystems necessary for quantifying the response of the regional carbon cycle to the climate change. We developed a new wetland map based on Landsat data for whole West Siberia aiming at scaling up the methane emission observations. Mid-summer Landsat scenes were used in supervised classification method, based on ground truth data obtained during multiple field surveys. The method allows distinguishing following wetland types: pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bogs or ryams, ridge-hollows complexes, shallow-water complexes, sedge-sphagnum poor fens, herbaceous-sphagnum poor fens, sedge-(moss) poor fens and fens, wooded swamps or sogra, palsa complexes. In our estimates wetlands cover 36% of the taiga area. Total methane emission from WS taiga mires is estimated as 3.6 TgC/yr,which is 77% larger as compared to the earlier estimate based on partial Landsat mapping combined with low resolution map due to higher fraction of fen area. We make an attempt to develop a forest typology system useful for a dynamic vegetation modeling and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in West and East Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas where ample ground truth and inventory data are available, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exists for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Forest classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills.

Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander

2014-05-01

100

Fire Impact on Carbon Emissions on Logged and Unlogged Scots pine Forest Sites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires cover millions ha of boreal forests of Russia annually, mostly in Siberia. Wildfire and forest harvesting are the major disturbances in Siberia's boreal zone. Logged areas appear to be highly susceptible to fire due to a combination of high fuel loads and accessibility for human-caused ignition. Fire spreading from logging sites to surrounding forest is a common situation in this region. Changing patterns of timber harvesting increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildfire on changing climate and on air quality. Fire effects on pine stands and biomass of surface vegetation were estimated on logged and unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Fires occurring on logged areas were typically of higher severity than those in unlogged forests, but the specific effects of fire and logging varied widely among forest types and as a result of weather patterns during and prior to the fire. Consumption of surface and ground fuels in spring fires was 25% to 50% of that in summer fires. Estimated carbon emissions due to fire were 2-5 times higher on logged areas compared to undisturbed sites. Post-fire soil respiration decreases found for both site types partially offset carbon losses. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions in Siberia.

Ivanova, G.; Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

101

Close genetic relationships in vast territories: autosomal and X chromosome Alu diversity in Yakuts from Siberia.  

PubMed

Twelve autosomal and 8 X chromosome Alu markers were genotyped for the first time in 161 Central and West Yakuts to test their ability to reconstruct the genetic history of these populations, the northernmost Turkic-speaker ethnic group living in Siberia. Autosomal data revealed that both groups showed extremely close genetic distances to other populations of Siberian origins that occupied areas from Lake Baikal, the ancestral place of origin of Yakuts, to North Siberia, their current territories. Autosomal and X chromosome data revealed some discrepancies on the genetic differentiation and the effective sizes of Central and West Yakuts. Such discrepancies could be related to the patrilineal and occasionally polygamous structure of these populations. Autosomal and X Alu markers are informative markers to reconstruct population past demography and history, but their utility is limited by the available data. This study represents a contribution for further investigations on these populations. PMID:24466640

Rocañín-Arjó, Ares; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Esteban, Esther; Theves, Catherine; Evdokimova, Larissa E; Fedorova, Sardana A; Gibert, Morgane; Crubezy, Eric; Moral, Pedro

2013-01-01

102

Genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, revealed by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup analysis.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, we studied ancient DNA from bone remains excavated from two archeological sites in West Siberia: Saigatinsky 6 (eighth to eleventh centuries) and Zeleny Yar (thirteenth century). Polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) succeeded for 9 of 67 specimens examined, and the sequences were assigned to mtDNA haplogroups B4, C4, G2, H and U. This distribution pattern of mtDNA haplogroups in medieval West Siberian people was similar to those previously reported in modern populations living in West Siberia, such as the Mansi, Ket and Nganasan. Exact tests of population differentiation showed no significant differences between the medieval people and modern populations in West Siberia. The findings suggest that some medieval West Siberian people analyzed in the present study are included in direct ancestral lineages of modern populations native to West Siberia. PMID:21753768

Sato, Takehiro; Razhev, Dmitry; Amano, Tetsuya; Masuda, Ryuichi

2011-08-01

103

Understanding Migration in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes the policy debate and the existing academic research on internal and external migration in Russia. We argue that enhancing both international and internal migration can bring sizeable benefits to Russia. In particular, international immigration seems to be the only solution to Russia's impending demographic crisis: if current trends continue, Russia's population will shrink by 20% to 115

Yury Andrienko; Sergei Guriev

104

Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Measurement Network on Towers in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate CO2 and CH4 fluxes at regional to sub-continental scale by an inverse model, a network of tall towers for atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements has been established over a region of thousand square kilometers in west Siberia. In-situ continuous measurements have been conducted at 6 stations: Berezorechka (56.17N, 84.33E) since 2002, Parabel (58.25N, 82.40E) and Igrim

K. Shimoyama; T. Machida; A. Shinohara; S. Maksyutov; M. Arshinov; D. Davydov; A. Fofonov; O. Krasnov; N. Fedoseev; B. Belan; H. Belan; G. Inoue

2006-01-01

105

Conversations on Russia: Reform from Yeltsin to Putin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the discussion of Russia's recent post-Communist history has amounted, both in Russia and the West, to a series of monologues by strong-minded people with starkly divergent views. In contrast, Padma Desai's conversations with influential, intelligent participants and observers provide the reader with a broad, nuanced view of what has and has not happened in the last fourteen years,

Padma Desai

2006-01-01

106

Russia's Comparative Economic Development in the Long Run  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calculations made by the author reveal that during the 18th - begin- ning of the 19th century Russia's level of development was not 'be- tween the West and (the advanced countries of) the East', but turned to be lower than both of them. Despite some speed-up in GDP growth during the last decades of Imperial Russia, its developmental model was

Vitali A. Meliantsev

2004-01-01

107

Drought displaced movement of North American pintails into Siberia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the years 1954-70, 230 pintails (Anas acuta) banded in North America were reported from eastern Asia, primarily Siberia. Most of the birds were shot on the breeding grounds in May. The movement into eastern Asia of pintails banded in the interior of North America was directly correlated with the overflight of the southern portion of the breeding range in North America (r = +0.73**); this overflight resulted from drought conditions (Smith 1970). Thus, the magnitude of the pintail movement into eastern Asia is believed to be dependent upon water conditions some 3,000 miles away. A higher percentage of the pintails banded in the west was reported from eastern Asia, although the recovery rate index was not significantly correlated with the percentage of pintails found in northern Canada and Alaska (r = +0.46 NS). Apparently, a portion of the pintails which winter in the western United States annually nest in Siberia, regardless of water conditions on the North American breeding grounds.

Henny, C.J.

1973-01-01

108

Where was the outlet of the ice-dammed Lake Komi, Northern Russia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When ice-sheets on the continental shelves of the Barents and Kara seas expanded onto the Russian mainland, north-flowing rivers were blocked. The last proglacial lake in European Russia dammed between the ice-sheet in the north and the drainage divide in the south was Lake Komi, which has been dated to the Early Weichselian, 80-100 ka. The lake was about 1400 km long with a water level of about 100 m a.s.l. In the present paper, we discuss four alternative outlets: (1) Across the drainage divide towards the Volga River, leading the water southwards into the Caspian Sea; (2) across the Polar Urals towards West Siberia; (3) between the Barents Ice Sheet and the northern slope of the Kola Peninsula, leading the water northwestwards into the Norwegian Sea; and (4) across the drainage divide between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea catchment areas. Based on present knowledge, we consider the first three options unlikely. Across the divide to the Baltic Sea, a buried channel is mapped where the threshold altitude is lower than the Lake Komi level. We conclude that the outlet of Lake Komi probably followed this valley towards the Baltic Sea. However, the Scandinavian Ice Sheet overran this drainage divide during the Late Weichselian and therefore a younger till and other sediments cover the channel.

Maslenikova, Olga; Mangerud, Jan

2001-11-01

109

Evidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia  

E-print Network

are found at Kostenki on the west bank of the Don River in Russia. During the 1950s, A.N. Rogachev excavatedEvidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia John F, Universitetskaya nab., 1, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia c Institute of the History of Material Culture, Russian

Holliday, Vance T.

110

Russia's Economic Growth: Ambitions and Actual Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the subject of defining Russia's position in the global economy as soon as the period of transformation is over. Factors responsible for GDP rates of growth calculated at purchasing power parity are arranged in a system. Issues of economic policies for encouraging economic growth and catching up with West-European level are analyzed.

A. KLEPACH; S. SMIRNOV; S. PUKHOV; D. IBRAGIMOVA

2002-01-01

111

Russia's European economic integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia seeks closer economic ties with EU, and EU is enlarged with 10 new members. Against this background, what future Russia-EU economic relationship is realistic? The paper analyses the enlargement's effect on trade between Russia, “old” and “new” Europe's, changes in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, and institutional issues. The reasons why EU and Russia cannot co-operate closer are political (very

Carl B. Hamilton

2005-01-01

112

Regional Markets in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project assessed the importance of competition on regional markets in Russia for the productivity performance of Russian firms with different ownership structures. Researchers collected data about competition indicators on appropriately defined regional markets in Russia, evaluated firm level data to assess firm performance over time, and assessed economic regions and sectors with respect to productivity and employment growth. The

Earle John S

2008-01-01

113

Russias Economic Reform Outlook  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author reviews the process of economic reforms in the Russian Federation in 20042005 and assesses reform perspectives for the period of 20062008. In most of the reform areas Russia is still a long way from the level of OECD countries: outcomes for 2004 demonstrate that during 20032004 Russia joined the economies in transition with the slowest pace of reforms.

M. DMITRIEV

2005-01-01

114

101 Biomedical Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Russia  

PubMed Central

The epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Russia is currently in its concentrated phase characterized by concomitant coinfections (hepatitides B and C and tuberculosis). Although subtype A1 is dominant, subtype B and CRF 03 (A/B recombinant) are also present. Recent subepidemic eruptions of HIV infection in Siberia/Urals and the Far East have involved A/G recombinant and subtype C, respectively. Approaches to biomedical prevention of HIV/AIDS in Russia include vaccine and microbicide development. Candidate HIV vaccines have been developed independently by three Russian research centers. In one of them, the conjugated protein–polymer vaccine VICHREPOL, use is made of an original domestic immunoadjuvant polyoxydonium. This candidate, developed in the Institute of Immunology, is currently undergoing a phase II clinical trial. A broad-coverage screening of natural and synthetic compounds for anti-HIV activity is currently underway in Russia, aiming at identification of chemicals appropriate for pre-exposure prophylaxis and use as microbicides. Unique compositions of antivirals have been developed, as well as nanotechnology-based means of their delivery, the combinations thereof showing significant promise as microbicide preparations. The presentation will highlight the present state of research on biomedical prevention of HIV/AIDS in Russia.

Karamov, E.V.; Khaitov, R.M.

2014-01-01

115

Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Forest Dynamics in Central Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The forested regions of Siberia, Russia are vast and contain about a quarter of the world's forests that have not experienced harvesting. However, many Siberian forests are facing twin pressures of rapidly changing climate and increasing timber harvest activity. Monitoring the dynamics and mapping the structural parameters of the forest is important for understanding the causes and consequences of changes observed in these areas. Because of the inaccessibility and large extent of this forest, remote sensing data can play an important role for observing forest state and change. In Central Siberia, multi-sensor remote sensing data have been used to monitor forest disturbances and to map above-ground biomass from the Sayan Mountains in the south to the taiga-tundra boundaries in the north. Radar images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C)/XSAR mission were used for forest biomass estimation in the Sayan Mountains. Radar images from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1), European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) and Canada's RADARSAT-1, and data from ETM+ on-board Landsat-7 were used to characterize forest disturbances from logging, fire, and insect damage in Boguchany and Priangare areas.

Ransom, K. J.; Sun, G.; Kharuk, V. I.; Howl, J.

2011-01-01

116

[Genetic differentiation in plants of the genus Cypripedium from Russia inferred from allozyme data].  

PubMed

Ten gene loci of nine enzyme systems (PGI, 6-PGD, NADHD, SKDH, GDH, PGM, DIA, ADH, GOT-1, and GOT-2) were analyzed in Cypripedium calceolus, C. macranthon, C. shanxiense, and C. ventricosum plants from the south of the Russian Far East. Alleles of loci 6-PGD, NADHD, GDH, ADH, GOT-1, and PGIproved to be diagnostic for C. calceolus and C. macranthon. Plants of C. shanxiense from Primorye and Sakhalin Island were monomorphic at all of the loci examined, and their allelic structure can be regarded as diagnostic for the species. The allelic structure for fragments of the C. calceolus population from the western and eastern parts of the species range differed in two loci, PGl and SKDH: alleles absent in C. calceolus plants from the western part of the range occurred at a high frequency in the plants of this species from the eastern part of the range (28 and 55 plants or 41% and 68%, respectively). These alleles were found in C. shanxiense. The genetic structure of C. shanxiense was similar to that of C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range, i.e., the region when these species are sympartic. The additional alleles in C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range might have appeared as a result of hybridization with C. shanxiense. Our results indicate that C. calceolus plants occuring on the territory of Russia form two groups that represent two different units of genetic diversity preservation. We suggest that C. x ventricosum plants in southern Primorye were formed by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus x C. shanxiense hybrids. Thus, they differ from plants inhabiting the Urals and West Siberia, which originated by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus. The population of C. x ventricosum presumably also consists of two plant groups differing in genetic structure, which should be regarded as two different units of preservation of this taxon. PMID:21786667

Filippov, E G; Andronova, E V

2011-05-01

117

Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of Rodinia soon after 800 Ma and continued to be so until very near the end of the Palaeozoic, when it became an integral part of the Pangea Supercontinent. The boundaries of the cratonic core of the Siberian Terrane (including the Patom area) are briefly described, together with summaries of some of the geologically complex surrounding areas, and it is concluded that all of the Palaeozoic underlying the West Siberian Basin (including the Ob-Saisan Surgut area), Tomsk Terrane, Altai-Sayan Terranes (including Salair, Kuznetsk Alatau, Batenov, Kobdin and West Sayan), Ertix Terrane, Barguzin Terrane, Tuva-Mongol Terrane, Central Mongolia Terrane Assemblage, Gobi Altai and Mandalovoo Terranes, Okhotsk Terrane and much of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma region all formed parts of peri-Siberia, and thus rotated with the main Siberian Craton as those areas were progressively accreted to the main Siberian Terrane at various times during the latest Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic. The Ertix Terrane is a new term combining what has been termed the "Altay Terrane" or "NE Xinjiang" area of China, and the Baytag, Baaran and Bidz terranes of Mongolia. The Silurian Tuvaella brachiopod fauna is restricted only to today's southern parts of peri-Siberia. Thus, allowing for subsequent rotation, the fauna occurs only in the N of the Siberian Terrane, and, as well as being a helpful indicator of what marginal terranes made up peri-Siberia, is distinctive as being the only Silurian fauna known from northern higher latitudes globally. In contrast, the other terranes adjacent to peri-Siberia, the North China Terrane, the Manchurides terranes (including the Khingan-Bureya Massif area), the Gurvanshayan Terrane, the Ala Shan Terrane, the Qaidam-Qilian Terrane, the Tarim Terrane, the Junggar Terrane, the Tien Shan terranes and the various Kazakh terranes, did not become part of the Siberian Terrane assemblage until they accreted to it in the Upper Palaeozoic or later during the formation of Pangea. The Farewell Terrane of Alaska includes typical Lower and Middle Palaeozoic Siberian endemic faunas, but its Palaeozoic position is unknown. Cambrian to Early Silurian palaeomagnetic poles from the southern and northern parts of the Siberian Craton differ, but can be matched with an Euler pole of 60°N, 120°E and a rotation angle of 13°. We link this observation with Devonian rifting in the Viljuy Basin near the centre of the craton and also postulate that this rifting rejuvenated an older Precambrian rift zone, since 1-1.1 Ga poles from southern and northern Siberia differ as much as 23° around the same Euler pole. A revised Palaeozoic apparent polar wander (APW) path is presented for the Siberian Craton in which pre-Devonian poles are corrected for Viljuy Basin rifting. There is also much Late Devonian tectonic activity in the Altai-Sayan area, which may be linked. The APW path implies that Siberia was located at low southerly latitudes at the dawn of the Palaeozoic and slowly drifted northward (< 4 cm/yr.). A velocity burst is noted near the Ordovician-Silurian boundary (ca. 13 cm/yr between 450 and 440 Ma), whilst the Mid-Silurian and younger history is characterized by steady clockwise rotation (totalling about 75°) until the Late Permian. The Late Palaeozoic convergence history between Siberia and Baltica (Pangea) is hard to quantify from palaeomagnetic data because there are only two reliable poles (at 360 and 275 Ma) between the Early Silurian and the Permo-Triassic boundary. The Mid and Late Palaeozoic APW path for Siberia is therefore strongly interpolated and we discuss two different APW path alternatives that result

Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.

2007-05-01

118

Winter 2010 EVENTS FOCUS: RUSSIA  

E-print Network

and Property Rights in Late Imperial Russia." Ekaterina Pravilova, assistant professor of history, PrincetonWinter 2010 EVENTS FOCUS: RUSSIA Tue, Jan 12, 4-5:30 pm WCED/CREES/Ford School Lecture. "U.S.-Russia Relations: Status of the `Reset'." John Beyrle, U.S. Ambassador to Russia. Co-sponsors: International Policy

Eustice, Ryan

119

Russia and Its Muslims: The Politics of Identity at the International-Domestic Frontier  

Microsoft Academic Search

he presence of Islam on the territory of today's Russia goes back to the age of Muhammad: the remains of some 40 of his companions are believed to be buried in Derbent—a sunny and poverty-stricken Caspian city in southern Dagestan. Meanwhile, until quite recently, the issue of Russia's relationship to Islam was largely peripheral to the West's Russian studies. In

Dmitri Glinski

120

Crisis and Response: The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of documents examines the response of the Jewish people--primarily in Russia but also in the West--to the sociological and political crises of Tsarist Russia between the years 1800 and 1914. It emphasizes in particular the emergence and interaction of the two ideologies which formulated the most radical solutions to the Jewish…

Ritterband, Paul

121

[Early encounters of German-language explorers with the Tibetan medicine in Siberia in the modern era].  

PubMed

The spreading of Tibetan Buddhism and with it the Tibetan medicine in the region east of Lake Baikal, goes back to the 17th century. At the beginning of the 18th century, German speaking scholars were among the first to undertake scientific expeditions through Siberia. As such they were amongst the first scientists of the modern era who encountered the traditions, concepts, and therapeutic methods of Tibetan medicine. The aim of this article is to describe and analyze these first encounters with Tibetan medicine by the example of selected men of science of the 18th and 19th century. This work is based on extensive studies of sources in archives and libraries in Russia and Switzerland. We found documents related to the following scientists: Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt (1685-1735), Johann Georg Gmelin (1709-1755), Erik Laxmann (1737-1796), Friedrich Adelung (1768-1843), and Joseph Rehmann (1779-1831). They mentioned the distribution of Tibetan medicine within Russia, the use of medicinal plants and formulas as well as therapeutic techniques. For the scientific community of the time these first encounters of Europeans with practitioners of Tibetan medicine could not lift Tibetan medicine out of other exotic context in the field of ethnography. For today's researchers, these encounters are an important evidence for more than 300 years of development of Tibetan medicine on the vast territory of Siberia. The practice and the scientific examination of Tibetan medicine in Siberia is an active endeavor until today. The present work shows that it is possible and rewarding to follow up the historic and cultural connections from Europe to Asia via the Siberian link. PMID:22759729

Surkova, Natalia; Chekhirova, Galina V; Aseeva, Tamara; Nikolaev, Sergey; Agalzew, Grigori; Melzer, Jörg; Vennos, Cécile; Schwabl, Herbert; Saller, Reinhard

2012-01-01

122

Siberia Losing Lakes at an Alarming Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new study finds that more than 1,000 lakes in the Arctic region of Siberia have disappeared or shrunk dramatically over the past 30 years. The region has been getting markedly warmer and human activities are thought to be partly responsible. This radio broadcast reports on a study comparing Earth-observing satellite images over time, which show the Siberian lakes disappearing. The study concludes that as global warming causes the Arctic permafrost to thin, water from the Siberian lakes drains into the ground and vanishes. The clip is 3 minutes and 52 seconds in length.

123

Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of

L. Robin M. Cocks; Trond H. Torsvik

2007-01-01

124

Bacterial diversity and activity along a salinity gradient in soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe the diversity and activity of sulfate reducing bacteria along a salinity gradient in four different soda\\u000a lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (South East Siberia, Russia). For this purpose, a combination of culture-dependent and independent\\u000a techniques was applied. The general bacterial and SRB diversity were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)\\u000a targeting the 16S rDNA gene. DNA

Mirjam J. Foti; Dimitry Yu. Sorokin; Elena E. Zacharova; Nicolai V. Pimenov; J. Gijs Kuenen; Gerard Muyzer

2008-01-01

125

Bacterial diversity and activity along a salinity gradient in soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe the diversity and activity of sulfate reducing bacteria along a salinity gradient in four different soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (South East Siberia, Russia). For this purpose, a combination of culture-dependent and independent techniques was applied. The general bacterial and SRB diversity were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the 16S rDNA gene. DNA

M. J. Foti; D. Y. Sorokin; E. E. Zacharova; N. V. Pimenov; J. G. Kuenen; G. Muyzer

2007-01-01

126

Russia's Demographic "Crisis"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rand Organization has recently made available via the Web the full text of Russia's Demographic "Crisis." "This volume is an outgrowth of a June 5-6, 1995 conference at which a group of Russian demographers presented the results of their pioneering research on Russia's demographic 'crisis' to American colleagues from the Rand Organization, the University of California-Los Angeles, the University of Southern California, and the International Programs Center of the US Bureau of the Census." The six papers that make up the volume deal with two broad categories: "(1) fertility and family planning; and (2) issues in the area of health and mortality--health status, health care, and population aging." The scope of a Russian demographic crisis is hotly debated, as well as "the interrelations between economic reforms and demographic trends in Russia." Russia's Demographic "Crisis" should shed some light on this topic.

1996-01-01

127

Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. at a very remote continental site in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties. The instrumentation at the observatory includes a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until March 2011, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of the background CO mixing rations was observed with summer minima around 90 ppb and winter maxima of about 175 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were generally similar to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N, but showed an earlier onset of the elevated winter values. Episodes of elevated CO and aerosol concentrations, typically lasting for several days, are superimposed on the background seasonal cycle. During winter, these pollution episodes are usually associated with air masses that have passed over the central Siberian region around Omsk and Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During spring and summer, elevated levels of CO and aerosols are often caused by agricultural fires in southern Siberia and Kazakhstan or by forest fires in boreal Siberia. The optical properties of the aerosol showed more pronounced seasonal variability than the aerosol mass and number concentrations. Wintertime aerosols were highly absorbing, with single scattering albedos (SSA) around 0.85, consistent with a dominant fossil fuel combustion source. In contrast, summertime aerosols had very low absorption coefficients with SSA values reaching 0.97. These aerosols were present in airmasses from northern Siberia with low CO mixing ratios, which suggests that they are predominantly of biogenic origin. The lowest particle number concentrations (averaging ~430 cm-3) were present in northern Siberian and Arctic airmasses, with similar values in summer and winter. Chemical analysis shows that sulfates and "black" carbon are elevated in the winter aerosol, while organic carbon from biomass burning and terpenoid oxidation dominate in summer. The measurements at ZOTTO are being continued, in the expectation that long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

Andreae, M. O.; Birmili, W.; Chi, X.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Mikhailov, E.; Panov, A.

2012-04-01

128

Wetland classification based on Landsat and its application for methane emission inventory of West Siberian taiga zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the wetland methane emissions is complicated by large heterogeneity of the methane emission rates and wetland landscapes. Wetland mapping is important component for assessing the global methane emissions. West Siberia wetlands are the biggest wetland area in Eurasia, are situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. A number of wetland, vegetation and peat maps of the West Siberia were developed in 1970s, but those are not easily applicable for methane emission mapping due to use of the generalized classifications which do not reflect heterogeneity of the landscapes at scales of less than 100 m. In this study, we developed a new wetland typology map based on Landsat imagery and applied it to scaling up the CH4 fluxes measured by a static chamber method. Taking into account relative abundance of different mire types a classification scheme oriented on methane emission estimates was developed. It is based on earlier classifications and consists of the simplest mire units or microlandscapes as the oligotrophic hollows, waterlogged hollows, forested bogs and ridges, fens (including poor fens and swamps) and wetland lakes. Taiga zone of West Siberia was chosen as a primary target for the land cover classification since its large wetland area. 68 Landsat scenes were classified. Totally, wetland area was estimated at 55.7 Mha that is slightly higher than the earlier estimate of 51.5 Mha (Romanova et al., 1977). Methane emission rates vary strongly among the microlandscapes. While the highest amounts are emitted by waterlogged hollows followed by fens, the lowest rates are emitted by elevated landcover units such as forested bogs and ridges. According to our estimates they account for only 3% of the regional flux despite occupying almost 40% of the total wetland area. The oligotrophic and waterlogged hollows as parts of patterned bogs cover more than quarter of the mire territory accounting for almost half of the total CH4 emission. Lakes are widespread over taiga mire systems occupying 16% of the territory and contributing 15% of CH4 flux to the atmosphere. The rest of the territory is mainly occupied by fens, poor fens and swamps (13%) contributing 33% of the total CH4 flux. Applying the new map resulted in total methane emissions from taiga zone of 3.53 TgC/yr which is 87% higher than the former estimates by Glagolev et al. (2011). This considerable revision is caused by the changes in fractional coverages of methane emitting landscapes. Glagolev M, Kleptsova I, Filippov I, Maksyutov S, Machida T. 2011. Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes. ERL 6 045214. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045214 Romanova EA, Bybina RT , Golitsyna EF , Ivanova GM , Usova LI, Trushnikova LG. 1977. Wetland typology map of West Siberian lowland scale 1:2500 000 GUGK: Leningrad, Russia

Kleptsova, Irina; Maksyutov, Shamil; Glagolev, Mikhail

2013-04-01

129

The perils and pitfalls of business in Russia  

SciTech Connect

It is not for the lack of trying that few Western oil companies have profitable operations in Russia. Quite the contrary. Every oil company with a thirst for opportunity has searched that once-forbidden region for deals. This gold rush was triggered by an apparent crying need or Western know-how and capital, but appearances in Russia often widely differ from reality. Hype of early oil ventures set a false tone of promise, but company and company came home poorer and wiser. The gold rush went bust. Now in the fourth year of the West`s involvement in Russia`s oilfields, operators are soberly evaluating their prospects. Even while signals are encouraging the West, like a reduction in export tariffs and some progress on contract law, a remarkable event is occuring that throws out many Western arguments for continuing involvement and investment: On their own, the Russians are arresting their production decline and have increased output. This will have immediate and long term effects on Westerners. First, it lends credibility to Russian voices demanding that Mother Russia not sign away its precious resources to foreigners. Second, it encourages trade barriers to protect domestic industry. Third, it weakens the bargaining position of Westerners. Fourth, it reduces the options available to Western operators. What remains will be E&P opportunities where Western technology and capital really can play a role-complex reservoirs, hostile environments-but poor contract terms.

Spears, R.B. [Spears & Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-09-01

130

Geochemistry of west Siberian streams and their potential response to permafrost degradation  

E-print Network

Geochemistry of west Siberian streams and their potential response to permafrost degradation Karen from previously unstudied watersheds throughout west Siberia suggest that warming and permafrost drainage basins. The sampled sites span $106 km2 , a large climatic gradient ($55°­68°N), and 39 permafrost

Smith, Laurence C.

131

Variations of oxygen-18 in West Siberian precipitation during the last 50 yr  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is associated with large increase in surface air temperature and precipitation in Siberia. Here, we apply the isotope-enhanced atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso to investigate the variability of ?18O in West Siberian precipitation and the underlying mechanisms during the last fifty years, and to assess the potential of a recently opened monitoring station in Kourovka (57.04° N, 59.55° E) to successfully track large-scale water cycle and climate change in this area. Our model is constrained to atmospheric reanalysis fields to facilitate the comparison with precipitation ?18O from observations. In Russia, annual-mean model surface temperatures agree within ±1.5 °C with climatological data, while the model tends to overestimate precipitation by 10-20 mm month-1. Simulated precipitation ?18O shows a southwest to northeast decreasing pattern. The simulated annual-mean and seasonal ?18O results are in overall good agreement with observations from 15 Russian stations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation between 1970 and 2009. Annual-mean model results and measurements are highly correlated (r2~0.95) with a root mean square deviation of ±1‰. The model reproduces the seasonal variability of ?18O, which parallels the seasonal cycle of temperature, and the seasonal range from -25‰ in winter to -5‰ in summer. Analysing model results for the extended period 1960-2010, long-term increasing trends in temperature, precipitation and ?18O are detected in western Siberia. During the last 50 yr, winter temperatures have increased by 1.8 °C. Annual-mean precipitation rates have increased by 2-6 mm month-1 50 yr-1. Long-term trends of precipitation ?18O are also positive but at the detection limit (<1‰ 50 yr-1). Regional climate is characterized by strong interannual variability, which in winter is strongly related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. In ECHAM5-wiso, regional temperature is the predominant factor controlling ?18O variations on interannual to decadal time scales with slopes of about 0.5‰ °C-1. Focusing on Kourovka, the simulated evolution of temperature, ?18O and, to a smaller extent, precipitation during the last fifty years is synchronous with model results averaged over entire western Siberia, suggesting that this site will be representative to monitor future isotopic changes this region.

Butzin, M.; Werner, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Risi, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Gribanov, K.; Jouzel, J.; Zakharov, V. I.

2013-11-01

132

Entrepreneurship in the Soviet Union and post-Socialist Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article advances the understanding of the present and future of Russian entrepreneurship. Based on secondary information published in the West and in contemporary Russia, empirical research and personal interviews, general characteristics of Russian entrepreneurship within different controversial periods that occurred during different periods of this country's history are presented. Also discussed are the influences of ethnic and religious minorities

Alexander I. Ageev; Mikhail V. Gratchev; Robert D. Hisrich

1995-01-01

133

The Coast of Siberia: A Vladivostok Spring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes experiences of a reference librarian at California State University (Sacramento) who spent three weeks in Vladivostok (Russia) to assess the library and research needs of faculty and students at the Far Eastern State Technical University. After briefly describing the city of Vladivostok and its military role in the Soviet…

Ronayne, Betty Lee

134

Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia  

SciTech Connect

Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

Watson, R.K.

1995-12-31

135

Putin’s Strategic Partnership with the West: The Domestic Politics of Russian Foreign Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia’s new strategic partnership with the West has both international and domestic causes. In terms of domestic causes, Bruce Bueno De Mesquita and James Lee Ray propose that domestic interest groups are likely to have a particular impact on foreign policy in semi-democratic states such as Russia. This is because the political leadership is more dependent on satisfying these group

TOR BUKKVOLL

2003-01-01

136

Ozone profile observations in Siberia in 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station (66.5N, 66.7E) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation are carried out since January 1997. In 1997-2013 we used electrochemical 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring period to study the ozone loss in the Arctic regions. The results of ozonesonde observation at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In January 2014 we upgraded this ozonesounding station with the new iMet-1 radiosonde and electrochemical 2Z-V7 ozonesonde of Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), USA. The first results of ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in January-March 2014 at Salekhard aerological station will be presented and discussed.

Dorokhov, Valery; Balugin, Nikolay; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Alexander; Ivlev, Georgii; Shepelev, Dmitry; Nakajima, Hideaki

2014-05-01

137

Estimation of nocturnal222Rn soil fluxes over Russia from TROICA measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In TROICA (TRanscontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) campaigns (1999-2008), the simultaneous observations of near surface 222Rn concentrations and atmospheric boundary layer thermal structure were performed along the Trans-Siberian Railway across northern Eurasia from Moscow to Vladivostok, including central, southern and far eastern parts of Russia. The data on 222Rn and temperature vertical distribution are used to estimate 222Rn regional scale soil fluxes based on calculations of nocturnal 222Rn accumulation rates in the surface layer under inversion conditions. An effect of seasonal soil thawing on 2-4 times surface 222Rn concentration increase from summer 1999 to autumn 2005 is observed. The estimated 222Rn regional averaged fluxes vary over Russia from 29 ± 8 mBq m-2 s-1 in its so-called European territory to 95 ± 51 mBq m-2 s-1 in the southern area of Siberia. The highest 222Rn fluxes are derived in the regions of high tectonic activity and orogenic belts of central and eastern Siberia and in far eastern Russia. The observed high 222Rn flux variations in specific events show a strong effect of both soil and atmospheric conditions on 222Rn near-surface abundance and the derived seasonal patterns over the continent.

Berezina, E. V.; Elansky, N. F.; Moiseenko, K. B.; Belikov, I. B.; Shumsky, R. A.; Safronov, A. N.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2013-12-01

138

Iron oxidation in different types of groundwater of Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The groundwaters of Western Siberia contain high concentrations of iron, manganese, silicon, ammonium, and, in several cases,\\u000a hydrogen sulfide, carbonic acids, and dissolved organic substances. Generally, the groundwaters of Western Siberia can be\\u000a divided into two major types: one type with a relatively low concentration of humic substances and high hardness (water of\\u000a A type) and a

Leonid V. Serikov; Elena A. Tropina; Liudmila N. Shiyan; Fritz H. Frimmel; George Metreveli; Markus Delay

2009-01-01

139

Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005  

SciTech Connect

A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I. [Inst. for Energy Policy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-05-15

140

Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling.  

PubMed

The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce the global warming completely and result in a net saving of 100 000 CO2-equivalents per year due to storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill beyond 100 years. Considering other first-order degradation rates for the landfilled organic matter did not overtly affect the results, while assumptions about the top cover oxidation of methane significantly affected the results. This shows the importance of controlling the gas escape from the landfill. PMID:24692457

Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut; Christensen, Thomas H

2014-05-01

141

Ozone and nitrogen oxides in surface air in Russia: TROICA experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of measurements of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations over the continental regions of Russia are discussed. The measurements were done during 10 TROICA experiments (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere). The TROICA experiment started in 1995. By the present moment ten expeditions along the Trans-Siberian railroad from Moscow to Vladivostok (around 9300 km) are carried out. We separate data sets into unpolluted and polluted areas to study temporal and spatial features. Moreover we analyzed cities (more then 100 cities). About 50% of all data corresponds to unpolluted conditions. The data collected are used in an analysis of the physical and chemical processes occurring over continental Russia. In this work the estimations of seasonal and daily ozone and NOx distribution were made. The seasonal distribution of ozone for TROICA experiments concentration considerably differs from ozone distribution at Mace Head (Ireland) and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany) stations and well agrees with the ozone distribution at Zotino (Russia, East Siberia). The same concerns also a daily variability. The ozone concentration gradient is presented. Ozone concentration gradually increases in the eastward direction. Its result of the air transport from polluted regions of Europe and ozone depletions, oxidations of CH4 in Siberia, forest fires in Siberia and around Baikal Lake, regional transport of burning products from Northern China. Significant factor of ozone increasing is stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. It appears in TROICA-3 experiment. During several hours ozone concentration was more then 60 ppbv. The areas of photochemical ozone generation in polluted air are also detected. We estimate anthropogenic and natural factors, which are responsible for sharp ozone concentration increasing. Acknowledgments. The work was supported by International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) under contract No. 2770 and by Russian Basic Research Foundation (project No. 07-05-00428).

Pankratova, N.; Elansky, N.; Belikov, I.; Shumskiy, R.

2009-04-01

142

White Sea - Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

2002-01-01

143

Dating Violence in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of violence in interpersonal relationships has been little studied in Russia, and the phenomenon of violence between dating partners has not been the object of scientific interest at all. The study on which the present article is based was designed to obtain information about the violence in dating among students enrolled in…

Lysova, A. V.

2007-01-01

144

Russia's Economic Transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's Economic Transitions examines the three major transformations that the country underwent from the early 1860s to 2000. The first transition, under Tsarism, involved the partial break-up of the feudal framework of land ownership and the move toward capitalist relations. The second, following the Communist revolution of 1917, brought to power a system of state ownership and administration - a

Nicolas Spulber

145

Application of a Coupled Photosynthesis–Stomatal Conductance Model to Analysis of Carbon Assimilation by Spruce and Larch Trees in the Forests of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photosynthetic activities of common spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr) Rupr ex Kuzen) were analyzed on the basis of datasets obtained for 110- to 130-year-old forest stands in Middle Russia and East Siberia. Using a Li-Cor 6200 gas analyzer, photosynthesis was measured in parallel with transpiration, stomatal conductance, CO2 concentrations in ambient air and intercellular

M. D. Korzukhin; N. N. Vygodskaya; I. M. Milyukova; F. A. Tatarinov; Yu. L. Tsel'niker

2004-01-01

146

The vertical distribution and abundance of Gammarus lacustris in the pelagic zone of the meromictic lakes Shira and Shunet (Khakassia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution and abundance of Gammarus lacustris in the pelagic zone of two fishless meromictic lakes, L. Shira and L. Shunet, in Southern Siberia (Russia), was studied with\\u000a the underwater video recording system and using vertical hauls. In both lakes, during summer stratification, Gammarus was distributed non-homogenously, with a stable peak in the metalimnion. The average depth of Gammarus

Egor S. ZadereevAlexander; Alexander P. Tolomeyev; Anton V. Drobotov; Anna Yu. Emeliyanova; Mikhail V. Gubanov

2010-01-01

147

MACROCRYSTALS OF Pt Fe ALLOY FROM THE KONDYOR PGE PLACER DEPOSIT, KHABAROVSKIY KRAY, RUSSIA: TRACE-ELEMENT CONTENT, MINERAL INCLUSIONS AND REACTION ASSEMBLAGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Euhedral macrocrystals of Pt-Fe alloy from the Kondyor PGE placer, Khabarovskiy Kray, eastern Siberia, Russia, have a relatively constant composition of Pt2.4-2.6Fe, tin and antimony contents up to 0.3 wt.%, and an unusually low content of all PGE except Pt. The millimetric crystals contain inclusions of fluorapatite, titanite, phlogopite, magnetite, ilmenite and iron-copper sulfides. The macrocrystals have a complex gold-rich

GALINA G. SHCHEKA; BERND LEHMANN; EIKE GIERTH; K. Gomann; ALEX WALLIANOS

2004-01-01

148

Emergency medicine in Russia.  

PubMed

Russia has undergone sweeping political and social reforms within the past 5 years. The economic and social reforms heralded by the "new openness" of perestroika have led to a restructuring of medicine as well. Changes include the emergence of "for profit" organizations and acute care facilities, the introduction of private health insurance, modifications in the medical education system, and realignment of health priorities with a new trend toward primary care. PMID:9701309

Townes, D A; Lee, T E; Gulo, S; VanRooyen, M J

1998-08-01

149

Fire dynamic and forest cover loss in Russia, 2000-2012 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an important role in the ecosystem dynamics of Russia. A number of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based burned area and forest fire loss products for Russia were created in recent years (Bartalev et al. 2008, Loupian et al. 2011, Giglio et al. 2009). However, characterizing the drivers and consequences of forest fires in Russia is challenging with the use of coarse spatial resolution products. Specifically, these burned area products do not discriminate between forest and agriculture fires within areas of fine-scale forest/cropland mosaics or in the regions with extensive agricultural land abandonment and recent afforestation. The use of 30 m spatial resolution Landsat-based products allows for more accurate detection of forest areas damaged or destroyed by fires, especially on the boundaries between forests and agricultural lands. Forest cover loss was mapped annually using Landsat archive data. Fire-induced loss was separated from other stand-replacement dynamics using annual 500 m MODIS-based burned area products and 1 km MODIS active fire hotspots. Fire date was assigned for every forest burned area using MODIS hotspots. Preliminary analysis indicates that the southern parts of Siberia and Far East Russia have short fire return intervals and a small proportion of the fire is stand replacement. Conversely, the areas of European Russia, Northern Siberia and Far East Russia predominately experience stand replacement fires. The proportion of stand replacement fires in these regions is larger than was estimated before (Korovin, 1998). The majority of forests were burned during large, catastrophic fire events in dry years. Timing of these forest fire events (July-September) is different from the period of active agricultural burning (April-May) in the region. Stand replacement forest fires were typically located within large forested landscapes away from active agriculture regions. Therefore cropland fires are presumably not the major driver of forest fire initiation. Agriculture fires can contribute to the degradation of forests bordering croplands; however, this process is difficult to quantify at the regional scale using Landsat data. Our results are important for developing a regional forest fire mitigation strategy in Russia.

Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Loboda, T. V.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M.

2013-12-01

150

76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-856; Second Review] Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis...the antidumping duty order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to...4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from Russia: Investigation No....

2011-08-04

151

76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-856 (Second Review)] Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International...the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia...the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead...

2011-03-01

152

BRDF characteristics of tundra vegetation communities in Yamal, Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite data from platforms with pointing capabilities (CHRIS/Proba, RapidEye) or from sensors with wide swath (AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS) is influenced by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This effect can cause significant changes in the measured spectral surface reflectance depending on the solar illumination geometry and sensor viewing conditions. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), a German hyperspectral mission with expected launch in 2016, will provide high spectral resolution observations with a ground sampling distance of 30 meters. Since the EnMAP sensor has pointing capabilities, both spectral and directional reflection characteristics need to be taken into account for the algorithms development for vegetation parameters. The 'hyperspectral method development for Arctic VEGetation biomes' (hy-Arc-VEG) project is part of the national preparation program for the EnMAP mission. Within the EnMAP projcect hy-Arc-VEG we developed a portable field spectro-goniometer, named ManTIS (Manual Transportable Instrument for Spherical BRDF observations), for the in-situ measurements of anisotropic effects of tundra surfaces (national and international patent pending - DE 102011117713.6). The goniometer was designed for field use in difficult as well as challenging terrain and climate. It is therefore of low weight, without electrical devices and weatherproof. It can be disassembled and packed into small boxes for transport. The current off-nadir viewing capacity is matched to the EnMAP sensor configuration (up to 30°). We carried out spectral field and goniometer measurements on the joint YAMAL 2011 expedition (RU-US-DE) organized by the Earth-Cryosphere Institute (ECI) in August 2011 on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, Russia. The field goniometer measurements (conducted under varying sun zenith angles) as well as field spectro-radiometrical measurements were carried out at the NASA Yamal Land Cover/Land Use Change (NASA Yamal-LCLUC) transects and réleves at Laboravaya (southern Yamal) and Vaskiny Dachi (central Yamal), and at the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site in Vaskiny Dachi. The LCLUC plots are Greening of the Arctic (GOA) sites established in 2007 by Walker et al. (2009). The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site was established by M. Leibman (ECI) in 1993. BRDF processing for the tundra test sites demonstrate the mirror asymmetry in relative azimuth with respect to the principal plane. It also showed that the maximum scattering appears in the backward direction, but that there is no minimal forward scattering. Instead, the forward scattering is characterized by similar to higher reflectance values compared to the nadir position. Moreover, the analysis of the anisotropic behaviour of moss-dominated tundra types with 10 to 15% vascular plant cover show that the BRDF influence on vegetation indices (VI) of low-growing arctic vegetation communities can be up to 15% of the nadir value. The low sun elevation at the arctic latitudes prevents hotspot-effects, but a BRDF normalization still should be taken into account for the development of tundra-adapted vegetation indices. Walker, D.A. et al. (2009): Data Report of the 2007 and 2008 Yamal Expeditions. AGC Data Report. 133.

Buchhorn, Marcel; Heim, Birgit; Walker, Donald A. Skip; Epstein, Howard; Leibman, Marina

2013-04-01

153

Genetic diversity of two haploid markers in the Udegey population from southeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

The Udegeys are a small ethnic group who live along the tributaries of the Amur River Basin of southeastern Siberia in Russia. They are thought to speak a language belonging to a subdivision of the Tungusic-Manchu branch of the Altaic family. To understand the genetic features and genetic history of the Udegeys, we analyzed two haploid markers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-chromosomal variation, in 51 individuals (including 21 males) from the Udegey population. In general, the Udegeys' mtDNA profiles revealed similarities to Siberians and other northeastern Asian populations, although a moderate European contribution was also detected. Interestingly, pairwise values of F(ST) and the MDS plots based on the mtDNA variation showed that the Orok and Nivkh inhabiting the very same region of the Udegey were significantly different from the Udegey, implying that they may have been isolated and undergone substantial genetic drift. The Udegeys were characterized by a high frequency (66.7%) of Y chromosome haplogroup C, indicating a close genetic relationship with Mongolians and Siberians. On the paternal side, however, very little admixture was observed between the Udegeys and Europeans. Thus, the combined haploid genetic markers of both mtDNA and the Y chromosome imply that the Udegeys are overall closest to Siberians and northeast Asians of the Altaic linguistic family, with a minor maternal contribution from the European part of the continent. PMID:19953529

Jin, Han-Jun; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Wook

2010-06-01

154

Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?  

SciTech Connect

Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Gubala, C.P. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Ford, J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife

1995-12-31

155

Population genetics and structure of Buryats from the Lake Baikal Region of Siberia.  

PubMed

Genetic polymorphisms of blood groups, serum proteins, red cell enzymes, PTC tasting, and cerumen types are reported for five Mongoloid populations of Buryats from the Lake Baikal region of Siberia (Russia). These groups are characterized by relatively high frequencies of alleles ABO*B, RH*D, cerumen D, GC*1F, ACP1*B, ESD*2, and PGD*C. Significant genetic heterogeneity between populations was demonstrated for the loci RH, MN, cerumen, PGD, ABO, GC, GLO, TF, and PGM1. Genetic distance analyses using five loci revealed a lower level of genetic microdifferentiation within the Buryat populations compared with other native Siberian groups. The distribution of gene markers in Buryats is similar to that found in neighboring Central Asian groups, such as the Yakuts and the Mongols. Intrapopulational analyses of the five Buryat subdivisions, based on R matrix and rii, indicate that one of the subdivisions is reproductively more isolated than the others and that two of the communities have received considerable gene flow. A nonlinear relationship was demonstrated between geographic and genetic distances of Buryat population subdivisions. PMID:8262501

Novoradovsky, A G; Spitsyn, V A; Duggirala, R; Crawford, M H

1993-10-01

156

An 84-kyr paleomagnetic record from the sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of sediment cores obtained from the Selenga prodelta region of Lake Baikal, Russia. This record, which spans approximately the last 84 kyr, contributes to a better understanding of the nature of geomagnetic field behavior in Siberia and is a useful correlation and dating tool. We demonstrate that the Lake Baikal sediments are recording variations in the geomagnetic field. The directional record displays secular variation behavior with a geomagnetic excursion at 20 ka and additional excursions appearing as large-amplitude secular variation at 41, 61, and 67 ka. Smoothing of the geomagnetic excursion behavior occurs in Lake Baikal sediments owing to the intermediate sedimentation rate (13 cm kyr-1). The Lake Baikal relative paleointensity record correlates to absolute paleointensity data for the last 10 kyr and to relative paleointensity records from the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean for the last 84 kyr. This correlation suggests a strong global (i.e., dipole) component to these records and further supports the reliability of sediments as recorders of relative geomagnetic paleointensity. We show that a relative geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy has a potential resolution of 7 kyr by correlating continental and marine records. The geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy helps constrain the age of the difficult to date Lake Baikal sediments.

Peck, J.A.; King, J.W.; Colman, S.M.; Kravchinsky, V.A.

1996-01-01

157

Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can conclude that the volumetric activities of radionuclides in the near-the-ground atmospheric layer were by 3 to 6 orders of magnitude below the permissible volume activity set by Radiation Safety Standards of Russia Federation.

Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

2013-04-01

158

Flooding in Southern Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

2002-01-01

159

Sizing up the sub-Tommotian unconformity in Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sedimentary rocks in the western Anabar region, northwestern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolution and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Carbon isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at 1 to 2 m intervals support correlation of the lower Anabar succession (Staraya Reckha and lower Manykai Formations) with sub-Tommotian carbonates of the Ust'-Yu-doma Formation in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, the upper Manykai and most of the overlying Medvezhya Formation appear to preserve a sedimentary and paleontological record of an evolutionary important time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlation of the Anabar section with other northern Siberian successions that contain well-dated volcanic rocks permits the estimate that the sub-Tommotian unconformity in southeastern Siberia spans approximately 3 to 6 m.y. Diverse small shelly fossils (but not archaeocyathans) previously thought to mark the base of the Tommotian Stage evolved sequentially throughout this earlier interval.

Knoll, A. H.; Kaufman, A. J.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Adams, W.

1995-01-01

160

Species Diversity and Response to Climate Change across Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern Hemisphere's boreal forests, particularly the Siberian boreal forest, may have a strong effect on Earth's climate through changes in dominant vegetation and associated regional surface albedo. Temperature increases have been identified as a driver of compositional change in the Russian forest with documented shifts in treelines and changes in regeneration. Warmer climate will likely convert Siberia's deciduous larch (Larix spp.) to evergreen conifer forests, and the low diversity areas across Siberia are identified as vulnerable to this vegetation shift from deciduous larch to evergreen conifer. A conversion to evergreen conifer dominance within southern Siberia will generate a local positive radiative forcing of 5.1±2.6 W m-2. The forest gap model, FAREAST, simulates Russian boreal forest composition and was used to explore the feedback between climate change and forest composition in vulnerable low diversity areas. FAREAST was used to simulate the impact of changes in temperature and precipitation on total and genus-level biomass at sites across Siberia using multiple variants of the dominant larch to mimic species variability in growth rates. The use of multiple variants of the dominant species can be used to identify species variants which may be more successful under altered climate conditions. Identification of successful varieties of the dominant species will help in active management in efforts to mitigate the effects of climate change, especially the accelerated shift to evergreen dominance.

Shugart, H. H.; Shuman, J. K.

2011-12-01

161

West Siberian oil and the Northern Sea route: Current situation and future potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey paper explores interrelationships between the development of oil and gas condensate deposits in northern areas of West Siberia and adjacent Krasnoyarsk Kray and the volume and character of traffic along the Northern Sea Route. Initial sections examine the magnitude of petroleum resources in the region, the allocation of development rights, and past and potential future production. Coverage then

Arild Moe

1995-01-01

162

Methane emission from Western Siberia derived from the integral methane balance in the troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although a number of estimates of methane emissions from large Earth regions have been proposed, based on either empirical or inverse transport modeling approaches, these emissions still remain highly uncertain motivating the development of new methods of surface flux assessment. In this study a new mathematical formulation for calculation of surface flux of methane, or any other gaseous component of the atmosphere, is developed. In it, the surface flux is retrieved from the integral balance of methane in bounded atmospheric domain. This balance includes the surface flux, the net advective flux through lateral boundaries of the atmospheric domain, methane sink due to oxidation by hydroxyl radical, and the rate of change of total methane amount in the domain. Western Siberia, being on of the most prominent surface methane sources in Northern hemisphere, is used as a test region for the method. The components of methane balance are calculated using methane concentrations and wind speeds from MACC reanalysis at 1.125 deg. grid (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/EU_projects/MACC), and hydroxyl concentrations provided by (Spivakovsky, 2000). The total methane flux from Western Siberia is thus assessed at 6 h resolution for 2001-2011. The time averaged total flux corresponds well to empirical estimates (M Glagolev, 2011) at diurnal and annual timescales. It may be anticipated that the method will be useful in close future when the satellite-retrieved methane concentration profiles will achieve high accuracy. References: Spivakovsky, C. M., et al. (2000), Three-dimensional climatological distribution of tropospheric OH: Update and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 8931- 8980. M Glagolev, I Kleptsova, I Filippov, S Maksyutov and T Machida. Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes. Environ. Res. Lett. 6 (2011) 045214 (7pp). This work is partially supported by the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation (contract#8345), SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant #11-05-01190a, and integrated project SB RAS #131, RFBR grant 11-05-01190-a.

Bogomolov, Vasiliy; Stepanenko, Victor; Okladnikov, Igor

2013-04-01

163

Nuclear plant emergency preparedness in Russia.  

PubMed

An international team of experts conducted a detailed operational review at the Volgodonsk nuclear power plant. The review was the first mission by an International Atomic Energy Agency Operational Safety Review Team to Russia in over a decade. The author reviewed the emergency preparedness program in detail. Emergency preparedness professionals in the West are largely unfamiliar with Russian nuclear plant emergency preparedness programs, and the legacy of Chernobyl may leave some doubt as to their efficacy. This article describes the program in some detail and compares some elements to programs in the United States. The author was favorably impressed with the state of nuclear plant emergency preparedness in the Russian Federation and identified program elements that should be considered for implementation elsewhere. PMID:19820472

Sullivan, Randolph L

2009-11-01

164

Foraminifera and Late Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of the northern palaeobiogeographic district of Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of 114 core samples from seven borehole sections of the Van-Eganskaya area in the central part of Western Siberia yielded sufficient data to investigate the Late Cenomanian-Turonian foraminifers, palaeoenvironments, and the Late Cenomanian-Turonian biostratigraphy of this poorly studied area. Two Late Cenomanian foraminifer zones were established, viz. a (lower) Saccammina micra - Ammomarginulina sibirica Zone and an (upper) Trochammina wetteri tumida - Verneuilinoides kansasensis Zone. They reflect changes in the species composition of the foraminifer assemblages and lithology of the host rocks of the Uvatskian Horizon. In the lower part of the upper zone, beds with Gaudryinopsis nanushukensis elongatus are present. The changes in the species composition and lithology of the upper Cenomanian resulted from water-depth variations during the Boreal transgression. Two distinct assemblages and two homonymous zones, viz. the (lower) Gaudryinopsis angustus and the (upper) Pseudoclavulina hastata zones occur in the Turonian clayey cap-rocks of the superimposed Kuznetsovskian Horizon. Comparison of the Late Cenomanian-Turonian assemblages from the West-Siberian and Canadian provinces of the same Arctic palaeobiogeographical realm shows that the West-Siberian species are the same as, and closely related to, Canadian taxa, along with geographical subspecies. This comparison allows a detailed correlation, which results in a precise dating of the foraminifer zones.

Podobina, Vera

2013-09-01

165

Germans from Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of online digital projects have taken on the challenge of documenting the experiences of immigrants and this particular website deals with this very subject quite nicely. Through the use of primary documents and detailed oral histories, this website illustrates the experiences of Germans from Russia who immigrated to Colorado in the 19th and 20th centuries. Drawing on work done by Professor Heitman at Colorado State University in the 1970s, visitors to the site can examine transcripts and listen to audio excerpts of interviews of these immigrants (and their descendants). They may also wish to view the online photo gallery which contains images of agriculture work, German-inspired architecture, and home life. Finally, visitors can use a search engine offered here to look for specific materials, if they wish to do so.

166

Is there epidemiology in Russia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

Vlassov, V.

2000-01-01

167

Trace metals in sediments of coastal Siberia  

E-print Network

annual precipitation for the basin is 329 mm, with 70-80'/o in the summer. The basin is composed of three distinct vegetation regions: the tundra in the northern part, the taiga that covers the largest area, and the rocky mountainous area (Gordeev.... The Biya River, flowing from Lake Telskoye, and the Katun River, whose source is the Belukha Mountain glaciers. The Ob drains the West Siberian Lowlands, comprised of taiga forest, tundra forest and tundra. 70'lo of the northern region of the drainage...

Esnough, Teresa Elizabeth

2012-06-07

168

Mitochondrial DNA diversity in indigenous populations of the southern extent of Siberia, and the origins of Native American haplogroups.  

PubMed

In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A-D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region. PMID:15638829

Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I; Derbeneva, Olga A; Volodko, Natalia V; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D; Lott, Marie T; Hosseini, Seyed H; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C

2005-01-01

169

Russia’s Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

E-print Network

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds ...

Paltsev, Sergey

170

Understanding Migration in Russia* A policy note  

Microsoft Academic Search

This note summarizes the policy debate and the existing academic research on internal and external migration in Russia. We argue that enhancing both international and internal migration can bring sizeable benefits to Russia. In particular, international immigration seems to be the only solution to Russia's impending demographic crisis: if current trends continue, Russia's population will shrink by 20% to 112-119

Yuri Andrienko; Sergei Guriev

171

FIVE SPECIES OF DIDYMODON (POTTIACEAE, BRYOPHYTA) NEW FOR RUSSIA  

E-print Network

during recent floristic investi- gation of southern Siberia, Russian Far East and Caucasus, as well of the Rus- sian Far East, southern Siberia and Caucasus, accomplished by the first three authors, we were

Kucera, Jan

172

Why Has Russia’s Economic Transformation Been So Arduous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the problems of Russia’s post-communist economic,transformation. Its main thesis is that the Russian attempt at radical economic reform largely failed, because of extraordinary rent-seeking by old enterprise managers through export rents, subsidized credits, import subsidies and direct government subsidies, while they gained little from privatization. The reason why,the managers,were,so strong was,that the Soviet Union left large

Anders Åslund; Carnegie Endowment

173

Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery after fires of moderate- and low- severity.

Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

174

Summer Harvest in Saratov, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russia's Saratov Oblast (province) is located in the southeastern portion of the East-European plain, in the Lower Volga River Valley. Southern Russia produces roughly 40 percent of the country's total agricultural output, and Saratov Oblast is the largest producer of grain in the Volga region. Vegetation changes in the province's agricultural lands between spring and summer are apparent in these images acquired on May 31 and July 18, 2002 (upper and lower image panels, respectively) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

The left-hand panels are natural color views acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Less vegetation and more earth tones (indicative of bare soils) are apparent in the summer image (lower left). Farmers in the region utilize staggered sowing to help stabilize yields, and a number of different stages of crop maturity can be observed. The main crop is spring wheat, cultivated under non-irrigated conditions. A short growing season and relatively low and variable rainfall are the major limitations to production. Saratov city is apparent as the light gray pixels on the left (west) bank of the Volga River. Riparian vegetation along the Volga exhibits dark green hues, with some new growth appearing in summer.

The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras displayed as red, green and blue respectively. In these images, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and the spring and summer views were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between the two dates. Urban areas and vegetation along the Volga banks look similar in the two seasonal multi-angle composites. The agricultural areas, on the other hand, look strikingly different. This can be attributed to differences in brightness and texture between bare soil and vegetated land. The chestnut-colored soils in this region are brighter in MISR's red band than the vegetation. Because plants have vertical structure, the oblique cameras observe a greater proportion of vegetation relative to the nadir camera, which sees more soil. In spring, therefore, the scene is brightest in the vertical view and thus appears with an overall greenish hue. In summer, the soil characteristics play a greater role in governing the appearance of the scene, and the angular reflectance is now brighter at the oblique view angles (displayed as red and blue), thus imparting a pink color to much of the farmland and a purple color to areas along the banks of several narrow rivers. The unusual appearance of the clouds is due to geometric parallax which splits the imagery into spatially separated components as a consequence of their elevation above the surface.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. These images are a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbits 13033 and 13732, and cover an area of about 173 kilometers x 171 kilometers. They utilize data from blocks 49 to 50 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

175

Criminal Justice in Soviet Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to American criminal justice, the fabric of Russia's system is a tightly woven structure operating under centralized co-ordination. During recent history, the goals of Russia's criminal justice system have shifted from repression by terrorism to crime prevention through education and an emphasis on individual duty in peace-keeping matters.The militia (police), created in 1917, has been mandated to prevent crime

DAVID W. PATTERSON; ANN DOAK

1980-01-01

176

Status of forest resources and the environment in Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The Siberian forests are considered to be one of the most important biomes on earth. The forested area of Siberia constitutes about 20 percent of the total world forested area and nearly 50 percent of the total world coniferous forested area. About 605 million hectares are covered with stands, these areas make up about 48 percent of the total area. Nearly 450 million hectares are covered with coniferous species. The total growing stock of stemwood is 61.4 billion m{sup 3} as compared to North America - 50.3 billion m{sup 3} of which 51 billion m{sup 3} is made up of coniferous species. About 38.5 billion m{sup 3} (nearly 63 percent) of the growing stock are classified as mature and overmature forests. Nearly 65 percent of the Siberian forests are growing in areas with permafrost and more than 60 percent of the forested areas are classified as mountain forests. The carbon stock, accumulated in forest ecosystems of Siberia, exceeds 94 billion tons in total, with annual carbon sequestration at more than 170 million tons. This sink could be significantly increased by implementation of rational forestry in Siberia. Average stock per 1 ha of mature and overmature stands is 148 m{sup 3}. Average annual growth per 1 ha of forest-forming species is 1.31 m{sup 3}, among them conifers - 1.17 m{sup 3}. Siberia has roughly 40% of its original forests intact (the United States has less than 5% of its ancient forests).

Danilin, I.; Sokoly, V.

1997-12-31

177

Diamondiferous eclogites from Siberia: Remnants of Archean oceanic crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated eight diamond-bearing bimineralic eclogite xenoliths from the Udachnaya Mine, Yakutia, Siberia, in terms of major elements, 87 Sr \\/ 86 Sr -, 143 Nd \\/ 144 Nd and oxygen isotopic ratios. The 18 O -values, measured with the new laser-fluorination technique, are different from mantle values and range between 5.19 and 7.38%. with an average error of

D. Jacob; E. Jagoutz; D. Lowry; D. Mattey; G. Kudrjavtseva

1994-01-01

178

Chaos Reigns in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the third time in the last 14 months, Russian President Boris Yeltsin deposed his Prime Minister and Cabinet, intensifying the political chaos in a country beleaguered by economic insolvency, administrative corruption, and governmental mismanagement. The dismissals handed down on Wednesday, which included the popular PM Yevgeny M. Primakov, occurred the day before impeachment proceedings were to begin against Yeltsin in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the communist-led State Duma. Russia's first democratically elected President faces five impeachment charges, including initiating the collapse of the USSR, ordering an attack on parliament in 1993, destroying the armed forces, punishing the Russian people through harsh economic policies, and waging an illegal war against the secessionist Chechnya in 1994 through 1996. Political analysts forecast that only the last charge has a chance of passing the necessary two-thirds vote, slated for Saturday, in the 450-seat State Duma. Even if charged, it is unlikely that Yeltsin will be removed from office because the charge must also be approved by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Council of Federation, the parliament's upper house. However, the political imbroglio will paralyze the Russian government for months to come, and has already disrupted Russian diplomatic efforts to mediate a resolution to the crisis in Yugoslavia. The sites listed provide insight into this current Russian political crisis.

Osmond, Andrew.

179

Eddy covariance CO2 flux above a Gmelin larch forest on continuous permafrost in Central Siberia during a growing season  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gmelin larch ( Larix gmelinii) forests are representative vegetation in the continuous permafrost region of Central Siberia. Information on the carbon budget is still limited for this Siberian larch taiga in comparison to boreal forests in other regions, while the larch forests are expected to play a key role in the global carbon balance due to their wide distribution over North-East Eurasia. The authors reported results of eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements at a mature Gmelin larch stand in Central Siberia, Russia (64°16'N, 100°12'E, 250 m a.s.l.). The measurements were conducted during one growing season (June-early September in 2004). CO2 uptake was initiated in early June and increased sharply until late June, which was closely related to the phenology of the larch trees (i.e., bud-break and needle flush). Maximum half-hourly net CO2 uptake was ˜6 µmol m-2 s-1. Maximum daily net uptake of ˜2 g C m-2 day-1 occurred at the end of June and in mid-July. Cumulative net uptake was 76-78 g C m-2, indicating that the mature larch forest acted as a net sink for CO2 during the growing season (91 days). In comparison with other boreal forests, however, the magnitude of net CO2 uptake and night-time release of the forest, and cumulative net CO2 uptake were lower. We suggest that lower net ecosystem CO2 uptake of the study stand was primarily associated with low leaf area index.

Nakai, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kajimoto, T.; Abaimov, A. P.; Yamamoto, S.; Zyryanova, O. A.

2008-08-01

180

Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia  

SciTech Connect

Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with unpredictable regional and global effects.

Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T. [International Inst. for Strategic Studies, London (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31

181

28 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE WI NTE R 2012 "Had I stayed in Russia, in a pro-  

E-print Network

to the West. "They wanted me to gather intel- ligence on genetic engineering, a concept that both baffled28 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE WI NTE R 2012 "Had I stayed in Russia, in a pro- fession called molecular and genetics, most particularly for discovery of the biologi- cal functions of the proteolytic (protein

182

Spatio-temporal dynamics of climatic extreme indices over Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays numerous investigations are aimed at analysis of regional climatic extremes becoming more pronounced under climate change. In particular, obtained results indicate decrease of number of frost days and increase of growing season length over the most part of Siberian territory, and precipitation intensity increases in the northern part of Siberia [1]. To obtain the complete pattern of ongoing changes in climatic extremes the following indices dynamics should be analyzed: percentage of days when minimum/maximum temperature less than 10th percentile, percentage of days minimum/maximum temperature greater than 90th percentile, maximum length of dry/wet spell. Climatic extreme assessments are obtained based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis and APHRODITE JMA data for the time period from 1979 to 2007. These datasets reproduce the statistics of observed climate features in Siberia more accurately [1]. Modern techniques of mathematical statistics are used for analysis of the temporal and spatial behavior of above mentioned climatic characteristics. Data analysis has been done using computational-geoinformational web-system for analysis of regional climatic change [2]. Surface temperature and precipitation extreme assessments obtained for Siberian territory can help to get a better understanding of current changes in the biosphere and socio-economic aspects. Partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 11-05-01190a), SB RAS projects VIII.80.2.1 and 131, and the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science grant # 8345 is acknowledged. 1. Shulgina T.M., Genina E.Yu., Gordov E.P. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia // Environmental Research Letters, 2011. - DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045210. - 7 p. 2. Evgeny Gordov et al. Development of Information-Computational Infrastructure for Environmental research in Siberia as a baseline component of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) Studies / Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences // Series: Springer Environmental Science and Engineering. Ed.: Groisman, Pavel Ya., Gutman, Garik. Vol. XII, 2013. P. 19-55.

Shulgina, Tamara; Gordov, Evgeny; Genina, Elena

2013-04-01

183

Studying of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere over Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation into the atmosphere play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and participate in the formation and growth of aerosol particles that affect the atmospheric radiation balance and the earth’s climate. A number of VOCs, such as isoprene, monoterpene, methylvinylketone, and methacrolein, whose surface concentrations were measured between Moscow and Vladivostok in the course of the Transcontinental Observations into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (TROICA-12) experiment in July-August 2008, are considered. For the first time in Russia, a PTR-MS proton mass-spectrometer was used to measure the VOC concentrations. The continuous series of VOC concentrations in the atmosphere over the Trans-Siberian Railway were obtained, and the characteristic features of their variations were determined. The spatial distribution of the concentrations of biogenic VOC was compared with a map of Russia’s forests. It was found that the maximum concentrations of isoprene between Moscow and Vladivostok correspond to the zones of broad-leaved forests in the Far East and Primorskii Krai, and the maximum concentrations of monoterpene correspond to coniferous forests in Siberia. The obvious correlation between the concentrations of isoprene and the total concentration of methylvinylketone and methacrolein was revealed.

Timkovsky, I. I.; Elanskii, N. F.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Shumskii, R. A.

2010-06-01

184

Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657 000 km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0 °C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P > 0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P < 0.05) with Ts across 56% of the watershed (r = 0.52 ± 0.09, mean ± SD), principally in cold areas, and with CMIgy across 9% of the watershed (r = 0.45 ± 0.06), largely in warm areas. Larch ring-width measurements from nine sites revealed that year-to-year (i.e., high-frequency) variation in growth positively correlated (P < 0.05) with June temperature (r = 0.40) and prior summer CMI (r = 0.40) from 1938 to 2007. An unexplained multi-decadal (i.e., low-frequency) decline in annual basal area increment (BAI) occurred following the mid-20th century, but over the NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P > 0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r = 0.44, P < 0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies that projections of future forest distribution and productivity in this area should take into account the interactions of energy and moisture limitations. PMID:23813896

Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

2013-11-01

185

The Lithospheric Structure beneath the West and the South Ordos Block, China, from S Wave Receiver Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

From recent GPS studies, referring the Siberia plate, the northeast China (including Ordos) moves 2~8 mm\\/a eastward, and the west part of China moves fast eastward (~20mm\\/a). The west side of Ordos is in the compressional tectonic environment, which differs from the east side of Ordos in the extensional tectonic environment. And Ordos block is rigid and relatively stable. We

H. Li; L. Wang; M. Xu; C. Li; P. Wang; N. Mi; D. Yu

2010-01-01

186

[Arborviruses of the California encephalitis serogroup 1N Russia and their contribution to infectious pathology].  

PubMed

This review focuses on arborviral infections associated with California serocomplex (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus). Results of relevant eco-epidemiological and clinical studies in Russia are presented suggesting the ubiquitious nature of diseases caused by viruses of the California encephalitis serocomplex (Inko, Tahyna, Snowshoe Hare). The etiologic structure of these diseases in taiga and mixed woods of the European part and Western Siberia is dominated by the Inco virus and in southern regions by Tahina. The diseases have a well apparent seasonal pattern (July-August) in agreement with the peak summer activity of the pathogens. Two clinical forms of pathology are distinguished, influenza-like and generalized, the latter affecting lungs, kidneys, liver, and CNS. The Inco virus plays a key role in pathogenesis of the generalized form affecting CNS. PMID:21786596

Kolobukhina, L V; L'vov, S D

2011-01-01

187

Russia's European Economic Integration: Escapism and Realities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both Russia and the EU are undertaking significant changes in foreign trade relations. Russia seeks WTO accession and the EU has concluded negotiations enlarging the union with ten new members. Against this background, what economic relationship can EU and Russia develop? The Paper analyses the asymmetric trade structure, the unstable and confused trade relation, as well as both form and

Carl B Hamilton

2003-01-01

188

Russia between transition and globalization Olga GARANINA  

E-print Network

France of Grenoble (France) St Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance (Russia) Mailing the beginning of the transition. We study the politico-economic configuration in Russia in terms of (i) its. Meanwhile, the economic (and hence political) equilibrium in Russia remains extremely dependent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

What is a reindeer? Indigenous perspectives from northeast Siberia  

E-print Network

, in effect a portable bit of the deer which is always with you. It can sometimes be recognised by its strange eyes which may be milky, ‘hypnotic,’ or ‘like a shaman.’ It is sometimes said that it is blind by day but can see at night, when its eyes glow... change: applying a generalized framework for vulnerability studies to a sub-Arctic social-ecological system. Global Environmental Change 17: 191–206 Ulturgasheva, O. 2012. Narrating the future in Siberia: childhood, adolescence and autobiography among...

Vitebsky, Piers; Alekseyev, Anatoly

2014-06-26

190

Paleohydrology of late pleistocene superflooding, altay mountains, siberia.  

PubMed

Cataclysmic flooding is a geomorphological process of planetary significance. Landforms of flood origin resulted from late Pleistocene ice-dammed lake failures in the Altay Mountains of south-central Siberia. Peak paleoflows, which exceeded 18 x 10(6) cubic meters per second, are comparable to the largest known terrestrial discharges of freshwater and show a hydrological scaling relation to floods generated by catastrophic dam failures. These seem to have been Earth's greatest floods, based on a variety of reconstructed paleohydraulic parameters. PMID:17832349

Baker, V R; Benito, G; Rudoy, A N

1993-01-15

191

[Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established. PMID:20799643

Kur'ina, I V; Pre?s, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

2010-01-01

192

Has Hydroclimatology in Eastern Siberia Impacted by Climatic Change?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wide-ranging environmental changes have been documented for the Arctic over the last few decades. The documents suggest that the Arctic is experiencing changes never seen in historic times. The physical, biological, and chemical components of the Arctic system are interrelated through a network of linkage, feedbacks, and multi-dependent interactions, therefore a change of one variable in a part of the system can initiate a cascade of regional effects and have global ramifications. In eastern Siberia, a number of changes in terrestrial processes have documented from field measurements and simulations. The representative phenomena are the increasing river discharge, permafrost reduction, early snowmelt, expanded growth period, wetness, and so on. To quantify the dynamics of the terrestrial processes, a land surface model (CHANGE, coupled hydrological and biogeochemical model) was applied to eastern Siberia over the past 20-year. In the Arctic, the terrestrial processes are very sensitive to several components, which are, for instance, the accumulation and melt of snow, organic matter, ice amount within soil layers, and various land-surface conditions. CHANGE does consider the effects of the components on the hydrological and biogeochemical processes. The model also represents spatial heterogeneity in land cover by dividing each grid cell into three land cover types: lake, wetland, and vegetation. The vegetated portion of the grid cell is further divided into several patches of plant functional types. Multiple plant functional types can co-occur in a grid cell. Simulation showed significant difference in the spatial distribution of evapotranspiration. The boreal forest indicated about two times higher evapotranspiration than tundra. However, evapotranspiration of tundra was dominated by evaporation from soil surface, while in boreal forest, transpiration was the dominant of evapotranspiration. The water-year time series of precipitation and evapotranspiration indicated an increasing trend in eastern Siberia during 1986-2004. The initiating day of snowmelt also indicated an advanced trend during the same period. Thawing depth during the same period showed increasing trend, which seems to be related to the early snowmelt and climatic change perhaps. Theses series of changes suggest that eastern Siberia has already affected by climatic change.

Park, H.; Ohata, T.; Iijima, Y.; Yabuki, H.; Kodama, Y.

2009-12-01

193

Punishing Juvenile Offenders in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current literature onjuvenilejustice in Russia is limited and tends to focus on the former Soviet Union. Using newly transled data we exunine the police and cowt dispositions ofjuveniles tested forseriousoffenses in Russiaduringthe period 1990-1999. Thetotal crime rate forjuveniles increased dramatically during this period, as did rests and convictions. Mostjuveniles were arested for theft. There was, however, a unexplained ptn

James L. Williams; Daniel G. Rodeheaver

2002-01-01

194

Health care reform in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The break-up of the former Soviet Union has created a greater realisation of the health and health care deficiencies of what are now independent states and the need for reform. The purpose of these two papers is to describe these deficiencies and set the scene for the establishment of some form of national health insurance in Russia and the other

O P Schepin; V Yu Semenov; Igor Sheiman

1992-01-01

195

Tidal power plants in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the performance of tidal power plants in Russia and the expansion of tidal plant to new sites. The topics of the article include remote construction and transport techniques, pilot plant performance, economics and payback, and a review of global tidal power plant designs that are on hold due to economic problems relating to the global economy.

L. B. Bernshtein

1994-01-01

196

Russia in the Boxer Rebellion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russian Far Eastern policy at the end of the nineteenth century changed from the simple system of bilateral relations to the global system, in which interests and possibilities of Russia and China were not the most important factors.Russian participation in the suppression of the Boxer Rebellion led to the stage in which it was very hard to talk about “special

Alena N. Eskridge-Kosmach

2008-01-01

197

Resets, Russia, and Iranian Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Obama administration touts the reset policy with Russia as one of its signal achievements in foreign policy. One of the key elements of its argument is Russia’s help with Iran. Upon closer inspection it appears, however, that this support is tenuous and limited. Indeed, we may have reached the end of the line in terms of Russian support for

Stephen Blank

2012-01-01

198

Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia  

E-print Network

pan. This book is one of the fruits of that collaboration. 'There are accounts of the history of Russia, Mongolia, and the various republics of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). These include one by American, Russian, Polish, and l...longolian teams, since their discovery in the 1920s

Benton, Michael

199

Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

Rimashevskaia, N. M.

2011-01-01

200

St. Petersburg: Russia's Cultural Capital  

E-print Network

Peter the Great's beautiful 18th-century city on foot, by coach, and by hydrofoil and boat Peterhof · Icebreaker Krasin Board a hydrofoil to Peter the Great's estate, Peterhof, dotted with more than system of pipes. Visit Peter the Great's self-designed residence, Monplaisir Palace. Climb aboard Russia

Seager, Sara

201

Problems of Russia's Economic Security  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present article's assessment of the condition of Russia's economic security is based on the view of a country's national security as a condition in which threats to its basic national-state interests and to its very existence are eliminated or neutralized. Such threats may arise in the most diverse spheres and areas of society's life-activity because of internal and external

V. Medvedev

1998-01-01

202

Metropolises and Russia's Economic Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1991, when Russia opened again, the world became a global world, where the regions organised by metropolises turned into global economic players. According to the newest research, a metropolis is an urban centre of not less than a million of inhabitants, concentrating upper service and control functions, disseminating prosperity to its hinterland and acting as \\

P. Marchand; I. Samson

2004-01-01

203

Scholars at Risk in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will share my general thoughts on safe haven for scholars at risk, based on my own experience, and will discuss scholars at risk in Russia. At the present time, these are mostly scientists falsely accused of espionage. I will highlight the special issues this fact raises for providing support or safe haven for such scientists.

Orlov, Yuri

2006-04-01

204

Systenostrema alba Larsson 1988 (Microsporidia, Thelohaniidae) in the Dragonfly Aeshna viridis (Odonata, Aeshnidae) from South Siberia: morphology and molecular characterization.  

PubMed

An octospore microsporidium was found in the nymphs of Aeshna viridis, collected in intermittent streams near Novosibirsk, Siberia, Russia in 2003. Spores were uninucleate and measured 6.1+/-0.07 x 3.0+/-0.04 microm on fresh smears. The polar filament was anisofilar having 10-11 anterior coils (thicker filament diam.) and 10-11 posterior (thinner filament diam.) coils. Sporophorous vesicles were persistent and measured 12.3+/-0.23 x 11.9+/-0.20 microm. The infection was restricted to the adipose tissue and caused the formation of whitish "cysts" containing mature octospores. Based on ultrastructural similarity we consider this Siberian isolate to be Systenostrema alba, a species described from Aeshna grandis collected in Sweden (Larsson 1988). Maximum likelihood, neighbor joining, and maximum parsimony analyses of the small subunit rDNA all placed Systenostrema alba (Accession no. AY953292) as the sister taxon to a clade consisting of Thelohania solenopsae, Tubulinosema ratisbonensis, and Tubulinosema acridophagus. PMID:16441586

Sokolova, Yuliya Y; Kryukova, Nataliya A; Glupov, Viktor V; Fuxa, James R

2006-01-01

205

Thermokarst lake waters across the permafrost zones of western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the hydrochemical composition of thermokarst lake and pond ecosystems, which are observed in various sizes with different degrees of permafrost influence and are located in the northern part of western Siberia within the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. We analysed the elemental chemical composition of the lake waters relative to their surface areas (from 10 to 106 m2) and described the elemental composition of the thermokarst water body ecosystems in detail. We revealed significant correlations between the Fe, Al, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and various chemical elements across a latitude gradient covering approximately 900 km. Several groups of chemical elements that reflect the evolution of the studied water bodies were distinguished. Combining the data for the studied latitude profile with the information available in the current literature demonstrated that the average dissolved elemental concentrations in lakes with different areas depend specifically on the latitudinal position, which is presumably linked to (1) the elements leached from frozen peat, which is the main source of the solutes in thermokarst lakes, (2) marine atmospheric aerosol depositions, particularly near the sea border and (3) short-range industrial pollution by certain metals from the largest Russian Arctic smelter. We discuss the evolution of the chemical compositions observed in thermokarst lakes during their formation and drainage and predict the effect that changing the permafrost regime in western Siberia has on the hydrochemistry of the lakes.

Manasypov, R. M.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Shirokova, L. S.

2014-07-01

206

Evaluating oil, gas ventures in W. Siberia: Feasibility studies  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the methodology and calculations used in performing the economic evaluations for a typical western Siberia oil project venture. The discussion of taxes, funds, depreciation, and costs assumes the venture is a stock company and that economics are calculated on a project basis. Most ventures available to western companies are delineated oil fields that are not yet developed or producing. The authors focus on this type of property. The required elements for an economic evaluation include original-oil-in-place (OOIP) and recoverable reserves; development plan and associated production forecast; and capital requirements and operating costs. The level of evaluation-i.e., screening, preliminary feasibility study, Technical Efficiency of Organization (TEO), or full feasibility study-determines the detail needed for each of these elements. Several economic analyses of a venture should be made to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative development plans, joint venture deal terms, capital requirements, operating costs, product prices, and taxation variables. The first three parts of this five part series dealt with (1) log and core data, (2) reservoir description and (3) flow tests and reservoir performance, and provided a technical foundation for the evaluation of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia.

Krug, J.A. (Questa Engineering Corp., Golden, CO (United States)); Connelly, W. (Pangea International Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

1993-02-08

207

Long-term trends and changes of soil temperature of recent decade in the permafrost zone of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern regions of Russia have rich natural resources (oil, gas). In recent years in these areas are increasingly built engineering structure for oil and gas production and their transportation. Current global warming has a great influence on soil condition in the permafrost zone. This can lead to negative effects on buildings and infrastructure which are built on frozen soils. Changes of the soil state in area of permafrost demand serious studying. Next steps have been done for research of this problem: Part 1. a) The daily data set of soil temperature under natural surface at depths up to 320 cm at the Russian meteorological stations has been prepared. The earliest year of data set is 1963, the current version is ending in 2011 (660 stations of Russia). Quality control of original data was performed in creating this data set. b) The data set of computed depth of soil seasonal thawing at the Russian meteorological stations till 2011 has been prepared (107 stations with yearly depth of thawing). Part 2. Changes of soils' condition for the last five decades have been researched based on the prepared data sets. The change of mean annual soil temperature at depths has been researched and soil warming in the vast area for 1963 - 2010 has been shown, the great trends (0,2 ÷ 0,4°C /10 years) increase at 320 cm have been found in Western and Eastern Siberia, and the greatest trends (0,4 ÷ 0,5°C/10 years) are found in their south part. This creates favorable conditions for increase of seasonal thawing depth in a permafrost zone, especially in its south part. The map of average depth of soil seasonal thawing for the same period (1963-2010) was made. It showed that the greatest depths of thawing 300-400 cm were observed near the border of permafrost and the smallest depths 50-250 cm predominate in the area of continuous permafrost. Part 3. Global warming of climate was slowed down from the beginning of the XXI century as it is known from publications. Additional researches of soil temperature change in recent decade showed that positive trends of soil temperature for this decade were changed on negative trends (-0,2 ÷ -0,6°C/10 years) in the South and the southeast of Western Siberia. The most intensive decrease of soil temperature in this region is observed since 2007. Trends of the thawing depth for permafrost soils were obtained for 2001-2011. Greatest significant positive trends of thawing depth have been obtained in Eastern Siberia (3÷5 cm/year). However, spots with significant negative trends are obtained in central Yakutia, and also to the south of Lake Baikal and near the Kolyma River mouth. Conclusions: 1. Using the Russian daily data set of soil temperature at depths up to 320 cm for last 40-50 years, soil warming is shown over the vast territory of the Russia. Maximum trends at the 320 cm depth are found in the south part of Western and Eastern Siberia. 2. One of the impacts of the current climate changes is the general tendency for the increase in the seasonal thawing depth on the vast territory of Western and Eastern Siberia. 3. In recent decade the tendency of soil temperature decrease has been appeared in south part of Western Siberia near south border of permafrost also decrease of seasonal thawing depth has been appeared in some regions. The work was done with the financial support of RFBR (project 11-05-00691).

Sherstiukov, A.

2013-12-01

208

Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia  

SciTech Connect

Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

2010-05-01

209

Contradicting climate versus vegetation history in NE-Siberia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Siberia may play a key role for the climate on the entire Earth. The classical Milankovitch Theory suggests that changes in summer insolation due to the Earth' orbital parameters caused build-up of snow and ice over the extensive continental masses at high northern latitudes. Various positive feedback mechanisms, like surface albedo and sequestration/release of atmospheric carbon dioxide in/from frozen, organic-rich soils, could then be responsible for the onset of global glaciations. More recently, high northern latitudes have also gained a lot of attention due to the potential of their soils and peats to release large amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. The Siberian ecosystems may turn into significant greenhouse gas sources as global warming continues and causes melting of permafrost and mineralisation of soil organic material that has been built up and stored over thousands of years. Quaternary scientists are therefore searching for long-term and continuous archives in order to reconstruct the Siberian climate and landscape history. A wide range of different analytical tools (e.g. different dating techniques, elemental composition, mineralogy, magnetic properties, grain size distribution, characterisation of organic matter and palynology) is used to infer palaeoclimatically and palaeoecologically relevant information. All of these methods have their advantages and their disadvantages. For instance, pollen analyses allow a high taxonomic differentiation, but variable pollination rates of different plant species, influx of long-distance transported pollen, and variable preservation of different pollen taxa have to be considered. Concerning the interpretation of pollen spectra in NE-Siberia, arboreal pollen, especially larch pollen, are traditionally considered to be ‘warm plant taxa', hence the occurrence of these pollen in archives is interpreted as reflecting warm interglacial or interstadial conditions. We have recently presented a multi-proxy analytical characterisation and palaeoclimatic interpretation of a loess-like permafrost palaeosol sequence (the Tumara Palaeosol Sequence, TPS) in NE-Siberia (Zech et al., 2008, Geoderma 143(3-4), pp. 281-295). Accordingly, the TPS developed on a Middle Pleistocene fluvio-glacial terrace, comprises a sequence of glacial and interglacial/-stadial palaeosols and represents the last ~240,000 years. Palaeosols with higher contents of organic matter (Corg up to 2.5%) are correlated with glacial periods, whereas palaeosols with low contents of organic matter (Corg ~0.5%) are correlated with interglacial periods. This Corg pattern is explained with a thinner active permafrost layer, water logging and reduced organic matter degradation during glacials. However, the reconstructed vegetation history based on unpublished alkane biomarker and pollen analyses seems to be at odds with the climate history based on the pedologic features. Namely in the lower part of the TPS, we found evidence for forest vegetation and abundant Larix pollen in the stratigraphic unit correlated with the Late Saalian glaciation (130-160 ka BP) (Svendsen et al., 2004, Quaternary Science Reviews 23(11-13), pp. 1229-1271) and the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. Trees, especially larch, are traditionally regarded as ‘warm plant taxa' in NE-Siberia. Interestingly, similar severe discrepancies between the vegetation history and the geochemically derived chronostratigraphy have also been described for the sediments from Crater Lake El'gygytgyn (Lozhkin et al., 2007, Journal of Paleolimnology 37, pp. 135-153), the latter certainly being the most continuous and long-term archive in the study area. In order to explain these discrepancies, we suggest that various palaeoclimatic parameters, like temperature, precipitation, and seasonality, differently affected (i) glaciations, (ii) pedogenetic conditions and (iii) vegetation history, respectively. (i) Concerning glaciations, NE-Siberia is characterised by an extreme continental climate with very low winter temperatures causing several hundreds of meter

Zech, M.; Zech, R.

2009-04-01

210

Total ozone changes and predictions of the abnormal winters in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for the extended-range predictions of extreme cold/warm winters in the distinct regions of Russia using the total ozone data as the stratospheric predictor is proposed. It was shown that cold (warm) Februarys in the western Siberia and southern Russia are strongly associated with increases (decreases) of the total ozone over the western North Atlantic in Jan-uary during 1979-1994 [Jadin, 2004]. This linkage is stable during 1980-2004 with the slight re-routing of the total ozone key point for predictions [Jadin and Zyulyaeva, 2010]. A possible mechanism of the relationship between the total ozone changes over the western North Atlantic in January and the weather changes in the western Siberia in February can be connected with the influence of the downward planetary wave propagation in the lower stratosphere over North Atlantic ("stratospheric bridge") [Zyulyaeva and Jadin, 2009] on the ozone changes in this re-gion in January and its subsequent forcing on the tropospheric circulation in Eurasia especially on the interannaul variability of the Siberian high. Analysis of the daily total ozone (TOMS) and surface temperature (NCEP) data is confirming this strong linkage for the last years, for ex-ample, for the very cold early February in the western Siberia in 2009 and 2010. These findings give evidences that the total ozone can be used as a good stratospheric predictor for the statis-tical extended-range predictions of extreme weather events in the distinct regions of Eurasia. References: Jadin E.A., Ozone and Surface Air Temperature Changes, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, v.10, 64-73, 2004. Jadin, E.A. and Yu.A.Zyulyaeva, Interannual variations of the total ozone, stratospheric dynamics, extra-tropical SST anomalies and predictions of ab-normal winters in Eurasia, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2010, in press. Zyulyaeva Yu.A., Jadin E.A., Analysis of three -dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes in the lower strato-sphere, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, v.8, 5-14, 2009. (http://ao.atmos.colostate.edu).

Jadin, Evgeny

211

A long-living species of the hydrophiloid beetles: Helophorus sibiricus from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo (Siberia, Russia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The recent hydrophiloid species Helophorus (Gephelophorus) sibiricus (Motschulsky, 1860) is recorded from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo assigned to the Ombinsk Formation. A detailed comparison with recent specimens allowed a confident identification of the fossil specimen, which is therefore the oldest record of a recent species for the Hydrophiloidea. The paleodistribution as well as recent distribution of the species is summarized, and the relevance of the fossil is discussed. In addition, the complex geological settings of the Kartashevo area are briefly summarized. PMID:22259280

Fikacek, Martin; Prokin, Alexander; Angus, Robert B.

2011-01-01

212

Fe-U-PGE-Au-Ag-Cu Deposits of the Udokan-Chiney Region (East Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. Cupriferous sandstones-shales and magmatic copper-nickel deposits mark out the western and southern boundaries of the Siberian Craton accordingly. Of special interest are the Paleoproterozoic deposits of the Udokan-Chiney mining district (Gongalskiy, Krivolutskaya, 2008). Copper reserves and resources of this region are estimated at more than 50 Mt. Half of them is concentrated at the unique Udokan Deposit and the second half is distributed among sedimentary (Unkur, Pravoingamakitskoye, Sakinskoye, Krasnoye, Burpala) and magmatic deposits of the Chiney (Rudnoye, Verkhnechineyskoye, Kontaktovoye), Luktur and Maylav massifs. Results. It was established that the ores are characterized by similarity in chemical composition (main, major and rare elements that are Ag, Au, PGE) and mineral assemblages with varying proportions. It is important to emphasize that Fe role in mineralization was previously ignored. Meanwhile the Udokan deposit contains 10 Mt of magnetite metacrystals so as chalcocite ores may contain up to 50% magnetite too. It has been recently found that the Chiney titanomagnetite ores comprise commercially significant uranium and rare-earth metal concentrations (Makaryev et al., 2011). Thus the Udokan-Chiney region comprises Cu, Fe, Ti, V, U, REE, Ag, Au, PGE. These deposits differ from similar objects, the Olympic Dam in particular, by a much smaller content of fluid-bearing minerals. Copper mineralization at the Udokan is represented by chalcocite-bornite ores. They occur as ore beds conformable with sedimentary structures or as cross-cutting veins. The central zones of the former are often brecciated. They are rimmed by fine magnetite, bornite, and chalcocite dissemination. Bornite-chalcopyrite and chalcopyrite-pyrite veins are known at the lower levels of the Udokan ore bed. Such ore compositions are predominant in other ore deposits in sedimentary rocks (Pravoingamakitskoye, Unkur) and have a hydrothermal origin. Silver grades are up to 370 g/t in grab samples (Gongalskiy et al., 2008a). The long-lived Udokan-Chiney ore-magmatic has small areal extent of explosive rocks and breccias (n*10 m) with massive sulfide veins (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) which are similar to Sudbury offset dikes. While the same vertical zones at the Rudnoye deposit have been confirmed over 0.5 km downward from the lower contact of the Chiney massif. Conclusions. Multielement and similar mineralogical composition ores of different deposits in the Udokan-Chiney area reflect long evolution of ore processes in very movable block of the crust. Observed combination of magmatic, sedimentary and partially hydrothermal deposits is a result of the telescoping of a wide range of metals into a limited area.

Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Murashov, K.; Nistratov, S.; Gryazev, S.

2012-04-01

213

Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) Infecting Cricetid Rodents from Alaska, U.S.A., and Northeastern Siberia, Russia, and Description of a  

E-print Network

); 116/159 (73%) Microtus pennsylvanicus (E. saxei, E. wenrichi); 9/52 (17%) Microtus xanthognathus (E infections: 15/72 (21%) Lemmus trimucronatus (Eimeria spp. 3, 4, 5); 10/29 (34%) Microtus longicaudus (Eimeria saxei, Eimeria wenrichi); 41/88 (47%) Microtus miurus (Eimeria coahiliensis, Eimeria ochrogasteri

214

Estimation of periphytic microalgae gross primary production with DCMU-fluorescence method in Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periphyton (epilithon) gross primary production (GPP) was estimated using the DCMU-fluorescence method in the Yenisei River.\\u000a In the unshaded littoral zone, chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) and GPP value varied from 0.83 to 973.74 mg m?2and 2–304,425 O2 m?2 day?1 (0.64–95 133 mg C m?2 day?1), respectively. Positive significant correlation (r?=?0.8) between daily GPP and periphyton Chl a was found. Average ratio GPP:Chl

V. I. Kolmakov; O. V. Anishchenko; E. A. Ivanova; M. I. Gladyshev; N. N. Sushchik

2008-01-01

215

[Transformation of soil organic matter in microarthropod community from the Northern Taiga of West Siberia].  

PubMed

Recolonization of defaunated soil by springtails as well as by gamasid and oribatid mites and the changes in organic matter content of soil were studied in the northern taiga. After a one-year exposure in gauze bags (1.7 mm mesh), the abundance of microarthropods was higher but the number of species was lower compared to the surrounding soil. Large surface and litter forms did not colonize the samples, while the number of small and/or soil forms was higher. Soil samples inaccessible for microarthropods (0.15 mm mesh) were depleted of organic carbon compared to both surrounding soil and recolonized samples. The content of humic and fulvic acids was higher in the samples inaccessible to microarthropods. Humification processes prevailed in soils in the absence of microarthropods. PMID:16521545

Mordkovich, V G; Berezina, O G; Liubechanski?, I I; Andrievski?, V S; Marchenko, I I

2006-01-01

216

Structural-group composition of resin substances of petroleums in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Resin-asphaltene substances (RAS) are the most representative group of non-hydrocarbon petroleum components, which have a negative effect on catalytic processes of oil refining and on the operational indices of petroleum products. At the same time they are one of the main reserves for further increasing the extent petroleum exploitation. Therefore, an understanding of the composition and structure of resin-asphaltene substances is of considerable importance both for oil refining and the production of high-grade petroleum products. Reasonably reliable information concerning the structural-group composition of resin-asphaltene substances has only been forthcoming in recent years as a result of the development of NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass-spectrometry. In this study structural-group composition of petroleum resins of the Fedorov deposit (Tyumen region), was obtained using mass-spectrometry, PMR- and /sup 13/C-NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis and molar masses. 9 references, 3 tables.

Nesterenko, V.I.; Ogorodnikov, V.D.; Brodskii, E.S.; Plyusnin, A.N.

1984-01-01

217

Seed germination of Fragaria vesca L. From atypical ecotopes of West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed formation and seed germination rate were established to be essentially higher in Fragaria vesca L. populations growing in the ecotopes which are atypical for wood strawberry than in the standard ecotopes for the species.\\u000a Having equal capabilities for cross-pollination and self-pollination, the plants exhibit higher level of xenogamy than autogamy\\u000a when growing in atypical ecotopes. Xenogamy predomination promotes the

S. O. Baturin

2009-01-01

218

Interception by sphagnum in a bog mire catchment of central West-Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrology of mires (pristine peatland ecosystems) hardly has been analyzed quantitatively. The general idea, that mires can retain precipitation water (`sponge effect') has never been proved by real field data. Missing data for evaluation of these properties are actual evapotranspiration, water conductivity and interception of rainwater by peatland mosses and peat layers below. The newly opened Mukhrino Field Station,

W. Bleuten; I. Filippov

2009-01-01

219

[Karyological studies of two populations of Juniperus communis L. in west Siberia].  

PubMed

Results of a karyological study of Juniperus communis L. populations under swamp and dry conditions are presented. The chromosome number of J. communis are 2n = 22. Analysis of morphological chromosome parameters showed a similarity between karyotypes of both populations. It is possible to identify one pair of asymmetric chromosomes (VIII pair); this chromosome pair is close to submetacentric type. Three pairs of chromosomes (I, VII, VIII) have secondary constrictions. Other metacentric chromosomes form groups of five long (II--VI) and three short (IX-XI) pairs. Differences between two populations in absolute chromosomal length are observed. PMID:16706220

Mikheeva, N A; Muratova, E N

2005-01-01

220

Structural-group composition of resin substances of petroleums in west Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resin-asphaltene substances (RAS) are the most representative group of non-hydrocarbon petroleum components, which have a negative effect on catalytic processes of oil refining and on the operational indices of petroleum products. At the same time they are one of the main reserves for further increasing the extent petroleum exploitation. Therefore, an understanding of the composition and structure of resin-asphaltene substances

V. I. Nesterenko; V. D. Ogorodnikov; E. S. Brodskii; A. N. Plyusnin

1984-01-01

221

Federalism and Russias economic development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The system of center\\/region separation of powers in Russia has not yet been completed and is still the object of lawmaking activity, political dialogue, legal debates and professional discussions. The recent changes in economic and other spheres create favorable conditions to use the benefits from federalism as a long-run factor and resource. At the same time, the dynamics of center\\/region

L. Polishchuk

2006-01-01

222

Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some findings of those projects will be presented in the report. The information-computational infrastructure is aimed to manage multidisciplinary environmental data and to generate high resolution data sets on demand. One of its key elements, optimizing the usage of information-computational resources, services and applications is the climatic web portal under development. The prototype (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/) is now providing an access to an interactive web- GIS system for climate change assessment on the base of available meteorological data archives in the selected region. SIRS education and training program is run via annual organization in the region either international multidisciplinary conference with elements of young scientists school ENVIROMIS or young scientists school and collocated international conference CITES (http://www.scert.ru/en/conferences/). All the listed above activities have an international dimension whose enlargement might significantly assist in profound understanding of regional and global consequences in on-going Siberia processes.

Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

2010-12-01

223

Estimation of Fire Radiative Energy in Siberia Using MODIS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity of heat release during biomass combustion is an important characteristic of wildfires. Space-borne systems, such as MODIS radiometer, provide observations of fire locations, as well as an estimate of the amount of radiant energy emitted by the fire. Such measures of fire radiative power (FRP) provide information on the fireline heat release intensity and on the rate of biomass combustion in large scale and are important for the analysis of fire impact on vegetation. In this study we analyzed the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of detected wildfires in Siberia considering their radiative power. For the analysis we used database of fire detections made by MODIS instrument located on TERRA and AQUA satellites for 2002- 2013. For the detected fire pixels the frequency of their occurrence was calculated depending on the radiative power. More than 80% of all detected pixels had radiative power less than 100 MW. The distribution of fires according to their radiative power values was obtained for different regions of Siberia characterized by various vegetation and climatic conditions. Geospatial analysis performed using vegetation maps for the territory of Siberia and GIS layers of active fire detections showed that fires in deciduous and pine forests generally had lower intensities than fires in larch and spruce/fir forests. The rate of biomass combustion and the amount of heat emitted are strongly related to fuel moisture and therefore to weather conditions. In this study weather conditions were characterized using Russian and Canadian weather fire danger indices. Using images obtained during day and night satellite passes daily and long-term dynamics of fire radiative power was calculated. The long-term dynamics of fire radiative power measured by MODIS sensor was compared to weather fire danger indices calculated using on-ground weather stations data located in several Siberian regions mostly liable to fires. For most of the weather stations considered the Canadian fire weather index has better correlation with fire radiative power dynamics. However, the relationships between fire danger indices and fire radiative power have region specific parameters which can vary significantly.

Shvetsov, Eugene; Ponomarev, Evgenii

2014-05-01

224

[Polymorphism of the mtDNA control region in wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from the European part of Russia].  

PubMed

Genetic diversity ofwild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting the European part of Russia, including Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, and the Republic of Karelia was characterized using sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA control region. Despite of currently low population number of wild reindeer, they were characterized by a high level of genetic diversity (pi = 0.018; H= 0.872 to 0.914). Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between European reindeer and wild reindeer of Siberia. In reindeer from Murmansk oblast a haplotype in common with the wild reindeer form Southwestern Norway was described. The reindeer sample examined contained no haplotypes earlier described for the reindeer of Central Norway. It is suggested that in recent past wild reindeer from the European north of Russia formed one population with the reindeer from the north of the Asian part of Eurasia. PMID:23113338

Baranova, A I; Kholodova, M V; Davydov, A V; Rozhkov, Iu I

2012-09-01

225

Main phytostratigraphic boundaries in the Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the large collections of plant remains gained from cores of numerous boreholes drilled in Western Siberia made it possible to determine the taxonomic composition of the Jurassic flora of this region, the stages of its evolution, and the sequence of floral assemblages, which characterize the regional stratigraphic horizons indirectly correlated via series of parallel faunal, microfaunal, spore and pollen zonal scales with a general stratigraphic scale. The compositions of floral assemblages was established in the Hettangian-lower part of the upper Pliensbachian, upper part of the upper Pliensbachian, lower Toarcian, upper Toarcian, Aalenian, Bajocian, Bathonian, and Callovian-Oxfordian sediments. Criteria were elaborated to substantiate the Triassic-Jurassic and Lower-Middle Jurassic boundaries. Lithologically and biostrati-graphically, the Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary is poorly expressed.

Mogutcheva, N. K.

2014-05-01

226

Phylogeography and sympatric differentiation of the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) complex in Siberia as revealed by mtDNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Sequence variation in the mtDNA control region of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma from 56 Siberian and North American populations was analysed to assess their phylogeographic relationships and the origins of sympatric forms. Phylogenetic trees confirm the integrity of phylogroups reported in previous mtDNA studies except that the Siberian group does not separate as a single cluster. Haplotype network analysis indicates the proximity of Siberian and Atlantic haplotypes. These are considered as one Eurasian group represented by the Atlantic, east Siberian (interior Siberia including Transbaikalia, Taimyr) and Eurosiberian (Finland, Spitsbergen, Taimyr) sub-groups. Salvelinus alpinus with presumably introgressed Bering group (malma) haplotypes were found along eastern Siberian coasts up to the Olenek Bay and the Lena Delta region, where they overlap with the Eurasian group and in the easternmost interior region. It is proposed that Siberia was colonized by S. alpinus in two stages: from the west by the Eurasian group and later from the east by the Bering group. The high diversity of Eurasian group haplotypes in Siberia indicates its earlier colonization by S. alpinus as compared with the European Alps. This colonization was rapid, proceeded from a diverse gene pool, and was followed by differential survival of ancestral mtDNA lineages in different basins and regions, and local mutational events in isolated populations. The results presented here support a northern origin of Transbaikalian S. alpinus, the dispersion of S. alpinus to the Lake Baikal Basin from the Lena Basin, segregation of S. alpinus between Lena tributaries and their restricted migration over the divides between sub-basins. These results also support sympatric origin of intralacustrine forms of S. alpinus. PMID:20738544

Alekseyev, S S; Bajno, R; Gordeeva, N V; Reist, J D; Power, M; Kirillov, A F; Samusenok, V P; Matveev, A N

2009-08-01

227

The first record of "spelaeoid" bears in Arctic Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a long time, "spelaeoid" (cave-bear-like) bears, Ursus ( Spelearctos) spp., were believed to be almost purely European animals. Their geographic range has recently been extended to the east, in southern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Kirghizia, Mongolia and Korea. Two unexpected new findings, presented here in detail, significantly change existing views on the distribution of cave bears; both were found in North-Eastern Siberia, far beyond the Arctic Circle, more than 1500 km to the north-east of the previously accepted range. One of the fossils is a mandible, found near the town of Cherskiy at 68.73°N, 161.38°E. The analysis of local geology and accompanying mammal fossils suggests that it comes from the Olyorian Fauna (Early to early Middle Pleistocene). Morphologically, the Cherskiy mandible is closest to Ursus savini, a small middle Pleistocene cave bear from the British Cromer Forest-bed Formation, but differs in having a slightly more advanced dentition, and thus it is described as a new subspecies Ursus savini nordostensis. Another newly recognized fossil of the "spelaeoid" bear is an astragalus found at the Oskhordokh site at 67.54°N, 135.67°E, on a large gravel bar on the right bank of the Adycha River. This specimen is attributed to Ursus cf . deningeri. The paper also presents an interesting example of the interaction between classical and "molecular" palaeontology. The new finds significantly change existing ideas on the ecology and evolution of cave bears, some of the most remarkable members of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna.

Sher, Andrei V.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Davydov, Sergey P.; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Nikolskiy, Pavel A.

2011-08-01

228

Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n. sp., Veteronostocale medium n. sp., Filiconstrictosus cephalon n. sp., and Partitiofilum yakschinii n. sp.

Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.

1995-01-01

229

Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

2013-04-01

230

Cholera diffusion in Russia, 1823-1923.  

PubMed

All six cholera pandemics of the 19th and early 20th centuries struck Russia, causing millions of deaths. Cholera entered Russia from the south, with the Volga river system being a common and efficient route into the heart of the country. Diffusion was predominantly linear, along the navigable rivers and later, along the railroads. In contrast to Pyle's findings for the U.S.A., urban hierarchical diffusion was of only local significance in Russia. PMID:8016683

Patterson, K D

1994-05-01

231

Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties at a very remote, continental site. The instrumentation at the observatory comprises a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until May 2008, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of CO was observed with summer minima around 80 ppb and winter maxima of about 180 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were comparable to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N. Periods of elevated CO concentrations, typically lasting for one to three days, interrupted the mean annual cycle. Backward trajectories computed with the NOAA HYSPLIT model indicated changes of air mass origin associated with the CO peaks. It was found, that for several peaks air masses have passed over the region of Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During summer, very sharp peaks of CO concentration with no change of air mass origin were observed. In this case, local wild fires are most likely the cause of the increase of CO concentrations. This general picture was confirmed by the output of the MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model that predicted CO concentrations in good agreement with the measured CO concentration at the ZOTTO site, resembling the typical annual cycle of CO concentrations. Furthermore, some of the peaks related to changes of the air mass origin were also predicted by the model, while the peaks presumably caused by wild fires were not found. The optical properties of the aerosol showed intense variations over the observation period. Episodes with strongly elevated absorption coefficients and particle concentrations occurred between periods of typical background readings. Using gaseous tracers, especially CO, and back-trajectories, these episodes could be traced to anthropogenic emission regions. The combination of CO concentration and aerosol properties with the determination of the air mass origin enables us to distinguish between continental background air and air masses being influenced by anthropogenic activities. Long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

Mayer, J. C.; Birmili, W.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Juergens, N.; Kisilyakhov, Y.; Panov, A.; Andreae, M. O.

2009-12-01

232

Linkage between seasonal hydrology and carbon flux dynamics in tundra ponds: Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ponds have been recently recognized as being highly sensitive to changing climate. To date, ponds and lakes are disappearing in Alaska, Siberia and Canadian High Arctic because of climate warming (Fitzgerald et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2005; and Smol et al. 2007). While numerous limnological studies have been done on arctic ponds located in the Canadian High Arctic (Douglas and Smol, 1994; Hamilton et al. 2001; Lim et al., 2001), there is a limited number of studies on tundra ponds located in other circumpolar environments (e.g. Northern Siberia). Duff et al. (1999) describes tundra lakes in northern Russia as clear, dilute, oligotrophic lakes with low nutrients and dissolved organic carbon concentration. While numerous ponds and lakes exists in the Lena River Delta averaging to 2120 lakes of all sizes for every 1000 km2, no studies have been done to understand carbon flux dynamics of these freshwater ecosystems. In this study hydrological monitoring based on water balance framework was applied to a series of ponds and lakes located on Samoylov Island, 120 km south of the Arctic Ocean in the southern central Lena River Delta (72° 22' N, 126 ° 30' E) from July to September 2008. To better understand spatial differences in pond hydrology and carbon flux dynamics, the physical and biochemical data was collected from 42 tundra ponds. The selection of the ponds was based on their size (small, medium, large) and depth values ranging from 10 to 120 cm. The estimation of the seasonal water budget in 2008 showed that losses through evapotranspiration were offset by similar precipitation inputs and resulted in the equilibrium storage values in the study ponds prior to the freeze-back. Preliminary analysis showed that more than 50% of the ponds had DOC > 6.5 mg/l which exceeds average value of other Arctic ponds reported in literature (Duff et al. 1999 and Hamilton et al. 2001). Elevated DOC concentrations (> 8 mg/l) were found in the small and medium ponds with depth values ranging from 15 to 30 cm. The values of other environmental variables were significantly correlated with high correlations among Ca, Mg and Sr (r = 0.89 to 0.92). Similar to Duff et al. (1999) significant but weak correlations were found between conductivity, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and DOC values. While arctic pond ecosystems are highly sensitive to the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation, such elevated DOC values in the study ponds might contribute to better resilience of the pond ecosystem.

Abnizova, Anna; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia

2010-05-01

233

75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1071 and 1072 (Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be...

2010-03-01

234

75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1071 and 1072 (Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be...

2010-06-21

235

The Migration Behavior of College Students in Siberia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the conditions of the aging of the population of Russia there has been a steady decline in the size of the population, and starting in 2006 that includes a decline in the size of the working-age population. This is a very serious problem in regard to the social and economic development of the country, and the ways to solve the problem will…

Gorbacheva, E. A.

2008-01-01

236

The criteria of heavy snowfalls in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, unfortunately, the number of victims of natural hazards doesn't decrease in Russia. There are many reasons of that situation - both geographical and human. Russia is one of the most spread countries in the world and it has the big number of different types of natural phenomena, which can cause natural disaster. One of the reasons is the fact that the criteria of which meteorological or hydrological hazards can cause an emergency situation are equal for the whole territory of Russia. .And that's why many dangerous situations are underestimated. The analysis of the distribution of criteria in Russia shows that only temperature phenomena (such as frost or heat) have really space differentiation. According to directive documents in Russia, the criteria of heavy snowfall in all the territory of Russia is 20 mm per 12 hours - from subtropical to arctic regions. But the socio-economical and climatic conditions are so different, that using this one criteria is not rational at all. In the investigation held the author developed the method of differentiation the territoty of Russia and proposed different criteria of heavy snowfalls for chosen regions. The method is based, on one hand on analysis of 30-years statistics of natural disasters in Russia, and on other hand on the analysis of the density of population and the mean quantity of precipitation in the cold period in Russia. The geographical zoning of Russia was conduct and clusters with equal parameters were determined. That means that in these areas the same hydro meteorological characteristics can be used for. The new criteria for the number of natural phenomena (such as hale, snowfalls etc) were found. The analysis of this criteria of heavy snowfalls showed, that on 70 the territory of Russia this criteria (20 mm per 12 hours) is overstated. In the most of the big cities (according to the statistics and calculated data) in different climatic regions this criteria should be much lower - from 8 to 10 mm per 12 hours.

Gavrilova, Sofia

2013-04-01

237

[The first Pasteur stations in Russia].  

PubMed

The article considers the initial stage of organization of antirabic care of population of Russia. The history of organization in 1886 of the five initial Pasteur stations in Russia is presented The main directions of stations functioning and assessment of their activities is given. PMID:22991764

2012-01-01

238

The Study of Religious Freedoms in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In modern democracies, religious freedoms are fundamental. Thus, as Russia is shedding its Communist ideology and emerging as a democratic state, religious freedoms have become essential. With this in mind, I traveled to Moscow and Nizhniy-Novgorod to attend the Experts Conference on Religious Freedoms in Russia and to study the position of religious minorities in Russian society. My assistant was

Kyle Ballard

2003-01-01

239

Cholera diffusion in Russia, 1823-1923  

Microsoft Academic Search

All six cholera pandemics of the 19th and early 20th centuries struck Russia, causing millions of deaths. Cholera entered Russia from the south, with the Volga river system being a common and efficient route into the heart of the country. Diffusion was predominantly linear, along the navigable rivers and later, along the railroads. In contrast to Pyle's findings for the

K. David Patterson

1994-01-01

240

Comparison of observed and different reanalysis climatic characteristics over Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today numerous investigations have confirmed that warming over Siberian territory is significant and it inevitably would influence environment in the region. But it is impossible to obtain detailed pattern of climatic changes in the region using only in-situ measurements because there are gaps in observations and station network is sparse. Global climatic modeling archives (different reanalyses) would help solving this problem but they give scattered results leading to climate change assessment uncertainties. Thus, it is urgent to assess accuracy with which global climatic models reconstruct regional climate and to choose an archive which is closest to the observed meteorological parameters. To achieve this goal, we developed a technique for comparison reanalyses and observational data at the weather stations locations. This technique provides: analysis of time series comprehension, selection of homogeneous observational series and removal of series having gaps; choice of a proper interpolation method (bilinear interpolation, third-order polynomial, inverse distance weighted, modified Shepard's interpolation, and basic geostatistical kriging); assessment of differences between reanalyses data reconstructed at weather station locations and data observed at these stations using a set of approved statistical methods (ME, RMSE, chi-square). The technique developed has been applied to compare NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP II, ECMWF ERA-40, ECMWF ERA Interim, and APHRODITE JMA datasets with the data observed at weather stations in Siberia (55°-130°E, 50°-75°N) over period of 1979 - 2007. In particular, to describe air temperature and precipitation amount in Siberia, we selected 59 observational time series which meet the above requirements (less than 5 % gaps in the series). Reanalyses data have been reconstructed at these stations locations using modified Shepard's interpolation which gives the least deviation for different-size grids. Air temperature difference between ECMWF (ERA-40, ERA INTERIM) and NCEP (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP II) reanalyses was in average 0.3 °C with increase of data difference with latitude. Comparison of air temperature from the above reanalyses datasets and 59 observational series has shown that the ECMWF ERA INTERIM dataset is in a good agreement with the observations. Analysis of precipitation amount from ERA INTERIM and APHRODITE JMA archives has revealed that they are twice different. Comparison between reanalyses and observational data has shown that APHRODITE JMA dataset is closest to the observations (difference of 30-80 mm) [1]. Now we study dynamics of wind and pressure fields obtained with different reanalyses datasets using the comparison technique described above. The results obtained would provide reliable information for assessment of climate dynamics in the region and basis for validation of existing and new regional climatic models. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 10-07-00547a and 11-05-01190a) and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (contract 07.514.11.4044). [1] Shulgina T.M., Genina E.Yu., Gordov E.P. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia // Environmental Research Letters, 2011. - DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045210. - 7 p.

Shulgina, T.; Genina, E.; Gordov, E.

2012-04-01

241

A multitracer study of peat profiles from Tunguska, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two peat columns from Tunguska (Siberia) were analysed for pollen, spores, charcoal, trace elements and ?-emitters in order to identify the fingerprints of the impact of a still unidentified cosmic body (TCB), which occurred in the summer of 1908, and the level of environmental pollution in a background area of central Siberia. Peat layers were subject to non-destructive ?-ray spectrometry to derive radiochronology by the excess210Pb method. The age-to-depth relationship was crosschecked by using both 1963 horizon of 137Cs associated to maximum global fallout deposition and palynological data profiles. Vertical distributions of trace elements in the peat columns were obtained by PIXE multielemental analysis allowing determination of the levels of environmental contamination in a background region of the Siberian taiga. The association of heavy metals such as Ni, Co and Cu in the profiles suggests the connection of the area with mining and metal smelting activity in the north of the region through atmospheric circulation. As concerns global scale contamination, the inventory of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs (4.6 kBq m - 2 ) shows a value typical of remote slightly contaminated areas resulting from global scale redistribution of radioactive fallout from Cold War nuclear weapon testing. The atmospheric inventory of the natural radionuclide 210Pb, for which a mean annual flux of 200 Bq m - 2 yr - 1 has been calculated, is typical of continental regions. The influence of Tunguska Cosmic Body in the peat is recognizable by a large discontinuity in the palynological profile of the peat monolith at a depth coinciding with the 1908 layer as determined by the 210Pb technique, showing a large peak of total pollen counting attributed to the impact of the shockwave on the area in which huge tree stands were destroyed. Following the event, tree pollen concentration decreases abruptly showing the temporary inception of a mire environment with an increase of Sphagnum spore concentrations. Results of elemental analysis so far available do not show anomalies in the concentration profiles at depths coinciding with the Tunguska event layer indicating the need for pre-concentration technique enabling the detection of element associations typical of extraterrestrial materials.

Tositti, L.; Mingozzi, M.; Sandrini, S.; Forlani, L.; Buoso, M. C.; De Poli, M.; Ceccato, D.; Zafiropoulos, D.

2006-10-01

242

Impact of current climate on soil condition changes in the permafrost zone of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the permafrost zone climate changes have a great influence on soil condition. This can lead to negative effects on buildings and infrastructure. In this zone structures are built on frozen soils. Their strength properties depend on their thermal condition. For research of this problem: 1. The daily data set of soil temperature under natural surface at depths up to 320 cm at the Russian meteorological stations has been prepared. Current version is ending in 2010 (458 stations of WMO). 2. The yearly data set of computed depth of soil seasonal thawing at the Russian stations till 2010 has been prepared (74 stations of WMO). 3. Changes of soils' condition for the last five decades have been researched based on the prepared data sets. The change of mean annual soil temperature at depths has been researched and soil warming in the vast area for 1963 - 2010 has been shown, the great trends (0,2 - 0,4 /10 years) increase at 320 cm have been found in Western and Eastern Siberia, and the greatest trends (0,4 - 0,5/10 years) have been found in their south part. The greatest loss of the load-carrying capacity of foundations can be during a warm season. During the warm season the analysis of soils' temperature trends at depth 320 cm has shown that the greatest soils' warming is observed in south part of Siberia (0,4 - 0,6 /10 years). Trends which are more than 0,6/10 years are found in the Baikal lake area, also in the Amur river region. So, favorable conditions for increase of seasonal thawing depth in a permafrost zone, especially in its south part, have been shown. The map of average depth of soil seasonal thawing for 1963-2010 was made. It showed the following: the greatest depths of thawing 300-400 ?m were observed near the border of permafrost, the smallest depths 50-250 ?m predominate over the area of continuous permafrost. Thawing depth changes for 2001-2010 compared with 1971-1980 were researched. Prevail significant increase of thawing depth in Eastern Siberia (increase in 40-120 cm for different stations) and more moderate increase in the north part of the Russian Far East were showed. Trends of average thawing depth for 1963-2010 have been obtained. The greatest significant positive trends have been found in the north part of Eastern Siberia (3-4cm/year) and also in the Russian Far East (2-3cm/year). Conclusions: 1. The 40-50 years long observations show soil warming down to the 320 cm depth over the vast territory of the Russia. 2. The general tendency for the increase in the seasonal thaw depth on the vast territory of Eastern and Western Siberia is one of the impacts of the current climate changes. 3. The increase of seasonal thawing depth of permafrost soils in the basement of buildings can lead to deformation of the basements and buildings and their further destruction.

Sherstiukov, Artem

2013-04-01

243

Spatial and interannual variability of dissolved organic matter in the Kolyma River, East Siberia, observed using satellite imagery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kolyma River basin in northeastern Siberia, the sixth largest river basin draining to the Arctic Ocean, contains vast reserves of carbon in Pleistocene-aged permafrost soils. Permafrost degradation, as a result of climate change, may cause shifts in riverine biogeochemistry as this old source of organic matter is exposed. Satellite remote sensing offers an opportunity to complement and extrapolate field sampling of dissolved organic matter in this expansive and remote region. We develop empirically based algorithms that estimate chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Kolyma River and its major tributaries in the vicinity of Cherskiy, Russia. Field samples from July 2008 and 2009 were regressed against spectral data from the Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper-Plus. A combination of Landsat band 3 and bands 2:1 resulted in an R2 of 0.78 between measured CDOM and satellite-derived predictions. Owing to the strong correlation between CDOM and DOC, the resulting maps of the region show strong interannual variability of both CDOM and DOC, and important spatial patterns such as mixing zones at river confluences and downstream loading of DOC. Such variability was previously unobserved through field-based point observations and suggests that current calculations of DOC flux from the Kolyma River to the Arctic Ocean may be underestimates. In this era of rapid climate change, permafrost degradation, and shifts in river discharge, remote sensing of CDOM and DOC offers a powerful, reliable tool to enhance our understanding of carbon cycling in major arctic river systems.

Griffin, Claire G.; Frey, Karen E.; Rogan, John; Holmes, Robert M.

2011-09-01

244

Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe  

PubMed Central

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. PMID:23459685

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

245

Wind power in Russia Today: Development, resources, and technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

Wind power development in Russia and technology transfer from the West are discussed from an integrated perspective, including institutional and economic conditions, technologies, geography, and technology transfer experience. Commercialization has only begun in the last few years. Domestic technology development programs for 100-kW to 1000-kW turbines and wind farm projects are described. Good wind resources exist in at least 17 regions (out of 89) in the Far East, Far North, Northwest, North Caucasus, and Lower Volga. To Russians, wind power means jobs and autonomy. Joint ventures are an important form of technology transfer because of existing idle industrial capacity with skilled workers. Equipment imports to-date have been minimal. The only example of a production joint venture so far is Windenergo in Ukraine, which has begun to produce 110-kW turbines under a Kenetech Windpower license. Barriers to technology transfer are described and appear formidable. Russia remains a combination of technology transfer perspectives for developed, developing, and former Communist countries

Martinot, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Perminov, E.M. [Russian National Electric Utility RAO, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

246

Methane emissions from the West Siberian wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas contributing as much as 20% of the anthropogenic radiative forcing in the contemporary atmosphere. Therefore estimation of the relative contribution of different methane sources to the atmosphere is a crucial task in addressing the problem of global warming. Mires are the main natural source of methane. West Siberia gains the especial importance in this respect as one of the most paludified region in the world with the mire area of 68.5 Mha or 27% of this region area. Since the previously published estimations of the regional flux varied widely from 2 to 22 MtCH4y-1, long-term and large-scale investigations of CH4 emission were organized in this study. More than 1500 methane flux measurements were made during the summer-autumn of 2007-2010. All variety of wetland types was reduced to 8 microlandscape types: palsas, ryams (dwarf pine-shrub-sphagnum communities), ridges, eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic hollows, peat mats and wetland ponds. Mire micro-landscapes of 30 key sites distributed in 7 zones (tundra, forest-tundra, north, middle and south taiga, sub-taiga and forest-steppe) of West Siberia were observed. Methane fluxes were measured by the static chamber method. Emission data were generalized into spatial emission model. The model is based upon a fractional area coverage map of mire micro-landscapes, methane emission periods for each zone and methane flux probability density distributions for each microlandscape type in these zones. The methane emission map with the resolution 0.5°×0.5° was created. It was confirmed that palsas, ryams and ridges had the lowest methane fluxes (1st/2nd/3rd quartiles are -0.04/0/0.04 mgCH4m-2h-1 for palsas, 0/0.04/0.28 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ryams, 0/0.09/0.37 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ridges) while the peat mats, poor fens and fens had the highest fluxes (2.74/4.65/6.11 mgCH4m-2h-1 for peat mats, 1.15/3.35/6.21 mgCH4m-2h-1 for fens combined with poor fens). Highest methane fluxes, reaching hundreds of mgCH4m-2h-1, were observed in shallow ponds. Oligotrophic hollows of middle and south taiga as well as south taiga eutrophic hollows and ponds appeared as the most significant regional methane sources accounting for about 50% of the annual methane flux from West Siberia mires. The latest version of emission model estimates the total flux from all Western Siberia mires at 3.21 MtCH4y-1.

Maksyutov, S.; Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Sabrekov, A.; Peregon, A.; Machida, T.

2010-12-01

247

Modeling CH4 emission from a Siberia tundra site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane emission from peat soil links strongly to atmosphere methane concentration. Peatland-VU was developed as a process-based model, to simulate CH4 fluxes from peat soils. The model combined primary production, aerobic decomposition of soil organic matter, CH4 formation, oxidation, and transport. The new version model has been enhanced by including 1) a hydrological module to calculate water table, which plays a key role during the processes of methane production, for it determines the extents of anaerobic and aerobic soil zone, 2) a photosynthesis model to simulate net primary production. The soil freezing is also improved with a better calculation of the soil thermal conductivity. We test Peatland-VU on Kytalyk tundra site, an area situated in northeastern Siberia continuous permafrost zone, over a longer period of time (data series of 2003-2010). The results show that the magnitude of the simulated CH4 fluxes agree well with the measured fluxes, the seasonal patterns of the fluxes are correctly modeled as well as the discrepancy between wet and dry sites.

Mi, Y.; van Huissteden, J.

2012-12-01

248

Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia  

SciTech Connect

One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

2007-02-10

249

Arctic East Siberia had a lower latitude in the Pleistocene  

E-print Network

In Arctic East Siberia many remains of mammoths have been found. In this region there is not sufficient sunlight over the year to allow for the growth of the plants on which these animals feed. Consequently the latitude of these regions must have been lower before the end of the Pleistocene than at present. It is a challenge to reconstruct this geographic shift of the poles in a manner compa- tible with known facts. A possible sequence of events is described here. It as- sumes an additional planet, which must since have disappeared. This is possible, if it moved in an extremely eccentric orbit and was hot as a result of tidal work and solar radiation. During a few million years evaporation of this planet led to a disk-shaped cloud of ions moving around the Sun. This cloud partially shielded the Earth from the solar radiation, producing the alteration of cold and warm periods characterizing the Pleistocene. The degree of shielding is sensitive to the inclination of Earth's orbit, which has a period of 100000 y...

Wölfli, W

2006-01-01

250

Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

251

[Priest-doctors in Russia].  

PubMed

Jean Pierre Frank offers in the early nineteenth century a revolution in medical Russian Empire. Indeed, Russia is in an emergency situation where the lack of practitioners is obvious. The imperial project is inspired by past practices in some European countries. Frank fits these transfers and implements a unique model where the priest-doctor stands out as the solution to overcome the lack of medicalization of the Empire. Even if the attempt was a failure, it remains that the proposals were part of Frank in both an ancient tradition that priests and physicians providing care for souls and bodies, but also showed that called his wishes the advent of "public health" in this country disinherited. PMID:23923338

Berlan, Hélène; Triaire, Dominique

2012-01-01

252

Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations  

SciTech Connect

Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

Cornwell, G.C.

1998-12-01

253

Russia's energy policy: A framing comment  

SciTech Connect

A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

Aslund, A. [Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC (United States)

2006-05-15

254

Degradation processes of hydrological resources by human and climate - example of small lakes in Northern Kazakhstan and Southern Siberia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation discusses (on the basis of an actual application in the development of a curriculum for Integrated Water Cycle Management in Kazakhstan; TEMPUS I-WEB project) the diverse scientific approaches to explain the degradation of hydrological resources in West-Siberia and Nord-Kazakhstan by focussing on natural and anthropogenic causes by the example of the dry out of small lakes. Since Pleistocene in the region a diverse mosaic of large and small lakes of at total shrinking surface area was formed. On natural causes it includes (1) climatic cycling, (2) lake developments since the Pleistocene originate by the Northern glaciations by ice dammed lakes (without tectonics). The man made causes are (1) the sediment accumulation in lakes, (2) the (problematic) water management and water usage and (3) the land use changes in the watersheds. Climate change includes finally both natural and climatic causes of the change. The latter is explained using actual reports of (1) IPCC on extreme events and (2) gives a note about radiative forcing components as proxy to integrate.

Meyer, Burghard; Schreiner, Vera

2014-05-01

255

Russia's Geopolitical Orientation Towards the Former Soviet States  

E-print Network

Imperial Legacy? An examination into the nature of Russia's economic,military anddiplomatic policies Able to Discard its Imperial Legacy? Abstract This thesis analyses Russia's military, economicRussia's Geopolitical Orientation Towards the Former Soviet States Was Russia Able to Discard its

Blandford, Ann

256

EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in

E. P. Gordov; E. A. Vaganov

2010-01-01

257

Biometrics of adult Grey Plovers Pluvialis squatarola breeding in the Lena Delta, NE?Siberia (the Sakha republic, Yakutia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola is a circumpolar breeding wader with slight clinal but discontinuous morphometric variations in the Palearctic. Birds breeding in eastern Siberia seem to be larger than birds breeding in western Siberia as well as those breeding in northern Canada and Alaska. Biometric data on 15 Grey Plovers trapped in the Lena Delta 1997 are supplied. In

Olga Stepanova

2001-01-01

258

Energy security and Russia’s gas strategy: The symbiotic relationship between the state and firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way how Russia ignores the EU’s quest for liberalization and sustains a control over markets and supplies is directly related to her use of gas as leverage. Russia’s strategy affects many European and non-European countries during all stages: demand, supply and transit. It is not, however, possible to generalize a common statement that the EU’s position is based on

Mert Bilgin

2011-01-01

259

Vegetation Structure Changes in the South Part of Western Siberia at the End of XX Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding human impact on changes in vegetation composition and structure can be performed using analysis of space images obtained from high resolution satellite sensors. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early succession stages, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data obtained in various seasons and years. The studied area of the first test site (“Bakchar”) is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site “Tomsk” covered by cultivated lands and dark coniferous forest complexes. Vegetation classification was made using NELDA project legend (www.fsl.orst.edu/nelda). The main part of Site “Bakchar” is occupied by tree dominated classes (66%). Wetlands occupy about 43% of the area. Part of herbaceous vegetation is rather low (9%). Site “Tomsk” has completely different structure of classes. More than one-half of the area (52%) is covered by cultivated lands. Forests occupy 42% of the area. Wetlands (9%) exist in the Ob’-Tom’ interfluve and left bank of the Ob’ river. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed to reveal dynamics in vegetation cover. Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 at site “Bakchar” are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have damaged forests between 1990 and 1999 in stripes oriented from south-west to north -east in the prevailing wind direction. Tree cutting in 1999-2007 was significantly smaller than in previous time due to depression in economical activity. Mature forests cover only small part of the site “Tomsk”. Tree cutting activity at site “Tomsk” in 1990-1999 is lower than at site “Bakchar”. Strong winds were in 2003, 2005, and 2007. It results to significant forest damages at area of 3100 ha in the northern part of Ob-Tom interfluve. Some invasion of young trees in to abandoned agricultural lands also can be found for both sites at comparison of 1999 and 2007 images. After 1999 many agricultural lands stopped to plug, transformed to unmanaged meadows (grassland) and now occupying by young birch. Small burned areas are exists on the studied territory primary at drainage peatlands but fires does not affect forests significantly. Work was performed under project “Human Impact on Land-cover Changes in the Heart of Asia” supported by Asia-Pacific Network (ARCP2009-02CMY).

Dyukarev, E.; Pologova, N. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, A. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

2010-12-01

260

Improvements in progress for Russia`s new PSA law  

SciTech Connect

Russian legislation making production sharing agreements (PSAs) fully legal under Russian law passed the upper house of the Russian Parliament (Federal Council) on December 19, 1995, was signed into law by President Boris Yeltsin on December 31, 1995, and took effect on January 11, 1996. While PSA legislation remains the central legal basis for large scale investment in the Russian petroleum sector, company views towards investment in this sector are tied to much more than the extent of legal guarantees. Investor attitudes are also shaped by expectations regarding political stability, behavior of Russian regulatory authorities, and prospects for the Russian economy. Furthermore, Western investors in the petroleum sector have some experience in dealing with the Russian government and existing frameworks for investment, particularly the joint venture (JV) deals with Russian entities and the often changing regulatory and tax treatment of these ventures. It is the view of the authors that attitudes among some Western companies in Russia on the political and economic environment may be too pessimistic and shaped more by press reports than actual conditions. News reports on violence, political instability, and a disastrous economy are not entirely borne out by the facts. Russian, of course, faces serious political and economic problems which must be carefully evaluated, but the overall outlook is much more complex, and some positive developments are underway. This paper reviews the economic, oil production and industry outlook as a result of the PSA law.

Pugliaresi, L.; Hensel, A.C. [LPI Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-03-25

261

Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ of points into 3 groups of agrolandscapes, which have high, medium and low medium agronatural potential. Thus the typological landscape and agrolandscape medium scale map had been worked out, estimation of agronatural potential, and the map had been worked out on the base of detailed agrolandscape research and study of natural geosystems of Minusinskaya Basin. Consideration of agronatural potential of a territory helps to determine regions of perspective development of its separate types, proceeding from presents of natural and economical preconditions. Successful development of agriculture is mainly connected with the right agrolandscape use. That is why the optimum variant of land use could be and should be found with the definite ratio of transformational organizational-economical and adaptive landscape-ecological measures, which could allow abruptly increase the potential of their self-regulation. REFERENCES: 1. G. I. Lysanova landscape analyses of agronatural potential of geosystems. - Irkutsk, 2001. - 187 p. 2. V. A. Nikolaev Regional agrolandscape research // Natural complexes and agriculture. - Voprosy geografii. - M.: Mysl, 1984. - Coll. 124. - P. 73-83.

Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

2012-12-01

262

Perspectives for logistics clusters development in Russia  

E-print Network

This thesis is a normative work aimed at identifying locations in Russia with high, medium and unclear potentials for logistics cluster development. As a framework this work uses four different models of logistics clusters: ...

Tantsuyev, Andriy

2012-01-01

263

Russia vows to end oil export tax  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group.

Not Available

1992-07-27

264

Thermokarst Lake Carbon Storage and Transport near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermokarst lakes are prevalent features across the pan-Arctic landscape. As the Arctic climate warms further, thermokarst lakes currently situated in continuous permafrost will likely increase in size and number. Shifting lake distributions may have significant impacts on the land-atmosphere exchange of carbon, as these lakes act as reservoirs and conduits that store and transport carbon and other organic material across the landscape. Using field data collected in the Kolyma River basin in the continuous permafrost region near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia, we investigate the carbon dynamics of four thermokarst lakes in the Y4 watershed, a small, upland drainage area. Through bathymetric mapping of these four lakes, total lake volume was calculated. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen were collected across horizontal transects and subsequently integrated with these total volume measurements to determine physical characteristics of the lakes. Additionally, water samples were collected at various stations and depths for analyses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). With these physical and biogeochemical measurements in concert, we investigated the ability for these lakes to store and transport carbon through the Y4 watershed. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of CDOM concentrations in these lakes provides an understanding of the lability and molecular weight of the organic matter as well as potential light transmittance through the water column. This watershed area provides a representative example of the potential for thermokarst lakes in yedoma regions to process and move carbon across the landscape and ultimately to larger systems such as the Kolyma River basin. This baseline characterization of regional lakes will lead to a better understanding of how further warming and permafrost instability may impact the carbon dynamics of thermokarst lakes and ultimately how they function in the broader biogeochemical and hydrological systems throughout the region.

Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Griffin, C. G.; Zimov, N.

2013-12-01

265

Persistent organochlorines in air and water from East Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In order to assess the east Siberia for persistent organochlorine (POC) contaminations such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs, the residue levels in air and water collected from Chaun, Magadan, Khabarovsk and Listvyanka during 1992--1993 have been determined. The levels of atmospheric PCBs and DDTs concentrations in Magadan and Khabarovsk were one to two orders of magnitude higher than the global baseline levels, while the prominent contaminations in water were found in Listvyanka which is in the southwest coast of Lake Baikal. The results suggest that these areas are exposed by different local sources. Chaun, located in the coast of Chaunskaya Guba (Gulf) facing the East Siberian Sea, exhibited the lowest POCs residues. Apart from the concentrations, aerial PCB congener compositions varied with the total concentration levels. Khabarovsk air, where the highest PCB levels (2,860 pg/M{sup 3}) were found, contained mainly tetra and pentachlorobiphenyls. In contrast, samples from Chaun (36--160 pg/M{sup 3}) showed the higher predominance of di and trichlorinated congeners and Magadan air (320--880 pg/M{sup 3}) was a mixed type for both the air. Regarding DDTs composition, high percentages of p,p{prime}-DDT to total DDT compounds in the air from Magadan and Khabarovsk indicate the recent usage. Annual concentrations of aerial POCs in Listvyanka were strongly dependent on air temperature. Hence, heats of vaporization (desorption) for POCs were calculated from the relationships between logarithmic concentrations (partial pressure) and inverse temperatures. The values ranged from 26 kJ/mol to 43 kJ/mol in order of HCB < {alpha}-HCH < {gamma}-HCH < p,p{prime}DDE < total PCBs < p,p{prime}DDT. In addition, highly chlorinated PCBs tended to show higher values than the less chlorinated PCBs. The heats of vaporization estimated from the field survey were lower than those from the laboratory experiments previously reported.

Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S.; Ouchi, E.; Tatsukawa, R. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Timonin, A.

1995-12-31

266

Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme activities. Since microorganisms produce enzyme according to their nutrient demand, enzyme activities can enhance nutrient cycling differently in distinct soil horizons.

Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

2014-05-01

267

Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland?  

PubMed Central

Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH4+ using an array of 15N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling. PMID:24302785

Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jorg; Barta, Jiri; Capek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Santruckova, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A.; Richter, Andreas

2013-01-01

268

Women in Organized Crime in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unprecedented crime wave in Russia in recent few years has struck all of society. As an effect of conditions in Russia\\u000a today, female crime, including that by adolescents, has increased in levels of both activity and cruelty. Female criminal\\u000a behavior has negatively influenced society and the family, undermining moral principles and adding to an atmosphere of depravity,\\u000a corruption, and

Yakov Gilinsky

269

Political and Economic Crisis in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the tumultuous state of affairs in Russia. The ten resources discussed offer background, news, analysis, and commentary. In recent weeks, political turmoil and economic chaos have severely threatened Russia's stability as an emerging free-market democracy, prompting regional governor and former general Alexander Lebed to say that "the situation in Russia is catastrophic--worse than in 1917." Russia's latest political upheaval began on August 23 when the unpredictable President Boris Yeltsin discharged his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko, and reinstalled the previous prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin (see the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). Chernomyrdin plans to create an "economic dictatorship" in Russia and to print billions of rubles to avoid total economic collapse. Yesterday, in an approval ballot to reinstate Chernomyrdin as prime minister, the Duma rejected his appointment for the second time in two weeks. Analysts predict that next week a subsequent ballot for approval will fail, the Duma will dissolve, and Yeltsin will rule by decree, without a functioning government, until new parliamentary elections are held. Russian political dissension has been induced by the country's severe financial crisis. On September 6, the Russia economy suffered a blow when the European Union decided not to offer money to Russia and spurned a moratorium on debts Russia owes to EU members. Today in another setback, chairman of the central bank, Sergei Dubinin, tendered his resignation. These events, compounded by ruble devaluation, limited tax revenue, and skittish foreign investments, have left the economy in shambles, despite the recent receipt of an enormous loan from the International Monetary Fund (discussed in the July 16, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics).

Osmond, Andrew.

1998-01-01

270

Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in Southwestern Siberia: combined effects of plant species and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal forest, which mainly consists of extensive forests in Siberia, is the largest continuous forest region on Earth and represents 70 % of the world's boreal forest. Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deeper to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of forest ecosystems are thus required. Relative contributions of organic and inorganic P and, consequently, P availability in forest ecosystems depend on decomposition processes, which could be strongly affected by vegetation composition, temperature, precipitation, and their changes due to a warming climate. The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate P status of surface and deep forest soil horizons from two contrasted biomes in Southwestern Siberia (i.e. forest steppe in the West Siberian plain and blackish ("chernevaya" in Russian) taiga in the low Salair mountains) and (2) assess the effects of vegetation (siberian fir stand, common aspen stand and herbs in a forest gap) and local climate on soil P fractions. Results revealed high contents in total P (645-1042 mg kg-1 in the surface mineral soils) and available inorganic P (diffusive phosphate ions in one week = 83-126 mg kg-1). In addition, there was an accumulation of diffusive phosphate ions in the subsoils resulting from differences between soil horizons in total inorganic P and soil properties. Consequently, deeper root systems may mine substantial amounts of available P for the trees and the potential enhanced growth and C sequestration due to climate change should thus a~priori not be P-limited. High proportions of total organic P (47-56 % of total P in the surface mineral soils) show that decomposition processes potentially play a significant role in P availability. Results show that decomposition processes are affected by vegetation (deciduous broadleaved trees, evergreen coniferous, herbs) and local climate (precipitations; snow cover with its isolating effect on soil). Results on the effects of plant species and local climate improved our understanding of the potential effects of climate change on P availability through warming and vegetation redistribution.

Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Augusto, L.; Derrien, D.; Gallegos, N.; Lashchinskiy, N.; Milin, S.; Nikitich, P.; Raudina, T.; Rusalimova, O.; Zeller, B.; Barsukov, P.

2012-06-01

271

Short communication: Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1, a recently originated HIV-1 circulating recombinant form spreading in Siberia.  

PubMed

The HIV-1 epidemic in Russia is dominated by the former Soviet Union subtype A (A(FSU)) variant, but other genetic forms are circulating in the country. One is the recently described CRF63_02A1, derived from recombination between a CRF02_AG variant circulating in Central Asia and A(FSU), which has spread in the Novosibirsk region, Siberia. Here we phylogenetically analyze pol and env segments from 24 HIV-1 samples from the Novosibirsk region collected in 2013, with characterization of three new near full-length genome CRF63_02A1 sequences, and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) and the demographic growth of CRF63_02A1 using a Bayesian method. The analyses revealed that CRF63_02A1 is highly predominant in the Novosibirsk region (81.2% in pol sequences) and is transmitted both among injecting drug users and by heterosexual contact. Similarity searches with database sequences combined with phylogenetic analyses show that CRF63_02A1 is circulating in East Kazakhstan and the Eastern area of Russia bordering China. The analyses of near full-length genome sequences show that its mosaic structure is more complex than reported, with 18 breakpoints. The tMRCA of CRF63_02A1 was estimated around 2006, with exponential growth in 2008-2009 and subsequent stabilization. These results provide new insights into the molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1. PMID:25050828

Shcherbakova, Nadezhda S; Shalamova, Lyudmila A; Delgado, Elena; Fernández-García, Aurora; Vega, Yolanda; Karpenko, Larissa I; Ilyichev, Alexander A; Sokolov, Yuri V; Shcherbakov, Dmitry N; Pérez-Álvarez, Lucía; Thomson, Michael M

2014-09-01

272

West Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

2002-01-01

273

Russia and the Information Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a great deal of general talk and commentary about the role of the so-called "information revolution", it is at times difficult to tell exactly what these developments may mean for different regions of the world. This report from the RAND Corporation looks at how Russia is utilizing various forms of information and communication technologies to modernize business and industry, stimulate economic growth, and enhance the quality of life for Russian peoples. With significant funding from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the report (authored by D. J. Peterson) is based on six years of research in this area, and contains chapters on the role of information technology in Russian society, government, and concludes with a brief summary of key findings. Data in the report also receives nice visual representation through a host of charts, tables, and figures. Overall, this is a very interesting document that will be of particular interest to those working in the fields of international public policy and technology development.

2005-01-01

274

Continuous measurements of aerosol particles in Arctic Russia and Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71o 36' N; 128o 53' E) on the shore of the Laptev Sea has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol physical properties, which have been successfully continued since summer 2010. These, together with the FMI measurements in Pallas station in northern Finland since 1999, provide important information on the year-round Arctic aerosol concentrations and properties. Here, we will present the annual cycle of Arctic aerosol concentrations, which is characterized by winter minimum and spring and summer maxima. We will show the most important Arctic aerosol source regions and their variability with seasons. Also, we will look the processes such as new particle formation, which takes frequently place at both the two stations and in particular in spring season.

Asmi, Eija; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Brus, David; Lihavainen, Heikki; Laurila, Tuomas; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Viisanen, Yrjö; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Ivakhov, Victor; Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander

2013-04-01

275

[Polymorphism of restriction sites of a control region of mitochondrial DNA in populations of Russian Old Believers and migrant slavic inhabitants of northern Siberia].  

PubMed

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was studied in restriction sites AvaII, BamHI, EcoRV, KpnI, HaeIII, and RsaI of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop in populations of Old Believers (Starovery) and in Slavic migrants in northern Siberia. Frequencies of rare variants of all polymorphic sites studied were estimated. The results were compared with the published data on mtDNA polymorphism sites studied were estimated. The results were compared with the published data on mtDNA polymorphism in Russian populations of central and southern Russia and in other Eastern Slavic, Caucasoid, and Mongolian populations. Significance of interpopulation differences with respect to distributions of variants of polymorphism sites was estimated with the use of the chi2 test. The comparison did not reveal significant differences between any groups of Eastern Slavs, including Old Believers. However, they significantly differed from both Mongols and Europeans (P < 0.05). To date, stable estimates of the polymorphism level in most of the restriction sites have been obtained for the Russian population. Regarding the distribution of the restriction-site variants of mtDNA, Russians significantly differ from the total European population, as well as from Mongols. In the populations of Old Believers, the effect of isolation on the diversity of the mitochondrial genome was demonstrated. PMID:9612696

Kazakovtseva, M A; Voevoda, M I; Babenko, V N; Osipova, L P

1998-04-01

276

On Eulimnogammarus messerschmidtii, sp. n. (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from Lake Baikal, Siberia, with redescription of E. cyanoides (Sowinsky) and remarks on taxonomy of the genus Eulimnogammarus.  

PubMed

A new amphipod species of the endemic fauna of Lake Baikal (East Siberia, Russia), Eulimnogammarus messerschmidtii sp. n., from the littoral zone of the northern part of the lake is described. The species is characterized by the presence of a group of spines with dense setae on the last 4 body segments. The basal peduncular segment of antenna 1 bears bunches of dense setae without spines, uropods 3 are covered by dense simple setae without plumose setae and the outer ramus has a second small article. The body length of sampled specimens ranges from 7.5 to 18 mm. Population analysis at one of the sampling points revealed a spring-summer reproduction period for this species. This species was previously erroneously identified as E. cyanoides. E. cyanoides is here redescribed in details based on the lectotype. The differences between E. messerschmidtii sp. n., E. cyanoides and other closely related Eulimnogammarus species are described. The taxonomy of the genus Eulimnogammarus is discussed. PMID:25081795

Bedulina, Daria S; Takhteev, Vadim V; Pogrebnyak, Svyatoslav G; Govorukhina, Ekaterina B; Madyarova, Ekaterina V; Lubyaga, Yulia A; Vereshchagina, Kseniya P; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Luckenbach, Till

2014-01-01

277

[Rhodobaca barguzinensis sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic purple nonsulfur bacterium isolated from a soda lake of the Barguzin Valley (Buryat Republic, eastern Siberia)].  

PubMed

A novel strain, alga-05, of alkaliphilic purple nonsulfur bacteria was isolated from sediments of a small saline (60 g/l) soda lake near Lake Algin (Barguzin Valley, Buryat Republic, Russia). These bacteria contain bacteriochlorophyll a and carotenoids of the alternative spirilloxanthin group with predominating demethylspheroidenone. They are facultative anaerobes; their photosynthetic structures are of the vesicular type and arranged along the cell periphery. Growth of this strain is possible in a salinity range of 5-80 g/l NaCl, with an optimum at 20 g/l NaCl. Best growth occurred at 20-35 degrees C. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that the studied isolate is closely related to the alkaliphilic purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodobaca bogoriensis (99% similarity) isolated from soda lakes of the African Rift Zone. According to the results of DNA-DNA hybridization, strain alga-05 has a 52% similarity with the type species of the genus Rhodobaca. On the basis of the obtained genotypic data and some phenotypic properties (dwelling in a hypersaline soda lake of Siberia, moderate halophily, ability to grow at relatively low temperatures, etc.), the isolated strain of purple bacteria was described as a new species of the genus Rhodobaca, Rca. barguzinensis sp. nov. PMID:18522327

Boldareva, E N; Akimov, V N; Bo?chenko, V A; Stadnichuk, I N; Moskalenko, A A; Makhneva, Z K; Gorlenko, V M

2008-01-01

278

Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, tree stems, and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56° N 33° E) during the growing seasons of 2002-2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere-biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of the total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of the ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability, ranging from 0.7 to 10 ?mol m-2 s-1. Generally, the soil respiration depended on the soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions, the soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. The stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September, and in October it dramatically decreased. The tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3-5 ?mol m-2 s-1 for dominant trees and about 1-2 ?mol m-2 s-1 for subdominant trees. The respiration of living tree stems was about 10-20% of the ER.

Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F.; Molchanov, A.; Varlagin, A.; Avilov, V.; Kozlov, D.; Ivanov, D.; Valentini, R.

2013-12-01

279

Respiration fluxes in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, tree stems and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56N 33E) during growing seasons of 2002 - 2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere-biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all of the years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability ranging from 0.7 to 10 mkmol m-2s-1. Generally soil respiration depended on soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. Stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September and in October it dramatically decreased. Tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3-5 mkmol•m-2s-1 for dominant trees and about 1-2 mkmol•m-2s-1 for subdominant trees. Respiration of living tree stems was about 10-20% of ER.

Kurbatova, Juliya

2014-05-01

280

Russia’s International Adoption Policies: Realities of the Soviet Happy Childhood Myth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia’s International Adoption Policies: Realities of the Soviet Happy Childhood Myth, focuses on dispelling the Soviet myth of happy childhood through revealing the numerous groups of children who were systematically left out of this upbringing. The paper focuses in particular on the plight of orphans in the USSR and continues to follow their childhood experience through investigating the intercountry adoption

Hannah L Freeman

2012-01-01

281

Total ozone and ozone profile observations by SAOZ, Brewer and ozonesondes in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily total ozone measurements are carried out in Kislovodsk, Obninsk, European Russia, and in Tomsk, Central Siberia, using the Brewer MKII #043, Brewer MKII #044 and Brewer MKIV #049 spectrophotometers. The accuracy of routine total ozone observation at direct sun measurement is 2-3%. Under cloudless conditions at air mass factor less than 4, the accuracy of total ozone direct sun measurements approaches 1%. The SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenitale) is UV-visible (300-650 nm) diode array spectrometer developed at the Service d'Aeronomie, CNRS, France for monitoring stratospheric ozone and NO2. Zenith sky measurements of atmospheric gases at twilight (86°< solar zenith angle < 91°) are used. There are 15 SAOZ instruments in the SAOZ network around the world. Two instruments are located at the Arctic Circle in Russia at Zhigansk since 1992 and Salekhard since 1998. The accuracy of total ozone measurement is 6% and 10% for nitrogen dioxide observations. The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station are carried out since 1997. Currently, we use 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring periods. The results of ozonesounding at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In December 2012 and in January 2013 we plan to upgrade this ozonesounding station with the iMet-1 radiosonde and ECC 2Z-V7 ozonesonde. This type of ozonesonde will be used in the winter-spring season of 2013. The resulting total ozone and ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in 2012 and in January-March 2013 by the SAOZ, Brewer and ozonesode instruments will be presented and discussed.

Dorokhov, Valery; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Aleksander; Tereb, Nikolay; Ivlev, Georgii; Savinykh, Vladimir; Shepelev, Dmitry; Goutail, Florence; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Pazmino, Andrea; Nakajima, Hideaki

2013-04-01

282

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistant Strains from Russia  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is a growing problem in many countries. The availability of the complete nucleotide sequences of several MTB genomes allows to use the comparative genomics as a tool to study the relationships of strains and differences in their evolutionary history including acquisition of drug-resistance. In our work, we sequenced three genomes of Russian MTB strains of different phenotypes – drug susceptible, MDR and XDR. Of them, MDR and XDR strains were collected in Tomsk (Siberia, Russia) during the local TB outbreak in 1998–1999 and belonged to rare KQ and KY families in accordance with IS6110 typing, which are considered endemic for Russia. Based on phylogenetic analysis, our isolates belonged to different genetic families, Beijing, Ural and LAM, which made the direct comparison of their genomes impossible. For this reason we performed their comparison in the broader context of all M. tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank. The list of unique individual non-synonymous SNPs for each sequenced isolate was formed by comparison with all SNPs detected within the same phylogenetic group. For further functional analysis, all proteins with unique SNPs were ascribed to 20 different functional classes based on Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). We have confirmed drug resistant status of our isolates that harbored almost all known drug-resistance associated mutations. Unique SNPs of an XDR isolate CTRI-4XDR, belonging to a Beijing family were compared in more detail with SNPs of additional 14 Russian XDR strains of the same family. Only type specific mutations in genes of repair, replication and recombination system (COG category L) were found common within this group. Probably the other unique SNPs discovered in CTRI-4XDR may have an important role in adaptation of this microorganism to its surrounding and in escape from antituberculosis drugs treatment. PMID:23437175

Ilina, Elena N.; Shitikov, Egor A.; Ikryannikova, Larisa N.; Alekseev, Dmitry G.; Kamashev, Dmitri E.; Malakhova, Maja V.; Parfenova, Tatjana V.; Afanas'ev, Maxim V.; Ischenko, Dmitry S.; Bazaleev, Nikolai A.; Smirnova, Tatjana G.; Larionova, Elena E.; Chernousova, Larisa N.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Mardanov, Andrei V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Skryabin, Konstantin G.; Govorun, Vadim M.

2013-01-01

283

Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistant strains from Russia.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is a growing problem in many countries. The availability of the complete nucleotide sequences of several MTB genomes allows to use the comparative genomics as a tool to study the relationships of strains and differences in their evolutionary history including acquisition of drug-resistance. In our work, we sequenced three genomes of Russian MTB strains of different phenotypes--drug susceptible, MDR and XDR. Of them, MDR and XDR strains were collected in Tomsk (Siberia, Russia) during the local TB outbreak in 1998-1999 and belonged to rare KQ and KY families in accordance with IS6110 typing, which are considered endemic for Russia. Based on phylogenetic analysis, our isolates belonged to different genetic families, Beijing, Ural and LAM, which made the direct comparison of their genomes impossible. For this reason we performed their comparison in the broader context of all M. tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank. The list of unique individual non-synonymous SNPs for each sequenced isolate was formed by comparison with all SNPs detected within the same phylogenetic group. For further functional analysis, all proteins with unique SNPs were ascribed to 20 different functional classes based on Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). We have confirmed drug resistant status of our isolates that harbored almost all known drug-resistance associated mutations. Unique SNPs of an XDR isolate CTRI-4(XDR), belonging to a Beijing family were compared in more detail with SNPs of additional 14 Russian XDR strains of the same family. Only type specific mutations in genes of repair, replication and recombination system (COG category L) were found common within this group. Probably the other unique SNPs discovered in CTRI-4(XDR) may have an important role in adaptation of this microorganism to its surrounding and in escape from antituberculosis drugs treatment. PMID:23437175

Ilina, Elena N; Shitikov, Egor A; Ikryannikova, Larisa N; Alekseev, Dmitry G; Kamashev, Dmitri E; Malakhova, Maja V; Parfenova, Tatjana V; Afanas'ev, Maxim V; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Bazaleev, Nikolai A; Smirnova, Tatjana G; Larionova, Elena E; Chernousova, Larisa N; Beletsky, Alexey V; Mardanov, Andrei V; Ravin, Nikolai V; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Govorun, Vadim M

2013-01-01

284

Why Russia is not a state  

SciTech Connect

This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

Stern, J.E.

1993-08-16

285

Prevalence of bacterial agents in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from the Vologda Province of Russia.  

PubMed

The prevalence of rickettsiae, ehrlichiae, and the rickettsia-like endosymbiont called Montezuma relative to that of Borrelia was determined in questing Ixodes persulcatus (I. persulcatus) ticks collected in 2002-2003 from Vologda Province, Russia. Ehrlichia muris, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Montezuma, and new spotted fever group rickettsiae were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the first time in this area. The rickettsiae were all Candidatus Rickettsia tarasevichiae, the furthest west this organism has been detected. After Borrelia, Montezuma was the agent most frequently detected; it may be present throughout the distribution of I. persulcatus in Russia. Ehrlichiae and rickettsiae frequently share the same tick host with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato so cotransmission and mixed infections in vertebrate hosts, including humans, may occur. PMID:17114724

Eremeeva, Marina E; Oliveira, Alice; Robinson, Jennilee B; Ribakova, Nina; Tokarevich, Nikolay K; Dasch, Gregory A

2006-10-01

286

The Deep Permafrost Carbon Pool of Siberia and Alaska (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the amount of organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost and its biogeochemical characteristics are important topics in today's permafrost research. While the uppermost cryosoil horizons are reasonably studied and recorded in the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), there are large uncertainties concerning the quantity and distribution of permafrost deep organic carbon. We studied the organic carbon content of the Yedoma region of unglaciated Siberia and Alaska. This region is unique because of its long-term accumulation of organic carbon, which was deeply incorporated into permafrost during the late Quaternary. Inclusion of labile organic matter into permafrost halted decomposition and resulted in a deep long-term carbon sink. Organic carbon in the Yedoma region occurs mainly as peat inclusions, twigs and root fragments, other solid and fine detrital plant remains, fossil remains of mammals, insects, aquatic plankton and soil microorganisms, and finally their decompositional and metabolic products in terms of particulate and dissolved organic matter. With our study we show that two major sub-reservoirs compose the Yedoma region deep frozen organic carbon; Yedoma deposits (late Pleistocene ice- and organic-rich silty sediments) and deposits formed in thaw-lake basins (generalised as thermokarst deposits). Thaw-lake basins result when lake formation degrades Yedoma deposits, then the lakes drain and deposits refreeze. Therefore, the deep Yedoma region organic carbon pool is far from homogeneous and strongly linked to depositional and permafrost dynamics as well as the ecological and climatic history. Using of approximately 1000 frozen samples from 23 Siberian and Alaskan study sites and a new approach for upscaling, we find significant differences to former estimates of the Yedoma coverage area, thickness of the relevant frozen deposits, ground ice content and finally in organic carbon content that lead to a reassessment of the deep permafrost carbon pools of the northern high latitude Yedoma region. Because of high inherent (spatial) heterogeneity and non-normal input parameter distributions, we used median values (rather than means) and bootstrapping statistics for carbon budget calculation and error estimation. Based on this approach we quantified the organic carbon pool to 54 +15/-9 Gt for Yedoma deposits and to 80+32/-23 Gt for thermokarst deposits. The total Yedoma region deep organic carbon pool of 134+47/-32 Gt is a substantial amount of thaw-vulnerable organic carbon that must be accounted for in global carbon-cycle models.

Strauss, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Grosse, G.; Ulrich, M.; Wetterich, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Hubberten, H. W.

2013-12-01

287

Air Pollution in Siberia. A Volume and Risk-Weighted Analysis of a Siberian Pollution Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Air pollution from industrial centers in Siberia pose observable environmental threats. Siberian ecosystems have begun to show stress from the accumulation of pollution depositions that come from cities and industrial plants. While some uncertainty exists as to the long-term effects of air pollution upon forests, in measurable terms such as human mortality and incidence of disease, forest species decline or

N. K. Warner-Merl

1998-01-01

288

Variation of hydrological regime with permafrost coverage over Lena Basin in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use monthly discharge and permafrost data to examine the relationship between discharge characteristics and basin permafrost coverage for the nested subbasins of the Lena River in Siberia. There are similarity and variation in streamflow regimes over the basin. The ratios of monthly maximum\\/minimum flows directly reflect discharge regimes. The ratios increase with drainage area from the headwaters to downstream

Baisheng Ye; Daqing Yang; Zhongliang Zhang; Douglas L. Kane

2009-01-01

289

Variation of Hydrological Regime with Permafrost Coverage over Lena Basin in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The monthly discharge and permafrost data are used to examine the relationship between discharge characteristics and basin permafrost coverage for the nested sub-basins of the Lena River in Siberia. There are similarity and variation in streamflow regimes over the basin. The ratios of monthly maximum\\/minimum flows directly reflect discharge regimes. The ratios increase with drainage area from the headwaters to

Baisheng Ye; Daqing Yang; Zhongliang Zhang; Douglas L. Kane

2009-01-01

290

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope systematics of Lake Baikal, Siberia: Implications for paleoclimate studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interpret oxygen and hydrogen isotope data for water samples from Lake Baikal, Siberia, its tributaries and other local rivers, and local precipitation in terms of the known water budget for the modern lake in order to gain insight into past limnological and climatic processes that influenced the lake. Lake Baikal is remarkably uniform in its isotopic composition @I80 =

Robert R. Seal II; Wayne C. Shanks

1998-01-01

291

SIRS NEESPI megaproject on land - atmosphere processes in Siberia: results and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is the Siberia-focused NEESPI Mega-Project. SIRS is developed in line with Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach in cooperation of Russian Academy of Science (Siberian Branch) specialists with their European, American and Asian partners/counterparts and is aimed at coordination of multidisciplinary and "distributed" teams of specialists carrying out different scale projects on Siberia environment dynamics. Currently SIRS is supervised by the Russian National Committee for IGBP and managed by its Siberian Branch. Reported are recent results of investigations of the two major Siberian ecosystems dynamics, which are boreal forests and wetlands, with special emphasis on their role in the carbon cycle as well as results of climatic modeling for the region under study and first elements of the SIRS information-computational infrastructure forming glue for relevant multidisciplinary research. Among those are: recent results obtained at the Zotino Tall Tower Observation Facility; analysis of carbon balance between ??2 emission and accumulation based on ground observations performed at the Great Vasyugan Bog, recent development in high resolution regional climate modeling and new elements of the SIRS information-computational infrastructure. New SB RAS initiatives aimed at organization across Siberia a set of environmental observatories to monitor regional ecosystems and climate dynamics with special emphasis upon desertification and permafrost thawing processes and synchronized development of distributed facilities supporting obtained data storage and delivery are described in details. Scientific plans relying upon these developments are discussed as well.

Gordov, E. P.; Kabanov, M. V.; Lykosov, V. N.; Vaganov, E. A.

2009-04-01

292

Sulfate Reduction Potential in Sediments in the Norilsk Mining Area, Northern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to characterize the distribution and activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in tailings and sediments impacted by effluents from mining and smelting operations in the Norilsk area in northern Siberia. The Norilsk mining complex involves three smelter operations, a hydrometallurgical plant, and extensive tailings areas located in the permafrost zone. Sulfate reduction rates measured with a

Olia V. Karnachuk; Nikolay V. Pimenov; Sandjar K. Yusupov; Yulia A. Frank; Anna H. Kaksonen; Jaakko A. Puhakka; Mikhail V. Ivanov; E. Börje Lindström; Olli H. Tuovinen

2005-01-01

293

Transformation of ground vegetation under the effect of fires in pine forests of Middle Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Siberia, pine forests are widespread and grow in diverse habitats. Under zonal conditions, pine shows a wide amplitude of ecological flexibility, being an edificator species in areas with different soils, from shallow podzols with a low base exchange capacity to soddy calcareous soils. The expansion of pine forests far beyond the limits of the zone with a true forest

V. D. Perevoznikova; G. A. Ivanova; V. A. Ivanov; N. M. Kovaleva

2007-01-01

294

Rhythms in occurrence of epidemics and epizootics in Siberia and Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We performed a correlation and spectral analysis of time series of data on epizootics, epidemics, and famine in Siberia and Mongolia. We have found that periods T of approximately 100 years prevail in their structures, which are also typical for time series of solar activity.

Zadonina, N. V.; Aptikaeva, O. I.

2012-12-01

295

Vegetation structure in gullies developed by the melting of ice wedges along Kolyma River, northern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation structure was surveyed in gullies developed by the melting of ice wedges along the Kolyma River, northern Siberia, using 72–50 × 50 cm plots. The mean total plant cover was approximately 50% on gley soils, which were only distributed in the gullies. Based on twinspan cluster analysis, four vegetation types were recognized: (i) Agrostis purpurascens grassland with Ceratodon purpureus

Shiro Tsuyuzaki; Takeshi Ishizaki; Toshiyuki Sato

1999-01-01

296

“Pleospora” aquatica, a new lichenicolous fungus on Aspicilia supertegens from Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lichenicolous fungus “Pleospora” aquatica is described as new. It grows parasitically on thalli of Aspicilia supertegens, and is known only from the type locality, in the Tunkinski ridge (central Siberia). Is is tentatively referred to the genus Pleospora on account of its phaeodictyospores and of the anatomy of pseudothecia.

Mauro Tretiach; Pier Luigi Nimis

1999-01-01

297

Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic records from permafrost deposits in the Arctic region of Northern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice Complexes, extremely ice-rich permafrost deposits with large ice wedges, are widely distributed in the Arctic region of northeast Siberia. They present excellent archives for the reconstruction of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental conditions in non-glaciated areas. In 1998, 1999, and 2000 Russian and German scientists worked together on the Bykovsky Peninsula southeast of the Lena Delta in order to investigate the

Lutz Schirrmeister; Christine Siegert; Tatyana Kuznetsova; Svetlana Kuzmina; Andrei Andreev; Frank Kienast; Hanno Meyer; Anatoly Bobrov

2002-01-01

298

Music as Knowledge in Shamanism and Other Healing Traditions of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Several presenters made the point that one cannot look at narrative alone, without taking into account the music, dance, and drumming that, in many settings, go along with it. One of these presenters was Marilyn Walker, who has had the good fortune to work with healers in Siberia. Although academic in approach, Marilyn’s paper also recognizes the importance of

Marilyn Walker

2003-01-01

299

Music as Knowledge in Shamanism and Other Healing Traditions of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Introduction. Several presenters made the point that one cannot look at narrative alone, without taking into account the music, dance, and drumming that, in many settings, go along with it. One of these presenters was Marilyn Walker, who has had the good fortune to work with healers in Siberia. Although academic in approach, Marilyn’s paper also recognizes the importance of

Marilyn Walker

2003-01-01

300

Discharges and yields of suspended sediment in the Ob' and Yenisey Rivers of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northward-flowing rivers of Siberia deliver immense quantities of water but only relatively small quantities of sediment to the Arctic Ocean. The relatively low delivery of sediment to the ocean by these rivers is explained by the large areas of forest and swamp in their basins. In the Ob' River, sediment yields tend to increase between the headwaters and Kamen'

NELLY N. BOBROVITSKAYA; CLAUDIA ZUBKOVA; ROBERT H. MEADE

1996-01-01

301

Mate Guarding by Curlew Sandpipers (Calidris ferruginea) during Spring Migration in North Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is poorly known whether arctic-breeding shorebirds form pairs before or after arrival at the breeding site. We describe the display and mate-guarding behavior of curlew sandpipers Calidrisfermginea at a stopover site in high arctic Siberia, suggesting that in this species pairs may be forrned before the birds reach their final nesting localities.

PETER FRODIN; FREDRIK HAAS; AKE LINDSTROM

302

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

1994-01-01

303

Holocene peat and carbon accumulation rates in the southern taiga of western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent studies have recognized peatlands as a sink for atmospheric CO2, little is known about the role of Siberian peatlands in the global carbon cycle. We have estimated the Holocene peat and carbon accumulation rate in the peatlands of the southern taiga and subtaiga zones of western Siberia. We explain the accumulation rates by calculating the average peat accumulation

Wiebe Borren; Wladimir Bleuten; Elena D. Lapshina

2004-01-01

304

Sublimation from snow surface in southern mountain taiga of eastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Through intensive observations of snow sublimation and meteorological elements, cold season processes at the snow-atmosphere interface were clarified for both forested and open field conditions in the taiga region of eastern Siberia. Sublimation from snow surfaces differed with atmospheric stability. During early spring a significant difference in snow sublimation was observed between slopes and valley bottoms, despite variable vegetation cover.

Yiensheng Zhang; Kazuyoshi Suzuki; Tsutomu Kadota; Tetsuo Ohata

2004-01-01

305

Flooding of the Ob River, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

306

Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

307

Space Biology in Russia Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the biosatellite outer wall, was examined to determine the effect of high temperatures produced by aerodynamic heating during reentry.

Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

308

West Nile Virus: Transmission  

MedlinePLUS

... About CDC.gov . West Nile Virus Share Compartir Transmission West Nile virus is most commonly transmitted to ... fully cooking meat from either birds or mammals. Transmission cycle West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle [PDF - 1 ...

309

Analyses of changes in vegetation cover in the South and Sub-Taiga of Western Siberia using Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding human impact on vegetation composition and structure, at scales from the patch to the globe, and capacity to monitor change over time is fundamental research problem to address Global Change and ensure sustainable development. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early successional states, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances (e.g., fire, dieback due to insect attacks) appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data. The studied area of the first test site ("Bakchar") is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site "Tomsk" covered by cultivated lands in the south, dark coniferous forest complexes an early and old-growth state in the north part. Mire types at the test sites are presented by open fens, ridge-hollow / ridge-lake complexes and pine-shrub-sphagnum communities with different tree height and layer density. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed revealing dynamics in vegetation cover. Forest change was calculated using the Disturbance Index (Healey, 2006). Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have damaged forests between 1990 and 1999 in stripes oriented from south-west to north -east in the prevailing wind direction. Strong winds were registered in 2003, 2005, and 2007. Tree cutting in 1999-2007 was significantly smaller than in previous time due to depression in economical activity. Some invasion of young trees in to abandoned agricultural lands also can be found at comparison of 1999 and 2007 images. After 1999 many agricultural lands stopped to plug, transformed to unmanaged meadows (grassland) and now occupying by young birch. Small burned areas are exists on the studied territory primary at drainage peatlands but fires does not affect forests significantly. Work was performed under project "Human Impact on Land-cover Changes in the Heart of Asia" supported by Asia-Pacific Network (ARCP2009-02CMY).

Dyukarev, Egor; Pologova, Nina; Golovatskaya, Eugenia

2010-05-01

310

Permian Triassic amalgamation of Asia: Insights from Northeast China sutures and their place in the final collision of North China and Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Asia Orogenic Belt (CAOB) corresponds to the domain where Siberia and Mongolia were welded to North China. The eastern extension of the CAOB in Northeast China is disputed, since both suture location and timing are poorly documented. This paper reports for the first time the recognition of two suture zones in the southern part of Northeast China (Manchuria), between the Fushun Mishan and Yilan-Yitong faults. In the Jilin Province, west-directed thrust sheets involving successively, from west to east, passive continental margin rocks, metamorphic rocks and ophiolites, block-in-matrix formations and arc plutons indicate a Permian-Early Triassic collision. In the Liaoning Province, arc plutonism and top-to-the-north ductile shearing, coeval with the emplacement of an ophiolitic nappe, suggest a Palaeozoic collision. These two sutures are correlated with the Ondor Sum and Solonker sutures, described in Inner Mongolia. A new geodynamic model involving rifting and collision of the southern part of the Xilinhot Block with North China is proposed.

Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Nomade, Sébastien; Shang, Qinghua; Renne, Paul Randall

2008-02-01

311

Ionospheric effects of sudden stratospheric warmings in eastern Siberia region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric effects observed in Russia's Asia region during sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) in the winters 2008/2009 and 2012/2013 corresponding to both extreme solar minimum and moderate solar maximum conditions have been examined. To detect the ionospheric effects which must have been induced by the SSWs, we have carried out a joint analysis of total electron content (TEC) global ionospheric maps (GIM), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder, EOS Aura) measurements of vertical temperature profiles, as well as NCEP/NCAR and UKMO Reanalysis data. It has been revealed for the first time that during strong SSWs the amplitude of diurnal variation of TEC decreases nearly by half in the mid-latitude ionosphere. Besides, the intensity of TEC deviations from the background level increases during SSWs. It has also revealed that during SSW peak the midday TEC maximum considerably decreases, and the night/morning TEC increases compared to quiet days. The pattern of TEC response to SSW is shown to be identical for both quiet and disturbed geophysical conditions.

Polyakova, A. S.; Chernigovskaya, M. A.; Perevalova, N. P.

2014-12-01

312

Inclusions of chlorides in natural diamonds from Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years, microinclusions of Cl-bearing high density fluids that contained silicic, carbonatitic and saline components in variable proportions have been revealed in octahedral diamonds with cloudy central or intermediate growth zones, in diamonds with fibrous coat and in fibrous cubic diamonds from many kimberlite deposits (Tomlinson et al., 2006; Klein-BenDavid et al., 2007 and references therein). Experimental works have shown that chloride-bearing system is a favorable medium for diamond growth (Palyanov et al., 2007). In course of study of microinclusions in diamonds from Siberia unusual chloride microinclusions with specific morphologies have been found by us in a rounded dark-grey dodecahedron from the placer deposits with unknown source in northern Yakutia and in a dark-grey coarse-grained polycrystalline aggregate of diamond from the kimberlites of western Yakutia. The rounded dodecahedron represented V variety according to the diamond classification by Y.L.Orlov consisted of a quite perfect core and fibrous coat with abundant black microinclusions. Its rounded shape was formed during post growth dissolution. The polycrystalline diamond aggregate contained numerous black microinclusions of magnetite and some other Fe-phase as was reported previously (Titkov et al., 2003). The microinclusions were studied using a JEOL JSM-5300 scanning electron microscope equipped with an Oxford LINK ISIS energy-dispersive spectrometer with an analytical range from Be to U. In preparation for analysis, each sample was crushed after being wrapped in a special paper to avoid contamination. Analysis was performed on rough surfaces of fragments that were fairly flat and oriented nearly perpendicular to the electron beam. These samples were carbon coated. Study of rounded dodecahedron fragments revealed irregular cavity, about 30 ?m across. Its main volume was occupied by a large inclusion of variable composition with an average of 20.6 wt% Na, 15.5 wt% K, 0.6 wt% S, 0.6 wt% Si, 23,2 wt% Cl, 39.5 wt% O. The majority of oxygen may be due to the presence of water. The empty space of the cavity was filled with specific dendrites made up of K, Na, Cl, and O in variable proportions. In polycrystalline aggregate of diamond, empty cavity, about 70 ?m across, was found. Its walls were covered by elongated crystals of chlorides. They consisted of Na, K, Cl, and minor O, with Na sharply predominating over K. It appears that this inclusion contained a large amount of water and volatile components which were possibly lost. Cl-bearing fluids revealed in natural diamonds in the previous studies contained both K, Cl, water and variable amounts of Na, divalent ions (Ca, Mg, Fe, Ba), carbonate and silica. While it was suggested that pure Cl-brines may occurred in deep-seated diamond-forming system (Tomlinson et al., 2006; Klein-BenDavid et al., 2007). Our results indicate that evolution of diamond-forming systems actually may give birth to practically pure alkaline-chloride brines. These brines were trapped by growing diamonds as inclusions. Upon cooling, K-Na-chlorides crystallized from the brines. Water and volatile components of the system appeared to be removed under decrepitation of the inclusions. References Palyanov Y.N., Shatsky V.S., Sobolev N.V., Sokol A.G. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104, 9122-9127. Klein-BenDavid O., Izraeli E.S., Hauri E., Navon O. (2007) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 723-744. Tomlinson E.L., Jones A.P., Harris J.W. (2006) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 250, 581-595 Titkov S.V., Zudin N.G., Gorshkov A.I., Sivtsov A.V., Magazina L.O. (2003) Gems & Gemology, 39, 200-209.

Titkov, Sergey; Ryabchikov, Igor; Pomazansky, Bogdan; Magazina, Larisa

2010-05-01

313

Crustal growth in southern Siberia: a Nd-isotope synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nd-isotope analyses from 114 rock samples of the southern part of the Siberian craton were obtained and interpreted to establish crustal formation scenario for the region. New evidence, particularly from recent studies on Nd model ages supports the recycling of Palaeo- and Eoarchaean crust during Palaeoproterozoic granite intrusion in the southern Siberian craton. In the Sharizhalgai terrane the period 3.4-3.6 Ga represents early crust formation as determined from Nd isotope composition of basement granulite and TTG-orthogneisses. The mafic xenoliths from these basement rocks provide evidence of the existence of juvenile crust in the area perhaps as old as 3.9 Ga. Nd isotopic data indicate that the Birusa and Goloustnaya terranes separated by Sharizhalgai and Urik-Iya terranes are underlain by younger crust (2.8 and 2.6 Ga respectively). Further of the Goloustnaya terrane, early crust is locally present in the Baikal terrane as indicated by Nd ages of 3.0 - 3.2 Ga. The distribution of different Nd model ages throughout the southern Siberian craton indicates a significant heterogeneity of the crustal protoliths. The Urik-Iya and Chuya units are relicts of Palaeoproterozoic (2.0-2.3 Ga) juvenile crust within the studied segment of the Siberian craston margin. The Chuya unit is interpreted as a Palaeoproterozoic island-arc reworked during major 1.9 - 2.0 Ga orogenesis. The juvenile nature of the Urik-Iya Palaeoproterozoic crust suggests that at 2.0 Ga the Birusa terrane was not in direct contact with the older Sharizhalgai terrane. High-grade (up to eclogite facies) metamorphosed mafic-ultramafic relicts in the eastern side of the Urik-Iya terrane mark the boundary of these two terranes whose assembly probably occurred around 1.9 Ga during a Palaeoproterozoic accretion-collision event. The Nd isotope data of Neoarchaean collisional type granites and numerous Palaeoproterozoic post-collisional granite plutons indicates that all of these intrusions inherited their Nd isotope composition from the Palaeo- to Neoarchaean basement from which they were derived and through which they intruded. This synthesis of new Nd isotope highlights the significance of Nd isotope data for constraining the crustal growth processes responsible for the evolution of the Siberian craton. The data provides evidence that the southern part of the Siberian craton preserves a long history of crustal development extending from the Neoproterozoic as far back as Eoarchaean. The complicated and heterogenous structure of the southern Siberian craton indicates that the craton formed from a series of distinct Archaean crustal fragments with different histories (Fig. 3) that were amalgamated by Palaeoproterozoic accretion between 2.0-1.9 Ga. Following amalgamation, voluminous granites were intruded at 1.85 Ga into the Archaean crustal units and the suture zones separating them. These granites mark the final stage of the stabilization of the southern Siberian craton. The assemblage of Siberia broadly coincides with important orogenic events on nearly every Precambrian continent, suggesting that the evolution of the southern part of the Siberian craton reflects its involvement in the amalgamation of a Palaeoproterozoic supercontinent.

Gladkochub, D.; Donskaya, T.; Mazukabzov, A.

2012-04-01

314

Russia's Foreign Policy Toward Iran: A Critical Geopolitics Perspective  

E-print Network

economic recovery spurred by the high energy prices in global markets, but also due to the Kremlin’s efforts at forging a novel understanding of the Russian external greatness. While Russia’s “great power” identity has retained its imperial, territorial... document contains the author’s accepted manuscript. For the publisher’s version, see the link in the header of this document.] Russia’s Foreign Policy Toward Iran: A Critical Geopolitics Perspective Mariya Y. Omelicheva Paper citation: Omelicheva...

Omelicheva, Mariya Y.

2012-01-01

315

Stratospheric column NO2 anomalies over Russia related to the 2011 Arctic ozone hole  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze data of spectrometric measurements of stratospheric column NO2 contents at mid- and high-latitude stations of Zvenigorod (55.7°N, Moscow region), Tomsk (56.5°N, West Siberia), and Zhigansk (66.8°N, East Siberia). Measurements are done in visual spectral range with zenith-viewing spectrometers during morning and evening twilights. Alongside column NO2 contents, vertical profiles of NO2 are retrieved at the Zvenigorod station. Zvenigorod and Zhigansk are the measurement stations within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). For interpretation of results of analysis of NO2 data, data of Ozone Monitoring Instrument measurements of total column ozone and rawinsonde data are also analyzed and back trajectories calculated with the help of HYSPLIT trajectory model are used. Significant negative anomalies in stratospheric NO2 columns accompanied by episodes of significant cooling of the stratosphere and decrease in total ozone were observed at the three stations in the winter-spring period of 2011. Trajectory analysis shows that the anomalies were caused by the transport of stratospheric air from the region of the ozone hole observed that season in the Arctic. Although negative NO2 anomalies due to the transport from the Arctic were also observed in some other years, the anomalies in 2011 have had record magnitudes. Analysis of NO2 vertical profiles at Zvenigorod shows that the NO2 anomaly in 2011 compared to other years anomalies was additionally contributed by the denitrification of the Arctic lower stratosphere. NO2 profiles show that a certain degree of the denitrification probably survived even after the ozone hole.

Aheyeva, Viktoryia; Gruzdev, Aleksandr; Elokhov, Aleksandr; Grishaev, Mikhail; Salnikova, Natalia

2013-04-01

316

Seasonal variability as a source of uncertainty in the West Siberian regional CH4 flux upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares seasonal and spatial variations in methane fluxes as sources of uncertainty in regional CH4 flux upscaling from the wetlands of West Siberia. The study examined variability in summertime CH4 emissions from boreal peatlands, with a focus on two subtaiga fen sites in the southern part of West Siberia (Novosibirskaya oblast). We measured CH4 flux, water table depth, air and peat temperature, pH and electric conductivity of peat water during three field campaigns in summer 2011 (9-12 July, 26-28 July and 20-21 August). Fluxes were measured with static chambers at sites chosen to represent two of the most widespread types of wetlands for this climatic zone: soligenous poor fens and topogenous fens. In both sites the water table level acts as the primary control on fluxes. For the poor fen site with good drainage, water table controls CH4 fluxes on the seasonal scale but not on a local spatial scale; for the fen site with weak drainage and microtopographic relief, the water table controls fluxes on the local spatial scale, but does not drive seasonal variations in the flux magnitude. This difference in hydrology shows the necessity of including detailed wetland type classification schemes into large-scale modeling efforts. From these three measurement periods, we estimated the relative seasonal variation in CH4 emissions as 8% for the fen site and 26% for the poor fen site. These results were compared to estimates of other sources of uncertainty (such as interannual variation and spatial heterogeneity) to show that quantifying seasonal variability is less critical than these other variations for an improved estimate of regional CH4 fluxes. This research demonstrates and ranks the challenges in upscaling measured wetland CH4 fluxes across West Siberia and can guide future field campaigns.

Sabrekov, A. F.; Runkle, B. R. K.; Glagolev, M. V.; Kleptsova, I. E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

2014-04-01

317

Greening of the Arctic: Partitioning Warming Versus Reindeer Herbivory for Willow Populations on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice, tundra vegetation and herbivores remain poorly understood. Recently we revealed a 50-year growth response over a >100,000 km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for willow (Salix lanata), one the most abundant shrub genera at and north of the continental treeline and an important source of reindeer forage in spring, summer and autumn. We demonstrated that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate was important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation was especially responsive to temperature in early summer. However, the role of herbivory was not addressed. The present data set explores the relationship between long-term herbivory and growth trends of shrubs experiencing warming in recent decades. Semi-domestic reindeer managed by indigenous Nenets nomads occur at high densities in summer on exposed ridge tops and graze heavily on prostrate and low erect willows. A few meters away in moderately sloped landslides tall willows remain virtually ungrazed as their canopies have grown above the browse line of ca. 180 cm. Here we detail the responses of neighboring shrub populations with and without intensive herbivory yet subject to the same decadal warming trend.

Forbes, B. C.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

2012-12-01

318

76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

2011-03-21

319

76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely...Publication 4279 (December 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine:...

2011-12-09

320

75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

2010-12-01

321

WORKING PAPER N 2008 -23 Education in Russia  

E-print Network

Kuznetsova Irina Peaucelle JEL Codes: I21; Z1 Keywords: analysis of education, cultural economics, Russia: analysis of education, cultural economics, Russia JEL classification: I21; Z1 1 This text is the secondWORKING PAPER N° 2008 - 23 Education in Russia: The evolution of theory and practice Natalia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

322

Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction.Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern

E P Gordov; E A Vaganov

2010-01-01

323

Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

324

Smoke and Clouds over Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several mountain ranges and a portion of the Amur River are visible in this set of MISR images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 during Terra orbit 7452. The view from MISR's 70-degree forward-looking camera is at the top left; the 26-degree forward-looking view is at the top right. The larger image at the bottom is a stereo 'anaglyph' created using the cameras at two intermediate angles. To view the stereo image in 3-D you need red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over your left eye. All of the images are oriented with north to the left to facilitate stereo viewing. Each image covers an area about 345 kilometers x 278 kilometers.

The Amur River, in the upper right, and Lake Bolon, at the top center, are most prominent in the 26-degree view due to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and cranes and a stopover for large numbers of migratory birds. About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to agricultural uses. Other notable features in these images are several mountain chains, including the Badzhal'skiy to the left of center and the Bureiskiy in the lower left.

Smoke plumes from several forest fires can be seen. They are especially apparent in the 70-degree view where the smoke's visibility is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some smaller plumes above and to the right of the image centers. In the upper images the hazy region in the vicinity of these smaller plumes has the appearance of low-altitude smoke, but depth perception provided by the stereo anaglyph shows that it is actually a distinct layer of high-altitude cirrus clouds. Whether the cirrus is related to the fires is uncertain. It is possible, however, for the fires have to have heated the lower atmosphere enough to create bubbles of hot air. As such bubbles rise, they can force stable, nearly saturated air above to move even higher, triggering the formation of ice clouds. Visualization of other three-dimensional characteristics of the scene, such as the intermediate-altitude layer of cumulus clouds along the left side, is made possible by the stereo imagery.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

325

West Nile virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Nile virus was discovered in 1937 in the West Nile region of Uganda. The virus was found only in the Eastern Hemisphere until 1999. In 1999, West Nile virus was first identified in the Western Hemisphere in New York City. Since 1999, viremic birds have continued to spread the disease across the United States. West Nile virus is an

Patricia A Devine

2003-01-01

326

Education in the Fate of Today's Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education in the fate of today's Russia was the topic of a scientific seminar titled "Philosophy, Education, and Society," held in the summer of 2007 in the city of Gagra by the editors of the journals "Voprosy filosofii" and "Pedagogika," the Moscow N.E. Bauman State Technical University, and the Russian Academy of Education. Philosophers,…

Borisenkov, V.P.; Kraevskii, V.V.; Valeev, G.Kh.; Avtonomova, N.S.; Evdokimov, A.K.; Shchedrina, T.G.; Belomestnova, N.V.; Beliaeva, M.A.; Shimina, A.N.; Karmanchikov, A.J.; Korol, A.D.; Varnavskaia, N.Ia.; Berezhnova, E.V.; Daniliuk, A.Ia.; Anua, R.G.; Sidorina, T.Iu.; Tarba, I.D.; Arlamov, A.A.

2008-01-01

327

Geology of Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia, Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has long been suggested that Wrangel Island represents the western continuation of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt of northern Alaska. It is thus a unique exposure to test for the continuity of structures, lithologies and facies from Alaska to Russia across the Chukchi Sea, however no new structural and geochrononologic data has emerged since the thorough overview

E. L. Miller; G. Gehrels; A. Soloviev

2007-01-01

328

Anti-Semitism in Modern Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1791, under Catherine the Great, the Jews of Russia were forcibly compelled to settle in a small portion of the southwest region known as the Pale of Settlement. This was the first large scale anti-Semitic action to be taken by a Russian leader, but it was not to be the last. Under Stalin, anti-Semitism was government policy that reflected

Lindsay Upton

2008-01-01

329

Building Bridges: Miami "Ambassadors" Visit Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-week exchange program where William H. Turner Technical Arts High School (Miami, Florida) students participated in the U.S./Russian student exchange program. Focuses on the students' stereotypes before the trip and their interview comments following the trip about the hardships in Russia. (CMK)

Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

2001-01-01

330

Media and Political Persuasion: Evidence from Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do media affect voting behavior? What difference can an independent media outlet make in a country with state-controlled media? Our paper addresses these questions by comparing electoral outcomes and votes reported by survey respondents during the 1999 parliamentary elections in Russia for those geographical areas that had access and those that had no access to the only national TV

Ruben Enikolopov; Maria Petrova; Ekaterina Zhuravskaya

2009-01-01

331

Problems of forest management in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical political and economic changes in Russia have been accompanied by reforms with regards to the legislative base, the system of forest management and formulation of new forest policy. This paper presents a brief analysis of recently adopted forest legislation and the problems that exist in forest management, forest utilisation, protection and regeneration of forest resources. Lack of co-ordination of

G. Korovin

1995-01-01

332

The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

Young, Simon

2013-01-01

333

Russia's role in the Kyoto Protocol  

E-print Network

As a result of the allocation of emissions reductions, and the differential willingness of countries to ratify, it turns out that Russia is a central player in the Kyoto Protocol. With the U.S. out and Japan and the EU ...

Bernard, Alain.

334

Winners and Losers in Russia's Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to a market economy has produced a substantial and rapid change in the wage structure in Russia. Household surveys taken before and after the transition indicate that overall wage inequality nearly doubled from 1991 to 1994 and has reached a level higher than that in the United States. Returns to both measured skills (education, occupation) and unmeasured skills

Elizabeth Brainerd

1998-01-01

335

Monitoring of influenza viruses in Western Siberia in 2008-2012.  

PubMed

Western Siberia is of great importance in ecology and epidemiology of influenza. This territory is nesting area for great amount of bird species. Territorial relations of Western Siberian birds that are established during seasonal migration are extremely wide since this region is an intersection point of bird migration flows wintering in different regions of the world: Europe, Africa, Middle East, Central Asia, Hindustan, and South East Asia. Reassortant influenza viruses that can cause outbreak among population may emerge in Western Siberia with high probability. Thus, it is extremely important to carry out widespread study of circulated viruses, their molecular biological properties, phylogenetic links in this region, as well as herd immunity to influenza virus serotypes with epidemic potential. PMID:24012948

Ilyicheva, T; Sobolev, I; Susloparov, I; Kurskaya, O; Durymanov, A; Sharshov, K; Shestopalov, A

2013-12-01

336

Mesozoic tectonics of the Arctic: New constraints from provenance studies,Taimyr, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the tectonic development of the Arctic Ocean is important for understanding global tectonics and the framework of petroleum and mineral resources in the Arctic area. The Eurasia and Amerasia basins are the principal physiographic domains of the Arctic Ocean. The Eurasia Basin is known to be the result of slow seafloor spreading; the origin of the Amerasia Basin however remains controversial. Lack of information on the timing, structure, and geochemistry of geological units around the Amerasia Basin limits our ability to understand its development. The Taimyr Peninsula where Mesozoic deformation is well-developed provides a natural laboratory to investigate the tectonic development of the Amerasia Basin. Provenance studies of Taimyr constrain the source areas of Mesozoic sediments in the region and thus identify affinities between them. Detrital zircons from six samples of Triassic and Jurassic sandstone from Southern Taimyr were dated using LA-ICP-MS to test existing models for the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Triassic samples present great similarity in detrital zircon population with Triassic sandstone from the paleo-Taimyr river system, including Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands. These samples all contain Permo-Triassic (236 - 250 Ma), Permo-Carboniferous (260 - 330 Ma), Devonian (340 - 390 Ma) late Precambrian-Silurian (420 - 580 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (620 - 1000 Ma) zircons. These detrital zircon ages suggest Triassic sediments in these locations may have been derived from Siberia Trap, Taimyr and the Ural Mountains of Arctic Russia. It is therefore likely that Taimyr, Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands which are separated at present were close to each other or belonged to the same large drainage system before the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Middle Jurassic samples and two Upper Jurassic samples from Taimyr have dominant Permo-Triassic peaks (246 - 260 Ma) suggesting a proximal source from Siberia Trap related-magmatism in Taimyr. The Jurassic samples contain some older grains: Paleoproterozoicages, Neoproterozoic-Cambrian ages, Silurian ages and Carboniferous grains, reflecting input from recycled older strata in Taimyr. Absence of Jurassic ages and no significant Precambrian grains distinguish Taimyr Jurassic sandstone from Jurassic to Cretaceous foreland basin deposits of the Verkhoyansk fold belt on the New Siberian Islands and in Chukotka. This illustrates that there was no volcanism during the deposition of the Middle and Upper Jurassic sandstones in southern Taimyr and these successions were probably deposited on a passive margin. In the Jurassic, detritus shed from Taimyr no longer reached to Chukotka and the New Siberian Islands. This change is likely due to the opening of the Amerasia Basin during Jurassic time.

Zhang, X.; Pease, V.

2013-12-01

337

A lacustrine pollen record from near altitudinal forest limit, Upper Kolyma Region, northeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sediment core that spans the last c. 15 000 yr BP was raised from Elgennya Lake (62°05'N 149°00'E, 1040 m) which is located near the altitudinal forest limit in the western Annachag Mountains of the Upper Kolyma region, northeastern Siberia. Palynological data indicate the presence of a relatively unpro ductive herb-Salix tundra during full-glacial times. Although Betula shrubs first

Patricia M. Anderson; Anatoly V. Lozhkin; Berta V. Belaya; Olga Yu. Glushkova; Linda B. Brubaker

1997-01-01

338

High methane flux from an arctic floodplain (Indigirka lowlands, eastern Siberia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane fluxes from arctic tundra soils on a river terrace and floodplain in northeastern Siberia, measured with flux chambers, show a high spatial variability. The methane fluxes on the river terrace compare well with fluxes reported in other studies on tundra methane fluxes. The average methane flux is 4.3 mg CH4 m?2 hr?1, and the average flux for wet sites

J. van Huissteden; T. C. Maximov; A. J. Dolman

2005-01-01

339

An arctic fox rabies virus strain as the cause of human rabies in Russian Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?A case of human rabies in the arctic zone of Siberia is described. The victim was bitten by a wolf, but characterization\\u000a of the isolate by monoclonal antibodies showed that it was an arctic fox virus strain. This discovery reaffirmed the value\\u000a of strain typing rabies virus isolates in regions where this has not been done already: such characterization pertains

I. V. Kuzmin

1999-01-01

340

Dissolved Organic Carbon in Upland Forested Watersheds Underlain by Continuous Permafrost in Central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroclimatic variability and plant species ecology cause mosaics in forested watersheds in permafrost zones. Measurements\\u000a of organic matter accumulation, stock of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DOC concentrations in litter leachates, subsurface\\u000a flow, stream and seasonal and annual export were made in two contrasting slopes and valleys in the northern taiga of Central\\u000a Siberia. Increased organic carbon accumulation in litter was

A. S. Prokushkin; I. V. Gavrilenko; A. P. Abaimov; S. G. Prokushkin; A. V. Samusenko

2006-01-01

341

New paleomagnetic results from northern China: collision and suturing with Siberia and Kazakhstan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report new results from our paleomagnetic studies of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region in northeastern China and the Xinjiang autonomous region in northwestern China. Primary magnetizations are isolated in Tertiary, Cretaceous, Late Jurassic and Late Permian rocks and secondary components of magnetization of Late Jurassic and Recent ages are seen in strata of Inner Mongolia. Western Junggar Basin and part of the Tarim block, suffered widespread complete tectono-thermal remagnetization at about 280 Ma (Permian). The paleomagnetic evidence suggests that the sampled areas in Inner Mongolia have been part of the North China Block at least since Late Permian time and the Junggar block collided with the Tarim block by Late Permian time. Our own paleomagnetic results together with available data from other parts of eastern Eurasia, suggest a tectonic model in which Kazakhstan, Europe and Siberia collided with each other and formed the Europe-Siberia-Kazakhstan plate (EUR-SIB-KAZ) in Late Permian time. To the east, Mongolia (= Outer Mongolia), Inner Mongolia and the North China Block were also wedged together forming the Mongolia-North China plate (MON-NC) by this time. These two composite continental plates were not a stable unit in the Late Permian. The geometrical relationship of the paleomagnetic poles for these two plates suggests that collision initially occurred in the Late Permian near the western end (50°N, 75°E) of the Southern Siberian Fold Belt and progressed eastward as the MON-NC plate rotated and clockwise about 117° relative to the EUR-SIB-KAZ plate during the Early Mesozoic. Suturing and rotation were probably complete by the Late Jurassic. Significant relative motion between the Tarim and Siberia blocks continued from Early Triassic to Late Jurassic, as Tarim moved northeastward 1400 km relative to Siberia.

Xixi, Zhao; Coe, Robert S.; Yaoxiu, Zhou; Haoruo, Wu; Jie, Wang

1990-09-01

342

Radiometric slope correction for forest biomass estimation from SAR data in the Western Sayani Mountains, Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the possibility of using multiple polarization (SIR-C) L-band data to map forest biomass in a mountainous area in Siberia. The use of a digital elevation model (DEM) and a model-based method for reducing terrain effects was evaluated. We found that the available DEM data were not suitable to correct the topographic effects on the SIR-C radar images. A

G Sun; K. J Ranson; V. I Kharuk

2002-01-01

343

Basic hydrology, limnology, and meteorology of modern Lake El’gygytgyn, Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the modern physical setting of Lake El’gygytgyn, northeastern Siberia, is presented here to facilitate interpretation\\u000a of a 250,000-year climate record derived from sediment cores from the lake bottom. The lake lies inside a meteorite impact\\u000a crater that is approximately 18 km in diameter, with a total watershed area of 293 km2, 110 km2 of which is lake surface. The only

Matt Nolan; Julie Brigham-Grette

2007-01-01

344

Tectonic evolution of the Arctic shelf of Siberia from Riphean through Mesozoic time  

SciTech Connect

Paleotectonic structures are a most important factor to be considered during geological exploration for oil, gas, and other mineral resources, particularly for studies in the vast, but poorly accessible Arctic shelves. The authors have treated the paleotectonic evolution of the Arctic shelves of Siberia on the basis, of a three-dimensional tectonic model of the region, which consists of an assemblage of tectonic maps for specific stages, each representing a specific surface within the sedimentary-metamorphic envelope. The surfaces mapped in each case correspond to the top of one of the tectonic megacomplexes (Baykalian, Caledonian, and early Hercynian, late Hercynian, and Mesozoic) and reflect levels of the most significant gross changes in the crustal evolution of Siberia. The megacomplexes in their turn consist of tectonic complexes, separable on the basis of structural-material characteristics, which reflect a particular tectonic regime. As a synthesis of modern geological and geophysical data, the assemblage of tectonic maps depicts the principal features of the evolution of the Arctic shelves in Siberia during the Riphean-Mesozoic interval, that is, prior to the development of the oceanic basins and the formation of a specific syn-oceanic complex of Danian-Quaternary sediments on the shelves. 15 references.

Gramberg, I.S.; Kos'ko, M.K.; Pogrebitskiy, Yu.E.

1986-08-01

345

Study of micronutrients cycling in boreal forest of Central Siberia on continuous permafrost using Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) isotope fractionation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests mainly located between the latitudes 46°N and 72°N play a key role in regulating the global carbon cycle and climate of the Earth. These forests store about 140 gigatons of carbon (Gt C) in above ground biomass and 180 Gt C in soil organic matter that represents about 25% and 12% of the global amounts (Tarnocai et al., 2009). Within the context of global warming, forested permafrost regions appear to be very sensitive and are likely to be deeply modified in the near future due to the increase of soil temperature and the active layer thickness, as well as the northward shift of the vegetation. Before the quantitative modelling of the evolution of these ecosystems face to the climate change and their reciprocal influence on the whole Earth system become available, we have to constrain the main processes and parameters that control elements transfer between and within mineral and organic reservoirs in order to calculate the associated element fluxes. Indeed, the hydro- and biogeochemical functioning of these boreal environments is still poorly understood. This study will present new results on two important metal micro-nutrient and toxicants (Cu and Zn) concentrations in soil and plants and Zn and Cu isotopes fractionation data we acquired within the pilot site of Tura (Central Siberia, Yenissey basin). This pilot site is located in the drainage area of Nizhnaya Tunguska River, the largest tributary of the Yenissey River, on continuous permafrost of 100 to 300 m thickness. This watershed is located in the field of Central Siberia basalts ages 248+/-20 millions years. The landscape morphology presents north-facing slopes and south facing slopes separated by riparian zones. These environments exhibit peculiarities in terms of hydrological regime, active soil depth, that is, seasonal thawing permafrost depth, nutrients availability, total biomass and plants community distribution (Prokushkin et al., 2007). This region is dominated by deciduous Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr.) which possess about 35% of the total forest carbon stock of Russia (Kobak et al. 1996). Larch forests, composed of L. dahurica (including the sister species L. gmelinii and L. cajanderii), have the ability to grow in continuous permafrost where winter temperature customarily drops below -40 °C. Larch is the main dominant species in permafrost zone of Siberia capable to grow on soils with the active layer depth as little as 10-30 cm (Abaimov et al., 2002). Within this study we measured the concentrations of Zn, Cu and their isotopic composition in plants, soils and surficial fluids. Nutrient availability is the main factor limiting plant productivity in taiga and tundra ecosystems (Shaver and Chapin 1995) and, consequently, the understanding of these elements cycling is of high interest for the biogeochemistry of such environments. These measurements have been performed on larch needles collected as a function of time during the growing season, on the other plant species (dwarf shrubs and mosses), on soils, and on interstitial and riverwaters during both springflood and low water level period (summer and autumn). The ?66Zn of soils varies between 0.02 and 0.13‰. The isotopic composition of larch needles changes as a function of location (north-facing slope, south-facing slope and riparian zone). The ?66Zn of needles collected in riparian zone (?66Zn = -0.15 to -0.21‰) exhibit lighter isotopic composition than those collected in both north- and south-facing slope (?66Zn = 0.05-0.37‰). Dwarf shrubs exhibit higher values of ?66Zn than mosses (0.23 to 0.80 and 0.03 to 0.1, respectively). We are currently acquiring new data on soil porewaters and river solutions. It is anticipated that these data will help us to trace Zn cycling in this specific ecosystem of boreal zone.

Viers, Jérôme; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kirdyanov, Anatoly; Chabaux, François; Oliva, Priscia

2010-05-01

346

Flooding of the Taz, Pur, and Yenisey Rivers, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each spring and summer, rivers across Siberia experience flooding as the waters in the south begin to melt and run before the ice has retreated from the northern limits. The ice causes jams which are sometimes loosened up using explosives. This pair of MODIS images from June 18, 2002, shows flooding on the Pur (left), Taz (center), and Yenisey (right) Rivers in central Siberia. In the false-color image, ice and snow are red, clouds are white, water is black, and vegetation is green. Bare soil is brown. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

347

Stationary plasma thruster evaluation in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A team of electric propulsion specialists from U.S. government laboratories experimentally evaluated the performance of a 1.35-kW Stationary Plasma Thruster (SPT) at the Scientific Research Institute of Thermal Processes in Moscow and at 'Fakel' Enterprise in Kaliningrad, Russia. The evaluation was performed using a combination of U.S. and Russian instrumentation and indicated that the actual performance of the thruster appears

John R. Brophy

1992-01-01

348

Political Dissidents in Putin’s Russia  

E-print Network

or a region, hear near all civil and criminal cases. Regional courts are often subject to political pressure and engage in widespread corruptions. The Supreme Court receives lower trial courts cases. Arbitration courts hear property and commercial... cannot examine cases on its own initiative. The Russian Judiciary is relatively weak, allowing for a more vertical government. Overview of the Russian Political Party System Russia has a multi-party system made up of seven main parties. The largest...

Streetman, Amanda Leigh

2013-03-11

349

Maastrichtian angiospermous pollen records from Sakhalin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes dispersed angiospermous pollen grains from the Maastrichtian of Sakhalin, Russia, with scanning electron\\u000a microscopy. These pollen grains includeClavatipollenites, Tricolpites, andBetulaepollenites. Exine sculpture of the pollen grains are shown in detail. The palynomorphs imply a wide range of angiosperm diversity during\\u000a Maastrichtian time at the mid- or high-latitudes in the eastern Eurasia.

Masamichi Takahashi; Ken'ichi Saiki

1995-01-01

350

Energy efficiency and renewable energy in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical-economic and geographical opportunities for energy efficiency and renewable energy in Russia are enormous – cost-effective investments are possible in district heating systems, buildings, and industry, and for wind, biomass, solar and geothermal energy. Market-level energy prices, privatization, and the possibility of independent power production all favor investments in these technologies and technology transfer with other countries. But many transaction

Eric Martinot

1998-01-01

351

Terrorism and the fall of imperial Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of terrorism in the decline and fall of Imperial Russia. It analyzes the struggle between terrorists and the Tsarist government during three stages: (1) 1861–66, amidst the ‘Great Reforms’ and radicalization of students; (2) 1877–81, a confrontation between populist terrorists and government; and (3) the crisis of 1904–7, which witnessed open battles between terrorists on

Norman M. Naimark

1990-01-01

352

Treatment needs, diagnoses and use of services for acutely admitted psychiatric patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway  

PubMed Central

Background We compared demography, diagnoses and clinical needs in acutely admitted psychiatric hospital patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway. Method All acutely admitted psychiatric patients in 1 psychiatric hospital in north-west Russia and 2 in northern Norway were in a three months period assessed with HoNOS and a Norwegian form developed to study acute psychiatric services (MAP). Data from a total of 841 patients were analysed (377 Norwegian, 464 Russian) with univariate and multivariate statistics. Results Russian patients were more often males who had paid work. 2/3 were diagnosed with alcohol and organic disorders, and 70% reported problems related to sleep. Depression was widespread, as were problems associated with occupation. Many more Norwegian patients were on various forms of social security and lived in community supported homes. They had a clinical profile of affective disorders, use of drugs, suicidality and problems with activities involved of daily life. Slightly more Norwegian patients were involuntary admitted. Conclusion Acutely admitted psychiatric patients in North West Russia and Northern Norwegian showed different clinical profiles: alcohol, depression and organic disorders characterised Russian patients, affective disorders, suicidality and use of drugs characterised the Norwegians. Whereas Norwegian patients are mainly referred from GPs the Russians come via 1.line psychiatric services (“dispensaries”). Average length of stay for Russian patients was 2.5 times longer than that of the Norwegian. PMID:23317010

2013-01-01

353

Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.  

PubMed

Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. PMID:23633268

Shamtsyan, Mark

2014-08-01

354

West Nile virus  

MedlinePLUS

West Nile virus is a disease spread by mosquitoes. The condition ranges from mild to severe. ... West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States ...

355

West Nile Virus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Good introduction and synopsis of West Nile Virus. Briefly reporting on such topics as geographic distribution, symptoms and treatment, transmission and prevention. The article includes a list of references for further investigation into the West Nile Virus.

0002-11-30

356

West Nile Virus  

MedlinePLUS

... Most mosquitoes are simply annoying. But a small percentage can carry diseases like West Nile virus. Over the past few years, West Nile virus has been found in animals, birds, and humans in all continental states in the United States. ...

357

Soil condition changes in the permafrost zone of Russia and their influence on stability of buildings and infrastructure during current climate changes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Climate changes in the permafrost zone influence on soil condition and can have negative effects on buildings and infrastructure. Structures in this zone are built on frozen soils, the strength properties of which depend on their thermal condition. For research of this problem the following has been done: 1. The daily data set of soil temperature under natural surface at depths up to 320 cm at the Russian meteorological stations has been prepared. The earliest year of data set is 1963, the current version is ending in 2010 (458 stations of WMO). Original data quality control was performed in creating the data set. 2. The data set of computed depth of soil seasonal thawing at the Russian meteorological stations till 2010 has been prepared (106 stations with yearly depth of thawing). 3. Based on the prepared data sets, changes of soils' condition for the last five decades have been researched. The change of mean annual soil temperature at depths has been researched and soil warming in the vast area for 1963 - 2010 has been shown, herein the great trends (0,2 - 0,4°C /10 years) at 320 cm have been found in Western and Eastern Siberia, and the greatest trends (0,4 - 0,5°C/10 years) are found in their south part. The greatest loss of the load-carrying capacity of foundations in permafrost zone can be during a warm season. The analysis of soils' temperature trends at depth 320 cm during the warm season has shown that the greatest warming of soils is observed in south part of Siberia (0,4 - 0,6°C /10 years). Trends which are more than 0,6°C/10 years are found in the Baikal lake area, also in the Amur river region. Thus, favorable conditions for increase of seasonal thawing depth in a permafrost zone, especially in its south part, has been shown. The map of average depth of soil seasonal thawing for 1963-2010 was made. It showed that the greatest depths of thawing 300-400 cm were observed near the border of permafrost and the smallest depths 50-250 cm predominate over the area of continuous permafrost. Changes of thawing depth for 2001-2010 compared with 1971-1980 was researched. It showed that prevail significant increase of thawing depth in Eastern Siberia (increase in 40-120 cm for different stations) and more moderate increase in the north part of the Russian Far East. In the south part of the Russian Far East along with area of faint increase depth were observed regions with significant decrease depth of thawing. Trends of average thawing depth for 1963-2010 have been obtained and the greatest significant positive trends have been found in the north part of Eastern Siberia (3-4cm/year), also in the Russian Far East (2-3cm/year). Conclusions: 1. The 40-50 years long observations show soil warming down to the 320 cm depth over the vast territory of the Russia. Maximum trends at the 320 cm are found in the south part of Western and Eastern Siberia. 2. One of the impacts of the current changes in climate is the general tendency for the increase in the seasonal thaw depth on the vast territory of Western and Eastern Siberia. 3. The increase of seasonal thawing depth of permafrost soils in the basement of buildings can create a deformation of the basements and buildings and their further destruction. The work was done with the financial support of RFBR (project 11-05-00691).

Sherstiukov, A. B.

2012-12-01

358

[Changes in the ranges of pasture ixodid ticks of the genus Ixodes Latr., 1795 (Parasitiformes, Ixodinae) in Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The character of distribution of two species from the genus Ixodes, the Taiga tick Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi in the plain part of Western Siberia is analyzed. The northern border of the range of I. persulcatus in HMAO-Ugra was clarified on the basis of long-term data on the population density of adult and immature ticks (1960-2011). The shift of the southern border of the species range in Western Siberia at the background of anthropogenic transformation (forest restoring activity, stopped sanitary forest cutting, road construction etc) is demonstrated; peculiarities of the distribution of the Taiga tick in some localities of the southwestern Siberia is analyzed. The modern state of the tick population in the joint dwelling zone of I. persulcatus and I. pavlovskyi is characterized. Possible reasons of changes in the structure of tick communities toward total prevalence of I. pavlovskyi in recreation zones of Novosibirsk and Tomsk are discussed. It is noted that the most significant changes in the character of distribution of these two tick species in Western Siberia had evidently occurred after 1990. Just in this period, local stable populations of the Taiga tick to the south of its main range in Western Siberia (within Omsk and Novosibirsk Provinces) were formed; the character of its distribution in the right bank of the Ob River (Novosibirsk Province) and in the valley of the Tom River (Tomsk Province) had changed; I. pavlovskyi became the dominating species. PMID:23458015

Mal'kova, M G; Iakimenko, V V; Tantsev, A K

2012-01-01

359

Sputnik enterprises: high technology enterprise creation in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sprouting of high technology SMEs around Science Academy institutes have been spotted during on-field visits in Novosibirsk2 - Siberia. We have defined euphemistically Sputnik company creation the creation of satellite enterprises from the scientific and research centres, due to the “maternal” link that persists throughout the life cycle of the new ventures with the parent organisation. Similar to the

vittorio franceschi; marie laure couderc

2004-01-01

360

Migration routes and important resting areas of Siberian cranes ( Grus leucogeranus) between northeastern Siberia and China as revealed by satellite tracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995 and 1996 thirteen Siberian cranes (Grus leucogeranus) were fitted with satellite transmitters on the breeding grounds in northeastern Siberia. Eleven of these 13 birds were successfully satellite tracked, and five of these 11 provided complete migratory information from their breeding grounds in Yakutia, Siberia, to their wintering area at Poyang Lake, in China. Several stopover sites were identified,

Yutaka Kanai; Mutsuyuki Ueta; Nikolai Germogenov; Meenakshi Nagendran; Nagahisa Mita; Hiroyoshi Higuchie

2002-01-01

361

Russian-US Partnership to Study the 23-km-diameter El'gygtgyn Impact Crater, Northeast Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

El'gygytgyn crater, located within Eastern Siberia, is a Pliocene-aged (3.6 Ma), well-preserved impact crater with a rim diameter of roughly 23 km. The target rocks are a coherent assemblage of crystalline rocks ranging from andesite to basalt. At the time of impact the region was forested and the Arctic Ocean was nearly ice-free. A 15-km lake fills the center of the feature and water depths are approximately 175 m. Evidence of shock metamorphism, -- including coesite, fused mineral glasses, and planar deformation features in quartz -- has been reported. This feature is one of the youngest and best preserved complex craters on Earth. Because of its remote Arctic setting, however, El gygytgyn crater remains poorly investigated. The objectives of this three-year project are to establish and maintain a research partnership between scientists from Russia and the United States interested in the El gygytgyn crater. The principal institutions in the U.S. will be the Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks and the University of Massachusetts Amherst. The principal institution in Russia will be the North East Interdisciplinary Scientific Research Institute (NEISRI), which is the Far-East Branch of the Russian Academy of Science. Three science tasks are identified for the exchange program: (1) Evaluate impactite samples collected during previous field excursions for evidence of and level of shock deformation. (2) Build a high-resolution digital elevation model for the crater and its surroundings using interferometric synthetic aperture radar techniques on JERS-1, ERS-1, ERS-2, and/or RadarSat range-doppler data. (3) Gather all existing surface data available from Russian and U.S. institutions (DEM, remote sensing image data, field-based lithological and sample maps, and existing geophysical data) and assemble into a Geographic Information Systems database.

Sharpton, Virgil L.; Minyuk, Pavel S.; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Glushkova, Olga; Layer, Paul; Raikevich, Mikhail; Stone, David; Smirnov, Valdimir

2002-01-01

362

Somatic changes in primary liver cancer in Russia: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Primary liver cancer (PLC) is a major public health concern worldwide, ranking third among the causes of death from cancer. Molecular pathogenesis of PLC is known to be especially sensitive to ethno-environmental variations that modulate mutation spectra in tumours. Despite a high prevalence of chronic liver diseases, the molecular epidemiology of PLC is still poorly known in Russia. To characterize the major genetic features of liver tumours in Russian populations, we conducted a pilot study on 34 PLC cases (28 hepatocellular, two cholangiocellular, and four mixed cases) among patients attending the Radiology and Roentgenology Hospital in Saint Petersburg. Point mutations were searched in 9 genes that are commonly altered in PLC, viz. TP53, CTNNB1, AXIN1, H/K/N-RAS, BRAF, PTEN, and NFE2L2. The genes TP53 and AXIN1 were mutated in 16% and 10% of the cases, respectively, whereas mutations of ?-catenin were present in only 7% of samples, an unusual situation for Europe but common in East Asia. No R249S mutation indicative of exposure to aflatoxin B1 was detected in TP53. A single case harboured an NFE2L2 mutation. The loss of chromosome 18q was associated with early onset of tumours (mean 50 vs 62yrs, p=0.0252) and with the patient's place of birth in Caucasus or Siberia. A lack of any risk factor was noted in 47% of the patients, whereas only 23% of the patients were infected either by hepatitis virus B or C. An extension of the present cohort as well as further molecular studies are now warranted in order to understand the processes governing liver carcinogenesis affecting Russian populations. PMID:23830926

Kalinina, Olga; Marchio, Agnès; Urbanskii, Aleksandr I; Tarkova, Aleksandra B; Rebbani, Khadija; Granov, Dmitri A; Dejean, Anne; Generalov, Mikhail I; Pineau, Pascal

2013-08-15

363

Late Mesozoic magmatic records in NE Russia and coeval events in Arctic ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magmatic records onshore of Arctic Siberia and Alaska may provide constrains on formation of Arctic ocean including Amerasia and Eurasia basins, helps to interpret geophysical data and better understand meaning of spars dredged samples. We used new geochemistry and geochronology (U-Pb and Ar-Ar) data collected in the last decade across North East Russia and partly Alaska to better understand timing and tectonic setting of main magmatic events. It is widely accepted that opening of the Canada basin could have occurred as early as the late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous (Grantz et al., 1998). Some of the models suggest initial rifting in the early Jurassic and seafloor spreading initiated at 145-142 Ma (Seton et al., 2012). Much older Devonian oceanic crust fragments found in the continental part of Arctic Alaska (Angaucham) as well as in Chukotka (Billings-Provideniya suture zone). Recently we mapped spars outcrops of metaultramafic rocks located within Velitkenay granite-migmatite complex and within Koolen metamorphic dome and Senyavin uplift. Metamorphic growth zircon from ultramafic rocks have U-Pb ages between 360 to 400 Ma. The most important Late Jurassic - Cretaceous collision and subduction-related magmatic provinces in NE Russia related mostly to paleo-Pacific events but some coincide with tectonic episodes in Arctic: (1) 155-145 Ma granitoids of Main Kolyma batholith belt and coeval Uyandino-Yasachnaya volcanic arc (partly coeval with closure of the Anyui Ocean around c. 160-145 Ma); (2) 150-140 Ma volcanics of subduction related Uda-Murgal and Nutesyn margin continental arcs; (3) 130-135 Ma Northern belt granites and oldest granitic complexes in Eastern Chukotka (coeval with beginning of HALIP volcanism); (4) 118-124 Ma Tytylveem continental volcano-plutonic belt in Chukotka coeval with suggested cessation of spreading in the Canada basin; (5) 100-109 Ma extension-related granite-metamorphic core complexes along Arctic cost of Chukotka (coeval with within-plate alkaline basalts of De-Longy archipelago) (6) 106-78 Ma subduction-related Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (final stage of volcanism in Chukotka at 88-90 Ma coeval with Iceland plume and opening of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay between 90 and 55 Ma, which might have affected the Central Arctic region). Small volume alkali basalts eruption happened during 54 to to 37 Ma in the Chersky seismic belt triggered by extension and thinning of the lithosphere combined with adiabatic upwelling of the underlying mantle (coeval with opening of the Eurasia basin at 55-33 Ma).

Akinin, V. V.

2013-12-01

364

The surface energy balance and its drivers in a boreal peatland fen of northwestern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal peatland energy balances using the eddy covariance technique have previously been made in Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Western Siberia, but not in the European portion of the Russian Federation. European Russia contains approximately 200,000 km2 of peatlands and has a boreal (subarctic), continental climate influencing the region's energy balance. To help fill this research gap, the surface energy balance was determined for a boreal peatland fen in the Komi Republic of Russia for an 11-month period in 2008-2009 using the eddy covariance method. The total measurement period's cumulative energy balance closure rate was 86%, with higher closure during the critical summer growing season. Similar to other boreal peatland sites, the mid-summer shortwave radiation demonstrated albedo between 0.13 and 0.19 as calculated on a cumulative monthly basis, whereas monthly albedo was >0.9 during the months with greatest snow (January, February 2009). Mid-summer Bowen ratios averaged 0.20-0.25 on a cumulative basis, with monthly averaged mid-day values in the range 0.35-0.53 during the growing season. Latent energy (LE) fluxes exceeded 70% of net radiation and 60% of potential evapotranspiration. During the study period, total evapotranspiration (406 mm) was slightly greater than rainfall (389 mm), with later snowfalls creating excess moisture in the atmospheric water budget. These characteristics together point to a peatland whose energy balance behavior is generally consistent with data from other boreal fens. The LE fluxes were dominantly controlled by net radiation, with less canopy resistance than at other northern fens and a lighter role for vapor pressure deficit to play in the energy balance. The aerodynamic and canopy conductance terms were of similar magnitude, both through the season and through any given diurnal cycle. The consequently high decoupling coefficient (0.65 ± 0.16 in the growing season) allows further modeling of fens in this region with reduced effects from the uncertainties of parameterizing surface conductance terms and their responses to water table and vapor pressure deficit changes. The Priestley-Taylor method provides a reasonable approach to modeling evapotranspiration, given some assumptions about the site's energy balance closure. This understanding of the local drivers on the energy and water budgets has important implications for peatland ecology and growth, regional carbon dynamics, and downstream hydrology.

Runkle, B. R. K.; Wille, C.; Gažovi?, M.; Wilmking, M.; Kutzbach, L.

2014-04-01

365

Barter For Price Discrimination? - a theory and evidence from russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unprecedented demonetization of Russia's transition economy has been explained by tight monetary policy, tax evasion and poor financial intermediation. We show that market power may also be important.

Sergei Guriev

2001-01-01

366

Factors promoting larch dominance in Eastern Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative roles of fire and climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of Central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of Eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1) on climate-driven performance only, (2) on fire only, or (3) on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in Central and Eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in the climate-driven performance of the observed species. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix. Of lesser influence were longitude, hydrology and active-layer thickness. Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yr between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yr since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20 %. Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20 % at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha-1 yr-1 independent of age class and species. Stand volumes reached about 130 t C ha-1 (equivalent to about 520 m3 ha-1). Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yr. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of heart wood. 60 % of old Larix and Picea and 30 % of Pinus sibirica trees were affected by stem rot. Implications for the future role of fire and of plant diseases are discussed.

Schulze, E.-D.; Wirth, C.; Mollicone, D.; von Lüpke, N.; Ziegler, W.; Achard, F.; Mund, M.; Prokushkin, A.; Scherbina, S.

2012-01-01

367

Fire Impact on Phytomass and Carbon Emissions in the Forests of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberian boreal forests contribute considerably to the global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate large amount of carbon, and are sensitive to climatic changes. Fire is the main forest disturbance factor, covering up to millions of hectares of boreal forests annually, of which the majority is in Siberia. Carbon emissions released from phytomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use influence the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state, and productivity, as well as global carbon balance. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation phytomass were estimated on sites in light-conifer forests of the Central Siberia as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). This study focuses on collecting quantitative data and modeling the influence of fires of varying intensity on fire emissions, carbon budget, and ecosystem processes in coniferous stands. Fires have a profound impact on forest-atmospheric carbon exchange and transform forests from carbon sinks to carbon sources lasting long after the time of burning. Our long-term experiments allowed us to identify vegetation succession patterns in taiga Scots pine stands after fires of known behavior. Estimating fire contributions to the carbon budget requires consideration of many factors, including vegetation type and fire type and intensity. Carbon emissions were found to depend on fire intensity and weather. In the first several years after fire, the above-ground phytomass appeared to be strongly controlled by fire intensity. However, the influence of burning intensity on organic matter accumulation was found to decrease with time.

Ivanova, Galina A.; Zhila, Sergei V.; Ivanov, Valery A.; Kovaleva, Nataly M.; Kukavskaya, Elena A.; Platonova, Irina A.; Conard, Susan G.

2014-05-01

368

A comparison of the fatty acid composition of Gammarus lacustris and its food sources from a freshwater reservoir, Bugach, and the saline Lake Shira in Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied fatty acid (FA) composition in samples from bodies and intestinal contents of the littoral amphipod Gammarus lacustris Sars, from the Bugach freshwater reservoir. Simultaneously, samples of seston and bottom sediments were also collected from the reservoir during early August. There were no differences in FA composition of gut contents, seston and sediments of pebbly bottom. Seston was the

Olesia N. Makhutova; Galina S. Kalachova; Michail I. Gladyshev

2003-01-01

369

The Ioko-Dovyren layered massif (Southern Siberia, Russia): 1. Internal structure, magma compositions, and fingerprints of open magma chamber behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yoko-Dovyren massif (YDM) is located ~60 km to NE of the Baikal Lake, being morphologically a ridge of 26 km long and up to 2114 m high. Geologically, the pluton is a lens-shaped body (up to 3.5 thick) which together with associated peridotite sills, diabase dikes, and overlying volcanics represents a volcanic-plutonic association (728+/-2.4 Ma [1]), formed in the Late Riphean within a huge rifting system (the Olokit trough) at the southern margin of the Siberian craton. A unique feature of the regional geology is the concordance of the igneous rocks with the enclosing carbonate-terrigenous sediments along its strike and dip, which is nearly vertical due to post-intrusive folding. This allows one to sample the intrusive complex across the strike, from the lower to upper contacts. The modal layering of YDM includes a bottom unit of plagioclase lherzolites (100-150 m) followed by a succession of cumulates including: Pl-bearing and adcumulate dunites (Ol+Chr, 800-900 m), troctolite (Ol+Pl+Chr, ~700 m), Ol gabbro (Pl+Ol+Cpx, Pig-gabbro and quartz gabbronorites (Pl+Cpx±Opx±Pig). Despite its Precambrian age, YDM was not metamorphosed significantly, so that most of intrusive rocks are very fresh, preserving both their igneous textures and original mineralogy. Parental magma compositions have been evaluated based on studies of the chilled zones and underlying ultramafic sills. The most primitive rocks of YDM have been discovered at the lower contact composed of chilled diabases and picritic rocks containing variable amounts of Ol, and ophitic textures of their groundmass. The FeO-MgO trend displayed by these high porosity cumulates suggests them to contain originally olivine ~Fo88. The COMAGMAT model calculations indicate the initial temperature of the heterogeneous magma is to be of 1310oC, with the magmatic melt containing ~12% MgO [2]. Using this composition as starting one, we simulated the parent crystallization sequence which corresponds to that observed in the YDM cumulates. Estimates for Ol-gabbronorites and Pl-dunites from ultramafic sills result in more evolved magma containing Ol~Fo85 at T~1190oC. Both geochemical and cumulate structure of YDM is indicative of a significant amount of mafic melts to be extracted from the original cumulate piles, followed by their expulsion from the magma staging chamber. Fingerprints of such an open-system behavior are recorded in (1) strong depletion in incompatible elements of the bulk YDM composition with respect to parental magmas, (2) a complimentary "over-enrichment" with Ol cumulates and sulfides, (3) insignificant variations of Ol composition throughout the Layered Series, and (4) the absence of the Upper Border Series as a marginal compositional reversal. This research was supported by AngloAmerican, BHP Billiton and Votorantim Metais through AMIRA project P962, by the Australian Research Council funding to the CODES, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 08-05-00194a, 11-05-00268a). [1] Ariskin et al. (2013) Geochem. Intern. [2] Ariskin et al. (2012)Abs. 12th Intern. Ni-Cu-(PGE) symp. (China)

Ariskin, Alexey; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Nikolaev, Georgy

2013-04-01

370

The Ioko-Dovyren layered massif (Southern Siberia, Russia): 2. Melt vs sulphide percolation process and modeling sulphide saturation in the parental magmas and original cumulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important feature of the Dovyren intrusive complex [1] is its fertility due to the presence of massive sulphide ores near the bottom of the Ioko-Dovyren massif (YDM, SW and NE margins), as well as PGE-reefs in anorthosites from the Ol-gabbronorite zone in the centre [2]. These observations argue for the importance of downward percolation of sulphides through the porous space of cumulates and probable link of this process with upward migration of intercumulus melts at a post-cumulus stage. Indirectly, this is supported by the basic conclusion on the open-system behavior of the magma chamber [1]. A key aspect of these speculations is the onset of sulphide immiscibility in YDM parental magmas and the original cumulates. To reconstruct the sulphide saturation history, we applied a newly developed sulphide version of COMAGMAT (ver. 5.2 [3]) to the rocks from the chilled zone of YDM and underlying ultramafic sills, by simulating the course of their crystallization coupled with the SCSS calculations. Modeled crystallization trajectories evidence for under-saturated nature of the most primitive parental magmas (1310oC, Fo88) from which the chilled rocks were crystallized, whereas more evolved rocks from the sills demonstrate sulphide saturation starting from their initial temperature (1190oC, Fo85), see [1]. This correlates with the absence of sulphide ores in the central parts of the pluton and their occurrence in underlying ultramafics and YDM border series containing olivine Fo~85. Another set of calculations was carried out to demonstrate the effect of bulk Ni contents in Ol cumulate piles on the evolution of SCSS during their post-cumulus crystallization [3]. To achieve the goal, two calculations by the COMAGMAT-5.2 model were carried out. The first one involved modelling equilibrium crystallization for an initial mixture of Ol (Fo88) and intercumulus melt (~1320oC), with the starting composition corresponding to that of a bottom Pl-dunite (2315 ppm NiO, 0.030 wt% S). The second modelling was performed for the initial trapped melt only (517 ppm NiO, 0.067 wt% S), estimated for the primitive Ol orthocumulate. The major difference between these calculations is the onset of modelled sulphide saturation. In the case of "Ol cumulus pile", the sulphide liquid appears at 1209oC, slightly earlier than plagioclase and pyroxenes start to crystallize. For the "Ol-free magma", sulphides appear at much lower temperature (~1173oC) where the Ol-Pl-Opx-Cpx assemblage is stable. This indicates that the presence of a large amount of Ni-enriched Ol crystals should be considered as a "Ni-buffer" which does not allow for Ni content in the trapped melt to decrease significantly, giving rise to earlier precipitation of sulphides as it follows from the pronounced effect of Ni on sulphide solubility discussed in [3]. This research was supported by AngloAmerican, BHP Billiton and Votorantim Metais through AMIRA project P962, by the Australian Research Council funding to the CODES, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 08-05-00194a, 11-05-00268a). [1] Ariskin et al. (2013) This volume [2] Kislov E.V. (1998) The Yoko-Dovyren Layered Massif, Ulan-Ude, 264 p. (in Russian) [3] Ariskin et al. (2012). Abs. 12th Intern. Ni-Cu-(PGE) symp. (China)

Ariskin, Alexey; Danyushevsky, Leonid

2013-04-01

371

Diversity of the major capsid genes (g23) of T4-like bacteriophages in the eutrophic Lake Kotokel in East Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Numerous studies revealed high diversity of T4-like bacteriophages in various environments, but so far, little is known about T4-like virus diversity in freshwater bodies, particularly in eutrophic lakes. The present study was aimed at elucidating molecular diversity of T4-like bacteriophages in eutrophic Lake Kotokel located near Lake Baikal by partial sequencing of the major capsid genes (g23) of T4-like bacteriophages. The majority of g23 fragments from Lake Kotokel were most similar to those from freshwater lakes and paddy fields. Despite the proximity and direct water connection between Lake Kotokel and Lake Baikal, g23 sequence assemblages from two lakes were different. UniFrac analysis showed that uncultured T4-like viruses from Lake Kotokel tended to cluster with those from the distant lake of the same trophic status. This fact suggested that the trophic conditions affected the formation of viral populations, particularly of T4-like viruses, in freshwater environments. PMID:23539063

Butina, Tatyana V; Belykh, Olga I; Potapov, Sergey A; Sorokovikova, Ekaterina G

2013-07-01

372

Model of erosion-landslide interaction in the context of the reservoir water level variations (East Siberia, Russia): Factors, environment and mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive investigation of landslide-erosion interactions has been carried out in the local shore geosystem of the Bykovo site located on the left shore of the Bratsk reservoir. The landslide process develops in the Mid-Quaternary grounds (aQ of the erosion-accumulative terrace's fragment that comprises sand, sand with pebbles, sandy loams and loams. This study aims to assess the environmental factors of interacting landslide and gully erosion processes, to estimate their temporal dynamics by comparative analysis of cartographic models based on the data of repeated theodolite surveys, and to find out what level regime of the reservoir stimulates the activation of the landslide process. The authors propose two-stage descriptive model of erosion-landslide interaction and development mechanisms in the context of the reservoir water level variations in the Bratsk reservoir. The activation of landslide processes in the reservoir shores follows the periods of high water level stands. Shore slope stability is disturbed by abrasion of slope foot and inundation of the slide zone. The soils subject to landslide, erosion-landslide and erosion processes differ in their microstructure and properties. Largest erosion susceptibility is typical of soils with skeleton-aggregated microstructure, fine- and coarse-silt sandy loams and loams of high porosity, whose interstructural bonds are attributed to water-soluble salts (Sws = 0.4-0.5%) and high carbonate contents (Scr = 34-66%). High dispersion and aggregation of clay fractions is typical of the loams of the slide zone. The structure of soils subject to deformation slide is represented primarily by fine-sand particles and aggregates with smaller cohesion and strength properties.

Mazaeva, Oksana; Khak, Viktoria; Kozyreva, Elena

2013-12-01

373

Bacterial diversity and activity along a salinity gradient in soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia).  

PubMed

Here we describe the diversity and activity of sulfate reducing bacteria along a salinity gradient in four different soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (South East Siberia, Russia). For this purpose, a combination of culture-dependent and independent techniques was applied. The general bacterial and SRB diversity were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the 16S rDNA gene. DNA was used to detect the microbial populations that were present in the soda lake sediments, whereas ribosomal RNA was used as a template to obtain information on those that were active. Individual DGGE bands were sequenced and a phylogenetic analysis was performed. In addition, the overall activity of SRB was obtained by measuring the sulfate reduction rates (SRR) and their abundance was estimated by serial dilution. Our results showed the presence of minor, but highly active microbial populations, mostly represented by members of the Proteobacteria. Remarkably high SRR were measured at hypersaline conditions (200 g L(-1)). A relatively high viable count indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria could be highly active in hypersaline soda lakes. Furthermore, the increase of sodium carbonate/bicarbonate seemed to affect the composition of the microbial community in soda lakes, but not the rate of sulfate reduction. PMID:17989917

Foti, Mirjam J; Sorokin, Dimitry Yu; Zacharova, Elena E; Pimenov, Nicolai V; Kuenen, J Gijs; Muyzer, Gerard

2008-01-01

374

A Short Assessment of Select Remediation Issues at the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia  

SciTech Connect

At the invitation of the National Academies, Roy Gephart traveled to Russia with an eight-member U.S. team during June, 2008 to participate in a workshop hosted by the National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences on radiation contamination and remediation issues in the former Soviet Union. Cleanup problems were assessed by the American participants for six Russian sites: Kurchatov Institute, Lakes 10 and 11 at Mayak, Andreev Bay, Krasnokamensk Mining Enterprise (Siberia), Almaz Mining Enterprise (North Caucasus), and one site for testing peaceful nuclear explosions. Roy lead the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute review session and wrote an assessment of key cleanup issues. Kurchatov is the leading institute in the Former Soviet Union devoted to military and civilian nuclear programs. Founded in 1943 in the outskirts of Moscow, this 100 hectare site of nearly undeveloped, prime real estate is now surrounded by densely populated urban and business districts. Today there are growing concerns over the public safety and environmental security of the site resulting from increasingly obsolete nuclear facilities and a legacy of inadequate waste management practices that resulted in contaminant releases and challenging remediation problems. In addition, there is growing concern over the presence of nuclear facilities within urban areas creating potential targets for terrorist attacks.

Gephart, Roy E.

2007-06-01

375

Effect of microrelief and vegetation on methane emission from wet polygonal tundra, Lena Delta, Northern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microrelief and vegetation on methane (CH4) emission was investigated in a wet polygonal tundra of the Lena Delta, Northern Siberia (72.37N, 126.47E). Total and plant-mediated CH4 fluxes were measured by closed-chamber techniques at two typical sites within a low-centred polygon. During the study period, total CH4 flux averaged 28.0?±?5.4?mg?m-2?d-1 in the depressed polygon centre and only 4.3?±?0.8?mg?m-2?d-1

Lars Kutzbach; Dirk Wagner; Eva-Maria Pfeiffer

2004-01-01

376

Oscillations with planetary wave periods in variations in the ionospheric parameters over Eastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a periodogramanalysis of the variations in the ionospheric parameters, measured using the vertical radio sounding\\u000a method at midlatitude Irkutsk observatory (Eastern Siberia), are presented. The 1984–1986 period of observations was used.\\u000a It has been indicated that the statistically significant oscillations with periods typical of planetary waves are present\\u000a in the variations in f\\u000a 0Es, f\\u000a bEs, h?Es,

V. D. Kokourov; G. V. Vergasova; E. S. Kazimirovsky

2009-01-01

377

Bankruptcy Reform in Russia: The Case for Creditor Rights in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia at the dawn of the 21st century is experiencing a collapsing economy. In a world where healthy economies create and maintain capital, it is critically important that all efforts be made to assure all creditors and especially private direct investors that in the event of debtor-insolvency their business interests are protected. The role of bankruptcy law under a regime

Laurence S. Moss

2000-01-01

378

News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

Russian Education and Society, 2011

2011-01-01

379

Building Property Rights: Capitalists and the Demand for Law in Post-Soviet Russia  

E-print Network

soviet russia. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 39(7):in Russia: Problems and prospects. OECD Economics Work- ingRussia’s tax crisis: Explaining falling revenues in a transitional econ- omy. Economics &

Gans-Morse, Jordan Luc

2011-01-01

380

Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

1994-01-01

381

Variations of oxygen-18 in West Siberian precipitation during the last 50 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is associated with large increases in surface air temperature in Siberia. Here, we apply the isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso to explore the potential of water isotope measurements at a recently opened monitoring station in Kourovka (57.04° N, 59.55° E) in order to successfully trace climate change in western Siberia. Our model is constrained to atmospheric reanalysis fields for the period 1957-2013 to facilitate the comparison with observations of ?D in total column water vapour from the GOSAT satellite, and with precipitation ?18O measurements from 15 Russian stations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation. The model captures the observed Russian climate within reasonable error margins, and displays the observed isotopic gradients associated with increasing continentality and decreasing meridional temperatures. The model also reproduces the observed seasonal cycle of ?18O, which parallels the seasonal cycle of temperature and ranges from -25 ‰ in winter to -5 ‰ in summer. Investigating West Siberian climate and precipitation ?18O variability during the last 50 years, we find long-term increasing trends in temperature and ?18O, while precipitation trends are uncertain. During the last 50 years, winter temperatures have increased by 1.7 °C. The simulated long-term increase of precipitation ?18O is at the detection limit (<1 ‰ per 50 years) but significant. West Siberian climate is characterized by strong interannual variability, which in winter is strongly related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. In winter, regional temperature is the predominant factor controlling ?18O variations on interannual to decadal timescales with a slope of about 0.5 ‰ °C-1. In summer, the interannual variability of ?18O can be attributed to short-term, regional-scale processes such as evaporation and convective precipitation. This finding suggests that precipitation ?18O has the potential to reveal hydrometeorological regime shifts in western Siberia which are otherwise difficult to identify. Focusing on Kourovka, the simulated evolution of temperature, ?18O and, to a smaller extent, precipitation during the last 50 years is synchronous with model results averaged over all of western Siberia, suggesting that this site will be representative to monitor future isotopic changes in the entire region.

Butzin, M.; Werner, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Risi, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Gribanov, K.; Jouzel, J.; Zakharov, V. I.

2014-06-01

382

Legal regulation of assisted reproduction treatment in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia remains one of the countries with a most favourable approach towards human reproduction in Europe, allowing almost everybody wanting to have a child of their own through assisted reproduction treatment to fulfill their dream. The legal situation around assisted reproduction treatment in Russia is very favourable; surrogacy, gamete and embryo donation are permitted, even on a commercial level. Gestational

Konstantin Svitnev

2010-01-01

383

Wage Determination in Rural Russia: A Stochastic Frontier Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines wages in rural Russia after the first decade of economic transition using data from a nationally representative household survey. The stochastic frontier analysis reveals that Russia's rural labour markets place high value on human capital. The overall level of rural wages, however, is very low, with the median wage 10% below the official subsistence level. The gender

Constantin Ogloblin; Gregory Brock

2006-01-01

384

Birkbeck magazine Issue 25, Spring 2009 Is Russia hushing  

E-print Network

Birkbeck magazine Issue 25, Spring 2009 Is Russia hushing up its history? DON'T TALK! #12;TEACHING of the articles in this issue are about change: how our relationship with Russia has changed since Putin came of Communications Cover image Soviet propaganda poster shows a woman warning against gossip during wartime, 1941

Crawford, Ian

385

Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

Panfilova, T. V.

2011-01-01

386

Following Only Some of the Money in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia adopted the necessary legislation so that it was accepted as a member of the Financial Action Task Force (FATF). It is a member of the UN Convention Against Corruption (although it refuses to enact legislation consistent with the obligations under the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention) and fought to prevent an effective mechanism to monitor compliance with the UN Convention. Russia

Ethan S. Burger

2010-01-01

387

Towards a more coherent oil policy in Russia? S. Boussena,  

E-print Network

of domestic demand. In fact, Russia's hesitation in adopting a clear position with regard to OPEC (and its, it would appear that Russia has no such a goal in mind. The growing attention being paid by the Russian economy, suggesting the "Norwegian model", failure of reforms seems to be inducing the Russian authorities

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

Continuity and change in Russia's climate negotiations position and strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The positions and strategies of Russia in the international climate negotiations are examined. The shift towards a more integrated negotiation strategy and its use of rhetoric at the Copenhagen meeting reflected both a change in Russia's domestic elite and its bureaucratic politics, and a desire to appear to be a responsible global power. However, climate change is still an issue

Liliana B. Andonova; Assia Alexieva

2012-01-01

389

Labor leasing: economic theory, EU and Russia experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the need in flexible business management getting acute, contingent employment comes into focus. While being widely spread all over the globe it has not been recognized in Russia for quite a long time. Today, analysts of the Russian labor market predict that this employment scheme awaits grand future. Indicative of a high demand for contingent labor in Russia is

Larisa Smirnykh

2005-01-01

390

In Russia, a Model Program Reunites Research and Academe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Scientific research has traditionally been left to professionals in Russia. Here, though, graduates and undergraduates work alongside established scientists from different fields, on modern equipment. Some even earn enough money to support themselves. The students have been given this chance under a joint program of the United States and Russia

MacWilliams, Bryon

2007-01-01

391

Russia and the Baltic States: Is Russian Imperialism Dead?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russia has been trying to define its identity in an ever-changing international security environment where it has seen itself as a great power. This belief is further conveyed through Russia's attempts to influence the policies of other states in the region, most notably those in the near abroad including Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia

Pranas Ciziunas

2008-01-01

392

Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

Terekhov, Alexander I.

2013-01-01

393

76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1071-1072 (Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia Determinations...revocation of the antidumping duty order on magnesium from China would be likely to lead to...revocation of the antidumping duty order on magnesium from Russia would not be likely to...

2011-03-03

394

Batesonian analysis of value hierarchies and the transformation of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim is to analyse changes of mass distributed value hierarchies in the course of social transformations in Russia during the last 25 years. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The article's approach is development of the model of value hierarchies within the framework of Batesonian thinking and analysis of secondary sociological and economic data on Russia. Findings – The value hierarchy

Pavel Luksha; Anatoly Tkachev

2007-01-01

395

Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

Rybakova, L. N.

2013-01-01

396

December 12, 2011 Putins Russia and the Elections  

E-print Network

December 12, 2011 Putins Russia and the Elections On Monday November 14, 2011, the Harriman Institute hosted a panel of scholars and journalists to speak about Putins Russia and the upcoming elections to the Putin era. Petrov believes that even if Putin stays in office long after he returns to the presidency

Qian, Ning

397

Putin's Etatization project and limits to democratic reforms in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper evaluates Putin's state building efforts in terms of its impact on democratic change in Russia. Putin's evolution is treated as a response and not a solution to the legacy of the Yeltsin era reforms that created a politico-economic system lacking widespread legitimacy. It is argued that Putin's consolidation of power through his centralization measures seriously undermines Russia's prospects

S. Mohsin Hashim

2005-01-01

398

Beyond the Threshold: Life in the New Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amanda Sprang spent nine months, from September of 1995 to May of 1996, studying at Colby College's program in St. Petersburg, Russia. Through contacts made during previous trips to Russia in middle and high school, Amanda was able to quickly rekindle her old friendships and make new ones with many young Russians from different backgrounds. The following work is a

Amanda Sprang

1997-01-01

399

Hydrobiological responses to eutrophicatio n: Volga River reservoirs, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the current state of eutrophication in eight reservoirs within the Volga River basin, Russia. The main aim of the study was to investigate the structure transformation of phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthic communities. The research was based on information obtained from the State Monitoring System of Russia.

PETER KHAITER

1995-01-01

400

Russia in Olson's template: Regulation, corruption and environmental idealism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mancur Olson's theory illuminates post-USSR Russia's economic malaise. Property rights protection and contract enforcement had apparently fallen considerably to the Mafiya because of, rather than in spite of, an expanding official bureaucracy. Regulatory red tape that helped cause Russia's decline served gangsters who benefited from government dysfunction. Political activism of even purely idealistic environmentalists, to use them as an example,

Craig S. Marxsen

2005-01-01

401

Public attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control policy in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Since the political transition in 1991, Russia has been targeted intensively by the transnational tobacco industry. Already high smoking rates among men have increased further; traditionally low rates among women have more than doubled. The tobacco companies have so far faced little opposition as they shape the discourse on smoking in Russia. This paper asks what ordinary Russians really think

K Danishevski; A Gilmore; M McKee

2008-01-01

402

The Universities of Russia: Areas and Prospects of Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last two decades have seen a significant increase in university students in Russia, the growth of private and state-financed higher education, and the beginnings of a move to a national network of research institutions. The recent economic recession, however, poses a challenge to the continuance of current fee-based higher education in Russia.…

Berdashkevich, A. P.

2011-01-01

403

Barter for price discrimination? A theory and evidence from Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unprecedented demonetization of Russia’s transition economy has been explained by tight monetary policy, tax evasion and poor …nancial intermediation. We show that market power may also be important. We build a model of imperfect competition in which …rms use barter for price discrimination. The model predicts a positive relationship between concentration of market power and share of barter in sales.

Sergei Guriev; Dmitry Kvassov

2000-01-01

404

Problems of the Reproduction of Russia's Science Potential  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Over the past ten years there have been signs in Russia of a dangerous widespread tendency to underrate the creation of a whole set of conditions necessary for expanded reproduction of the country's science potential. Russia has fallen farther and farther behind technologically, its ability to compete in the world markets of science-intensive…

Voronin, Iu. M.

2005-01-01

405

Russia's economic reform: insights and analyses into Gazprom  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis study continues the issue of Russian economic reform in the study by Quast and Locatelli (1997) and extends the same reform in many aspects. In this paper, an in?depth study is also made in the reform strategies and the business performance of Gazprom, Russia's natural gas company, as Russia tried to curtail its domestic political and economic problems by

Barry Bishop

2011-01-01

406

Open Education in Russia: Expectations and First Results  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Moscow University of Economics (MESI) was the first university in Russia to become involved in distance education. MESI proposed that an experiment be conducted in Russia in the field of distance education to evaluate its potential. This article discusses the answers that were obtained to a number of the questions that were posed. The…

Tikhomirov, V.

2004-01-01

407

Space Surveillance: United States, Russia, and China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the launch of Sputnik, the United States and Russia began the process of tracking artificial satellites. This led to developments for observations, orbit determination, and catalog maintenance. The two countries followed somewhat different approaches to the same problem based on the available hardware and theoretical developments. As more sophisticated hardware and theories have been developed, progress has been made. However, new problems have developed because of debris, collision possibilities, and reentering objects. In addition, the range of spacecraft has increased to include geosynchronous orbits. In more recent times the European Space Agency (ESA) and China have become involved in various aspects of Space Surveillance. In 1994, the first meeting between United States and Russian experts in the field of space surveillance was held. Since then, seven more US Russia Space Surveillance Workshops have been held, with the addition of participants from ESA. Terry Alfriend has been the US Technical Chairman for many of these workshops. In 2009 a US China Space Surveillance Technical Interchange was held in Shanghai, China, and Terry was the US Technical Chairman.

Seidelmann, P. K.

2012-06-01

408

Family and family therapy in Russia.  

PubMed

This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

2012-04-01

409

ICESat-Derived Elevation Changes on the Lena Delta and Laptev Sea, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ elevation data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) to investigate surface changes across the Lena Delta and sea ice of the coastal Laptev Sea, Siberia during winters of 2003 through 2008. We compare ICESat GLAS-derived elevation changes on sea ice and the Bykovskaya and Sardakhskaya Channels with datum-corrected tide gauge height measurements from Danai, Sannikova and Tiksi stations. We find the coastal sea ice and large inland ice covered channels elevation changes are in phase with the tide-height changes on a same-month-year and datum controlled basis. Furthermore, we find elevation change on tundra drained lake basins to be +0.03 +/- 0.02 m, on average. These findings indicate ICESat GLAS is capable of detection of tide fluxes of ice covered coastal rivers and with a small error range is suitable for investigations of active-layer and permafrost dynamics associated with seasonal freezing (heave) and thawing (subsidence) using repeat-location profiles. Ref.: Muskett, R.R., "ICESat-Derived Elevation Changes on the Lena Delta and Laptev Sea, Siberia," Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 4 (1), pp. 1-9, 2014. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=41709.

Muskett, Reginald

2014-05-01