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1

3-D Monarch reservoir modelling as a development tool: West Salym field, Western Siberia, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The Salym fields are located in the central part of the West Siberia basin. The basin developed during the Triassic and contains an almost complete stratigraphic succession from the Jurassic to the Quaternary. The main oil reserves in the Salym fields are located in the Lower Cretaceous proprading deltaic complex. The principal reservoir section in the West Salym field is interpreted as marginal marine. Shoreface, mouthbar, fluvial channel and crevasse-splay subenvironments are recognised. Due to this range of depositional environments and average (exploration) well spacing of 5 km, 3-D modelling of depositional geometries is essential to determine the reservoir architecture and reservoir property trends prior to full-scale field development.

Ainsworth, R.B.; Van Kuyk, A.; Van Lieshout, J. (Shell Research, Rijswijk (Netherlands)) (and others)

1996-01-01

2

Characterization of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Novosibirsk region (West Siberia, Russia) based on direct PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infecting Ixodes persulcatus ticks near Novosibirsk, Russia were detected using PCR with primers specific to 5S and 23S rRNA genes. Two genospecies, B. afzelii and B. garinii, were identified by the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with Tru9-I restriction endonuclease. Comparison of the corresponding nucleotide sequences revealed considerable diversity of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer structure

Nnatalya Nikolaevna Livanova; O'lga Vladimirovich Morozova; Igor' Vladimirovich Morozov; Anatoly Bonsovich Beklemishev; Felipe C. Cabello; Andrey Kirovich Dobrotvorsky

2003-01-01

3

Strategic aspects of the Chinese-Russian cooperation between Northwest region of China and West Siberia of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese-Russian cooperation is the important part of strategic partnership of two countries. Especially the cooperation (hereinafter abbreviated form designated «W-W») between Northwest region of China and West Siberia has great value. Thanks to the rich natural resources, these extensive regions are world-known, play the important role in development of economy and society of two countries, possess good prospects of

Gu Tszyayui; Lyu Litsay

4

Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

Clarke, J. W.

1994-01-01

5

Petroleum habitat of East Siberia, Russia  

SciTech Connect

East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. In the Lena-Tunguska province, rifts that developed during Riphean time are filled by thick sedimentary rocks, in which petroleum deposits have formed. In Early Cambrian time a barrier reef extended across the East Siberian craton from southeast to northwest. A lagoon to the west of this reef was the site of thick rhythmic salt deposits, which are the main seals for petroleum in the province. The sedimentary sections of the platform cover ranges in age from Late Proterozoic to Permian. More than 25 oil and gas fields have been discovered in the province, all in Riphean through Lower Cambrian rocks. 17 refs., 7 figs.

Clarke, J.W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1994-03-01

6

Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

2009-04-01

7

Xinjiang and West Siberia: perspectives of cooperation and proposals on counter-measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economy of Xinjiang (China) and economy of West Siberia (Russia) have certain similarity (can be referred to the type of midland economy and are characterized by relatively common economic structure) and differences (industrial profiles, level and conditions of economy development, ethnographic conditions). Both regions are characterized by remoteness from the centers of economic activity of their countries. They are rich

Fan’ Chinpin

8

An aborted Triassic Ocean in west Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small buried oceanic basin named the Obsky paleo-ocean has been found in West Siberia. It developed from 235 to 218 m.y. during the Triassic by rift propagation and seafloor spreading inside the west Siberian region of the continent. During the postspreading period the Obsky paleo-ocean did not collapse but instead was covered intact by a layer of sediments with a thickness of up to 15 km. This conclusion is based on detailed interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Striped magnetic anomalies marking the paleo-ocean spreading have been separated from the total magnetic field. They have been dated and interpreted within the framework of the Vine-Matthews concept. Seismic and gravitational data have permitted delineation of the Obsky paleo-ocean depression and contouring of the basement relief within its bounds. Investigation of the Obsky paleo-ocean basalts by means of deep boreholes has indicated that they are chemically similar to oceanic tholeiites and has also confirmed the presence of strong residual magnetism in them. Spreading of the Obsky paleo-ocean was a stage in the initial disintegration of Pangea at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary. The presence of a north trending buried spreading center along the axial zone of West Siberia accounts for many features of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the region and its present-day structure.

Aplonov, Sergei

1988-12-01

9

[Detection of Babesia spp. DNA in small mammals and ixodic ticks on the territory of north Ural, west Siberia and far east of Russia].  

PubMed

Totally, 932 small mammals and 458 questing adult Ixodes persulcatus from Sverdlovsk and Novosibirsk regions and Khabarovsk Territory, as well as 128 Haemaphysalis japonica, 34 H. concinna and 29 Dermacentor silvarum from Khabarovsk Territory were examined for the presence of Babesia by nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia microti DNA was found in samples of small mammals from all the studied regions--in 36.2% of samples from Sverdlovsk region, 5.3% of samples from Novosibirsk region, and 6.7% of samples from Khabarovsk Territory. The determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Novosibirsk region (6 sequences) and from Khabarovsk Territory (10 sequences) were identical to each other and to the sequences of pathogenic for human B. microti US-type, while the determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Sverdlovsk region (12 sequences) were identical to those of B. microti strain Munich. B. microti were found most frequently in samples of Myodes spp., they were found also in Microtus spp., Apodemus spp., Sorer spp., and Sicista betulinav. It was shown that one of 347 analyzed I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region and one of 77 I. persulcatus from Khabarovsk Territory contained B. microti US-type DNA. One I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region contained B. divergens DNA. In this work B. divergens was for the first time determined in I. persulcatus and B. microti in I. persulcatus in Asian part of Russia. Three different genetic variants of Babesia sensu stricto were found in three H. japonica from Khabarovsk Territory. The first genetic variant was closely related to Babesia sp. revealed in a feral raccoon in Japan (99.9% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). Two others Babesia genetic variants were most similar to the ovine pathogen Babesia crassa (97.1-97.6% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). PMID:20886686

Rar, V A; Epikhina, T I; Livanova, N N; Panov, V V; Pukhovskaia, N M; Vysochina, N P; Ivanov, L I

2010-01-01

10

Magnetic and gravity anomaly patterns related to hydrocarbon fields in northern West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

A study of the features of gravity and magnetic fields in the vicinity of oil and gas reservoirs in West Siberia demonstrated a spatial relationship with the hydrocarbon deposits. The relevant magnetic and gravity anomalies cover approximately 900,000 km{sup 2} in northern West Siberia. Amplitude and frequency were investigated initially using double Fourier spectrum (DFS) analysis. This was followed by (1) application of transformations, filtering, and moving windows analysis; (2) compilation of maps of regional and local anomalies, and potential field derivatives; and (3) investigation of the distribution of parameters in areas of known deposits. Hydrocarbon deposits are located mostly at the slopes of positive regional gravity and magnetic anomalies which are interpreted as relating to deep riftogenic structures. At the same time, it is established that the location of hydrocarbon depositions coincides commonly with local gravity and magnetic minima generated by lows in basement density and magnetization. All known hydrocarbon deposits in northern West Siberia are in areas characterized by comparatively high gradients of constituent of gravity anomalies with a wavelength of about 90--100 km. These newly revealed links between reservoirs and potential field parameters may be a means to predict new discoveries in poorly explored territories and seas, primarily in Russia`s Arctic shelf.

Piskarev, A.L.; Tchernyshev, M.Yu. [VNIIOkeangeologia, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

1997-05-01

11

A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

2002-01-01

12

Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans

A. N. Kurchatova; G. I. Griva; A. B. Osokin; G. K. Smolov

2005-01-01

13

Drilling results in West Siberia from expedition crews  

SciTech Connect

The practice of flying in drilling crews and other specialized teams from the older oil-producing regions of the country to augment local drilling efforts in the West Siberian oil fields has been employed almost since the beginning of the region's development. This was due to the rapid pace at which the West Siberian fields were being developed and the lack of infrastructure and labor resources in this pioneering region. By the beginning of the 11th Five-Year Plan in 1981, 10 drilling units from 6 regional production administrations were operating in West Siberia using the expeditionary method. An extremely large amount of drilling has been accomplished by the expeditionary drilling teams. A total of 49 million meters of hole have been drilled in the last 10 years, 36% of the total volume of drilling in West Siberia during this period. 2 tables.

Sagers, M.J.

1987-10-01

14

Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. (Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

15

High-boiling arenes of Paleozoic petroleum of West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

A number of petroleum deposits have been found recently in the southern regions of West Siberia, in carbonate reservoirs of the Paleozoic age; certain aspects of increasing petroleum output in the field are related to these deposits. The general characteristics of Paleozoic petroleums of West Siberia are fairly varied, these petroleums usually have lower sulfur and resin contents but contain more was than petroleums from the Mesozoic deposits in the upper strata. No detailed study has so far, apparently, been carried out of the hydrocarbon composition of higher fractions of Paleozoic petroleums of the regio using physico-chemical methods. Accordingly, the composition of aromatic components of medium and high-boiling petroleum distillates of the Maloich deposit are examined since these are one of the first Paleozoic deposits put to industrial use.

Golovko, A.K.; Kam'yanov, V.F.; Korobitsina, L.L.; Kurakolova, E.A.; Rusinova, G.V.; Petrov, Al. A.

1984-01-01

16

Crude oils of the northern region of West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

This article presents results of studies of the physiocochemical characteristics and hydrocarbon compositions of crude oils from the northern oil and gas province. It establishes that the oils are all nearly identical in properties (with the exception of the Russkaya crude from the Cenomanian deposits) and that they differ from the crudes and products obtained in other oil and gas districts of West Siberia. The crudes from the northern region are low-sulfur (below 0.5%), and that the potential content of distillates below 350/sup 0/C is extremely high, reaching levels of 91% and 84% by weight for the Kharvutte and Tarko-Salinsk crudes, respectively. It is recommended that these crudes should be segregated from the others of West Siberia in order to take advantage of their particular qualities.

Mkhchiyan, M.A.; Driatskaya, Z.V.; Kaminskii, E.F.; Titkina, G.I.

1983-03-01

17

Russia pins energy hopes on western Siberia gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that natural gas, not oil or coal, will pull Russia out of its fuel production slump by the end of the century, predicts a recently disclosed study by Moscow's leading energy specialists. Western investment in Russia's natural gas industry is now being proposed on a scale rivaling foreign outlays for joint ventures aimed at stabilizing the republic's oil production.

Not Available

1992-09-07

18

Samotlor oil field, West Siberia (USSR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Samotlor oil field is located in the Tyumen region of the vast West Siberian Lowland of the Soviet Union. It is the largest of the more than 300 fields that have been discovered in the region as of the late 1980s. This field is typical of many of the giant fields of the world with respect to reservoir rock

1991-01-01

19

Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane emissions from mires in all climate-vegetation zones of West Siberia (forest steppe, subtaiga, south taiga, middle taiga, north taiga, forest tundra and tundra) were measured using a static chamber method. The observed fluxes varied considerably from small negative values in forested bogs and palsa to hundreds of mgC m - 2 h - 1 in ponds and wet hollows. Observed data were consolidated in the form of the empirical model of methane emissions designated as the 'standard model'. The model is based on medians of CH4 flux distributions of eight different micro-landscape types depending on their location and estimated duration of methane emission period within the climate-vegetation zone. The current version (Bc8) of the 'standard model' estimates methane flux from West Siberia mires at 2.93 ± 0.97 TgC CH4 yr - 1 that accounts for about 2.4% of the total methane emission from all mires or 0.7% of global methane emission from all sources.

Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Filippov, I.; Maksyutov, S.; Machida, T.

2011-10-01

20

Wrench faults as factor controlling petroleum occurrences in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The morphology of west Siberia suggests the presence of huge wrench faults, which also can be seen on Landsat imagery. Many of these faults have been confirmed by geophysical surveys and subsurface data. Pre-Mesozoic faults, in part reactivated during the Mesozoic, had an important role in controlling the distribution of Jurassic-Cretaceous organic-rich shales and porous clastics. Wrench faults that developed during the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary mark the limit of the major petroleum provinces of west Siberia: the oil-rich Mid-Ob province, the less-prolific southern basin, the northern province (the world's leading gas region), the as yet little-drilled Khatanga trough, plus several other less-explored areas. Furthermore, most of the low-closure hydrocarbon-bearing structures seem to be of the drag type, being directly related to wrenching. The relationships between strike-slip faults and the comparatively much smaller petroleum accumulations within the Paleozoic of the basin's southern part is more difficult to understand. Future exploratory drilling to Mesozoic targets, including the deep-seated Jurassic in northern regions, and the Cretaceous in little-explored, low-accessibility parts of central-southern regions, should result in considerable new reserves of oil being found, probably exceeding the amount already found. A comprehensive wrench-tectonical approach may help find these undiscovered resources.

Rigassi, D.A.

1984-09-01

21

Emissions of Trace Gases from Experimental Fires in Central Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the boreal forest in Siberia, Russia contains approximately one-fourth of the world's terrestrial biomass, emissions data from biomass burning in Siberia is scarce. Five experimental fires of varying intensity were conducted in Central Siberia in 2000 and 2001. The vegetation type is Scotch pine forest with a lichen, feather moss, and vaccinium understory. Smoke samples were taken from the ground and by helicopter, as part of the FIREBEAR project. We analyzed concentrations of CO2, CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6 and C3H8 in stainless steel canisters that were collected by helicopter. Emitted hydrogen concentrations were highly linearly correlated with CO concentrations for the 3 fires sampled in 2001. Emitted CO2 and CH4 also showed a high degree of correlation with CO emissions for most fires. Emissions were sampled at ground level into glass bottles. CO2, CH4, ethylene, and propane were linearly correlated with CO. No significant differences were found in the emission ratios of different trace gases to CO for different fire intensities or vegetation. We will also present emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4, ethylene, ethane, propylene, and propane for different fire intensities in Central Siberia.

Baker, S. P.; Hao, W.

2002-05-01

22

Acidic and basic components in crude oils of West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Acidic and basic components were separated from oils of various deposits of West Siberia. The content of non-hydrocarbon components in the deposit varies over one order of magnitude. Statistical analysis failed to show any correlation between the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and their content of non-hydrocarbon components. However there is a close correlation between the content of various groups of non-hydrocarbon compounds. The proportion of n-acids increases with increasing depth of occurrence of the oils and the MW maximum in the distribution of these acids is displaced from C/sub 26/-C/sub 28/ to C/sub 18/-C/sub 22/. The regularities between the composition of the petroleum acids appear to be related to the mechanism of biochemical transformation of the oils in their deposits.

Goncharov, I.V.

1983-01-01

23

Influenza A (H15N4) Virus Isolation in Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events.

Sivay, Mariya V.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y.; Sharshov, Kirill A.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Shestopalov, Aleksander M.

2013-01-01

24

Influenza A (H15N4) virus isolation in Western Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events. PMID:23283950

Sivay, Mariya V; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y; Sharshov, Kirill A; Govorkova, Elena A; Shestopalov, Aleksander M; Webby, Richard J

2013-01-02

25

Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans for development of oil-gas fields (Yamal, Gydan and Kara Sea shelf). Presently the enterprises independently determine the necessary research for ecological control of the territory. Therefore, the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) together with one of the leading gas enterprises "Nadymgasprom" started to create an observational network along the meridian transect of northern West Siberia (Yamal-Nenets administrative district). Observational network consists from a number of monitoring sites - Technical-Environmental permafrost Observatories (TEPO). The research complex includes temperature observations in boreholes (depths of 30) equipped with automatic systems for registration and data collection; seasonal field investigations on spatial distribution and temporal variability of the snow cover and vegetation and soil distribution. TSOGU and "Nadymgasprom" plan for the realization of long-term monitoring to obtain representative results on permafrost-climate interaction. At present there are three monitoring observatories located in the main landscape types and gas fields in use since 1972 (Medvezhye), 1992 (Yubileynoe) and in development (Harasavey). The next contribution to International Polar Year (2007-2008) will be renewal of one of the former monitoring sites (established in 1972) with a long-term period of observation and creation of a new site at the Yamal peninsula (Arctic tundra zone). At the last site the installation of an automatic Climate-Soil Station is being planned in the framework of the INTAS Infrastructure Action project with cooperation of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the University of Hamburg, Germany. One of the responsibilities of TEPO is to provide assistance to students taking part in scientific research (undergraduate and post-graduate practical work and organization of summer schools and seminars). In 2005 a joint summer student field excursion with the Moscow State University Department of Cryolithology and Glaciology took place at TEPO headquarters. The teaching courses consist of the following main topics: 1. Environment and Permafrost of northern West Siberia; 2. Paleocryogenic Formation of Alluvial Terraces; 3. Hydrology and Hydrogeological Conditions of the Territory; 4. Geotechnical Monitoring of Gas Fields; 5. Geotechnical Dangers in the Cryolithozone. The workshop "Stability of Pipelines in the Cryolithozone" held in Nadym at August, 29-31 with participation of "Nadymgasprom", TSOGU and Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan) included a field excursion. TEPO is expected to be the basis for scientific and educational exchange with national and foreign universities and research institutes and part of the global international monitoring in the northern regions.

Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

2005-12-01

26

Densities and distribution of flagellates and ciliates in the chemocline of saline, meromictic Lake Shunet (Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical and seasonal distributions of the phytoflagellate Cryptomonas spp., and its most common, the planktonic ciliate predators (Oligotrichida, Scuticociliatida, Hypotrichida and Prostomatida) were investigated in chemocline region of small saline, meromictic lake Shunet (Siberia, Russia) during 2003 and 2005. The\\u000a lake has a pronounced chemocline, with abundance of purple and green sulphur bacteria. Vertical distribution of the Cryptomonas populations

E. B. Khromechek; Y. V. Barkhatov; D. Y. Rogozin

2010-01-01

27

Investigating the Human Dimension of Unprecedented Global Climate Change in northeastern Siberia, Russia: Understandings, Perceptions and Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

An urgent challenge of the 21st century is to investigate understandings, perceptions and responses of populations confronting the local effects of global climate change. This paper describes the most recent results of one such project working with rural native Viliui Sakha communities, Turkic-speaking horse & cattle breeders in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The research questions are: 1) What local effects of

S. Crate

2009-01-01

28

Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period

Sergey L. Vartanyan; Khikmat A. Arslanov; Juha A. Karhu; Göran Possnert; Leopold D. Sulerzhitsky

2008-01-01

29

The Chineysky layered massif (Siberia, Russia) and Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex: resemblance and difference features  

Microsoft Academic Search

Layered intrusions represent a small part of a large group of continental basic-ultrabasic complexes. They attract geologists' attention due to their unusual magmatic structures and associated PGE, Cr and V deposits. The outstanding example of this phenomenon is the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The largest layered intrusion in Russia is the Chineysky massif (Transbaikalia, Siberia). It is characterized by

B. Gongalskiy; N. Krivolutskaya

2009-01-01

30

Carbonyl-containing compounds in the oils of West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The most promising method for studying the main oxygen-containing compounds, carbonyl groups, in oils is infrared spectrometry. Solutions of the petroleum acids from the oil were prepared at different concentrations, and the infrared spectra was determined in a cuvette with a constant layer thickness of 0.06 mm. In the concentration range between 0.05 and 1.2 weight %, there was a strict linear relationship between optical density and concentration of the acids. The minimum concentration used was 0.05 weight %. The spectra of unfractionated oils were also analyzed. The oils studied fell into groups in terms of their degree of oxidation. The three groups were (1) only ketone carbonyl present, (2) ketone and (3) acid carbonyl present in comparable amounts, and only acid carbonyl present. Intensive oxidation of oil probably was not widespread in West Siberia, since only 2.7% of all of the oils studied fell into groups 2 and 3. 11 references, 3 figures.

Goncharov, I.V.; Zvezdova, I.G.; Shalamova, L.M.

1982-12-01

31

Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. (ZapSibNIGNI, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

32

Vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in two saline lakes Shira and Shunet (South Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of meromictic lakes is that several physicochemical and biological gradients affect the vertical distribution of\\u000a different organisms. The vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in saline, fishless meromictic\\u000a lakes Shira and Shunet (Siberia, Russia) is quite different mainly because both mean depth and maximum depth of lakes differ\\u000a as well as their salinity levels differ. The

Andrey G. DegermendzhyEgor; Egor S. Zadereev; Denis Yu. Rogozin; Igor G. Prokopkin; Yuri V. Barkhatov; Alexander P. Tolomeev; Elena B. Khromechek; Jan H. Janse; Wolf M. Mooij; Ramesh D. Gulati

2010-01-01

33

[Lissavirus in bats residing in the South of West Siberia].  

PubMed

We caught, 2002-2003 in caves of Novosibirsk Region and Altai Territory, 52 bats (Myotis daubentoni, Myotis brandtii, Murina leucogaster, Plecotus auritus). Examinations of the animals' brain samples by fluorescence antibody microscopy and RT-PCR revealed lyssaviruses, genotype 1, which were close to strains provoking rabies in the local animals. According to the results, bats can be involved in keeping alive the rabies foci in Western Siberia, which must be taken into account in antiepizootic measures. PMID:15747869

Ternovo?, V A; Za?kovskaia, A V; Tomilenko, A A; Rassadkin, Iu N; Aksenov, V I; Chausov, E V; Scharf, B; Shestopalov, A M

34

Tropospheric methane and carbon dioxide over West Siberia: observation data analysis, surface flux inventories and transport modeling (Invited)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide are conducted at 4 airborne sites and 9 towers in Siberia. We present analysis of several years of data with tracer transport model and inverse modeling. Observed CO2 seasonal cycle in West Siberia is relatively strong in comparison to background locations, which agrees well with transport model simulations. Inverse modeling of the

S. S. Maksyutov; T. Machida; M. Sasakawa; Y. Koyama; T. Saeki; K. Shimoyama; M. Glagolev; H. Kim; G. Inoue; N. Fedoseev; M. Arshinov; D. Davidov; A. Fofonov; O. Krasnov; B. D. Belan

2009-01-01

35

Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

EIA Publications

Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration. s (EIA. s) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

Floyd Wiesepape

1997-11-01

36

Bryozoans from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Upper Devonian) of the Tom-Kolyvansk area (Western Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine bryozoan species are described from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Late Devonian) from Western Siberia, Russia, namely: Leptotrypella pojarkovi Orlovski, 1961, Rhombopora subtilis Nekhoroshev, 1977, Klaucena lalolamina Yang, Hu, Xia, 1988, Eofistulotrypa famennensis sp. n., Atactotoechus cellatus sp. n., Nikiforopora jurgensis sp. n., Eridotrypella tyzhnovi sp. n., Mediapora elegans sp. n., and Klaucena gracilis sp. n. The studied assemblage shows palaeogeographical affinity with Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Transcaucasia, China, and the United States of America.

Tolokonnikova, Zoya

2010-10-01

37

Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

NONE

1997-12-01

38

Assessment of the Fate of Radioactive Contaminants in the Ob River, Siberia, Russia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project has studied the distribution of particle reactive natural and artificial radionuclides in sediment cores of the Ob River, Siberia in order to determine the release and transport of nuclides from nuclear weapons related activities of the forme...

F. L. Sayles

1999-01-01

39

Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of u

Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2006-01-01

40

Socioeconomic aspects of oil and gas development in West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

This paper outlines general characteristics of the West Siberial oil and gas producing region of the USSR, and treats some of the economic, geographic, organizational, managerial, social, technological, and ecological issues of its development. Particularly, attention is given in the USSR to the economic and social development of West Siberian oil and gas regions. The development of deposits has turned out to be an impetus to the transformation of formerly les developed areas and national districts. The development of oil and gas production in the regions of the extreme north depends on successfully overcoming difficulties connected with the natural and climatic conditions of the region, its original backwardness, and its environmental and demographic problems.

Astakhov, A.S.; Khaitun, A.D.; Subbotin, G.E. (Academy of National Economy of the USSR, Vernadsky Prospect 82, 117571, Moscow (SU))

1989-01-01

41

Composition of vanadylporphyrins of crude oils from several Surgut petroleum fractions of west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Study of the composition and distribution of porphyrin components in petroleums of various oil-bearing areas is of definite interest, in relation to its efficient processing and in providing new information concerning the origin of this petroleum. Porphyrin compounds are present in petroleums in the form of metal complexes with nickel vanadium. The quantitative distribution and molecular composition of vanadylporphyrins in the crude oils from the Surgut petroleum deposits of West Siberia were examined. The highest concentration of vanadylporphyrins was observed in a petroleum from the Bazhenov strata in the Pravdin area.

Burkova, V.N.; Mozzhelina, T.K.; Romanenko, T.A.; Serebrennikova, O.V.; Titov, V.I.; Shilonosova, N.I.

1985-01-01

42

Metal accumulation in tissues of seabirds from Chaun, northeast Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of four essential elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, and Cu) and two toxic metals (Cd and Hg) were determined in selected tissues of 11 seabird species collected in Chaun, northeast Siberia. In oldsquaw, arctic tern and herring gull, zinc concentrations were correlated with Cd concentrations. Cadmium concentrations in all the species were highest in kidney and Hg in liver. Cd

Eun-Young Kim; Hideki Ichihashi; Kazutoshi Saeki; Gennady Atrashkevich; Shinsuke Tanabe; Ryo Tatsukawa

1996-01-01

43

The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system contains approximately 85% of the discovered oil in the West Siberian basin. The source is the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation, a 30 meter thick highly bituminous shale covering 2.3 million square kilometers. It has a 10% average total organic carbon content. Approximately 80% is Type II kerogen. Maturation modeling yields time series maps of oil and gas generation. Approximately 40% of Bazhenov organic matter converted to hydrocarbons, with peak generation occurring in the Paleogene Period. Hydrocarbon expulsion from the Bazhenov was high, around 80%. Secondary migration efficiency was low, between 5% to 10% on average across the basin, although higher in the structured Middle Ob region. The reservoirs of the system are vertically stacked sandstones and occasionally siltstones in the Neocomian Megion and Vartov formations (and their equivalents). Reservoir sizes, continuities and quality are highly variable and sealed by locally extensive interbedded shales. There are three principal plays in the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, defined by trapping mechanism: the [open quote]on-structure[close quotes] play, which contains most discovered fields and the [open quotes]off-structure,[close quotes] which consists of combination and stratigraphic traps. Finally, there is the Bazhenov shale play, in which the fractured Bazhenov shale forms a self-sourced reservoir. Mass balance calculations indicate the range of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system. Mapping of generation and migration on palinspastically restored surfaces at the time of peak generation indicates the areas and magnitude of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system.

Grace, J.D.; Walsh, D.B. (Earth Science Associates, Arlington, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

44

Surface water quality assessment of the Vatinsky Egan River catchment, West Siberia.  

PubMed

Stream water chemistry were analyzed across Vatinsky Egan River Catchment (West Siberia). The objective of the study is to reveal the spatial and seasonal variations of the water quality and to assess the anthropogenic chemical inputs into the river system. Stream chemistry were monitored in 24 sampling sites for a period extended from January 2002 to December 2005. Spatial distribution of constituents in the Vatinsky Egan River basin indicated pollution from non-point sources associated with oil development. Data revealed that ion concentrations of river waters are usually negatively correlated with stream discharge. The major spatial variations of the hydrochemistry are related to the salinity. Chloride exhibited wide and high concentration range. A comparison with another rivers of West Siberia reveals that Vatinsky Egan River is the most saline and regional impacts further out in the watershed. The salinity of the river water increases substantially as it crosses Samotlor oil field. Many Cl(-) concentrations in the middle and lower parts of the catchment exceed the world average river values by one or more orders of magnitude. For 38% of sampling events, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations were above the recommended water quality standards. PMID:18283550

Moskovchenko, D V; Babushkin, A G; Artamonova, G N

2008-02-19

45

Geochemical features of two-phase hydrocarbon-pool formation in northern West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Gas-condensate pools that have oil rings occur widely in West Siberia, and much attention has been given to their formation and occurrence. Virtually all possible processes producing such pools have been found to occur here, from the single entry of saturated fluid into a trap followed by differentiation as the formation pressure falls to separate entry in different sequences for the oil and gas. The authors use the content of aromatic hydrocarbons as an index of the migration of oil and gas. Arene distributions in the light fractions of oils and condensates from the Neocomian beds in West Siberia are largely related to features of fluid generation and migration. Two-phase pools containing primary condensates occur in these beds, which is explained by a model based on different forms of fluid migration. They are controlled not only by fluid generation features (different ratios of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon) but also by the relationships in time and space between the clayey and sandy rocks, which give rise to qualitative differences in consolidation and thus to differences in fluid migration in zones adjoining the reservoirs and in zones farther away.

Gushchin, V.A.; Ryl'kov, A.V.

1987-09-01

46

Jurassic Bazhenov Unit in the Salym oil field, West Siberia - An excellent source rock and fractured shale reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Unit covers approximately 1 million km² of West Siberia and is an excellent source rock. This Unit has proved to be a prolific shale reservoir in 14 local highs with the Salym oil field the major discovery. More than 300 wells have been drilled to date in this area, covering approximately 5800 km². The Bazhenov formation

Y. Petzoukha; A. Rovenskaya; M. Zonn; A. Kononkov

1991-01-01

47

Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins  

SciTech Connect

Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

Mogutcheva, N.K. [Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics & Mineral Resource, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15

48

Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

2013-04-01

49

Surface Fire Influence on Carbon Balance Components in Scots Pine Forest of Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances in boreal forests, and it can have a profound effect on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands of Siberia are strongly impacted by fires of low to high severity. Biomass distribution in mature lichen/feathermoss Scots pine stands indicates that they are carbon sinks before fire. Fires contribute significantly to the carbon budget resulting in a considerable carbon efflux, initially through direct consumption of forest fuels and later as a result of tree mortality and decomposition of dead material accumulated on the forest floor. In initial postfire years these processes dominate over photosynthetic carbon assimilation, and the ecosystems become a carbon source. Over several postfire years, above-ground carbon in dead biomass tends to increase, with the increase depending significantly on fire severity. High-severity fire enhances dead biomass carbon, while moderate- and low-severity fires have minimal effect on above-ground carbon distribution in Scots pine ecosystems. Dead stand biomass carbon increases, primarily during the first two years following fires, due to tree mortality. This increase can account for up to 12.4% of the total stand biomass after low- and moderate- intensity fires. We found tree dieback following a high-intensity fire is an order of magnitude higher, and thus the dead biomass increases up to 88.1% of total above-ground biomass. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreases with increasing tree mortality, and needle foliage and bark are incorporated into the upper layer of the forest floor in the course of years. Ground vegetation and duff carbon were >90, 71-83, and 82% of prefire levels after fires of low, moderate, and high severity, respectively for the first 4 to 5 years after fire. Fires of low and moderate severity caused down woody fuel carbon to increase by 2.1 and 3.6 t ha-1 respectively by four years after burning as compared to the pre-fire values. Climate change and increasing drought length observed in recent decades have increased the probability of high-intensity fire occurrence. Areas burned have increased in extent and severity across Siberia, resulting in increased carbon emissions to the atmosphere from fuel combustion and post fire decomposition.

Kukavskaya, E.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Soja, A. J.

2008-12-01

50

Tree-ring dating of meteorite fall in Sikhote-Alin, Eastern Siberia - Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with the fall of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite on the morning of 12 February 1947, at about 00:38 h Utrecht, in a remote area in the territory of Primorsky Krai in Eastern Siberia (46°09?36?N, 134°39?22?E). The area engulfed by the meteoritic fall was around 48 km2, with an elliptic form and thousands of craters. Around the large craters the trees were torn out by the roots and laid radially to the craters at a distance of 10-20 m; the more distant trees had broken tops. This research investigated through dendrocronology n.6 Scots pine trees (Pinus Sibirica) close to one of the main impact craters. The analysis of growth anomalies has shown a sudden decrease since 1947 for 4-8 years after the meteoritic impact. Tree growth stress, detected in 1947, was analysed in detail through wood microsection that confirmed the winter season (rest vegetative period) of the event. The growth stress is mainly due to the lost crown (needle lost) and it did not seem to be caused due to direct damages on trunk and branches (missing of resin ducts).

Fantucci, R.; Di Martino, Mario; Serra, Romano

2012-01-01

51

Origin of the gas-condensate deposits and prediction of the phase state of hydrocarbons in northern West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In northern West Siberia, a zone of petroleum accumulation has been identified, embracing the Nadym-Pur, Pur-Tazovskiy, Gydanovsk, and Yamal' petroliferous regions. A characteristic feature of this zone is the development of a thick (up to 2000 m) Cretaceous complex, with which the bulk of the gas and gas-condensate resources of West Siberia is associated. The origin of the gas-condensate deposits, discovered over a wide range from Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian) to Jurassic, with differing hydrocarbon composition and amount of condensate, has been inadequately investigated, but nevertheless it has great significance in predicting the phase state of the hydrocarbons in the deposits and the reliability of estimating the reserves. The paper discusses the origin of these gas condensates from petroleum and coal deposits. 5 references.

Nemchenko, N.N.; Rovenskaya, A.S.

1987-05-01

52

Comparison of two morbilliviruses isolated from seals during outbreaks of distemper in North West Europe and Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recently morbilliviruses were isolated from harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in North West Europe (phocid distemper virus-1: PDV-1) and from Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica) in Siberia (phocid distemper virus-2:PDV-2) during outbreaks of severe disease which resembled distemper in dogs. PDV-1 and PDV-2 were passaged in SPF dogs, in which they caused distemper-like disease symptoms, and were subsequently passaged in Vero

I. K. G. Visser; V. P. Kumarev; C. Örvell; P. de Vries; H. W. J. Broeders; M. W. G. van de Bildt; J. Groen; J. S. Teppema; M. C. Burger; F. G. C. M. UytdeHaag; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus

1990-01-01

53

Indications of decreasing human PTS concentrations in North West Russia  

PubMed Central

Background The Russian Arctic covers an enormous landmass with diverse environments. It inhabits more than 20 different ethnic groups, all of them with various living conditions and food traditions. Indigenous populations with a traditional way of living are exposed to a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals, mainly through the diet. Human monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in the Russian Arctic has only been performed on irregular intervals over the past 15 years, thus, there is still a lack of baseline data from many ethnic groups and geographical regions. The aim of the current study was to investigate concentrations of POPs and toxic metals in three groups of indigenous people from the Russian Arctic. Plasma concentrations of POPs were measured in one of the locations (Nelmin-Nos) in 2001–2003 which gave the unique opportunity to compare concentrations over time in a small Russian arctic community. Methods During 2009 and early 2010, 209 blood samples were collected from three different study sites in North West Russia; Nelmin-Nos, Izhma and Usinsk. The three study sites are geographically separated and the inhabitants are expected to have different dietary habits and living conditions. All blood samples were analyzed for POPs and toxic metals. Results PCB 153 was present in highest concentrations of the 18 PCBs analyzed. p,p?-DDE and HCB were the two most dominating OC pesticides. Males had higher concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 than women and age was a significant predictor of PCB 153, 180, HCB and p,p?-DDD. Males from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of HCB than males from the other study sites and women from Usinsk had higher concentrations of p,p?-DDE. Parity was a significant predictor of p,p?-DDE. Hg and Pb concentrations increased with increasing age and males had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than women. The study group from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of Cd when controlling for age and gender and the study group from Usinsk had higher concentrations of Se than the others. Compared to the results from Nelmin-Nos in 2001–2003, a clear decrease in p,p?-DDE concentrations for both women and men was observed. Conclusions The current study indicates a significant reduction of several PTSs in human blood samples from North West Russia over the past 10 years.

Rylander, Charlotta; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Petrenya, Natalya; Konoplev, Alexei; Bojko, Evgeny; Odland, Jon ?yvind

2011-01-01

54

Distribution of GHG over West Siberia: airborne and tower network observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of high confidence level in understanding of greenhouse effect on climate change there is a lack of measurement data over significant part of the Northern Hemisphere. Taking into account the importance of the global climate changes and international cooperation in this field, NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) and IAO (Institute of Atmospheric Optics) combined their efforts in the framework of Joint Japanese-Russian Project on GHG monitoring to fill up this gap at least over West Siberia, which occupies a significant part of Northern Eurasia. This monitoring consists of airborne and tower network observations. Airborne study of vertical distribution of greenhouse gases nearby Novosibirsk (between 54°05'N-81°50'E and 54°35'N-82°40'E) has been started on July 1997. Monthly flight observation have been conducted at an altitude from 500 to 7000 km. The 11-year airborne study nearby Novosibirsk has revealed a positive trend in CO2 mixing ratio (>15 ppm) and the absence of a definite trend for CH4. Minimum of CO2 concentration is typically observed at the end of July. Highest annual amplitudes of CO2 mixing ratio (up to 40 ppm) are observed in the atmospheric boundary layer. During recent years a tower network (8 towers) for carbon dioxide and methane monitoring was established in West Siberia. This network covers several climatic zones from steppes in the south to northern taiga in the north (51°N to 63°N and 62°E to 82°E). In this paper we present the first results of the diurnal, seasonal, and annual behavior of these greenhouse gases in the surface atmospheric layer over West Siberia Diurnal behavior of CO2 mixing ratio showed its maximum amplitude in July and its minimum amplitude in January. Concentration gradient between northern and southern regions remains during the whole year. Carbon dioxide mixing ratio has a pronounced annual behavior with a maximum in December and a minimum in July-August. It starts to decrease on March, and this process becomes more intensive from May until July. Since the beginning of September and until December intensity of CO2 sink is smaller than the rate of its emission. Diurnal behavior of the CH4 mixing ratio is mainly neutral during the year except for the late spring and beginning of the summer when a significant one is observed. There is a CH4 concentration gradient directed from south to north with a difference in concentration from 100 to 340 ppb. In the annual behavior of CH4 concentration two maxima and two minima are observed in the center of the region under study (maxima: July and December-January; minima: April-May and October). At northern sites the main maximum is also observed in winter with one-month lag with respect to central regions. Summer maximum over southern regions is not so intensive and observed in August. Amplitude of annual behavior at northern sites is 200 ppb, and 100-120 ppb at southern. The most interannual variability is 150 ppb and observed during main and secondary maxima.

Arshinov, M. Yu.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.; Belan, B. D.; Maksyutov, Sh.; Sasakawa, M.; Watai, T.; Shimoyama, K.; Sutoh, H.; Davydov, D. K.

2009-04-01

55

Benthic bioindicators from the lakes of Northern Yakutia (Siberia, Russia) in paleoclimatic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High latitude regions are particularly affected by global climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are known to respond quickly and sensitively to such changes (Carpenter et al., 1992; Findlay et al. 2001; Smol et al., 2005). This effect is especially dramatic in regions with continental climates such as Northern and Eastern Siberia. In 2008, Russian-German expedition investigated 33 lakes of Kolyma river basin, North-Eastern Yakutia. The region of investigation is located in the mouth of Kolyma river between approximately 68°2' and 69°4' N and between 159°8' and 161°9' E. It's a most north-eastern region of Yakutia, so it's suitable for paleolimnological investigations. The investigated lakes are situated along the 200 km transect crossing 3 vegetation zones: polygonal tundra, forest tundra and northern taiga. The main aims were establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions by using aquatic organisms, investigation of limnological variables and the influence of the environmental conditions on distribution of aquatic organisms in Yakutian lakes. The modern benthic fauna of the lakes is represented by 89 taxa from 14 taxonomic groups. The most abundant group was Mollusca. The most taxonomically diverse group was Chironomidae. A unique for this region species were discovered, such as Cincinna kamchatica, Physa jarochnovitschae, Colymbetes dolabratus, Ilybius wasastjernae, Xestochironomus sp., Agrypnia sp. etc. Cluster analysis of taxonomical composition of the benthic fauna of these lakes showed high dependency to vegetation zones. The highest levels of hydrobiological indexes (Shannon, Evenness, species richness) were registered in forest tundra. CCA analysis showed that the most influential factors in species distribution were climate-dependant factors, such as mean Tair of July, pH and water depth. Data from taxonomical analysis of Chironomidae group were used for establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

Tumanov, O. N.; Nazarova, L. B.; Frolova, L. A.; Pestryakova, L. A.

2012-04-01

56

Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in the process of magma-sediment interactions.

Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

2010-05-01

57

Investigations of adaptation mechanisms of different halophytes types in different soil salinity conditions (Southern Central Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High salt concentration in the soil is one of the limiting factors affecting plant growth and development. However, there are plants that are physiologically adapted to high salts concen-trations -halophytes. Studies of halophytes reveals mechanisms of adaptation to this factor. Investigations were conducted in the steppe zone of Southern Central Siberia (Russia, Khaka-sia), nearest coastal zone of the Lake Kurinka. The work was carried on route and stationary methods. As a results was conducted about 100 geobotanical descriptions, was defined species composition, covering, vertical and horizontal structure of plant communities, the productivity of above ground dry phytomass. As a result of field work was identified various types of plant communities, that are located on soils with a salinity degree are 0,2 -7,16 g / l. Type of saline -sulfate-sodium. Suaeda plant communities was located in the meadow-saline soil (soil salinity degree 5 -7 g / l). The dominant is euhalophyte Suaeda linifolia Pall. and subdominant is glycohalophyte Puccinellia tenuissima. A plant community has two layers. Total covering is 50 -55During the study period (2004 -2009), the change was observed in the soil salinity degree in the range of 2.27 -7.16 g / l. The plan community productivity varied from 99 to 201 g/m2 by years of research. Also was noted that the salt amount in the plants biomass varies depending on the type of halophyte. In the cells of euhalophyte Suaeda linifolia the salt amount was 10-35The investigation noted that relations between the main photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) have changes depending on the type of halophyte. Thus, in typical glycohalophyte Puccinellia tenuissima, Elytrigia repens and Phragmites australis chlorophyll content remained relatively high during the summer period and were 0,74, 0,61 and 0,53

Slyusar, Natalia; Pechurkin, Nickolay

58

Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the middle floodplain. Correlation analysis between element concentrations, grain-size distribution and carbon content revealed a direct dependence of the element distribution within all soil profiles on its mineralogical composition. Based on the obtained results we suggest that there are negligible atmospheric depositions caused by human activity on the investigation site. Therefore this data can provide a point of comparison against man-made influences on permafrost-affected landscapes and also on similar pristine areas in the Arctic region.

Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

2012-04-01

59

Tropospheric methane and carbon dioxide over West Siberia: observation data analysis, surface flux inventories and transport modeling (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the atmospheric methane and carbon dioxide are conducted at 4 airborne sites and 9 towers in Siberia. We present analysis of several years of data with tracer transport model and inverse modeling. Observed CO2 seasonal cycle in West Siberia is relatively strong in comparison to background locations, which agrees well with transport model simulations. Inverse modeling of the regional fluxes with observed monthly mean carbon dioxide climatology allows us to improve ecosystem flux seasonality. Large synoptic scale variability is observed with close correlation between sites separated by 300-500 km. In summer the synoptic CO2 variability is reproduced by transport model, but in winter observations show more variability than simulations. A coupled, high resolution Lagrangian transport model was applied to simulate high resolution time series of methane and carbon dioxide at tower sites, significantly improving the simulations of variance at weekly to sub-daily time scale. Vertical CH4 profile observations are useful for constraining strength of both summer and winter emissions. Methane airborne profiles observed over West Siberia are compared with a model of atmospheric transport and chemistry. Model simulations conducted with EDGAR/GISS methane surface flux inventories are matching within model uncertainty with the observations in Surgut, but are less successful in the south of West Siberia. We prepared regional wetland methane flux inventory map based on detailed wetland map and survey of all available surface flux observations with static and automatic chambers that gives upward correction of the fluxes in the southern taiga, while similar correction is suggested by comparing airborne observation data to the model simulations.

Maksyutov, S. S.; Machida, T.; Sasakawa, M.; Koyama, Y.; Saeki, T.; Shimoyama, K.; Glagolev, M.; Kim, H.; Inoue, G.; Fedoseev, N.; Arshinov, M.; Davidov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.; Belan, B. D.

2009-12-01

60

Annual variation of methane emissions from forested bogs in West Siberia (2005-2009): a case of high CH4 and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been conducting continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 on a network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe, and wetland biomes of Siberia. Here we describe measurements from two forested bog sites, Karasevoe (KRS; 58°15' N, 82°25' E) and Demyanskoe (DEM; 59°47' N, 70°52' E), in West Siberia from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH4 and CO2 accumulation (?CH4 and ?CO2) during nighttime (duration of 7 h beginning 21:30 LST) at KRS in July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, the higher ratios of ?CH4/?CO2 compared with those in other years indicate that a considerably more CH4 flux occurred relative to the CO2 flux in response to large precipitation recorded in 2007 (~2.7 mm d-1 higher than the climatological 1979-1998 base). Estimated seasonal CH4 fluxes based on the ratio of ?CH4/?CO2 and the CASA 3-hourly CO2 flux for the 2005-2009 period exhibited a seasonal variation with a maximum in July at both sites. Annual values of the CH4 emission from the forested bogs around KRS (approx. 7.8×104 km2) calculated from a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT), showed inter-annual variation of 0.54, 0.31, 0.94, 0.44, and 0.41 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 2005 to 2009, respectively, with the highest values in 2007. It was assumed in the model that the area flooded with water is proportional to the cumulative anomaly in monthly precipitation rate.

Sasakawa, M.; Ito, A.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Niwa, Y.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Arshinov, M.

2010-11-01

61

The first uranium-thorium dating of the Middle Neopleistocene peat in West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a sample from the roof of peat (0-2 cm) located in a reference section for the Middle Neopleistocene in West Siberia near the village of Krivosheino, we obtained an exorbitant value of 14C date ?53.9 ka B.P. (LU-6024). In the peat proper, the 230Th/U dates obtained by the isochronous method are 195.2 ± 10.8/9.1 ka B.P. for the L/L model and 204.1 ± 17/13 ka B.P. for the TSD model. The palynospectra of the peat characterize, from the bottom up, birch forests with fir and spruce participation; then spruce forests with fir; next spruce-cedar forests, similar to the middle taiga subzone. In the clay, the following palynospectra have been examined: forb-gramineous grasslands and light forests with spruce and Betula fruticosa. In the upper part of clays, the palynospectra reflect the evolution of swampy, birch, light forests with spruce participation. The conclusion is made that the studied part of the section formed at the end of the Samarovo Ice Age and in the last third of the Taz Ice Age. The break in sedimentation related to the erosion contact covers a part of the Samarovo Ice Age and the first two-thirds of the Taz Ice Age.

Maksimov, F. E.; Laukhin, S. A.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Kuznetsov, V. Yu.; Shilova, G. N.; Chernov, S. B.; Zherebtsov, I. E.; Levchenko, S. B.

2010-07-01

62

Observations of wetland methane fluxes in West Siberia with automated chamber system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic sampling and analysis system for measuring methane and CO2 fluxes from soil was developed and applied to the flux measurements at boreal wetland near Plotnikovo, Tomsk region in the southern part of West Siberia in 2012. Measurements were performed on mesotrophic open bog at the bog periphery. Solar powered automated system is used to open and close six static chambers equipped with air actuators. Analysis system uses semiconductor sensor for methane and NDIR for carbon dioxide. Air and soil temperatures, as well as groundwater table are recorded. Seasonal variations of the emissions summarized as weekly mean fluxes correlate well with soil temperature. Season-high fluxes vary from 3.9 to 22 mgCH4/m2/h between chambers. The vegetation map created from high resolution aerial photos and ground survey data was used for analysis of the spatial flux distribution. The methane and CO2 fluxes appear clearly related to the vegetation and soil conditions. Higher emission rates are observed over waterlogged surfaces with presence of sedge and cotton-grass while lowest emission rates correspond to dry hummocks.

Maksyutov, Shamil; Krasnov, Oleg; Shelevoi, Valentin; Nadeev, Alexander; Glagolev, Mikhail

2013-04-01

63

Global Lessons from Siberia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a visit by two U.S. social studies educators to schools in Krasnoyarsk, a city in Siberia, Russia. Discusses economic and social changes brought about by the end of the Cold War. Recommends more international and global education for both Russia and the United States. (CFR)

Tucker, Jan L.

1993-01-01

64

Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt west of the Baykit high are probable source rocks. Their areal distribution extends from the foldbelt into the foredeep along the province?s western margin. Potential source rocks also are present in platform depressions in eastern areas of the province. Hydrocarbon generation and migration west of the province started as early as Riphean time, before the beginning of the deformation in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt that occurred about 820?850 million years ago. However, the presently known oil and gas accumulations were formed after deposition of the Lower Cambrian salt seal. Available data allow identification of only one assessment unit, and it covers the entire TPS area. Undiscovered oil and gas resources are moderate, primarily due to the poor quality of reservoir rocks. However, the reserve growth in the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone may be large and may exceed the volume of undiscovered resources in the rest of the province. Most oil and gas resourcesareexpectedtobeinstructuralandstratigraphictrapsin Riphean carbonate reservoirs. Vendian clastic reservoirs are probably gas-prone.

Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2001-01-01

65

Chineysky Layered Intrusion with unique V and PGE-Cu ores (Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South of the Siberian platform is an extraordinary metallogenic province. Many giant deposits of different genetic types are concentrated here: Udokan (Cu), Chiney (Ti-Fe-V, Pd-Cu), Katugin (Ta, Nb), Sulumat (Fe) etc. It is his considered this massif is the largest component of the Proterozoic volcanic-plutonic system of the Kodar-Udokan district. Chineisky massif located among Cu-rich sedimentary rocks is represented by interlayering horizons of gabbronorite and titanomagnetite gabbro in its lower zone and gabbro and anorthosite in the upper zone.The intrusive rocks were proved to be genetically interrelated and show certain similar geochemical features: they have elevated TiO2 concentrations and have similar trace element patterns and (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios (1.5-2.3 and 1.87-2.06, respectively). The Chineisky massif is thought to have been formed by the successive emplacement of genetically similar basic magmas, which produced four rock groups with fine and coarse layering and cyclicity of variable rank (micro-rhythms, rhythms, units, and series). The results of cluster analysis indicate that the rocks can be classified into 13 petrochemical types. The phase and chemical characteristics of the parental melts of these compositions were simulated with the use of the COMAGMAT-3.5 computer model, which was also applied to evaluate the composition of the most primitive initial magma of the whole Chineisky massif. Our results indicate that the primitive magma was heterogeneous (olivine + plagioclase titanomagnetite + melt) at a temperature of approximately 1130 C. The initial melt had a ferrobasaltic composition and was close to saturation with magnetite at ~NNO 0.5 The basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Luktur pluton are supposed to be the Mg-rich fraction of the parental melt. Gravimetric and magnetic geophysical data show that ultrabasic and basic rocks occur at shallow depths at the Chiney pluton and around it. These facts show the existence of huge magmatic system in Late Proterozoic. There are two types of commercial mineralization in the Chiney massif: Fe-Ti-V and Cu with precious metals. Nowadays the Chiney massif comprises the largest V recourses in Russia. The iron ores are concentrated in the central part of the intrusion and are represented by two varieties: disseminated and massive (the early-magmatic type); veins and irregular bodies (the late-magmatic type). Sulfide minerals occur as accessory disseminations in all rocks of the massif, but their higher concentrations are distributed locally. The copper commercial mineralization is confined to the contact zone of gabbroids with the host rocks, so endo-and exocontact ores are determined. The disseminated mineralization predominates sharply. Vein bodies are distributed in the limited region and localized at a small distance from the bottom of the intrusion. The main ore mineral is chalcopyrite, that is very unusual for Cu-Ni deposits (Cu/Ni=10-100, Pd/Pt=3 in ores). The major minerals are pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Many rare minerals of noble metals (Ag, Au, PGE) were found too. In general, the minerals consist of compounds of Pd with Bi, Te, Sb, Sn, As, and Ni; compounds of Pt with As, S, and Fe; a compound of Rh with As-S, as well hessite (Ag2Te) and Au-Ag-(Hg) alloys. It was found froodite; sobolevskite; kotulskite; sudburyite; stibiopalladinite; mertieite II; isomertieite; paolovite; michenerite; arsenopalladinite; merenskiite; majakite et ctr. References 1. Gongalskiy B.I., N.A. Krivolutskaya, A.A. Ariskin, G.S. Nikolaev.// Geochemistry International. 2008. Vol. 46. No. 7. P. 637-665. 2. Gongalskiy B. I., Yu. G. Safonov, N. A. Krivolutskaya, V. Yu. Prokof'ev, and A. A. Yushin. A // Doklady Earth Sciences. 2007.Vol. 415, No. 5. P. 671-674.

Gongalskiy, Bronislav; Krivolutskaya, Nadezda

2010-05-01

66

Holocene kinematics and slip rate of the Sayan fault (Southern Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sayan fault is located at the boundary between the northernmost mountain belt of Central Asia (the Sayan-Baikal ranges) and the Siberian platform. This outstanding ~ 500 km crustal structure defines an obvious and sharp morphotectonics feature easily recognizable on satellite imagery. Inherited from the Palaeozoic orogenes, the Sayan fault has been working as a left-lateral transform fault during the opening of the Baikal Rift in the Cainozoic time. Despite a very low instrumental seismic activity and few historical earthquakes, Holocene morphotectonics features along the fault attests of its activity and its capacity of producing strong earthquakes. The Sayan fault represents therefore a strong hazard for the city of Irkoutsk, which is located 70 km northwards of its south-eastern tip, and where more than one million people are living. In order to quantify the present kinematics of the fault, to estimate its slip rate and the potential magnitude of earthquakes, we carried out a morphotectonics study within its south-eastern part, between the Baikal Lake and the Irkut River (the only part of the fault relatively accessible, while further west the fault stands in a mountainous area covered with dense forest without any easy access). A reconnaissance trip allowed us finding out a small catchment basin cut by the fault and showing a cumulative offset of several tens of meters. We surveyed the site with a total station to produce a Digital Elevation Model, and we collected samples of the offset surface and the trapped sediments for radiocarbon and OSL dating. In progress analyses should allow us to provide a first estimate of the left-lateral slip rate along the Sayan fault.

Ritz, J.-F.; Larroque, C.; Vassallo, R.; Arzhannikova, A.; Arzhannikov, S.; Jolivet, M.

2012-04-01

67

Carbon accumulation in peatlands of West Siberia over the last 2000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a network of cores from 77 peatland sites to determine controls on peat C content and peat C accumulation over the last 2000 years (since 2 ka) across Russia's West Siberian Lowland (WSL), the world's largest wetland region. Our results show a significant influence of fossil plant composition on peat C content, with peats dominated by Sphagnum having a lower C content. Radiocarbon-derived C accumulation since 2 ka at 23 sites is highly variable from site to site, but displays a significant N-S trend of decreasing accumulation at higher latitudes. Northern WSL peatlands show relatively small C accumulation of 7 to 35 kg C m-2 since 2 ka. In contrast, peatlands south of 60°N show larger accumulation of 42 to 88 kg C m-2. Carbon accumulation since 2 ka varies significantly with modern mean annual air temperature, with maximum C accumulation found between -1 and 0°C. Rates of apparent C accumulation since 2 ka show no significant relationship to long-term Holocene averages based on total C accumulation. A GIS-based extrapolation of our site data suggests that a substantial amount (˜40%) of total WSL peat C has accumulated since 2 ka, with much of this accumulation south of 60°N. The large peatlands in the southern WSL may be an important component of the Eurasian terrestrial C sink, and future warming could result in a shift northward in long-term WSL C sequestration.

Beilman, David W.; MacDonald, Glen M.; Smith, Laurence C.; Reimer, Paula J.

2009-03-01

68

Modeling of regional meteorological fields with high spatial resolution for West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As well known, global climate changes are inhomogeneous that is most clearly pronounced in the northern regions of the Earth. To study these inhomogeneities and trends, it is necessary to analyze climate changes in the ?? century in the specific region. Now data of different reanalyses (USA, Europe, Japan), as well as observational data from weather stations, are used for such an analysis. Modeling data validity is mostly determined by amount of assimilated measurement data and by weather station network density. For example, for the 2nd edition of USA reanalysis, data of only 300 weather stations of Russian Federation have been used, where most stations are located in European part of the country. Comparison of meteorological fields obtained using reanalysis to measurements of Rosgidromet weather stations gives significant discrepancy. Reanalyses spatial resolution does not allow studying local inhomogeneities that inherent to regional climate changes. Therefore to study local climate dynamics in Siberian region, it is necessary to calculate meteorological fields with higher spatial resolution. Modern mesoscale meteorological models that use reanalyses archives and assimilate measurements of weather stations can solve this problem. We calculated fields of climatic characteristics for West Siberia for the period from 1960 to 2000. The regional weather forecast WRF model (http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/modeling/wrf/index.php) and data assimilation system WRF-VAR (WRFDA) have been installed and debugged on the base of multiprocessor computational complex. Vertical boundary conditions, as well as initial conditions are formed using ERA-40 reanalysis data. NCEP data and USGS map with spatial resolution of 9.25 km are used for the lower boundary, measurements of weather stations, located within calculation area, are used for observation nudging. As a result of the model run, we have meteorological fields, which are reanalysis fields' projections with high spatial resolution (10 km) corrected by weather stations' measurements. Primary analysis of the data obtained allows us to depict changes of climatic characteristics in local areas not as smoothed disturbances (as in reanalysis fields), but as local inhomogeneities that have specific geographical reference to specific regional ecosystem. Key parameters characterizing the main local climate dynamics trends will be chosen for further analysis and processing. The work has been partially supported by SB RAS integration projects Nos. 50 and 66.

Bogomolov, Vasiliy; Gordov, Evgeny

2010-05-01

69

Lithology and petroleum prospects of Jurassic-Neocomian bituminous deposits of West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In western Siberia, hydrocarbon exploration focuses on the sequence of bituminous, essentially clay rocks, from which significant oil flows have been obtained in Salym and some other areas. In this paper, a recently discovered reservoir horizon and hydrocarbon deposit of this type is discussed. In these bituminous deposits, the laminar clays possess the least density and the greatest porosity and permeability. These laminar clays serve as the main reservoir rock, whereas the highly bituminous massive siliceous clays are the source rocks of the petroleum. The areas in Siberia where the favorability for occurrence of this type of geologic sequence are also discussed. (JMT)

Ushatinskiy, I.N.

1982-10-01

70

Soviet Development Policy in Siberia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how Soviet economic planners and policymakers cope with the geographic dichotomy of a concentration of population and economic activity in European Russia and the concentration of natural resources in sparsely populated Siberia. (Author/DB)

Shabad, Theodore

1978-01-01

71

West Siberia and Far East Natural Gas Production Strategy: key provisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a forecast of the natural gas production and processing in the Eastern Siberia and Far East; calculates the development parameters in the oil processing and petrochemical sectors according to the plans and forecasts for oil industry; identifies the gas deliveries routes; assesses the fiscal and commercial effectiveness of investments; and formulates and validates the conditions due to

A. E. Kantorovich

2009-01-01

72

Russia Escalates Chechen War, Risks Reprisals from the West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Late last week, Russian forces launched a massive bombardment of the Chechen capital, inaugurating a new offensive using more high-powered artillery than had been previously employed in the conflict. Chances for a peaceful resolution diminished earlier this month when Yeltsin rejected appeals from Western leaders to find a political settlement to the strife. Yeltsin and Russian officials insist that they are fighting Muslim terrorists, while Western leaders point to collateral damage of Chechen civilians and the mass exodus of over 200,000 Chechen refugees in recent months. Meanwhile, the situation is sure to be the primary subject of talks begun yesterday between Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov and Knut Vollebaek, chairman of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Recently, the head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) suggested that Russia's actions in Chechnya could affect the release of the IMF's next loan installment of 630 million dollars to Moscow. Russia has reacted with outrage to the proposal of such a linkage. The conflict has also worsened Russia's relations with its neighbor Georgia as officials accuse the Georgian government of allowing the movement of rebel troops and supplies back and forth across their mountainous border with Chechnya. Georgia steadfastly denies any collusion with the rebels.

Charbonneau, David D.

73

Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although reserve (or field) growth has proved to be an important contributing factor in adding new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is a poorly understood phenomenon. Although several papers have been published on the U.S. fields, there are only a few publications on fields in other petroleum provinces. This paper explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest West

Mahendra K. Verma; Gregory F. Ulmishek

2003-01-01

74

Handling toxic wastes during salvaging and rehabilitation of nuclear objects in north-west Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systematized information on toxic wastes produced during salvaging and rehabilitation of decommissioned nuclear and radiation-hazardous\\u000a objects in the nuclear-powered naval fleet in north-west Russia is presented. The dynamics of their accumulation up to 2025\\u000a is estimated. Substantiation is given for the need to re-examine the existing system of handling wastes and searching for\\u000a new solutions for decreasing the ecological risk

V. L. Vysotskii; V. S. Nikitin; K. N. Kulikov; S. A. Ivanov; G. S. Bogdanova; A. A. Zakharov

2008-01-01

75

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

Klett, T. R.

2011-01-01

76

Sphagnum peatland development at their southern climatic range in West Siberia: trends and peat accumulation patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A region of western Siberia is vulnerable to the predicted climatic change which may induce an important modification to the carbon balance in wetland ecosystems. This study focuses on the evaluation of both the long-term and contemporary trends of peat (carbon) accumulation and its patterns at the southern climatic range of Sphagnum peatlands in western Siberia. Visible and physical features of peat and detailed reconstructions of successional change (or sediment stratigraphies) were analysed at two types of forest peatland ecotones, which are situated close to each other but differ by topography and composition of their plant communities. Our results suggest that Siberian peatlands exhibit a general trend towards being a carbon sink rather than a source even at or near the southern limit of their distribution. Furthermore, two types of peat accumulation were detected in the study area, namely persistent and intermittent. As opposed to persistent peat accumulation, the intermittent one is characterized by the recurrent degradation of the upper peat layers at the marginal parts of raised bogs. Persistent peat accumulation is the case for the majority of Sphagnum peatlands under current climatic conditions. It might be assumed that more peat will accumulate under the 'increased precipitation' scenarios of global warming, although intermittent peat accumulation could result in the eventual drying that may change peatlands from carbon sinks to carbon sources.

Peregon, Anna; Uchida, Masao; Shibata, Yasuyuki

2007-10-01

77

Multivariate data base for the solution of geologic problems in exploring for oil and gas in West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Exploration data bases are distinguished in that many data elements change continuously over geologic time. Also, for maximum practical utility in exploration, the data base must be distributed. The data base developed by Tyumengeologiya on the West Siberian basin is composed of three fundamental elements. The first elemental covers the overall geologic structure of the basin, including tectonic, stratigraphic, and geomorphologic entities. This contains primary data and the results of analysis, which provide a geologic framework for the other two elements of the data base. The second block contains temporally stable data (e.g., identification numbers for wells, reservoirs, fields, etc.). The third block provides the mechanism for updating the other blocks with the newest observations from wells, laboratory analysis, seismic, and other sources. Ability to update not only primary data, but the tectonic and stratigraphic framework in the first block, is the key to successful, practical operation. There is a large degree of coincidence between the principles and architecture of the data base developed in West Siberia and those used by western oil and gas companies. This extends not only to the interdependence between elements of the data base, but also reflects a common understanding of the nature of the geologic problems that are analyzed through the use of computer data bases in the exploration for oil and gases.

Shpil'Man, V.I.; Yakovlev, V.M. (West Siberian Geologic Research Institute, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

1991-03-01

78

Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms during Neocomian time. The clastic material was transported by a system of rivers dominantly from the eastern provenance. Sandstones within the Neocomian clinoforms contain the principal oil reservoirs. The thick continental Aptian?Cenomanian Pokur Formation above the Neocomian sequence contains giant gas reserves in the northern part of the basin. Three total petroleum systems are identified in the West Siberian basin. Volumes of discovered hydrocarbons in these systems are 144 billion barrels of oil and more than 1,300 trillion cubic feet of gas. The assessed mean undiscovered resources are 55.2 billion barrels of oil, 642.9 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 20.5 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. The largest known oil reserves are in the Bazhenov-Neocomian total petroleum system that includes Upper Jurassic and younger rocks of the central and southern parts of the basin. Oil reservoirs are mainly in Neocomian and Upper Jurassic clastic strata. Source rocks are organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation. Most discovered reserves are in structural traps, but stratigraphic traps in the Neocomian clinoform sequence are pro-ductive and are expected to contain much of the undiscovered resources. Two assessment units are identified in this total petroleum system. The first assessment unit includes all conventional reservoirs in the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Jurassic to the Cenomanian. The second unit includes unconventional (or continuous), self-sourced, fractured reservoirs in the Bazhenov Formation. This unit was not assessed quantitatively. The Togur-Tyumen total petroleum system covers the same geographic area as the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, but it includes older, Lower?Middle Jurassic strata and weathered rocks at the top of the pre-Jurassic sequence. A Callovian regional shale seal of the Abalak and lower Vasyugan Formations separates the two systems. The Togur-Tyumen system is oil-prone; gas reserves are insignificant. The principal o

Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2003-01-01

79

Jom-Bolok Holocene volcanic field in the East Sayan Mts., Siberia, Russia: structure, style of eruptions, magma compositions, and radiocarbon dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jom-Bolok volcanic field is located in the East Sayan Mts. of Siberia (Russia), a portion of the Asian convergent zone. It is located at the boundary of the Riphean Tuva-Mongolia massif, which was probably reactivated because of the interplay between far-field tectonic stress derived from the India-Asia collision zone and extension in the south-western Baikal rift system. The volcanic field comprises a number of hawaiitic lava flows, of various lengths, which flowed down paleorivers. Flows were fed by fissure eruptions and the largest lava flow field was dated as 7,130 ± 140 cal 14C years BP using a buried organic sample found inside the associated cinder cone. This lava flow field is about 70 km long, ˜100 km2 in area, and 7.9 km3 in volume. The area and volume of this flow field ranks this eruption highly in the global record of fissure-fed effusive eruptions. This lava flow field makes up 97% of the entire Jom-Bolok volcanic field, a fact which raises a puzzling question: why and/or how did a relatively small-volume volcanic field produce such a large-volume individual eruption? A working hypothesis is that a pond of sublithospheric melt accumulated over a relatively prolonged period. This was then rapidly drained in response of tectonic changes triggered by unloading of ice in the Early Holocene.

Ivanov, Alexei V.; Arzhannikov, Sergei G.; Demonterova, Elena I.; Arzhannikova, Anastasia V.; Orlova, Lyubov A.

2011-11-01

80

Carbon balances of freshwater ecosystems in summer and fall 2008 on Samoylov Island, Lena Delta, Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of freshwater ecosystems, such as lakes and ponds, exist in the northern areas of Canada, Alaska and Siberia and have been recently recognized as highly sensitive to changing climate. While numerous studies reported northern lakes as heterotrophic and supersaturated in carbon dioxide gas (CO2) environments, seasonal variability and differences in estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from various aquatic systems to the atmosphere is currently not well-known. We explored variability in freshwater carbon dynamics on Samoylov Island in the Lena Delta, Northern Siberia (72.2°N, 126.3°E). The landscape of the island represents polygonized tundra dominated by wet depressed polygonal centres (31%) and dry rims (53%) with thermokarst lakes and polygonized ponds occupying 10 and 6 %, respectively. We measured aquatic carbon components, physical and chemical characteristics and water budget components from 2 lakes, 2 ponds and 2 island outflows in the summer and early fall of 2008. Aquatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pools were significantly smaller in the ponds compared to the lakes suggesting different carbon sources fuelling different CO2 production. The carbon budget showed that the lakes and ponds were either neutral or large sinks of aquatic DOC and DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon), representing less than 1 % of the hydrologically incoming DIC loads and close to 40 % of available DOC load in the system. Concentrations of DIC increased 4 times during freezeback (end of September) highlighting the role of ponds as transient carbon stores decoupling times of production and emission of CO2. The observed systems had low concentrations of CH4 and N2O during the study season. However, aerial survey of 42 ponds during the time of freezeback revealed that 6 of them were sources of CH4 and 10 ponds were sources of N2O. Overall, the export of terrestrially fixed carbon to the Arctic Ocean from the island via outflow channels was 354 kg of DOC per active season which represents 7 % of DOC pools found in lentic systems of the island. Seasonal differences observed in aquatic carbon components between summer and freezeback periods determine the dynamics of CO2 in the lakes and ponds therefore affecting amounts of GHG contribution to the atmosphere.

Abnizova, A.; Siemens, J.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.

2010-12-01

81

Climatic extremes in the north of the west Siberia: millennium chronicle inferred from tree rings.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme climatic events, like frosts and temperature drops, have a strong effect on the functioning of subarctic ecosystems. The best tool for long reconstruction of climatic extremes in the northern regions of Siberia is anatomical analysis of annual rings of trees, and specially shrubs. Frost and light rings of living and dead individuals of Siberian juniper (Juniperus sibirica Burgsd.) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) growing at the upper (Polar Ural mountains) and polar (Yamal Peninsula) tree lines in the northwest Siberia have been studied to reconstruct summer frosts and many days abrupt fall of temperature during the second half of growing season over the past 1250 years. The oldest living branches of Siberian juniper we are found 840 years old, the oldest living Siberian larches in this region are 500 years old. However dead stems and branches remain for long centuries. Therefore the chronologies of pathological structures, produced using both living and dried-off stems and branches, are more than 1000-year length. In found juniper, the presence of frost rings provides evidence for frosts that occurred in July. Generally in the same summer larches form frost- or light-rings. Long term and pronounced air temperature drop in the middle of very warm period in the second half of July is the factor responsible for fluctuations of wood density (false rings) in annual rings of juniper and larch. Based on these relationships we can interpret incidence of pathological structures in terms of strong temperature abnormalities. Conclusion has been made, that in July the most severe frosts took place in 801, 1109, 1259, 1278, 1328, 1453, 1466, 1481, 1601, 1783, 1857, and 1882 AD. Pronounced temperature drops in the middle of July took place in 1555, 1610, 1621, 1919, 1947 AD. Comparison our data with data from other regions of the world have been shown that there is agreement in the timing of extreme temperature events of 800-801, 1109, 1258-1259, 1453, 1466, 1585, 1601, 1783, 1884, 1912 and 1992 AD over several regions. Most probably these extremes have been caused by major volcano eruptions, e.g. summers 1259 (El Chichon), 1453 (Kuwae), 1601 (Huaynaputina), 1783 (Laki).

Gorlanova, L.; Hantemirov, R.; Shiyatov, S.; Schweingruber, F.

2003-04-01

82

The influence of environmental factors on the CO2 emission from the surface of oligotrophic peat soils in West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of various ecological factors (air and soil temperature, atmospheric pressure, level of peatland waters, and the content of CO2 in the atmosphere) on the emission of CO2 from the surface of a peat deposit of an oligotrophic peatland in the south taiga subzone of West Siberia was studied. On the basis of the investigations, day and seasonal dynamics of the emission of CO2 from the surface of the peat deposit were revealed. A detailed correlation analysis allowed us to describe the dependences of the CO2 flux from the surface of the peat deposit on the environmental parameters at various levels of averaging: hour, day, and month. It was shown that the temperature of the air and surface of the peat deposit have a reliable impact on the emission of CO2 on all time scales. The atmospheric pressure, as a factor that changes relatively slowly, influences the emission of CO2 weakly. The performed studies did not allow us to draw an unambiguous conclusion about the influence of the level of bog waters on the emission of CO2 from the surface of a peat deposit.

Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, E. A.

2012-06-01

83

Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the West Siberia Basin  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the basin. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, mature source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in [open quotes]snapshots[close quotes] by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of West Siberia.

Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D. (Earth Science Associates, Arlington, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

84

[About the signumanistics of medical units and departments of North-West of Russia].  

PubMed

Armbands, indicating belonging of the military man to the Armed forces, to separate type, alliance or military unit or department, are an integral part of modern military uniform. Author presents some armbands of military-medical units and departments locating on the North-West of Russia. Different variants of the armbands are suggested. Rules of construction and adoption of the armbands are recommended according to heraldic laws and directive documents. The article allows to learn about famous armbands of military-medical service and is of special interest to further development of heraldic theme of units and departments of medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. PMID:23038962

2012-07-01

85

Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N-69.5° N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to background levels reported for other pristine arctic areas and did not exceed mean global background concentrations examined for the continental crust as well as for the world's soils.

Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

2013-02-01

86

Seismo-geological models of stratigraphic sequences and their application to oil and gas exploration in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In west Siberia, large structural prospects for oil exploration have been exhausted. Further discoveries are expected to be made in small to medium structural traps and in lithostratigraphic traps. Prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps is based on new seismo-geological models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences. In middle Paleozoic rocks, small hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in structural highs; the reservoirs are composed of fractured vuggy carbonates. Seismostratigraphic criteria for prediction of such traps are uncertain. The Lower-Middle Jurassic sequence consists of continental and partially of marine clastic rocks. The sequence is believed to contain considerable hydrocarbon resources in lithostratigraphic traps in basal sandstones and in pinch-out zones of Lower Jurassic sandstones. In the upper part of the sequence, oil pools have been discovered in channel sandstone bodies. Two different areas of oil accumulations are found in the Callovian-Oxfordian sequence. The Bazhenov Formation bituminous shales of Volgian-Berriasian contain sporadically distributed fractured-porous reservoirs. Accumulations in these reservoirs are characterized by irregular oil saturation. The Neocomian sequence consists of rocks deposited on the shallow-water shelf and on the basinal slope. Seismo-geological data indicate that the sequence is prospective for discovery of hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps. The clinoform consists of laterally prograding strata; most prospective are frontal and depocentral parts of the strata which contain sandstone reservoirs of medium to poor quality. Lithostratigraphic traps in the shelf sequence can be found in the marginal parts of the paleoshelf where regional pinch-out zones and sandstones lenses are common. The Aptian-Cenomanian sequence deposited under terrestrial and coastal conditions is dominantly gas prone. New hydrocarbon discoveries in this sequence are expected in structural traps.

Mkrtchyan, O.M. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Combustible Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

87

Jurassic Bazhenov Unit in the Salym oil field, West Siberia - An excellent source rock and fractured shale reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Unit covers approximately 1 million km{sup 2} of West Siberia and is an excellent source rock. This Unit has proved to be a prolific shale reservoir in 14 local highs with the Salym oil field the major discovery. More than 300 wells have been drilled to date in this area, covering approximately 5800 km{sup 2}. The Bazhenov formation is composed of calcerous, organic-rich mudstone and siliceous hale lithofacies. Producing capacities of individual wells range from a few barrels daily to a maximum of 1000 bbl/day, and occasionally reaching 10,000 bbl/day. On average the porosity is 6.1%. The rock matrix is virtually impermeable and oil flow occurs via various types of fractures. All production is water free. The initial formation pressure ranges from normal hydrostatic to abnormally high, reaching 4060 and 6525 psi, respectively, at 2800 m depth. The temperature ranges from 180 to 280{degree} at depths from 2750 to 2950 m. The oil density varies between 30 and 46{degree} API, and the sulfur content ranges from 0.08 to 0.48%. The range of CO{sub 2} content in the associated gas is between 0.2 and 11.5%. Material of marine origin was the precursor organic matter of the kerogen for the Bazhenov Unit. The organic carbon content is high, ranging from 5 to 7% and occasionally reaching 15-20%. These are type II kerogens. The Bazhenov source rocks generate in situ high quality paraffin-base oils.

Petzoukha, Y.; Rovenskaya, A.; Zonn, M.; Kononkov, A. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Fossil Fuels (Russian Federation))

1991-03-01

88

Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negotiations aimed at the creation of the International Trade Organization (“ITO”) coincided with the growing political\\u000a tension between the Soviet Union and the West which eventually led to the Cold War. The Soviet Union did not respond to the\\u000a initial proposal to participate in the creation of the ITO due to the prevailing political situation,1 despite the fact that

Julia Selivanova

89

On deep electric conductivity of the lithosphere in the Tobol-Ishim interfluve (West Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of exploration magnetotelluric soundings (MTS) carried out by the Tyumen Geological Survey in 1980-1981 within the Tobol-Ishim interfluve, the top of the conductive horizon with the electric resistivity of dozens of ? m is identified in the geoelectrical section at a depth of 75-80 km. Two segments of the locally elevated top of this horizon are revealed. One segment, where the depth of the top of the conductor is 60-65 km, corresponds to the region of the Kiselevskii fault-the main fault in this territory; another segment is associated with the edge zone of the Ishim branch of the Triassic rift system within the West Siberian Plate. Within this segment, the top of the conductive layer rises to a depth of 55-60 km. It is assumed that the Ishim geoelectrical anomaly, which projects into the geothermal anomaly and is coherent with the features of the deep geological structure of its display region, is conditioned by the element of the mantle-crustal magmatogene fluid paleosystem.

Borisova, V. P.; Vasil'eva, T. A.; Kostyuchenko, S. L.; Narskii, N. V.; Sysoev, B. K.; Fainberg, E. B.; Charushin, A. G.; Sheinkman, A. L.

2013-05-01

90

Siberia-2: Electron Beam Operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

2.5 GeV electron storage ring SIBERIA-2 is the first dedicated light source in Russia. This paper briefly describes the achieved beam parameters and present machine performance. The features of the electrons storing and energy ramping are discussed. The results of the orbit characteristics measurements are given.

Korchuganov, Vladimir; Gorniker, Eduard; Kurkin, Grigory; Ushakov, Vladimir; Filipchenko, Alexander; Kadnikov, Andrey; Krylov, Yury; Odintsov, Dmitry; Ushkov, Vladimir; Valentinov, Alexander; Yupinov, Yury

1997-05-01

91

Cold season CH4 and CO2 emission from boreal peat bogs (West Siberia): Winter fluxes and thaw activation dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conventional chamber technique was used to measure CH4 and CO2emission to the atmosphere from snow-covered ombrotrophic bogs (57°N, 82°E, Plotnikovo, West Siberia). The average ± standard deviation values for CH4 and CO2fluxes in mid-February were found to be equal mg m-2 d-15.0 ± 3.7 and 69±52, respectively. The contribution of cold season to annual methane fluxes varied from 3.5 to 11% depending on the calculation method and was similar to that found in Alaska and northern Minnesota. The vertical profiles of gases in snow were linear implying the applicability of the simple diffusion equation under steady state conditions. The diffusion reduction factor due to porous resistance and tortuousity of snowpack was 0.18 and 0.29 for methane and carbon dioxide, respectively. Thus snow forms only a passive cap which controls the gas concentration at the snow-soil interface, while gas flux into the atmosphere is controlled by gas production in the soil. The fresh samples of frozen peat soil incubated under laboratory conditions at constant temperature -16°C displayed very slow, but steady respiration varied from 0.05 to 0.2 mg CO2-C d-1 dm-3depending on peat sampling depth. Although this activity was 200-300 times lower than soil respiration in summertime, it was enough to support the observed in situ winter CO2 emission. The thaw and subsequent peat incubation at 15°C accelerated gas formation up to 2-5 mg CO2-C and 1.2 mg CH4-C h-1 dm-3of peat after 3-4 days of incubation followed by a decline by 1 order of magnitude and approaching a new steady state level. Although the mechanism of freeze-thaw activation needs further clarification, it was nevertheless possible to simulate the observed activation dynamics by a mathematical model which accounts for the burst of microbial growth on nutrients released into soil from frost-damaged cells.

Panikov, N. S.; Dedysh, S. N.

2000-12-01

92

Sub-fossil cladoceran remains from the sediment of the lakes in Arctic Siberia, Russia: relationship to physical and chemical variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lakes examined in this study are located on the catchment area of Anabar river in the north-west part of Yakutia (Russia), just west of the Lena River. All presented samples and data were obtained in frame of a joint Russian-German expedition to Yakutia in summer 2007. The study sites included 35 lakes that were distributed along a broad north-south transect across northwest Yakutia, Russia, ranging from latitude 71° 50' to 73° 39'. This transects captures considerable changes in geology, vegetation, and climate. The studied lakes are shallow thermokarst lakes with maximal depths of about 10 m (mean 4.27±0.76). The waters were dominated by Ca-Mg, Fe and HCO3, but the ion concentration was generally low in all studied waters. From the initial 35 localities, only 31 contained a sufficient number of cladoceran remains for reasonable quantification. From these, a total of 28 cladoceran taxa representing 14 genera were identified, comprising predominantly littoral chydorid species. Species richness (i.e. the total number of taxa per lake) ranged between 5 (07-SA-05, 07-SA-14, 07-SA-18) and 20 (07-SA-24), with a mean of 9, and was not significantly correlated with any of the measured environmental variables. With forward selection and Monte Carlo permutation tests (999 permutations), RDA identified a minimal subset of four environmental variables that explained a significant (p ? 0.05) amount of the variation in the species data. These variables are TJuly, water depth, SO42-, Si4+. RDA axis 1 (? = 0.174) and axis 2 (? = 0.157) were both significant and explained almost all of the relationships between the cladoceran taxa and measured environmental variables (85.8%). Distributions of the cladoceran taxa, however, revealed major shifts in abundance in relation to the temperature along our transect. Constrained cluster analysis (CONISS), based on the structure of cladoceran community, disclosed three groups of lakes in the tundra and forest-tundra zones of the north-western part of Yakutia. Frontiers of divisions, separated on the basis structure of sub fossil cladoceran assemblages along a temperature gradient completely coincided with landscape zoning on the basis vegetative communities (typical tundra, southern tundra, forest-tundra).

Frolova, Larisa; Nazarova, Larisa; Herzschuh, Ulrike

2010-05-01

93

Bracketing the range of lake and wetland methane emissions rates in West Siberia using models, in situ observations, and remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large uncertainties exist in estimates of global lake and wetland methane emission rates, due in part to their large spatial and temporal heterogeneity and also due to the sparseness of in situ observations. This is especially true of lakes and inundated wetlands, for which ebullition is a major methane pathway. Here we use a large-scale coupled land-atmosphere model and remote sensing observations to bracket the range of possible emissions rates from lakes and wetlands in West Siberia. Our modeling framework consists of a large-scale hydrology model (Variable Infiltration Capacity; VIC), extended to handle carbon cycling and methane emissions, coupled to an atmospheric tracer-transport model (NIES Chemical Tracer Model; CTM) driven by NCAR/NCEP reanalysis fields. In the model, "permanent" lake areas are prescribed by the Global Lake and Wetland Database, bias-corrected to account for small lakes. Seasonal inundation of wetlands is dynamic and has been calibrated to match an inundation dataset derived from remote sensing (AMSR-E and Qscat). We calibrated the model's wetland methane emissions to match in situ observations from a large dataset collected in West Siberia between 2006 and 2010. Lake emission rates are prescribed in several scenarios that span the range of observed rates reported in the literature. We explore the relative sizes of various sources of uncertainty in simulated methane emissions: uncertainty in inundated area, parameter uncertainty in the methane emissions model, and the range of possible lake emissions rates. Using values from different ends of the spectrum of these uncertainty sources leads to markedly different spatial patterns of methane emissions across West Siberia. These emissions are ingested by the atmospheric tracer model to produce maps of atmospheric methane concentrations. We compare the resulting spatial patterns of methane concentrations with remotely-sensed observations from the AIRS and GOSAT satellite sensors and explore the implied likelihoods of the different lake and wetland emissions rates. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Bohn, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Kim, H.-S.; Glagolev, M.; Schroeder, R.; McDonald, K.; Podest, E.; Chen, X.; Livneh, B.; Lettenmaier, D.

2012-04-01

94

[Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].  

PubMed

In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded. PMID:22567967

Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

95

Socio-demographic determinants of poor infant outcome in north-west Russia.  

PubMed

The infant outcome determinants vary in different settings, and there is still a need for analysis within environments. This study was designed to examine the relation between poor infant outcome (PIO), (i.e. any of the following indicators: preterm delivery, low birthweight, perinatal death and low first-minute Apgar score) and socio-demographic factors, smoking and alcohol consumption in a Russian setting. The study was conducted in the town of Severodvinsk, north-west Russia. A total of 1404 pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinics in 1999 and delivered at the municipal maternity home comprised the cohort. Data on women and infants were collected from the medical files and a questionnaire on social indicators, smoking and alcohol consumption was administered. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) calculated by multivariable logistic regression was used as the measure of association between PIO and the variables studied. Education was found to be the most significant factor associated with PIO (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.2, 3.0 for secondary or less education compared with at least 3 years of university studies). Increased risks of PIO were also found in mothers aged 30 years and older (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1, 2.5 compared with other age groups) and in unmarried mothers (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9) after control for the possible confounders. Other socio-demographic determinants studied (smoking, alcohol use, stress, maternal occupation, housing and young age of the mother) could not be found to influence PIO. The findings contribute to the hypothesis that maternal education is one of the most important social factors influencing pregnancy outcomes in countries in transition. PMID:12123439

Grjibovski, Andrej; Bygren, Lars Olov; Svartbo, Boo

2002-07-01

96

Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”.

Zinovyev, Evgeniy

2011-01-01

97

Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.  

PubMed

The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas". PMID:21738409

Zinovyev, Evgeniy

2011-05-20

98

Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found between EC and pH on the one hand , and soil moisture content on the other. However, soil moisture content in the topsoil appeared to have a major influence on the crop water stress index, which on its turn affected the leaf area index, the fresh biomass and the mean plant height. The crop leaf color as detected by a regular digital camera appeared to be correlated with pH and EC properties of the soil. The visible light band ratios red/green and blue/green correlated well with the crop water stress index. More research is necessary to prove if this relation is applicable in different environments, and for different crops. A confirmation of these findings would offer scope to increase the spatial support of this technique using satellite images.

Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

2012-04-01

99

Arctic climate change discourse: the contrasting politics of research agendas in the West and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore how Western scientific concepts and attitudes towards indigenous knowledge, as they pertain to resource management and climate change, differ from the prevailing view in modern Russia. Western indigenous leaders representing the Inuit and Saami peoples are actively engaged in the academic and political discourse surrounding climate change, whereas their Russian colleagues tend to focus more

Bruce C. Forbes; Florian Stammler

2009-01-01

100

Russia and the West: A Reassessment (Shrivenham Paper, Number 6, January 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A powerful Russia is once again a fact of life, and Russians know it. They are no longer seeing our approval. They have recovered pride in their own traditions and are determined to advance their own interests. The post-Cold War partnership, founded at a ...

J. Sherr

2008-01-01

101

CrossCutting issues in Regulatory Supervision of Spent Fuel Radioactive Waste and Radioactively Contaminated Land in North-West Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Norwegian Government is promoting improvements in radiation protection and nuclear safety in North-West Russia. Among priority areas there is the improvement of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste management, as well as remediation operations at the Shore Technical Bases operated by Federal Enterprise SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and Gremikha on the Kola Peninsula. The extreme radiological conditions at these

M. K. Sneve; G. M. Smith

2006-01-01

102

West Siberian oil production in the mid-1990s  

SciTech Connect

A Western specialist on the liquid fuel industries and resources of Russia surveys trends in and factors affecting output in Russia`s most important oil-producing region, accounting for nearly 70% of the country`s production in 1994 and a similar share of oil reserves. A prolonged decline in oil output in the region, starting in 1988, appears to be bottoming out as a function of efforts to rehabilitate idle wells and liberalized regulations governing oil exports. A focus is on documenting trends in production within a series of region production associations charged with operation of specific fields (of widely variable age and reserves) in West Siberia and on surveying Western participation in joint ventures involved in field development for deposits characterized by difficult conditions. Official projections of West Siberian crude oil output based on various assumptions regarding rates of investment, well rehabilitation, exploratory drilling, secondary recovery, etc. are reviewed and evaluated. 21 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Sagers, M.J. [PlanEcon, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1994-11-01

103

Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004  

PubMed Central

Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkäranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004—395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia.

Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

2012-01-01

104

Experiential Perestroika: The Russia Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1993, an educational exchange program sponsored by the Association for Experiential Education (AEE) sent six educators from North America to Russia to conduct workshops for students and teachers on concepts of experiential learning. As a result of this cooperative exchange, Altai Regional Educational Center (Siberia) was created to coordinate…

Proudman, Bill; Pavlova, Alona

1994-01-01

105

Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic developments make the tour unique and very attractive for BSc and MSc students and soil science professionals. Detailed information about the next tour is under: www.uni-goettingen.de/soilrus

Kuzyakov, Yakov

2013-04-01

106

Genesis of the Khaluta alkaline-basic Ba-Sr carbonatite complex (West Transbaikala, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Khaluta carbonatite complex comprizes fenites, alkaline syenites and shonkinites, and calcite and dolomite carbonatites. Textural and compositional criteria, melt inclusions, geochemical and isotopic data, and comparisons with relevant experimental systems show that the complex formed by liquid immiscibility of a carbonate-saturated parental silicate melt. Mineral and stable isotope geothermometers and melt inclusion measurements for the silicate rocks and carbonatite all give temperatures of crystallization of 915-1,000°C and 890-470°C, respectively. Melt inclusions containing sulphate minerals, and sulphate-rich minerals, most notably apatite and monazite, occur in all of the lithologies in the Khaluta complex. All lithologies, from fenites through shonkinites and syenites to calcite and dolomite carbonatites, and to hydrothermal mineralisation are further characterized by high Ba and Sr activity, as well as that of SO3 with formation of the sulphate minerals baryte, celestine and baryte-celestine. Thus, the characteristic features of the Khaluta parental melt were elevated concentrations of SO3, Ba and Sr. In addition to the presence of SO3, calculated fO2 for magnetites indicate a high oxygen fugacity and that Fe+3>Fe+2 in the Khaluta parental melt. Our findings suggest that the mantle source for Khaluta carbonatite and associated rocks, as well as for other carbonatites of the West Transbaikalia carbonatite province, were SO3-rich and characterized by high oxygen fugacity.

Doroshkevich, Anna G.; Ripp, German S.; Moore, Kathryn R.

2010-03-01

107

High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social-ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia.  

PubMed

Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience. PMID:20007776

Forbes, Bruce C; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejärvi, Elina

2009-12-10

108

Land-use Changes on Peatlands in Russia and Green House Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russia possesses vast areas of peatlands and associated paludified shallow peat lands, over 8 and 20% respectively. The country is the largest World peatland nation, and thus could be responsible for the large part of GHG exchange between peatlands and the atmosphere. Russian peatlands present a high variety of natural conditions from permafrost mires to bogs, fens and swamps within boreal, temperate, steppe and semi-arid zones, which have quite different rates of GHG flux, emitting or absorbing carbon dioxide and methane. Many regions of Russia still contain vast areas of virgin mires but in the central European part of Russia, West Siberia and Far East the appreciable part of peatlands was already modified. Peatlands were used in a broad spectrum of human activities connected with direct water level draw-down: peat extraction for different purposes (up to 1.5 million ha), drainage for agriculture, and drainage for forestry (each over 3 million ha). Many peatlands all the over the country were affected by infrastructure development (by road, pipe line construction etc.) with related changes of their hydrology and GHG fluxes. These land uses are under consideration of LULUFC issues of UNFCCC, and peat excavation is directly included in IPCC 2006 Guidelines as a main wetland/peatland land use activity related to climate change mitigation. General estimates and geographical distribution of peatlands drained for agriculture and forestry as well as peatlands under excavation, extracted or abandoned are given based on existing statistical and sectoral information. GHG fluxes from disturbed peatlands are analyzed using available Russian data and the results of specially organized observations in 2004-2008 in the pilot regions in Central European Russia and West Siberia which included a variety of modified and virgin control sites.

Sirin, A.; Minaeva, T.; Chistotin, M.; Glagolev, M.; Suvorov, G.

2009-04-01

109

A new model of crustal structure of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new model of the structure of the crust in Siberia that encompasses two large tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberian Basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton. The area of study covers a significant part of the north Eurasia and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge\\/Lena river in the east, and from

Y. Cherepanova; I. M. Artemieva; H. Thybo

2010-01-01

110

Assessing the Net Carbon Balance of Western Siberia: Results from the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX Project (1998-2000)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX (1998-2000) constitutes a feasibility study for the development of an observing system to quantify the net regional (1-2000 km) and continental scale carbon balance of western Siberia and Eastern Europe and its variation from year to year. This goal is addressed by means of an integrated top-down and bottom-up approach consisting of: (1) Continuous surface flux measurements of CO2 in key ecosystems at 2 locations in Western Russia (Fyodorovskoye, 56N, 33E), and Central Siberia (Zotino, 60N, 90E). (2) Regular (every 2-4 weeks) vertical profile measurements in the lower troposphere with light aircraft of the concentration of CO2 and other carbon cycle relevant tracers (carbon and oxygen isotopes, CO, CH4, O2/N2 ratio) at 3 locations (Fyodorovskoye, 56N, 33E, Syktyvkar, 62N, 53E, and Zotino, 60N, 90E) along a West-East zonal gradient across Russia. (3) Development and implementation of a continental scale meteorological and biogeochemical-model framework for determination of net carbon balance of the study region by means of forward and inverse model simulations. Up to now almost three years of data have been obtained, documenting (1) the interannual climate impact on surface fluxes and (2) the seasonal cycle and mean annual gradients of the atmospheric carbon tracers in the planetary boundary layer and the overlying free troposphere in the interior of the Eurasian continent. The developed modeling system consists of a global transport model with a nested meso-scale atmospheric model over boreal Eurasia, linked to a surface model of carbon exchange fluxes based on remote sensing data (NDVI). Starting in 2002, the observing system will be expanded ina follow-up project to Eastern Siberia, the northern Eurasian tundra and the Mongolian grasslands. >http://www.bgc-jena.mpg.de/~martin.heimann/eurosib

Heimann, M.; Schulze, E.; Levin, I.; Ciais, P.; Meijer, H.; Dedieu, G.; Holmen, K.; Vygodskaja, N. N.

2001-12-01

111

Palynostratigraphy of Oligocene-Miocene continental deposits in Southwestern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on spores, pollen, and dinoflagellate cysts studied in composite section of Oligocene-Miocene deposits in southern part of West Siberia are presented. Eleven biostratigraphic units distinguished in the section are ranked as palynozones and beds with palynological assemblages. Palynological data substantiate age of deposits and specify ranges and boundaries of palynozones. Based on dinocyst assemblages first studied in sediments of the Zhuravka and Abrosimovo horizons (upper Oligocene, lower Miocene), the Pseudokomewuia Beds are included into local stratigraphic scheme. According to results of comparative analysis, similar and distinctive features of Oligocene-Miocene dinocyst assemblages from West Siberia, China and North America are elucidated. Based on palynological data, the local stratigraphic scheme of higher resolution is suggested for subdivision of Oligocene and Miocene deposits in southern part of West Siberia (Baraba and Kulunda lithofacies regions).

Kuz'mina, O. B.; Volkova, B. S.

2008-10-01

112

Carnivorous Mammals of Siberia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A monograph on the taxonomy, geographical distribution, ecology, and anatomy of carnivorous mammals in Siberia is presented. It is largely organized in the form of a toxonomic key, most entries of which is accompanied by a morphological description, neces...

S. U. Stroganov

1969-01-01

113

International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network. Specific emphasis was made on the study of permafrost soils. Throughout the course students were exposed to a wide range of field techniques, including surveying, coring, geothermal monitoring, thaw-depth measurements, landscape characterization, geomorphologic investigations, soil description and classification according to International, Russian, German, and U.S. classification schemes, and hydrologic and botanical field investigations. Significant portion of the course curriculum was devoted to problems of industrial development in permafrost regions. Pipelines, material sites, operating gas wells, processing plants, pump stations, and permafrost engineering testing facilities associated with three major gas fields (Yamburg, Yubileinoe, and Zapolyarnoe) were visited as part of the field excursions. Several meetings with Russian gas industry executives and workers were arranged to openly discuss economic and political issues associated with GasProm activities in West Siberia. The field work was complemented by daily lectures prepared by instructors and students, covering a wide range of topics. Students also participated in active permafrost research through daily data collection and analysis activities. Analysis of the diverse data sets obtained during the course was conducted at Moscow State University, presented in a series of detailed reports. The data collected by students were contributed to the international IPY permafrost monitoring programmes. Several students have presented results of their research at the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost and other national and international scientific meetings. This presentation describes research and educational activities of the IUCP, provides results of student research, and outlines the plan for the future.

Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

2009-04-01

114

Aircraft and tower measurements of CO2 concentration in the planetary boundary layer and the lower free troposphere over southern taiga in West Siberia: Long-term records from 2002 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

situ measurements of the vertical distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) carried out with a light aircraft over a tower site (Berezorechka; 56°08'45?N, 84°19'49?E) in the taiga region of West Siberia from October 2001 to March 2012 document the detailed seasonal and vertical variation of CO2 concentrations during daytime. The variation appears to be controlled mainly by the CO2 flux from taiga ecosystems and the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). We calculated average CO2 concentrations in the PBL and the lower free troposphere (LFT), both of which show clear seasonal cycles and an increasing long-term trend. Seasonal amplitude in the PBL had a larger value (29 ppm) than that in the LFT (14 ppm), demonstrating strong CO2 source-sink forcing by the taiga ecosystems. Mean CO2 concentrations during 13:00-17:00 local standard time observed at the four levels of the tower (5, 20, 40, and 80 m) showed lower CO2 concentrations than that observed in the PBL by aircraft during June-August (growing season). This negative bias decreased with increasing inlet height such that the minimum difference appeared at the 80-m inlet (-2.4 ± 0.8 ppm). No such bias was observed during other months (dormant season). The daytime CO2 flux, based on multiple vertical profiles obtained on a single day, ranged from -36.4 to 3.8 µmol m-2 s-1 during July-September. There was a clear difference in the fluxes between the morning and afternoon, suggesting that these data should be considered examples of fluxes during several daytime hours from the West Siberian taiga.

Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.

2013-08-01

115

Pangeghtellghet (Visits to Siberia).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reader contains eight stories in St. Lawrence Island Yupik about visits by St. Lawrence Island people to their relatives and friends in Siberia over a quarter of a century ago. The book, which is intended for use in advanced levels of reading instruction, is part of a series of Siberian Yupik reading materials. (AMH)

Kaneshiro, Vera, Ed.

116

Aluminium phosphate and phosphate-sulphate minerals in kyanite schists of the Ichetuyskoye area, West Transbaikalia, Russia: crystal chemistry and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium phosphate and aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals occur as disseminated crystals and fine-grained aggregates in kyanite schists near Ichetuyskoye, in the Dzhida basin (West Transbaikal region, Russia). Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a metamorphic evolution through prograde and retrograde stages. Lazulite-scorzalite and trolleite in association with kyanite, quartz, muscovite, paragonite, topaz, rutile, magnetite and hematite formed during the prograde stage. More than 25 minerals identified in schists are genetically related to the retrograde stage. Some phosphates and all of the APS minerals belong to the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. Electron-microprobe data reveal the presence of wide compositional variations and complex solid-solution series among the members. The main crystal-chemical variations of the APS solid-solution series in the alunite supergroup concern the relative proportions of svanbergite, woodhouseite, goyazite, crandallite, florencite-(Ce) and natroalunite. Chemical analyses of APS minerals indicate extremely high amounts of LREE, Sr, Ba, Ca and Na. In some cases, APS minerals have compositions of Ba and Ca,Ba phosphates- sulphates.

Izbrodin, Ivan A.; Ripp, German S.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.

2011-01-01

117

Testaceans (Testacea, Protozoa) of Taiga Soils in Western Siberia (Surgut Polesye)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied population structure of testaceans of automorphic and hydromorphic soils in the middle taiga of Western Siberia. Rich testacean fauna has been revealed. The fauna representation was comparable to the studied soils of Ciscaucasian Russia. The bryophilic group was the most typical for the region, since its representatives inhabited the predominating hydromorphic soils of bogs. The typical species included

A. A. Rakhleeva

2002-01-01

118

Natural gas in east Siberia and the Russian far east: A view from the Chinese corner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complementary interests in Russia and China, at both national and local levels, are likely to ensure that the natural gas reserves of East Siberia and the Russian Far East are developed in the near future. Which fields are developed first and which transport routes are chosen will depend on the interaction of three types of influence: finance, energy security, and

1998-01-01

119

Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siberia has a prominent position in Russia, in terms of mineral resources and mineral production including copper, nickel, PGM's, uranium, molybdenum, tungsten, tin, manganese, gold, silver, lead, tantalum–niobium, rare earths, diamonds and many other mineral commodities. These resources are represented by a vast array of mineral systems and deposit styles in their respective terranes spanning the Precambrian and Phanerozoic geological

R. Seltmann; S. Soloviev; V. Shatov; F. Pirajno; E. Naumov; S. Cherkasov

2010-01-01

120

Co-option in Siberia: The Case of Diamonds and the Vilyuy Sakha  

Microsoft Academic Search

A specialist on the Vilyuy Sakha, a native non-Russian people of north- eastern Siberia, Russia, examines the public health and environmental challenges threat- ening the livelihood of the group. The paper presents a case study of political activism among the Vilyuy Sakha in the immediate post-Soviet period, as regional citizens were able to gain access to information on the pollution

Susan A. Crate

2002-01-01

121

Yana Ring Structure, North-Eastern Siberia: A Possible Counterpart of Coronae on Venus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An arch of Verkhoyansky Range in NE Siberia, Russia is considered as W and S parts of the rim of the large ring structure, referred hereafter as Yana Ring Structure (YRS). It has general appearance similar to coronae on Venus and could be considered as th...

G. A. Burba

1993-01-01

122

Economic change, crime, and mortality crisis in Russia: regional analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify which aspects of socioeconomic change were associated with the steep decline in life expectancy in Russia between 1990 and 1994. Design: Regression analysis of regional data, with percentage fall in male life expectancy as dependent variable and a range of socioeconomic measures reflecting transition, change in income, inequity, and social cohesion as independent variables. Determination of contribution of deaths from major causes and in each age group to changes in both male and female life expectancy at birth in regions with the smallest and largest declines. Setting: Regions (oblasts) of European Russia (excluding Siberia and those in the Caucasus affected by the Chechen war). Subjects: The population of European Russia. Results: The fall in life expectancy at birth varied widely between regions, with declines for men and women highly correlated. The regions with the largest falls were predominantly urban, with high rates of labour turnover, large increases in recorded crime, and a higher average but unequal distribution of household income. For both men and women increasing rates of death between the ages of 30 and 60 years accounted for most of the fall in life expectancy, with the greatest contributions being from conditions directly or indirectly associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The decline in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s cannot be attributed simply to impoverishment. Instead, the impact of social and economic transition, exacerbated by a lack of social cohesion, seems to have played a major part. The evidence that alcohol is an important proximate cause of premature death in Russia is strengthened. Key messages The fall in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s has not affected all parts of the country equally The greatest falls have been in some of the wealthiest regions, suggesting that impoverishment is not a sufficient explanation Much of the deterioration can be explained by labour force turnover, crime rates (which can be considered a proxy measure of social cohesion), and income inequality Alcohol is a major factor in many of the additional deaths Understanding changes in mortality in central and eastern Europe during the transition (from a communist to a capitalist system) may shed light on determinants of health in the West

Walberg, Peder; McKee, Martin; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Chenet, Laurent; Leon, David A

1998-01-01

123

The East Siberia Transect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new East Siberia transect, constructed by synthesizing recently analyzed geological and geophysical data, runs in a broken line through the vicinities of the towns of Nizhneangarsk, Chita, and Borzya, traversing the Siberian Platform margin and the Baikal and Mongolia-Okhotsk fold areas. The transected region encompasses a number of terranes, most of which once were arc-trench systems with fore-arc and

Yu. A. Zorin; V. G. Belichenko; E. Kh. Turutanov; A. M. Mazukabzov; E. V. Sklyarov; V. V. Mordvinova

1995-01-01

124

Sequence stratigraphic setting of the Priob Field within the Neocomian prograding complex of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The Neocomian strata of the West Siberian Basin are a prograding complex unique in its aerial extent, structure and hydrocarbon reserves, such as Priob Field in the Ob River area. Interpretation of the basin history is based on well data and seismic reflection profile. As many as 45 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences, called cyclites, prograde into the deep-water basin formed during Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Each transgressive-regressive sequence is defined by a coarsening-upward cycle of shale, siltstone and sandstone, and is considered a chronostratigraphic subdivision of the prograding complex. Each sequence boundary is regionally correlatable on seismic reflection profiles, and is identified on well logs by sharp contacts between regressive sandstones below and thin transgressive shales above. Subordinate progradational wedges are locally developed within these sequences and contain major hydrocarbon reserves. These depositional wedges map as lens-shaped packages downlapping the outermost shelf (Priob zone) or as narrow progradational wedges downlapping the foreset reflections of the slope clinoforms immediately beyond the shelf break (Sugmut zone). Regressive facies of the shelf consist of thin but wide spread sandstones that also contain major hydrocarbon reserves. Pervasive sediment starvation during the Late Neocomian resulted in deposition of thin regionally extensive shales that provide top-seal to the Neocomian hydrocarbon system. At the Priob field, a deep erosional incision has been mapped at the AS11 shelf-edge. Sands transported through this incised valley were deposited as a prograding wedge along the shoreline, forming the reservoir facies for the Priob hydrocarbon accumulation. Stratigraphic aspects of the Priob trap include top and lateral shale seals and subtle regional structural tilt. Types of stratigraphic traps are discussed and the possibility of predicting additional such traps are analyzed.

Mkrtchyan, O.M. [IGIRGI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Armentrout, J.M. [Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

125

THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

Motomura, Masumi

126

Genesis of the West Siberian basin and its petroleum geology: A recent interpretation  

SciTech Connect

A prominent Western specialist on the geology of the oil and gas deposits of Russian provides an interpretation of the genesis of the West Siberian basin, relying, in part, on most recent Russian studies as well as information made available in 1994 evaluating the reserves of Russia`s most important producing province. From Late Carboniferous through Middle Jurassic time, the region of West Siberia passed through orogenic, rift, and early platform stages. A domal high was present in the region during the orogenic stage, arising from crationization of the Ural-Mongolian fold belt. Early Triassic rifting was part of a global rifting event and was a precursor to the subsequent crustal sagging that produced the West Siberian basin. The Early-Middle Jurassic was a time of cyclical marine and continental deposition, the sea moving back and forth from the north. The Talinskoye oil field occurs in Lower-Middle Jurassic sandstones that have the form of a river channel that extends more than 200 km. The Priobskoye field is associated with a Lower Cretaceous clinoform that has been traced N-S for more than 300 km. It is suggested that: (a) the oil in the Lower Cretaceous Neocomian sandstones was sourced by bituminous clays that interfinger with these sandstones on the west; and (b) that Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian gas was sourced in part by deeply buried Paleozoics and by overlying Upper Cretaceous Turonian clays. Predicted discoveries in West Siberia include several thousand small fields with reserves of less than 10 million tons, 250 to 300 medium-sized fields, and several large fields with 30 to 100 million tons. 14 refs., 8 figs.

Clarke, J.W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1994-11-01

127

Heroin Trafficking in Russia's Troubled East. Drug Intelligence Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Russia's Siberian Federal District (Siberia) and the Far Eastern Federal District (the Russian Far East, or RFE) have experienced a surge in heroin trafficking and abuse over the past several years. The reasons for the increase are complex, but the combin...

2003-01-01

128

Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the 'Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the 'Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

2013-09-01

129

Genetic variability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes persulcatus ticks and small mammals in the Asian part of Russia.  

PubMed

The specimens of 3552 questing adult Ixodes persulcatus and 1698 blood/tissue samples of small mammals collected in Ural, Siberia, and Far East of Russia were assayed for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Totally, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 112 tick and 88 mammalian samples. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and groESL operon (1244-1295?bp) were determined for A. phagocytophilum samples from 65 ticks and 25 small mammals. Six different 16S rRNA gene variants differing by 1-5 nucleotide substitutions were detected, and only one variant matched the sequences deposited in GenBank. Analysis of groESL sequences allowed the A. phagocytophilum samples to be divided into three groups; moreover, the samples from different groups also differed in the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The A. phagocytophilum sequences from group I were detected in 11 Myodes spp. samples from West Siberia and Far East and in 19 I. persulcatus samples from all examined regions; from group II, in 10 samples of Myodes spp. and common shrews (Sorex araneus) from Ural; and from group III, in four samples of Asian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) from West Siberia and Far East; and in 46 I. persulcatus samples from all examined regions. The nucleotide sequences of A. phagocytophilum groESL operon from groups I and II were strictly conserved and formed with A. phagocytophilum groESL sequence from a Swiss bank vole (Myodes glareolus) (GenBank accession no. AF192796), a separate cluster on the phylogenetic tree with a strong bootstrap support. The A. phagocytophilum groESL operon sequences from group III differed from one another by 1-4 nucleotides and formed a separate branch in the cluster generated by European A. phagocytophilum strains from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Ixodes ricinus ticks. PMID:21612528

Rar, Vera A; Epikhina, Tamara I; Livanova, Natalya N; Panov, Victor V; Doroschenko, Elena K; Pukhovskaya, Natalya M; Vysochina, Nelya P; Ivanov, Leonid I

2011-05-25

130

A Normal Country: Russia after Communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, Russia underwent an extraordinary transformation from a communist dictatorship to a multi-party democracy, from a centrally planned economy to a market economy, and from a belligerent adversary of the West to a cooperative partner. Yet a consensus in the US circa 2000 viewed Russia as a disastrous and threatening failure, and the 1990s as a decade of

Andrei Shleifer; Daniel Treisman

2005-01-01

131

Echo of Empires: Russia's Inheritance of Byzantine Security Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the Cold War is a memory, and Hillary Clinton and Sergei Lavrov have hit the ‘reset button’, recent spy scandals show that the United States and the West still do not have smooth relations with Russia. If we wish to understand Russia, we must understand its cultural origins, something we have failed to do so far. While Russia's behaviors

K. C. Gustafson

2010-01-01

132

From Siberia to Mars  

PubMed

Because Mars is so similar to Earth, planetary scientists looking for answers to questions like these often use analogous environments on Earth to help them design future Mars missions. Such terrestrial sites, however remote, are still much more accessible than Mars. Field studies in such places give us a chance to test and refine instruments and procedures, develop overall concepts and collect baseline data to compare with actual results from Mars. Perhaps the best terrestrial analogue to the martian permafrost lies in northeastern Siberia. Freezing conditions have persisted here for over 3 million years. Although young by martian standards, these are among the oldest continuously frozen localities on Earth. They also hold something remarkable: not only organic residues, but also large numbers of viable bacteria (up to 100 million per gram of frozen soil), preserved for 3 million years in ice. PMID:11540067

McKay, C P; Friedmann, E I; Meyer, M A

1991-01-01

133

Analysis of the Dielectric Properties of Trunk Wood in Dominant Conifer Species from New England and Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data presented were collected for dominant conifer species from Durham, NH (white pine, Pinus strobus, Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis); Howland, ME (red spruce, Picea rubens); and the Ermakovsky Permanent Study Area in south central Siberia, Russia (Siberian fir, Abies siberica and Siberian pine, Pinus siberica). Dielectric properties of trunk wood were measured using a C-band dielectric probe. For the Durham

K. J. Ranson; B. N. Rock; W. A. Salas; K. Smith; D. L. Williams

1992-01-01

134

Genome Sequence of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, an Acidophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium from Copper Mining Waste in Norilsk, Northern Siberia  

PubMed Central

We have sequenced the genome of Desulfosporosinus sp. OT, a Gram-positive, acidophilic sulfate-reducing Firmicute isolated from copper tailing sediment in the Norilsk mining-smelting area in Northern Siberia, Russia. This represents the first sequenced genome of a Desulfosporosinus species. The genome has a size of 5.7 Mb and encodes 6,222 putative proteins.

Abicht, Helge K.; Mancini, Stefano; Karnachuk, Olga V.; Solioz, Marc

2011-01-01

135

Russia to seek foreign partners in three fields  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Russia plans in coming months to call for international tenders covering joint venture development of two oil fields and one oil and gas/condensate field in western Siberia. None has seen extensive drilling. Here are details on the fields: North Priob field is in the KhantiMansi autonomous district of the Tyumen region, one of the most industrially developed oil producing areas of western Siberia. Salim field also is in the KhantiMansi autonomous district of the Tyumen region.

Not Available

1992-08-10

136

“Eating Hay”: The Ecology, Economy and Culture of Viliui Sakha Smallholders of Northeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contemporary rural Viliui Sakha of northeastern Siberia, Russia, are a Turkicspeaking people practicing horse and cattle breeding\\u000a in the subarctic. This article details their story of survival in the north as one not only of adapting a southern subsistence\\u000a to an extreme climate but also to the effects of Russian colonization, Soviet collectivization, and post-Soviet decentralization.\\u000a In the post-Soviet period

Susan A. Crate

2008-01-01

137

Soil Organic Matter in Forest Ecosystems of the Forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our study was conducted on 17 forest sample plots in the forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. They were covered by larch\\/feather moss\\/shrub and larch\\/grass forest types growing on cryozems and podburs (Cryosols). The investigation was aimed at estimating soil organic matter storage and structure in forest ecosystems growing along the northern tree line. Such ecosystems have low

Liudmila Mukhortova

2010-01-01

138

Native osmium from the Guli Massif, Northern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native osmium from two different placer occurrences (i.e., Ingaringda and Burlakovsky) within the Guli Massif, Maimecha-Kotui Province, was evaluated for mineral compositions that show systematic differences between the localities. Grains of native osmium show increases in iridium towards the rim, and nuggets consisting of aggregates define trends of preferential substitution of osmium by iridium. A statistically reliable difference in Os/Ir ratios between the two studied placers can be demonstrated. From textural and compositional characteristics it is concluded that the native osmium of the Burlakovsky placer formed at temperatures higher than can be assumed to be reasonable for crustal conditions. The difference in the Os/Ir ratios between the two placers can be attributed to fractional crystallization of native osmium either in the mantle source, which was tapped in different events to form the Guli Massif, or to decreasing Os/Ir values during crystallization under crustal conditions after intrusion of the silicate melt(s).

Merkle, Roland K. W.; Malitch, Kreshimir Nenadovitch; Gräser, Peter P. H.; Badanina, Inna Yu.

2012-01-01

139

Depth distribution of oligochaetes in Lake Baikal (Siberia - Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of a preliminary sampling program, oligochaetes were collected along two transects in soft sediments in Lake Baikal. The number of oligochaetes present in the samples was counted, without distinguishing between species. The results suggest an exponential decrease in number of individuals (N) relative to depth (11,165 N m-2 at 21 m, 265 N m-2 at 1200 m).

Patrick Martin; Boudewijn Goddeeris; Koen Martens

1994-01-01

140

The oligotrophic peatlands of Western Siberia-the largest peino-helobiome in the world  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper summarizes the vegetation pattern of the largest swamp (peat bog) area in the world. The core area covers about 800×1800 km (NS x EW) in West Siberia between the Ural mountains and the river Yenisey. The core area is one gigantic oligotrophic swamp (Peino-Helobiome acc), the new classification suggested in Walter 1976, see also summary in Vegetatio 32,

Heinrich Walter

1997-01-01

141

Comparison of resource assessment methods and geologic controls--deep natural gas plays and zones, United States and Russia  

SciTech Connect

Deep (greater than 4.5 km--15,000 ft) conventional natural gas resources will play an important role in the future energy needs of the United States and Russia. Deep sedimentary basins are widespread in these countries and have formed in a variety of depositional and tectonic settings. Significant volumes of undiscovered deep natural gas are in the Gulf Coast, Anadarko, Permian, and Rocky Mountain basins of the U.S., and in the Timan-Pechora, West Siberia, East Siberia, and North and South Caspian basins of the former Soviet Union. Deep natural gas resources are regularly assessed by the All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Institute (VNIGRI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of their normal research activities. Both VNIGRI and the USGS employ similar assessment methods involving play (or zone) analysis using geological data and based on an analysis of confirmed and hypothetical plays using field-size distributions, discovery-process models, and statistical estimation procedures that yield probabilistic estimates of undiscovered accumulations. Resource estimates for the deep structural and statigraphic plays of the Anadarko basin and deep Paleozoic zones in the Timan-Pechora basin are compared and contrasted using both methods. Differences in results of assessments between VNIGRI and USGS arise due to (1) the way in which plays/zones are defined, (2) different geochemical models for hydrocarbon generation as applied to hypothetical plays, (3) variations in the ways in which statistical estimation procedures are applied to plays and regions, and (4) differences in economic and technologic assumptions, reserve growth calculations, and accumulation size limits and ranges.

Dyman, T.S. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Belonin, M.D. (All-Russia Petroleum Research Exploration Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)) (and others)

1996-01-01

142

Seabirds of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted seabird surveys along the entire coast of the Chukotka Peninsula (northwestern Siberia, Russia) from 1983 to 1991. We present the first comprehensive descriptions of the distribution and size of Chukotkan seabird colonies. Thirteen species of seabirds were recorded breeding on the peninsula, with an additional 13 migrant or vagrant species. Our estimate that at least 3 300 000 seabirds breed on the Chukotka Peninsula demonstrates the importance of this region to arctic seabird populations. Colony size and species composition may be determined by availability of adequate breeding sites, access to foraging areas, and variable ice conditions.

Konyukhov, N. B.; Bogoslovskaya, L. S.; Zvonov, B. M.; Van Pelt, T. I.

1998-01-01

143

Estimating methane releases from natural gas production and transmission in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane releases from the RAO Gazprom gas production and transmission facilities in Russia were determined in an extensive measurement program carried out in 1996 and 1997. Subsequently, the measurements were extrapolated to the Russian scale. The results show that methane releases from gas transmission are less than 1% of throughput. Methane loss from gas production in northwestern Siberia appears to

J. V. Dedikov; H. Kaesler; A. Ramm; A. Müller von Blumencron; J. Lelieveld

1999-01-01

144

Threats to and from Russia: An Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under conditions of visibly deteriorating Russo-American and East-West relations it is necessary to outline clearly the threats perceived by Russia from Western and U.S. policies, and second, the threats that Russia may pose in return. An analysis of such threats reveals that the balance of threat perception is asymmetrically weighted to the Russian side which perceived threats everywhere, i.e., from

Stephen Blank

2008-01-01

145

The SIBERIA and SIBERIA-II projects: an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The international EU-funded SIBERIA project (1998-2000) aimed at the production of an extensive forest map using spaceborne SAR data acquired by the ERS and JERS satellites. For a large geographical region (900.000 km2) located in the Central Siberian Plateau, one-day ERS coherence and JERS backscatter were used to retrieve growing stock volume. A classification algorithm based on peaks in the coherence and backscatter histograms was used. Four volume classes, water and open land were considered. An independent test in 10 areas showed an accuracy above 80%. The produced forest map serves as a tool for the sustainable management of Siberian natural resources and for a better understanding of the role of boreal forests in climate change. The objective of the international EU-funded SIBERIA-II project (2002-2005) is to demonstrate the viability of full carbon accounting, including all greenhouse gasses, with a multi-sensor approach over a 2 million-km2 area in Siberia. Having recently started, a general overview of the aims and the objectives of the project is given. Using several satellite observations available and the SIBERIA database, the first step consists in the generation of several Earth Observation (EO) products (such as biomass, phenological parameters, soil moisture, snow cover etc). Together with land-cover information from local institutions, these products will be input to two dynamic vegetation models for full regional carbon accounting. To increase knowledge, additional products such as Afforestation-Reforestation-Deforestation and fire scars maps are planned.

Santoro, Maurizio; Schmullius, Christiane C.; Eriksson, Leif; Hese, Soeren

2003-03-01

146

The SIBERIA and SIBERIA-II projects: an overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

The international EU-funded SIBERIA project (1998-2000) aimed at the production of an extensive forest map using spaceborne SAR data acquired by the ERS and JERS satellites. For a large geographical region (900.000 km2) located in the Central Siberian Plateau, one-day ERS coherence and JERS backscatter were used to retrieve growing stock volume. A classification algorithm based on peaks in the

Maurizio Santoro; Christiane C. Schmullius; Leif Eriksson; Soeren Hese

2003-01-01

147

Confronting Russia, Again.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resurgence of Russia and its determined trajectory towards great power tatus have re-ignited once dormant tensions between the United States and Russia. Russia's rhetoric and campaign to expand its strategic influence are indicative of a perception by...

B. J. Armstrong

2009-01-01

148

Natural gas and gas hydrate accumulations within permafrost in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden natural gas blowouts from within the permafrost sections in West and East Siberia and some results of permafrost core samples study are presented. Topics covered include gas geochemistry, blowout intensity (gas flow rate), depth interval and permafrost rock peculiarities in places of these gas releases. Although microbial gas is widespread within permafrost, thermogenic gas can also occasionally migrate from

V. S. Yakushev; E. M. Chuvilin

2000-01-01

149

The dedicated synchrotron radiation source Siberia-2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A general presentation on the main storage ring of the SRS complex SIBERIA is given. The facility will consist of the 2.5 GeV electron ring SIBERIA-2 with 12 straight sections to accomodate insertion devices. The magnetic lattice is optimized to achieve high btightness of SR. A low horizontal emittance of 7.65×10-6 cm rad is obtained.

Anashin, V. V.; Valentinov, A. G.; Veshcherevich, V. G.; Vobly, P. D.; Gavrilov, N. G.; Gorniker, E. I.; Zubkov, N. I.; Korchuganov, V. N.; Kuzminykh, V. S.; Kulipanov, G. N.; Kuper, E. A.; Kurkin, G. Ya.; Levichev, E. B.; Matvejev, Yu. G.; Medvedko, A. S.; Osipov, V. N.; Petrov, V. M.; Petrov, S. P.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.; Ushakov, V. A.

1989-10-01

150

Diversity of mitochondrial DNA lineages in South Siberia.  

PubMed

To investigate the origin and evolution of aboriginal populations of South Siberia, a comprehensive mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis (HVR1 sequencing combined with RFLP typing) of 480 individuals, representing seven Altaic-speaking populations (Altaians, Khakassians, Buryats, Sojots, Tuvinians, Todjins and Tofalars), was performed. Additionally, HVR2 sequence information was obtained for 110 Altaians, providing, in particular, some novel details of the East Asian mtDNA phylogeny. The total sample revealed 81% East Asian (M*, M7, M8, M9, M10, C, D, G, Z, A, B, F, N9a, Y) and 17% West Eurasian (H, U, J, T, I, N1a, X) matrilineal genetic contribution, but with regional differences within South Siberia. The highest influx of West Eurasian mtDNAs was observed in populations from the East Sayan and Altai regions (from 12.5% to 34.5%), whereas in populations from the Baikal region this contribution was markedly lower (less than 10%). The considerable substructure within South Siberian haplogroups B, F, and G, together with the high degree of haplogroup C and D diversity revealed there, allows us to conclude that South Siberians carry the genetic imprint of early-colonization phase of Eurasia. Statistical analyses revealed that South Siberian populations contain high levels of mtDNA diversity and high heterogeneity of mtDNA sequences among populations (Fst = 5.05%) that might be due to geography but not due to language and anthropological features. PMID:12940914

Derenko, M V; Grzybowski, T; Malyarchuk, B A; Dambueva, I K; Denisova, G A; Czarny, J; Dorzhu, C M; Kakpakov, V T; Mi?cicka-Sliwka, D; Wo?niak, M; Zakharov, I A

2003-09-01

151

Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will occur during the forecasted period. This is resolved using an interactive method that continually updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability to classify fire severity on burn scar areas for predicting carbon release better over the vast areas of Russia. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as key independent variables. Modern wildfire prevention programs cannot be successful unless they are fully supported by fire-danger analysis acquired from detailed daily fire-danger mapping. This enables better coordination and potential success of limited suppression forces. Currently the existing network of weather stations in Russia, especially in remote areas, does not allow for the estimation of fire danger over the entire country. Thus, northern forests are deprived of badly needed fire protection information because of the lack of weather stations. Remote sensing analysis and diagnosis of forest fire danger conditions is an emerging field both in Russia and abroad. V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, located in Krasnoyarsk, is supporting research this field and is proposing the development of methodology for generating daily fire weather danger maps based on the digital multispectral images obtained from satellites. This will allow the computation of fire danger for remote areas without the need for supplementary on-ground weather stations. KEYWORDS: Fire weather danger system, meteorological data, remote sensing data, wildfires, Siberian boreal forests.

Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

2010-05-01

152

Petroleum geology of east Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Two oil-gas provinces are present in East Siberia: the Lena-Tunguska in the central, southern, and western parts, and the Khatanga-Viluy along the northern and eastern margins. The provinces developed as rift-sag features in late Proterozoic and Paleozoic time. The identified oil and gas deposits of the Lena-Tunguska province appear to be associated with a Proterozoic rift that extends east-northeast across the southern part of the basin. These deposits are in upper Proterozoic and Cambrian sandstones and carbonate rocks, sealed by Cambrian salt and argillites. The oil and gas deposits of the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are within foreland downwarps that developed in connection with docking of crustal plates during the Mesozoic: during the Triassic on the north and during the Cretaceous on the east. The source of the petroleum in the immature rocks of the southeastern Lena-Tunguska province is uncertain, perhaps being derived from rocks in a downwarp to the south or from source beds that are now beneath a conjectured thrust sheet. This province has both oil and gas pools, but is gas prone in general. The source beds for the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are Permian and Mesozoic in age; the province is gas prone. More than 40 oil and gas fields have now been discovered in East Siberia.

Clarke, J.W. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1991-03-01

153

Carbon accumulation in West Siberian Mires, Russia Sphagnum peatland distribution in North America and Eurasia during the past 21,000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rates of carbon (C) accumulation and the role of fires in the C dynamics of the major types of boreal West Siberian mires were investigated. Detailed analysis of dry bulk density, C, and N concentration and age of the peat layers were used to determine C accumulation rates throughout the Holocene. The average long-term apparent rate of carbon accumulation (LORCA) at 11 studied sites was 17.2±1.0 (SE) g m-2 yr-1, ranging from 12.1 to 23.7 g m-2 yr-1, and the total apparent carbon sink 11.8 Tg yr-1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) for Russian raised string bogs (68.5 million hectares). These estimates of C accumulation in West Siberian mires are roughly a half of the earlier estimates for these boreal mires. Differences in LORCA for three major mire types in the study area, the ridge-hollow pine bogs, Sphagnum fuscum pine bogs, and dwarf-shrub pine bogs, were not significant. The age versus depth (measured as cumulative carbon from the surface downward) curve was slightly convex, indicating a general declining trend in LORCA with decreasing age. About 55% of the present carbon store was already accumulated about 6000 cal. BP. The most intensive expansion phase of the study area occurred between 7000 and 8000 cal. BP. The subsequent lateral expansion has been very slow in the later Holocene. The charcoal data indicated that these mires have burned only 2-3 times during the past 7000-8000 cal. BP, and only a strip of a few meters along the mire margins has burned relatively frequently. No evidence of significant carbon losses due to fires could be found. The charcoal layers at the mire margins suggest a declining trend in burning rates during the later Holocene.

Turunen, Jukka; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Tolonen, Kimmo; PitkäNen, Aki

2001-06-01

154

Petroleum geology of East Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The unmetamorphosed geologic section of the East Siberian region consists of upper Proterozoic clastic and carbonate sediments; Cambrian evaporites, carbonates, and black shales; Ordovician to permian clastic and carbonate sediments; Triassic basaltic flows and intrusives; and Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic sediments. During the Cambrian, a barrier reef extended across the region. Salt and anhydrite were deposited in the vast lagoon to the southwest behind this reef. The structure is typical of platforms; broad, gentle warps are complicated by smaller highs. The total area of East Siberia that is potentially favorable for oil and gas is 3.23 million km/sup 2/ (1.24 million mi/sup 2/). Deposits in the Lena-Tunguska province are in stratigraphic traps in Proterozoic to Cambrian clastic and carbonate sediments sealed by Cambrian salt and in anticlinal structures in areas of salt tectonics. Source beds seem to be Proterozoic. Pools in the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are in anticlines in Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. Source beds are Permian carbonaceous shale. Most discoveries have been of gas; however, several fields have oil rings. The traps appear to have been filled by oil at one time. Undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources of East Siberia are assessed, at 90% probability, within the range of 2.2-14.6 billion bbl of oil and 72-278 tcf of gas. Mean estimates are 7.3 billion bbl of oil and 158 tcf of gas, respectively. Gas-hydrate deposits in the Lena-Vilyuy province, where permafrost is more than 400 m thick, are estimated to contain 27 tcf of possibly recoverable gas.

Clarke, J.W.

1986-05-01

155

Russia Balance Sheet, The  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia has been on a wild roller-coaster ride for the past three decades with no end in sight. Just in the past year as the global financial crisis deepened, the conventional perception of Russia has changed from a \\

Anders Aslund; Andrew Kuchins

156

Drought displaced movement of North American pintails into Siberia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the years 1954-70, 230 pintails (Anas acuta) banded in North America were reported from eastern Asia, primarily Siberia. Most of the birds were shot on the breeding grounds in May. The movement into eastern Asia of pintails banded in the interior of North America was directly correlated with the overflight of the southern portion of the breeding range in North America (r = +0.73**); this overflight resulted from drought conditions (Smith 1970). Thus, the magnitude of the pintail movement into eastern Asia is believed to be dependent upon water conditions some 3,000 miles away. A higher percentage of the pintails banded in the west was reported from eastern Asia, although the recovery rate index was not significantly correlated with the percentage of pintails found in northern Canada and Alaska (r = +0.46 NS). Apparently, a portion of the pintails which winter in the western United States annually nest in Siberia, regardless of water conditions on the North American breeding grounds.

Henny, C.J.

1973-01-01

157

Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines for neglected ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amerasian Arctic, covering northern Siberia (Russia), Arctic Alaska (USA), and the Canadian Arctic, extends over seven\\u000a coastal Large Marine Ecosystems and makes up the seasonally ice-free part of FAO Statistical Area 18 (Arctic Sea). Historically,\\u000a the harsh climate has limited marine fisheries (here excluding marine mammal hunting) to small-scale operations conducted\\u000a mainly in estuaries and river deltas. Most of

D. ZellerS; S. Booth; E. Pakhomov; W. Swartz; D. Pauly

2011-01-01

158

Siberia-Europe gas line nears completion  

SciTech Connect

The Soviets export gas pipeline will be commissioned in the fourth quarter of 1983. This is the world's biggest gas pipeline, about 2,800 miles long and valued at $10 billion. Work proceeds well ahead of schedule over the major part of the gas line which is to connect the Urengoi deposits in Siberia with the city of Uzhgorod on the Soviet Union's western border. Part of the gas to be carried by the Siberia-Western Europe line will help meet the Soviet Union's domestic needs.

Gurevich, V.

1983-08-01

159

Vendian reference section of southern Middle Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological, chemo-, and biostratigraphic data indicate that the Vendian section of the Ura uplift is the most complete one in southern Middle Siberia and contains analogs of main units of the Vendian stratotype. This section is well known having been investigated by several generations of geologists, well exposed, and easily accessible; therefore, it is proposed to serve as a regional reference section for Vendian deposits of the entire southern Middle Siberia. Its description is accompanied by presentation of new biostratigraphic and radioisotopic data. The section is correlated with other Vendian sections of the Baikal-Patom and some other world regions.

Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Sergeev, V. N.

2013-07-01

160

Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them in perfect condition. The fossils, and especially mummies, present a perfect material for genetic studies. Woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.), is one of the symbols of the Ice Age and one of few large mammal species that disappeared from Eurasia about 14 000 years ago. Recently, a substantially complete mummy of woolly rhinoceros was found in permafrost at the Rodinka site near Cherskiy, northeastern Yakutia, Russia (68.76°N, 161.63°E). It is the body of an adult female, weighing almost 900 kg, with the preserved skull, two horns, lower jaw, one ear, and tail. The length of the carcass is about 2 m, the live length of the animal is estimated as more than 3 m. The right legs are partly preserved and the chest and belly cavities are partly empty; almost all hair has been lost. Despite these defects, it is the most complete mummy of woolly rhino ever found in permafrost. A fragment of rib from the body has been AMS dated to 39140±390 BP (OxA-18755). In recent years the Rodinka site has yielded an unprecedented number of woolly rhino fossils and is so far the richest locality for this extinct species. The woolly rhino had a very wide distribution in the Late Pleistocene - from France to the Bering Strait and from China to the high-arctic islands. It was perfectly adapted to the variety of severe periglacial (tundra-steppe) environments. Intriguingly, it was the only large Siberian mammal that never crossed the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska. In the vast lowlands of Arctic Siberia Coelodonta fossils are common, but much less abundant (below 1%) compared to those of other large Ice Age mammals such as mammoth, bison, or horse. The unusual abundance of rhino fossils in the low hills of submontane area confirms an earlier hypothesis that such a terrain was especially attractive for these animals, although they could make long (probably, seasonal) excursions to the North along the plains. The collection of woolly rhino fossils from Cherskiy is now under study by paleontologists and geneticists in Russia, Denmark, and the UK. Research was partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 07-05-00313-a and Far East 09-04-98568-r_vostok_a).

Davydov, S.; Sher, A.; Boeskorov, G.; Lazarev, P.; Binladen, J.; Willerslev, E.; Tikhonov, A.

2009-12-01

161

The Healing JourneySiberia to Esalen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a process of psychological transformation of a former Soviet defector. After years of alienation and angry denunciation of the Soviet system, he renews his contact with his family, still living in Siberia. This creates a state of tension and \\

Pyotr Patrushev

1988-01-01

162

Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small intern...

J. Howl J. Ranson S. Kharuk

2007-01-01

163

Converbs in the Languages of Eastern Siberia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Gives an account of converb (adverbial participle or gerund) systems in eight languages from Paleoasiatic and Altaic families spoken in northeastern Siberia. The rich converbal system is not the only relevant and peculiar feature common to the languages, but it is not common in other languages. The characteristics of converbs are described, and…

Nedjalkov, Igor

1998-01-01

164

Russia Since 1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia Since 1980 recounts the epochal political, economic, and social changes that destroyed the Soviet Union, ushering in a perplexing new order. Two decades after Mikhail Gorbachev initiated regime-wrecking radical reforms, Russia has reemerged as a superpower. It has survived a hyperdepression, modernized, restored private property and business, adopted a liberal democratic persona, and asserted claims to global leadership. Many

Steven Rosefielde; Stefan Hedlund

165

Auditing in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an overview of the current state of auditing in Russia. International Standards on Auditing (ISA) are in the process of being adopted and implemented but this task is far from complete. Furthermore, there is resistance to ISA adoption and there is less than a widespread perception that they are needed or desirable. Russia has adopted some auditing

Galina G. Preobragenskaya; Robert W. McGee

2003-01-01

166

Russia's Internal Border  

Microsoft Academic Search

In integrated economies, inter-city price differences can be explained largely by transportation costs. This is not the case in Russia. Here, we argue that this is due to an internal border that separates a region we denote as the Red Belt from the rest of Russia. Regions within the Red Belt exhibit high degrees of price dispersion and thus seem

Daniel Michael Berkowitz; David N. DeJong

1998-01-01

167

Russia: managing contradictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the time new American presidents have settled into the White House, they usually understand one thing about Russia: it is a difficult country to live with. But it usually takes them a full term to discover something else: Russia is a museum of contradictory truths. 1 The country's power has always concealed anxiety. Its weaknesses have always shrouded ambition.

James Sherr

2010-01-01

168

Attenuation Tomography in Eastern Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are using catalog amplitude parameters to derive a 2D function that maps laterally-varying attenuation features for eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East. Our information is from the Michigan State University (MSU) Siberia database, compiled through cooperative efforts of MSU, Russian network operators and Los Alamos researchers. The database also includes information from teleseismic bulletins, such as those provided

C. A. Rowe; W. S. Phillips; H. E. Hartse; L. K. Steck; M. L. Begnaud; K. G. Mackey; K. Fujita

2006-01-01

169

Blitzkrieg Reform and U.S. Democracy Promotion in Russia: The Yeltsin Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russian society plunged into chaos. Familiar institutions were disbanded and leaders were removed from office. While the end of the Soviet Union brought much joy in both Russia and the West, the prevailing feeling in Russia was trepidation and fear. How would a once mighty superpower reclaim its position at the top of

Stephen West

2012-01-01

170

[Genetic differentiation in plants of the genus Cypripedium from Russia inferred from allozyme data].  

PubMed

Ten gene loci of nine enzyme systems (PGI, 6-PGD, NADHD, SKDH, GDH, PGM, DIA, ADH, GOT-1, and GOT-2) were analyzed in Cypripedium calceolus, C. macranthon, C. shanxiense, and C. ventricosum plants from the south of the Russian Far East. Alleles of loci 6-PGD, NADHD, GDH, ADH, GOT-1, and PGIproved to be diagnostic for C. calceolus and C. macranthon. Plants of C. shanxiense from Primorye and Sakhalin Island were monomorphic at all of the loci examined, and their allelic structure can be regarded as diagnostic for the species. The allelic structure for fragments of the C. calceolus population from the western and eastern parts of the species range differed in two loci, PGl and SKDH: alleles absent in C. calceolus plants from the western part of the range occurred at a high frequency in the plants of this species from the eastern part of the range (28 and 55 plants or 41% and 68%, respectively). These alleles were found in C. shanxiense. The genetic structure of C. shanxiense was similar to that of C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range, i.e., the region when these species are sympartic. The additional alleles in C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range might have appeared as a result of hybridization with C. shanxiense. Our results indicate that C. calceolus plants occuring on the territory of Russia form two groups that represent two different units of genetic diversity preservation. We suggest that C. x ventricosum plants in southern Primorye were formed by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus x C. shanxiense hybrids. Thus, they differ from plants inhabiting the Urals and West Siberia, which originated by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus. The population of C. x ventricosum presumably also consists of two plant groups differing in genetic structure, which should be regarded as two different units of preservation of this taxon. PMID:21786667

Filippov, E G; Andronova, E V

2011-05-01

171

Full Carbon Account for Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Forestry Project (FOR) at IIASA has produced a full carbon account (FCA) for Russia for 1990, together with scenarios for 2010. Currently, there are rather big question marks regarding the existing carbon accounts for Russia, and Russia is critical to the global carbon balance due to its size. IIASA is in a position to perform solid analysis of Russia

S. Nilsson; A. Shvidenko; V. Stolbovoi; M. Gluck; M. Jonas; M. Obersteiner

2000-01-01

172

The perils and pitfalls of business in Russia  

SciTech Connect

It is not for the lack of trying that few Western oil companies have profitable operations in Russia. Quite the contrary. Every oil company with a thirst for opportunity has searched that once-forbidden region for deals. This gold rush was triggered by an apparent crying need or Western know-how and capital, but appearances in Russia often widely differ from reality. Hype of early oil ventures set a false tone of promise, but company and company came home poorer and wiser. The gold rush went bust. Now in the fourth year of the West`s involvement in Russia`s oilfields, operators are soberly evaluating their prospects. Even while signals are encouraging the West, like a reduction in export tariffs and some progress on contract law, a remarkable event is occuring that throws out many Western arguments for continuing involvement and investment: On their own, the Russians are arresting their production decline and have increased output. This will have immediate and long term effects on Westerners. First, it lends credibility to Russian voices demanding that Mother Russia not sign away its precious resources to foreigners. Second, it encourages trade barriers to protect domestic industry. Third, it weakens the bargaining position of Westerners. Fourth, it reduces the options available to Western operators. What remains will be E&P opportunities where Western technology and capital really can play a role-complex reservoirs, hostile environments-but poor contract terms.

Spears, R.B. [Spears & Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-09-01

173

Assembly and concept of a web-based GIS within the paleolimnological project CONTINENT (Lake Baikal, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are excellent tools within interdisciplinary and multi-national geoscience\\u000a projects to exchange and visualize project data. The web-based GIS presented in this paper was designed for the paleolimnological\\u000a project ‘High-resolution CONTINENTal paleoclimate record in Lake Baikal’ (CONTINENT) (Lake Baikal, Siberia, Russia) to allow\\u000a the interactive handling of spatial data. The GIS database combines project data (core

Birgit Heim; Jens Klump; Hedi Oberhänsli; Nathalie Fagel

2008-01-01

174

Bacterial diversity and activity along a salinity gradient in soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe the diversity and activity of sulfate reducing bacteria along a salinity gradient in four different soda\\u000a lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (South East Siberia, Russia). For this purpose, a combination of culture-dependent and independent\\u000a techniques was applied. The general bacterial and SRB diversity were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)\\u000a targeting the 16S rDNA gene. DNA

Mirjam J. Foti; Dimitry Yu. Sorokin; Elena E. Zacharova; Nicolai V. Pimenov; J. Gijs Kuenen; Gerard Muyzer

2008-01-01

175

Bacterial diversity and activity along a salinity gradient in soda lakes of the Kulunda Steppe (Altai, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we describe the diversity and activity of sulfate reducing bacteria along a salinity gradient in four different soda lakes from the Kulunda Steppe (South East Siberia, Russia). For this purpose, a combination of culture-dependent and independent techniques was applied. The general bacterial and SRB diversity were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) targeting the 16S rDNA gene. DNA

M. J. Foti; D. Y. Sorokin; E. E. Zacharova; N. V. Pimenov; J. G. Kuenen; G. Muyzer

2007-01-01

176

Assessment of the regional atmospheric impact of wildfire emissions based on CO observations at the ZOTTO tall tower station in central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The impact of wildfires on surface air composition over central Siberia is investigated based on near-surface carbon monoxide (CO) measurements conducted at Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), a remote station in the center of Siberia, during 2007 and 2008 warm seasons. Seasonal variations of intensity and spatial distribution of wildfires in south of western and eastern Siberia are found to be important factors contributing a substantial part of synoptic and year-to-year variability of background CO levels in the region. Based on the MODIS area burned product, the estimate of the total yearly CO emitted from wildfires in the regions potentially affecting the measurement site (those of European Russia and Siberia) is approximately 15 and 27 Tg CO in 2007 and 2008, versus 18.0 and 39.4 Tg CO from wildfires in all of Russia in 2007 and 2008, and 11 Tg CO from all anthropogenic sources in Russia according to EDGARv4.1 database for year 2005. The severe fire activity in northern Eurasia, particularly in western Siberia, during 2008 caused enhanced springtime surface CO levels observed at ZOTTO, with median CO mixing ratio in April-May 2008 by approximately 15 ppb higher compared to April-May 2007. Episodes of air transport from wildfires upwind of the measurements site are identified based on ensembles of backward trajectories and MODIS products. The impact of distinct wildfire smoke plumes on near-surface CO mixing ratios, along with the influence of wildfire and anthropogenic emissions on background CO levels in the region is estimated using backward Lagrangian trajectory statistics. The estimated relative CO enhancement in fire plumes with transport times up to 2 days is about 5-25 ppb in springs 2007 and 2008, and 50 ppb in summer 2008, based on the observed median values, with a maximal absolute value of 250 ppb observed in April 2008. Boreal forest fires over the vast areas of central Siberia along with regional anthropogenic sources are found to be the major factors driving short-term (synoptic) variability of near-surface CO during the warm season.

Vasileva, A. V.; Moiseenko, K. B.; Mayer, J.-C.; Jürgens, N.; Panov, A.; Heimann, M.; Andreae, M. O.

2011-04-01

177

Fire impact on carbon storage in light conifer forests of the Lower Angara region, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on structural analysis of ground carbon storage following fires in light conifer stands of the Lower Angara region (Siberia, Russia). Experimental fires of varying frontal intensity were conducted at Scots pine and mixed larch forests of southern taiga. Considerable amounts of surface and ground forest fuels (21-38 tC ha - 1) enhanced low- to high-intensity fires. Post-fire carbon storage decreased by 16-49% depending on fire intensity and rate of spread, with depth of burn being 0.9-6.6 cm. Carbon emissions varied from 4.48 to 15.89 t ha - 1 depending on fire intensity and forest type. Depth of burn and carbon emissions for four major site types were correlated with a weather-based fire hazard index.

Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; McRae, D. J.

2011-10-01

178

[The saprotrophic bacterial complex in the raised peat bogs of Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The population density of bacteria in peat deposits along the landscape profile of the Vasyugan Marsh has been found to be as high as tens of millions of CFU/g peat. The abundance and diversity of bacteria increased with depth within the peat deposit, correlating with an increasing level of peat degradation. Variations in these parameters with depth and season were greater in peat deposits located in transaccumulative and transitional positions than in the sedge-sphagnum bogs located at the eluvial region of the profile. In the upper 1-m-thick layer of the peat deposits studied, bacilli, represented by five species, dominated, whereas, in the deeper layers, spirilla and myxobacteria prevailed. These bacteria were major degraders of plant polymers. Unlike the bacterial communities found in the peat deposits of European Russia, the dominant taxa in the studied peat deposits of Western Siberia are represented by bacteria resistant to extreme conditions. PMID:16211860

Golovchenko, A V; Sannikova, Iu V; Dobrovol'skaia, T G; Zviagintsev, D G

179

RELIGION AND RUSSIA'S FUTURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States faces significant foreign policy challenges, and several of them involve Russia. U.S. leadership in the 21st century will require a grasp not only of traditional geopolitical preoccupations—resources, weapons, and diplomacy—but also of commerce, communication, and culture. Americans need better and deeper interfaith understanding to comprehend Russia's ongoing spiritual struggle and how religiousfactors contributed to the collapse of

James H. Billington

2009-01-01

180

The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the near-shore zone of the East-Siberian Arctic seas: (1999-2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary, Warming causes thawing of the permafrost underlying a substantial fraction of the Arctic; this process could accelerate coastal erosion, river discharge and carbon losses from soils. Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. Rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed. Thus studying carbon cycling in the East Siberian Arctic marginal seas has a high scientific priority in order to establish the carbon budget and evaluate the role of the Arctic region in global carbon cycling, especially in the coastal zone where the redistribution of carbon between terrestrial and marine environments occurs and the characteristics of carbon exchange with atmosphere are unknown. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2008).

Sergienko, V. I.; Shakhova, N.; Dudarev, O.; Gustafsson, O.; Anderson, L.; Semiletov, I.

2009-04-01

181

JERS SAR processing for the boreal forest mapping project SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of the EC Environment and Climate Programme project, SIBERIA, an extensive forest map for a part of Siberia will be produced using state-of-the art satellite data and remote sensing techniques. Among other sensors the JERS SAR will be used. In this contribution important steps in the JERS processing is discussed, including radiometric calibration, geocoding, and fine registration

A. Wiesmann; T. Strozzi; U. Wegmuller

1999-01-01

182

Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. at a very remote continental site in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties. The instrumentation at the observatory includes a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until March 2011, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of the background CO mixing rations was observed with summer minima around 90 ppb and winter maxima of about 175 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were generally similar to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N, but showed an earlier onset of the elevated winter values. Episodes of elevated CO and aerosol concentrations, typically lasting for several days, are superimposed on the background seasonal cycle. During winter, these pollution episodes are usually associated with air masses that have passed over the central Siberian region around Omsk and Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During spring and summer, elevated levels of CO and aerosols are often caused by agricultural fires in southern Siberia and Kazakhstan or by forest fires in boreal Siberia. The optical properties of the aerosol showed more pronounced seasonal variability than the aerosol mass and number concentrations. Wintertime aerosols were highly absorbing, with single scattering albedos (SSA) around 0.85, consistent with a dominant fossil fuel combustion source. In contrast, summertime aerosols had very low absorption coefficients with SSA values reaching 0.97. These aerosols were present in airmasses from northern Siberia with low CO mixing ratios, which suggests that they are predominantly of biogenic origin. The lowest particle number concentrations (averaging ~430 cm-3) were present in northern Siberian and Arctic airmasses, with similar values in summer and winter. Chemical analysis shows that sulfates and "black" carbon are elevated in the winter aerosol, while organic carbon from biomass burning and terpenoid oxidation dominate in summer. The measurements at ZOTTO are being continued, in the expectation that long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

Andreae, M. O.; Birmili, W.; Chi, X.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Mikhailov, E.; Panov, A.

2012-04-01

183

Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of

L. Robin M. Cocks; Trond H. Torsvik

2007-01-01

184

Siberia Losing Lakes at an Alarming Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new study finds that more than 1,000 lakes in the Arctic region of Siberia have disappeared or shrunk dramatically over the past 30 years. The region has been getting markedly warmer and human activities are thought to be partly responsible. This radio broadcast reports on a study comparing Earth-observing satellite images over time, which show the Siberian lakes disappearing. The study concludes that as global warming causes the Arctic permafrost to thin, water from the Siberian lakes drains into the ground and vanishes. The clip is 3 minutes and 52 seconds in length.

185

Russia and Europe: Whose Society?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia’s traditionally ambivalent relationship to ‘Europe’ is now assuming new forms. Although the country since 1991 has formally adopted the panoply of Western democratic norms, their implementation is impeded by both practical and political forms of resistance to the universalism proclaimed by its erstwhile Cold War protagonists. The unstable relationship between Russia and various levels of international society has given

Richard Sakwa

2011-01-01

186

Russia and the Caucasus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia began moving toward the Caucasus at the end of the 16th Century. In the early 19th Century, the Tsars consolidated control over Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, but had to fight a 35?year war against the North Caucasian mountaineers to secure control of the entire area The three Transcaucasian republics declared their independence before the collapse of the Soviet Union,

Paul B. Henze

1996-01-01

187

Home Education in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

Staroverova, T. I.

2011-01-01

188

Understanding barter in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the incidence and growth of non-monetary transactions - barter, veksels, debt offsets, tax offsets and other money surrogates - in Russia. The empirical backbone of the paper is a survey of 350 - predominantly industrial - firms, carried out in October and November 1998. The paper provides an analytical framework for understanding both firm-level incentives for using

Simon Commander; Christian Mumssen

189

Higher Education in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review the system for the acquisition and distribution of the foreign literature required by Soviet and Russian institutions of higher education for the period from 1989 to 1995. As Russia moves toward a democratic society, a centralized system designed for total State control is no longer capable of serving all the libraries in higher education institutions.

Rimma Mesheryakova; Frank Clasquin

1996-01-01

190

Medical Psychology in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes medical psychology in Russia. A particular emphasis is placed upon a historical description of the changes that have occurred since the 1930s when the scientific development of psychology was “interrupted” by the policies of Stalin's government. These changes have included the development of psychology faculties at St. Petersburg State University and Moscow State University in the 1960s

Tatiana N. Balachova; Sheldon Levy; Galina L. Isurina; Ludvig I. Wasserman

2001-01-01

191

The Coast of Siberia: A Vladivostok Spring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes experiences of a reference librarian at California State University (Sacramento) who spent three weeks in Vladivostok (Russia) to assess the library and research needs of faculty and students at the Far Eastern State Technical University. After briefly describing the city of Vladivostok and its military role in the Soviet…

Ronayne, Betty Lee

192

The Coast of Siberia: A Vladivostok Spring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes experiences of a reference librarian at California State University (Sacramento) who spent three weeks in Vladivostok (Russia) to assess the library and research needs of faculty and students at the Far Eastern State Technical University. After briefly describing the city of Vladivostok and its military role in the Soviet…

Ronayne, Betty Lee

193

Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov  

SciTech Connect

Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-12-01

194

Insight Into West Siberian Gas and Wetland Methane Emissions From ? 13C Studies of Ambient Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ob River region of West Siberia is home to some of the largest known gasfields and wetlands, and a source of around 2.5% of the total global methane emissions. It is also a major source region of CO2 emissions. Carbon isotopes of ambient air and emission sources provide an important tool for understanding these poorly constrained sources. Tank samples of ambient air were collected overnight for ? 13C analysis of methane during the summer (August-September) campaigns of 1999 and 2000, as part of INTAS-funded projects. The main sampling centres were Nadym and Urengoy, with samples collected above the known gas reserves, near pumping stations and by boat on the Nadym River, downstream toward Salekhard. CH4 of up to 900 ppb above background was recorded and ? 13C depletions of up to 3‰ relative to background. West Siberian gas has measured ? 13C values of -51.5 to -49.5‰ based on well samples and supplies in St. Petersburg and Germany. Implications from aircraft flights (Sugawara et al. 1996) and measurements along the Trans-Siberian railroad (Bergamaschi et al., 1998) are that the wetland signature is around -67‰ . The ambient air samples give a range of calculated source inputs from -67.3 to -49.3‰ , the end members corresponding to sampling areas expected to contain only wetland or gas emissions and confirmed by back trajectory analysis for sampling times. Using the end members, the average excess methane from the wetland source was 62 ppb around Nadym and 61 ppb around Urengoy. The average excess from the gasfields was 30 ppb around Nadym but 82 ppb around Urengoy, reflecting the closer proximity to the gasfields. The maximum excess recorded from wetlands was 160 ppb and from gasfields was 710 ppb. Experiments during summer 2004 have focussed on bag sampling on the tower of a super deep well at Korotchaevo, SE of the Urengoy gas field. Samples collected at 20, 30 and 60m heights will be analysed for ? 13C of both CH4 and CO2 and apportioned to gas and wetland sources. Bergamaschi P.et al. Isotope analysis based source identification for atmospheric CH4 and CO sampled across Russia using the Trans-Siberian railroad. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D), 8227-8235, 1998. Suguwara S. et al. Aircraft measurements of the stable carbon isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane over Siberia. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 223-231, 1996.

Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Levin, I.; Privalov, S.; Nisbet, E.

2004-12-01

195

Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Measurement Network on Towers in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to estimate CO2 and CH4 fluxes at regional to sub-continental scale by an inverse model, a network of tall towers for atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements has been established over a region of thousand square kilometers in west Siberia. In-situ continuous measurements have been conducted at 6 stations: Berezorechka (56.17N, 84.33E) since 2002, Parabel (58.25N, 82.40E) and Igrim (63.20N, 64.48E) since 2004, Demyanskoe (59.78N, 70.87E) and Noyabrsk (63.43N, 76.76E) since 2005, and Yakutsk (62.83N, 129.35E) in east Siberia since 2005. Over next two years, installations of 4 more stations are planned. This study provides some results of observation from this network. Seasonal cycles of CO2 showed quite similar trends in growing season (May to September) among the west Siberian sites. The remarkable decrease of CO2 concentration occurred in early May and the seasonal minimum was observed between July and August. On the other hand, the short-term (from several days to week) variations in CO2 concentrations were quite different among the sites, particularly during the growing season. Rather large variation of more than 25 ppm within a week was observed during winter. The changes in CO2 concentrations at the nearby sites were almost identical. Monthly mean values of CO2 during the growing season were relatively higher at the northern sites than at southern sites. These observational results evidentially reflected the regional characteristics of CO2 flux variation, transportation, and mixing process. Daily cycles of CH4 in summer showed nocturnal increase and diurnal decrease which was due to emission of CH4 from wetland accumulated over night, and diurnal convective mixing. Relatively high concentrations of CH4 were observed in winter and summer. Because there is one of the world's vastest wetland in western Siberia, the peak of CH4 in summer implies the significant role of CH4 emissions from the west Siberian wetland to the atmosphere. On the other hand, an exceptionally high concentration of CH4 of more than 3 ppm was observed in several sites. It occurred irrespective of time of a day but was associated with the definite wind direction. This may be linked to a strong point source of CH4 such as the leakage of natural-gas from pipeline or compressor station located near the observation sites. Thus, the data presented in this study can contribute to the future effort to detect the leakage point in the pipeline using satellite data.

Shimoyama, K.; Machida, T.; Shinohara, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.; Fedoseev, N.; Belan, B.; Belan, H.; Inoue, G.

2006-12-01

196

Arsenic in the coals of eastern Siberia  

SciTech Connect

An estimate has been made of the concentration of arsenic in the coals of a number of deposits of eastern Siberia, and the nature of its distribution has been established. In sulfur-rich coals, a correlation has been observed between the concentration of arsenic and the amount of pyrite sulfur. The development of the fuel and power industry and the intensification of demands on the protection of the environment are making it necessary to evaluate the presence and location of the forms of toxic elements, including arsenic, in coals. Information on arsenic in coals is inadequate and has been obtained only in recent years. According to Kler and Nenakhova, its concentration ranges from ''traces'' to 1 kg/tonne of coal.

Kryukova, V.N.; Kindeeva

1985-01-01

197

Iron oxidation in different types of groundwater of Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The groundwaters of Western Siberia contain high concentrations of iron, manganese, silicon, ammonium, and, in several cases,\\u000a hydrogen sulfide, carbonic acids, and dissolved organic substances. Generally, the groundwaters of Western Siberia can be\\u000a divided into two major types: one type with a relatively low concentration of humic substances and high hardness (water of\\u000a A type) and a

Leonid V. Serikov; Elena A. Tropina; Liudmila N. Shiyan; Fritz H. Frimmel; George Metreveli; Markus Delay

2009-01-01

198

Evaluating oil, gas opportunities in western Siberia; Reservoir description  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the authors discuss how to use the subsurface data to describe hydrocarbon reservoirs and estimate the original oil in place (OOIP) in western Siberia. The methodology for describing a reservoir and estimating the OOIP in western Siberia is similar to the approach for most reservoirs: Establish stratigraphic correlations across the field; Construct structure maps on key horizons; Construct porosity isopach maps for significant reservoirs; Construct net pay maps; Determine reservoir parameters; and Calculate pore-volume estimates of OOIP.

Connelly, W. (Pangea International Inc., Golden, CO (United States)); Krug, J.A. (Questa Engineering Corp., Golden, CO (United States))

1992-12-07

199

Timing of Lithofacies Development in Rift Sediments of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work has been based on samples collected from, so far, the deepest borehole (core BDP-98, 600 m deep) penetrating sediment at the Academician Ridge (53 deg 4' N and 108 deg 2' E, water depth of 333 m) in Lake Baikal (BDP-Members, 2001). The Academician Ridge, structural and bathymetrical high between central and south Baikal basins with limited influence of turbidity flows, represents a suitable site for retrieval of paleoclimatic and tectonic records. The scope of the investigation includes a survey of the sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical variability in the sediment section. Studied samples, initially aimed for Be-10 dating, have been chosen to represent different lithofacies and subjected to examination by various analytical methods including grain size analyses (laser based grain size analyzer), mineralogy (X-ray diffractometry and light and electron scanning microscopy), chemistry (ICP MS). The studied samples are dominated by silt-size particles with variable content of diatoms. The inorganic particles are composed of quartz, plagioclase feldspar, K-feldspar, clay minerals (micas, chlorites, and kaolinite), carbonates (calcite and siderite), Fe-minerals (oxides and sulfides) and Ti-minerals. We observe no specific variability in mineralogy with respect to the three major facies that spread from the deltaic one at the bottom of the section (dated at 8-7 Myr) through the hemipelagic (dated at 5.5-3 Myr) to the glacial (<3 Myr). The chemical data show a generally down core decrease in silica and increase in alumina and loss on ignition. The explanation for this likely to be a higher diatom content in the hemipelagic and Quaternary facies compared to the deltaic one. Apart from strong fluctuations in each facies, the general trends of trace elements are fairly constant down core. Samples enriched in vivianite (Fe3[PO4]2 x 8H2O), concretionary siderite (FeCO3) and occasionally nests of framboidal pyrite (FeS)occur throughout the facies. There is apparent association of Fe, Mn and P in the sediments that is related to these minerals. This association is produced probably by rift-related pulses of hydrothermal activity that took place at the end of the major volcanic episodes in this region at about 8 Myr ago. The expected origin of siderite microconcretions is probably diagenetic alteration of organic material (e.g. fecal pellets) by Fe-rich hydrothermal fluids. These alterations will be a target of detailed diagenetic investigations in future. References BDP-Members, 2001. The new BDP-98 600-m drill core from Lake Baikal: a key late Cenozoic sedimentary section in continental Asia. Quaternary International, 80-81, p. 19-36.

Sapota, T.; Aldahan, A.; Possnert, G.

2002-12-01

200

Spatial and seasonal variability of polygonal tundra water balance: Lena River Delta, northern Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer water balance of a typical Siberian polygonal tundra catchment is investigated in order to identify the spatial and temporal dynamics of its main hydrological processes. The results show that, besides precipitation and evapotranspiration, lateral flow considerably influences the site-specific hydrological conditions. The prominent microtopography of the polygonal tundra strongly controls lateral flow and storage behaviour of the investigated catchment. Intact rims of low-centred polygons build hydrological barriers, which release storage water later in summer than polygons with degraded rims and troughs above degraded ice wedges. The barrier function of rims is strongly controlled by soil thaw, which opens new subsurface flow paths and increases subsurface hydrological connectivity. Therefore, soil thaw dynamics determine the magnitude and timing of subsurface outflow and the redistribution of storage within the catchment. Hydraulic conductivities in the elevated polygonal rims sharply decrease with the transition from organic to mineral layers. This interface causes a rapid shallow subsurface drainage of rainwater towards the depressed polygon centres and troughs. The re-release of storage water from the centres through deeper and less conductive layers helps maintain a high water table in the surface drainage network of troughs throughout the summer.

Helbig, Manuel; Boike, Julia; Langer, Moritz; Schreiber, Peter; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Kutzbach, Lars

2013-02-01

201

THE NATURE OF CENOZOIC UPPER MANTLE PLUMES IN EAST SIBERIA (Russia) AND CENTRAL MONGOLIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the space relationship between upper mantle plumes revealed earlier from analysis of long-wavelength isostatic gravity anomalies and the subducting Pacific slab. According to global seismic tomography, the oceanic slab in its segments corresponding to the Japan and Izu-Bonin island arcs flattens out at the bottom of the mantle transition zone, extends horizontally far beneath Eurasia, and then resumes

Yu. A. Zorin; E. Kh; V. M. Kozhevnikov; S. V. Rasskazov; A. I. Ivanov

202

SETI in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of SETI research in Russia is presented. Three principal directions for astronomical investigations are considered: searching for astroengineering constructions, searching for communication signals, and the investigation of conditions for the existence of extraterrestrial intelligence. As a working model for these investigations, it is assumed that the highest level of development of an extraterrestrial civilization corresponds to the highest level of utilization of solid space structures and the highest level of energy consumption.

Kardashev, Nikolai S.; Zhuravlev, V. I.

1992-08-01

203

Environmental Deinstitutionalization in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the early 1990s a steadily growing social science literature has emerged on environmental reform. One of the core claims of the environmental reform school-of-thought is that environmental considerations and interests become institutionalized in societies (in different ways in their political, economic and socio-cultural domains). This article uses Russia as a case study for investigating whether the opposite of environmental

Arthur P. J. Mol

2009-01-01

204

Health lifestyles in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing data from the nationwide Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), this paper analyzes health lifestyles in Russia. Heavy alcohol use and smoking, a high-fat diet, and lack of leisure-time exercise are the principal culprits in fostering high rates of heart disease and other causes of premature mortality. This is especially the situation for middle-age, working-class males whose mortality is greater

William C. Cockerham

2000-01-01

205

Oil and gas development in East Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The East Siberian region, which comprises nearly 43% of Russia`s territory (including the Sakha (Yakut) republic), has substantial hydrocarbon potential that is impeded by significant logistical problems, the daunting physical environment, and technical challenges posed by the geological complexity of the region. The area`s three major oil and gas provinces are the Lena-Tunguska (with the greatest potential), Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar. The paper focuses on assessment of reserves, production potential, and history, as well as joint-venture activity involving foreign capital. Foreign investment is targeting gas deposits in the Vilyuy basin and elsewhere in the Sakha republic and small oil deposits serving local markets in the Yakutsk and Noril`sk areas. Forecasts do not envisage substantial production of oil from the region before the year 2010. Future gas production levels are less predictable despite the ambitious plans to export gas from Sakha to South Korea. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Sagers, M.J. [PlanEcon, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1994-03-01

206

77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-539-C (Third Review)] Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis...termination of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to...Publication 4307 (February 2012), entitled Uranium from Russia: Investigation No....

2012-03-02

207

Some results of observations of positive lightning discharges and relative phenomena in the east of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have considered spatial distributions of positive lightning discharges in the east of Siberia for the summer seasons of 2003-2007 and properties of their electromagnetic signals with the ELF "slow tail", which, as is known, can be accompanied by sprites. There are two main regions of positive discharges located in the south and west of Yakutsk. Two other "centers" (the northeastern and the eastern) are located in high-mountainous regions. In these regions the positive discharges intensity can exceed the negative discharge intensity. The electromagnetic signals in the ELF range (usually in the form of two half-cycles) were observed after the VLF atmospherics were recorded in the high-latitude regions. The delay of ELF pulses relative to the corresponding atmospherics was 0-7 ms. The long (up to 350 ms) events of quasi-periodic ELF oscillations with the period of about 7 ms (which corresponds to the quasi-period of ELF pulses) were revealed.

Mullayarov, V. A.; Kozlov, V. I.; Toropov, A. A.; Karimov, R. R.

2010-04-01

208

Russia's population sink.  

PubMed

Russia's public health problems, which are a result in part of uncontrolled development, are a lesson for developing countries. Trends in births and deaths in Russia indicate that as socioeconomic conditions declined in recent years, the death rate increased. During 1992-93 the death rate increased from 12.1 per 1000 population to 14.5, with 75% of the increase due to cardiovascular disease, accidents, murder, suicide, and alcohol poisoning. Quality of health care was given as one reason for the high cardiovascular disease rate that included deaths due to even mild heart attacks. 20-30% of deaths are attributed to pollution. 75% of rivers and lakes in the former Soviet Union are considered unfit for drinking, and 50% of tap water is unsanitary. An estimated 15% of Russia's land area is considered to be an ecological disaster zone. Births declined from a peak of 2.5 million in 1987 to 1.4 million in 1994. During this same period deaths increased from 1.5 million to 2.3 million. In 1994 deaths exceeded births by 880,000. Life expectancy declined from 65 to 57 years for men and from 75 years to 71 years for women. Infant mortality is rising. 11% of newborns had birth defects, and 60% showed evidence of allergies or vitamin D deficiencies. The death rate during pregnancy was 50 per 1000 births, and 75% of Russian women experienced complications during pregnancy. Women's health in the reproductive years was compromised by gynecological infections. A survey in 1992 revealed that 75% of Russian women gave insufficient income as a reason for reduced childbearing. The social conditions in Russia and the former Soviet republics reflect a lack of confidence in the future. Demographic trends are affected by a complex set of factors including economic collapse, economic change and uncertainty, inadequate health care, and poor environmental conditions. These changes occurred during the mid-1980s and before the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. PMID:12347136

Nelson, T

209

Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can conclude that the volumetric activities of radionuclides in the near-the-ground atmospheric layer were by 3 to 6 orders of magnitude below the permissible volume activity set by Radiation Safety Standards of Russia Federation.

Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

2013-04-01

210

PHILIPPINE LINGUISTICS STUDIES IN RUSSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Philippine linguistics studies in Russia trace its roots back to the 18 th century when Peter S. Pallas (1741­1811), a member of the Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences, published his famous work entitled Comparative Dictionaries of all Languages and Dialects in 1787. Although Russia had shown the interest in the Philippines a long time ago, however, until the middle

Natalia V. Zabolotnaya

211

Using New Remotely-sensed Biomass To Estimate Co2 Fluxes Over Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two european programs recently focused on Siberia. The first one, Eurosiberian Car- bonflux was a faisability study for an observation system of the regional CO2 fluxes. The second one, SIBERIA was a big effort to develop and validate a biomass map on Siberia using radar data from satelltes (J-ERS, ERS). Here, we extend the simula- tion of NPP performed for

S. Lafont; L. Kergoat; G. Dedieu; T. Le Toan

2002-01-01

212

Syphilis soars in Russia.  

PubMed

The number of adults with syphilis in Russia has increased 15-fold since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The rate in children is 20 times higher than it was 4 years ago. 126,500 cases were registered with the health ministry over the past year, while 7900 were in 1990. The number of cases in children increased from 38 in 1991 to 761 this year; most of these cases were acquired via sexual transmission. Lilia Tikhonova, the health ministry's chief specialist on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), blamed the increases on "the complete perversion of our society's morals," the rapid growth of child prostitution, the influx of homeless people and refugees into the cities, and miracle cures that are used in place of seeing a specialist. In communist Russia, patients were required to register passport details and previous sexual contacts, and future sexual contact was forbidden for a period; anyone breaking these rules faced 5 years in jail. Current law only punishes those who knowingly infect their sexual partners. Health officials in the Ukraine, where a similar increase in the number of STDs has been noted, blame black market condoms. Over the past 5 years, cheap foreign condoms have flooded the market. PMID:7613399

Ingram, M

1995-07-01

213

Hydrocarbons exploration in east Siberia southern basins  

SciTech Connect

The vast Lena-Tunguska province in the heart of Siberia is among the world's largest and least explored frontier basins. Some encouraging exploration has nevertheless been carried out in the four southern subbasins: PrePatom (PreBaykal) trough, Nepa-Botuobin anticlise, PreSayan-Yenisey basin, and Angara-Lena terrace. Source rocks are essentially Proterozoic, but younger sediments may contribute about 10% of the region's oil potential. Riphean-Cambrian subsalt reservoirs contribute more than 90% of the hydrocarbons discovered, whereas Cambrian salt provides the most common regional seals. The main hydrocarbon later migration occurred in Vendian-Cambrian. Traps include clastic wedging out along favorable structures and carbonate reef-like buildups. Many traps were transformed or destroyed by the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic volcanic activity, whereas Hercynian overthrust tectonics developed new traps in the PrePatom trough. About 30 discoveries, mainly gas and condensates, have been made in the area, but operations are hampered by poor logistics and limited infrastructure.

Resnick, V.S. (Petroconsultants Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-08-01

214

Compact storage rings Siberia-AS and Siberia-SM synchrotron radiation sources for lithography  

SciTech Connect

The paper deals with two projects of compact superconducting storage rings for industrial production of integrated circuits (IC) using x-ray lithography within the 8- to 20-A wavelengths range. The azimuthally symmetric superconducting storage ring Siberia-AS at an energy of 600 MeV is a superconducting analog of VEP-1, one of the earliest storage rings in the world intended for the purposes of high-energy physics. Unlike the conventional design, no iron yoke is used in the storage ring under consideration to form the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit and to close the return magnetic flux---this is performed by some inner and outer superconducting windings. Such a scheme enables the size of the storage ring to be substantially reduced (a cylinder of 2 m in diameter and 2 m long), and as a result, its weight decreases, too (about 10 tons). The eight-magnet storage ring Siberia-SM is of four-order symmetry so that the periodicity element comprises two rectangular magnets and three lenses. Its basic component is a superconducting bending rectangular magnet at a 6-T magnetic field. Two variants of such magnets have been proposed: in the first, the iron yoke is utilized to form the magnetic field and to close the return flux, while the second is an ironless C-shaped magnet manufactured on the basis of original wedgelike coils.

Anashin, V. V.; Arbuzov, V. S.; Blinov, G. A.; Veshcherevich, V. G.; Vobly, P. D.; Gorniker, E. I.; Zinevich, N. I.; Zinin, E. I.; Zubkov, N. I.; Kiselev, V. A.; and others

1989-07-01

215

West Siberian oil and the Northern Sea route: Current situation and future potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey paper explores interrelationships between the development of oil and gas condensate deposits in northern areas of West Siberia and adjacent Krasnoyarsk Kray and the volume and character of traffic along the Northern Sea Route. Initial sections examine the magnitude of petroleum resources in the region, the allocation of development rights, and past and potential future production. Coverage then

Arild Moe

1995-01-01

216

Automatic chamber observations of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes at West Siberian wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic sampling and analysis system for measuring methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from soil was developed and applied to the soil flux measurements at boreal wetland near Plotnikovo in the southern part of West Siberia. The observations cover warm season (May-October) from 1998 to 2010. Measurements were performed with two systems on the two types of open wetlands typical

O. Krasnov; S. Maksyutov; K. Shimoyama; H. Suto; A. Nadeev; V. Shelevoi; M. Glagolev; N. Kosykh; T. Machida; G. Inoue

2010-01-01

217

The upper Bathonian ammonite zonation of East Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifications to the upper Bathonian zonal scale for northern East Siberia provided by the newly available paleontological record on Middle Jurassic reference sections in the Arctic regions of Yakutia and by the revised earlier collections, are justified. The oldest East Siberian members of Cadoceras are found to be characteristic not of the initial Callovian age as believed by Russian paleontologists, but of the terminal Bathonian age as was previously shown in the biostratigraphic scheme of East Greenland. The succession of zones and index species analogous to that of the latter is revealed in the studied region and the zonal boundaries in Siberia and East Greenland are inferred to be synchronous. Finds of Cadoceras calyx in the upper Bathonian scale permitted, for the first time, the recognition of a corresponding zone. The Bathonian-Callovian boundary is placed between the calyx and anabarense zones. The upper Bathonian zonal scale of northern East Siberia is now in total agreement with the East Greenland zonal scale.

Knyazev, V. G.; Kutygin, R. V.; Meledina, S. V.

2009-04-01

218

Control system of the synchrotron radiation source SIBERIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SIBERIA accelerator complex includes a 80 MeV electron linac, a 450 MeV booster storage ring, a main 2.5 GeV storage ring and two transport lines for electron beams. The SIBERIA control system is based on distributed architecture and uses 24-bit CAMAC-oriented control computers and PCs as operator consoles. The paper describes the timing system, the control of the RF system and magnet power supplies, beam diagnostic and interlock systems, etc. Application software provides the control over beam characteristics, automatic energy ramping and monitoring of the parameters of elements and systems. With the use of the SIBERIA control system the electron beam was accelerated in the linac up to 68 MeV on December 1, 1992, and on December 18, 1992, a circulating beam was generated in the 450 MeV booster ring.

Kuznetsov, S.; Kadnikov, A.; Krylov, Yu.; Yupinov, Yu.; Levichev, E.

1994-12-01

219

Is there epidemiology in Russia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies

Vlassov, V.

2000-01-01

220

Genetic diversity of two haploid markers in the Udegey population from southeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

The Udegeys are a small ethnic group who live along the tributaries of the Amur River Basin of southeastern Siberia in Russia. They are thought to speak a language belonging to a subdivision of the Tungusic-Manchu branch of the Altaic family. To understand the genetic features and genetic history of the Udegeys, we analyzed two haploid markers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-chromosomal variation, in 51 individuals (including 21 males) from the Udegey population. In general, the Udegeys' mtDNA profiles revealed similarities to Siberians and other northeastern Asian populations, although a moderate European contribution was also detected. Interestingly, pairwise values of F(ST) and the MDS plots based on the mtDNA variation showed that the Orok and Nivkh inhabiting the very same region of the Udegey were significantly different from the Udegey, implying that they may have been isolated and undergone substantial genetic drift. The Udegeys were characterized by a high frequency (66.7%) of Y chromosome haplogroup C, indicating a close genetic relationship with Mongolians and Siberians. On the paternal side, however, very little admixture was observed between the Udegeys and Europeans. Thus, the combined haploid genetic markers of both mtDNA and the Y chromosome imply that the Udegeys are overall closest to Siberians and northeast Asians of the Altaic linguistic family, with a minor maternal contribution from the European part of the continent. PMID:19953529

Jin, Han-Jun; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Wook

2010-06-01

221

Paleomagnetic dating of Phanerozoic kimberlites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond bearing kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. Three main time intervals are considered to be the age of emplacement: the Devonian-Early Carboniferous, Triassic, and Cretaceous. However, isotopic age data from of the pipes are scattered and provide a very broad age interval for the magmatic activity. New paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes (Eastern Udachnaya, Western Udachnaya, International and Obnazhennaya) are obtained to estimate their paleomagnetic age. The mean primary magnetization directions for the pipes are as follows: D = 4.3°, I = - 44.5° (k = 29.4, ?95 = 7.4°, N = 14); D = 340.5°, I = - 65.6° (k = 12.9, ?95 = 19.4°, N = 6); D = 291.1°, I = - 78.1° (k = 27.5, ?95 = 14.9°, N = 5); and D = 306.7°, I = - 82.6° (k = 38.4, ?95 = 5.8°, N = 17), respectively. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian apparent polar wander path (APWP) we estimate the age of kimberlite magmatism, assuming primary magnetizations in these rocks. The paleomagnetic ages are as follows: 428 ± 13 Ma for Eastern Udachnaya; 251 ± 30 Ma for International pipe; and 168 ± 11 Ma for Obnazhennaya pipe. The Western Udachnaya pipe was remagnetized and no clear paleomagnetic age could be determined. The ages of magmatic activity span the Early Silurian to Middle Late Jurassic. Early Silurian magmatism could be associated with the formation of the Viluy rift. Middle to Late Jurassic magmatic activity is most likely related to subduction related to the accretion of surrounding terranes to Siberia.

Blanco, Dunia; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Konstantinov, Konstantin M.; Kabin, Konstantin

2013-01-01

222

Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacial landforms in northern Russia, from the Timan Ridge in the west to the east of the Urals, have been mapped by aerial photographs and satellite images supported by field observations. An east-west trending belt of fresh hummock-and-lake glaciokarst landscapes has been traced to the north of 67 °N. The southern bound- ary of these landscapes is called the Markhida

JOHN INGE SVENDSEN; ALEXEI MATIOUCHKOV; JAN MANGERUD; OLGA MASLENIKOVA; JAN TVERANGRE

1999-01-01

223

Remobilisation of the continental lithosphere by a mantle plume: major-, trace-element, and Sr, Nd, and Pb-isotope evidence from picritic and tholeiitic lavas of the Noril'sk District, Siberian Trap, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Permian to Early Triassic Siberian Traps have been sampled by drill core (core SG-9) and from surface exposure (section 1F) in the Noril'sk region of the Siberian Platform, Russia. Combined major, trace element, and Nd-, Sr-, and Pb-isotope data on selected samples through the Siberia Trap, offer new chemostratigraphic criteria for the identification and characterisation of two fundamentally

P. C. Lightfoot; C. J. Hawkesworth; J. Hergt; A. J. Naldrett; N. S. Gorbachev; V. A. Fedorenko; W. Doherty

1993-01-01

224

Russia's Relations With India & Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

post-Soviet period. In the latter half of the 1990s, Moscow suggested a Russia-China-India strategic triangle as a counterweight to the USA. India had no interest in this idea. India and Russia probably did see each other as useful partners in verbally opposing US dominance, although India's relationship with the USA improved after the end of the Cold War. * Russo-Indian

Mark A Smith

225

Dynamical Downscaling over Siberia: Is there an added value in representing recent climate conditions?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of long-term changes and variability of climate variables for the large areal extent of Siberia - covering arctic, subarctic and temperate northern latitudes - is hampered by the sparseness of in-situ observations. To counteract this deficiency we aimed to provide a reconstruction of regional climate for the period 1948-2010 getting homogenous, consistent fields of various terrestrial and atmospheric parameters for Siberia. In order to obtain in addition a higher temporal and spatial resolution than global datasets can provide, we performed the reconstruction using the regional climate model COSMO-CLM (climate mode of the limited area model COSMO developed by the German weather service). However, the question arises whether the dynamically downscaled data of reanalysis can improve the representation of recent climate conditions. As global forcing for the initialization and the regional boundaries we use NCEP-1 Reanalysis of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction since it has the longest temporal data coverage among the reanalysis products. Additionally, spectral nudging is applied to prevent the regional model from deviating from the prescribed large-scale circulation within the whole simulation domain. The area of interest covers a region in Siberia, spanning from the Laptev Sea and Kara Sea to Northern Mongolia and from the West Siberian Lowland to the border of Sea of Okhotsk. The current horizontal resolution is of about 50 km which is planned to be increased to 25 km. To answer the question, we investigate spatial and temporal characteristics of temperature and precipitation of the model output in comparison to global reanalysis data (NCEP-1, ERA40, ERA-Interim). As reference Russian station data from the "Global Summary of the Day" data set, provided by NCDC, is used. Temperature is analyzed with respect to its climatologically spatial patterns across the model domain and its variability of extremes based on climate indices derived from daily mean, maximum, minimum temperature (e.g. frost days) for different subregions. The decreasing number of frost days from north to south of the region, calculated from the reanalysis datasets and COSMO-CLM output, indicates the temperature gradient from the arctic to temperate latitudes. For most of the considered subregions NCEP-1 shows more frost days than ERA-Interim and COSMO-CLM.

Klehmet, K.; Rockel, B.

2012-04-01

226

Methane emission from Western Siberia derived from the integral methane balance in the troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although a number of estimates of methane emissions from large Earth regions have been proposed, based on either empirical or inverse transport modeling approaches, these emissions still remain highly uncertain motivating the development of new methods of surface flux assessment. In this study a new mathematical formulation for calculation of surface flux of methane, or any other gaseous component of the atmosphere, is developed. In it, the surface flux is retrieved from the integral balance of methane in bounded atmospheric domain. This balance includes the surface flux, the net advective flux through lateral boundaries of the atmospheric domain, methane sink due to oxidation by hydroxyl radical, and the rate of change of total methane amount in the domain. Western Siberia, being on of the most prominent surface methane sources in Northern hemisphere, is used as a test region for the method. The components of methane balance are calculated using methane concentrations and wind speeds from MACC reanalysis at 1.125 deg. grid (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/EU_projects/MACC), and hydroxyl concentrations provided by (Spivakovsky, 2000). The total methane flux from Western Siberia is thus assessed at 6 h resolution for 2001-2011. The time averaged total flux corresponds well to empirical estimates (M Glagolev, 2011) at diurnal and annual timescales. It may be anticipated that the method will be useful in close future when the satellite-retrieved methane concentration profiles will achieve high accuracy. References: Spivakovsky, C. M., et al. (2000), Three-dimensional climatological distribution of tropospheric OH: Update and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 8931- 8980. M Glagolev, I Kleptsova, I Filippov, S Maksyutov and T Machida. Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes. Environ. Res. Lett. 6 (2011) 045214 (7pp). This work is partially supported by the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation (contract#8345), SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant #11-05-01190a, and integrated project SB RAS #131, RFBR grant 11-05-01190-a.

Bogomolov, Vasiliy; Stepanenko, Victor; Okladnikov, Igor

2013-04-01

227

A new model of crustal structure of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new model of the structure of the crust in Siberia that encompasses two large tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberian Basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton. The area of study covers a significant part of the north Eurasia and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. The new crustal model is based on our new ("from scratch") compilation of all available reliable seismic data and includes the results of seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data (from the late 1960-ies until present). Seismic structure along seismic profiles is digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with the resolution of seismic models. Structural parameters based on gravity modeling, or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps are excluded from the new crustal database. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition problems and interpretation limitations, a special attention is paid to the data quality problem, and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and provides valuable constraints for geophysical modeling of the mantle structure. We observe important spatial correlations between the crustal structure (thickness of the sediments, the basement, and different crustal layers, and average basement velocities) and tectonic and geological settings. Statistical analysis of age-dependence (we use tectono-thermal ages) of crustal parameters allows for distinguishing the effects of various tectonic processes on the crustal structure. The analysis provides the basis for studies of crustal evolution and geodynamic process in the region where the age of tectonic structures spans over ~4 Ga. Archean terranes have a large (39-44 km) thickness of consolidated crust (excluding sediments), which decreases in Paleo-Mesoproterozoic terranes to 34-42 km. Thickness of consolidated crust in Mesozoic and Cenozoic regions is 32-34 km only. The total crustal thickness (including the sedimentary layer) is the largest in the Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic regions of the Siberian Craton. A block with an unusually thick crust (47-58 km), bounded by the regions of thinned crust, extends in the longitudinal direction across the Siberian craton and cuts major tectonic boundaries which have sublatitudinal orientation. Low surface heat flow (on average around 20-22 microW/m3) and the absence of the high-velocity (Vp>7.2 km/s) lowercrustal layer in the block with the thick crust suggest that eclogitization in the crustal root was subdued, thus allowing preservation of the ultra thick, seismically distinguishable, crust.

Cherepanova, Y.; Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.

2010-12-01

228

Basalt weathering in Central Siberia under permafrost conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical weathering of basalts in the Putorana Plateau, Central Siberia, has been studied by combining chemical and mineralogical analysis of solids (rocks, soils, river sediments, and suspended matter) and fluid solution chemistry. Altogether, 70 large and small rivers, 30 soil pore waters and groundwaters and over 30 solids were sampled during July to August 2001. Analysis of multiannual data on

O. S. Pokrovsky; J. Schott; D. I. Kudryavtzev; B. Dupré

2005-01-01

229

Measuring overstory leaf area index in eastern Siberia larch forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents a new remote sensing method to measure the leaf area index (LAI) developed specifically for eastern Siberia larch forests. It also presents the first evaluation of MODIS MOD15 collection 5, and of CYCLOPES LAI version 3.1 in larch forests. Reliable monitoring of the leaf area index (LAI) is required to understand and model the exchanges of carbon,

N. Delbart; H. Kobayashi; R. Suzuki; K. Kushida

2009-01-01

230

Species Diversity and Response to Climate Change across Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern Hemisphere's boreal forests, particularly the Siberian boreal forest, may have a strong effect on Earth's climate through changes in dominant vegetation and associated regional surface albedo. Temperature increases have been identified as a driver of compositional change in the Russian forest with documented shifts in treelines and changes in regeneration. Warmer climate will likely convert Siberia's deciduous larch (Larix spp.) to evergreen conifer forests, and the low diversity areas across Siberia are identified as vulnerable to this vegetation shift from deciduous larch to evergreen conifer. A conversion to evergreen conifer dominance within southern Siberia will generate a local positive radiative forcing of 5.1±2.6 W m-2. The forest gap model, FAREAST, simulates Russian boreal forest composition and was used to explore the feedback between climate change and forest composition in vulnerable low diversity areas. FAREAST was used to simulate the impact of changes in temperature and precipitation on total and genus-level biomass at sites across Siberia using multiple variants of the dominant larch to mimic species variability in growth rates. The use of multiple variants of the dominant species can be used to identify species variants which may be more successful under altered climate conditions. Identification of successful varieties of the dominant species will help in active management in efforts to mitigate the effects of climate change, especially the accelerated shift to evergreen dominance.

Shugart, H. H.; Shuman, J. K.

2011-12-01

231

New ammonite zonation of the lower Callovian in North Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lower Callovian succession observable in cliffs of Anabar Bay and Bolshoi Begichev Island is described with consideration of zonal subdivisions and beds with ammonites. The unified summary biozonation suggested for North Siberia includes the Cadoceras elatmae Zone with C. frearsi and C. elatmae (instead former C. anabarense) subzones, subsequent C. tschernyschewi and C. tolype zones, and successive C. cf. sublaeve, Rondiceras milaschevici, and Cadoceras ex gr. durum (formerly part of the middle Callovian) beds. As in Siberia and East Europe there are species in common C. elatmae (Nik.), C. frearsi (Orb.), C. tolype Buck., and C. emelianzevi Vor.; certain ammonite zones of Siberian succession are directly correlated with the East European, East Greenland and standard zonations. It is concluded that the lower Callovian is completely represented in Siberia. The lower part of the interval, formerly attributed to the middle Callovian, represents the upper part of the lower Callovian Substage. Zones established in the lower Callovian succession of Siberia are contiguous, whereas equivalents of the Elatmae Subzone and Tschernyschewi Zone have not been distinguished in sections of East Greenland. Evolutionary trends of species in subfamily Cadoceratinae are preliminary discussed.

Knyazev, V. G.; Kutygin, R. V.; Meledina, S. V.

2010-08-01

232

River Runoff Sensitivity in Eastern Siberia to Global Climate Warming  

Microsoft Academic Search

During several last decades significant climate warming is observed in permafrost regions of Eastern Siberia. These changes include rise of air temperature as well as precipitation. Changes in regional climate are accompanied with river runoff changes. The analysis of the data shows that in the past 25 years, the largest contribution to the annual river runoff increase in the lower

A. G. Georgiadi; I. P. Milyukova; E. Kashutina

2008-01-01

233

Structure determinations of macromolecules using the ``SIBERIA'' synchrotron radiation source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A project of structure determination stations of the ``SIBERIA'' synchrotron radiation source is described. Five experiments are planned using three beam lines. These experiments include the standard method of isomorphous replacement, the anomalous dispersion method as well as using an energy profile of reflections, the Laue method, vacuum ultraviolet circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence. The experiments are planned to begin in 1992.

Kusev, Sergey V.; Mokulskii, Mark A.; Raiko, Vladimir I.

1991-10-01

234

Enhancing Field Management in Siberia by Quantifying Production Uncertainties (Russian)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of production data from a Lower Cretaceous western Siberia oilfield operated by TNK-BP suggested that the final recovery factor would not exceed 15% with one of the waterflood development plans under consideration. Such a plan clearly left scope for improvement. However, since there were limited surveillance data to infer current depletion from the 8 oil bearing beds, considerable

David E. Tipping; Maxim N. Deschenya; F. Deimbacher; D. Kovyazin

2006-01-01

235

Map-based inventory of wetland biomass and net primary production in western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used available field survey and literature data to produce inventory maps of wetland biomass and net primary production (NPP) for western Siberia. Field survey data were obtained for major types of wetland microlandscapes within the boreal (taiga) region. We developed a multiscale approach based on using a regional wetland typology map (1:2,500,000 scale), further refined by satellite image classifications (LANDSAT-7, SPOT, RESURS, 1:200,000 scale). Satellite images on test areas designated in the boreal region of western Siberia were classified by 30 landscape classes. We used aerial photography (1:25,000 scale) to evaluate the fraction of the area occupied by microlandscape elements within patterned wetlands. As a result, we were able to produce a GIS map-based inventory of ecosystem phytomass and NPP in west Siberian wetlands. Using the GIS map, the average and total net primary production and biomass were estimated by ecosystem type, the number of vegetation layers, and climatic gradient. The annual NPP to live biomass ratio increases southward from 0.27 in the tundra to 0.65 in the steppe region. Live biomass of wetlands amounts to only 10-30% of the average biomass of upland forests in the same climatic region, although wetland NPP was found to be equal or higher then that of upland forests. Mosses and the belowground fraction of grasses are the major contributors to NPP. Average live biomass and NPP in wetlands were estimated to be 1600 g/m2 and 790 g/m2/yr, respectively. Total wetland NPP amounts to 530 Tg/yr, and live biomass amounts to 1070 Tg.

Peregon, Anna; Maksyutov, Shamil; Kosykh, Natalya P.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, Nina P.

2008-03-01

236

Crustal structure of Siberia: a new appraisal of old seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the structure of the crust and the sedimentary cover in an area that encompasses two largest tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberia basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton, and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. We compiled "from scratch" all available seismic data for the region, from the late 1960-ies until present. Our compilation includes results of seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data; data along seismic profiles are digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with resolution of seismic models. Seismic data on the structure of the sedimentary cover was complemented by borehole data, where available. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition and interpretation, a special attention was paid to this problem and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. We have intentionally excluded unreliable constraints, such as based on gravity modelling or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/ refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and allows examining spatial correlations with tectonic and geological structures, providing the basis for studies of crustal evolution and mantle modeling.

Cherepanova, Yu; Artemieva, I. M.; Milshtein, E.; Erinchek, Yu. M.; Thybo, H.

2010-05-01

237

Chaos Reigns in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the third time in the last 14 months, Russian President Boris Yeltsin deposed his Prime Minister and Cabinet, intensifying the political chaos in a country beleaguered by economic insolvency, administrative corruption, and governmental mismanagement. The dismissals handed down on Wednesday, which included the popular PM Yevgeny M. Primakov, occurred the day before impeachment proceedings were to begin against Yeltsin in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the communist-led State Duma. Russia's first democratically elected President faces five impeachment charges, including initiating the collapse of the USSR, ordering an attack on parliament in 1993, destroying the armed forces, punishing the Russian people through harsh economic policies, and waging an illegal war against the secessionist Chechnya in 1994 through 1996. Political analysts forecast that only the last charge has a chance of passing the necessary two-thirds vote, slated for Saturday, in the 450-seat State Duma. Even if charged, it is unlikely that Yeltsin will be removed from office because the charge must also be approved by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Council of Federation, the parliament's upper house. However, the political imbroglio will paralyze the Russian government for months to come, and has already disrupted Russian diplomatic efforts to mediate a resolution to the crisis in Yugoslavia. The sites listed provide insight into this current Russian political crisis.

Osmond, Andrew.

238

Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia  

SciTech Connect

Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with unpredictable regional and global effects.

Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T. [International Inst. for Strategic Studies, London (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31

239

Mitochondrial DNA diversity in indigenous populations of the southern extent of Siberia, and the origins of Native American haplogroups.  

PubMed

In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A-D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region. PMID:15638829

Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I; Derbeneva, Olga A; Volodko, Natalia V; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D; Lott, Marie T; Hosseini, Seyed H; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C

2005-01-01

240

Elder knowledge and sustainable livelihoods in post-Soviet Russia: finding dialogue across the generations.  

PubMed

Russia's indigenous peoples have been struggling with economic, environmental, and socio-cultural dislocation since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. In northern rural areas, the end of the Soviet Union most often meant the end of agro-industrial state farm operations that employed and fed surrounding rural populations. Most communities adapted to this loss by reinstating some form of pre-Soviet household-level food production based on hunting, fishing, and/or herding. However, mass media, globalization, and modernity challenge the intergenerational knowledge exchange that grounds subsistence practices. Parts of the circumpolar north have been relatively successful in valuing and integrating elder knowledge within their communities. This has not been the case in Russia. This article presents results of an elder knowledge project in northeast Siberia, Russia that shows how rural communities can both document and use elder knowledge to bolster local definitions of sustainability and, at the same time, initiate new modes of communication between village youth and elders. PMID:21847844

Crate, Susan A

2006-01-01

241

Late and post-glacial vegetation and climate history of the south-western Taymyr Peninsula, central Siberia, as revealed by pollen analysis of a core from Lake Lama  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Taymyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, Central Siberia, a joint German\\/Russian multidisciplinary research project focuses on the Late Quaternary history of climate and environment. Within the scope of this project, palynological studies were carried out on a 10.8-m core from Lama Lake, situated in the south-west of the research area. The core, which did not reach the base

Jiirgen Hahne; Martin Melles

1997-01-01

242

Numeral Modeling of Smoke Aerosol Interaction with Cloudiness over Catastrophic Wild Fires in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increase of burning area in Siberia, the extension of fire season and fires intensity leads to significant carbon emission. One of the important tasks is to describe the spread of smoke aerosol and other combustion products using actual meteorological data and fire state information. A smoke aerosol covers territory a hundreds times larger then the burning area and has an effect on forming of the cloud and sediment formation exactly above the fire zone. Well known that smoke particles are condensation nucleus of water vapor and of water droplets coagulation and of crystallization. The no-hydrostatical model of atmospheric boundary layer, taking into account the phase change in the system vapor-water-ice, was developed for calculation of different scenarios of convective cloudiness forming over catastrophic wild fires. The analysis of remote sensing data relating to catastrophic fires is carried out for Asian part of Russia for the period from 2002 to 2008. The followings regular dependences were of interest: • the anomalously dry weather is set during long period on the areas of catastrophic fires • the expected reserve cloudiness which would partly suppress such fires does not spread through this areas. Calculations showed that increasing of the smoke aerosol concentration at the top of cloud can result in decreasing of total precipitations amount. The penetration of smoke aerosol in the atmospheric boundary layer stimulates rapid water drops crystallization. Clouds with an «icy top» provide more weak precipitation, than the clouds, which tops consist of mixture of icy crystals, snow and raindrops. This is in accordance with theoretical considerations and experimental investigations of micro physical processes in clouds. Monitoring of meteorological situation from space, cyclones and clouds dynamics, specifies air circulation transformation which takes place above the catastrophic fires area. We can suppose a positive feed-back between heat and mass release and atmospheric processes, resulting in long duration of mass fires in Siberian taiga regions. The numeral modeling of smoke aerosol propagation takes into account the processes of convection, turbulent exchange, humidity, speed and direction of wind. Calculating of spatial and temporal precipitations distribution at the presence of smoke aerosol allowed us to assume, that vertical heat and mass transferring in the mass forest fires region, can appear as the influencing factor on atmospheric circulation in a zonal scale. Using mathematical modeling, we have shown, that the large particles of smoke aerosol, emitted out of the burning area can result in diminishing of thundershowers precipitations in Siberian region. It can be substantial in the mechanism of positive feed-back, resulting in the long mass fires duration. KEYWORDS: mass forest fires, smoke aerosol, atmospheric boundary layer, no-hydrostatical model, precipitation, heat and mass transferring, positive feed-back, boreal Siberia

Dubrovskaya, O. A.; Malbakhov, V. M.; Sukhinin, A. I.; Shlychkov, V. A.

2009-04-01

243

Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery after fires of moderate- and low- severity.

Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

244

Total ozone and NO2 observations in Asiatic Russia by SAOZ spectrometers in 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenitale) is a UV-visible diode array spectrometer developed at the Service d'Aeronomie, CNRS, France in the late 80s for monitoring stratospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The spectrometer uses the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths of sun in the registration of the zenith sky. The wavelength range of the SAOZ instrument is in Chappuis band of ozone absorption, with a spectral resolution of 1 nm for version V-1024. Measurement absolute accuracy is 6% for total ozone and 10% for nitrogen dioxide. Data for the atmospheric content of O3 and NO2 measured by the SAOZ spectrometers are available at the World SAOZ database. The first Asiatic SAOZ station started operation in 1991 at Zhigansk aerological station, East Siberia. A SAOZ spectrometer has been operating at Salekhard aerological station, West Siberia, since 1998. The resulting total ozone and nitrogen dioxide observations recorded in Siberia in 2012 will be shown and discussed.

Shepelev, Dmitry; Dorokhov, Valery; Goutail, Florence; Pazmino, Andrea; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre

2013-04-01

245

Genesis of the West Siberian Basin and its petroleum geology: a recent interpretation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

From Late Carboniferous through Middle Jurassic time, the region of West Siberia passed through orogenic, rift, and early platform stages. The Early-Middle Jurassic was a time of cyclical marine and continental deposition. It is suggested that: (a) the oil in the Lower Cretaceous Neocomian sandstones was sourced by bituminous clays that interfinger with these sandstones on the west; and (b) that Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian gas was sourced in part by deeply buried Paleozoics and by overlying Upper Cretaceous Turonian clays. Predicted discoveries in West Siberia include several thousand small fields with reserves of less than 10 million tons, 250 to 300 medium-sized fields, and several large fields with 30 to 100 million tons. -from Author

Clarke, J. W.

1994-01-01

246

Interest representation in soviet policymaking: A case study of a West Siberian energy coalition  

SciTech Connect

Dr. Chung examines a little-known facet of Soviet decision making - pressure group politics and policy formation. He focuses on the ''pro-Siberian'' forces involved with the development of energy resources in West Siberia, an area rich in oil and natural gas. Because West Siberia is a remote and relatively unexplored region, controversy arose over the location of the highest-yielding fields and the allocation of funds and materials. Dr. Chung shows that the decision to accelerate the development of the West Siberian energy complex was influenced strongly by a ''policy coalition'' composed primarily of local officials, enterprise managers, professionals, and academics. Demonstrating that this coalition is a stable and highly active pressure group, he illustrates how it gradually established ascendancy and eventually outflanked opposing elements in the government and planning agencies. He identifies key elements of the coalition's strategy, tracing the steps by which it swung the leadership over to its views on resource allocation.

Chung, H.

1986-01-01

247

Precursor genes of future pandemic influenza viruses are perpetuated in ducks nesting in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Influenza A viruses of different subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of ducks in their nesting areas in Siberia in\\u000a summer from 1996 to 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of the NP genes of the isolates in Siberia and those in Hokkaido, Japan on\\u000a their flyway of migration from Siberia to the south in autumn revealed that they belong to the Eurasian

K. Okazaki; A. Takada; T. Ito; M. Imai; H. Takakuwa; M. Hatta; H. Ozaki; T. Tanizaki; T. Nagano; A. Ninomiya; V. A. Demenev; M. M. Tyaptirganov; T. D. Karatayeva; S. S. Yamnikova; D. K. Lvov; H. Kida

2000-01-01

248

Global events across the Mesoproterozoic–Neoproterozoic boundary: C and Sr isotopic evidence from Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thick, unmetamorphosed successions of siliciclastic and carbonate rocks in eastern and western Siberia preserve a record of Middle Riphean to Early Upper Riphean sedimentary environments and geochemistry. Consistent with data from other continents, our studies in the Uchur–Maya region in southeastern Siberia and the Turukhansk Uplift in northwestern Siberia suggest a first-order shift in ?13C from values near 0‰ in

Julie K. Bartley; Mikhail A. Semikhatov; Alan J. Kaufman; Andrew H. Knoll; Michael C. Pope; Stein B. Jacobsen

2001-01-01

249

Rebranding Russia: Norms, Politics and Power  

Microsoft Academic Search

This working paper argues that Russia is in the process of re-branding itself internationally, with a variety of normative arguments increasingly creeping into its wider international discourse. By appealing to norms, Russia tries to reformulate the key messages it sends to the world and implant the concept of its power worldwide. Yet given that Russia's normative messages are often met

Andrey S. Makarychev

2008-01-01

250

Global Education Comes to Russia in 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the first international conference on the future of education in Russia held in Sochi, Russia, in September of 1991. The focus was on recent efforts that have been made by educators to develop global education in Russian schools. These efforts include a detailed project for the development of global education in Russia and…

Tucker, Jan L.

251

[Arborviruses of the California encephalitis serogroup 1N Russia and their contribution to infectious pathology].  

PubMed

This review focuses on arborviral infections associated with California serocomplex (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus). Results of relevant eco-epidemiological and clinical studies in Russia are presented suggesting the ubiquitious nature of diseases caused by viruses of the California encephalitis serocomplex (Inko, Tahyna, Snowshoe Hare). The etiologic structure of these diseases in taiga and mixed woods of the European part and Western Siberia is dominated by the Inco virus and in southern regions by Tahina. The diseases have a well apparent seasonal pattern (July-August) in agreement with the peak summer activity of the pathogens. Two clinical forms of pathology are distinguished, influenza-like and generalized, the latter affecting lungs, kidneys, liver, and CNS. The Inco virus plays a key role in pathogenesis of the generalized form affecting CNS. PMID:21786596

Kolobukhina, L V; L'vov, S D

2011-01-01

252

Russia’s Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world largest natural gas reserves and it is the world’s largest exporter of natural gas. Energy was one of the driving

Sergey Paltsev

2011-01-01

253

Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than\\u000a one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation\\u000a between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological\\u000a preferences of species concerning

I. V. Kur’ina; Yu. I. Preis; A. A. Bobrov

2010-01-01

254

Magnetic properties of recent sediments in Lake Baikal, Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral magnetic measurements of six 210Pb-dated surface cores from different basins of Lake Baikal, Siberia, show temporal records controlled by a range of internal and external processes. With the exception of sediments on the Academician Ridge, there is clear evidence for widespread reductive diagenesis effects on the ferrimagnetic component coupled with neo-formation of paramagnetic iron minerals. Greigite formation, bacterial magnetosome

J. A. Dearing; J. F. Boyle; P. G. Appleby; A. W. Mackay; R. J. Flower

1998-01-01

255

Diamondiferous eclogites from Siberia: Remnants of Archean oceanic crust  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated eight diamond-bearing bimineralic eclogite xenoliths from the Udachnaya Mine, Yakutia, Siberia, in terms of major elements, 87 Sr \\/ 86 Sr -, 143 Nd \\/ 144 Nd and oxygen isotopic ratios. The 18 O -values, measured with the new laser-fluorination technique, are different from mantle values and range between 5.19 and 7.38%. with an average error of

D. Jacob; E. Jagoutz; D. Lowry; D. Mattey; G. Kudrjavtseva

1994-01-01

256

The upper Bathonian Ammonites first found in North Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upper Bathonian Ammonites Cadoceras perrarum Voron. and Kepplerites ex gr. rosenkrantzi Spath are reported for the first time from the western coast of Anabar Bay, loosely collected. Both ammonoids represent index species of two biostratigraphic units: the Cadoceras barnstoni Beds and Cadoceras variabile Zone. The occurrence of genus Kepplerites (Kosmoceratidae) in North Siberia is evidence in favor of the migration of that family into the seas of the Arctic region.

Knyazev, V. G.; Meledina, S. V.

2011-06-01

257

Nonlinear dynamics study of the SIBERIA-2 electron storage ring  

SciTech Connect

Dedicated {ital SR} sources with minimized beam emittance possess a great deal of chromaticity. For the latter to be compensated, strong sextupole lenses producing a nonlinear influence on the beam dynamics and giving rise to the limitation of the motion stability area are employed. The paper presents the results concerning the single-particle nonlinear dynamics of SIBERIA-2. We have applied a perturbation theory based on canonical Lie transforms. It enables us to study high order perturbation effects.

Levichev, E.; Sajaev, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russia)

1995-09-01

258

Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657 000 km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0 °C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P > 0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P < 0.05) with Ts across 56% of the watershed (r = 0.52 ± 0.09, mean ± SD), principally in cold areas, and with CMIgy across 9% of the watershed (r = 0.45 ± 0.06), largely in warm areas. Larch ring-width measurements from nine sites revealed that year-to-year (i.e., high-frequency) variation in growth positively correlated (P < 0.05) with June temperature (r = 0.40) and prior summer CMI (r = 0.40) from 1938 to 2007. An unexplained multi-decadal (i.e., low-frequency) decline in annual basal area increment (BAI) occurred following the mid-20th century, but over the NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P > 0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r = 0.44, P < 0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies that projections of future forest distribution and productivity in this area should take into account the interactions of energy and moisture limitations. PMID:23813896

Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

2013-09-11

259

Russia's Dilemma of Fiscal Federalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

China's intergovernmental system shares many of the same features as Russia's. First, both are structured as three-tiered administrations. In each, fiscal decentralization has been an important dimension of reforms and has proceeded quickly, with far-reaching consequences. And, in both countries, regional interests are important, and provincial administrations are increasingly powerful, with all that this implies for the design of a

Christine I. Wallich

260

Russia's Place in Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis assesses the need for U.S.-Russian cooperation in Central Asia to create a stronger, more reliable long-term stability in the region. Current United States policy toward Russia in Central Asia is tailored to isolate and minimize Russian influe...

J. M. Edwards

2001-01-01

261

Scholars at Risk in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will share my general thoughts on safe haven for scholars at risk, based on my own experience, and will discuss scholars at risk in Russia. At the present time, these are mostly scientists falsely accused of espionage. I will highlight the special issues this fact raises for providing support or safe haven for such scientists.

Orlov, Yuri

2006-04-01

262

Russia's Competitiveness at the Crossroads  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the rising demand for energy resources, Russia has benefited from robust growth over the past few years. And, as in many other energy-exporting countries, policy-makers are faced with the challenge to put this growth momentum on a sound footing to make it sustainable, should oil prices fall. This requires putting solid foundations in place in the domestic economy, allowing

Margareta Drzeniek

263

Russia and the colour revolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The colour revolutions, and especially the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, are widely perceived as major international setbacks to Putin's Russia. The Ukrainian events alarmed Russian elites, who feared the possibility of a local colour revolution during the 2007–2008 electoral cycle. To thwart the perceived colour revolution threat, Russian authorities adopted strategies that combined a political, administrative and intellectual assault on

Evgeny Finkel; Yitzhak M. Brudny

2012-01-01

264

Resets, Russia, and Iranian Proliferation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Obama administration touts the reset policy with Russia as one of its signal achievements in foreign policy. One of the key elements of its argument is Russia’s help with Iran. Upon closer inspection it appears, however, that this support is tenuous and limited. Indeed, we may have reached the end of the line in terms of Russian support for

Stephen Blank

2012-01-01

265

Questionable Business Practices in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article applies Integrative Social Contracts Theory (Donaldson and Dunfee, 1994) to ethical issues in business situations in Russia arising between Russians and Westerners. The theory bases ethical decision making on universal hypernorms which are fundamental to human existence regardless of culture or nationality. Simultaneously, specific norms exist that may differ from one community or culture to another. The theory

Sheila M. Puffer

2000-01-01

266

Income and Satisfaction in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Russian Federation has undergone some drastic economic, social-cultural, and political changes since 1989. The income of nearly half of the population has sunk below the poverty line, which has had an enormous impact on their emotional life. In this study, the relationship between income and satisfaction in Russia was examined. Three theories – need, comparison, and personality theory –

Peggy Schyns

2001-01-01

267

Health care reform in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The break-up of the former Soviet Union has created a greater realisation of the health and health care deficiencies of what are now independent states and the need for reform. The purpose of these two papers is to describe these deficiencies and set the scene for the establishment of some form of national health insurance in Russia and the other

O P Schepin; V Yu Semenov; Igor Sheiman

1992-01-01

268

Punishing Juvenile Offenders in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current literature onjuvenilejustice in Russia is limited and tends to focus on the former Soviet Union. Using newly transled data we exunine the police and cowt dispositions ofjuveniles tested forseriousoffenses in Russiaduringthe period 1990-1999. Thetotal crime rate forjuveniles increased dramatically during this period, as did rests and convictions. Mostjuveniles were arested for theft. There was, however, a unexplained ptn

James L. Williams; Daniel G. Rodeheaver

2002-01-01

269

Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

Rimashevskaia, N. M.

2011-01-01

270

Contrasts in the Quaternary of mid-North America and mid-Eurasia: notes on Quaternary landscapes of western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberian Plain was formed by marine deposits that extended from the Mediterranean basin to the arctic. Tectonic action later produced a striking series of long straight NE-SW grabens in the southern part of the plain. Pleistocene advance of the Kara ice sheet onto the continent resulted in blockage of the Ob and Yenisey rivers to form huge proglacial lakes that drained through these grabens south via the Turgay Pass and the Aral, Caspian, Black and Mediterranean seas to the North Atlantic Ocean, but during the Last Glacial Maximum (late Weichselian, isotope stage 2), the Kara ice sheet did not advance onto the continent in northwestern Siberia. The Altai Mountains, which bound the West Siberian Plain on the south, contained large deep intermontane ice-dammed lakes, which drained catastrophically when the ice dams broke, forming giant ripples on the basin floors. Pollen studies of glacial lakes indicate that the Lateglacial steppe vegetation and dry climatic conditions continued into the early Holocene as summer insolation maintained high levels. Permafrost development on a drained lake floor in the western Altai Mountains resulted in the formation of groups of small pingos. In North America the growth and wastage of the huge Laurentide ice sheet had an indirect role in the climatic history of western Siberia during the Glacial and Lateglacial periods, after which the climate was more affected directly by insolation changes, whereas in North America in the early Holocene the insolation factor was coupled with the climatic effects of the slow wastage of the ice sheet, and the time of maximum dryness was postponed until the mid-Holocene.

Wright, H. E.

2005-10-01

271

Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia  

SciTech Connect

Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

2010-05-01

272

Trends and seasonal cycle of the tropospheric methane observed and modeled over Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed 12 years of atmospheric methane data observed over West Siberia and compared with models of atmospheric transport and chemistry. The observational data were obtained by flask sampling and laboratory analysis. The samples were taken at the altitude range of 0.5 to 7 km once a month near Surgut and Novosibirsk. The purpose of this study was to compare simulated concentration time series with observed ones is order to evaluate existing surface methane emission estimates for the region. We conducted model simulations with three different chemical tracer transport models using seasonally varying methane emissions (without inter-annual variability). In the lower troposphere, seasonal cycle and trends are obscured by large synoptic scale variability, exceeding seasonal cycle amplitude and inter-annual variability. To reduce the effect of the variability we use multi-year average seasonal cycle in the comparison between models and observations. Observations and models suggest the methane concentration in lower troposphere is significantly different from the free troposphere in response to regional emissions. There is an indication of the large emissions in late summer in the observed seasonal cycle over Surgut. To improve a seasonal cycle fit we need improved surface methane flux models, properly accounting for amplitude and seasonality of emissions.

Maksyutov, S.; Machida, T.; Kim, H.; Patra, P.; Takigawa, M.; Tarasova, O.; Houweling, S.

2008-12-01

273

Methane emission from bogs in the subtaiga of Western Siberia: The development of standard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methane emission from typical bog landscapes of the West Siberian subtaiga was studied in the summer-autumn of 2007-2010. The lowest specific fluxes (the median value is 0.08 mg C-CH4/m2 per h) were recorded from ryams (raised bogs with dwarf shrub-sphagnum associations). From the ridges of the ridge-pool complexes, the fluxes were estimated at 0.49 mg C-CH4/m2 per h; from the oligotrophic hollows, eutrophic bogs, floating lake mats, and mesotrophic quaking bogs, they were estimated at 2.68, 3.36, 4.53, and 4.98 mg C-CH4/m2 per h, respectively. The maximal flux was determined from the lakes (the median is 17.98 mg C-CH4/m2 per h). The regional assessment of the methane flux from the bogs of Western Siberia (2.93 Tg C-CH4/yr) was obtained on the basis of the authors' and literature data.

Glagolev, M. V.; Sabrekov, A. F.; Kleptsova, I. E.; Filippov, I. V.; Lapshina, E. D.; Machida, T.; Maksyutov, Sh. Sh.

2012-10-01

274

Imprint of the North American plate in Siberia revealed by GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPS observations in east Siberia combined with global observations, collected 1995-2002, place constraints on the geometry and motions of the Eurasian, North American, and Pacific plates in east Asia. By comparing velocities relative to Eurasia and to North America, we conclude that east Siberia to the east of the Cherskiy Range belongs to the North American plate, hypothesized for three

G. M. Steblov; M. G. Kogan; R. W. King; C. H. Scholz; R. Bürgmann; D. I. Frolov

2003-01-01

275

Imprint of the North American plate in Siberia revealed by GPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPS observations in east Siberia combined with global observations, collected 1995–2002, place constraints on the geometry and motions of the Eurasian, North American, and Pacific plates in east Asia. By comparing velocities relative to Eurasia and to North America, we conclude that east Siberia to the east of the Cherskiy Range belongs to the North American plate, hypothesized for three

G. M. Steblov; M. G. Kogan; R. W. King; C. H. Scholz; R. Bürgmann; D. I. Frolov

2003-01-01

276

Old traditions, new tendencies: Final Paleolithic cultural development in southern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the study of cultural manifestations in Siberia during the Younger Dryas. In spite of the relative scarcity of data and lack of detailed paleoenvironmental reconstructions for the time span under consideration, there is support for continuous and relatively dense human population in all main river basins southern Siberia. The Final Paleolithic saw important changes in subsistence

Sergey A. Vasil’ev

2011-01-01

277

Aircraft observations of the atmospheric boundary layer over a heterogeneous surface in eastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines specifications and gives preliminary results of aircraft observations made during the Intensive Observation Period in 2000 (IOP2000) over the Yakutsk area of eastern Siberia. The observations were part of the GAME-Siberia project. Spatial and seasonal variation in the fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide were determined using a Russian aircraft equipped with turbulence sensors.

T. Hiyama; M. A. Strunin; R. Suzuki; J. Asanuma; M. Y. Mezrin; N. A. Bezrukova; T. Ohata

2003-01-01

278

Volcanism in Kamchatka, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diverse and robust volcanism of Kamchatka challenges our understanding of subduction zone volcanism on both local volcanic and regional tectonic scales (e.g., AGU Geophysics Monograph 172). One might expect the two North Pacific peninsula/ island arc pairs, Kamchatka Peninsula/ Kuriles and Alaska Peninsula/ Aleutians, to be twins, but there are some important differences as well as similarities. In both cases, the continental margin largely controls the position of the volcanic front on the peninsulas and the associated island arcs are pinned to the peninsula tips. The unusually acute Aleutian-Kamchatka subduction cusp may have formed by jamming and outboard (southeastward) jumping of Bering subduction at about 50 Ma to form the Aleutians, with capture of the Bering microplate by the North American plate. Perhaps the acuteness was augmented by convergence of the Emperor Seamount Chain with the junction. Another outboard (eastward) jump may explain the two lines of volcanoes in Kamchatka, which are partially separated by the rift-like Central Kamchatka Depression. This is thought to have occurred at 7 - 10 Ma when 3 seamounts were accreted as capes to the eastern edge of Kamchatka. But other workers, pointing to east-west chemical trends and persistence of volcanism in the inboard Sredinny Range, prefer to postulate two depths of volatile release from the same intact slab. On the Alaska Peninsula, Quaternary volcanic deposits are discontinuous and even famous Mount Katmai is a volumetric dwarf. The opposite is the case in Kamchatka, where pre-volcanic basement under the young eastern volcanic front is sparsely exposed and Holocene stratovolcanoes rise as high as 4,835 m. Calderas are so numerous they sometimes overlap. Some exhibit repeated andesitic stratovolcano - silicic caldera cycles over remarkably short time frames. Remoteness, international politics, and challenging weather have conspired to make Kamchatka's volcanoes less appreciated by non-Russians than they should be. Among the best natural laboratories for understanding subduction volcanism are: (1) The spectacular edifice collapse/explosive eruption/continuing dome-effusion sequences of Bezymianny (1956) and Shiveluch (1964), which together with Mount St Helens (1980) provide a valuable time series in system evolution; (2) The two-magma, multiple vent eruptions of Tolbachik (1975), Karymsky (1996), and Gorely (1737) interpretable as large dikes interacting with shallow magma pods; (3) Ksudach with 3 caldera-forming eruptions within just the Holocene; (4) Hydrothermally diverse Mutnovsky with strong passive SO2 degassing, fumaroles to 600°C, and flanking 50 MWe geothermal production; and (5) The ever-active Kliuchevskoi Volcano, which may demonstrate the requirement of gas-lift to push basalt to the top of its towering, hastily built cone without rupturing it.

Eichelberger, J. C.; Eichelberger, L. G.

2008-12-01

279

Snowpack quality as an indicator of air pollution in Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk snow samples were collected from the snowpack in open areas along two sampling lines running to the west from the Cu-Ni smelters at Nikel and Monchegorsk, NW Russia, during 1991–1993. The aim of the study was to estimate the area affected by sulphur and heavy metal deposition from the smelters. Snowpack quality was used as an indicator of deposition

A.-J. Lindroos; J. Derome; K. Niska

1995-01-01

280

U–Pb geochronology of Riphean sandstone and gabbro from southeast Siberia and its bearing on the Laurentia–Siberia connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one detrital zircons from the mid–late Riphean Mayamkan Formation sandstone (Uy Group) of the Sette–Daban fold belt, southeast Siberia yielded SHRIMP 207Pb\\/206Pb ages ranging between 1500 and 1050 Ma. Other grains yielded ages between 2.7 and 1.8 Ga. There is no known source region for the Mesoproterozoic zircons in Siberia; however, this range of ages closely matches those of detrital

Robert H Rainbird; Richard A Stern; Andrei K Khudoley; Anatoly P Kropachev; Larry M Heaman; Vladimir I Sukhorukov

1998-01-01

281

Deoxynivalenol in cereals in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the occurrence of deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN) in wheat, rye, barley and maize harvested in 1989–2001 in several regions of Russia has been conducted. A total of 5652 samples of cereals were analysed for DON and ZEN by using TLC and normal-phase HPLC with UV-detector. DON was detected in 69% of 2166 samples from Krasnodar region

Victor A. Tutelyan

2004-01-01

282

Russia's Post-Communist Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a gendered analysis of the Chechen wars (1994–6, 1999–present) in the context of Russia's post-communist transformation. I argue that the leadership used the first war to associate itself with a notion of militarized, ordered, patriotic Russian masculinity in juxtaposition to a notion of destabilizing, aggressive, criminal Chechen masculinity. Justification for the second war additionally relied on constructed

Maya Eichler

2006-01-01

283

[Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established. PMID:20799643

Kur'ina, I V; Pre?s, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

284

Paleohydrology of late pleistocene superflooding, altay mountains, siberia.  

PubMed

Cataclysmic flooding is a geomorphological process of planetary significance. Landforms of flood origin resulted from late Pleistocene ice-dammed lake failures in the Altay Mountains of south-central Siberia. Peak paleoflows, which exceeded 18 x 10(6) cubic meters per second, are comparable to the largest known terrestrial discharges of freshwater and show a hydrological scaling relation to floods generated by catastrophic dam failures. These seem to have been Earth's greatest floods, based on a variety of reconstructed paleohydraulic parameters. PMID:17832349

Baker, V R; Benito, G; Rudoy, A N

1993-01-15

285

The Bazhenovo Suite, a unique natural oil reservoir. [Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In the Mesozoic section of Western Siberia, the oil and gas reservoirs are confined to terrigenous silt-sand formations. The Upper Jurassic bituminous argillites of the Bazhenovo Suite are an exception, and the only clay-argillite reservoir rocks ever discovered. The thickness of the Bazhenovo argillites is comparatively small, varying from 5-10 to 20-40 meters. From these rocks in many areas light, high-quality oil has been obtained, including commercial quantities with maximum yields of more than 370 m/sup 3//day. (JMT)

Trofimuk, A.A.; Karogodin, Y.N.

1982-03-01

286

The multipole superconducting wiggler for the SIBERIA-2 storage ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The project of the multipole superconducting wiggler for the SIBERIA-2 storage ring is discussed. The wiggler will be used for the generation of high-intensity synchrotron radiation (SR) beams in the X-ray energy region of 5-25 keV and will allow the SR beam intensity to be increased by a factor of 30-100. A SR beam driver system is also proposed, which would increase the number of independently operating stations on the SR wiggler beam lines.

Artemiev, A. N.; Barkov, A. V.; Chechin, A. I.; Dudarev, A. V.; Krylov, Yu. V.; Smolyakov, N. V.

1991-10-01

287

Tax Reforms in China and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares tax reforms and current tax systems in China and Russia. In both countries, earlier tax reforms aimed at providing incentives to state-owned enterprises (SOEs) to improve productivity. In the 1990s, China and Russia established market-oriented tax systems, and both experienced a decline in tax revenues. Entering the new century, China adopted an increased-spending fiscal policy, while Russia

Shuanglin Lin

2009-01-01

288

Why Ukraine Is Not Russia: Hegemonic National Identity and Democracy in Russia and Ukraine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the impact of national identity on democratization and market reforms in Russia and Ukraine. We develop a concept of hegemonic national identity and demonstrate its role in Russian and Ukrainian post-communist political development. The article argues that Russia’s slide toward authoritarianism was to an important degree an outcome of the notions of national identity adopted by the

Yitzhak M. Brudny; Evgeny Finkel

2011-01-01

289

Educational level and adult mortality in Russia: An analysis of routine data 1979 to 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of socio-economic differences in mortality in Russia was effectively prohibited in the Soviet period. The extent and nature of any such differences is of considerable interest given the very different principles upon which Russian society has been organised for most of this century compared to the West where socio-economic differences in health have been extensively documented. Using cross-sectional

Vladimir M. Shkolnikov; David A. Leon; Sergey Adamets; Eugeniy Andreev; Alexander Deev

1998-01-01

290

76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade...duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to...

2011-03-21

291

75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United States International Trade...duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to...

2010-12-01

292

Asynchronous glaciation in Eastern Siberia during the Late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extent and timing of former glaciation in Eastern Siberia has been reconstructed through the systematic mapping of end moraines, and the integration of published age-estimates. Reconstructions reveal that during the global Last Glacial Maximum (gLGM), glaciers extended no more than 50 km beyond mountain centres. During earlier, pre-gLGM, phases, glaciers were more extensive, with lengths of over 260 km. Published age estimates, though few, reveal that the timing of former glaciation, and the maximum Quaternary extent, was asynchronous across the region, and out-of-phase with ice-extent maxima elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere. This glacial history is partly explained through consideration of climatic-forcing (particularly moisture-availability, solar insolation and albedo), though topographic-controls upon the extent and dynamics of former glaciers are also considered. Ultimately, it is argued that, during periods of Late-Quaternary cooling, the extent of glaciers in Eastern Siberia was governed by moisture availability, which was, in turn, largely governed by the extent of ice sheets elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere.

Barr, Iestyn

2013-04-01

293

Evaluating oil, gas ventures in W. Siberia: Feasibility studies  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the methodology and calculations used in performing the economic evaluations for a typical western Siberia oil project venture. The discussion of taxes, funds, depreciation, and costs assumes the venture is a stock company and that economics are calculated on a project basis. Most ventures available to western companies are delineated oil fields that are not yet developed or producing. The authors focus on this type of property. The required elements for an economic evaluation include original-oil-in-place (OOIP) and recoverable reserves; development plan and associated production forecast; and capital requirements and operating costs. The level of evaluation-i.e., screening, preliminary feasibility study, Technical Efficiency of Organization (TEO), or full feasibility study-determines the detail needed for each of these elements. Several economic analyses of a venture should be made to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative development plans, joint venture deal terms, capital requirements, operating costs, product prices, and taxation variables. The first three parts of this five part series dealt with (1) log and core data, (2) reservoir description and (3) flow tests and reservoir performance, and provided a technical foundation for the evaluation of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia.

Krug, J.A. (Questa Engineering Corp., Golden, CO (United States)); Connelly, W. (Pangea International Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

1993-02-08

294

Integrated satellite and geochemical studies in northern Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The complex of physicogeographical conditions in northern Siberia limit the possibilities for wide usage of traditional geological-geophysical methods. In such regions, poorly studied and difficult of access, one means of increasing the efficiency of petroleum-exploration work may be the use of remote sensing methods in association with terrestrial geochemical and geological-geomorphic studies. Over the last 10 years, the authors in company with other geologists have carried out satellite-based surveys in northern Siberia. As a result, they have succeeded in revealing new elements in the tectonic structure, of value in the more successful resolution of problems associated with predicting petroleum resource. This relates primarily to fault tectonics and also to the recognition of major and especially local anticlinal structures activated in recent time. The basis for the application of geochemical methods for prospecting hydrocarbon resources within deciphered local structures relates to the hypotheses on the filtration-diffusion mass-transfer of hydrocarbon gases from pools into the overlying sediments up to the present surface and their concentration in surface waters, soils, and vegetation. Results are discussed. 3 references.

Bidzhiyev, R.A.; Lyapina, G.G.; Rozhnova, T.A.; Vanin, A.L.

1987-07-01

295

The criteria of heavy snowfalls in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, unfortunately, the number of victims of natural hazards doesn't decrease in Russia. There are many reasons of that situation - both geographical and human. Russia is one of the most spread countries in the world and it has the big number of different types of natural phenomena, which can cause natural disaster. One of the reasons is the fact that the criteria of which meteorological or hydrological hazards can cause an emergency situation are equal for the whole territory of Russia. .And that's why many dangerous situations are underestimated. The analysis of the distribution of criteria in Russia shows that only temperature phenomena (such as frost or heat) have really space differentiation. According to directive documents in Russia, the criteria of heavy snowfall in all the territory of Russia is 20 mm per 12 hours - from subtropical to arctic regions. But the socio-economical and climatic conditions are so different, that using this one criteria is not rational at all. In the investigation held the author developed the method of differentiation the territoty of Russia and proposed different criteria of heavy snowfalls for chosen regions. The method is based, on one hand on analysis of 30-years statistics of natural disasters in Russia, and on other hand on the analysis of the density of population and the mean quantity of precipitation in the cold period in Russia. The geographical zoning of Russia was conduct and clusters with equal parameters were determined. That means that in these areas the same hydro meteorological characteristics can be used for. The new criteria for the number of natural phenomena (such as hale, snowfalls etc) were found. The analysis of this criteria of heavy snowfalls showed, that on 70 the territory of Russia this criteria (20 mm per 12 hours) is overstated. In the most of the big cities (according to the statistics and calculated data) in different climatic regions this criteria should be much lower - from 8 to 10 mm per 12 hours.

Gavrilova, Sofia

2013-04-01

296

Snow ablation process in the southern mountainous taiga of eastern Siberia, during an early spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern mountain taiga region is the water source of the Lena and Bikal basins. Ma et al. (2000) showed that most of the water in these rivers flows from south-eastern Siberia, which has heavy rain, especially in the summer. From August 2000 to May 2002, we made long-term observations of the water, energy, and carbon cycles on a catchment scale. This paper presents results of an intensive observation on snowmelt, sublimation and energy balance during a spring in 2002. The Mogot experimental watershed is located in the southern mountain region of eastern Siberia (55.5°N, 124.7°E) approximately 60 km north of Tynda, in the Amur region, Russia. The observation site is the catchment of the Nelka River. The basin is about 12 km long and 2.5 km wide, with a total area of approximately 30.8 km2; the slopes are exposed to the northeast and southwest. In this basin, altitudes range from approximately 580 to 1150 m. The land surface is predominantly covered by larch forest, but birch forest partly covers the ridge area and higher elevations are covered by pine forest. Three sites with typical surface conditions were selected to observe meteorological elements. Two sites, LF (Larch forest, 610m) and OP (grassland, 608m) were at the bottom of the valley, and another site ES (Larch forest, 635m) was located in an east slope. Snowmelt begun from 4 April 2002 and snow disappearance date was 7 May 2002. There was large difference of air temperature and relative humidity between Site OP or LF and ES in March 2002, but difference of air temperature and relative humidity between Site OP and LF was not significant. The difference of altitude between OP or LF and ES was approximately 30 m. Thus, this demonstrated that strong inversion layer existed above the snow surface. As season has gone on, then inversion layer was getting weak. Monthly mean evaporation was 0.26 mm/day in March. We also observed evaporation pan observation. The amount of evaporation was 0.24 mm/day so both observational values for evaporation from snowpack were similar. Furthermore, evaporation of site LF was greater than that of site ES. The most important energy to evaporation was soil heat flux during an early spring. Soil heat flux of site LF also was greater than that of site ES. Thus, different soil heat flux made the differences in evaporation. During early spring, strong inversion layer occurred at the atmospheric surface layer above the snow surface. There was good positive correlation between soil heat flux and strength of atmospheric inversion. The strength of atmospheric inversion increased the soil surface flux into a snowpack and we think that soil heat flux contributed the latent heat flux during March because the most of net radiation was negative and sensible heat flux was not significant. Therefore, strong atmospheric inversion caused the energy for latent heat flux and spatial variation of evaporation during early spring.

Suzuki, K.; Kubota, J.; Zhang, Y.; Kadota, T.; Ohata, T.; Vuglinsky, V.

2002-12-01

297

Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra-fine particles were even lower than ones observed in the polar FT. Summarising the data obtained during two intensive measurement campaigns carried out over the vast territory of Siberia we can draw the conclusion that remote Siberian troposphere is a relatively efficient source of recently formed particles. Measurements carried out in the FT (3-7 km) showed that about 44% of them satisfied criteria of new particle formation. At the same time, more favourable conditions are observed between 5 and 7 km (48%). The present work was funded by ANR grant BLAN06-1_137670, CNRS, CEA, the French Ministry of Research, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (YAK-AEROSIB project) and by RFBR (grants 07-05-00645, 08-05-10033 and 08-05-92499) and by the Norwegian Research Council as part of POLARCAT-Norway. Flights over Baikal Lake were financed by Russian Government (State Contract No 02.515.11.5087). Young, L.H., Benson, D.R., Montanaro, W.M., Lee, S.H., Pan, L.L., Rogers, D.C., Jensen, J., Stith, J.L., Davis, C.A., Campos, T.L., Bowman, K.P., Cooper,W.A., Lait, L.R., 2007. Enhanced new particle formation observed in the northern midlatitude tropopause region. Journal of Geophysical Research 112. doi:10.1029/2006JD008109

Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

2010-05-01

298

Estimation of periphytic microalgae gross primary production with DCMU-fluorescence method in Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periphyton (epilithon) gross primary production (GPP) was estimated using the DCMU-fluorescence method in the Yenisei River.\\u000a In the unshaded littoral zone, chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) and GPP value varied from 0.83 to 973.74 mg m?2and 2–304,425 O2 m?2 day?1 (0.64–95 133 mg C m?2 day?1), respectively. Positive significant correlation (r?=?0.8) between daily GPP and periphyton Chl a was found. Average ratio GPP:Chl

V. I. Kolmakov; O. V. Anishchenko; E. A. Ivanova; M. I. Gladyshev; N. N. Sushchik

2008-01-01

299

Trace element speciation and origin of colloids in surface waters of subarctic zone (NW of Russia and Central Siberia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geochemistry of trace elements (TE) in boreal regions attracts large attention of researchers in view of on- going environmental changes that can affect both the fluxes of these elements to the ocean, their speciation and thus their bioavailability. Most of trace elements in waters of boreal zone are transported via organic and organo-mineral colloids. In order to better understand the

O. S. Pokrovsky; J. Viers; A. S. Prokushkin; E. V. Vasukova; L. S. Shirokova; B. Dupre

2008-01-01

300

Ammonite scale for the Volgian of Western Siberia and its paleontological substantiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The revision of available identifications of Volgian ammonites from the core of boreholes drilled in Western Siberia allowed for the refining of the list of genera and species established on its territory. The lack of reliable identifications of a series of taxa indicates an imperfectly substantiated subdivision of individual Volgian zones of the Subpolar Urals in Western Siberia. The Volgian zonal scale of Western Siberia is proposed to be put into correspondence with its actual paleontological substantiation. Although the scale leans upon the North Uralian one, it is less detailed as compared to the latter.

Alifirov, A. S.

2009-12-01

301

Palynostratigraphy of the Lower-Middle Jurassic deposits, borehole section Vostok 4 (Southeast of West Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of palynological investigation of the Vostok 4 borehole section situated in the Azharma region of the Ob-Irtysh facies area, where drilling has penetrated through the Urmanskaya, Ilansk, Peshkovskaya, and Tyumen formations. Six palynoassemblages are distinguished in the section based on the analyzed distribution of spores, pollen of terrestrial plants, and microphytoplankton. According to their succession, the section is subdivided into biostratigraphic units ranked as beds with palynomorphs. Comparative analysis and correlation with the Siberian palynostratigraphic standard scale of the Lower-Middle Jurassic, where succession of palynoassemblages is coordinated with ammonite zones, substantiate the Pliensbachian-Bajocian age of the deposits studied. Diverse microphytoplankton (dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, prasinophytes, zignematacean and colonial algae) occurs throughout the section. The facies environment of sedimentation is reconstructed based on quantitative proportions of microphytoplankton taxa.

Goryacheva, A. A.

2011-06-01

302

Collection, preparation and transport of gas-saturated oils at the fields of West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Trends are formulated for improving technology of collection, preparation and transport of oil in a gas-saturated state guaranteeing increase in effective use of oil and oil gas, reduction of their loss during the process of recovery, and supply to the consumer.

Marinin, N.S.; Antipyev, V.N.; Glovatskiy, Ye.A.; Skipin, V.S.

1983-01-01

303

Relationships between charcoal particles in air and sediments in west-central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and size of charred particles determine transport and deposition in lakes. Lack of such data is a principal obstacle to interpretation of past fire from charcoal profiles. Our two-part analysis includes a calibration study, to assess charred-particle production and transport during fire, and a study of charred particles in sediment. The calibration step establishes the magnitude and size distribution

James S. Clark; Jason Lynch; Brian J. Stocks; Johann G. Goldammer

1998-01-01

304

Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them

S. Davydov; A. Sher; G. Boeskorov; P. Lazarev; J. Binladen; E. Willerslev; A. Tikhonov

2009-01-01

305

The changing nature of murder in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The death rate from homicide in Russia increased rapidly during the 1990s. It is now about 20 times higher than in western Europe and is among the highest recorded anywhere in the world. However, this issue has received little attention so far from public health researchers or policymakers.This paper describes the changing nature of homicide during the 1990s in Russia

Valeriy V. Chervyakov; Vladimir M. Shkolnikov; William Alex Pridemore; Martin McKee

2002-01-01

306

Successful collaboration model of Japan and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial competitiveness of Japanese manufacturers has been lagging behind over the last decade. Some have imputed their weakening performance to a shortage of innovative minds. Russia, on the other hand, is now an emerging market whose economy has grown by at least 7% for each of the last five years. Among the BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India, and China), the

H. Yashiro

2004-01-01

307

RUSSIA: GREAT POWER IMAGE VERSUS ECONOMIC REALITY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's vision of itself has largely coalesced around that of a unique regional power, with the natural resources, glori- ous history, and will power to be a major player in a future multipolar world. As seen by most Russians, under the guid- ance of President Vladimir Putin, Russia has become an eco- nomically powerful actor with an important and independent

Kathleen J. Hancock

2007-01-01

308

Economic Crises, Stress and Mortality in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: In 1992 and 1998 Russia experienced two economic crises that led to dramaticimpoverishment of population, social anxiety, and followed by mortality surges. Thisstudy analyzes age- and sex-specific mortality from violent causes in Russia after the1992 and 1998 economic crises, using official statistical data. Accidents, injuries andalcohol poisoning demonstrated the most rapid relative increase in mortality for bothsexes during the

Natalia S. Gavrilova; Galina N. Evdokushkina; Victoria G. Semyonova; Leonid A. Gavrilov

2001-01-01

309

Documenting Non-Russian Immigrants from Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes materials relating to the history of German settlers in the United States who arrived by way of Russia, sometimes having lived in that country for generations. They had left the German territories primarily for religious reasons, though some came to Russia for the land. Later, discrimination policies by the Russian and Soviet governments and tales of opportunity

Norman Saul

2006-01-01

310

North Korean nuclear crisis and Russia's role  

Microsoft Academic Search

North Korean government officially admitted to having at least one nuclear bomb at this year. This dramatic change suggested that North Korean government have changed nuclear policy and strategy. Russia will get more economic benefits with South Korea than with North Korea. Russia will maintain friendly relations with North Korea in the future only up to a level that does

Myung-Soo Lee

2005-01-01

311

Patterns of childbearing in Russia 1994 - 1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we analyze the determinants of births in Russia in the 1990s and the changes in their effects since the 1980s and factors influencing fertility intentions in the 1990s. In the first part, based on the current social and economic situation in Russia, specific hypotheses for different parities (realized and intended fertility) are developed and subsequently tested by

Annette Kohlmann; Sergej M. Zuev

2001-01-01

312

Learning to Learn: The Challenges in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Generalizing about organizational change in Russia is difficult. The education of managers in eastern Europe generally includes an initial five- year degree equivalent to a U. S. masters degree, specific post graduate work in management and some re-qualifying education every 3-5 years. In the old Soviet Union, there were four levels of management training, and in the new Russia several

Philip Salem

1994-01-01

313

Stigma and HIV infection in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined the personal and social consequences of stigma associated with HIV infection in Russia, a country with one of the most rapidly advancing HIV epidemics globally. By May 2005, Samara Oblast, Russia had 24,022 notified seropositive individuals. Focus-group discussions with randomly sampled seropositive and seronegative individuals, matched by age, gender and education were selected from the general

Y. Balabanova; R. Coker; R. A. Atun; F. Drobniewski

2006-01-01

314

Information Technology and Russia's Social Modernization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technologies play a very important role in modernizing Russia's economy and society as whole. Its competitive advantage lies in the availability of highly educated labour resources. Russia accounts for approximately 9% of researchers in the world as opposed to a share of about 0.3% in the world innovation market. Our approach is based on identifying ways to set up

Svetlana Petukhova; Margarita Strepetova

2010-01-01

315

Linkage between seasonal hydrology and carbon flux dynamics in tundra ponds: Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ponds have been recently recognized as being highly sensitive to changing climate. To date, ponds and lakes are disappearing in Alaska, Siberia and Canadian High Arctic because of climate warming (Fitzgerald et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2005; and Smol et al. 2007). While numerous limnological studies have been done on arctic ponds located in the Canadian High Arctic (Douglas and Smol, 1994; Hamilton et al. 2001; Lim et al., 2001), there is a limited number of studies on tundra ponds located in other circumpolar environments (e.g. Northern Siberia). Duff et al. (1999) describes tundra lakes in northern Russia as clear, dilute, oligotrophic lakes with low nutrients and dissolved organic carbon concentration. While numerous ponds and lakes exists in the Lena River Delta averaging to 2120 lakes of all sizes for every 1000 km2, no studies have been done to understand carbon flux dynamics of these freshwater ecosystems. In this study hydrological monitoring based on water balance framework was applied to a series of ponds and lakes located on Samoylov Island, 120 km south of the Arctic Ocean in the southern central Lena River Delta (72° 22' N, 126 ° 30' E) from July to September 2008. To better understand spatial differences in pond hydrology and carbon flux dynamics, the physical and biochemical data was collected from 42 tundra ponds. The selection of the ponds was based on their size (small, medium, large) and depth values ranging from 10 to 120 cm. The estimation of the seasonal water budget in 2008 showed that losses through evapotranspiration were offset by similar precipitation inputs and resulted in the equilibrium storage values in the study ponds prior to the freeze-back. Preliminary analysis showed that more than 50% of the ponds had DOC > 6.5 mg/l which exceeds average value of other Arctic ponds reported in literature (Duff et al. 1999 and Hamilton et al. 2001). Elevated DOC concentrations (> 8 mg/l) were found in the small and medium ponds with depth values ranging from 15 to 30 cm. The values of other environmental variables were significantly correlated with high correlations among Ca, Mg and Sr (r = 0.89 to 0.92). Similar to Duff et al. (1999) significant but weak correlations were found between conductivity, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and DOC values. While arctic pond ecosystems are highly sensitive to the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation, such elevated DOC values in the study ponds might contribute to better resilience of the pond ecosystem.

Abnizova, Anna; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia

2010-05-01

316

The carbon balance of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan using inventory based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory based Land Ecosystem Assessment and inverse models estimate. A lower boundary estimate is provided at -1350 Tg C yr-1 from from the inversion models. The average of the three methods is -613.5 Tg C yr-1. The methane emission is estimated separately at 41.4 TgC yr-1. These three methods agree well within their respective error bounds. There is thus good consistency between bottom up and top down methods. The forests of Russia primarily cause the net atmosphere to land flux ( -692 Tg C yr-1 from the LEA) with remarkable little interannual variability. It remains however remarkable that the three methods provide such close estimates (-615, -662, -554 TgCyr-1) for NBP, given the inherent uncertainties in all of the approaches. The lack of recent forest inventories, the few eddy covariance sites and associated uncertainty with upscaling and under sampling of concentrations for the inversions are among the prime causes of the uncertainty. The DGVMs suggest a much lower uptake at -91Tg C yr-1 and we argue that this is caused by a high estimate of heterotrophic respiration compared to other methods.

Dolman, Han; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Recapp Russia Synthesis Team

2013-04-01

317

Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties at a very remote, continental site. The instrumentation at the observatory comprises a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until May 2008, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of CO was observed with summer minima around 80 ppb and winter maxima of about 180 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were comparable to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N. Periods of elevated CO concentrations, typically lasting for one to three days, interrupted the mean annual cycle. Backward trajectories computed with the NOAA HYSPLIT model indicated changes of air mass origin associated with the CO peaks. It was found, that for several peaks air masses have passed over the region of Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During summer, very sharp peaks of CO concentration with no change of air mass origin were observed. In this case, local wild fires are most likely the cause of the increase of CO concentrations. This general picture was confirmed by the output of the MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model that predicted CO concentrations in good agreement with the measured CO concentration at the ZOTTO site, resembling the typical annual cycle of CO concentrations. Furthermore, some of the peaks related to changes of the air mass origin were also predicted by the model, while the peaks presumably caused by wild fires were not found. The optical properties of the aerosol showed intense variations over the observation period. Episodes with strongly elevated absorption coefficients and particle concentrations occurred between periods of typical background readings. Using gaseous tracers, especially CO, and back-trajectories, these episodes could be traced to anthropogenic emission regions. The combination of CO concentration and aerosol properties with the determination of the air mass origin enables us to distinguish between continental background air and air masses being influenced by anthropogenic activities. Long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

Mayer, J. C.; Birmili, W.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Juergens, N.; Kisilyakhov, Y.; Panov, A.; Andreae, M. O.

2009-12-01

318

Soil Organic Matter in Forest Ecosystems of the Forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our study was conducted on 17 forest sample plots in the forest-tundra zone of Central Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region, Russia. They were covered by larch/feather moss/shrub and larch/grass forest types growing on cryozems and podburs (Cryosols). The investigation was aimed at estimating soil organic matter storage and structure in forest ecosystems growing along the northern tree line. Such ecosystems have low rates of exchange processes and biological productivity. Estimating soil carbon in these forest types is important for a deeper understanding of their role in biogeochemical cycles and forecasting consequences of climate changes. Soil organic matter was divided into pools by biodegradation resistance level and, hence, different roles of these pools in biological cycles. The soil organic matter was divided into an easily mineralizable (LMOM) fraction, which includes labile (insoluble) (LOM) and mobile (soluble) (MOM) organic compounds, and a stable organic matter fraction that is humus substances bound with soil matrix. The forest-tundra soil carbon was found to total 30.9 to 125.9 tons/ha. Plant residues were the main part of the soil easily mineralizable organic matter and contained from 13.3 to 62.4% of this carbon. Plant residue carbon was mainly allocated on the soil surface, in the forest litter. Plant residues in the soil (dead roots + other "mortmass") were calculated to contribute 10-30% of the plant residues carbon, or 2.5-15.1% of the total soil carbon. Soil surface and in-soil dead plant material included 60-95% of heavily decomposed residues that made up a forest litter fermentation subhorizon and an "other mortmass" fraction of the root detritus. Mobile organic matter (substances dissolved in water and 0.1N NaOH) of plant residues was found to allocate 15-25% of carbon. In soil humus, MOM contribution ranged 14 to 64%. Easily mineralizable organic matter carbon appeared to generally dominate forest-tundra soil carbon pool. It was measured to contribute 57% of the total soil carbon on average, stable humus hence containing only 43% (from 13 to 63%) of the total carbon. This ratio between the main forest-tundra soil carbon pools might be attributed to a small soil depth of thawing and a low rate of plant residue decomposition that enhance easily mineralizable organic matter accumulation. Ecosystems of taiga zones showed different ratios between easily mineralizable and stable organic matter carbon: 53 and 47% in northern taiga (cryogenic soils), 49 and 51 % in central taiga, and 45 and 55 % in southern taiga, respectively. This study is funded by RFFI (project ? 09-04-98004), and SB RAS Integrated project ? 50.

Mukhortova, Liudmila

2010-05-01

319

Kurchatov IAE dedicated SR facility SIBERIA status report and SR instrumentation problems  

SciTech Connect

The SIBERIA facility in Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Moscow, U.S.S.R. is discussed. The experimental stations, beamlines and the necessary synchrotron radiation{minus}instrumentation is created by the

Nesterikhin, Y.Y. (I. V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Kurchatov Square, Moscow 123182 (USSR))

1992-01-01

320

Vegetation modeling in Yakutia, northeastern Siberia: connecting to palaeovegetation simulation and model-data comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation model is a useful tool to understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems in the present, past and future. Simulation of the palaeovegetation can link the geographical pattern of vegetation in the past to pollen proxy and then test the palaeoclimate modeling. In this study we used an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) and a dynamic vegetation model (LPJ) to predict the present-day vegetation pattern and their dynamic changes from 1901-2002 in Yakutia, an Arctic and sub-Arctic region in eastern Siberia, where is sensitive to climate change. Both the models characterized the basic features of regional vegetation pattern, function and their changes through time. The BIOME4 simulated a reasonable pattern of present biome distribution compared to the regional vegetation maps, the deciduous taiga-montane forests in the southern and central Yakutia, evergreen taiga-montane forests in the southwestern mountainous region and in the eastern coast, shrub tundra and dwarf shrub tundra in the northwest and northeast mixed with temperate xerophytic shrubland. In the NW Yakutia the LPJ demonstrated a dynamic change of local vegetation during the past 102 years responding to the changed climates. Forest and shrub covered the large area from the beginning to the 1950s of the 20th Century. Tundra extended from the west to the east during 1960s to 1970s. The woody plants extended in 1980s and in late 1990s to early 21st Century and grasses extended in 1990s. The performance of global vegetation models in regional study is well, but problems still existed. More plant functional types especially the shrubs and grasses and climatic constraints to them should be taken into account when improving the models. Soil water-related parameters should be redefined. The modules of permafrost, snow, and fire should be added or modified. Regional input data of climates, vegetation and soils at finer resolutions will be obtained from the regional and local studies.

Ni, J.; Herzschuh, U.

2009-04-01

321

[The antioxidant characteristics of medicinal plant extracts from Western Siberia].  

PubMed

An antioxidant activity of the water-alcohol extracts of leaves of ten herbs from Western Siberia was studied. In vivo the capability of extracts to protect cells of Escherichia coli against the bacteriostatic action of H2O2 and the influence of the extracts on the expression of the antioxidant gene katG coding catalase-hydroperoxidase I were investigated. In vitro the radical-binding activity with DPhPG (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical), the chelating capability with ferrozine, and total composition of flavonoids and tannins were determined. The extracts of Filipendula stepposa and Limonium gmelinii were characterized by the highest antioxidant activity. According to data, the test extracts could have an antioxidant effect on bacteria in different ways at once including the direct inhibition of ROS (reactive oxygen species), iron ion chelation and antioxidant gene induction. PMID:20067157

Smirnova, G V; Vysochina, G I; Muzyka, N G; Samo?lova, Z Iu; Kukushkina, T A; Oktiabr'ski?, O N

322

Fire Danger Estimation in Siberia Using SMOS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important tasks of fire monitoring is to forecast the conditions that determine the possibility of occurrence and spread of fire in forests. Weather fire danger assessment is mainly based on the analysis of the meteorological parameters recorded by weather stations. The main drawback of such a method for the fire danger assessment is an absence of regular network of weather stations. This situation takes place, for example, in Siberia. The area of possible interpolation of weather stations data is generally up to 30 km. The analysis of the existing network of weather stations shows that there should be an interpolation in the zone up to 100 - 150 km between weather stations which restricts the correctness of weather fire danger distribution maps for the forest zone of Siberia. The area of research associated with the development of methodologies for the forest fire danger assessment remains urgent today. To solve this problem it is necessary to perform a geospatial analysis of fire distribution and distribution of forest fuel moisture which can only be done with the involvement of satellite monitoring. This can provide the necessary spatial coverage and frequency of data updates. Over the past 30 years the technical means of remote sensing and methods of land cover moisture measurement were developed. In 2009 the SMOS spacecraft was launched by the European Space Agency, equipped with microwave radiometer operating at the frequency of 1.4 GHz. Moisture is restored based on the angular dependence of the brightness of temperatures measured by spacecraft (Level 1C product). Geospatial analysis of the relationship between occurrence of fires, burned areas as well as fire radiative power during the fire season and land cover moisture measured by SMOS was performed. Daily updated database of forest fires detected using MODIS radiometer over the fire seasons of 2010 - 2012 as well as the land cover moisture data obtained from SMOS measurements were used in the analysis. The study area covered the territory of Siberia, including areas where extreme fire behavior was observed. Also the time series of land cover moisture measured by SMOS satellite and weather fire danger indices calculated using ground weather stations were compared. The results showed that in most cases the relationship between moisture and fire danger index values can be found. The increase in soil moisture was accompanied by a reduction of weather fire danger indices values. The highest correlation coefficients between moisture measurements and fire danger indices were obtained for southern regions (-0.5 - -0.6), however for the stations located in the central and northern regions the relationship was weaker. The analyses indicated that it was difficult to obtain a reliable relationship between remote sensed land cover moisture and fire weather indices for the whole territory of Siberia. However such dependencies can be apparent for individual regions.

Shvetsov, Eugene

2013-04-01

323

A multiple-entry polytomous computer key for identification of the Astragalus species (Fabaceae) of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of interactive multiple-entry polytomous computer key designed to identify 102 Siberia’s Astragalus species and subspecies. At each identification step the program reduces the species list, shortens the lists of qualitative\\u000a character states, recalculates the diagnostic value of characters, and rank the characters according to their diagnostic value.\\u000a In the process of identification, a user can return

I. A. Artemov

2010-01-01

324

Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

2013-04-01

325

Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations). This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia). Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today.

2010-01-01

326

Active Monitoring Using Powerful Vibrators in Seismic Regions of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current methods of mid-term and short-term earthquake forecasts can not guarantee acceptable level of reliability for public announcement. Physical analysis of available precursors has serious problems when precursors contradict each other. However, Nature can't be contradictory - it is our ideas on deformation process in the Earth are contradictory because of lack of data and analysis. In this connection, we see growing interest in measurement and analysis of appearances of reflected waves from focal zones of imminent earthquakes. Methods of active monitoring can provide necessary data and analysis. Authors see the main source of vital information in quantitative and qualitative physical characteristics (of structure and properties of focal zones), which are measured in a process of active geophysical monitoring. We suggest that this approach enables forecasts of earthquakes with acceptable reliability. We give a review of seismicity and seismological observations in the Siberia territory, as well as of geophysical monitoring results obtained for the south of Baikal Lake, in the Altay-Sayan area in the Western Siberia. Special attention is given to the methods of active monitoring with powerful vibrators which have been actively developed in Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences. There are data recorded for "near" and "far" fields from powerful 60-100 tons vibration sources which are obtained for the active seismic zones and for the zone of a large reservoir. Usage of powerful vibrators enables not just passive observations of stress built up, but management of average stress changes without affecting the background seismicity.

Seleznev, V.; Soloviev, V.

2007-12-01

327

Biomass burning emissions estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is the main boreal forest disturbance and can burn 10-30 million hectares annually, thus modifying the global carbon budget through direct fire emissions, postfire biogenic emissions, and by maintaining or altering ecosystems through establishing the beginning and end of successional processes. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russian boreal forests vary substantially due to differences in ecosystems types, burned area calculations, and the amount of fuel consumed. There is an urgent need to obtain more accurate and impartial fire carbon loss estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia due to their considerable contribution to the regional and global carbon balance. We examined uncertainties in estimates of carbon emissions. Area burned in the Siberian region was analyzed and compared using distinct methodologies. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Carbon emissions from fires vary annually and interannually and can increase several times in extreme fire years in comparison to normal fire years. Climate change and increasing drought length have increased the probability of high-severity fire occurrences. This would result in greater carbon losses and efflux to the atmosphere. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E. A.; Ivanova, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

328

Management quality, firm performance and market pressure in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether management quality explains firm performance in Russia. We find that it explains relatively little in terms of firm performance, but it does explain some of the differences between firms in Russia’s Far East and the rest of Russia. While management practices may not yet affect firm performance in a measurable way, they may do so in the

Guido Friebel; Helena Schweiger

2012-01-01

329

Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations  

SciTech Connect

Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

Cornwell, G.C.

1998-12-01

330

The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E.; Soja, A. J.

2009-10-01

331

Horizons West.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

Kitses, Jim

332

Impact of current climate on soil condition changes in the permafrost zone of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the permafrost zone climate changes have a great influence on soil condition. This can lead to negative effects on buildings and infrastructure. In this zone structures are built on frozen soils. Their strength properties depend on their thermal condition. For research of this problem: 1. The daily data set of soil temperature under natural surface at depths up to 320 cm at the Russian meteorological stations has been prepared. Current version is ending in 2010 (458 stations of WMO). 2. The yearly data set of computed depth of soil seasonal thawing at the Russian stations till 2010 has been prepared (74 stations of WMO). 3. Changes of soils' condition for the last five decades have been researched based on the prepared data sets. The change of mean annual soil temperature at depths has been researched and soil warming in the vast area for 1963 - 2010 has been shown, the great trends (0,2 - 0,4 /10 years) increase at 320 cm have been found in Western and Eastern Siberia, and the greatest trends (0,4 - 0,5/10 years) have been found in their south part. The greatest loss of the load-carrying capacity of foundations can be during a warm season. During the warm season the analysis of soils' temperature trends at depth 320 cm has shown that the greatest soils' warming is observed in south part of Siberia (0,4 - 0,6 /10 years). Trends which are more than 0,6/10 years are found in the Baikal lake area, also in the Amur river region. So, favorable conditions for increase of seasonal thawing depth in a permafrost zone, especially in its south part, have been shown. The map of average depth of soil seasonal thawing for 1963-2010 was made. It showed the following: the greatest depths of thawing 300-400 ?m were observed near the border of permafrost, the smallest depths 50-250 ?m predominate over the area of continuous permafrost. Thawing depth changes for 2001-2010 compared with 1971-1980 were researched. Prevail significant increase of thawing depth in Eastern Siberia (increase in 40-120 cm for different stations) and more moderate increase in the north part of the Russian Far East were showed. Trends of average thawing depth for 1963-2010 have been obtained. The greatest significant positive trends have been found in the north part of Eastern Siberia (3-4cm/year) and also in the Russian Far East (2-3cm/year). Conclusions: 1. The 40-50 years long observations show soil warming down to the 320 cm depth over the vast territory of the Russia. 2. The general tendency for the increase in the seasonal thaw depth on the vast territory of Eastern and Western Siberia is one of the impacts of the current climate changes. 3. The increase of seasonal thawing depth of permafrost soils in the basement of buildings can lead to deformation of the basements and buildings and their further destruction.

Sherstiukov, Artem

2013-04-01

333

Methane emissions from the West Siberian wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methane is an important greenhouse gas contributing as much as 20% of the anthropogenic radiative forcing in the contemporary atmosphere. Therefore estimation of the relative contribution of different methane sources to the atmosphere is a crucial task in addressing the problem of global warming. Mires are the main natural source of methane. West Siberia gains the especial importance in this respect as one of the most paludified region in the world with the mire area of 68.5 Mha or 27% of this region area. Since the previously published estimations of the regional flux varied widely from 2 to 22 MtCH4y-1, long-term and large-scale investigations of CH4 emission were organized in this study. More than 1500 methane flux measurements were made during the summer-autumn of 2007-2010. All variety of wetland types was reduced to 8 microlandscape types: palsas, ryams (dwarf pine-shrub-sphagnum communities), ridges, eutrophic, mesotrophic and oligotrophic hollows, peat mats and wetland ponds. Mire micro-landscapes of 30 key sites distributed in 7 zones (tundra, forest-tundra, north, middle and south taiga, sub-taiga and forest-steppe) of West Siberia were observed. Methane fluxes were measured by the static chamber method. Emission data were generalized into spatial emission model. The model is based upon a fractional area coverage map of mire micro-landscapes, methane emission periods for each zone and methane flux probability density distributions for each microlandscape type in these zones. The methane emission map with the resolution 0.5°×0.5° was created. It was confirmed that palsas, ryams and ridges had the lowest methane fluxes (1st/2nd/3rd quartiles are -0.04/0/0.04 mgCH4m-2h-1 for palsas, 0/0.04/0.28 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ryams, 0/0.09/0.37 mgCH4m-2h-1 for ridges) while the peat mats, poor fens and fens had the highest fluxes (2.74/4.65/6.11 mgCH4m-2h-1 for peat mats, 1.15/3.35/6.21 mgCH4m-2h-1 for fens combined with poor fens). Highest methane fluxes, reaching hundreds of mgCH4m-2h-1, were observed in shallow ponds. Oligotrophic hollows of middle and south taiga as well as south taiga eutrophic hollows and ponds appeared as the most significant regional methane sources accounting for about 50% of the annual methane flux from West Siberia mires. The latest version of emission model estimates the total flux from all Western Siberia mires at 3.21 MtCH4y-1.

Maksyutov, S.; Glagolev, M.; Kleptsova, I.; Sabrekov, A.; Peregon, A.; Machida, T.

2010-12-01

334

Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers.  

PubMed

Northwest Siberia is geographically remote territory, which has been settled by indigenous human populations probably since the Upper Paleolithic. To investigate the genetic landscape of Northwest Siberians, we have analyzed mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA polymorphisms of 169 unrelated individuals from Khanty and Mansi ethnic groups in Northwest Siberia. In addition, HVS-I sequences (N = 3522) and Y chromosome SNP data (N = 2175), obtained from the literature, were used to elucidate the genetic relationships among the North Eurasian populations. The results show clinal distributions of mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups along East-West axis of Northern Eurasia. In this context, the Ugric-speaking Khanty and Mansi appear as unique intermediate populations carrying Upper Paleolithic and more recent haplotypes typical for both West and East Eurasian gene pools. This admixture indicates that the Khanty and Mansi populations have resided in the contact zone of genetically distinguishable eastern and western Eurasia. PMID:18506205

Pimenoff, Ville N; Comas, David; Palo, Jukka U; Vershubsky, Galina; Kozlov, Andrew; Sajantila, Antti

2008-05-28

335

Bioavailability of organic matter in aquatic environments throughout Siberia’s Kolyma River watershed during summer baseflow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is increasing evidence that inland freshwater ecosystems play a significant role in the global carbon cycle due to the metabolism of terrestrial-derived organic matter as it moves in fluvial networks from land to sea. Recent research suggests that Arctic watersheds may increasingly augment the global role of freshwater ecosystems in the flux of terrestrial carbon to the atmosphere and ocean as a result of global warming. Here we document the bioavailability of dissolved and suspended organic matter in a wide variety of freshwater environments (including shallow wetlands, stratified lakes, small streams, major tributaries, and main-channel locations) throughout Siberia’s Kolyma River watershed at baseflow during July 2009. The Kolyma River watershed is one of the Arctic Ocean’s largest and is dominated by continuous permafrost that is underlain with rich, unglaciated organic soils that are susceptible to increased fluvial transport. We used biological oxygen demand bioassays on freshly-collected water samples to calculate 24h carbon respiration rates at ambient temperatures and amounts of respired carbon following 5d laboratory incubation. Additional bioassays were conducted to assess the potential of N and P limiting heterotrophic respiration. Overall, the Kolyma River’s fluvial network had appreciable, yet highly variable amounts of bioavailable organic carbon (mean = 0.59 mg/L, SD = 0.82 mg/L, n = 40 locations). Headwater locations generally had the highest amounts of bioavailable organic carbon relative to mainstem locations suggesting that the Kolyma River’s fluvial network is efficiently respiring terrestrial-derived organic matter during summer baseflow.

Sobczak, W. V.; Bulygina, E. B.; Bunn, A. G.; Chandra, S.; Frey, K. E.; Holmes, R.; Schade, J. D.; Spektor, V. V.; Zimov, S. A.

2009-12-01

336

The SIBERIA dedicated synchrotron radiation source: status report on the storage rings complex at the Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the status of the SIBERIA storage rings complex. The parameters of the linac, booster synchrotron and main ring are given. The transfer of the SIBERIA-1 storage ring to its new site is described. The main parameters of the engineering systems for the SIBERIA complex are presented. The assembly of the SIBERIA-2 storage ring is planned to be finished in 1991. The SIBERIA storage rings complex has been constructed at the Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy (IAE) and is the first dedicated synchrotron radiation source in the USSR. The facility includes the SIBERIA-1 450 MeV electron storage ring, the SIBERIA-2 2.5 GeV electron storage ring, two electron transport lines EOC-1 and EOC-2, and an 80-100 MeV electron linac which serves as the injector. The general layout of SIBERIA is shown in fig. 1. All accelerators of the SIBERIA facility are designed and manufactured at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP) at Novosibirsk.

Artemiev, A. N.; Akhmedzhanov, S. M.; Vasilyev, A. A.; Gritsuk, G. M.; Dozorov, A. V.; Doronkin, Yu. V.; Zabelin, A. V.; Klimenko, M. N.; Kotov, S. A.; Krylov, Yu. V.; Lebedev, V. A.; Lipilin, A. V.; Nagornyh, I. M.; Nikulin, O. N.; Odintsov, D. G.; Pashkov, S. D.; Pesterev, S. G.; Prosvetov, V. K.; Rybakov, V. N.; Samorukov, M. M.; Treshchin, V. A.; Ushkov, V. L.; Tsup, A. R.; Chaikin, E. M.; Yupinov, Yu. L.

1991-10-01

337

Composition of asphaltenes and resins of west Siberian petroleums  

SciTech Connect

ESR and X-ray diffraction analysis was used to examine asphaltene and resin samples of West Siberia. Experiments were carried out to simulate the effect of catagenesis on resin and asphaltene composition. Processes of thermocatalytic transformations of crude oil in the deposit were found to have no marked effect on asphaltene and resin composition. Transformation of the organic input at sedimentation was assumed to be the main factor determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of crude oil resins and asphaltenes of West Siberia. Petroleums formed from organic matter, accumulating under reducing conditions, contain more asphaltenes and resins, they include much tetravalent vanadium and the asphaltenes have abundant paramagnetic centres. Petroleums formed from oxidized organic matter contain very little asphaltene low concentrations of paramagnetic centers, and little tetravalent vanadium. Resins of these petroleums are rich in oxygen. High levels of asphalt-resin matter in petroleums is related to the presence in the initial organic progenitors of polyunsaturated fatty acids and various nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds.

Goncharov, I.V.; Babicheva, T.A.; Bodak, A.N.; Nemirovskaya, G.B.; Mashigorov, A.A.

1985-01-01

338

The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the East-Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) during the last decade (1999-2009): an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on he ESAS which is poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2009). Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. We suggest that rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed.. It has been found that 1) carbon dioxide and methane fluxes are significant (and non-counted) components of the carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean; 2) transport of eroded terrestrial material plays a major role in the accumulation of carbon in the ESAS (Dudarev et al., Gustafsson et al., Vonk et al., Sanchez-Garcia et al., Charkin et al., Semiletov et al., this session) ; 3) the seabed is a major CH4 source over the ESAS (N.Shakhova et al., this session); 3) eroded carbon is biodegradable (all reports, this session); 4) oxidation of eroded carbon onshore and offshore is a strong source of carbon dioxide (Piko et al. and Semiletov et al., this session). Thus studying carbon cycling in the East Siberian Arctic marginal seas has a high scientific priority in order to establish the carbon budget and evaluate the role of the Arctic region in global carbon cycling, especially in the coastal zone where the redistribution of carbon between terrestrial and marine environments occurs and the characteristics of carbon exchange with atmosphere are unknown. Initial scientific plan for the next decade is discussed. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (since 1994), International (Soros) Scientific Foundation, ISF (1994-1995), Russian Government and ISF (1995), McArthur Foundation (2000-2001), FEBRAS/RAS (since 2003), IARC (since 2001), NSF (since 2003), NOAA (since 2005), SU (since 2007), and Wallenberg Foundation (since 2008).

Sergienko, Valentin; Shakhova, Natalia; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Orjan; Anderson, Leif; Semiletov, Igor

2010-05-01

339

Public health nursing education in Russia.  

PubMed

The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990 brought many changes to Russia, including changes in nursing education. However, the changes did not include content in public health nursing. Most health care in Russia is provided at the tertiary level in hospitals. Health promotion and health education are new concepts in Russia and are not well understood. When health education does occur, it is at the individual level, taught by physicians, and in response to new diagnoses. Health promotion at the primary level and with aggregates is not often practiced. Russia currently is in a demographic crisis where health indicators continue to decline. Russian nurses trained in public health principles, such as health promotion, health education, and providing primary and secondary prevention services at the population and aggregate level, can positively affect the current demographic crisis. PMID:12873058

Ivanov, L Louise; Paganpegara, Galina

2003-07-01

340

Ukraine's Relations with Russia: Competition or Cooperation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Independent since 1991, Ukraine continues to struggle in its efforts to improve its political stability and economic strength. Because of Ukraine's geographic proximity to and intertwined history with Russia, Ukrainian leaders measure their actions agains...

M. J. Oswald

2002-01-01

341

Resetting the Reset Button: Realism about Russia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Washington, there is a widely shared view that the United States needs Russian cooperation to stop Iranian and North Korean nuclear proliferation, particularly Iran's. This view rests on the premise that the United States should take Russia 'seriously,...

S. J. Blank

2009-01-01

342

Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe  

PubMed Central

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans.

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

343

The emergence of corporate governance in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article tracks the emergence of corporate governance through four stages of the Russia’s transition to a market economy from the mid-1980s to the present: commercialization, privatization, nomenklatura, and statization. For each stage, the government’s economic objectives are summarized, as well as the foundations for the development of and inhibitors to corporate governance. The problems of nondisclosure and nontransparency that

Sheila M. Puffer; Daniel J. McCarthy

2003-01-01

344

Russia at the gates: the ambivalent neighbour  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new tension in the relationship between Russia and its western neighbours, particularly Latvia, has emerged since countries\\u000a in the former Russian sphere of influence were brought into the EU and NATO. The EU should make use of the new Member States’\\u000a knowledge of Russia acquired during their forced coexistence, in order to promote the emergence of effective cooperation with

Sandra Kalniete

2009-01-01

345

Siberia Integrated Regional Study information-computational and instrumental infrastructure development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reported are several important steps in development of information-computational and instrumental infrastructure of the NEESPI mega-project Siberia Integrated Regional Study, which is devoted to investigation of global change impact on Siberia environment and related feedback. Firstly, development of scientific and technological basis and creation of a reference network for monitoring of climatic changes in Siberia is planned for 2012-2017. The network will include 12 reference monitoring stations equipped with modern instrumentation for monitoring spread across Siberia as well as data center aimed at storage of instrumental and modeling data and providing an access to those. The stations will be created at the following sites: Barnaul (Aktru), Chita (Arakhley), Irkutsk (Mondy), Khaty-Mansiisk (Shapsha), Krasnoyarsk (Zotino), Kyzyl (Dolinnaya), Nadym (Polyarnaya), Novosibirsk (Chany), Tomsk (Vasyuganie), Tomsk (Akademgorodok), Ulan-Ude (Istomino) and Yakutsk (Spasskaya Pad') and supported in operation by relevant SB RAS research Institutes and Siberian Universities. Also a suite of models is under development now, which will comprise global and regional climatic and meteorological models run at the Siberian Supercomputer Center. The CLEARS (CLimate and Environment Analysis and Research System) information-computational web-GIS is planned to be deployed at the data center and used for analysis of recent and future climatic and environmental changes in Siberia. Altogether these components will form a SB RAS megascience facility aimed at detailed monitoring of on-going natural and climatic processes on this territory and prognoses of their dynamics in future. It should create an information basis for decision-making on future socio-economic development of Siberia. It will also improve significantly efficiency of international scientific cooperation in Siberia.

Gordov, E. P.; Kabanov, M. V.; Krutikov, V. A.; Kuzin, V. I.; Lykosov, V. N.; Okladnikov, I.; Titov, A. G.; Vaganov, E. A.

2011-12-01

346

Comparison of observed and different reanalysis climatic characteristics over Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today numerous investigations have confirmed that warming over Siberian territory is significant and it inevitably would influence environment in the region. But it is impossible to obtain detailed pattern of climatic changes in the region using only in-situ measurements because there are gaps in observations and station network is sparse. Global climatic modeling archives (different reanalyses) would help solving this problem but they give scattered results leading to climate change assessment uncertainties. Thus, it is urgent to assess accuracy with which global climatic models reconstruct regional climate and to choose an archive which is closest to the observed meteorological parameters. To achieve this goal, we developed a technique for comparison reanalyses and observational data at the weather stations locations. This technique provides: analysis of time series comprehension, selection of homogeneous observational series and removal of series having gaps; choice of a proper interpolation method (bilinear interpolation, third-order polynomial, inverse distance weighted, modified Shepard's interpolation, and basic geostatistical kriging); assessment of differences between reanalyses data reconstructed at weather station locations and data observed at these stations using a set of approved statistical methods (ME, RMSE, chi-square). The technique developed has been applied to compare NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP II, ECMWF ERA-40, ECMWF ERA Interim, and APHRODITE JMA datasets with the data observed at weather stations in Siberia (55°-130°E, 50°-75°N) over period of 1979 - 2007. In particular, to describe air temperature and precipitation amount in Siberia, we selected 59 observational time series which meet the above requirements (less than 5 % gaps in the series). Reanalyses data have been reconstructed at these stations locations using modified Shepard's interpolation which gives the least deviation for different-size grids. Air temperature difference between ECMWF (ERA-40, ERA INTERIM) and NCEP (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP II) reanalyses was in average 0.3 °C with increase of data difference with latitude. Comparison of air temperature from the above reanalyses datasets and 59 observational series has shown that the ECMWF ERA INTERIM dataset is in a good agreement with the observations. Analysis of precipitation amount from ERA INTERIM and APHRODITE JMA archives has revealed that they are twice different. Comparison between reanalyses and observational data has shown that APHRODITE JMA dataset is closest to the observations (difference of 30-80 mm) [1]. Now we study dynamics of wind and pressure fields obtained with different reanalyses datasets using the comparison technique described above. The results obtained would provide reliable information for assessment of climate dynamics in the region and basis for validation of existing and new regional climatic models. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 10-07-00547a and 11-05-01190a) and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (contract 07.514.11.4044). [1] Shulgina T.M., Genina E.Yu., Gordov E.P. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia // Environmental Research Letters, 2011. - DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045210. - 7 p.

Shulgina, T.; Genina, E.; Gordov, E.

2012-04-01

347

Measuring overstory leaf area index in eastern Siberia larch forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents a new remote sensing method to measure the leaf area index (LAI) developed specifically for eastern Siberia larch forests. It also presents the first evaluation of MODIS MOD15 collection 5, and of CYCLOPES LAI version 3.1 in larch forests. Reliable monitoring of the leaf area index (LAI) is required to understand and model the exchanges of carbon, water, and energy between forests and the atmosphere. Several remote sensing methods were developed to measure LAI globally, but most of them did not consider the specificities of larch forests despite the huge area such forests cover in East Siberia. We developed a satellite-based method to estimate the LAI of larch forests, separating overstory LAI (LAIo) from the understory LAI (LAIu). This method is based on the seasonal dynamics of a spectral index called NDWI, and it was developed and calibrated using three-dimensional radiative transfer simulations based on forest scenes representative of larch forest structure, with particular consideration of the typical clumped shoot structure of larch. Model-based sensitivity analyses indicated a maximum error of up to 26% under known noise levels. The method was applied to medium resolution SPOT-VEGETATION data, and was evaluated by comparing its results to global LAI products and to reference data (in situ LAI and LAI derived from high resolution Landsat ETM+ data). Our LAIo slightly underestimated field-obtained LAIo data but reproduced the spatial pattern of LAI better than CYCLOPES and MOD15 LAI products. The main drawbacks of MOD15 were unrealistically strong temporal variability and the fact that LAI began to increase earlier than the overstory leaf appearance date. In contrast, CYCLOPES LAI started increasing at the correct time and displayed smooth temporal evolutions; however, because these data are effective LAI, they may be difficult to use. At the continental scale, our total LAI is close to those from CYCLOPES and MODIS. Overall, our method provides a good alternative to MOD15 and CYCLOPES, especially for studies requiring separate estimates of LAIo and LAIu and true LAI instead of effective LAI.

Delbart, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Suzuki, R.; Kushida, K.

2009-04-01

348

Gandhis West, the Wests Gandhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gandhi had a life-long engagement with “the West.” He was educated in Britain, had close Jewish friends in South Africa, and engaged in discussions with Christian clergymen for much of his life. In the midst of struggles against racism and colonialism, Gandhi never lacked friends and admirers in Britain, Europe, and the U.S. Thoreau, Tolstoy, and Ruskin—the “Holy Trinity”—are widely

Vinay Lal

2009-01-01

349

Russia’s International Adoption Policies: Realities of the Soviet Happy Childhood Myth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia’s International Adoption Policies: Realities of the Soviet Happy Childhood Myth, focuses on dispelling the Soviet myth of happy childhood through revealing the numerous groups of children who were systematically left out of this upbringing. The paper focuses in particular on the plight of orphans in the USSR and continues to follow their childhood experience through investigating the intercountry adoption

Hannah L Freeman

2012-01-01

350

Russia and the Information Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a great deal of general talk and commentary about the role of the so-called "information revolution", it is at times difficult to tell exactly what these developments may mean for different regions of the world. This report from the RAND Corporation looks at how Russia is utilizing various forms of information and communication technologies to modernize business and industry, stimulate economic growth, and enhance the quality of life for Russian peoples. With significant funding from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the report (authored by D. J. Peterson) is based on six years of research in this area, and contains chapters on the role of information technology in Russian society, government, and concludes with a brief summary of key findings. Data in the report also receives nice visual representation through a host of charts, tables, and figures. Overall, this is a very interesting document that will be of particular interest to those working in the fields of international public policy and technology development.

2005-01-01

351

Continuous measurements of aerosol particles in Arctic Russia and Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71o 36' N; 128o 53' E) on the shore of the Laptev Sea has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol physical properties, which have been successfully continued since summer 2010. These, together with the FMI measurements in Pallas station in northern Finland since 1999, provide important information on the year-round Arctic aerosol concentrations and properties. Here, we will present the annual cycle of Arctic aerosol concentrations, which is characterized by winter minimum and spring and summer maxima. We will show the most important Arctic aerosol source regions and their variability with seasons. Also, we will look the processes such as new particle formation, which takes frequently place at both the two stations and in particular in spring season.

Asmi, Eija; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Brus, David; Lihavainen, Heikki; Laurila, Tuomas; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Viisanen, Yrjö; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Ivakhov, Victor; Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander

2013-04-01

352

[Characteristics of zonal distribution of the gamasid mites connected with small mammals and their nests in Western Siberia].  

PubMed

Analysis of long-term data on the fauna, landscape distribution, and structure of communities of the gamasid mites (Acari:Parasitiformes:Mesostigmata) connected with small mammals and their nests in the plain part of Western Siberia is carried out. By now, presence of 249 gamasid mite species is established in the territory under study, including 193 free-living and 56 parasitic species. Gamasid mites are represented by the maximal number of species on small mammals and in thers nests in northern forest-steppe (102 and 105 species respectively). Nine parasitic species from two ecological groups (epizoic and nidicolous) were found in all landscape zones of the West Siberian Plain, namely: 1) epizoic species Laelaps clethrionomydis Lange, 1955, Laelaps hilaris C. L. Koch, 1836, and Hyperlaelaps arvalis Zachvatkin, 1948 (obligatory non-exclusive hematophagous); 2) nidicolous species Androlaelaps casalis Berlese, 1887 (obligatory non-exclusive hematophagous), Eulaelaps stabularis C. L. Koch, 1836, Haemogamasus nidiformnes Bregetova, 1955 (facultative hematophagous), Haemnogamnasus ambulans Thorell, 1872 (obligatory non-exclusive hematophagous), Hirstionyssus isabellinus Oudemans, 1913, and Hirstionyssus eusoricis Bregetova, 1956 (obligatory exclusive hematophagous). Last three species demonstrate the mixed type of parasitism. The population of gamasid mites on small mammals is most specific in tundra, southern forest-steppe and steppe; the fauna of gamasid mites in nests is most specific in southern forest-steppe and steppe. PMID:21061589

Mal'kova, M G

353

A carbon accumulation maximum during the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the world’s biggest bog, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberia Lowland is the most carbon-rich northern wetland region, holding an important portion of total northern peatland carbon (70 Gt of 270-450 Gt C) mainly in the southern lowland (44 Gt) in very large peatlands. The largest of these, the Great Vasyugan Bog complex, spans 63,252 km2 and alone holds ~11 Gt C. Our previous work has shown that recent-past growth of WSL peat C pool has been greatest in southern WSL in large peatlands close to the southern limit of peatland distribution. In this study, we investigate a Great Vasyugan site to investigate peat carbon sensitivity in two ways: 1) assess past changes in vegetation, species-specific 13C geochemistry, and rate of carbon accumulation relative to recent-past climate variation, and 2) assess the relative lability of this deep peat C through laboratory incubations. Carbon accumulation over the last 2000 years, a period of relatively consistent vegetation and litter inputs but variable local hydrology, reached a maximum between 1150 and 1350 AD during Medieval Climate Anomaly conditions. A carbon accumulation minimum occurred between about 1350 and 1550 AD. Regardless of depth, age, or rate of carbon burial, deep peat from between 30 and 230 cm below the surface showed a similar rate of potential aerobic respiration that changed little over 42 days of incubation. Taken together, these data suggest that in some peatlanlds warmer and hydrologically-variable conditions can promote long-term belowground carbon storage.

Beilman, D.; MacDonald, G. M.

2009-12-01

354

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistant Strains from Russia  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is a growing problem in many countries. The availability of the complete nucleotide sequences of several MTB genomes allows to use the comparative genomics as a tool to study the relationships of strains and differences in their evolutionary history including acquisition of drug-resistance. In our work, we sequenced three genomes of Russian MTB strains of different phenotypes – drug susceptible, MDR and XDR. Of them, MDR and XDR strains were collected in Tomsk (Siberia, Russia) during the local TB outbreak in 1998–1999 and belonged to rare KQ and KY families in accordance with IS6110 typing, which are considered endemic for Russia. Based on phylogenetic analysis, our isolates belonged to different genetic families, Beijing, Ural and LAM, which made the direct comparison of their genomes impossible. For this reason we performed their comparison in the broader context of all M. tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank. The list of unique individual non-synonymous SNPs for each sequenced isolate was formed by comparison with all SNPs detected within the same phylogenetic group. For further functional analysis, all proteins with unique SNPs were ascribed to 20 different functional classes based on Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). We have confirmed drug resistant status of our isolates that harbored almost all known drug-resistance associated mutations. Unique SNPs of an XDR isolate CTRI-4XDR, belonging to a Beijing family were compared in more detail with SNPs of additional 14 Russian XDR strains of the same family. Only type specific mutations in genes of repair, replication and recombination system (COG category L) were found common within this group. Probably the other unique SNPs discovered in CTRI-4XDR may have an important role in adaptation of this microorganism to its surrounding and in escape from antituberculosis drugs treatment.

Ilina, Elena N.; Shitikov, Egor A.; Ikryannikova, Larisa N.; Alekseev, Dmitry G.; Kamashev, Dmitri E.; Malakhova, Maja V.; Parfenova, Tatjana V.; Afanas'ev, Maxim V.; Ischenko, Dmitry S.; Bazaleev, Nikolai A.; Smirnova, Tatjana G.; Larionova, Elena E.; Chernousova, Larisa N.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Mardanov, Andrei V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Skryabin, Konstantin G.; Govorun, Vadim M.

2013-01-01

355

Comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistant strains from Russia.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is a growing problem in many countries. The availability of the complete nucleotide sequences of several MTB genomes allows to use the comparative genomics as a tool to study the relationships of strains and differences in their evolutionary history including acquisition of drug-resistance. In our work, we sequenced three genomes of Russian MTB strains of different phenotypes--drug susceptible, MDR and XDR. Of them, MDR and XDR strains were collected in Tomsk (Siberia, Russia) during the local TB outbreak in 1998-1999 and belonged to rare KQ and KY families in accordance with IS6110 typing, which are considered endemic for Russia. Based on phylogenetic analysis, our isolates belonged to different genetic families, Beijing, Ural and LAM, which made the direct comparison of their genomes impossible. For this reason we performed their comparison in the broader context of all M. tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank. The list of unique individual non-synonymous SNPs for each sequenced isolate was formed by comparison with all SNPs detected within the same phylogenetic group. For further functional analysis, all proteins with unique SNPs were ascribed to 20 different functional classes based on Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). We have confirmed drug resistant status of our isolates that harbored almost all known drug-resistance associated mutations. Unique SNPs of an XDR isolate CTRI-4(XDR), belonging to a Beijing family were compared in more detail with SNPs of additional 14 Russian XDR strains of the same family. Only type specific mutations in genes of repair, replication and recombination system (COG category L) were found common within this group. Probably the other unique SNPs discovered in CTRI-4(XDR) may have an important role in adaptation of this microorganism to its surrounding and in escape from antituberculosis drugs treatment. PMID:23437175

Ilina, Elena N; Shitikov, Egor A; Ikryannikova, Larisa N; Alekseev, Dmitry G; Kamashev, Dmitri E; Malakhova, Maja V; Parfenova, Tatjana V; Afanas'ev, Maxim V; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Bazaleev, Nikolai A; Smirnova, Tatjana G; Larionova, Elena E; Chernousova, Larisa N; Beletsky, Alexey V; Mardanov, Andrei V; Ravin, Nikolai V; Skryabin, Konstantin G; Govorun, Vadim M

2013-02-20

356

Vulnerability of east Siberia's frozen carbon stores to future warming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

East Siberia's permafrost contains about 500 GtC of frozen highly labile carbon deposits, a so-called Yedoma. Using a permafrost carbon cycle model we analyzed mobilization of this huge carbon stock in a future warming. Conditions necessary to trigger the irreversible Yedoma thawing maintained by deep respiration and methanogenesis are studied. Once started, this process could release 2.0-2.8 GtC yr-1 during years 2300-2400 transforming 75% of initial carbon stock into CO2 and methane. The time when the fast deep-soil decomposition starts is inversely proportional to the warming rate, while the corresponding (critical) temperature anomaly slightly increases at larger warming rates. This second-order effect is due to the deep-soil heat storage caused by external warming, which leads to more homogeneous soil heating when the warming is slower, and so a smaller external warming is needed to thaw the permafrost. The effect of specific microbial heat that accompanies oxic decomposition is of comparable importance to that of the warming rate on the critical temperature anomaly, while it is of minor importance on the time when deep decomposition starts.

Khvorostyanov, D. V.; Ciais, P.; Krinner, G.; Zimov, S. A.

2008-05-01

357

Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia  

SciTech Connect

One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

2007-02-10

358

Magnetofossils in the sediment of Lake Baikal, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A multidisciplinary approach involving rock-magnetics, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction was used to identify a biogenic magnetite component in the Lake Baikal, Siberia, sedimentary magnetic record. The distinctive biogenic component to the magnetic record occurs as chains of single-domain, elongate hexagonal and tear-drop cone-shaped magnetite particles. These magnetofossils are inferred to be magnetosomes produced by magnetotactic bacteria living in the surficial sediment throughout Lake Baikal. Postdepositional reduction diagenesis results in the loss of the fine-grained magnetofossils at depth. In addition, this study shows that the fine-grained magnetofossils are removed by the process of storage diagenesis during long periods (21 months) of core storage, which results in a change to a coarser grained, slightly higher coercivity bulk magnetic mineral assemblage. Although the Lake Baikal sedimentary magnetic record has several distinct and complex components, by determining their origin this study has shown that the sediments are well suited for environmental magnetic study.

Peck, J. A.; King, J. W.

1996-05-01

359

External Sq currents in the India-Siberia region  

SciTech Connect

The Sq current systems for quiet days of 1976 and 1977 were studied for observatories established near 76[degrees]E longitude in the northern hemisphere. A special sperical harmonic analysis technique was used to separate the internal and external contributions of the quiet field variations and to determine the equivalent external current contours responsible for the Sq field variations on the sixth and twenty-first of each month. The average ratio of the external to internal spectral power was 6.7 in 1976 and 7.4 in 1977. Focus positions for the India-Siberia region external Sq current vortex, near 22[degrees] to 29[degrees], were found to be at lower geomagnetic latitudes than for Europe and North America. The usual mid-latitude vortex current, reaching 11.0 to 13.2 [times] 10[sup 4] A in summertime, disappeared completely during winter months in both the years. The Sq current position was affected clearly by the off-spin axis position of the north geomagnetic pole. Throughout the 2 years, the authors also found small current vorticies near 70[degrees] to 80[degrees] geomagnetic latitude, which have been ascribed to auroral region activity on quiet days. 19 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Campbell, W.H. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Arora, B.R. (Indian Inst. of Geomagnetism, Colaba, Bombay (India)); Schiffmacher, E.R.

1993-03-01

360

A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE FOR EXTINCTION CHRONOLOGIES FOR FIVE SPECIES OF UPPER PLEISTOCENE MEGAFAUNA IN SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the radiocarbon chronology of some late Upper Pleistocene mammals from Siberia is presented. Previously published data has been supplemented by new 14C dates for 5 species (woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, bison, horse, and muskox) to reconstruct chronological extinction patterns. The final extinction of woolly rhinoceros and bison in Siberia can be dated to approximately 11,000-9700 BP, but

Lyobov A Orlova; Yaroslav V Kuzmin; Vyacheslav N Dementiev

2004-01-01

361

EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in

E. P. Gordov; E. A. Vaganov

2010-01-01

362

Large-scale mapping of boreal forest in SIBERIA using ERS tandem coherence and JERS backscatter data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siberia's boreal forests represent an economically and ecologically precious resource, a significant part of which is not monitored on a regular basis. Synthetic aperture radars (SARs), with their sensitivity to forest biomass, offer mapping capabilities that could provide valuable up-to-date information, for example about fire damage or logging activity. The European Commission SIBERIA project had the aim of mapping an

Wolfgang Wagner; Adrian Luckman; Jan Vietmeier; Kevin Tansey; Heiko Balzter; Christiane Schmullius; Malcolm Davidson; David Gaveau; Michael Gluck; Thuy Le Toan; Shaun Quegan; Anatoly Shvidenko; Andreas Wiesmann; Jiong Jiong Yu

2003-01-01

363

Using New Remotely-sensed Biomass To Estimate Co2 Fluxes Over Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two european programs recently focused on Siberia. The first one, Eurosiberian Car- bonflux was a faisability study for an observation system of the regional CO2 fluxes. The second one, SIBERIA was a big effort to develop and validate a biomass map on Siberia using radar data from satelltes (J-ERS, ERS). Here, we extend the simula- tion of NPP performed for the first program by using the biomass data of the second program. The TURC model, used here, is a global NPP model, based on light use efficiency, where photosynthetic assimilation is driven by satellite vegetation index, and au- totrophic respiration is driven by biomass. In this study, we will present a n´ zoom z on siberian region. The TURC model was run with a fine resolution (few kilometers) and a daily time step. We will discuss the impact of a new biomass dataset description on Net Primary Pro- ductivity (NPP) and CO2 fluxes estimation.

Lafont, S.; Kergoat, L.; Dedieu, G.; Le Toan, T.

364

What's West Nile Virus?  

MedlinePLUS

... Baseball Injuries Jellyfish The Pink Locker Society What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > Kids > Illnesses & Injuries > Aches, Pains & Injuries > ... are most at risk for the infection. Continue West Nile Symptoms Most of the time, symptoms of West ...

365

[Phenotypic and genetic characterization of nuclear polyhedrosis virus isolated from gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) larvae from the natural populations of Western Siberia].  

PubMed

Six nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) isolates have been isolated from dead larvae of gypsy moth in Western Siberia. Heterogeneity of virulence and reproduction activity was revealed for the NPV isolated by bioassay with Lymantria dispar L. larvae. The findings may suggest phenotypic variation of the NPV isolates. No correlation was found between virulence and reproductive activity with the only exception--the isolate Karassuk with a high virulence and a high reproductive activity. Nucleotide sequences of PCR products with primers specific to the polyhedrin gene were determined for NPV isolated Karassuk and Tatarskyi with the maximum and minimal virulence, respectively. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences demonstrated a high homology of the study polyhedrin gene fragment between NPV Western-Siberian isolates and NPV strains from the USA with two point mutations. The mutations were identical for the NPV isolated from Russia but were different from the known structures of the polyhedrin gene of the American strains. The only one from two found mutations resulted in amino acid substitution in polyhedrin protein. Consequently, the structure of both polyhedrin and encoded protein did not influence on the NPV virulence and reproductive activity. PMID:20455470

Bakhvalov, S A; Bakhvalova, V N; Martem'ianov, V V; Morozova, O V

366

Neutron sources for investigations on extracted beams in Russia  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the current status and prospects for the development of neutron sources intended for investigations on extracted beams in Russia. The participation of Russia in international scientific organizations is demonstrated.

Aksenov, V. L. [Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Aksenov@kiae.ru

2007-05-15

367

Well-logging activities in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The report is a brief survey of the current state of well-logging service in Russia (number and types of crews, structure of well-logging jobs, types of techniques used, well-logging equipment, auxiliary downhole jobs, etc.). Types and peculiarities of well data acquisition and processing hardware and software are discussed (petrophysics included). New well-logging technologies used in Russia (new methods of electric logging data processing, electromagnetic logging, pulse neutron logging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, acoustic tomography, logging-testing-logging technique, etc.) are surveyed. Comparison of the Tengiz field (Kazakhstan) well data obtained by Schlumberger and Neftegazgeofizika Association crews is given. Several problems and drawbacks in equipment and technology used by well-logging crews in Russia are discussed.

Savostyanov, N.A. (Neftegazgeofizika, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

368

WestEd: Technology In Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

WestEd's Technology in Education site is designed to disseminate educational information. They offer an array of services & resources to assist educators, educational agencies, policy makers in the development, implementation, and evaluation of educational technology.

1997-01-01

369

Imprint of the North American plate in Siberia revealed by GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

GPS observations in east Siberia combined with global observations, collected 1995-2002, place constraints on the geometry and motions of the Eurasian, North American, and Pacific plates in east Asia. By comparing velocities relative to Eurasia and to North America, we conclude that east Siberia to the east of the Cherskiy Range belongs to the North American plate, hypothesized for three decades but not proven because of uncertainties with the plate boundary arising from the ambiguous seismicity. Smaller plates in east Asia, such as Okhotsk and Amurian, can neither be resolved nor excluded by the GPS velocities.

Steblov, G. M.; Kogan, M. G.; King, R. W.; Scholz, C. H.; Bürgmann, R.; Frolov, D. I.

2003-09-01

370

Features in planning the development of oil deposits of Western Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The review sheds light on the experience in organizing deposit development planning in the SibNIINP institute. The features of planning for development of the oil deposits of Western Siberia are shown. The methodology for planning is given, along with criteria for selecting the optimal variant of development, for selecting the technique and a technique for rating the technological development indicators. An automated system for development planning in the SibNIINP is examined. The system for development of a number of oil deposits in Western Siberia is shown.

Baturin, Yu.Ye.; Mayer, V.P.; Telishev, A.G.

1983-01-01

371

An ordinary chondrite impactor for the Popigai crater, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With a diameter of ˜100 km, Popigai in Northern Siberia is the largest crater known in the Cenozoic. The concentrations in platinum group elements (PGE) were analyzed in twenty samples of homogeneous impact melt collected in the northwestern flank of the crater to identify the composition of the projectile. The method selected was preconcentration by NiS fire assay followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique measures all the PGE (except Os) and by using aliquots >10g, the results are highly reproducible. The major and trace element composition of the impact melt resembles that of gneissic lithologies of the Anabar shield, which are representative of the target rock. The PGE are enriched in the melt by factors of 3 to 14 compared to the main target lithology, but the meteoritic contamination is only around 0.2 wt.%. Using plots of elemental ratios such as Ru/Rh vs. Pt/Pd or Ru/Rh vs. Pd/Ir, the Popigai impactor is clearly identified as an ordinary chondrite and most likely L-chondrite. This study indicates that PGE elemental ratios allow discrimination of the type of impactor, even in the case of low meteoritic contamination. This study confirms that a significant fraction of the crater-forming projectiles presently documented could have an ordinary chondrite composition. Their probable source, the S-type asteroids, appears to form the majority of the bodies in the main asteroid belt and among Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The ordinary chondrite origin of the Popigai projectile supports an asteroidal origin for the late Eocene impacts as a plausible alternative to the comet shower scenario proposed by Farley et al. (1998).

Tagle, Roald; Claeys, Philippe

2005-06-01

372

The Challenge of Revolution: Contemporary Russia in Historical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

This volume provides an challenging and controversial explanation of the recent events in Russia. It examines the causes, processes, and consequences of Russia's recent political development. Drawing on, and criticizing the existing literature, the book also shows how the recent Russian experience casts light on general theories of revolution and comparative political developments. The transformation in Russia is usually compared

Vladimir Mau; Irina Starodubrovskaia

373

Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

Aref'ev, A. L.

2012-01-01

374

Lessons from RussiaA Neo-Authoritarian Media System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article seeks to answer two interrelated questions: where does press freedom stand in Russia more than 15 years after Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy glasnost began? and, what does Russia’s media transformation tell us about our understanding of mass political media systems? It is argued that while the Russian media are suffering under the presidency of Vladimir Putin, circumstances are in

Jonathan Becker

2004-01-01

375

76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record...duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation...entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-...

2011-12-09

376

Mass media and the information climate in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores Russian ‘information culture’, asking how information is shared and used in Russia. While the focus is on contemporary Russia, changes and continuities since the Soviet period are also discussed. In the Soviet Union, information was considered a privilege rather than a right while secrecy determined the general information climate. In post-Soviet Russia, the right to information is

Hedwig de Smaele

2007-01-01

377

Integrated Paleomagnetism and U-Pb Geochronology of Mafic Dikes of the Eastern Anabar Shield Region, Siberia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic Paleolatitude of Siberia and Comparison with Laurentia.  

PubMed

This article reports the first joint paleomagnetic and U-Pb geochronologic study of Precambrian diabase dikes in the Anabar Shield and adjacent Riphean cover of Siberia. It was undertaken to allow comparison with similar published studies in Laurentia and to test Proterozoic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia. An east-trending Kuonamka dike yielded a provisional U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1503+/-5 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 16 degrees S, 221 degrees E (dm=17&j0;, dp=10&j0;). A paleomagnetic pole at 6 degrees N, 234 degrees E (dm=28&j0;, dp=14&j0;) was obtained from five Kuonamka dikes. An east-southeast-trending Chieress dike yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1384+/-2 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 4 degrees N, 258 degrees E (dm=9&j0;, dp=5&j0;). Kuonamka and Chieress poles are interpreted to be primary but do not average out secular variation. Assuming that the Siberian Plate has remained intact since the Mesoproterozoic, except for mid-Paleozoic opening of the Viljuy Rift, then the above results indicate that the Siberian Plate was in low latitudes at ca. 1503 and 1384 Ma, broadly similar to low latitudes determined for Laurentia from well-dated paleopoles at 1460-1420, 1320-1290, and 1267 Ma. This would allow Laurentia and Siberia to have been attached in the Mesoproterozoic, as suggested in several recent studies based on geological criteria. However, because paleomagnetic results from the Anabar Shield region do not average out secular variation and the ages of poles from Siberia and Laurentia are not well matched, it is not yet possible to distinguish between these reconstructions or to rule out other configurations that also maintain the two cratons at low paleolatitudes. PMID:10856011

Ernst; Buchan; Hamilton; Okrugin; Tomshin

2000-07-01

378

Russia’s role in UNFCCC negotiations since the exit of the United States in 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unexpected exit of the United States from the Kyoto Protocol in 2001 signaled the exponential increase in the importance\\u000a of the Russian Federation as a key player in international climate change politics. Until then a relatively minor player,\\u000a Russia’s active participation in the evolution of the climate change regime is now considered a paramount and immediate necessity.\\u000a A longitudinal

Stavros Afionis; Ioannis Chatzopoulos

2010-01-01

379

Monitoring regional differences in Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the idea and results of a joint Finnish-Russian project on economic monitoring of Northwest Russia financed by the Finnish Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The regions monitored include the Murmansk region, the Karelian Republic, the Leningrad region, St.Petersburg, the Kaliningrad and the Novgorod regions. First, in the paper, the aims and operation of the monitoring project are presented.

Riitta Kosonen; Tuuli Juurikkala

2003-01-01

380

Deposit insurance and banking reform in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is not to review the pros and cons of deposit insurance systems, but to focus, rather narrowly, on the recent adoption of a deposit insurance system (DIS) in Russia, the rationale offered, and the potential impact it might have on the stability and development of the Russian banking system. An attempt is made to draw

Modibo K. Camara; Fernando Montes-Negret

2006-01-01

381

Russia and Its Neighbors: Integration or Disintegration?  

Microsoft Academic Search

lobalization is having an enormous impact on international relations, but whether it will lead to greater stability or instability remains an open ques- tion. In some instances, globalization is creating the basis for democracy and greater prosperity, while in others it is contributing to greater turmoil and chaos. The latter has been the case in Russia and its neighbors in

F. Stephen Larrabee

382

Russia's Debt Crisis and the Unofficial Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia's foreign debt problems worsened substantially after the financial crisis of 1998. The paper focuses on the key role of the government in servicing foreign debt and promoting institution building by showing how foreign debt influences the choice between official and unofficial taxation. The enterprise sector is assumed to reallocate its resources between domestic investment and capital flight. It is

Claudia M. Buch; Ralph P. Heinrich; Lusine Lusinyan; Mechthild Schrooten

2000-01-01

383

Regional integration: an empirical assessment of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a statistical model of commodity trade, we quantify the evolution of regional economic integration within Russia during 1995–1999, and explore potential determinants of this evolution. Our integration measure exhibits rich regional variation that, when aggregated to the national level, fluctuates substantially over time. In accounting for this behavior, we draw in part on theoretical models that emphasize the potential

Daniel Berkowitz; David N. DeJong

2003-01-01

384

The Educational Reform and Transformation in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. THE NATURE OF EDUCATION REFORMS: 1991-2001 Education reform in the Russia Federation after 1991 was an orchestrated attack on what was now perceived as the ideologically impure Soviet system of education, with its ubiquitous administrative centralisation, a bankrupt communist ideology and bureaucratic inefficiency. Hurried attempts were made to Westernize Russian education. These early attempts at reform reflected the lack

Joseph Zajda

385

Winners and Losers in Russia's Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to a market economy has produced a substantial and rapid change in the wage structure in Russia. Household surveys taken before and after the transition indicate that overall wage inequality nearly doubled from 1991 to 1994 and has reached a level higher than that in the United States. Returns to both measured skills (education, occupation) and unmeasured skills

Elizabeth Brainerd

1998-01-01

386

Involution and Destitution in Capitalist Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much has been written on the unprecedented degeneration of the Russian economy, how people survive or do not survive remains a mystery. A close 5-year tracking of workers from a liquidated furniture enterprise in Northern Russia reveals two types of survival strategy: defensive and entrepreneurial. Defensive strategies retreat to a primitive domestic economy in the face of the collapse

Michael Burawoy; Pavel Krotov; Tatyana Lytkina

2000-01-01

387

An Overview of Teacher Education in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper describes the experience of an educational psychologist who completed a Fulbright Lectureship at Moscow State Pedagogical University in Russia during April and May of 1993. The chaotic situation brought about by the dramatic and rapid changes that have taken place since the collapse of the Soviet Union has resulted in hyperinflation,…

Herman, William E.

388

Russia in the 21st Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book demonstrates that Russia intends to re-emerge as a full fledged superpower before 2010 that would challenge America and China and potentially threaten a new arms race. Contrary to conventional wisdom, this goal is easily within the Kremlin's grasp, but the cost to the Russian people and global security would be immense. A sophisticated strategy is proposed to dissuade

Steven Rosefielde

389

Libraries at "the End of Russia."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the library at Far Eastern State Technical University in Vladivostok (Russia) based on a visit that was part of a collaborative project with California State University, Sacramento. Highlights include staffing; problems with funding, space, and technology; library collections in the Department of World Politics and Law; and the nearby…

Ronayne, Betty

2000-01-01

390

Bank cost efficiency in Kazakhstan and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kazakhstan banking system is increasingly viewed as more advanced than the Russian system. Kazakhstan adopted the International Accounting System (IAS) in 2003 and the Basel II norms in 2005, while Russia has yet to fully adopt either IAS or Basel II. In this paper, bank data for 2002-2006 are used to estimate models of bank cost efficiency. In contrast

Anatoly Peresetsky

2010-01-01

391

Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an

Elena Petrova

2010-01-01

392

Piracy, Policy, and Russia's Emerging Media Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The birth of a media market in Russia affords a unique opportunity to study the collision of international and national norms and practices. The refraction of globalization—involving, in this case, copyright protection and the program market—through local values and the rather different outcomes of sanctions and market inducements emerge as critical issues. The players in this drama are major and

Ellen Mickiewicz

2001-01-01

393

Reform of Gas Sector in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are few, if any, industries more important to the Russian economy than the natural gas industry. Russia is a major gas exporter and has substantial natural gas reserves. This industry is dominated by a single vertically-integrated firm, RAO Gazprom. The industry has faced several problems, including low domestic prices, widespread non-payment (and barter and offset schemes) and a virtually

Darryl Biggar

2002-01-01

394

Russia and the illicit arms trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the disintegration of the Soviet militaryindustrial complex, the prospect of conventional armsand nuclear, chemical and biological weapons of massdestruction and their ingredients finding their wayfrom Russia into other hands has become a matter ofconcern for both the Russian Federation and theinternational community. This article explores thescale, forms and consequences of illicit transfers ofconventional arms and weapons of mass destruction

John Berryman

2000-01-01

395

Mapping Russia: Geographic and Cultural Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For people living in the 20th century, Russia has been associated with images of communism, the Bolshevik Revolution, totalitarian regimes and leaders, and the fears and stereotypes of the Cold War era. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the liberal revolutions of the 1980s-1990s have provided an opportunity to…

Khachikian, Arthur

396

Media and Political Persuasion: Evidence from Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

How do media affect voting behavior? What difference can an independent media outlet make in a country with state-controlled media? Our paper addresses these questions by comparing electoral outcomes and votes reported by survey respondents during the 1999 parliamentary elections in Russia for those geographical areas that had access and those that had no access to the only national TV

Ruben Enikolopov; Maria Petrova; Ekaterina Zhuravskaya

2009-01-01

397

SECURITY OF FISSILE MATERIALS IN RUSSIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The problem of security of huge stocks of weapons-usable highly enriched uranium and plutonium in Russia against theft or diversion remains a serious nonproliferation concern. During the Cold War, the security of Soviet nuclear materials was based on centralization and discipline, protection by the military, and intrusive political oversight of the people. The recent fundamental societal changes have rendered

Oleg Bukharin

1996-01-01

398

Teaching of undergraduate psychology in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychology instruction in Russia began at Moscow University in the mid?18th century. Independent degree programs in psychology have only existed for about the last half?century. More than 100 new psychology departments and faculties in universities that run psychology degree undergraduate programs have been established in the last decade. Many students wish to become psychologists or at least study psychology. Currently,

Victor N. Karandashev

2006-01-01

399

The Beginnings of Women's Education in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Maintains that education for men and women in Russia, which were once sharply distinct from each other, have grown more alike. Reviews Russian education history prior to 1917, examining sex bias and educational discrimination. Maintains that the Russian Orthodox Church was a primary force in shaping women's education. (CFR)|

Kosheleva, O. E.

1995-01-01

400

Russia and China View the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soviet Russia and Communist China see the United States in significantly different ways. The present divergence can be related to antecedents such as the enmity between the United States and the Chinese Communists before their seizure of power and the nonrecognition of the present regime by the United States. More important, the quest of the Peking re gime for national

Alexander Dallin

1963-01-01

401

Translating queer texts in Soviet Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to recent scholarship on censorship and translation by exploring the phenomenon of productive censorship, or the artful evasion of censorship restrictions by authors and their readers, in the context of Soviet Russia. Specifically, the work of three homosexual-identified literary translators – Mikhail Kuzmin, Ivan Likhachev and Gennadii Shmakov – is examined in order to demonstrate how, under

Brian James Baer

2011-01-01

402

Mortgage Pricing in Russia: A Methodological Introduction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mortgage pricing in Russia is complicated by a lack of experience and legal basis for this type of lending, as well as an unstable economic environment. A methodology for pricing residential mortgages in the Russian context is presented. The discussion an...

M. J. Lea R. M. Ravicz

1993-01-01

403

Building Bridges: Miami "Ambassadors" Visit Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a three-week exchange program where William H. Turner Technical Arts High School (Miami, Florida) students participated in the U.S./Russian student exchange program. Focuses on the students' stereotypes before the trip and their interview comments following the trip about the hardships in Russia. (CMK)

Kirkwood, Toni Fuss

2001-01-01

404

Perspectives of inclusive education in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the issues of exclusion and inclusion of children with disabilities in educational policies. The background and context for inclusion in Russia is described, with a short overview of the history of special education and with the emphasis on the current legislative conditions for inclusion. The article analyzes peculiarities of the hidden curriculum in a Russian boarding school

Elena Iarskaia-Smirnova; Pavel Romanov

2007-01-01

405

Education and Society in the New Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This collection of essays examines the changes that have occurred in Russia since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. A historical perspective is used to show that many of the changes were underway during perestroika and that post-Soviet developments are an extension of those changes. The book is divided into four sections. Section 1, "The…

Jones, Anthony, Ed.

406

Poverty Trends in Russia During the Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last decade has been an eventful period for the economy and people of Russia. Although modernisation of the soviet system was on the agenda in the early 1980s, the political and economic reforms which have transformed daily life did not begin in earnest until Mikhail Gorbachev announced the programme known as perestroika in 1985. For the first time, individuals

Anthony Shorrocks; Stanislav Kolenikov

2001-01-01

407

Energy wood resources in Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The energy wood procurement possibilities for the eight regions making up Northwest Russia were assessed. Wood byproducts from logging and mechanical wood processing were considered for energy production based on actual cut, sawmill and plywood production figures for 2006. Of the total calculated potential of 31 million solid m3 (62 TWh), nearly 70% (21.8 million m3) is from logging. The

Y. Gerasimov; T. Karjalainen

2011-01-01

408

Tradition and Change: The Case of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper's main contention is a correlation between tradition and change in Rusia. Article focuses on a seeming paradox that the Russian society is extremely traditionalist and conservative, on the one hand, and extremely prone to change, on the other hand. It is very easy to initiate a social change in Russia, because it requires a mobilization of the ruling

ALEXEY VERIZHNIKOV

1995-01-01

409

Novel Variant of Tickborne Encephalitis Virus, Russia  

PubMed Central

We isolated a novel strain of tickborne encephalitis virus (TBEV), Glubinnoe/2004, from a patient with a fatal case in Russia. We sequenced the strain, whose landmark features included 57 amino acid substitutions and 5 modified cleavage sites. Phylogenetically, Glubinnoe/2004 is a novel variant that belongs to the Eastern type of TBEV.

Ternovoi, Vladimir A.; Protopopova, Elena V.; Chausov, Eugene V.; Novikov, Dmitry V.; Leonova, Galina N.; Netesov, Sergey V.

2007-01-01

410

Mapping Russia: Geographic and Cultural Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For people living in the 20th century, Russia has been associated with images of communism, the Bolshevik Revolution, totalitarian regimes and leaders, and the fears and stereotypes of the Cold War era. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the liberal revolutions of the 1980s-1990s have provided an opportunity to…

Khachikian, Arthur

411

Clouston Syndrome: First Case in Russia  

PubMed Central

Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia type 2 (HED2) or Clouston syndrome (OMIM #129500) is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder which affects skin and its derivatives, characterized by the major triad of features: nail dystrophy, generalized hypotrichosis, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. Here we describe the first case of Clouston syndrome in Russia and the molecular genetic analysis of this case.

Marakhonov, AV; Skoblov, MYu; Galkina, VA; Zinchenko, RA

2012-01-01

412

Foreign Investment in Russia: Problems and Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia, like any country embarking on the path of radical market reform, must define its strategy regarding foreign capital. Practically all developing and rapidly developing countries, especially in the last forty years, have actively encouraged foreign investment in their economies in the form of direct private investment and loans. Naturally, it is not easy to accept the experience of outsiders.

A. Astapovich; L. GrigorEv

1994-01-01

413

Media systems in transition: Poland, Russia, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the transformation of the media system in three countries moving away from the classical “communist” model: Poland, Russia and China. Despite very significant differences, all three of these societies displayed similar starting points in terms of economics, politics and media. The dominant political science tradition has discussed post?communism as part of a more general theory of “transitology”,

Colin Sparks

2008-01-01

414

Primary Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 Regions, Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation.  

PubMed

Of 235 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients who had not received tuberculosis treatment in the Irkutsk oblast and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), eastern Siberia, 61 (26%) were multidrug resistant. A novel strain, S 256, clustered among these isolates and carried eis-related kanamycin resistance, indicating a need for locally informed diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:24047678

Zhdanova, Svetlana; Heysell, Scott K; Ogarkov, Oleg; Boyarinova, Galina; Alexeeva, Galina; Pholwat, Suporn; Zorkaltseva, Elena; Houpt, Eric R; Savilov, Eugeniy

2013-10-01

415

Determination of aerodynamic diameters of pollen grains and their agglomerates for Western Siberia plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of determination of aerodynamic characteristics of 17 plants dominating the ecosystem of Western Siberia are reported. Pollen of cereals and woody plants was examined. The sedimentation velocities of single pollen grains and their agglomerates were determined. The data obtained were used to calculate the aerodynamic diameters of pollen grains of all investigated plants.

Istomin, V. L.; Koutsenogii, K. P.; Golovko, V. V.

2012-12-01

416

Holocene peat and carbon accumulation rates in the southern taiga of western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent studies have recognized peatlands as a sink for atmospheric CO2, little is known about the role of Siberian peatlands in the global carbon cycle. We have estimated the Holocene peat and carbon accumulation rate in the peatlands of the southern taiga and subtaiga zones of western Siberia. We explain the accumulation rates by calculating the average peat accumulation

Wiebe Borren; Wladimir Bleuten; Elena D. Lapshina

2004-01-01

417

Vegetation Structure Changes in the South Part of Western Siberia at the End of XX Century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding human impact on changes in vegetation composition and structure can be performed using analysis of space images obtained from high resolution satellite sensors. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early succession stages, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances

E. Dyukarev; N. N. Pologova; E. A. Golovatskaya; A. G. Dyukarev; E. P. Gordov; I. G. Okladnikov; A. G. Titov

2010-01-01

418

Indicators of desertification in the Kulunda Steppe in the south of Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to climatic change, the prognosticated shift of agricultural land into dry steppes in the south of Western Siberia by 200–300 km in the next 25 years forebodes that wide ranges of steppes will be affected by desertification. The steppes taken under culture in the 1950s in the districts of Novosibirsk and Altai were protected around 1968 by a high number

Burghard Christian Meyer; Vera Schreiner; Elena N. Smolentseva; Boris A. Smolentsev

2008-01-01

419

Music as Knowledge in Shamanism and Other Healing Traditions of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Several presenters made the point that one cannot look at narrative alone, without taking into account the music, dance, and drumming that, in many settings, go along with it. One of these presenters was Marilyn Walker, who has had the good fortune to work with healers in Siberia. Although academic in approach, Marilyn’s paper also recognizes the importance of

Marilyn Walker

2003-01-01

420

Music as Knowledge in Shamanism and Other Healing Traditions of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Introduction. Several presenters made the point that one cannot look at narrative alone, without taking into account the music, dance, and drumming that, in many settings, go along with it. One of these presenters was Marilyn Walker, who has had the good fortune to work with healers in Siberia. Although academic in approach, Marilyn’s paper also recognizes the importance of

Marilyn Walker

2003-01-01

421

Biogeochemical characteristics of Siberia's Kolyma River watershed in relation to climate warming and permafrost degradation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Kolyma River in northeast Siberia, one of the six largest rivers entering the Arctic Ocean, is draining a region experiencing significant climate warming and is expected to undergo ever further warming over the coming century. The Kolyma River watershed is underlain with vast deposits of Pleistocene-aged loess known as Yedoma, which is associated with ice-rich continuous permafrost and organic

K. S. Willis; K. R. Abbott; E. Bulygina; K. E. Frey; R. M. Holmes; J. D. Schade

2008-01-01

422

Discharges and yields of suspended sediment in the Ob' and Yenisey Rivers of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northward-flowing rivers of Siberia deliver immense quantities of water but only relatively small quantities of sediment to the Arctic Ocean. The relatively low delivery of sediment to the ocean by these rivers is explained by the large areas of forest and swamp in their basins. In the Ob' River, sediment yields tend to increase between the headwaters and Kamen'

NELLY N. BOBROVITSKAYA; CLAUDIA ZUBKOVA; ROBERT H. MEADE

1996-01-01

423

Contraints On Lithospheric Extension From Break-Up Of The Proterozoic Siberia-Laurentia Connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A robust Proterozoic plate reconstruction that joins the NE Siberian and SW North American cratons provides constraints on tectonic, sedimentary, and thermal evolution of lithospheric extension leading to continental break-up. The reconstruction blends clues from Siberia and North America to show that the lithospheric extension occurred in temporally isolated episodes spanning more than one billion years. The first episode culminated

J. W. Sears

2009-01-01

424

Restoring courage to Jewish hearts: Frank Rosenblatt's mission in Siberia in 1919  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses a mission of Dr Frank Rosenblatt, a representative of the Joint Distribution Committee of American Funds for the Relief of Jewish War Sufferers to Siberia and the Russian Far East in 1919. This committee, then a young and little known philanthropic organisation, later changed its name to the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (AJJDC), and became world

Michael Beizer

2009-01-01

425

Oil and Water Don't Mix: Risk on Tap in Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In common with other areas throughout the Russian Federation, western Siberia faces formidable environmental pollution, a problem that in part is the legacy of the highly centralized Soviet era when meeting production quotas was the raison d'être for many managers of economic enterprises. In this region, over the last thirty years the near singular focus on short term oil production

Kris Wernstedt

1996-01-01

426

Transformation of ground vegetation under the effect of fires in pine forests of Middle Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Siberia, pine forests are widespread and grow in diverse habitats. Under zonal conditions, pine shows a wide amplitude of ecological flexibility, being an edificator species in areas with different soils, from shallow podzols with a low base exchange capacity to soddy calcareous soils. The expansion of pine forests far beyond the limits of the zone with a true forest

V. D. Perevoznikova; G. A. Ivanova; V. A. Ivanov; N. M. Kovaleva

2007-01-01

427

Petrology of ultrabasic inclusions from basalts of Minusa and Transbaikalian regions (Siberia, USSR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a detailed study of the ultrabasic nodules in alkali basalts of the Minusa and Transbaikalian regions (Siberia, USSR), represented by spinel lherzolites, websterites, clinopyroxenites, plagioclase-clinopyroxene rocks, as well as fragments of large augite crystals and sanidine crystals. In the course of this study 8 new chemical analyses of inclusions and 23 chemical analyses of minerals from them

V. A. Kutolin; V. M. Frolova

1970-01-01

428

Integrated approaches to terminal Proterozoic stratigraphy: an example from the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Olenek Uplift of northeastern Siberia, the Khorbusuonka Group and overlying Kessyusa and Erkeket formations preserve a significant record of terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian Earth history. A composite section more than 350 m thick is reconstructed from numerous exposures along the Khorbusuonka River. The Khorbusuonka Group comprises three principal sedimentary sequences: peritidal dolomites of the Mastakh Formation, which

Andrew H. Knoll; John P. Grotzinger; Alan J. Kaufman; Petr Kolosov

1995-01-01

429

Long-Term Temperature Trends and Tree Growth in the Taymir Region of Northern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northernmost conifers in the world are located well above the Arctic Circle in the Taymir region of northern Siberia and have been recording the thermal environment for centuries to millennia. The trees respond to temperatures beyond the narrow season of actual cambial cell division by means of root growth, photosynthesis, lignification of cell walls, and other biochemical processes. Data

Gordon C. Jacoby; Nikolai V. Lovelius; Oleg I. Shumilov; Oleg M. Raspopov; Juri M. Karbainov; David C. Frank

2000-01-01

430

Thermal and hydrologic dynamics of the active layer at a continuous permafrost site (Taymyr Peninsula, Siberia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground thermal and hydrologic regimes of a site located in the continuous permafrost landscape of Taymyr Peninsula, northern Siberia were studied in 1994 and 1995. The aim was to quantify the seasonal fluxes of water and heat in the active layer from spring thaw to fall freeze-back. Liquid water content was measured in frozen and unfrozen soils using time

Julia Boike; Kurt Roth; Pier Paul Overduin

1998-01-01

431

A Trek in the Sayan Mountains: How I Sent My Class to Siberia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a summer trip taken by 2 teachers, a parent, and 11 boys aged 14 to 16 to the Sayan Mountains of Siberia. The group was from a small private secondary school in the backwoods of Canada. A Siberian mountaineering club from Irkutsk led the group to the summit of Munku Sardik. (KS)

Arthur, Tony

1991-01-01

432

Aboveground biomass and nitrogen nutrition in a chronosequence of pristine Dahurian Larix stands in Eastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of aboveground biomass and nitrogen (N) nutrition were made during July 1993 in 50-, 130-, and 380-year-old stands of Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. in eastern Siberia. Constituting six forest types based on understorey plants, the stands were representative of vegetation throughout the Yakutsk region. Average tree height, diameter, and density ranged from 2 m, 23 mm, and 50 800

E.-D. Schulze; W. Schulze; F. M. Kelliher; N. N. Vygodskaya; W. Ziegler; K. I. Kobak; H. Koch; A. Arneth; W. A. Kusnetsova; A. Sogatchev; A. Issajev; G. Bauer; D. Y. Hollinger

1995-01-01

433

The status of beam lines for macromolecular crystallography at the Siberia-2 storage ring  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the x-ray optics of the four macromolecular crystallography beam lines under construction at the storage ring SIBERIA-2, Moscow. The four workstations are to utilize isomorphous replacement, anomalous dispersion, reflections energy profile, and the Laue technique. The instrumentation details, the results of ray-tracing analysis, and the use of an area detector are discussed.

Kusev, S.V.; Raiko, V.I.; Skuratovskii, I.Y. (Institute of Molecular Genetics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Moscow (USSR))

1992-01-01

434

The North Taymyr ice-marginal zone, Arctic Siberia—a preliminary overview and dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Taymyr ice-marginal zone (NTZ) is a complex of glacial, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine deposits, laid down on the northwestern Taymyr Peninsula in northernmost Siberia, along the front of ice sheets primarily originating on the Kara Sea shelf. It was originally recognised from satellite radar images by Russian scientists; however, before the present study, it had not been investigated in

Helena Alexanderson; Christian Hjort; Per Möller; Oleg Antonov; Maksim Pavlov

2001-01-01

435

A 10 T superconducting shifter for the ``SIBERIA-2'' storage ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems of constructing a high-field shifter for the ``SIBERIA-2'' specialized storage ring are discussed. The design of a 10 T shifter to generate synchrotron radiation with a characteristic energy of about 42 keV is described.

Barkov, A. V.; Dudarev, A. V.; Egorov, V. V.; Keilin, V. E.; Pavlov, O. V.; Stepanenko, A. V.

1991-10-01

436

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

1994-01-01

437

A Block-Circle System for the Improvement of Qualifications of Pedagogical Cadres in Siberia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Chita Institute for the Improvement of Qualifications which employs 120 specialist trainers for Sourthern Siberia. The institute uses a block-circle system for improving teacher qualifications (referring to the combined subject matter specialties and cyclic nature of the process). The system helps teachers realize creative…

Sarapulov, B. A.

1995-01-01

438

Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic records from permafrost deposits in the Arctic region of Northern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice Complexes, extremely ice-rich permafrost deposits with large ice wedges, are widely distributed in the Arctic region of northeast Siberia. They present excellent archives for the reconstruction of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental conditions in non-glaciated areas. In 1998, 1999, and 2000 Russian and German scientists worked together on the Bykovsky Peninsula southeast of the Lena Delta in order to investigate the

Lutz Schirrmeister; Christine Siegert; Tatyana Kuznetsova; Svetlana Kuzmina; Andrei Andreev; Frank Kienast; Hanno Meyer; Anatoly Bobrov

2002-01-01

439

Fish and Fishing in Holocene Cis-Baikal, Siberia: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Siberia's Lake Baikal and its tributaries are productive fisheries, and the region's Holocene archaeological sites confirm that this is a long-standing phenomenon. Recent zooarchaeological investigations of sites here allow Holocene fishing practices to be examined in more detail than was previously possible. Along much of the lake's coast, bathymetry is very steep and the water very cold; here fishing

Robert J. Losey; Tatiana Nomokonova; Dustin White