Sample records for west siberia russia

  1. Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

  2. Tickborne Pathogen Detection, Western Siberia, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Rar, Vera A.; Fomenko, Natalia V.; Dobrotvorsky, Andrey K.; Livanova, Natalya N.; Rudakova, Svetlana A.; Fedorov, Evgeniy G.; Astanin, Vadim B.

    2005-01-01

    Ixodes persulcatus (n = 125) and Dermacentor reticulatus (n = 84) ticks from Western Siberia, Russia, were tested for infection with Borrelia, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia, Bartonella, and Babesia spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays with subsequent sequencing. I. persulcatus ticks were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (37.6% ± 4.3% [standard deviation]), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4% ± 1.4%), Ehrlichia muris (8.8% ± 2.5%), and Bartonella spp. (37.6% ± 4.3%). D. reticulatus ticks contained DNA of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (3.6% ± 2.0%), Bartonella spp. (21.4% ± 4.5%), and Babesia canis canis (3.6% ± 2.0%). Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and their mixed infections were observed among I. persulcatus, whereas B. garinii NT29 DNA was seen in samples from D. reticulatus. Among the I. persulcatus ticks studied, no Babesia spp. were observed, whereas B. canis canis was the single subspecies found in D. reticulatus. PMID:16318722

  3. Radioactive Elements in Soils of Siberia (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranovskaya, N. V.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. N.; Strakhovenko, V. D.; Malikova, I. N.; Shcherbakov, B. L.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Aturova, V. P.

    2012-04-01

    The Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk In the course of long-term research a great deal of information on the content of natural and artificial radionuclides in soils of the Siberian regions has been obtained and summarized (Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Yakutia, Khakassia, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk Oblasts and a number of other Siberian regions). The content level of U(Ra), Th and K in soil of studied areas is within the range of values obtained for soil of other areas of Russia and the world and defined, first of all, by radioactivity of parent rocks. The authors have studied the total level of specific activity for 137Cs most completely in soils of different Siberian regions. The maximum density of such sites with global fallouts (nuclear air explosions in Novaya Zemlya, Lop Nor, Semipalatinsk etc.) is typical for the areas of Altai Territory and Buryatia Republic. Elevated level of radiocesium (to 1000 and more than Bq/kg) is characteristic for the sites adjacent to the area of NFP (Seversk, Zheleznogorsk). Our data obtained in determination of plutonium in soils of different Siberian regions excess remarkably its background accepted for Siberia. Particularly high accumulation levels of Pu in soil were observed in the zones of NFP operation (Seversk, Tomsk Oblast; Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the sites of accidents fallouts at underground nuclear explosions in Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Abnormally high ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soils of Sakha republic, Aginsk Buryatia Autonomous District, Krasnoyarsk Territory has engaged our attention.

  4. Lichens from Baikal region (Siberia) new to Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatiana Makryl

    1999-01-01

    Sixteen lichens new to Russia are reported from the Baikal Region (Siberia). Nine of them (Bryonora pruinosa, Catillaria detractula, Clauzadea metzleri, Heppia adriatica, Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea, Koerberia biformis, Lichinella nigritella, Pannaria ahlneri, Vestergrenopsis isidiata) are new to Asia. Their distributions and ecological requirements are briefly discussed.

  5. East Siberia and Bering Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On June 5, 2001 MODIS captured this true-color image of Eastern Siberia and the Bering Strait. To the right of the image is the western tip of Alaska's St. Lawrence Island. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

  6. Grasshopper Problems in Yacutia (Eastern Siberia, Russia) Grasslands Alexandre V. Latchininsky

    E-print Network

    Latchininsky, Alexandre

    Grasshopper Problems in Yacutia (Eastern Siberia, Russia) Grasslands Alexandre V. Latchininsky-34 Grasshopper Problems in Yacutia (EasternSiberia, Russia) Grasslands All-Russian Institute for Plant Protectron. These glades are inhabited by a dozen grasshopper species, three of which (Chorthippus albomarginatus, Aeropus

  7. Correlation of Upper Pleistocene sediments in northern West Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valery Astakhov; Dmitry Nazarov

    2010-01-01

    A geochronometric database, comprising 121 optically stimulated luminescence and 59 radiocarbon dates plus U\\/Th date on peat from 24 key sections in northern West Siberia is presented and discussed. These data have been obtained during Russian–Norwegian joint research for the past 15 years and are augmented by reports on radiocarbon dated mammoth carcasses in West Siberia. Together they provide the

  8. A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

    2002-01-01

    A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

  9. Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Kurchatova; G. I. Griva; A. B. Osokin; G. K. Smolov

    2005-01-01

    During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans

  10. Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. (Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1993-09-01

    Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

  11. High-boiling arenes of Paleozoic petroleum of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Golovko, A.K.; Kam'yanov, V.F.; Korobitsina, L.L.; Kurakolova, E.A.; Rusinova, G.V.; Petrov, Al. A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of petroleum deposits have been found recently in the southern regions of West Siberia, in carbonate reservoirs of the Paleozoic age; certain aspects of increasing petroleum output in the field are related to these deposits. The general characteristics of Paleozoic petroleums of West Siberia are fairly varied, these petroleums usually have lower sulfur and resin contents but contain more was than petroleums from the Mesozoic deposits in the upper strata. No detailed study has so far, apparently, been carried out of the hydrocarbon composition of higher fractions of Paleozoic petroleums of the regio using physico-chemical methods. Accordingly, the composition of aromatic components of medium and high-boiling petroleum distillates of the Maloich deposit are examined since these are one of the first Paleozoic deposits put to industrial use.

  12. Correlation of Upper Pleistocene sediments in northern West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhov, Valery; Nazarov, Dmitry

    2010-12-01

    A geochronometric database, comprising 121 optically stimulated luminescence and 59 radiocarbon dates plus U/Th date on peat from 24 key sections in northern West Siberia is presented and discussed. These data have been obtained during Russian-Norwegian joint research for the past 15 years and are augmented by reports on radiocarbon dated mammoth carcasses in West Siberia. Together they provide the basis for revising the regional stratigraphic scheme and for correlation to the European Quaternary chronostratigraphy and marine oxygen isotope record. The geochronologic correlation of sedimentary formations across West Siberia involves classical stratotypes of fluvial, shallow limnic and temperate marine sediments of the Karginsky Horizon, ca 130 ka, which was previously attributed to MIS 3. The older Kazantsevo marine formation is thus assigned a Middle Pleistocene age. The uppermost glacial sedimentary complex containing glacial ice was deposited by shelf-based ice sheets between ca 100 and 60 ka BP. The postglacial Pleistocene sediments are mostly ice-bound loess-like deposits and sink-hole silts containing numerous mammoth carcasses that are radiocarbon dated to between ca 42 and 25 ka BP. There are no traces of glacial activity on the Siberian plains during MIS 2, a period for which palaeoclimatic proxies suggest a cold and dry environment. This synthesis indicates that the prior usage of the Siberian correlation horizons of Kazantsevo and Karginsky as equivalents of the Eemian and Middle Pleniglacial is stratigraphically invalid.

  13. New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) in Russia (Siberia, Kamchatka).

    PubMed

    Przybo?, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta; Bieliavskaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were found in Russia. P. primaurelia was recorded in Tulun (Siberia, Irkutsk region) and in three stands situated on the Kamchatka peninsula: in Lake Chalaktyrskoye, in the Valley of Geysers, and Petropavlovsk Kamchatski. P. biaurelia was also found in Tulun and in two stands in the vicinity of Lake Baikal and the Buriatia region. P. dodecaurelia was recorded in Cheboksary in European Russia and in other stands situated in Asian Russia: Novosibirsk, the vicinity of Lake Baikal, Buriatia, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, Lake Chalaktyrskoye, and Nalychevo). These data extend the ranges of species of the P. aurelia complex in Russia, however, this large territory remains understudied. PMID:23767291

  14. Studies of The Atmosphere of Eastern Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodzher, T.; Obolkin, V.; Netsvetaeva, O.; Golobokova, L.; Fukuzaki, N.

    These studies aim to investigate fully the atmosphere in the Southern part of Baikal Region (Eastern Siberia) that is characterized by presence of large industrial centers affecting atmospheric pollution above Lake Baikal. Since 1998, three stations to mon- itor continuously a little gas admixtures, aerosols composition, and ionic and multi- elemental composition of precipitations have been created in the frame of ADORC (Niigata, Japan) program under financial support of Japanese Environmental Agency. Monitoring sites were chosen taking into account different level of anthropogenic in- fluence: Irkutsk (52.3 N, 104.4 E) reflects the processes typical of urban conditions; Listvjanka (51,9 N, 104,7 E) is a site under partial influence of regional pollutants; a high-mountain site (2000 m above sea level) Mondy (51,6 N, 101,0 E) characterizes the background areas. Since 2000, these stations are included into International Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). In Eastern Siberia aerosols origin and composition depend substantially on the season, in spite of the fact that the soil and the earth crust serve as their major sources. Anthropogenic input increases in cold season. Proportion between fifteen elements (Ca, Al, Mg , Na, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Ti, Rb, Sr, Cl, and Pb) is always the same in spring aerosols having soil dust as a major source. In spring, the concentrations of these elements are 2-5 times higher compared to the other seasons. In winter, the concentrations of such elements as Cu, Zn, Br, Pb, and Sb are a magnitude higher in urban aerosols (Irkutsk) then in the aerosols of rural regions. In soluble aerosol fraction, SO42- ion predominates among anions; NH4+ and 1057;a2+ - among cations, representing 40-60

  15. Peatland classification of West Siberia based on Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentieva, I.; Glagolev, M.; Lapshina, E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing interest in peatlands for prediction of environmental changes requires an understanding of its geographical distribution. West Siberia Plain is the biggest peatland area in Eurasia and is situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. West Siberian taiga mires are important globally, accounting for about 12.5% of the global wetland area. A number of peatland maps of the West Siberia was developed in 1970s, but their accuracy is limited. Here we report the effort in mapping West Siberian peatlands using 30 m resolution Landsat imagery. As a first step, peatland classification scheme oriented on environmental parameter upscaling was developed. The overall workflow involves data pre-processing, training data collection, image classification on a scene-by-scene basis, regrouping of the derived classes into final peatland types and accuracy assessment. To avoid misclassification peatlands were distinguished from other landscapes using threshold method: for each scene, Green-Red Vegetation Indices was used for peatland masking and 5th channel was used for masking water bodies. Peatland image masks were made in Quantum GIS, filtered in MATLAB and then classified in Multispec (Purdue Research Foundation) using maximum likelihood algorithm of supervised classification method. Training sample selection was mostly based on spectral signatures due to limited ancillary and high-resolution image data. As an additional source of information, we applied our field knowledge resulting from more than 10 years of fieldwork in West Siberia summarized in an extensive dataset of botanical relevés, field photos, pH and electrical conductivity data from 40 test sites. After the classification procedure, discriminated spectral classes were generalized into 12 peatland types. Overall accuracy assessment was based on 439 randomly assigned test sites showing final map accuracy was 80%. Total peatland area was estimated at 73.0 Mha. Various ridge-hollow and ridge-hollow-pool bog complexes prevail here occupying 34.5 Mha. They are followed by lakes (11.1 Mha), fens (10.7 Mha), pine-dwarf-shrub sphagnum bogs (9.3 Mha) and palsa complexes (7.4 Mha).

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Four European Subtype Strains of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Eastern Siberia, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Melnikova, Olga V.; Karan, Ludmila S.; Andaev, Evgeny I.; Balakhonov, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    Three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) strains were isolated from Ixodes persulcatus ticks, and one was isolated from a shrew in the territory of eastern Siberia (Russia). The level of sequence identity compared to Neudoerfl (the European prototype strain) is 97.2 to 97.3%. PMID:26089416

  17. Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey L. Vartanyan; Khikmat A. Arslanov; Juha A. Karhu; Göran Possnert; Leopold D. Sulerzhitsky

    2008-01-01

    We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period

  18. Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action in Russia. In March 2006,

    E-print Network

    Dever, Jennifer A.

    Articles Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action pipeline scheduled to pass within 800 me- ters (m) of Lake Baikal's shoreline, and, within days, President,Russia,located within the airshed of Lake Baikal; one protester was killed and several were seriously injured by young

  19. Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. (ZapSibNIGNI, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

    1993-09-01

    Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

  20. Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

    2010-12-01

    The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

  1. Radioisotope contaminations from releases of the Tomsk-Seversk nuclear facility (Siberia, Russia).

    PubMed

    Gauthier-Lafaye, F; Pourcelot, L; Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Le Roux, G; Rhikvanov, L P; Stille, P; Renaud, Ph; Mezhibor, A

    2008-04-01

    Soils have been sampled in the vicinity of the Tomsk-Seversk facility (Siberia, Russia) that allows us to measure radioactive contaminations due to atmospheric and aquatic releases. Indeed soils exhibit large inventories of man-made fission products including 137Cs (ranging from 33,000 to 68,500 Bq m(-2)) and actinides such as plutonium (i.e. 239+240Pu from 420 to 5900 Bq m(-2)) or 241Am (160-1220 Bq m(-2)). Among all sampling sites, the bank of the Romashka channel exhibits the highest radioisotope concentrations. At this site, some short half-life gamma emitters were detected as well indicating recent aquatic discharge in the channel. In comparison, soils that underwent atmospheric depositions like peat and forest soils exhibit lower activities of actinides and 137Cs. Soil activities are too high to be related solely to global fallout and thus the source of plutonium must be discharges from the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) plant. This is confirmed by plutonium isotopic ratios measured by ICP-MS; the low 241Pu/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios with respect to global fallout ratio or civil nuclear fuel are consistent with weapons grade signatures. Up to now, the influence of Tomsk-Seversk plutonium discharges was speculated in the Ob River and its estuary. Isotopic data from the present study show that plutonium measured in SCC probably constitutes a significant source of plutonium in the aquatic environment, together with plutonium from global fallout and other contaminated sites including Tomsk, Mayak (Russia) and Semipalatinsk (Republic of Kazakhstan). It is estimated that the proportion of plutonium from SCC source can reach 45% for 239Pu and 60% for 241Pu in the sediments. PMID:17996340

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variability of CO2 and CH4 Concentrations in the Atmospheric Surface Layer over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Machida, Toshinobu; Sasakawa, Motoki; Davydov, Denis K.; Fofonov, Alexander V.; Krasnov, Oleg A.; Maksyutov, Shamil; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of greenhouse gas behavior in the atmosphere plays a key role in predicting the global changes of Earth's climate. In this connection, of particular importance is the study of the distribution of sources/sinks of trace gases in the atmospheric surface layer over the different regions of the globe. In order to fill a gap in the data on greenhouse gas concentrations in Russia, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan) and Institute of Atmospheric Optics (IAO SB RAS, Russia) established a network for GHG monitoring (JR-STATION, Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network). Gas analyzers and meteorological sensors were mounted at radio relay towers located in different regions of West Siberia. The checking equipment was placed in containers at the tower base. In the containers, the climatic parameters optimal for gas analyzer operation were maintained. The work on the network development started in 2001. Since at each of the sites the measurement duration could be different, in this paper we present the data of the greenhouse gas monitoring for eight sites which give the primary idea on the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 in the atmospheric surface layer over West Siberia. The analysis of the data showed that the average increase in concentration of carbon dioxide by results of our measurements in this territory increases within 1.95 - 2.53 ppm/year, depending on the area. The analysis of long-term data testifies about existence of growth of concentration of methane within 3.2 - 7.2 ppb / year. The presence of a distributed network of the sites operating in the monitoring regime makes it possible not only to investigate the temporal dynamics of CO2 and CH4 at each site and to determine the spatial differences between the concentrations by comparing the data, but also to plot the distribution charts for different moments of time. This work was supported by the Global Environment Research Account for National Institutes of the Ministry of the Environment (Japan), the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  3. Distribution of trace gases and aerosols in the troposphere over West Siberia and Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belan, Boris D.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Nédélec, Philippe; Ancellet, Gérard; Pelon, Jacques; Berchet, Antoine; Arzoumanian, Emmanuel; Belan, Sergey B.; Penner, Johannes E.; Balin, Yurii S.; Kokhanenko, Grigorii; Davydov, Denis K.; Ivlev, Georgii A.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Kozlov, Alexander S.; Chernov, Dmitrii G.; Fofonov, Alexader V.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Tolmachev, Gennadii

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is affected by climate change much stronger than other regions of the globe. Permafrost thawing can lead to additional methane release, which enhances the greenhouse effect and warming, as well as changes of Arctic tundra ecosystems. A great part of Siberian Arctic is still unexplored. Ground-based investigations are difficult to be carried out in this area due to it is an out-of-the-way place. So, in spite of the high cost, aircraft-based in-situ measurements can provide a good opportunity to fill up the gap in data on the atmospheric composition over this region. The ninth YAK-AEROSIB campaign was focused on the airborne survey of Arctic regions of West Siberia. It was performed in October 2014. During the campaign, the high-precision in-situ measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, O3, black carbon and aerososls, including aerosol lidar profiles, have been carried out in the Siberian troposphere from Novosibirsk to Kara Sea. Vertical distributions of the above atmospheric constituents will be presented. This work was supported by LIA YAK-AEROSIB, CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); Interdisciplinary integration projects of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science No. 35, No. 70 and No. 131; and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No. 14-05-00526 and 14-05-00590).

  4. Bryozoans from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Upper Devonian) of the Tom-Kolyvansk area (Western Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikova, Zoya

    2010-10-01

    Nine bryozoan species are described from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Late Devonian) from Western Siberia, Russia, namely: Leptotrypella pojarkovi Orlovski, 1961, Rhombopora subtilis Nekhoroshev, 1977, Klaucena lalolamina Yang, Hu, Xia, 1988, Eofistulotrypa famennensis sp. n., Atactotoechus cellatus sp. n., Nikiforopora jurgensis sp. n., Eridotrypella tyzhnovi sp. n., Mediapora elegans sp. n., and Klaucena gracilis sp. n. The studied assemblage shows palaeogeographical affinity with Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Transcaucasia, China, and the United States of America.

  5. Surface water quality assessment of the Vatinsky Egan River catchment, West Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Moskovchenko; A. G. Babushkin; G. N. Artamonova

    2009-01-01

    Stream water chemistry were analyzed across Vatinsky Egan River Catchment (West Siberia). The objective of the study is to\\u000a reveal the spatial and seasonal variations of the water quality and to assess the anthropogenic chemical inputs into the river\\u000a system. Stream chemistry were monitored in 24 sampling sites for a period extended from January 2002 to December 2005. Spatial\\u000a distribution

  6. PCR Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, and the Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis Agent in Ixodes persulcatus Ticks from Western Siberia, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga V. Morozova; Andrey K. Dobrotvorsky; Natalya N. Livanova; Sergey E. Tkachev; Valentina N. Bakhvalova; Anatoly B. Beklemishev; Felipe C. Cabello

    2002-01-01

    PCR assays were used to test adult Ixodes persulcatus ticks from Western Siberia, Russia, for Borrelia burg- dorferi sensu lato, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent. Of the 150 ticks that were studied, 38% were infected with B. burgdorferi, 46% were infected with TBEV, and 8% were infected with the HGE agent. These three pathogens

  7. Origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale, Yamal Peninsula, Siberia, Russia: contrasting views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortier, D.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Godin, E.; M-Lepage, J.; Stephani, E.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The origin of permafrost and ground ice of the Cape Marre-Sale polar station area, Western Yamal Peninsula, Russia, has been debated for decades. This can be explained by the extremely complex morphology of sedimentary strata and cryofacies exposed along the costal bluffs. Here, we report massive ice observations realized during summer 2012 as well as numerous laboratory and field analysis previously conducted on the massive ice bodies and reported in the literature. Our objective is to present contrasting views currently being proposed to explain the origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale. Several types of massive ice bodies can be observed along the exposures. One striking cryofacies observed shows alternating cm-thick ice lenses and cm-to-dm thick bands of sediment-rich ice, which are commonly folded with an amplitude of several meters. This very ice-rich cryofacies is interpreted either as buried basal ice of the Eurasian ice-sheet or alternatively as massive segregated ice formed during epigenetic permafrost aggradation. This cryofacies comprised meters large clasts of stratified sand with organics, with some of these stratifications being folded and faulted and showing boudinage structure. The location of these large sand clasts within the foliated ice-rich massive ice could be explained either by glacio-tectonic activity (glacio-dislocation during ice flow) or alternatively by regional tectonic activity. Large m-thick and meters-long pure ice bodies were also observed within the foliated massive ice. The first type is withish and contains a very large amount of air bubbles without any clear orientation. The second type is made of blueish to clear ice and contains a few air bubbles and rare, randomly distributed, fine-grained sediment inclusions suspended in the ice. Ice crystallography revealed the presence of large (cm) ice crystals in both types of ice. These pure ice bodies cross-cut the massive foliated ice. They could be interpreted as refrozen water trapped in intra-glacial tunnels formed within the basal ice (oxygen-rich water and suspension freezing of fine-grained sediments) of the ice-sheet or alternatively as groundwater injection (and subsequent refreezing) during freezing of taliks following lake drainage. Finally, wedge-shaped massive ice can also be observed near the top of the exposures. The first type is yellowish, vertically foliated, extends downward for several meters in the massive foliated ice and contains a significant amount of fine-grained sediment. This is either interpreted as Pleistocene ice wedge (frost-cracking) or alternatively as hydrolaccolith formed by the upward intrusion/expulsion of water within the foliated massive ice, likely due to the joint action of groundwater, permafrost aggradation and tectonic processes. The second type of wedge ice is withish in color and foliated and has been interpreted unanimously as Holocene ice wedges (frost-cracking). The contrasting views presented here represent new and reasonable working hypothesis to explain the genesis of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale. These hypotheses have considerable implications for the reconstruction of paleoclimates and paleoenvironments of Western Siberia.

  8. Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

  9. Carbon accumulation in peatlands of West Siberia over the last 2000 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David W. Beilman; Glen M. MacDonald; Laurence C. Smith; Paula J. Reimer

    2009-01-01

    We use a network of cores from 77 peatland sites to determine controls on peat C content and peat C accumulation over the last 2000 years (since 2 ka) across Russia's West Siberian Lowland (WSL), the world's largest wetland region. Our results show a significant influence of fossil plant composition on peat C content, with peats dominated by Sphagnum having

  10. Permafrost thawing inferred from Arctic lake sediment of the Taimyr Peninsula, East Siberia, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Fedotov; M. A. Phedorin; A. S. Suvorov; M. S. Melgunov; T. V. Khodzher

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to reconstruct permafrost thawing at 71°N of Arctic Siberia during the termination of the Little Ice Age and the subsequent Recent Warming. Sediment samples from Lake Dalgan of the Taimyr Peninsula were analysed by high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at 1 mm scan resolution, and Fourier-transform infrared techniques. Intense permafrost thawing was calculated from the

  11. Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

    2012-04-01

    Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation, position of ecosystems in the landscape (lateral migration) and types of bedrocks [2]. The results allow better understanding of the coupling between biogeochemical cycles of carbon and major and trace elements in peat soils in order to predict the future changes in both concentrations and stocks of chemical elements in the Western Siberia peat bog systems under climate warming.

  12. Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins

    SciTech Connect

    Mogutcheva, N.K. [Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics & Mineral Resource, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-06-15

    Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

  13. Late glacial and Holocene palaeoenvironmental changes in the Rostov-Yaroslavl' area, West Central Russia

    E-print Network

    Wohlfarth, Barbara

    Russia Barbara Wohlfarth1, *, Pavel Tarasov2 , Ole Bennike3 , Terri Lacourse1 , Dmitry Subetto4 , Peter of Sciences, Sevastyanova 9, RU-196105 St. Petersburg, Russia; 5 Department of Geology and Geochemistry, Thaw lake, West central Russia Abstract Three lake sediment sequences (lakes Nero, Chashnitsy, Zaozer

  14. First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

    2014-08-01

    A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea. PMID:24382145

  15. Physical and chemical stability of nanostructured lipid drug carriers (NLC) based on natural lipids from Baikal region (Siberia, Russia).

    PubMed

    Averina, E S; Müller, R H; Popov, D V; Radnaeva, L D

    2011-05-01

    At the turn of the millennium, a new generation of lipid nanoparticles for pharmacology was developed, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The features of NLC structure which allow the inclusion of natural biologically active lipids in the NLC matrix open a wide prospect for the creation of high performance drug carriers. In this study NLC formulations were developed based on natural lipids from the Siberia region (Russia): fish oil from Lake Baikal fish; polyunsaturated fatty acid fractions and monounsaturated and saturated fatty acid fractions from fish oil and Siberian pine seed oil. Formulation parameters of NLC such as as type of surfactant and storage conditions were evaluated. The data obtained indicated high physical stability of NLC formulated on the basis of pure fish oil stabilized by Tween 80 and NLC formulated on the basis of free fatty acids stabilized by Poloxamer 188. The good chemical stability of the lipid matrix and the high concentrations of the biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the NLC developed open wide prospects for their use in pharmaceutics and cosmetics. PMID:21699068

  16. Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

  17. Tree-ring dating of meteorite fall in Sikhote-Alin, Eastern Siberia - Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantucci, R.; Di Martino, Mario; Serra, Romano

    2012-01-01

    This research deals with the fall of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite on the morning of 12 February 1947, at about 00:38 h Utrecht, in a remote area in the territory of Primorsky Krai in Eastern Siberia (46°09?36?N, 134°39?22?E). The area engulfed by the meteoritic fall was around 48 km2, with an elliptic form and thousands of craters. Around the large craters the trees were torn out by the roots and laid radially to the craters at a distance of 10-20 m; the more distant trees had broken tops. This research investigated through dendrocronology n.6 Scots pine trees (Pinus Sibirica) close to one of the main impact craters. The analysis of growth anomalies has shown a sudden decrease since 1947 for 4-8 years after the meteoritic impact. Tree growth stress, detected in 1947, was analysed in detail through wood microsection that confirmed the winter season (rest vegetative period) of the event. The growth stress is mainly due to the lost crown (needle lost) and it did not seem to be caused due to direct damages on trunk and branches (missing of resin ducts).

  18. The Holocene environmental history of the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (northeastern Siberia, Russia) reconstructed from high-resolution pollen data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, S.; Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Diekmann, B.

    2009-04-01

    The study presented here is part of the IPY project 106 "Lake Records of late Quaternary Climate Variability in northeastern Siberia" and the German Research Foundation project RI 809/17-1,2 "Late Quaternary environmental history of interstadial and interglacial periods in the Arctic reconstructed from bioindicators in permafrost sequences in NE Siberia". Both projects focus on generating high-resolution vegetation and climate proxy records mainly from lacustrine sediments along a north-south transect from Yakutia, Republic of Russia. This region is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere - "Pole of Cold". Radiocarbon-dated pollen records from Lake Billyakh (65°17'N, 126°47'E; 340 m a.s.l.) located in the central part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains were used to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes. The longest and oldest sediment core from the lake reaches back to >30 kyr BP, thus covering the last two Late Pleistocene Interstadials in Siberia. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction of the core PG 1756, which covers the last 15 kyr BP, suggest that open cool steppe and grass and sedge tundra communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer trees in the regional vegetation during the last glaciation. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae), alder (Duschekia fruticosa) and willow (Salix) species, is dated to 13.5-12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the last glaciation, particularly during the Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon), spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies) pollen, indicating mid-Holocene spread of boreal forest communities in response to climate amelioration and degradation of the permafrost layer.

  19. Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2013-02-01

    The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a~continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This is likely to profoundly change the discharge rates of the Lena River and the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients, DOC and importantly methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of and interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, forming the basis of the food web. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic plankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and linked foodweb interactions within the delta need to be established. As part of the AWI Lena Delta Programme in 2010 the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small a shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykovskaya channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore (transect 3). Of the five stations in this area three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects on the other hand salinities varied between 5-30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and chlorophytes, in those stations characterized by river outflow (stations in the Lena itself and in coastal transect 3). In contrast in the stratified stations the plankton was mostly dominated by dinoflagellates, ciliates and nanoflagellates, with only an insignificant diatom component from the genera Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira (brackish as opposed to freshwater species). Ciliate abundance was significantly coupled with the abundance of total flagellates. A pronounced partitioning in the phytoplankton community was also discernible with depth, with a different community composition and abundance above and below the thermocline in the stratified sites. This work represents the first attempt at analyzing the phytoplankton structure of the region of freshwater influence at confluence Lena-Laptev sea.

  20. Investigating the Human Dimension of Unprecedented Global Climate Change in northeastern Siberia, Russia: Understandings, Perceptions and Responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crate, S.

    2009-12-01

    An urgent challenge of the 21st century is to investigate understandings, perceptions and responses of populations confronting the local effects of global climate change. This paper describes the most recent results of one such project working with rural native Viliui Sakha communities, Turkic-speaking horse & cattle breeders in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The research questions are: 1) What local effects of global climate change are Viliui Sakha communities observing, how are Viliui Sakha perceiving these changes and how are the changes affecting both their subsistence survival and their cultural orientations? 2) What local knowledge exists about past climate perturbations and how does that knowledge influence contemporary adaptation to global climate change? 3) How can anecdotal (local) knowledge and regional scientific knowledge about the local effects of global climate change be integrated to enhance both local adaptive responses and policy efforts? The four-village, three-year study is a collaborative effort involving the active participation of the targeted communities, field assistants, native specialists, an in-country research team and an international collaborator. The project is founded on the PI’s 20 years of ongoing research and work with rural Viliui Sakha communities and on her fluency in both the Sakha and Russian languages. A central focus of this project is the integration of local and scientific knowledges. We are documenting local knowledge on the community, elder and archival levels. We are collaborating with scientists in Yakutsk for regional scientific data. Our project team has just returned from the second summer of field work and this presentation will cover the project results to date. Hayfields are inundated with water.

  1. Genetic diversity of local spring bread wheats ( Triticum aestivum L.) of West and East Siberia in gliadin genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Nikolaev; V. A. Pukhal’sky; V. P. Upelniek

    2009-01-01

    A considerable polymorphism in gliadin genes was detected in the wheat landraces of West Siberia (Altai krai, Omsk oblast,\\u000a and Kurgan oblast) and the local cultivars characteristic of several East Siberian regions (Krasnoyarsk krai, Irkutsk oblast,\\u000a Tuva, and Yakutia), and the genetic formulas were determined. The common alleles characteristic of the wheats of both regions\\u000a were detected, namely, Gli-A1f, Gli-A1j,

  2. Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2001-01-01

    The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt west of the Baykit high are probable source rocks. Their areal distribution extends from the foldbelt into the foredeep along the province?s western margin. Potential source rocks also are present in platform depressions in eastern areas of the province. Hydrocarbon generation and migration west of the province started as early as Riphean time, before the beginning of the deformation in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt that occurred about 820?850 million years ago. However, the presently known oil and gas accumulations were formed after deposition of the Lower Cambrian salt seal. Available data allow identification of only one assessment unit, and it covers the entire TPS area. Undiscovered oil and gas resources are moderate, primarily due to the poor quality of reservoir rocks. However, the reserve growth in the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone may be large and may exceed the volume of undiscovered resources in the rest of the province. Most oil and gas resourcesareexpectedtobeinstructuralandstratigraphictrapsin Riphean carbonate reservoirs. Vendian clastic reservoirs are probably gas-prone.

  3. Interception by sphagnum in a bog mire catchment of central West-Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleuten, W.; Filippov, I.

    2009-04-01

    The hydrology of mires (pristine peatland ecosystems) hardly has been analyzed quantitatively. The general idea, that mires can retain precipitation water (‘sponge effect') has never been proved by real field data. Missing data for evaluation of these properties are actual evapotranspiration, water conductivity and interception of rainwater by peatland mosses and peat layers below. The newly opened Mukhrino Field Station, located in the centre of West Siberia (60,9oN, 68,7oE) at the margin of a giant mire complex gave the opportunity to start quantitative hydrological research. Water stage dynamics in mires has been recorded with pressure loggers in mires and in lysimeters to analyse the evapotranspiration, interception and the water balance. Air and water temperature and precipitation has been recorded simultaneously. By 1-Dimensional modelling interception appeared to be the most important water loss for mires. As expected, mostly snowmelt determined discharge dynamics of the studied peatland catchment area. Rainfall events resulted in relatively fast response in catchment discharge. The so-called ‘sponge effect' of mire systems could not be verified this time.

  4. Trace element speciation and origin of colloids in surface waters of subarctic zone (NW of Russia and Central Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Vasukova, E. V.; Shirokova, L. S.; Dupre, B.

    2008-12-01

    Geochemistry of trace elements (TE) in boreal regions attracts large attention of researchers in view of on- going environmental changes that can affect both the fluxes of these elements to the ocean, their speciation and thus their bioavailability. Most of trace elements in waters of boreal zone are transported via organic and organo-mineral colloids. In order to better understand the processes of colloids formation in surface waters draining watersheds of various lithology and permafrost abundance, comparative study of TE speciation in various geographic zones is necessary. In this work we attempted to generalize the typical features of trace element speciation in boreal arctic and subarctic zones assessed via in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration. Surface waters of three circumpolar regions in Arkhangelsk region, NW Russia and Central Siberia were studied using unique and rigorous procedure via combination of in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration (1 kDa, 3.5 kDa, 10 kDa, 100 kDa, 0.22 µm, 0.45 µm, 1 ?m, 5 µm). In both filtrates and dialysates, all major and trace elements and dissolved organic carbon were analyzed. In all studied regions, three typical features of colloid speciation have been revealed: i) high proportion of large-size colloids (10 kDa - 0.22 ?m and 0.22 ?m - 5 µm), mostly composed of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides stabilized by organic matter; ii) presence of organic-rich, small size colloids and conventionally "dissolved" substances (< 1 kDa and 1 - 10 kDa), presumably, fulvic acids, and iii) strong association of all trivalent and tetravalent elements with large-size mineral colloids. Results of the present work allow distinguishing between two possible pathways of colloids formation: 1) Groundwater-borne Fe(II) oxidation and TE coprecipitation in the presence of organic matter originated from plant litter and peat layers of surface horizons at the surface redox front between anoxic groundwaters and surficial OM-rich waters of the riparian zone, and 2) Plant litter-borne Fe(II) and TE originated from decomposing plant litter and mosses and coprecipitating together in the very surface horizons above the permafrost layer. The first pathway is typical for non-permafrost bearing zones such as European Russian Arctic where as in Central Siberia, plant litter degradation in surficial horizons is largely responsible for colloids formation. In both cases, dissolved organic matter in the form of essentially fulvic acids helps to stabilize the mineral colloids and prevents the aggregation of Fe oxyhydroxides. As a result, conventional thermodynamic modeling of TE association with dissolved organic matter can be misleading for these systems, where the processes of irreversible coprecipitation, not reversible complexation/adsorption on the surface, control the TE interaction with colloids. It is anticipated that knowledge of speciation of metal pollutants and organic carbon both in surficial fluids and in the permafrost ice and soils will allow the prediction of metals bioavailability change induced by permafrost thawing and human pollution - for example, around the smelters located in the arctic-zone. Elaborated models can be extended to other permafrost- bearing territories of the world which are likely to be highly sensitive to the global warming.

  5. Indications of decreasing human PTS concentrations in North West Russia

    PubMed Central

    Rylander, Charlotta; Sandanger, Torkjel M.; Petrenya, Natalya; Konoplev, Alexei; Bojko, Evgeny; Odland, Jon Øyvind

    2011-01-01

    Background The Russian Arctic covers an enormous landmass with diverse environments. It inhabits more than 20 different ethnic groups, all of them with various living conditions and food traditions. Indigenous populations with a traditional way of living are exposed to a large number of anthropogenic pollutants, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals, mainly through the diet. Human monitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals in the Russian Arctic has only been performed on irregular intervals over the past 15 years, thus, there is still a lack of baseline data from many ethnic groups and geographical regions. The aim of the current study was to investigate concentrations of POPs and toxic metals in three groups of indigenous people from the Russian Arctic. Plasma concentrations of POPs were measured in one of the locations (Nelmin-Nos) in 2001–2003 which gave the unique opportunity to compare concentrations over time in a small Russian arctic community. Methods During 2009 and early 2010, 209 blood samples were collected from three different study sites in North West Russia; Nelmin-Nos, Izhma and Usinsk. The three study sites are geographically separated and the inhabitants are expected to have different dietary habits and living conditions. All blood samples were analyzed for POPs and toxic metals. Results PCB 153 was present in highest concentrations of the 18 PCBs analyzed. p,p?-DDE and HCB were the two most dominating OC pesticides. Males had higher concentrations of PCB 138, 153 and 180 than women and age was a significant predictor of PCB 153, 180, HCB and p,p?-DDD. Males from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of HCB than males from the other study sites and women from Usinsk had higher concentrations of p,p?-DDE. Parity was a significant predictor of p,p?-DDE. Hg and Pb concentrations increased with increasing age and males had significantly higher concentrations of Pb than women. The study group from Izhma had significantly higher concentrations of Cd when controlling for age and gender and the study group from Usinsk had higher concentrations of Se than the others. Compared to the results from Nelmin-Nos in 2001–2003, a clear decrease in p,p?-DDE concentrations for both women and men was observed. Conclusions The current study indicates a significant reduction of several PTSs in human blood samples from North West Russia over the past 10 years. PMID:22043215

  6. The Chineysky layered massif (Siberia, Russia) and Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex: resemblance and difference features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.

    2009-04-01

    Layered intrusions represent a small part of a large group of continental basic-ultrabasic complexes. They attract geologists' attention due to their unusual magmatic structures and associated PGE, Cr and V deposits. The outstanding example of this phenomenon is the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. The largest layered intrusion in Russia is the Chineysky massif (Transbaikalia, Siberia). It is characterized by excellent layering and accompanying titanomagnetite and sulfide mineralization. It hosts Russia's largest deposits of Fe-Ti-V ores which are also among the world's largest [1]. Origin of such huge metal concentrations in the crust is unsettled problem. Therefore the ore conditions' determination from different intrusions is very actually. We compared the structure, rock and parental magmas compositions for two plutons mentioned above. The Chineysky massif consists of gabbronorites and anorthozites and the petrography of the rocks resembles that of the Upper Zone of the Bushveld [3]. Vanadium ores from these two intrusions are very similar: they are represented by massive and disseminated varieties. However, the small size of Chineysky massiv gives an opportunity to observe the number of petrological processes in a frame of one area, as opposed to Bushveld, where this is impossible. The separateness of the bodies and the scarcity of geochemical data on their rocks precluded the development of a comprehensive model for the evolution of magmatism in this part of the Kodar- Udokan trough. So one of the tasks of our research was to study the spatial and genetic relations between the ultrabasite-basite intrusive bodies and their possible grouping within a single magmatic system, with the Chineysky massif being its part. The second tasks was to determine the phase characteristics of the parental magma of the massif . An important aspect of this study was the examination of the inner structure of the Chineysky massiv. The main features of the structure are following: 1) consecutive introduction of magmas of different composition; 2) stratification of different nature; 3) differently grade rhythmicity. The Chineysky massif is thought to have been produced by successive emplacement of magmas, which formed four rock groups. These are the pyroxenite of the first group, titanomagnetite gabbronorites and leucogabbro of the second group, gabbronorites of the third group, and lamprophyres of the fourth group The trace-element patterns of various rocks and the results of simulations by the COMAGMAT-3.5 computer program led us to believe that all four rock groups of the massif were generated by the successive emplacements of several portions of the initial magma, which was a complicatedly differentiated suspension of olivine, plagioclase, and magnetite crystals in ferroabsaltic melt at a temperature of approximately 1130°?. The gravitational separation of these phases in the melt before its emplacement into the chamber and during the subsequent emplacement of various portions of the initial magma into the modern chamber predetermined the heterogeneity of the massif (its block structure). As a result, the bulk of the Chineysky massif is composed of compositionally principally different rocks of the second and third groups, with the predominance of intratelluric plagioclase and magnetite crystals in the former case (gabbronorite and leucogabbro series in the western and southeastern blocks) and orthopyroxene in the latter one (norite series, central block). The rocks of the third group were generated later. The crystallization sequences of minerals modeled for the Chineysky massif can be classed into two major types [2]: (a) "high-Al", which is typical of the "leucogabbro" compositions and characterized by the occurrence of a magnetite-plagioclase cotectic, and (b) "high-Mg", which is typical of the noriteseries and is characterized by the early appearance of olivine on the liquidus or the concurrent crystallization of this mineral with magnetite or plagioclase. It is worth mentioning the early app

  7. Carbon balances of freshwater ecosystems in summer and fall 2008 on Samoylov Island, Lena Delta, Siberia, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abnizova; J. Siemens; M. Langer; J. Boike

    2010-01-01

    A large number of freshwater ecosystems, such as lakes and ponds, exist in the northern areas of Canada, Alaska and Siberia and have been recently recognized as highly sensitive to changing climate. While numerous studies reported northern lakes as heterotrophic and supersaturated in carbon dioxide gas (CO2) environments, seasonal variability and differences in estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

  8. Russia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke and Clouds over Russia     View Larger Image ... of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 ...

  9. Soil microbiological composition and its evolution along with forest succession in West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naplekova, Nadezhda N.; Malakhova, Nataliya A.; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Natural forest succession process in West Siberia is mostly initiated by fire disturbance and involves changing tree species composition from pioneer species to late succession trees. Along with forest aging, litter and forest biomass accumulate. Changes of the soil nitrogen cycle between succession stages, important for plant functioning, have been reported in a number of studies. To help understanding the mechanism of the changes in the soil nitrogen cycle we analyzed soil microbiological composition for soil profiles (0-160 cm) taken at sites corresponding to three forest succession stages: (1) young pine, age 18-20 years, (2) mid age, dark coniferous, age 50-70 years, (3) mature, fir-spruce, age 170-180 years. Soil samples were taken from each soil horizon and analyzed in the laboratory for quantity and species composition of algae and other microorganisms. Algae community at all stages of succession is dominated by species typical for forest (pp. Chlorhormidium, Chlamydomonas, Chloroccocum, Pleurochloris, Stichococcus). Algae species composition is summarized by formulas: young forest C14X10Ch9H2P4Cf1B2amph4, mid age X16C15Ch10H4P4Cf1B2amph4, mature X24C22Ch17H10P2amph5Cf1, with designations C -- Cyanophyta, X -- Xantophyta, Ch -- Chlorophyta, B -- Bacillariophyta. Diversity is highest in upper two horizons and declines with depth. Microorganism composition on upper 20 cm was analyzed in three types of forests separately for consumers of protein (ammonifiers) and mineral nitrogen, fungi, azotobacter, Clostridium pasteurianum, oligonitrophylic (eg diazotrophs), nitrifiers and denitrifiers. Nitrogen biologic fixation in the mature forest soils is done mostly by oligonitrophyls and microorganisms of the genus Clostridium as well as ?yanobacteria of sp. Nostoc, but the production rate appears low. Concentrations (count in gram soil) of nitrogen consumers (eg ammonifiers), oligonitrophyls, Clostridium and denitrifiers increase several fold from young forest to mid age, and from mid age to mature forest. On the contrary, azotobacter disappears in mature forest while nitrifiers decline by several times from young to mid age forest. Large variation in microbiological activity was observed between sites reaching different succession stage, however further studies are needed to discriminate between effects of the site productivity and forest age.

  10. First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, Mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon Island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).

    PubMed

    Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone. PMID:25773245

  11. TQM AT WEST, EAST ASIA AND RUSSIA: ARE WE DIFFERENT?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Selivanova; Jan Eklöf

    The article is devoted to an analysis of main differences and similarities in TQM practice in Western, Russian and Asian companies. Analytical results are based on comparative studies of data collected in 12 countries: Russia, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Finland, Estonia, Denmark, Australia, India, Sweden, England, New Zealand in 1990-s. It is shown in the study that Western and Asian companies

  12. Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial resolution. However, we recognize that the extent of Yedoma deposits presented in this database is not complete for a global assessment, because Yedoma deposits also occur in the Taymyr lowlands and Chukotka, and in parts of Alaska and northwestern Canada.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, T.R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

  14. Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2003-01-01

    The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms during Neocomian time. The clastic material was transported by a system of rivers dominantly from the eastern provenance. Sandstones within the Neocomian clinoforms contain the principal oil reservoirs. The thick continental Aptian?Cenomanian Pokur Formation above the Neocomian sequence contains giant gas reserves in the northern part of the basin. Three total petroleum systems are identified in the West Siberian basin. Volumes of discovered hydrocarbons in these systems are 144 billion barrels of oil and more than 1,300 trillion cubic feet of gas. The assessed mean undiscovered resources are 55.2 billion barrels of oil, 642.9 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 20.5 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. The largest known oil reserves are in the Bazhenov-Neocomian total petroleum system that includes Upper Jurassic and younger rocks of the central and southern parts of the basin. Oil reservoirs are mainly in Neocomian and Upper Jurassic clastic strata. Source rocks are organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation. Most discovered reserves are in structural traps, but stratigraphic traps in the Neocomian clinoform sequence are pro-ductive and are expected to contain much of the undiscovered resources. Two assessment units are identified in this total petroleum system. The first assessment unit includes all conventional reservoirs in the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Jurassic to the Cenomanian. The second unit includes unconventional (or continuous), self-sourced, fractured reservoirs in the Bazhenov Formation. This unit was not assessed quantitatively. The Togur-Tyumen total petroleum system covers the same geographic area as the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, but it includes older, Lower?Middle Jurassic strata and weathered rocks at the top of the pre-Jurassic sequence. A Callovian regional shale seal of the Abalak and lower Vasyugan Formations separates the two systems. The Togur-Tyumen system is oil-prone; gas reserves are insignificant. The principal o

  15. Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there are quite a few cases of the use of woodland valuable in recreational and forestry respects for dacha or country-cottage construction. From fast change the pattern of ownership on ground is necessary urgent inventory of being available ground resources, including with the purposes of creation of new especially protected territories. It is important to emphasise, that to guards should be subject not only sites so-called quot.; untouched quot.; a nature, but also area with different overgrowth succession stages agricultural lands, where biodiversity raises.

  16. Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the West Siberia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D. [Earth Science Associates, Arlington, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the basin. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, mature source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in {open_quotes}snapshots{close_quotes} by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of West Siberia.

  17. Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the West Siberia Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D. (Earth Science Associates, Arlington, TX (United States))

    1996-01-01

    Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the basin. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, mature source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in [open quotes]snapshots[close quotes] by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of West Siberia.

  18. MDBT estimation ratio for transformation organic matter ratio in Bazhenov Formation of Western Siberia (Tomsk Oblast, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, I.; Samoilenko, V.; Oblasov, N.; Fadeeva, S.

    2015-02-01

    The Bazhenov Formation is the main source rock in the West Siberian Basin, because of high organic-rich Bazhenov black shales, with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 10-15wt.% generally. Based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis data, the initial generative potential for a significant part of West Siberian Bazhenov Formation organic matter (OM) is from 10 to 60% expended. Most West Siberian oils are in the Bazhenov Formation due to very high oil potential (initial hydrogen index = 710mgHC/gTOC) and widespread regional distribution). Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) does not correctly indicate the transformation ratio (TR) of the OM in Bazhenov black shales. However, GC-MS analysis of extracts indicated a good correlation between some molecular maturity and Rock-Eval maturity parameters. Molecular maturity parameters based on naphthalenes and phenanthrenes are not applicable for Bazhenov Formation OM. While the parameters based on 4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1- methyldibenzothiophene ratio (4MDBT/1MDBT) is applicable in estimating the hydrocarbon potential of Bazhenov Formation black shales and, consequently, provides more reliable information about marine OM TR than does Ro. The 4MDBT/1MDBT ratio is more consistent and precise than pyrolysis data. Therefore, it is more applicable in the case of scarcity of core samples throughout the whole formation.

  19. Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, S V; Tchabovsky, A V

    2011-01-01

    We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

  20. Norilsk, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Norilsk is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and the northernmost city in Siberia. The city was founded in the 1930s as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex, sitting near the largest nickel-copper-palladium deposits on Earth. Mining and smelting of nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium are the major industries. The nickel ore is smelted on site at Norilsk. The smelting is directly responsible for severe pollution, generally acid rain and smog. By some estimates, 1 percent of the entire global emissions of sulfur dioxide comes from this one city. Heavy metal pollution near Norilsk is so severe that it is now economically feasible to mine the soil, which has been polluted so severely that it has economic grades of platinum and palladium.

    The image was acquired July 21, 2000, covers an area of 36.9 x 37.6 km, and is located at 69.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  1. Russia: A Part of the West or Apart from the West?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastian Kaempf

    2010-01-01

    Outlining the century-old debates about ‘What is Russia?’, this article — by drawing on a variety of sources such as fiction, culture, cartoons and identity — shows how Russian and Western answers to this question have impacted on each other. To do so, the article first examines the extent to which Russian society — ever since the Mongolian Yoke —

  2. Altitudinal distribution of aldehydes and their contribution into organic atmospheric aerosol through photonucleation of biogenic compounds over forests in west Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maskaeva, Anastasiya A.; Maksimova, Tatyana A.; Dubtsov, Sergei N.; Dultseva, Galina G.

    2014-11-01

    Chemical kinetic model describing the mechanism of the formation of aldehydes and the nuclei of the solid phase in the oxidation of biogenic isoprene was built on the basis of airborne measurements of aldehyde concentrations over the forests of West Siberia. It is demonstrated that the high formaldehyde concentrations at an altitude of 4 km and above are due to the photooxidation of hydrocarbons during the vertical transport from the surface. The contribution of aldehyde photonucleation into the formation of organic atmospheric aerosol is evaluated.

  3. WETCHIMP-WSL: Intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Joe; Bohn, Theodore

    2015-04-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux dataset, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. We found that: a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ±0.54 Tg CH4 y-1), inversions (6.06 ±1.22 Tg CH4 y-1), and in situ observations (3.91 ±1.29 Tg CH4 y-1) largely agreed; b) forward models using inundation products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; c) the interannual timeseries of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and e) multi-year or multi-decade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.

  4. WETCHIMP-WSL: intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

    2015-06-01

    Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux data set, several wetland maps, and two satellite surface water products. We found that (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12-year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 yr-1), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 yr-1), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 yr-1) largely agreed; (b) forward models using surface water products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions; (c) the interannual time series of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models; (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multiyear or multidecade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.

  5. STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND HADRON THERAPY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    E-print Network

    Titov, Anatoly

    STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECT OF NUCLEAR MEDICINE AND HADRON THERAPY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA N, a proton beam extracted from C-80 will be used for eyes therapy (high precision 80 MeV beam with low of radioisotopes for nu- clear medicine. The proton synchrotron S-230 was designed at G.N. Budker Nuclear Physics

  6. Radiogenic argon distribution within a mineral grain: implications for dating of hydrothermal mineral-forming event in Sludyanka complex, Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Ivan S; Rasskazov, Sergei V; Ivanov, Alexei V; Reznitskii, Leonid Z; Brandt, Sergei B

    2006-06-01

    Usually, in age-determination procedures, the experimenter is interested in the mean concentrations of parent and daughter substances. However, the structure of a solution of the Fick's diffusion equation enables one to specify a procedure, allowing, through macroscopic experiments, one to determine the distribution of radiogenic argon (as well as any of other isotopes) within a mineral grain. Argon, influenced in the geological past by a metamorphic event, has a half-sinusoidal distribution, whereas argon preserved in geological time has a rectangular distribution. The ratio of the quantity of argon of the first type to the total argon is called an alpha-factor. It is believed that this coefficient can be of great interest for geochronological studies, being a symptom of virtual Ar losses and the time instant, at which they happened. A laboratory procedure and a mathematical algorithm to determine the alpha-factor are developed. As an example, a determination of the alpha-factor on a vein-phlogopite from the well-studied Sludyanka deposit, Southern Baikal, Siberia, Russia, is described. Rb-Sr isochron age on phlogopite-calcite-apatite paragenetic assemblage yielded 460+/-7 Ma and is constrained by U-Pb zircon ages of 471+/-1 and 447+/-2 Ma, respectively, on an emplacement of early syenites and monzonites and later 'post-phlogopitic' pegmatites [E.B. Salnikova, S.A. Sergeev, A.B. Kotov, S.Z. Yakovleva, R.H. Steiger, L.Z. Reznitskiy, E.P. Vasil'ev. U-Pb zircon dating of granulite metamorphism in the Sludyanskiy complex, Eastern Siberia. Gondwana Res., 1, 195-205 (1998). L.Z. Reznitskii, G.P. Sandimirova, Y.A. Pakhol'chenko, S.V. Kuznetsova. The Rb-Sr age of phlogopite deposits in Sludyanka, southern Baikal region. Dokl. Earth Sci., 367, 711-713 (1999). L.Z. Reznitskii, A.B. Kotov, E.B. Salnikova, E.P. Vasil'ev, S.Z. Yakovleva, V.P. Kovach, A.M. Fedoseenko. The age and time span of the origin of phlogopite and lazurite deposits in the Southwestern Baikal area: U-Pb geochronology. Petrology, 8, 66-76 (2000).]. In this study, the phlogopite gave an apparent K-Ar age of 365.6+/-10.4 Ma which has no geological meaning. The alpha-factor of 0.27 was derived from a laboratory kinetic experiment. The age determined by the rectangularly distributed argon corresponded to alphax0.129 nmm3/g (total radiogenic argon in the sample)=94.17 nmm3/g, and an age of approximately 274 Ma (e.g. a period without any argon losses). Here, at the first sight, we deal with common argon losses not conjugated with any geological event, because after 447 Ma only lower temperature (in a range of 50-300 degrees C) hydrothermal processes were recorded. A paragenetic phlogopite-bearing vein mineral, hyalophane, having a disturbed Rb-Sr isotopic system, however, yielded 40Ar/39Ar subplateau age of 271+/-2 Ma [V.V. Ivanenko, M.I. Karpenko, M.A. Litsarev. Age of the Sludyanka phlogopite deposits (in Russian; data of the 39Ar-40Ar method). In Geological Series 5, pp. 92-98, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moskva (1990).], marking similar timing of the K-Ar isotopic system closure. This indicates that K-Ar isotopic system in the phlogopite was not closed (or was partially reset) long after its crystallisation and closing of the Rb-Sr system, in spite of the fact that the crystal was not affected by processes having temperatures above the accepted closure temperatures for micas. There seems to have acted an exchange mechanism of OH-groups between surrounding fluid and hydrocrystal structure. Thus the argon loss did not occur, spontaneously, but argon particles seem to have been captured and carried to the mineral surface by vacancies formed during displacements of OH-groups. PMID:16707319

  7. Ferrotochilinite, 6FeS · 5Fe(OH)2, a new mineral from the Oktyabr'sky deposit, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Sereda, E. V.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Britvin, S. N.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Bryzgalov, I. A.

    2013-12-01

    A new mineral, ferrotochilinite, ideally 6FeS · 5Fe(OH)2, was found at the Oktyabr'sky Mine, Oktyabr'skoe Cu-Ni deposit, Noril'sk, Krasnoyarsk krai, Siberia, Russia. It is associated with ferrovalleriite, magnetite and Fe-rich, chlorite-like phyllosilicate in the cavities of pentlandite-mooihoekite-cubanite ore with subordinate magnetite and chalcopyrite. Ferrotochilinite occurs as flattened on [001], prismatic to elongated lamellar crystals up to 0.1 × 0.5 × 3.2 mm, typically split and curved. Aggregates (up to 6.5 mm in size) are fanlike, rosette-like, or chaotic. Ferrotochilinite is dark bronze. The streak is black. The luster is moderately metallic. The Mohs' hardness is ca. 1; VHN is 13 kg/mm2. Cleavage is {001} perfect, micalike. Individuals are flexible, inelastic. D(calc) = 3.467 g/cm3. In reflected light, ferrotochilinite is gray, with the hue changing from pale beige to bluish; bireflectance is distinct. Anisotropy is distinct, with gray bluish to yellowish beige rotation colors. No internal reflections. Reflectance values [ R min- R max, % (?, nm)] are: 11.6-11.4 (470), 11.2-12.4 (546), 11.1-13.6 (589), 11.0-15.5 (650). The IR spectrum shows the presence of (OH) groups bonded with Fe cations and the absence of H2O molecules. Chemical composition (wt %; electron probe; H content is calculated) is as follows: 0.02 Mg, 61.92 Fe, 0.03 Ni, 0.09 Cu, 19.45 S, 16.3 O, 1.03 H calc; the total is 98.84. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 6 S atoms is: Mg0.01Fe10.96Ni0.005Cu0.015S6(OH)10.07 = (Fe5.98Cu0.0015Ni0.005)?6S6(OH)9.80(Fe{4.89/2+}Mg0.01)?4.90(OH)9.80Fe{0.09/3+}(OH)0.27. Ferrotochilinite is monoclinic, space group is C2/ m, Cm or C2, the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 5.463(5), b = 15.865(17), c = 10.825(12) Å, ? = 93.7(1)°, V = 936(3) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are: 10.83-13[001], 5.392-100[002], 3.281-7[023], 2.777-7[150], 2.696-12[004, ], 2.524-12[, ], 2.152-8[134, 153], 1.837-11[135, ]. Ferrotochilinite is a structural analog of tochilinite, with Fe2+ instead of Mg in the hydroxide part. The type specimen is deposited in Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

  8. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

  9. Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia Using a Focus Reduction Neutralization Test

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Ryo; Hashiguchi, Kazuaki; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ivanov, Leonid I.; Leonova, Galina N.; Takashima, Ikuo

    2011-01-01

    West Nile (WN) virus has been spreading geographically to non-endemic areas in various parts of the world. However, little is known about the extent of WN virus infection in Russia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, which is closely related to WN virus, is prevalent throughout East Asia. We evaluated the effectiveness of a focus reduction neutralization test in young chicks inoculated with JE and WN viruses, and conducted a survey of WN infection among wild birds in Far Eastern Russia. Following single virus infection, only neutralizing antibodies specific to the homologous virus were detected in chicks. The neutralization test was then applied to serum samples from 145 wild birds for WN and JE virus. Twenty-one samples were positive for neutralizing antibodies to WN. These results suggest that WN virus is prevalent among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia. PMID:21363987

  10. Eimeria Species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Arctic Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus parryii ) and Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Seville; Clint E. Oliver; Andrew J. Lynch; Michelle C. Bryant; Donald W. Duszynski

    2005-01-01

    Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%),

  11. Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Dudarev, Alexey A.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Background Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000–2011. Results Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23–43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security. PMID:24471055

  12. Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) and red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Seville, Robert S; Oliver, Clint E; Lynch, Andrew J; Bryant, Michelle C; Duszynski, Donald W

    2005-08-01

    Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%), and Eimeria morainensis (77%). A single species, Eimeria tamiasciuri (91%), was recovered from red squirrels. Eimerians recovered from arctic ground squirrels represent new host records, and the single species from red squirrels is a new geographic record. Alaskan arctic ground squirrel prevalence was higher for E. callospermophili (Alaska = 22% vs. Russia = 9%), E. cynomysis (34% vs. 2%), and E. lateralis (27% vs. 4%), but not E. morainensis (78% vs. 76%). PMID:17089755

  13. Feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) using fatty acid trophic markers in seston food in two salt lakes in South Siberia (Khakasia, Russia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Tolomeev; N. N. Sushchik; R. D. Gulati; O. N. Makhutova; G. S. Kalacheva; T. A. Zotina

    2010-01-01

    During two vegetation seasons (2004–2005), we compared feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) populations inhabiting two neighboring salt lakes, Shira and Shunet, Khakasia, Russia, using fatty\\u000a acid (FA) trophic markers. Sestonic FA composition in two lakes moderately differed, whereas levels of diatom FA markers were\\u000a higher in Lake Shunet and of Cyanobacteria and green algae markers in Lake Shira.

  14. Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.

    PubMed

    Zinovyev, Evgeniy

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas". PMID:21738409

  15. Hypolactasia in the indigenous populations of northern Russia.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, A I

    1998-01-01

    The distribution of hypolactasia (PH) in the indigenous populations of the polar and related territories of the Russian Federation was investigated by an oral lactose tolerance. The frequency of hypolactasia in Kildin Saami population is 48%, Komi-Izhem-63%, Northern Mansi-71%, Northern Khanty-72%, West Siberia Nenets-78%. Generally hypolactasia frequencies in indigenous groups of Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories of Russia are higher than in the "reference" samples of Slav (Russian, 40-49%) and Permian Finn (Komi-Permiak and Udmurtian, 50-59%) groups. PMID:9567572

  16. Enriched Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic signatures in the Dovyren layered intrusion ( eastern Siberia, Russia): Evidence for source contamination by ancient upper-crustal material

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Yu. V.; Neymark, L.A.; Ritsk, E. Yu; Nemchin, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    Major- and trace-element concentrations and Nd-, Sr- and Pb-isotopic ratios are reported for the Dovyren layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the northern Baikal region, eastern Siberia. Sm-Nd internal isochrons for an olivine gabbro from the layered series and a gabbronorite from a sill at the bottom of the Dovyren intrusion yield ages of 673 ?? 22 and 707 ?? 40 Ma, respectively. Initial isotopic ratios: 87Sr/86Sr (673) from 0.7101 to 0.7135, ??Nd(673 Ma) from - 16.3 to - 14.1, 206Pb/204Pb from 16.80 to 17.14, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.477 to 15.501 and 208Pb/204Pb from 37.17 to 37.59, are similar to those of late Archean-early Proterozoic upper continental crust, but do not appear to be a result of wallrock assimilation in the magma chamber. These isotopic features, as well as high K, Rb and LREE and low Ti concentrations in the calculated composition of the Dovyren parental magma, may be explained by subduction of sediments derived from upper continental crust into depleted mantle and subsequent melting of the metasomatized peridotite.

  17. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity in Russia: CRF63_02A1, a New HIV Type 1 Genetic Variant Spreading in Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Bogachev, Vladislav V.; Gashnikova, Natalya M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One of the factors determining a high degree of heterogeneity in the HIV population is recombination-based variation, which leads to the emergence of the virus variants with a mosaic genome. An example is CRF63_02A1, an HIV-1 variant currently spreading in the Siberian region of Russia. To prove that this HIV-1 variant is a new circulating recombinant form that had emerged as a result of repeated recombination between CRF02_AG and subtype A, we have isolated seven full-length HIV genomes and theoretically analyzed them, that is, reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships, determined recombination breakpoints and regions, and compared them with the regions known for CRF02_AG. PMID:24279614

  18. Total quality management in the West, East and Russia: Are we different?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina Selivanova; Jan Eklöf

    2001-01-01

    The article is devoted to an analysis of the main differences and similarities in total quality management (TQM) practice in Western, Russian and Asian companies. Analytical results are based on comparative studies of data collected in 12 countries, Russia, Taiwan, Japan, Korea, Finland, Estonia, Denmark, Australia, India, Sweden, England and New Zealand, in the 1990s. It is shown in the

  19. The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Young-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

  20. Multilingual Education in South Siberia: National Schools in the Republics of Altai and Tyva

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Joan F.

    2012-01-01

    Subtractive bilingualism is widespread throughout Siberia, with indigenous youth often more proficient in Russian than in their non-Russian local languages. Siberia's national schools, which are secondary schools offering instruction in local languages of Russia, provide critical institutional support for minority languages. The goal of this…

  1. High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia

    PubMed Central

    Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (?13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (?13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

  2. Return to Siberia: The 2008 Kotuykan River Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In the September-October 2007 issue of'The Earth Observer [volume 19, Number 4, pp. 13-21] we presented an article entitled "Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account." In that article we shared excerpts from a blog that chronicled the adventures of a team of scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science as they embarked on a three-week adventure in the wilds of Siberia in hopes of collecting measurements to validate data from satellites flying 700 km overhead. The same team, plus a couple new participants, headed back to Siberia this past sumner and we are now pleased to present the continuation of their story. For more background details on the expedition to Siberia or if you missed the first part of the story, please refer to the previous article.

  3. [The role of mutation of gene cyp1A1 and benzapilene in cytogenetic changes of urinary tract epitheliocytes in oil industry workers employed in the oil fields of the North of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Il'inskikh, N N; Il'inskikh, E N; Il'inskikh, I N; Iamkovaia, E V

    2011-01-01

    The examination of 477 oil industry workers and office personnel (control) employed in the oil fields of the North of Tomsk and Tyumen regions has detected increased number of epithelyocytes with micronuclei and an elevated urine level ofbenzapilene in workers employed in oil production. Especially pronounced changes of the above parameters were observed in men with mutant alleles Val of CYP1A1 gene. An enhanced mutation process in oil production workers may be due to a resultant action of different factors on human genome. Involved may be both mutagens and factors of comutagenic nature. The results obtained in this study suggest a conclusion about urgent need of introduction of new scientifically validated criteria of selection of personnel for oil production in the North of the West Siberia. Health examination of the applicants must include genotyping. PMID:22448487

  4. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) [11]; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits [11]. Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°? and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits [11]; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons [14]. Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15]. Analyses of cores of some zircons from granodiorites of Lupveem batholith indicate Precambrian age of protolith (717, 1070.4 and 1581.5 m.a.) [15]. 40Ar-39Ar age of synmetamorphic biotite varies from 108 to 103 m.a. [15]. Intrusive rocks of Alarmaut dome are represented by wide spectrum of rocks: diorites, Q diorites, Q monzodiorites, granodiorites, tonalites, granites. Granodiorites and granites contain mafic enclaves of monzonites and Q monzonites. SiO2 contents in rocks of Alarmaut dome varies from 58,55% in diorites to 71,3% in granites; in enclaves - from 54,6% in monzonites to 61.89% in Q monzonites. Granitoids are normal and subalkaline rocks according to SiO2 vs K2O+Na2O and belong to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series according to K2O vs SiO2. They are mainly metaluminous rocks (ASI < 1.0). REE patterns of intermediate rocks are characterized by LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and insignificant negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=8,42-15,69; Eu/Eu*=0,66-0,94). Granodiorites and granites REE patterns are more enriched in LREE, more depleted in HREE and have deeper negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=11,48-45,6; Eu/Eu*=0,47-0,81). REE patterns of monzonites from enclaves in granites and granodiorites are similar to patterns of host rocks. REE patterns of intermediate rocks and granodiorites are well correlated with those of "mafic root" rocks of K2 Kigluaik pluton from the core part of the same name gneiss dome, Seward Peninsula, Alaska [16], and K1-2 granitoids of Chauna fold zone, West Chukotka [17]. Spidergrams of granitoids and enclaves are similar and characterized by LILE, LREE enrichment and Nb, Sr, P, Ti depletion, typical for supra-subduction magmatites. On F1-F2 diagram [18], separating granitoids by geodynamic settings, granitoids fall in the field of collisional granites; on Rb vs Y+Nb diagram, along the boundary between the fields of syncollisional granites and volcanic arc granites, but within the field of postcollisional [19]. Geochronological and structural data indicate temporal relation between magmatism, metamorphism and d

  5. New data on middle and late Albian foraminifera and biostratigraphy of the northern palaeobiogeographical district of western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobina, Vera M.

    2015-03-01

    The present paper discusses foraminiferal assemblages and biozones established on the basis of studies of samples from ten borehole sequences of the Khanty-Mansiysk Horizon in the Samotlor area of the northern palaeobiogeographical district of western Siberia (Russia). In this region, middle and late Albian foraminiferal assemblages were first distinguished in western Siberia. Levels from which these assemblages have been recovered, are here referred to the following foraminiferal zones, the Ammobaculites fragmentarius-Gaudryinopsis filiformis Zone (middle Albian) and the Ammotium braunsteini-Verneuilinoides borealis assanoviensis Zone (upper Albian). Zonal assemblages are dominated by representatives of the orders Ammodiscida, Textulariida and Ataxophragmiida. Species of the ataxophragmiid genera Verneuilinoides, Pseudoverneuilina and Gaudryinopsis are the most characteristic, inclusive of several key index forms. Foraminiferal tests consist of agglutinated quartz-silica, the wall microstructure being almost exclusively medium and coarse grained. In specific composition, the Albian assemblages from the Samotlor area are similar to those from Transuralia (Russia) and to the Canadian Province, which, together with West-Siberian Province, forms the Arctic palaeobiogeographical realm

  6. U.S.-Russia cooperation in E/C: Recent lessons

    SciTech Connect

    Burd, V.E. [American-Russian Bridge Consulting, Torrance, CA (United States); Begichev, A.I.; Sizov, E.A. [Niichimmash, Moscow (Russian Federation). Research and Design Inst.; Efremushkin, N.F. [International Business Development Association, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    Any US equipment exported to Russia may or may not meet the official technical requirements established by the Russian government. This is especially true for high-risk equipment widely used in the petrochemical, chemical, power and mining industries such as boilers, pressure vessels, pipelines, compressors, elevators, etc. Practically, this means that most industrial equipment exported from the US to Russia must be designed and manufactured to meet not only US standards, rules and regulation requirements, but the corresponding and not necessarily identical Russian requirements. Recommendations presented here are based on the combined recent experiences of implementing US process equipment in West Siberia. The authors hope that the misunderstandings they have encountered will not be repeated and lessons they have learned will be beneficial for both sides.

  7. Toward the problem of oil and gas bearing capacity of the East Tom-Kolyvan structural zone (Western Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolbova, N. F.; Maerkov, P. O.

    2014-08-01

    The vast depression in the east Tom-Kolyvan folded zone (West Siberia) has been identified by the geophysical data. The well which uncovered 4000 m deep profile of the Jurassic and Paleozoic deposits has been drilled. The relevance of the research is the oil\\gas-bearing capacity evaluation of the discovered depression in this West Siberia area.

  8. Ongoing climatic extreme dynamics in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Shulgina, T. M.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Recent investigations indicate not only large changes in averaged climatic characteristics (Kabanov and Lykosov, 2006, IPCC, 2007; Groisman and Gutman, 2012), but more frequent occurrence and stronger impacts of climatic extremes are reported as well (Bulygina et al., 2007; IPCC, 2012: Climate Extremes, 2012; Oldenborh et al., 2013). This paper provides the results of daily temperature and precipitation extreme dynamics in Siberia for the last three decades (1979 - 2012). Their seasonal dynamics is assessed using 10th and 90th percentile-based threshold indices that characterize frequency, intensity and duration of climatic extremes. To obtain the geographical pattern of these variations with high spatial resolution, the sub-daily temperature data from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and daily precipitation amounts from APHRODITE JMA dataset were used. All extreme indices and linear trend coefficients have been calculated using web-GIS information-computational platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) developed to support collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts (Gordov et al., 2012). Obtained results show that seasonal dynamics of daily temperature extremes is asymmetric for tails of cold and warm temperature extreme distributions. Namely, the intensity of warming during cold nights is higher than during warm nights, especially at high latitudes of Siberia. The similar dynamics is observed for cold and warm day-time temperatures. Slight summer cooling was observed in the central part of Siberia. It is associated with decrease in warm temperature extremes. In the southern Siberia in winter, we also observe some cooling mostly due to strengthening of the cold temperature extremes. Changes in daily precipitation extremes are spatially inhomogeneous. The largest increase in frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation is observed in the north of East Siberia. Negative trends related to precipitation amount decrease are found in the central West Siberia and in the south of East Siberia. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research projects (11-05-01190 and 13-05-12034), SB RAS Integration project 131 and project VIII.80.2.1., the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation contract 8345 and grant of the President of Russian Federation (decree 181).

  9. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Malformations among Newborns in Monchegorsk (North-West Russia): a Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Postoev, Vitaly A.; Talykova, Ljudmila V.; Vaktskjold, Arild

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia) and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 new-borns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM. Significance for public health Cardiovascular malformation is one of the most common groups of birth defects. It is considered an important public health issue, as these malformations are the main cause of infant deaths in developed countries. Precise estimates about the prevalence and perinatal survival are needed to organise and plan health care for such newborns. Our study is the first report from the Russian Federation based on data from population-based birth registers. PMID:25343136

  10. Glass Spherules Related to the El'gygtgyn Impact Crater (Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, L.; Deutsch, A.

    2009-03-01

    We report the results of a geochemical investigation on glass spherules from a terrace deposit outside the rim of the El’gygytgyn impact crater (NE Siberia, Russia). These spherules are very homogeneous yet differ in their composition from dacitic to basaltic-andesitic.

  11. Flooding in Central Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. ORIGINAL PAPER Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines

    E-print Network

    Pauly, Daniel

    ORIGINAL PAPER Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines for neglected northern Siberia (Russia), Arctic Alaska (USA), and the Canadian Arctic, extends over seven coastal Large-scale operations conducted mainly in estuaries and river deltas. Most of the catches have traditionally not been

  13. Increased Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus (WNV) by Glycosylation of Envelope Protein and Seroprevalence of WNV in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia

    PubMed Central

    Kariwa, Hiroaki; Murata, Ryo; Totani, Masashi; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glycosylation of West Nile (WN) virus E-protein may be associated with enhanced pathogenicity and higher replication of WN virus. The results indicate that E-protein glycosylation allows the virus to multiply in a heat-stable manner and therefore, has a critical role in enhanced viremic levels and virulence of WN virus in young-chick infection model. The effect of the glycosylation of the E protein on the pathogenicity of WN virus in young chicks was further investigated. The results indicate that glycosylation of the WN virus E protein is important for viral multiplication in peripheral organs and that it is associated with the strong pathogenicity of WN virus in birds. The micro-focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) in which a large number of serum samples can be handled at once with a small volume (15 ?L) of serum was useful for differential diagnosis between Japanese encephalitis and WN virus infections in infected chicks. Serological investigation was performed among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia using the FRNT. Antibodies specific to WN virus were detected in 21 samples of resident and migratory birds out of 145 wild bird samples in the region. PMID:24351738

  14. Aerosol index variations caused by severe forest fires in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomshin, Oleg A.; Solovyev, Vladimir S.

    2014-11-01

    Aerosol index variations, caused by large-scale forest fires in Siberia, Russia in 2012, 2013 were studied on remote sensing data (EOS Terra, Aqua and Aura). Analysis of the forest fire activity, variations of aerosol index distribution, pressure fields and winds shows that large-scale forest fires are the main factor determining the spatial and temporal distribution of the aerosol index from April to October as in the Siberia and the Far East. Formation of large-scale inhomogeneities in AI distribution is possible under appropriate meteorological conditions (low pressure, slow wind speed, etc.) which lead to formation of stagnation regions where aerosol particles are accumulated. Aerosol pollution from severe forest fires can be transported over a high distances from the fire location.

  15. A Normal Country: Russia after Communism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrei Shleifer; Daniel Treisman

    2005-01-01

    During the 1990s, Russia underwent an extraordinary transformation from a communist dictatorship to a multi-party democracy, from a centrally planned economy to a market economy, and from a belligerent adversary of the West to a cooperative partner. Yet a consensus in the US circa 2000 viewed Russia as a disastrous and threatening failure, and the 1990s as a decade of

  16. Two Virtual Journeys: Siberia Diary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kaiser, Robert G., 1943-

    2001-01-01

    Even though most people have returned to work and school, the opportunity for travel and adventure still exists...via computer. Washington Post correspondents Robert G. Kaiser and Lucian Perkins are in the midst of a month-long expedition through Siberia, sending back dispatches on and photographs off the people and natural resources along the way. A few of the places their journey has taken them are the town of Chita, along the Chinese border, Irkutsk on Lake Baikal, and Siberia's wealthiest city, Surgut. The site is arranged so that readers can choose a featured dispatch and then see oodles of photographs, learn facts, and understand issues about the dispatch location. Interesting examples of the dispatches include "Aids Orphans," "City of Uranium," and "A River Feast." Helpful links to related news and information, and a section where readers can email questions to Kaiser and Perkins round out Siberia Diary.

  17. Biogeochemical phosphorus mass balance for Lake Baikal, southeastern Siberia, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, E.; Granina, L.

    1997-01-01

    Extensive data for Lake Baikal have been synthesized into a geochemical mass balance for phosphorus (P). Some of the P budget and internal cycling terms for Baikal have been compared to similar terms for oligotrophic Lake Superior, mesotrophic Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and the Ocean. Lake Baikal has a large external source of fluvial P compared to the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Ocean. The major tributary to Lake Baikal has experienced substantial increases in organic P loading during the past 25 years. This, coupled with potential P inputs from possible phosphorite mining, may threaten Baikal's oligotrophic status in the future. Water-column remineralization of particulate organic P is substantially greater in Lake Baikal than in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This is probably due to the great water depths of Lake Baikal. There is a gradient in P burial efficiency, with very high values (80%) for Lake Baikal and Lake Superior, lower values (50%) for Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and a low value (13%) for the Ocean. The accumulation rate of P in Lake Baikal sediments is somewhat greater than that in the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea, and much greater than in the Ocean. Benthic regeneration rates are surprisingly similar for large lacustrine and marine environments and supply less than 10% of the P utilized for primary production in these aquatic environments.

  18. Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At least 30 languages of the Siberian region are considered endangered, and UNESCO is hoping to preserve, anchor, and develop them. The "Roundtable" link in the menu near the top of the page, allows visitors to read a few sentences by the contributors to the roundtable, on three thematic blocks. Visitors can click on "text" at the end of the paragraph to read the whole discussion, and view a picture of the contributor. "Thematic Block II" is particularly interesting, and concerns the "Experience and problems of teaching endangered languages in universities in Russia", and offers such contributor discussions as "Languages of numerically small peoples of the North, Siberia, and the Far East in the dynamics of linguistic education environment change". The "Instruments" link gives visitors a glimpse into what a linguist in the field might find useful to do their work. The sections of instruments include "software", "fonts (UNICODE)" and "voice recording". In the "software" section, there are "electronic dictionaries", "programs for managing keyboard layout" and "programs for input and manipulation of linguistic data". [KMG

  19. Kondyor Massif, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

    The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  20. Main Geologic-Paleoecological Events of the Late Pleistocene in the North of Western Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Levitan; Yu Lavrushin

    The major geological and paleoecological events of the Late Pleistocene in the north of West Siberia are two glaciations {Yermak\\u000a (Zyryan) and Sartan} and three transgressions (Kazantsev, Kargin and post-glacial) (Arkhipov, 2000) (Fig. 3.1). As stated\\u000a above, the Kazantsev transgression is correlated with the Eemian transgression of West Europe and MIS 5e (Troitsky, 1966;\\u000a Gudina, 1976; Arkhipov, 1997, 2000). The

  1. Total ozone and NO2 observations in Anadyr (64.5N, 177.3E), Russia in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepelev, D.; Dorokhov, V.; Yushkov, V.; Makshtas, A.; Goutail, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Pazmino, A.

    2012-04-01

    SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenitale) is a UV-visible diode array spectrometer developed at the Service d'Aeronomie, CNRS, France in the late 80s for monitoring stratospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). It is now manufactured at the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (LATMOS) for measuring total atmospheric ozone, nitrogen dioxide and some other atmospheric trace gases (BrO, O4). The spectrometer uses the technique of measurements in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths of sun in the registration of the zenith sky. The wavelength range of the SAOZ instrument is in Chappuis band of ozone absorption, with a spectral resolution of 1 nm for version V-1024, and 0.7 nm for the new Mini-SAOZ version V-2048. Measurement accuracy is 6% for total ozone and 10% for nitrogen dioxide. Data for the atmospheric content of O3 and NO2 measured by SAOZ spectrometers are available at the World SAOZ database, http://saoz.obs.uvsq.fr/SAOZ-RT.html, since 1988 from Dumont d'Urville station in the Southern Hemisphere, since 1989 from the Sodankyla observatory in Finland, and from additional SAOZ stations in 1990-1991. The first Asiatic SAOZ station started operation in 1991 at Zhigansk, East Siberia, Russia. A SAOZ spectrometer has been operating at Salekhard station, West Siberia, Russia since 1997. The new SAOZ UV-visible instrument is used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the polar area of the Russian Far East for the first time. The resulting total ozone and nitrogen dioxide measurements from the new model V-2048 Mini-SAOZ UV-visible spectrometer at the Hydrometeorological observatory Anadyr in all seasons of 2011 will be shown and discussed.

  2. Temporal trends of anthropogenic SO2 emitted by non-ferrous metal smelters in Peru and Russia estimated from Satellite observations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. Khokhar; U. Platt; T. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    We report on satellite observations of atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emitted from metal smelting industries in Peru, South America and Siberia, Russia. Most of the non-ferrous metal ores are sulfidic and during the smelting process the sulfur is emitted as SO2. In addition to Norilsk, Russia, Peruvian copper smelters are among the most polluting point sources in the world. We

  3. Flooding on Russia's Lena River

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  4. Threats to and from Russia: An Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Blank

    2008-01-01

    Under conditions of visibly deteriorating Russo-American and East-West relations it is necessary to outline clearly the threats perceived by Russia from Western and U.S. policies, and second, the threats that Russia may pose in return. An analysis of such threats reveals that the balance of threat perception is asymmetrically weighted to the Russian side which perceived threats everywhere, i.e., from

  5. Additional records of the genus Colletes Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apoidea:
    Colletidae) from Siberia, with a checklist of Russian species.

    PubMed

    Proshchalykin, Maxim Yu; Kuhlmann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In addition to a previously published study about Siberian Colletes species, we here further report on poorly known species. Twenty six species are currently known from Siberia with C. cinerascens Morawitz 1893, C. kaszabi Kuhlmann 2002, and C. ebmeri Kuhlmann 2002 found in Russia for the first time and C. wacki Kuhlmann 2002 is newly recorded from the Asian part of Russia. The male of C. wacki is here described for the first time and a lectotype designated for the closely related C. conradti Noskiewicz 1936 to clarify the taxonomy of this group. Colletes uralensis Noskiewicz 1936 was erroneously recorded from Russia and is removed from the list of Russian species. Images and updated distribution maps are provided for the closely related C. kaszabi and C. uralensis as well as for C. conradti and C. wacki to facilitate their identification. An updated checklist of the 42 species of Colletes so far known from Russia is provided. PMID:25947811

  6. Petroleum geology of east Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-03-01

    Two oil-gas provinces are present in East Siberia: the Lena-Tunguska in the central, southern, and western parts, and the Khatanga-Viluy along the northern and eastern margins. The provinces developed as rift-sag features in late Proterozoic and Paleozoic time. The identified oil and gas deposits of the Lena-Tunguska province appear to be associated with a Proterozoic rift that extends east-northeast across the southern part of the basin. These deposits are in upper Proterozoic and Cambrian sandstones and carbonate rocks, sealed by Cambrian salt and argillites. The oil and gas deposits of the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are within foreland downwarps that developed in connection with docking of crustal plates during the Mesozoic: during the Triassic on the north and during the Cretaceous on the east. The source of the petroleum in the immature rocks of the southeastern Lena-Tunguska province is uncertain, perhaps being derived from rocks in a downwarp to the south or from source beds that are now beneath a conjectured thrust sheet. This province has both oil and gas pools, but is gas prone in general. The source beds for the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are Permian and Mesozoic in age; the province is gas prone. More than 40 oil and gas fields have now been discovered in East Siberia.

  7. Close genetic relationships in vast territories: autosomal and X chromosome Alu diversity in Yakuts from Siberia.

    PubMed

    Rocañín-Arjó, Ares; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Esteban, Esther; Theves, Catherine; Evdokimova, Larissa E; Fedorova, Sardana A; Gibert, Morgane; Crubezy, Eric; Moral, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Twelve autosomal and 8 X chromosome Alu markers were genotyped for the first time in 161 Central and West Yakuts to test their ability to reconstruct the genetic history of these populations, the northernmost Turkic-speaker ethnic group living in Siberia. Autosomal data revealed that both groups showed extremely close genetic distances to other populations of Siberian origins that occupied areas from Lake Baikal, the ancestral place of origin of Yakuts, to North Siberia, their current territories. Autosomal and X chromosome data revealed some discrepancies on the genetic differentiation and the effective sizes of Central and West Yakuts. Such discrepancies could be related to the patrilineal and occasionally polygamous structure of these populations. Autosomal and X Alu markers are informative markers to reconstruct population past demography and history, but their utility is limited by the available data. This study represents a contribution for further investigations on these populations. PMID:24466640

  8. Conversations on Russia: Reform from Yeltsin to Putin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Padma Desai

    2006-01-01

    Much of the discussion of Russia's recent post-Communist history has amounted, both in Russia and the West, to a series of monologues by strong-minded people with starkly divergent views. In contrast, Padma Desai's conversations with influential, intelligent participants and observers provide the reader with a broad, nuanced view of what has and has not happened in the last fourteen years,

  9. Genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, revealed by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup analysis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takehiro; Razhev, Dmitry; Amano, Tetsuya; Masuda, Ryuichi

    2011-08-01

    In order to investigate the genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, we studied ancient DNA from bone remains excavated from two archeological sites in West Siberia: Saigatinsky 6 (eighth to eleventh centuries) and Zeleny Yar (thirteenth century). Polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) succeeded for 9 of 67 specimens examined, and the sequences were assigned to mtDNA haplogroups B4, C4, G2, H and U. This distribution pattern of mtDNA haplogroups in medieval West Siberian people was similar to those previously reported in modern populations living in West Siberia, such as the Mansi, Ket and Nganasan. Exact tests of population differentiation showed no significant differences between the medieval people and modern populations in West Siberia. The findings suggest that some medieval West Siberian people analyzed in the present study are included in direct ancestral lineages of modern populations native to West Siberia. PMID:21753768

  10. Forest dieback in Russia: Causes, distribution and implications for the future

    SciTech Connect

    Krankina, O.N. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Forest Science); Dixon, R.K. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.); Shvidenko, A.Z. (International Inst. of Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)); Selikhovkin, A.V. (St. Petersburg Forest Academy (Russian Federation))

    1994-12-01

    The Russian Federation with its great expanse of forest land plays a prominent role in the global environment. Over 20% of the world's forest resources and about one-half of boreal forest are located on Russian territory. Forest dieback following natural or anthropogenic disturbance is a significant factor in boreal forest dynamics. The leading causes of dieback are forest fires and adverse weather conditions. Although natural disturbance accounts for the greater part of dieback, anthropogenic factors are significant in increasing susceptibility of forests to stress natural agents. In industrially developed regions air pollution, harvesting, major constructions, and mining are directly responsible for forest dieback. Since factors of forest dieback are closely interrelated a single cause of dieback is often impossible to establish. In 1991 the largest proportion of forest dieback occurred in the southern part of Europe-Urals and West Siberia as well as in the Far East. Data on forest dieback is available only for monitored forest, which constitutes 60% of the total forest land in Russia, so, these values should be regarded as fairly conservative. Decline of forests is estimated to affect additionally about 2 [times] 10[sup 6] ha per year. Projected global climate change is likely to dramatically increase forest decline and dieback.

  11. Petroleum geology of East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, J.W.

    1986-05-01

    The unmetamorphosed geologic section of the East Siberian region consists of upper Proterozoic clastic and carbonate sediments; Cambrian evaporites, carbonates, and black shales; Ordovician to permian clastic and carbonate sediments; Triassic basaltic flows and intrusives; and Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic sediments. During the Cambrian, a barrier reef extended across the region. Salt and anhydrite were deposited in the vast lagoon to the southwest behind this reef. The structure is typical of platforms; broad, gentle warps are complicated by smaller highs. The total area of East Siberia that is potentially favorable for oil and gas is 3.23 million km/sup 2/ (1.24 million mi/sup 2/). Deposits in the Lena-Tunguska province are in stratigraphic traps in Proterozoic to Cambrian clastic and carbonate sediments sealed by Cambrian salt and in anticlinal structures in areas of salt tectonics. Source beds seem to be Proterozoic. Pools in the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are in anticlines in Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. Source beds are Permian carbonaceous shale. Most discoveries have been of gas; however, several fields have oil rings. The traps appear to have been filled by oil at one time. Undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources of East Siberia are assessed, at 90% probability, within the range of 2.2-14.6 billion bbl of oil and 72-278 tcf of gas. Mean estimates are 7.3 billion bbl of oil and 158 tcf of gas, respectively. Gas-hydrate deposits in the Lena-Vilyuy province, where permafrost is more than 400 m thick, are estimated to contain 27 tcf of possibly recoverable gas.

  12. Evidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia

    E-print Network

    Holliday, Vance T.

    are found at Kostenki on the west bank of the Don River in Russia. During the 1950s, A.N. Rogachev excavatedEvidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia John F, Universitetskaya nab., 1, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia c Institute of the History of Material Culture, Russian

  13. From Russia with Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selman, Ruth Corey

    2005-01-01

    As leader of a People-to-People tour to Russia, and one whose family history is linked to the cataclysmic history of 20th-century Russia, Ruth Corey, felt a special responsibility to introduce her traveling companions to Russia, and Russian Montessorians to her cohorts. Her traveling companions were a group of 15 Montessori teachers, committed to…

  14. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  15. Long-term dynamics of atmospheric circulation over Siberia and its relationship with air temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podnebesnykh, N. V.; Ippolitov, I. I.

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study is the investigation of cyclone characteristics variability in the region bounded by the coordinates 50°-70° N, 60°-110° W which includes Western Siberia and the part of Eastern Siberia for the time interval 1976-2006, as well as the establishment of statistical relationships between the temperature conditions and the atmospheric circulation. For the dynamics of the climatic characteristics of cyclones and anticyclones over Siberia surface synoptic maps were used, and to study the trends of air temperature daily data from 169 ground-based meteorological stations and posts located in the study area were analyzed. During the period of the modern warming the territory of Siberia was characterized by rapidly temperature increase: average annual value was 0.36°C/10 years, and average monthly value was 0.83°C/10 years. The positive trend of temperature increasing is shown for all months except November. The total number of cyclones over the territory of under study for the period of 1976-2006 has decreased at a rate of 1.4 cyclone/10 years. For further analysis all cyclones were divided into three groups, according to their directions: north, west and south. It was found the number of south and west cyclones decreased, whole the number of cyclone from north directions increased. Such multidirectional dynamics of cyclones from different directions can be associated with the processes of strengthening and weakening of the Polar and Arctic fronts in the Atlantic sector of the Northern Hemisphere. Among characteristics of vortex activity the pressure in the centers of cyclones and anticyclones has the greatest influence on the air temperature and the total number of cyclones has the smallest. Multiple regression models have shown that in different months of a year the circulation can describe from 54% to 82% of temperature variability.

  16. Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davydov, S.; Sher, A.; Boeskorov, G.; Lazarev, P.; Binladen, J.; Willerslev, E.; Tikhonov, A.

    2009-12-01

    A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them in perfect condition. The fossils, and especially mummies, present a perfect material for genetic studies. Woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.), is one of the symbols of the Ice Age and one of few large mammal species that disappeared from Eurasia about 14 000 years ago. Recently, a substantially complete mummy of woolly rhinoceros was found in permafrost at the Rodinka site near Cherskiy, northeastern Yakutia, Russia (68.76°N, 161.63°E). It is the body of an adult female, weighing almost 900 kg, with the preserved skull, two horns, lower jaw, one ear, and tail. The length of the carcass is about 2 m, the live length of the animal is estimated as more than 3 m. The right legs are partly preserved and the chest and belly cavities are partly empty; almost all hair has been lost. Despite these defects, it is the most complete mummy of woolly rhino ever found in permafrost. A fragment of rib from the body has been AMS dated to 39140±390 BP (OxA-18755). In recent years the Rodinka site has yielded an unprecedented number of woolly rhino fossils and is so far the richest locality for this extinct species. The woolly rhino had a very wide distribution in the Late Pleistocene - from France to the Bering Strait and from China to the high-arctic islands. It was perfectly adapted to the variety of severe periglacial (tundra-steppe) environments. Intriguingly, it was the only large Siberian mammal that never crossed the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska. In the vast lowlands of Arctic Siberia Coelodonta fossils are common, but much less abundant (below 1%) compared to those of other large Ice Age mammals such as mammoth, bison, or horse. The unusual abundance of rhino fossils in the low hills of submontane area confirms an earlier hypothesis that such a terrain was especially attractive for these animals, although they could make long (probably, seasonal) excursions to the North along the plains. The collection of woolly rhino fossils from Cherskiy is now under study by paleontologists and geneticists in Russia, Denmark, and the UK. Research was partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 07-05-00313-a and Far East 09-04-98568-r_vostok_a).

  17. Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Deposition in the Kuznetsk Basin, Siberia: Insights into the Permian–Triassic transition and the Mesozoic evolution of Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clare Davies; Mark B. Allen; Mikhail M. Buslov; Inna Safonova

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the Permian–Mesozoic stratigraphy of the Kuznetsk Basin, southern Siberia, which is adjacent to the vast and hydrocarbon-rich West Siberian Basin and on the edge of the Siberian flood basalts. The basin fill is Permian to Cretaceous in age, and is dominated by non-marine siliciclastics up to ?7km thick. Palaeocurrent indicators show dominant flow to the north\\/northeast during

  19. Effects of Repeated Fires in the Forest Ecosystems of the Zabaikalye Region, Southern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L. V.; Conard, S. G.; Petkov, A.; Barrett, K.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Ivanova, G.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is the main ecological disturbance controlling forest development in the boreal forests of Siberia and contributing substantially to the global carbon cycle. The warmer and dryer climate observed recently in the boreal forests is considered to be responsible for extreme fire weather, resulting in higher fire frequency, larger areas burned, and an increase of fire severity. Because of the increase of fire activity, boreal forests in some regions may not be able to reach maturity before they re-burn, which means less carbon will be stored in the ecosystem and more will remain in the atmosphere. Moreover, if one fire occurs within a few years of another, some stands will not re-grow at all, and even more carbon will accumulate in the atmosphere. Zabaikalye region located in the south of Siberia is characterized by the highest fire activity in Russia. With a use of the satellite-based fire product we found that there are about 7.0 million hectares in the region burned repeatedly during the last decade. We have investigated a number of sites in-situ in light-coniferous (Scots pine and larch) forests and evaluated the impacts of repeated fires on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration. Substantial decrease of carbon stocks, change of the vegetation structure and composition, and soil erosion were observed in many areas disturbed by repeated fires. At drier sites located in the southern regions repeated fires prohibited successful regeneration and resulted in forest conversion to grassland. Detection and monitoring of changes in the areas of Siberia where repeated fires have caused a major shift in ecosystem structure and function is required for the development of sustainable forest management strategies to mitigate climate change. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program.

  20. [Genetic differentiation in plants of the genus Cypripedium from Russia inferred from allozyme data].

    PubMed

    Filippov, E G; Andronova, E V

    2011-05-01

    Ten gene loci of nine enzyme systems (PGI, 6-PGD, NADHD, SKDH, GDH, PGM, DIA, ADH, GOT-1, and GOT-2) were analyzed in Cypripedium calceolus, C. macranthon, C. shanxiense, and C. ventricosum plants from the south of the Russian Far East. Alleles of loci 6-PGD, NADHD, GDH, ADH, GOT-1, and PGIproved to be diagnostic for C. calceolus and C. macranthon. Plants of C. shanxiense from Primorye and Sakhalin Island were monomorphic at all of the loci examined, and their allelic structure can be regarded as diagnostic for the species. The allelic structure for fragments of the C. calceolus population from the western and eastern parts of the species range differed in two loci, PGl and SKDH: alleles absent in C. calceolus plants from the western part of the range occurred at a high frequency in the plants of this species from the eastern part of the range (28 and 55 plants or 41% and 68%, respectively). These alleles were found in C. shanxiense. The genetic structure of C. shanxiense was similar to that of C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range, i.e., the region when these species are sympartic. The additional alleles in C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range might have appeared as a result of hybridization with C. shanxiense. Our results indicate that C. calceolus plants occuring on the territory of Russia form two groups that represent two different units of genetic diversity preservation. We suggest that C. x ventricosum plants in southern Primorye were formed by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus x C. shanxiense hybrids. Thus, they differ from plants inhabiting the Urals and West Siberia, which originated by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus. The population of C. x ventricosum presumably also consists of two plant groups differing in genetic structure, which should be regarded as two different units of preservation of this taxon. PMID:21786667

  1. Epoch Difference in the Water Cycle in Siberia: Long-term Variations of the Siberian River Discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, K.; Ogata, K.; PARK, H.; Tachibana, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Among all the rivers flowing into the Arctic Ocean, the three great Siberian rivers; Lena, Yenisei and Ob, are the three largest in terms of water discharge (R), and they are a large source of freshwater. While linear trends of the Rs have been examined in many previous studies, causes of the R variations are still unclear. As pointed out in Fukutomi et al. (2003), during the 1980s to mid-1990s, the observed R of the Lena was negatively correlated with that of the Ob. The precipitation (P) and net precipitation (P-E) also showed negative correlation. These variations were affected by the east-west seesaw pattern of atmospheric circulation and associated moisture transport over Siberia. Our analysis, including records from recent years, revealed that the correlation of the R becomes weak after the mid-1990s, and it was positive during the mid-1950s to 1960s. These results indicated that the relationship between the observed Rs of the Lena and Ob was different in each epoch during the past seven decades. Reconstructed Rs based on the tree-ring during the past two centuries also showed positive and negative correlations in each of the epochs. Interestingly, the correlations were distributed on the negative side. This implies that the east-west seesaw pattern frequently appeared over Siberia. In addition, control simulation with an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) suggested that the east-west seesaw pattern appears as an atmospheric internal variability over Siberia. In conclusion, the atmospheric circulation which affects the P variations over Siberia was different in each epoch during the past two centuries, and as a result the relationship between the Rs of the Lena and Ob Rivers were changed in each of the epochs.

  2. Winter 2010 EVENTS FOCUS: RUSSIA

    E-print Network

    Eustice, Ryan

    Winter 2010 EVENTS FOCUS: RUSSIA Tue, Jan 12, 4-5:30 pm WCED/CREES/Ford School Lecture. "U.S.-Russia Relations: Status of the `Reset'." John Beyrle, U.S. Ambassador to Russia. Co-sponsors: International Policy and literature, Oberlin College. Wed, Feb 3, 12-1:30 pm CREES Brown Bag. "Nostalgia in Post-Socialist Russia

  3. Full Carbon Account for Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Nilsson; A. Shvidenko; V. Stolbovoi; M. Gluck; M. Jonas; M. Obersteiner

    2000-01-01

    The Forestry Project (FOR) at IIASA has produced a full carbon account (FCA) for Russia for 1990, together with scenarios for 2010. Currently, there are rather big question marks regarding the existing carbon accounts for Russia, and Russia is critical to the global carbon balance due to its size. IIASA is in a position to perform solid analysis of Russia

  4. A multitracer study of peat profiles from Tunguska, Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tositti; M. Mingozzi; S. Sandrini; L. Forlani; M. C. Buoso; M. De Poli; D. Ceccato; D. Zafiropoulos

    2006-01-01

    Two peat columns from Tunguska (Siberia) were analysed for pollen, spores, charcoal, trace elements and ?-emitters in order to identify the fingerprints of the impact of a still unidentified cosmic body (TCB), which occurred in the summer of 1908, and the level of environmental pollution in a background area of central Siberia. Peat layers were subject to non-destructive ?-ray spectrometry

  5. The Discovery of Acanthinula harpa, Say, in Central Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Mozley

    1934-01-01

    IN the course of a study of the molluscan fauna of Siberia, carried out under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institution during 1932 and 1933, a point has come to light which appears to merit special notice. This concerns the discovery of the gastropod mollusc, Acanthinula harpa, Say, in central Siberia. This species has long been known to occur in

  6. [Early encounters of German-language explorers with the Tibetan medicine in Siberia in the modern era].

    PubMed

    Surkova, Natalia; Chekhirova, Galina V; Aseeva, Tamara; Nikolaev, Sergey; Agalzew, Grigori; Melzer, Jörg; Vennos, Cécile; Schwabl, Herbert; Saller, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    The spreading of Tibetan Buddhism and with it the Tibetan medicine in the region east of Lake Baikal, goes back to the 17th century. At the beginning of the 18th century, German speaking scholars were among the first to undertake scientific expeditions through Siberia. As such they were amongst the first scientists of the modern era who encountered the traditions, concepts, and therapeutic methods of Tibetan medicine. The aim of this article is to describe and analyze these first encounters with Tibetan medicine by the example of selected men of science of the 18th and 19th century. This work is based on extensive studies of sources in archives and libraries in Russia and Switzerland. We found documents related to the following scientists: Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt (1685-1735), Johann Georg Gmelin (1709-1755), Erik Laxmann (1737-1796), Friedrich Adelung (1768-1843), and Joseph Rehmann (1779-1831). They mentioned the distribution of Tibetan medicine within Russia, the use of medicinal plants and formulas as well as therapeutic techniques. For the scientific community of the time these first encounters of Europeans with practitioners of Tibetan medicine could not lift Tibetan medicine out of other exotic context in the field of ethnography. For today's researchers, these encounters are an important evidence for more than 300 years of development of Tibetan medicine on the vast territory of Siberia. The practice and the scientific examination of Tibetan medicine in Siberia is an active endeavor until today. The present work shows that it is possible and rewarding to follow up the historic and cultural connections from Europe to Asia via the Siberian link. PMID:22759729

  7. Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Robin M. Cocks; Trond H. Torsvik

    2007-01-01

    The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of

  8. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  9. Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreae, M. O.; Birmili, W.; Chi, X.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Mikhailov, E.; Panov, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. at a very remote continental site in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties. The instrumentation at the observatory includes a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until March 2011, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of the background CO mixing rations was observed with summer minima around 90 ppb and winter maxima of about 175 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were generally similar to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N, but showed an earlier onset of the elevated winter values. Episodes of elevated CO and aerosol concentrations, typically lasting for several days, are superimposed on the background seasonal cycle. During winter, these pollution episodes are usually associated with air masses that have passed over the central Siberian region around Omsk and Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During spring and summer, elevated levels of CO and aerosols are often caused by agricultural fires in southern Siberia and Kazakhstan or by forest fires in boreal Siberia. The optical properties of the aerosol showed more pronounced seasonal variability than the aerosol mass and number concentrations. Wintertime aerosols were highly absorbing, with single scattering albedos (SSA) around 0.85, consistent with a dominant fossil fuel combustion source. In contrast, summertime aerosols had very low absorption coefficients with SSA values reaching 0.97. These aerosols were present in airmasses from northern Siberia with low CO mixing ratios, which suggests that they are predominantly of biogenic origin. The lowest particle number concentrations (averaging ~430 cm-3) were present in northern Siberian and Arctic airmasses, with similar values in summer and winter. Chemical analysis shows that sulfates and "black" carbon are elevated in the winter aerosol, while organic carbon from biomass burning and terpenoid oxidation dominate in summer. The measurements at ZOTTO are being continued, in the expectation that long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

  10. Siberia Losing Lakes at an Alarming Rate

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A new study finds that more than 1,000 lakes in the Arctic region of Siberia have disappeared or shrunk dramatically over the past 30 years. The region has been getting markedly warmer and human activities are thought to be partly responsible. This radio broadcast reports on a study comparing Earth-observing satellite images over time, which show the Siberian lakes disappearing. The study concludes that as global warming causes the Arctic permafrost to thin, water from the Siberian lakes drains into the ground and vanishes. The clip is 3 minutes and 52 seconds in length.

  11. Assessing Russia's cards: three petty games in Central Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel K. Baev

    2004-01-01

    Moscow's growing influence in Central Asia stems from the evolution of the region's five states in close correspondence with Vladimir Putin's semi?authoritarian model. Absent adequate resources and consistent policies, however, Russia must engage in complicated manoeuvring in order to advance its interests. The result is not overt geopolitical competition with the West—often defined by the tired notion of the ‘Great

  12. Seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Liseikin, A. V.; Sigonin, P.

    2013-05-01

    In West and East Siberia a great deal of rivers and big lakes are situated. For oil and gas exploration these places hold much promise. It is very difficult to carry out seismic work in these regions, when temperature is fall down below 40 degrees centigrade. It is necessary to pave ways for technical equipment, to organize shooting operations in some cases, that harming ecology of investigated regions. It is well-known, that at seas and big reservoirs seismic works are carried out with use of air guns as sources and floating or ground cables as receivers. There is a special interest to carry out jointly processing and interpretation of seismic survey and electrical data. We should learn how to carry out such researches at rivers, developed a special combined technology on river seismic and electrical works carrying out. Geophysical Survey SB RAS has been carried out seismic and electrical works at rivers and reservoirs of Siberia for more then 20 years. We had to work in conditions, when depth of a reservoir was more then 10 meters or less then 1 meter. It was necessary to work out or adapt some floating equipment, to create air-guns working on light depths ("Malysh", "Sibiryak"), to create new recording equipment (seismic and electrical variants of "Baikal" equipment) for carrying out work in such conditions. There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe. For the first time it was determined, that the depth of sedimentary cover under Lake Baikal exceeds 14 km. On demands of government and private companies we carried out river works in Common-depth-point method at such rivers as: Ob, Volga, Enisey, Vakh, Lena, Kirenga, Nizhnya Tunguska. Comparison of results got at river profiles with surface ones, crossing the river, showed in difficult surface conditions (central part of the River Lena, the Nizhnya Tunguska) river seismic sections are better then surface sections. It is connected with the fact, that systems of observation with multiplicity of several hundreds could be realized at a river without costs increasing, and it is not necessary to set relief correction. It is also important, that data got at a river profile with length of 1000 km allow to correlate seismic boundaries of separate surface profiles, crossing the river. At mouth of the Enisey River qualitative material up to the depth of 20km was got. At the Lena River, in the region of oil field, complexation of seismic and electrical works was carried out. According to seismic survey data there are determined structural and velocity parameters of the section and, using this information, according to electrical survey data there was determined distribution of conductivity. The obtained results are useful for direct exploration of hydrocarbons. The paper presents the results of development of technology of seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes and showed some data got at the rivers of Siberia There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe.

  13. Compact storage rings Siberia-AS and Siberia-SM synchrotron radiation sources for lithography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vo Vo Anashin; V. S. Arbuzov; G. A. Blinov; V. G. Veshcherevich; P. D. Vobly; E. I. Gorniker; N. I. Zinevich; E. I. Zinin; N. I. Zubkov; V. A. Kiselev; E. P. Kollerov; G. N. Kulipanov; Yu. G. Matveev; A. S. Medvedko; N. A. Mezentsev

    1989-01-01

    The paper deals with two projects of compact superconducting storage rings for industrial production of integrated circuits (Ie) using x-ray lithography within the 8- to 20-A.. wavelengths range. The azimuthally symmetric superconducting storage ring Siberia-AS at an energy of 600 Me V is a superconducting analog ofVEP-l, one of the earliest storage rings in the world intended for the purposes

  14. Structural-metamorphic evolution of the Southern Yenisey Range of Eastern Siberia: implications for the emplacement of the Kanskiy granulite Complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Smit; D. D. Van Reenen; T. V. Gerya; D. A. Varlamov; A. V. Fed’kin

    2000-01-01

    Summary  ¶The Southern Yenisey Range of Eastern Siberia consists of the granulite facies Kanskiy Complex bordered in the west by the\\u000a lower-grade Yeniseyskiy and Yukseevskiy Complexes. Three deformational events were recognized in each of the three complexes\\u000a along the Yenisey River cross-section: a D1 fabric forming event, a D2 shear and folding event, and a D3 shear event. Thrust\\u000a kinematics across

  15. Ozone profile observations in Siberia in 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Valery; Balugin, Nikolay; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Alexander; Ivlev, Georgii; Shepelev, Dmitry; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2014-05-01

    The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station (66.5N, 66.7E) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation are carried out since January 1997. In 1997-2013 we used electrochemical 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring period to study the ozone loss in the Arctic regions. The results of ozonesonde observation at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In January 2014 we upgraded this ozonesounding station with the new iMet-1 radiosonde and electrochemical 2Z-V7 ozonesonde of Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), USA. The first results of ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in January-March 2014 at Salekhard aerological station will be presented and discussed.

  16. Understanding barter in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simon Commander; Christian Mumssen

    This paper analyses the incidence and growth of non-monetary transactions - barter, veksels, debt offsets, tax offsets and other money surrogates - in Russia. The empirical backbone of the paper is a survey of 350 - predominantly industrial - firms, carried out in October and November 1998. The paper provides an analytical framework for understanding both firm-level incentives for using

  17. Human Subcutaneous Dirofilariasis, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Kartashev, Vladimir V.; Grandi, Giulio; Morchón, Rodrigo; Nagornii, Sergei A.; Karanis, Panagiotis; Simón, Fernando

    2007-01-01

    We report 14 cases of human subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens, diagnosed from February 2003 through July 2004, in patients from Rostov-on-Don, Russia. Serologic analysis showed evidence of high risk of exposure to D. repens. Surveillance studies on prevalence and prevention effectiveness of canine infection are needed to control this emerging zoonosis. PMID:17370533

  18. White Sea - Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

  19. Dating Violence in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lysova, A. V.

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of violence in interpersonal relationships has been little studied in Russia, and the phenomenon of violence between dating partners has not been the object of scientific interest at all. The study on which the present article is based was designed to obtain information about the violence in dating among students enrolled in…

  20. Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling.

    PubMed

    Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut; Christensen, Thomas H

    2014-05-01

    The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce the global warming completely and result in a net saving of 100 000 CO2-equivalents per year due to storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill beyond 100 years. Considering other first-order degradation rates for the landfilled organic matter did not overtly affect the results, while assumptions about the top cover oxidation of methane significantly affected the results. This shows the importance of controlling the gas escape from the landfill. PMID:24692457

  1. LUGOVSKOE, WESTERN SIBERIA: A POSSIBLE EXTRA-ARCTIC MAMMOTH REFUGIUM AT THE END OF THE LATE GLACIAL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lyobov A Orlova; Vasily N Zenin; Anthony J Stuart; Thomas F G Higham; Pieter M Grootes; Sergei V Leshchinsky; Yaroslav V Kuzmin; Aleksander F Pavlov; Evgeny N Maschenko

    Eleven woolly mammoth bone samples from Lugovskoe (central West Siberian Plain, Russia) were radiocar- bon dated in 3 laboratories: Institute of Geology, Novosibirsk; Oxford University, Oxford; and Christian Albrechts Univer- sity, Kiel. Each laboratory used its own protocol for collagen extraction. Parallel dating was carried out on 3 samples in Novosibirsk and Oxford. Two results are in good agreement. However,

  2. Fuel Consumption and Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Impact of Vegetation Types, Meteorological Conditions, Forestry Practices and Fire Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Conard, Susan; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmila; Soja, Amber; Zhila, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forests play a crucial role in carbon budgets with Siberian carbon fluxes and pools making a major contribution to the regional and global carbon cycle. Wildfire is the main ecological disturbance in Siberia that leads to changes in forest species composition and structure and in carbon storage, as well as direct emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. At present, the global scientific community is highly interested in quantitative and accurate estimates of fire emissions. Little research on wildland fuel consumption and carbon emission estimates has been carried out in Russia until recently. From 2000 to 2007 we conducted a series of experimental fires of varying fireline intensity in light-coniferous forest of central Siberia to obtain quantitative and qualitative data on fire behavior and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior. From 2009 to 2013 we examined a number of burned logged areas to assess the potential impact of forest practices on fire emissions. In 2013-2014 burned areas in dark-coniferous and deciduous forests were examined to determine fuel consumption and carbon emissions. We have combined and analyzed the scarce data available in the literature with data obtained in the course of our long-term research to determine the impact of various factors on fuel consumption and to develop models of carbon emissions for different ecosystems of Siberia. Carbon emissions varied drastically (from 0.5 to 40.9 tC/ha) as a function of vegetation type, weather conditions, anthropogenic effects and fire behavior characteristics and periodicity. Our study provides a basis for better understanding of the feedbacks between wildland fire emissions and changing anthropogenic disturbance patterns and climate. The data obtained could be used by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and by managers to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts on the environmentand human health.

  3. Health lifestyles in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William C. Cockerham

    2000-01-01

    Utilizing data from the nationwide Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), this paper analyzes health lifestyles in Russia. Heavy alcohol use and smoking, a high-fat diet, and lack of leisure-time exercise are the principal culprits in fostering high rates of heart disease and other causes of premature mortality. This is especially the situation for middle-age, working-class males whose mortality is greater

  4. [West Nile fever].

    PubMed

    Delgado-López, Nancy; Andrade-Zárate, Vicente; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Halabe-Cherem, José

    2003-01-01

    West Nile fever is a mosquito-borne febrile illness seen in Africa, Asia, and Europe, but reported in North America only once. West Nile virus is of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Several West Nile fever outbreaks were reported from Israel in the 1950s and in 1980. Since the mid-1990s, frequency and apparent clinical severity of West Nile virus outbreaks have increased. Outbreaks in Rumania (1996), Russia (1999), and Israel (2000) involved hundreds of persons with severe neurologic disease. In the summer of 1999, West Nile virus was recognized in the among Western Hemisphere for the first time when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis among residents of greater New York City. Other outbreak occurred during the summer of 2000. West Nile fever in humans usually is a febrile, influenza-like illness characterized by abrupt onset. Occasionally (less than 15% of cases) are acute aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Although human vaccines for West Nile virus are under development, the most effective to way reduce local population of mosquitoes is to eliminate sources of standing water and preventing vector mosquitoes from biting humans by using mosquito repellents and barrier methods. PMID:19753724

  5. Insight Into West Siberian Gas and Wetland Methane Emissions From ? 13C Studies of Ambient Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Levin, I.; Privalov, S.; Nisbet, E.

    2004-12-01

    The Ob River region of West Siberia is home to some of the largest known gasfields and wetlands, and a source of around 2.5% of the total global methane emissions. It is also a major source region of CO2 emissions. Carbon isotopes of ambient air and emission sources provide an important tool for understanding these poorly constrained sources. Tank samples of ambient air were collected overnight for ? 13C analysis of methane during the summer (August-September) campaigns of 1999 and 2000, as part of INTAS-funded projects. The main sampling centres were Nadym and Urengoy, with samples collected above the known gas reserves, near pumping stations and by boat on the Nadym River, downstream toward Salekhard. CH4 of up to 900 ppb above background was recorded and ? 13C depletions of up to 3‰ relative to background. West Siberian gas has measured ? 13C values of -51.5 to -49.5‰ based on well samples and supplies in St. Petersburg and Germany. Implications from aircraft flights (Sugawara et al. 1996) and measurements along the Trans-Siberian railroad (Bergamaschi et al., 1998) are that the wetland signature is around -67‰ . The ambient air samples give a range of calculated source inputs from -67.3 to -49.3‰ , the end members corresponding to sampling areas expected to contain only wetland or gas emissions and confirmed by back trajectory analysis for sampling times. Using the end members, the average excess methane from the wetland source was 62 ppb around Nadym and 61 ppb around Urengoy. The average excess from the gasfields was 30 ppb around Nadym but 82 ppb around Urengoy, reflecting the closer proximity to the gasfields. The maximum excess recorded from wetlands was 160 ppb and from gasfields was 710 ppb. Experiments during summer 2004 have focussed on bag sampling on the tower of a super deep well at Korotchaevo, SE of the Urengoy gas field. Samples collected at 20, 30 and 60m heights will be analysed for ? 13C of both CH4 and CO2 and apportioned to gas and wetland sources. Bergamaschi P.et al. Isotope analysis based source identification for atmospheric CH4 and CO sampled across Russia using the Trans-Siberian railroad. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D), 8227-8235, 1998. Suguwara S. et al. Aircraft measurements of the stable carbon isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane over Siberia. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 223-231, 1996.

  6. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  7. Adult Learners' Week in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litvinova, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In Russia International Adult Learners Week highlights the democratization process the country is undergoing. Government attention to rural development and training and agrarian policy is needed. (SK)

  8. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  9. Evolution of telecommunications in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sokolov; A. Mikov

    1995-01-01

    The current status of Russia's telecommunications infrastructure does not correspond to the country's increasing demands. The creation of a commercial digital overlay network is apparently the only possible solution to provide modern telecommunications services. This article describes the following aspects of the evolution of telecommunications in Russia: a classification of the main specific features of the existing telecommunications networks; an

  10. Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia EDITED BY MichaelJ. Bemon University of Bristol Mikhail the CloetaCeous of Russia, Middle Asia, and :rvlongolia, arc equally important. Some of the dinosaurs elsewhere, but these are sorely in need of revision (see Chapter 11). The dinosaurs and other tetrapods from

  11. Flooding in Southern Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

  12. An 84-kyr paleomagnetic record from the sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, J.A.; King, J.W.; Colman, Steven M.; Kravchinsky, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of sediment cores obtained from the Selenga prodelta region of Lake Baikal, Russia. This record, which spans approximately the last 84 kyr, contributes to a better understanding of the nature of geomagnetic field behavior in Siberia and is a useful correlation and dating tool. We demonstrate that the Lake Baikal sediments are recording variations in the geomagnetic field. The directional record displays secular variation behavior with a geomagnetic excursion at 20 ka and additional excursions appearing as large-amplitude secular variation at 41, 61, and 67 ka. Smoothing of the geomagnetic excursion behavior occurs in Lake Baikal sediments owing to the intermediate sedimentation rate (13 cm kyr-1). The Lake Baikal relative paleointensity record correlates to absolute paleointensity data for the last 10 kyr and to relative paleointensity records from the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean for the last 84 kyr. This correlation suggests a strong global (i.e., dipole) component to these records and further supports the reliability of sediments as recorders of relative geomagnetic paleointensity. We show that a relative geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy has a potential resolution of 7 kyr by correlating continental and marine records. The geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy helps constrain the age of the difficult to date Lake Baikal sediments.

  13. BRDF characteristics of tundra vegetation communities in Yamal, Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchhorn, Marcel; Heim, Birgit; Walker, Donald A. Skip; Epstein, Howard; Leibman, Marina

    2013-04-01

    Satellite data from platforms with pointing capabilities (CHRIS/Proba, RapidEye) or from sensors with wide swath (AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS) is influenced by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This effect can cause significant changes in the measured spectral surface reflectance depending on the solar illumination geometry and sensor viewing conditions. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), a German hyperspectral mission with expected launch in 2016, will provide high spectral resolution observations with a ground sampling distance of 30 meters. Since the EnMAP sensor has pointing capabilities, both spectral and directional reflection characteristics need to be taken into account for the algorithms development for vegetation parameters. The 'hyperspectral method development for Arctic VEGetation biomes' (hy-Arc-VEG) project is part of the national preparation program for the EnMAP mission. Within the EnMAP projcect hy-Arc-VEG we developed a portable field spectro-goniometer, named ManTIS (Manual Transportable Instrument for Spherical BRDF observations), for the in-situ measurements of anisotropic effects of tundra surfaces (national and international patent pending - DE 102011117713.6). The goniometer was designed for field use in difficult as well as challenging terrain and climate. It is therefore of low weight, without electrical devices and weatherproof. It can be disassembled and packed into small boxes for transport. The current off-nadir viewing capacity is matched to the EnMAP sensor configuration (up to 30°). We carried out spectral field and goniometer measurements on the joint YAMAL 2011 expedition (RU-US-DE) organized by the Earth-Cryosphere Institute (ECI) in August 2011 on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, Russia. The field goniometer measurements (conducted under varying sun zenith angles) as well as field spectro-radiometrical measurements were carried out at the NASA Yamal Land Cover/Land Use Change (NASA Yamal-LCLUC) transects and réleves at Laboravaya (southern Yamal) and Vaskiny Dachi (central Yamal), and at the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site in Vaskiny Dachi. The LCLUC plots are Greening of the Arctic (GOA) sites established in 2007 by Walker et al. (2009). The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site was established by M. Leibman (ECI) in 1993. BRDF processing for the tundra test sites demonstrate the mirror asymmetry in relative azimuth with respect to the principal plane. It also showed that the maximum scattering appears in the backward direction, but that there is no minimal forward scattering. Instead, the forward scattering is characterized by similar to higher reflectance values compared to the nadir position. Moreover, the analysis of the anisotropic behaviour of moss-dominated tundra types with 10 to 15% vascular plant cover show that the BRDF influence on vegetation indices (VI) of low-growing arctic vegetation communities can be up to 15% of the nadir value. The low sun elevation at the arctic latitudes prevents hotspot-effects, but a BRDF normalization still should be taken into account for the development of tundra-adapted vegetation indices. Walker, D.A. et al. (2009): Data Report of the 2007 and 2008 Yamal Expeditions. AGC Data Report. 133.

  14. Sizing up the sub-Tommotian unconformity in Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoll, A. H.; Kaufman, A. J.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Adams, W.

    1995-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks in the western Anabar region, northwestern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolution and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Carbon isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at 1 to 2 m intervals support correlation of the lower Anabar succession (Staraya Reckha and lower Manykai Formations) with sub-Tommotian carbonates of the Ust'-Yu-doma Formation in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, the upper Manykai and most of the overlying Medvezhya Formation appear to preserve a sedimentary and paleontological record of an evolutionary important time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlation of the Anabar section with other northern Siberian successions that contain well-dated volcanic rocks permits the estimate that the sub-Tommotian unconformity in southeastern Siberia spans approximately 3 to 6 m.y. Diverse small shelly fossils (but not archaeocyathans) previously thought to mark the base of the Tommotian Stage evolved sequentially throughout this earlier interval.

  15. Methane emission from Western Siberia derived from the integral methane balance in the troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Vasiliy; Stepanenko, Victor; Okladnikov, Igor

    2013-04-01

    Although a number of estimates of methane emissions from large Earth regions have been proposed, based on either empirical or inverse transport modeling approaches, these emissions still remain highly uncertain motivating the development of new methods of surface flux assessment. In this study a new mathematical formulation for calculation of surface flux of methane, or any other gaseous component of the atmosphere, is developed. In it, the surface flux is retrieved from the integral balance of methane in bounded atmospheric domain. This balance includes the surface flux, the net advective flux through lateral boundaries of the atmospheric domain, methane sink due to oxidation by hydroxyl radical, and the rate of change of total methane amount in the domain. Western Siberia, being on of the most prominent surface methane sources in Northern hemisphere, is used as a test region for the method. The components of methane balance are calculated using methane concentrations and wind speeds from MACC reanalysis at 1.125 deg. grid (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/EU_projects/MACC), and hydroxyl concentrations provided by (Spivakovsky, 2000). The total methane flux from Western Siberia is thus assessed at 6 h resolution for 2001-2011. The time averaged total flux corresponds well to empirical estimates (M Glagolev, 2011) at diurnal and annual timescales. It may be anticipated that the method will be useful in close future when the satellite-retrieved methane concentration profiles will achieve high accuracy. References: Spivakovsky, C. M., et al. (2000), Three-dimensional climatological distribution of tropospheric OH: Update and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 8931- 8980. M Glagolev, I Kleptsova, I Filippov, S Maksyutov and T Machida. Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes. Environ. Res. Lett. 6 (2011) 045214 (7pp). This work is partially supported by the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation (contract#8345), SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant #11-05-01190a, and integrated project SB RAS #131, RFBR grant 11-05-01190-a.

  16. Germans from Russia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A number of online digital projects have taken on the challenge of documenting the experiences of immigrants and this particular website deals with this very subject quite nicely. Through the use of primary documents and detailed oral histories, this website illustrates the experiences of Germans from Russia who immigrated to Colorado in the 19th and 20th centuries. Drawing on work done by Professor Heitman at Colorado State University in the 1970s, visitors to the site can examine transcripts and listen to audio excerpts of interviews of these immigrants (and their descendants). They may also wish to view the online photo gallery which contains images of agriculture work, German-inspired architecture, and home life. Finally, visitors can use a search engine offered here to look for specific materials, if they wish to do so.

  17. West Siberian oil and the Northern Sea route: Current situation and future potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arild Moe

    1995-01-01

    A survey paper explores interrelationships between the development of oil and gas condensate deposits in northern areas of West Siberia and adjacent Krasnoyarsk Kray and the volume and character of traffic along the Northern Sea Route. Initial sections examine the magnitude of petroleum resources in the region, the allocation of development rights, and past and potential future production. Coverage then

  18. (M)other Russia: Evolution or Revolution

    E-print Network

    Miranda, Eduardo Reck

    (M)other Russia: Evolution or Revolution Twenty Years since the Collapse of Communism An inter.music.sas.ac.uk £25 (£15 student) Keynote speakers: Sir Rodric Braithwaite (former UK Ambassador to Russia) Vladimir Ambassador to Russia: Russia Today Coffee 11:00 Irina Souch (University of Amsterdam): Double Thinking

  19. Combating Illegal LoggingCombating Illegal Logging in Russia:in Russia

    E-print Network

    Combating Illegal LoggingCombating Illegal Logging in Russia:in Russia: Case study ofCase study of PrimorskyPrimorsky RegionRegion AlexeyAlexey MorozovMorozov Greenpeace RussiaGreenpeace Russia #12;Primorsky #12;RUSSIA Official Responses 7 of July 2000 Head of Nature Resource Committee of the Primorsky

  20. Combating Illegal LoggingCombating Illegal Logging in Russia:in Russia

    E-print Network

    Combating Illegal LoggingCombating Illegal Logging in Russia:in Russia: Case study ofCase study of PrimorskyPrimorsky RegionRegion AlexeyAlexey MorozovMorozov Greenpeace RussiaGreenpeace Russia http://www region: 2000 #12;RUSSIA Official Responses 7 of July 2000 Head of Nature Resource Committee

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups

    PubMed Central

    Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Sukernik, Rem I.; Derbeneva, Olga A.; Volodko, Natalia V.; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D.; Lott, Marie T.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A–D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region. PMID:15638829

  2. Remobilisation of the continental lithosphere by a mantle plume: major-, trace-element, and Sr, Nd, and Pb-isotope evidence from picritic and tholeiitic lavas of the Noril'sk District, Siberian Trap, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. C. Lightfoot; C. J. Hawkesworth; J. Hergt; A. J. Naldrett; N. S. Gorbachev; V. A. Fedorenko; W. Doherty

    1993-01-01

    The Late Permian to Early Triassic Siberian Traps have been sampled by drill core (core SG-9) and from surface exposure (section 1F) in the Noril'sk region of the Siberian Platform, Russia. Combined major, trace element, and Nd-, Sr-, and Pb-isotope data on selected samples through the Siberia Trap, offer new chemostratigraphic criteria for the identification and characterisation of two fundamentally

  3. Criminal Justice in Soviet Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID W. PATTERSON; ANN DOAK

    1980-01-01

    Compared to American criminal justice, the fabric of Russia's system is a tightly woven structure operating under centralized co-ordination. During recent history, the goals of Russia's criminal justice system have shifted from repression by terrorism to crime prevention through education and an emphasis on individual duty in peace-keeping matters.The militia (police), created in 1917, has been mandated to prevent crime

  4. Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN INGE SVENDSEN; ALEXEI MATIOUCHKOV; JAN MANGERUD; OLGA MASLENIKOVA; JAN TVERANGRE

    1999-01-01

    Glacial landforms in northern Russia, from the Timan Ridge in the west to the east of the Urals, have been mapped by aerial photographs and satellite images supported by field observations. An east-west trending belt of fresh hummock-and-lake glaciokarst landscapes has been traced to the north of 67 °N. The southern bound- ary of these landscapes is called the Markhida

  5. Chaos Reigns in Russia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Osmond, Andrew.

    For the third time in the last 14 months, Russian President Boris Yeltsin deposed his Prime Minister and Cabinet, intensifying the political chaos in a country beleaguered by economic insolvency, administrative corruption, and governmental mismanagement. The dismissals handed down on Wednesday, which included the popular PM Yevgeny M. Primakov, occurred the day before impeachment proceedings were to begin against Yeltsin in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the communist-led State Duma. Russia's first democratically elected President faces five impeachment charges, including initiating the collapse of the USSR, ordering an attack on parliament in 1993, destroying the armed forces, punishing the Russian people through harsh economic policies, and waging an illegal war against the secessionist Chechnya in 1994 through 1996. Political analysts forecast that only the last charge has a chance of passing the necessary two-thirds vote, slated for Saturday, in the 450-seat State Duma. Even if charged, it is unlikely that Yeltsin will be removed from office because the charge must also be approved by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Council of Federation, the parliament's upper house. However, the political imbroglio will paralyze the Russian government for months to come, and has already disrupted Russian diplomatic efforts to mediate a resolution to the crisis in Yugoslavia. The sites listed provide insight into this current Russian political crisis.

  6. Coast of the East Siberian Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Sea ice is pulling away from the coastline of northeastern Siberia in the east Siberia Sea. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 26, 2002, also the thinning of ice in bays and coves, and the blue reflection of the water from beneath causes the ice to appear bright blue. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  7. Precursor genes of future pandemic influenza viruses are perpetuated in ducks nesting in Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Okazaki; A. Takada; T. Ito; M. Imai; H. Takakuwa; M. Hatta; H. Ozaki; T. Tanizaki; T. Nagano; A. Ninomiya; V. A. Demenev; M. M. Tyaptirganov; T. D. Karatayeva; S. S. Yamnikova; D. K. Lvov; H. Kida

    2000-01-01

    Summary.  ?Influenza A viruses of different subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of ducks in their nesting areas in Siberia in\\u000a summer from 1996 to 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of the NP genes of the isolates in Siberia and those in Hokkaido, Japan on\\u000a their flyway of migration from Siberia to the south in autumn revealed that they belong to the Eurasian

  8. Cretaceous deformation, Chegitun River area, Chukotka Peninsula, Russia: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the

    E-print Network

    Toro, Jaime

    for the tectonic evolution of the Bering Strait region Jaime Toro Department of Geology and Geography, West bending of the structures in the Bering Strait region. The youngest structures in the Chegitun Valley River area, Chukotka Peninsula, Russia: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Bering Strait

  9. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anatoly Sukhinin; Douglas McRae; Jin Ji-Zhong; Olga Dubrovskaya; Eugene Ponomarev

    2010-01-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent

  10. Composition of individual aerosol particles above Lake Baikal, Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Van Malderen; R. Van Grieken; T. Khodzher; V. Obolkin; V. Potemkin

    1996-01-01

    More than 20,000 individual aerosol particles, taken from research vessels over the total area of Lake Baikal (Siberia) during June 1992 and September 1993, were analysed by automated electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The obtained data set was reduced by a combination of multivariate techniques. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated 11 major particle types, among which soil dust, Fe-rich, Ca-rich, organic, biogenic,

  11. Spatio-temporal dynamics of climatic extreme indices over Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulgina, Tamara; Gordov, Evgeny; Genina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays numerous investigations are aimed at analysis of regional climatic extremes becoming more pronounced under climate change. In particular, obtained results indicate decrease of number of frost days and increase of growing season length over the most part of Siberian territory, and precipitation intensity increases in the northern part of Siberia [1]. To obtain the complete pattern of ongoing changes in climatic extremes the following indices dynamics should be analyzed: percentage of days when minimum/maximum temperature less than 10th percentile, percentage of days minimum/maximum temperature greater than 90th percentile, maximum length of dry/wet spell. Climatic extreme assessments are obtained based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis and APHRODITE JMA data for the time period from 1979 to 2007. These datasets reproduce the statistics of observed climate features in Siberia more accurately [1]. Modern techniques of mathematical statistics are used for analysis of the temporal and spatial behavior of above mentioned climatic characteristics. Data analysis has been done using computational-geoinformational web-system for analysis of regional climatic change [2]. Surface temperature and precipitation extreme assessments obtained for Siberian territory can help to get a better understanding of current changes in the biosphere and socio-economic aspects. Partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 11-05-01190a), SB RAS projects VIII.80.2.1 and 131, and the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science grant # 8345 is acknowledged. 1. Shulgina T.M., Genina E.Yu., Gordov E.P. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia // Environmental Research Letters, 2011. - DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045210. - 7 p. 2. Evgeny Gordov et al. Development of Information-Computational Infrastructure for Environmental research in Siberia as a baseline component of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) Studies / Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences // Series: Springer Environmental Science and Engineering. Ed.: Groisman, Pavel Ya., Gutman, Garik. Vol. XII, 2013. P. 19-55.

  12. The White Sea, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

  13. Interannual variations in soil moisture and productivity of boreal forest in Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, A.; Tei, S.; Ohte, N.; Osaka, K.; Naito, D.; Maximov, T. C.

    2008-12-01

    Interannual variations in soil moisture and vegetation parameters were observed for 9 years in a larch forest near Yakutsk, Russia in Eastern Siberia, to investigate the response of the ecosystem. Soil moisture varied depending on both the amount of summer rainfall in the year and soil moisture at the end of the previous summer carried over as ice. The annual water budget of soil moisture (dQs) from the previous August to the current year primarily corresponds to precipitation, with a deviations caused by runoff (decrease in dQs), limited transpiration and/or upward transport of ice meltwater from the bottom of the active layer (increase in dQs). The source of water for transpiration was inferred from sap water delta18O. Snow meltwater with low delta18O preset in spring was used in early summer (June) every year, while, summer precipitation with high delta18O was transpired in a wet summer and ice meltwater with low delta18O was a major contributor to transpiration during droughts. Tree growth (GBH increment) correlated with soil moisture in August of the same year, and there was no correlation observed with the date of snow thaw. Larch needle delta13C showed negative correlation with soil moisture in the previous August, indicating lowering of stomatal conductance during a drought and carrying over of carbon until the following year. Litter fall production seems to increase with a two-year time lag behind the increase in soil moisture due to carrying over of soil moisture and response of vegetation. Larch needle delta15N (-1.3?n on average) negatively correlated with C/N ratio, possibly caused by water and nutrient availability.

  14. Genesis of the West Siberian Basin and its petroleum geology: a recent interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    From Late Carboniferous through Middle Jurassic time, the region of West Siberia passed through orogenic, rift, and early platform stages. The Early-Middle Jurassic was a time of cyclical marine and continental deposition. It is suggested that: (a) the oil in the Lower Cretaceous Neocomian sandstones was sourced by bituminous clays that interfinger with these sandstones on the west; and (b) that Upper Cretaceous Cenomanian gas was sourced in part by deeply buried Paleozoics and by overlying Upper Cretaceous Turonian clays. Predicted discoveries in West Siberia include several thousand small fields with reserves of less than 10 million tons, 250 to 300 medium-sized fields, and several large fields with 30 to 100 million tons. -from Author

  15. The Upper Paleolithic of Northern Asia: Achievements, problems, and perspectives. II. Central and Eastern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vitality Larichev; Uriy Khol'ushkin; Inna Laricheva

    1990-01-01

    Earlier scholars believed that the Upper Paleolithic of Central and Eastern Siberia appeared very late. However, modern research has shown that not only was there a local Middle Paleolithic, but also there was a very early series of sites in Central Siberia which show both Middle and early Upper Paleolithic traits. These are called the Makarovo horizon and may be

  16. Geographical analysis of river floods and their causes in southern East Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LEONID M. KORYTNY; NATALIA V. KICHIGINA

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of analysing the genesis, recurrence and severity of flood hazards, a regional flood hazard analysis of the southern area of East Siberia has been carried out. The greatest flood hazard corresponds to the relatively densely populated area of southern East Siberia: the Upper Yenisei, Angara and Upper Lena river basins and the Lake Baikal watershed. Typically, the

  17. New Tertiary paleomagnetic poles from Mongolia and Siberia at 40, 30, 20, and 13 Ma

    E-print Network

    Cogne, Jean-Pascal

    New Tertiary paleomagnetic poles from Mongolia and Siberia at 40, 30, 20, and 13 Ma: Clues of a paleomagnetic study of 490 cores from 59 sites, corresponding to 52 distinct basaltic flows from Mongolia Tertiary paleomagnetic poles from Mongolia and Siberia at 40, 30, 20, and 13 Ma: Clues on the inclination

  18. Laws for Sale: Evidence from Russia

    E-print Network

    Laws for Sale: Evidence from Russia Irina Slinko, Evgeny Yakovlev, and Ekaterina Zhuravskaya and regulations in Russia during the period 1992-2000. Using these measures, we find that: 1) politically powerful that capture affects aggregate growth. Key words: Regulatory capture, institutional subversion, Russia

  19. Lord and Peasant in Russia: From

    E-print Network

    Landweber, Laura

    Lord and Peasant in Russia: From the Ninth to the Nineteenth Century Jerome Blum To understand Russian history without un- derstanding serfdom--the peasant-lord relationship that shaped Russia- mental in scope and path- breaking in its analysis, Lord and Peasant in Russia garnered immediate

  20. Russia between transition and globalization Olga GARANINA

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Russia between transition and globalization Olga GARANINA PhD student University Pierre Mendes France of Grenoble (France) St Petersburg State University of Economics and Finance (Russia) Mailing the beginning of the transition. We study the politico-economic configuration in Russia in terms of (i) its

  1. Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

  2. Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

  3. Scholars at Risk in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yuri

    2006-04-01

    I will share my general thoughts on safe haven for scholars at risk, based on my own experience, and will discuss scholars at risk in Russia. At the present time, these are mostly scientists falsely accused of espionage. I will highlight the special issues this fact raises for providing support or safe haven for such scientists.

  4. Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC). After correcting for missing data, we calculated FWI System values based on a fire season running from March 15 to October 31. Since the number of stations is small relative to the area of interest, we also used station data for neighboring countries (Mongolia, northern China) to assist interpolation. Seven spatial data layers created using GIS software included daily fuel moisture code and fire behavior indices of the FWI System along with Daily Severity Index across Russia and the adjacent boundary areas (1617 maps/yr). When we compared distribution of FWI values across Russia to daily fire scar data from AVHRR imagery for selected years, distribution of fire activity appeared to be well related to the FWI values. Our goal is to develop a reasonable estimate of seasonal and interannual carbon emissions for fires burning in Siberia based on daily values of the FWI System. In a related project, we are creating a post-1979 fire burn area database for Russia using AVHRR images. Our goal is to combine historical and current burned area and weather data to develop improved estimates of annual carbon emissions for the boreal zone in Russia.

  5. Evaluating oil, gas ventures in W. Siberia: Feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, J.A. (Questa Engineering Corp., Golden, CO (United States)); Connelly, W. (Pangea International Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

    1993-02-08

    This article discusses the methodology and calculations used in performing the economic evaluations for a typical western Siberia oil project venture. The discussion of taxes, funds, depreciation, and costs assumes the venture is a stock company and that economics are calculated on a project basis. Most ventures available to western companies are delineated oil fields that are not yet developed or producing. The authors focus on this type of property. The required elements for an economic evaluation include original-oil-in-place (OOIP) and recoverable reserves; development plan and associated production forecast; and capital requirements and operating costs. The level of evaluation-i.e., screening, preliminary feasibility study, Technical Efficiency of Organization (TEO), or full feasibility study-determines the detail needed for each of these elements. Several economic analyses of a venture should be made to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative development plans, joint venture deal terms, capital requirements, operating costs, product prices, and taxation variables. The first three parts of this five part series dealt with (1) log and core data, (2) reservoir description and (3) flow tests and reservoir performance, and provided a technical foundation for the evaluation of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia.

  6. Direct observations of reactive atmospheric gases at ZOTTO station in the middle of Siberia as a base for large-scale modeling of atmospheric chemistry over Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skorokhod, Andrey; Belikov, Igor; Shtabkin, Yury; Moiseenko, Konstantin; Pankratova, Natalia; Vasileva, Anastasia; Rakitin, Vadim; Heimann, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Direct observations of atmospheric air composition are very important for a comprehensive understanding of atmospheric chemistry over Northern Eurasia and its variability and trends driven by abrupt climatic and ecosystem changes and anthropogenic pressure. Atmospheric air composition (including greenhouse gases and aerosols), its trends and variability is still insufficiently known for most of the nearly uninhabited areas of Northern Eurasia. This limits the accuracy of both global and regional models, which simulate climatological and ecosystem changes in this highly important region. From that point of view, the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in the middle of Siberia (near 60N, 90E), launched in 2006 and governed by a scientific international consortium plays an important role providing unique information about concentrations of greenhouse and reactive trace gases, as well as aerosols. Simulations of surface concentrations of O3, NOx and CO performed by global chemical-transport model GEOS-Chem using up-to-date anthropogenic and biogenic emissions databases show very good agreement with values observed at ZOTTO in 2007-2012. Observed concentration of ozone has a pronounced seasonal variation with a clear peak in spring (40-45 ppbv in average and up to 80 ppbv in extreme cases) and minimum in winter. Average ozone level is about 20 ppbv that corresponds to the background conditions. Enhanced concentration in March-July is due to increased stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. In autumn and winter distribution of ozone is close to uniform. NOx concentration does not exceed 1 ppb that is typical for background areas but may vary by order and some more in few hours. Higher surface NOx(=NO+NO2) concentrations during day time generally correspond to higher ozone when NO/NO2 ratio indicates on clean or slightly polluted conditions. CO surface concentration has a vivid seasonal course and varies from about 100 ppb in summer till 150 ppb in winter. But during polluted cases which are quite regular CO may increase till 400 ppb and more. Most uncertainties are due to the wild fires, which are often in different regions of Siberia. Numerical assessment of climatically important natural and anthropogenic emission sources influencing observed CO and O3 concentrations and their seasonal variability was made using GEOS-Chem model. According to the results, during the cold period CO concentrations in the surface layer is largely driven atmospheric transport from anthropogenic sources in Western Europe (up to 20 ppb), south of European Russia (up to 35 ppb) and south-western Siberia (up to 28 ppb). During the warm season they are usually affected by air transport from eastern Siberia, where the main contribution to the CO emissions are biogenic VOC oxidation (up to 15 ppb) and wildfires (up to 12 ppb). Transport of pollutants from south-western Siberia can add about 2,5 ppb to the ozone summer level in Central Siberia. In wintertime this factor leads to a reduced surface ozone level by 2 ppb. The contribution of large remote emission sources (Europe) is estimated within 1 ppb. Generally the simulation results indicate a significant role of long-range air transport in addition to regional natural and anthropogenic sources of air pollution which determine the total balance of surface CO. These processes need to be considered in quantitative analyses of the factors that determine the long-term photochemical system evolution in the lower troposphere over the continental regions of Northern Eurasia. This work was supported by the Russian Scientific Fund under grant 14-47-00049.

  7. Contradicting climate versus vegetation history in NE-Siberia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, M.; Zech, R.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Siberia may play a key role for the climate on the entire Earth. The classical Milankovitch Theory suggests that changes in summer insolation due to the Earth' orbital parameters caused build-up of snow and ice over the extensive continental masses at high northern latitudes. Various positive feedback mechanisms, like surface albedo and sequestration/release of atmospheric carbon dioxide in/from frozen, organic-rich soils, could then be responsible for the onset of global glaciations. More recently, high northern latitudes have also gained a lot of attention due to the potential of their soils and peats to release large amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. The Siberian ecosystems may turn into significant greenhouse gas sources as global warming continues and causes melting of permafrost and mineralisation of soil organic material that has been built up and stored over thousands of years. Quaternary scientists are therefore searching for long-term and continuous archives in order to reconstruct the Siberian climate and landscape history. A wide range of different analytical tools (e.g. different dating techniques, elemental composition, mineralogy, magnetic properties, grain size distribution, characterisation of organic matter and palynology) is used to infer palaeoclimatically and palaeoecologically relevant information. All of these methods have their advantages and their disadvantages. For instance, pollen analyses allow a high taxonomic differentiation, but variable pollination rates of different plant species, influx of long-distance transported pollen, and variable preservation of different pollen taxa have to be considered. Concerning the interpretation of pollen spectra in NE-Siberia, arboreal pollen, especially larch pollen, are traditionally considered to be ‘warm plant taxa', hence the occurrence of these pollen in archives is interpreted as reflecting warm interglacial or interstadial conditions. We have recently presented a multi-proxy analytical characterisation and palaeoclimatic interpretation of a loess-like permafrost palaeosol sequence (the Tumara Palaeosol Sequence, TPS) in NE-Siberia (Zech et al., 2008, Geoderma 143(3-4), pp. 281-295). Accordingly, the TPS developed on a Middle Pleistocene fluvio-glacial terrace, comprises a sequence of glacial and interglacial/-stadial palaeosols and represents the last ~240,000 years. Palaeosols with higher contents of organic matter (Corg up to 2.5%) are correlated with glacial periods, whereas palaeosols with low contents of organic matter (Corg ~0.5%) are correlated with interglacial periods. This Corg pattern is explained with a thinner active permafrost layer, water logging and reduced organic matter degradation during glacials. However, the reconstructed vegetation history based on unpublished alkane biomarker and pollen analyses seems to be at odds with the climate history based on the pedologic features. Namely in the lower part of the TPS, we found evidence for forest vegetation and abundant Larix pollen in the stratigraphic unit correlated with the Late Saalian glaciation (130-160 ka BP) (Svendsen et al., 2004, Quaternary Science Reviews 23(11-13), pp. 1229-1271) and the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. Trees, especially larch, are traditionally regarded as ‘warm plant taxa' in NE-Siberia. Interestingly, similar severe discrepancies between the vegetation history and the geochemically derived chronostratigraphy have also been described for the sediments from Crater Lake El'gygytgyn (Lozhkin et al., 2007, Journal of Paleolimnology 37, pp. 135-153), the latter certainly being the most continuous and long-term archive in the study area. In order to explain these discrepancies, we suggest that various palaeoclimatic parameters, like temperature, precipitation, and seasonality, differently affected (i) glaciations, (ii) pedogenetic conditions and (iii) vegetation history, respectively. (i) Concerning glaciations, NE-Siberia is characterised by an extreme continental climate with very low winter temperatures causing several hundreds of meter

  8. [Polymorphism of the mtDNA control region in wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from the European part of Russia].

    PubMed

    Baranova, A I; Kholodova, M V; Davydov, A V; Rozhkov, Iu I

    2012-09-01

    Genetic diversity ofwild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting the European part of Russia, including Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, and the Republic of Karelia was characterized using sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA control region. Despite of currently low population number of wild reindeer, they were characterized by a high level of genetic diversity (pi = 0.018; H= 0.872 to 0.914). Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between European reindeer and wild reindeer of Siberia. In reindeer from Murmansk oblast a haplotype in common with the wild reindeer form Southwestern Norway was described. The reindeer sample examined contained no haplotypes earlier described for the reindeer of Central Norway. It is suggested that in recent past wild reindeer from the European north of Russia formed one population with the reindeer from the north of the Asian part of Eurasia. PMID:23113338

  9. Low seismic velocity layers in the Earth's crust beneath Eastern Siberia (Russia) and Central Mongolia: receiver function data

    E-print Network

    Gao, Stephen Shangxing

    Mongolia: receiver function data and their possible geological implication Yu.A. Zorina,*, V.V. Mordvinovaa­Baikal, Paleozoic Mongolian, Early Mesozoic Mongolia­Okhotsk fold areas, and beneath the Siberian platform

  10. Fe-U-PGE-Au-Ag-Cu Deposits of the Udokan-Chiney Region (East Siberia, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Murashov, K.; Nistratov, S.; Gryazev, S.

    2012-04-01

    Introduction. Cupriferous sandstones-shales and magmatic copper-nickel deposits mark out the western and southern boundaries of the Siberian Craton accordingly. Of special interest are the Paleoproterozoic deposits of the Udokan-Chiney mining district (Gongalskiy, Krivolutskaya, 2008). Copper reserves and resources of this region are estimated at more than 50 Mt. Half of them is concentrated at the unique Udokan Deposit and the second half is distributed among sedimentary (Unkur, Pravoingamakitskoye, Sakinskoye, Krasnoye, Burpala) and magmatic deposits of the Chiney (Rudnoye, Verkhnechineyskoye, Kontaktovoye), Luktur and Maylav massifs. Results. It was established that the ores are characterized by similarity in chemical composition (main, major and rare elements that are Ag, Au, PGE) and mineral assemblages with varying proportions. It is important to emphasize that Fe role in mineralization was previously ignored. Meanwhile the Udokan deposit contains 10 Mt of magnetite metacrystals so as chalcocite ores may contain up to 50% magnetite too. It has been recently found that the Chiney titanomagnetite ores comprise commercially significant uranium and rare-earth metal concentrations (Makaryev et al., 2011). Thus the Udokan-Chiney region comprises Cu, Fe, Ti, V, U, REE, Ag, Au, PGE. These deposits differ from similar objects, the Olympic Dam in particular, by a much smaller content of fluid-bearing minerals. Copper mineralization at the Udokan is represented by chalcocite-bornite ores. They occur as ore beds conformable with sedimentary structures or as cross-cutting veins. The central zones of the former are often brecciated. They are rimmed by fine magnetite, bornite, and chalcocite dissemination. Bornite-chalcopyrite and chalcopyrite-pyrite veins are known at the lower levels of the Udokan ore bed. Such ore compositions are predominant in other ore deposits in sedimentary rocks (Pravoingamakitskoye, Unkur) and have a hydrothermal origin. Silver grades are up to 370 g/t in grab samples (Gongalskiy et al., 2008a). The long-lived Udokan-Chiney ore-magmatic has small areal extent of explosive rocks and breccias (n*10 m) with massive sulfide veins (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) which are similar to Sudbury offset dikes. While the same vertical zones at the Rudnoye deposit have been confirmed over 0.5 km downward from the lower contact of the Chiney massif. Conclusions. Multielement and similar mineralogical composition ores of different deposits in the Udokan-Chiney area reflect long evolution of ore processes in very movable block of the crust. Observed combination of magmatic, sedimentary and partially hydrothermal deposits is a result of the telescoping of a wide range of metals into a limited area.

  11. Interaction of rock, water, and plants in central Siberia (Russia) dominated by continuous permafrost: biotic versus abiotic fluxes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Viers; O. S. Pokrovsky; A. S. Prokushkin; E. Beaulieu; B. Dupre

    2009-01-01

    Boreal forests mainly located between the latitudes 46°N and 66°N play a key role in regulating global carbon cycle and climate of the Earth. These forests store about 42 gigatons of carbon (Gt C) of above ground biomass and 200 Gt C of soil organic matter that represents about 8 and 13% of the global amounts (Jarvis et al., 2001

  12. Estimation of periphytic microalgae gross primary production with DCMU-fluorescence method in Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. I. Kolmakov; O. V. Anishchenko; E. A. Ivanova; M. I. Gladyshev; N. N. Sushchik

    2008-01-01

    Periphyton (epilithon) gross primary production (GPP) was estimated using the DCMU-fluorescence method in the Yenisei River.\\u000a In the unshaded littoral zone, chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) and GPP value varied from 0.83 to 973.74 mg m?2and 2–304,425 O2 m?2 day?1 (0.64–95 133 mg C m?2 day?1), respectively. Positive significant correlation (r?=?0.8) between daily GPP and periphyton Chl a was found. Average ratio GPP:Chl

  13. Birds of the Indigirka River Delta, Russia: Historical and biogeographic comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, J.M.; Esler, Daniel; Degtyarev, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    We documented the breeding status and relative abundance of all avian species on the coastal portion of the Indigirka River Delta during spring and summer 1993-95. Data on avifaunal composition were then compared to data from adjacent areas from Eastern Siberia to the Chukotka Peninsula to evaluate how species composition changes longitudinally within the arctic and typical tundra zones of northern Russia. We recorded 63 species on the Indigirka River Delta, 37 (58.7 %) of which were confirmed breeders during at least one of the three years. Five new species were recorded breeding (Arenaria interpres, Calidris acuminata, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Stercorarius parasiticus, and Asio flammeus), and 13 previously unrecorded species were observed during this study. We also identified several species of rare or threatened status in Russia and North America, including Branta bernicla, Somateria fischeri, Polysticta stelleri, and Rhodostethia rosea. We used parsimony and distance matrix methods to compare the breeding species richness on the Indigirka River Delta to that of six other Russian Arctic areas. Biogeographic comparisons revealed the presence of two clades in the Russian Arctic: the Lena River Delta east to Chaun Delta and the Chukotka Peninsula.

  14. The diversity of rabies virus in Russia demonstrated by anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibody application and limited gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Botvinkin, A D; Kuzmin, I V; McElhinney, L M; Johnson, N; Fooks, A R

    2006-01-01

    A comparative analysis of anti-nucleocapsid monoclonal antibody (N-mAb) reaction profiles and DNA sequences was performed on 97 selected rabies virus (RABV) isolates from Russia and neighbouring states. A panel of 73 N-mAb from the Wistar Institute (Philadelphia, PA, USA), Veterinary Laboratories Agency (Weybridge, UK) and P-41 (Tübingen, Germany) was used. The sequence of a 400 bp fragment of the N gene was generated for all available isolates and a phylogenetic analysis of the fragment was carried out. The results of genetic and antigenic typing were in concordance, except for a few deviations. Three RABV variants with distinct antigenic patterns corresponded to well characterised genetic groups. The phylogenetic analysis also allowed the discrimination of RABVs with similar antigenic profiles originating from distant geographical locations in Russia and other states of the former Soviet Union. In some instances, more than one specific antigenic variant was detected within a phylogenetic group. A number of antigenic and genetic variants were associated with a specific host species (such as red fox, raccoon dog, wolf or polar fox) in different parts of Russia. A single, antigenically divergent, P-41-positive, rodent isolate from Siberia was described. PMID:16878463

  15. Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Davydov; A. Sher; G. Boeskorov; P. Lazarev; J. Binladen; E. Willerslev; A. Tikhonov

    2009-01-01

    A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them

  16. Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-12-01

    Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some findings of those projects will be presented in the report. The information-computational infrastructure is aimed to manage multidisciplinary environmental data and to generate high resolution data sets on demand. One of its key elements, optimizing the usage of information-computational resources, services and applications is the climatic web portal under development. The prototype (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/) is now providing an access to an interactive web- GIS system for climate change assessment on the base of available meteorological data archives in the selected region. SIRS education and training program is run via annual organization in the region either international multidisciplinary conference with elements of young scientists school ENVIROMIS or young scientists school and collocated international conference CITES (http://www.scert.ru/en/conferences/). All the listed above activities have an international dimension whose enlargement might significantly assist in profound understanding of regional and global consequences in on-going Siberia processes.

  17. Phylogeography and sympatric differentiation of the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) complex in Siberia as revealed by mtDNA sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Alekseyev, S S; Bajno, R; Gordeeva, N V; Reist, J D; Power, M; Kirillov, A F; Samusenok, V P; Matveev, A N

    2009-08-01

    Sequence variation in the mtDNA control region of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma from 56 Siberian and North American populations was analysed to assess their phylogeographic relationships and the origins of sympatric forms. Phylogenetic trees confirm the integrity of phylogroups reported in previous mtDNA studies except that the Siberian group does not separate as a single cluster. Haplotype network analysis indicates the proximity of Siberian and Atlantic haplotypes. These are considered as one Eurasian group represented by the Atlantic, east Siberian (interior Siberia including Transbaikalia, Taimyr) and Eurosiberian (Finland, Spitsbergen, Taimyr) sub-groups. Salvelinus alpinus with presumably introgressed Bering group (malma) haplotypes were found along eastern Siberian coasts up to the Olenek Bay and the Lena Delta region, where they overlap with the Eurasian group and in the easternmost interior region. It is proposed that Siberia was colonized by S. alpinus in two stages: from the west by the Eurasian group and later from the east by the Bering group. The high diversity of Eurasian group haplotypes in Siberia indicates its earlier colonization by S. alpinus as compared with the European Alps. This colonization was rapid, proceeded from a diverse gene pool, and was followed by differential survival of ancestral mtDNA lineages in different basins and regions, and local mutational events in isolated populations. The results presented here support a northern origin of Transbaikalian S. alpinus, the dispersion of S. alpinus to the Lake Baikal Basin from the Lena Basin, segregation of S. alpinus between Lena tributaries and their restricted migration over the divides between sub-basins. These results also support sympatric origin of intralacustrine forms of S. alpinus. PMID:20738544

  18. Vegetation modeling in Yakutia, northeastern Siberia: connecting to palaeovegetation simulation and model-data comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, J.; Herzschuh, U.

    2009-04-01

    Vegetation model is a useful tool to understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems in the present, past and future. Simulation of the palaeovegetation can link the geographical pattern of vegetation in the past to pollen proxy and then test the palaeoclimate modeling. In this study we used an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) and a dynamic vegetation model (LPJ) to predict the present-day vegetation pattern and their dynamic changes from 1901-2002 in Yakutia, an Arctic and sub-Arctic region in eastern Siberia, where is sensitive to climate change. Both the models characterized the basic features of regional vegetation pattern, function and their changes through time. The BIOME4 simulated a reasonable pattern of present biome distribution compared to the regional vegetation maps, the deciduous taiga-montane forests in the southern and central Yakutia, evergreen taiga-montane forests in the southwestern mountainous region and in the eastern coast, shrub tundra and dwarf shrub tundra in the northwest and northeast mixed with temperate xerophytic shrubland. In the NW Yakutia the LPJ demonstrated a dynamic change of local vegetation during the past 102 years responding to the changed climates. Forest and shrub covered the large area from the beginning to the 1950s of the 20th Century. Tundra extended from the west to the east during 1960s to 1970s. The woody plants extended in 1980s and in late 1990s to early 21st Century and grasses extended in 1990s. The performance of global vegetation models in regional study is well, but problems still existed. More plant functional types especially the shrubs and grasses and climatic constraints to them should be taken into account when improving the models. Soil water-related parameters should be redefined. The modules of permafrost, snow, and fire should be added or modified. Regional input data of climates, vegetation and soils at finer resolutions will be obtained from the regional and local studies.

  19. A Holocene molluscan succession from floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River (Lake Baikal region), Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Dustin; Preece, Richard C.; Shchetnikov, Alexander A.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Dlussky, Konstantin G.

    2008-05-01

    Floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River near Basovo in south-central Siberia have yielded the most detailed Holocene molluscan succession yet reported from the entire eastern Palaearctic. Over 72,500 shells from at least 28 species of terrestrial and 23 species of freshwater mollusc have been recovered, an abundance and diversity far higher than previously reported from the region. The molluscan assemblages are dominated by land snails, especially members of the genus Vallonia, represented by five species including Vallonia tenuilabris and two poorly known species Vallonia kamtschatica and Vallonia cf. chinensis. Other noteworthy species recovered include Gastrocopta theeli, Carychium pessimum, Vertigo extima (southernmost record), Vertigo microsphaera and the first Asian records of three other taxa ( Vertigo geyeri, Vertigo genesii and Vertigo parcedentata). Illustrations are provided for the critical species, since opinions differ about the status of various taxa and the correct names that should be used. The molluscan assemblages show clear successional trends during the early to mid-Holocene, reflecting episodes of dryness/wetness on the floodplain. Drier conditions at ca 6350 14C yr BP coincide with major changes in the archaeological record seen at other sites in the region but it remains unclear whether the two are linked. A prominent charcoal-rich horizon dated to ca 2800 14C yr BP marks a burning event in the catchment, which resulted in a two-fold increase in sediment accumulation rate. Remains of small mammals occurred throughout the sequence including a tooth of Microtus cf. maximowiczii, possibly the first occurrence of Ungar vole west of Lake Baikal. The faunal analyses have been integrated with a detailed pedological study of the sedimentary profile and a chronology was obtained by means of 12 AMS radiocarbon dates. This study provides the first detailed palaeoecological information relating to Holocene molluscan assemblages from the Cis-Baikal region and lays the foundation for future work in the eastern Palaearctic.

  20. Educational level and adult mortality in Russia: An analysis of routine data 1979 to 1994

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir M. Shkolnikov; David A. Leon; Sergey Adamets; Eugeniy Andreev; Alexander Deev

    1998-01-01

    The investigation of socio-economic differences in mortality in Russia was effectively prohibited in the Soviet period. The extent and nature of any such differences is of considerable interest given the very different principles upon which Russian society has been organised for most of this century compared to the West where socio-economic differences in health have been extensively documented. Using cross-sectional

  1. Long-Term Measurements of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols at the ZOTTO tall tower, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, J. C.; Birmili, W.; Heimann, M.; Heintzenberg, J.; Juergens, N.; Kisilyakhov, Y.; Panov, A.; Andreae, M. O.

    2009-12-01

    The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO), operated by the Max Planck Institutes for Biogeochemistry and Chemistry and the Institute of Forest (Krasnoyarsk), is located at 89.35°E, 60.80°N, 114 m asl. in Siberia, Russia. It centers on a 300-m tower designed for scientific measurements of chemical (trace gases, aerosol) and physical (meteorological) properties at a very remote, continental site. The instrumentation at the observatory comprises a CO Monitor, a Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) for determining the aerosol absorption coefficient, a nephelometer for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient, and a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (DMPS) to measure the aerosol number size distribution. We present measurements made from October 2006 until May 2008, with some interruptions due to technical reasons. An annual cycle of CO was observed with summer minima around 80 ppb and winter maxima of about 180 ppb. Amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were comparable to that reported by NOAA-ESRL for latitude 61°N. Periods of elevated CO concentrations, typically lasting for one to three days, interrupted the mean annual cycle. Backward trajectories computed with the NOAA HYSPLIT model indicated changes of air mass origin associated with the CO peaks. It was found, that for several peaks air masses have passed over the region of Novosibirsk - a heavily industrialized area. During summer, very sharp peaks of CO concentration with no change of air mass origin were observed. In this case, local wild fires are most likely the cause of the increase of CO concentrations. This general picture was confirmed by the output of the MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry) model that predicted CO concentrations in good agreement with the measured CO concentration at the ZOTTO site, resembling the typical annual cycle of CO concentrations. Furthermore, some of the peaks related to changes of the air mass origin were also predicted by the model, while the peaks presumably caused by wild fires were not found. The optical properties of the aerosol showed intense variations over the observation period. Episodes with strongly elevated absorption coefficients and particle concentrations occurred between periods of typical background readings. Using gaseous tracers, especially CO, and back-trajectories, these episodes could be traced to anthropogenic emission regions. The combination of CO concentration and aerosol properties with the determination of the air mass origin enables us to distinguish between continental background air and air masses being influenced by anthropogenic activities. Long-term variations in the continental background signal could give new insights into the feedback of ecosystems on a continental scale to changing climatic conditions.

  2. The El`gygytgyn impact crater (Siberia): a micro-chemical study of impact glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolph, L.; Deutsch, A.

    2009-04-01

    The El'gygytgyn impact crater in NE Siberia, Russia, originated 3.6 Ma ago. With a diameter of ~18 km El'gygytgyn is one of only two terrestrial craters having volcanic target lithologies, hence, this structure is of fundamental importance in comparative planetology. The El'gygytgyn structure is target of a current ICDP project for climate and impact research (Melles, 2006). Various impact rocks and glass types occur in and around the impact structure, which are virtually unaltered because of the crater's young age. Here we report first results of a micro-chemical study on glass spherules in an ejecta deposit outside the crater rim as well as on various impactites collected along the shore of Lake El'gygytgyn. The glass spherules were sampled from a terrace deposit of the Enmyvaam River at about 10 km southeast of the crater center. The major element composition was analyzed with the JEOL JXA 8600 MX Superprobe (Inst. f. Mineralogie WWU) with the following settings: 15 kV acceleration voltage, 2 nA sample current, 10 µm defoc. beam, using obsidian and synthetic glass as standards, and a moldavite sample as monitor. The size of the seven spherical, in part slightly elongated spherules range from 30 to 760 µm. They are translucent with colors ranging from amber, dark brown to nearly black. All spherules contain a few circular bubbles, schlieren, and very rarely mineral clasts and breccia fragments partial that stuck at the surface of the spherules. These particles were either attached during ballistic ejection or after landing yet before the spherules have cooled below the glass transition temperature. All spherules have a very homogeneous composition; however, they cover a wide range in SiO2 (52.3-70.7 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.2-22.7 wt.%), FeOtot (4.66-10.1 wt.%) and MgO (1.26-9.46 wt.%) contents. Using the TAS classification by IUGS, four samples are dacitic, two samples andesitic, and one basaltic-andesitic. The schlieren and clasts differ from the host glass in high-silica and much lower iron, aluminum and titanium contents. In the published data set of various glassy impact lithologies from inside the El'gygytgyn crater, most samples are rhyolitic, dacitic, or trachydacitic, while andesitic and basaltic-andesitic compositions are lacking. Basaltic-andesitic rocks, however, are known to occur in the northeastern sector of the El'gygytgyn crater, and similar rocks must have been the precursor lithologies for the more mafic glass spherules investigated here. We are curious if similar mafic impactites will be encountered during the ICDP drilling campaign in 2009.

  3. The first record of "spelaeoid" bears in Arctic Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Andrei V.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Davydov, Sergey P.; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Nikolskiy, Pavel A.

    2011-08-01

    For a long time, "spelaeoid" (cave-bear-like) bears, Ursus ( Spelearctos) spp., were believed to be almost purely European animals. Their geographic range has recently been extended to the east, in southern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Kirghizia, Mongolia and Korea. Two unexpected new findings, presented here in detail, significantly change existing views on the distribution of cave bears; both were found in North-Eastern Siberia, far beyond the Arctic Circle, more than 1500 km to the north-east of the previously accepted range. One of the fossils is a mandible, found near the town of Cherskiy at 68.73°N, 161.38°E. The analysis of local geology and accompanying mammal fossils suggests that it comes from the Olyorian Fauna (Early to early Middle Pleistocene). Morphologically, the Cherskiy mandible is closest to Ursus savini, a small middle Pleistocene cave bear from the British Cromer Forest-bed Formation, but differs in having a slightly more advanced dentition, and thus it is described as a new subspecies Ursus savini nordostensis. Another newly recognized fossil of the "spelaeoid" bear is an astragalus found at the Oskhordokh site at 67.54°N, 135.67°E, on a large gravel bar on the right bank of the Adycha River. This specimen is attributed to Ursus cf . deningeri. The paper also presents an interesting example of the interaction between classical and "molecular" palaeontology. The new finds significantly change existing ideas on the ecology and evolution of cave bears, some of the most remarkable members of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna.

  4. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.

    1995-01-01

    Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n. sp., Veteronostocale medium n. sp., Filiconstrictosus cephalon n. sp., and Partitiofilum yakschinii n. sp.

  5. Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

    2013-04-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

  6. Seed germination of Fragaria vesca L. From atypical ecotopes of West Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Baturin

    2009-01-01

    Seed formation and seed germination rate were established to be essentially higher in Fragaria vesca L. populations growing in the ecotopes which are atypical for wood strawberry than in the standard ecotopes for the species.\\u000a Having equal capabilities for cross-pollination and self-pollination, the plants exhibit higher level of xenogamy than autogamy\\u000a when growing in atypical ecotopes. Xenogamy predomination promotes the

  7. Relationships between charcoal particles in air and sediments in west-central Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James S. Clark; Jason Lynch; Brian J. Stocks; Johann G. Goldammer

    1998-01-01

    Production and size of charred particles determine transport and deposition in lakes. Lack of such data is a principal obstacle to interpretation of past fire from charcoal profiles. Our two-part analysis includes a calibration study, to assess charred-particle production and transport during fire, and a study of charred particles in sediment. The calibration step establishes the magnitude and size distribution

  8. Interception by sphagnum in a bog mire catchment of central West-Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Bleuten; I. Filippov

    2009-01-01

    The hydrology of mires (pristine peatland ecosystems) hardly has been analyzed quantitatively. The general idea, that mires can retain precipitation water (`sponge effect') has never been proved by real field data. Missing data for evaluation of these properties are actual evapotranspiration, water conductivity and interception of rainwater by peatland mosses and peat layers below. The newly opened Mukhrino Field Station,

  9. [Karyological studies of two populations of Juniperus communis L. in west Siberia].

    PubMed

    Mikheeva, N A; Muratova, E N

    2005-01-01

    Results of a karyological study of Juniperus communis L. populations under swamp and dry conditions are presented. The chromosome number of J. communis are 2n = 22. Analysis of morphological chromosome parameters showed a similarity between karyotypes of both populations. It is possible to identify one pair of asymmetric chromosomes (VIII pair); this chromosome pair is close to submetacentric type. Three pairs of chromosomes (I, VII, VIII) have secondary constrictions. Other metacentric chromosomes form groups of five long (II--VI) and three short (IX-XI) pairs. Differences between two populations in absolute chromosomal length are observed. PMID:16706220

  10. Space radiobiology program in Russia.

    PubMed

    Antipov, V V; Petrov, V M; Shafirkin, A V; Gorlov, V V; Fedorenko, B S; Chertkov, K S

    1994-10-01

    The space radiobiology program in Russia is aimed at obtaining fundamental data for developing radiation safety criteria. These criteria are necessary for long-term space missions. This program includes : -substantiation of radiation hazard estimation principles based on the radiation risk conception, -investigation of the radiation affection regularities under the combined influence of the spaceflight factors, -experimental investigation of the HZE-particle delayed effects and acute somatic effects induced by protons and electrons, -individual radiosensitivity investigation, -mathematic modeling of radiobiological effects , -radiobiological basis of control and forecast of radiation influence in space, -development of methods and means of an organism's radioresistance increase. PMID:11539945

  11. Aerospace Medical Support in Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

  12. North Korean nuclear crisis and Russia's role

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung-Soo Lee

    2005-01-01

    North Korean government officially admitted to having at least one nuclear bomb at this year. This dramatic change suggested that North Korean government have changed nuclear policy and strategy. Russia will get more economic benefits with South Korea than with North Korea. Russia will maintain friendly relations with North Korea in the future only up to a level that does

  13. The changing nature of murder in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valeriy V. Chervyakov; Vladimir M. Shkolnikov; William Alex Pridemore; Martin McKee

    2002-01-01

    The death rate from homicide in Russia increased rapidly during the 1990s. It is now about 20 times higher than in western Europe and is among the highest recorded anywhere in the world. However, this issue has received little attention so far from public health researchers or policymakers.This paper describes the changing nature of homicide during the 1990s in Russia

  14. The Future of China-Russia Relations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Bellacqua

    2009-01-01

    Relations between China and Russia have evolved dramatically since their first diplomatic contact, particularly during the twentieth century. During the past decade China and Russia have made efforts to strengthen bilateral ties and improve cooperation on a number of diplomatic fronts. The People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation maintain exceptionally close and friendly relations, strong geopolitical and regional

  15. The carbon balance of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolman, Han; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Recapp Russia Synthesis Team

    2013-04-01

    We determine the net land to atmosphere flux of carbon in Russia, including Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan using inventory based, eddy covariance, and inversion methods. Our high boundary estimate is -342 Tg C yr-1 from the eddy covariance method, and this is close to the upper bounds of the inventory based Land Ecosystem Assessment and inverse models estimate. A lower boundary estimate is provided at -1350 Tg C yr-1 from from the inversion models. The average of the three methods is -613.5 Tg C yr-1. The methane emission is estimated separately at 41.4 TgC yr-1. These three methods agree well within their respective error bounds. There is thus good consistency between bottom up and top down methods. The forests of Russia primarily cause the net atmosphere to land flux ( -692 Tg C yr-1 from the LEA) with remarkable little interannual variability. It remains however remarkable that the three methods provide such close estimates (-615, -662, -554 TgCyr-1) for NBP, given the inherent uncertainties in all of the approaches. The lack of recent forest inventories, the few eddy covariance sites and associated uncertainty with upscaling and under sampling of concentrations for the inversions are among the prime causes of the uncertainty. The DGVMs suggest a much lower uptake at -91Tg C yr-1 and we argue that this is caused by a high estimate of heterotrophic respiration compared to other methods.

  16. A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum

    PubMed Central

    Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Crockford, Susan J.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Background Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris) come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000–9000 calendar years ago, cal BP), with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500–19,000 cal BP). The dearth of pre-LGM dog-like canids and incomplete state of their preservation has until now prevented an understanding of the morphological features of transitional forms between wild wolves and domesticated dogs in temporal perspective. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe the well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai Mountains of southern Siberia). Because of the extraordinary preservation of the material, including skull, mandibles (both sides) and teeth, it was possible to conduct a complete morphological description and comparison with representative examples of pre-LGM wild wolves, modern wolves, prehistoric domesticated dogs, and early dog-like canids, using morphological criteria to distinguish between wolves and dogs. It was found that the Razboinichya Cave individual is most similar to fully domesticated dogs from Greenland (about 1000 years old), and unlike ancient and modern wolves, and putative dogs from Eliseevichi I site in central Russia. Direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the skull and mandible of the Razboinichya canid conducted in three independent laboratories resulted in highly compatible ages, with average value of ca. 33,000 cal BP. Conclusions/Significance The Razboinichya Cave specimen appears to be an incipient dog that did not give rise to late Glacial – early Holocene lineages and probably represents wolf domestication disrupted by the climatic and cultural changes associated with the LGM. The two earliest incipient dogs from Western Europe (Goyet, Belguim) and Siberia (Razboinichya), separated by thousands of kilometers, show that dog domestication was multiregional, and thus had no single place of origin (as some DNA data have suggested) and subsequent spread. PMID:21829526

  17. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  18. Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations

    SciTech Connect

    Cornwell, G.C.

    1998-12-01

    Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

  19. A multitracer study of peat profiles from Tunguska, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tositti, L.; Mingozzi, M.; Sandrini, S.; Forlani, L.; Buoso, M. C.; De Poli, M.; Ceccato, D.; Zafiropoulos, D.

    2006-10-01

    Two peat columns from Tunguska (Siberia) were analysed for pollen, spores, charcoal, trace elements and ?-emitters in order to identify the fingerprints of the impact of a still unidentified cosmic body (TCB), which occurred in the summer of 1908, and the level of environmental pollution in a background area of central Siberia. Peat layers were subject to non-destructive ?-ray spectrometry to derive radiochronology by the excess210Pb method. The age-to-depth relationship was crosschecked by using both 1963 horizon of 137Cs associated to maximum global fallout deposition and palynological data profiles. Vertical distributions of trace elements in the peat columns were obtained by PIXE multielemental analysis allowing determination of the levels of environmental contamination in a background region of the Siberian taiga. The association of heavy metals such as Ni, Co and Cu in the profiles suggests the connection of the area with mining and metal smelting activity in the north of the region through atmospheric circulation. As concerns global scale contamination, the inventory of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs (4.6 kBq m - 2 ) shows a value typical of remote slightly contaminated areas resulting from global scale redistribution of radioactive fallout from Cold War nuclear weapon testing. The atmospheric inventory of the natural radionuclide 210Pb, for which a mean annual flux of 200 Bq m - 2 yr - 1 has been calculated, is typical of continental regions. The influence of Tunguska Cosmic Body in the peat is recognizable by a large discontinuity in the palynological profile of the peat monolith at a depth coinciding with the 1908 layer as determined by the 210Pb technique, showing a large peak of total pollen counting attributed to the impact of the shockwave on the area in which huge tree stands were destroyed. Following the event, tree pollen concentration decreases abruptly showing the temporary inception of a mire environment with an increase of Sphagnum spore concentrations. Results of elemental analysis so far available do not show anomalies in the concentration profiles at depths coinciding with the Tunguska event layer indicating the need for pre-concentration technique enabling the detection of element associations typical of extraterrestrial materials.

  20. Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem sustainability could be decreased by better slash removal in the Angara region, removal of trees killed by fire in the Zabaikal region, and tree planting after fires in drier conditions where natural regeneration is hampered by soil overheating and grass proliferation.

  1. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. PMID:23459685

  2. Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. PMID:23459685

  3. A Continuous 3.6 Mio Year Record of Terrestrial Climatic Change in NE Siberia? Seismic Investigation of Impact Crater Lake El'gygytgyn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, F.; Gebhardt, C.; Kopsch, C.; Wagner, B.

    2004-12-01

    Long (>100ka) records of climatic change from terrestrial environments in Siberia are rare but essential to improve our understanding of the Arctic's role in global climate dynamics. North-east Siberia provides a key area to study climatic teleconnections between the North Pacific oceanic system, climatic pattern over NE Russia, the Arctic Ocean and other climate forcing areas such as the North Atlantic and the Tropics. Lake El'gygytgyn, located in central Chukotka, NE Russia, was formed 3.6 million years ago by a meteorite impact and apparently escaped continental scale glaciations during the entire Quaternary. If so a full-length sediment core would yield a complete record of Arctic climate evolution, back one million years prior to the first major glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere. A 13.0 m long sediment core retrieved from the lake in 1998 revealed a basal age of approx. 250 ka, confirmed the lack of glacial erosion, and underlined the sensitivity of this lacustrine environment to reflect high resolution climatic change on Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch time scales. Seismic investigation carried out during two expedtions in 2000 and 2003 revealed a depth-velocity model of brecciated bedrock overlain by a suevite layer overlain by two lacustrine sedimentary units up to 350 m in thickness. The upper well-stratified sediment unit appears undisturbed apart from intercalation with debris flows near the slopes. Based on extrapolation of sedimentation rates the entire Quaternary and possibly parts of the late Tertiary record are within the 170m thick unit one and the earliest history of the lake is in unit two. There is no evidence of glacial erosion in the sedimentary record. High-resolution 3.5 kHz profiles indicate sharp termination lobes of non-erosive debris flows in distal areas. Near the centre of the lake the 250ka sediment-core record exhibit a few thin distal turbidites possibly generated by debris flows. The character of the sediment fill suggests a high potential of the record for paleoclimate studies and deep drilling would offers opportunities of impact studies of the brecciated bedrock. Our study is part of international and multi-disciplinary site-survey investigation of Lake El'gygytgyn. The lake has been recognised as potential deep drilling location by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP).

  4. Russia's Geopolitical Orientation Towards the Former Soviet States

    E-print Network

    Blandford, Ann

    Russia's Geopolitical Orientation Towards the Former Soviet States Was Russia Able to Discard its Imperial Legacy? An examination into the nature of Russia's economic,military anddiplomatic policies towards the former Soviet statesduring Boris Yeltsin's first term as Presidentof an independentRussia

  5. Towards a more coherent oil policy in Russia? S. Boussena,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Towards a more coherent oil policy in Russia? S. Boussena, Professor, University of Grenoble II of Russia on the world oil scene. The first is the development of its oil production (over 9 Mb/d in 2004. Will Russia be a key variable in world energy balances? Could Russia ­ as some suggest and even desire

  6. March 2, 2011 Maxim Trudolyubov Foresees Change in Russia

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    March 2, 2011 Maxim Trudolyubov Foresees Change in Russia "The Russian state is an archaic, almost expressed optimism about Russia's future. He predicted that the efforts of what he called "the third, positive reform to Russia's failing institutions. "Russia desperately needs change," asserted Trudolyubov

  7. Coupled Hydroclimatic and Lake Change Patterns in Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mård Karlsson, J.; Lyon, S. W.; Destouni, G.

    2014-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes are dependent on permafrost. Thermokarst lakes and wetlands dominate the peat-forming lowlands of the Nadym and Pur river basins in Western Siberia. Recent warming and potential permafrost thaw has initiated fluctuations in the number and total area of lakes in these basins. We use remote sensing (Landsat images) to distinguish spatially explicit changes. Further, through coupled analysis of hydrological data, we also identify characteristic patterns of lake-area and hydroclimatic change and assess the role of permafrost in such patterns. Our results reveal spatially heterogeneous lake-change patterns with drained lakes appearing alongside stable lakes. Such heterogeneity likely indicates permafrost thaw as a main driver of change rather than shifts in precipitation and evapotranspiration, which would yield more homogenous change patterns. The total area and number of lakes fluctuated over time with both appearing and disappearing lakes and a high number of drainage events. However, the size distribution of lakes remained essentially constant over the investigated time periods. The role of permafrost degradation on thermokarst lakes appears to be localized and thereby not detectable in basin-averaged properties of the entire Nadym and Pur basins. Regardless, specific sub-basins can exhibit long-term sustained lake change with coupled hydroclimatic changes. These locations are vital as they offer clear windows to consider the possible manifestations of global climate change and its influence on biogeochemical cycles and carbon effluxes.

  8. Modeling CH4 emission from a Siberia tundra site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Y.; van Huissteden, J.

    2012-12-01

    Methane emission from peat soil links strongly to atmosphere methane concentration. Peatland-VU was developed as a process-based model, to simulate CH4 fluxes from peat soils. The model combined primary production, aerobic decomposition of soil organic matter, CH4 formation, oxidation, and transport. The new version model has been enhanced by including 1) a hydrological module to calculate water table, which plays a key role during the processes of methane production, for it determines the extents of anaerobic and aerobic soil zone, 2) a photosynthesis model to simulate net primary production. The soil freezing is also improved with a better calculation of the soil thermal conductivity. We test Peatland-VU on Kytalyk tundra site, an area situated in northeastern Siberia continuous permafrost zone, over a longer period of time (data series of 2003-2010). The results show that the magnitude of the simulated CH4 fluxes agree well with the measured fluxes, the seasonal patterns of the fluxes are correctly modeled as well as the discrepancy between wet and dry sites.

  9. The oldest mid-oceanic carbonate buildup complex: Setting and lithofacies of the Vendian (Late Neoproterozoic) Baratal limestone in the Gorny Altai Mountains, Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuko UCHIO; Yukio ISOZAKI; Tsutomu OTA; Atsushi UTSUNOMIYA; Mikhail M. BUSLOV; Shigenori MARUYAMA

    2004-01-01

    The Baratal limestone in the Gorny Altai Mountains, southern Siberia, occurs as large allochthonous blocks within a Cambrian accretionary complex that developed around the Siberia craton. Before the final accretion to Siberia in the Cambrian, the terrigenous clastic-free Baratal limestone was deposited directly upon a basaltic basement with a geochemical signature identical to that of modern oceanic plateau. The Baratal

  10. Biometrics of adult Grey Plovers Pluvialis squatarola breeding in the Lena Delta, NE?Siberia (the Sakha republic, Yakutia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Stepanova

    2001-01-01

    The Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola is a circumpolar breeding wader with slight clinal but discontinuous morphometric variations in the Palearctic. Birds breeding in eastern Siberia seem to be larger than birds breeding in western Siberia as well as those breeding in northern Canada and Alaska. Biometric data on 15 Grey Plovers trapped in the Lena Delta 1997 are supplied. In

  11. The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the East-Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) during the last decade (1999-2009): an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, Valentin; Shakhova, Natalia; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Orjan; Anderson, Leif; Semiletov, Igor

    2010-05-01

    The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on he ESAS which is poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2009). Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. We suggest that rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed.. It has been found that 1) carbon dioxide and methane fluxes are significant (and non-counted) components of the carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean; 2) transport of eroded terrestrial material plays a major role in the accumulation of carbon in the ESAS (Dudarev et al., Gustafsson et al., Vonk et al., Sanchez-Garcia et al., Charkin et al., Semiletov et al., this session) ; 3) the seabed is a major CH4 source over the ESAS (N.Shakhova et al., this session); 3) eroded carbon is biodegradable (all reports, this session); 4) oxidation of eroded carbon onshore and offshore is a strong source of carbon dioxide (Piko et al. and Semiletov et al., this session). Thus studying carbon cycling in the East Siberian Arctic marginal seas has a high scientific priority in order to establish the carbon budget and evaluate the role of the Arctic region in global carbon cycling, especially in the coastal zone where the redistribution of carbon between terrestrial and marine environments occurs and the characteristics of carbon exchange with atmosphere are unknown. Initial scientific plan for the next decade is discussed. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (since 1994), International (Soros) Scientific Foundation, ISF (1994-1995), Russian Government and ISF (1995), McArthur Foundation (2000-2001), FEBRAS/RAS (since 2003), IARC (since 2001), NSF (since 2003), NOAA (since 2005), SU (since 2007), and Wallenberg Foundation (since 2008).

  12. Perspectives for logistics clusters development in Russia

    E-print Network

    Tantsuyev, Andriy

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is a normative work aimed at identifying locations in Russia with high, medium and unclear potentials for logistics cluster development. As a framework this work uses four different models of logistics clusters: ...

  13. Russia vows to end oil export tax

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that Russia will eliminate its oil export tax by 1994 and until then will allow some exemptions, Russian officials have assured a group of US tax specialists. They stopped short of saying it would be repealed by the end of the year, the Ken Crawford, a member of a Tax Foundation delegation visiting Russia and managing partner of KPMG Peat Marwick's Moscow office. The export tax was one of several tax related Russian economic issues on which the US experts and Russian officials exchanged views early this month. The 15 member delegation was in Moscow on invitation from Russia's Ministry of Finance and State Committee on Taxation to help develop guidelines for laws governing Russia's taxation of foreign investment. The US group was sponsored by the Tax Foundation, Washington, DC, a nonprofit, nonpartisan tax and fiscal policy research and public education group.

  14. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  15. New Holocene refugia of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia: updated extinction patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plicht, J.; Molodin, V. I.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Vasiliev, S. K.; Postnov, A. V.; Slavinsky, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    We obtained new data on the existence of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia during the Holocene. Bones and antler of giant deer from new localities in western (Baraba forest steppe) and eastern (Angara River basin) Siberia are dated by radiocarbon, ranging 7900-10,300 BP (ca 8800-12,200 cal BP). Based on these data, we can extend the 'Siberian' Early Holocene habitat of giant deer at least 2400 km to the east compared to previous works. The final extinction of giant deer turned out to be more complex than it was previously thought, with perhaps relatively large refugium in Western Siberia at 7900-7000 BP (ca 8800-7900 cal BP) which was reduced to the Trans-Urals region at 7000-6800 BP (ca 7900-7600 cal BP).

  16. Russia and the Information Revolution

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2005-01-01

    With a great deal of general talk and commentary about the role of the so-called "information revolution", it is at times difficult to tell exactly what these developments may mean for different regions of the world. This report from the RAND Corporation looks at how Russia is utilizing various forms of information and communication technologies to modernize business and industry, stimulate economic growth, and enhance the quality of life for Russian peoples. With significant funding from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the report (authored by D. J. Peterson) is based on six years of research in this area, and contains chapters on the role of information technology in Russian society, government, and concludes with a brief summary of key findings. Data in the report also receives nice visual representation through a host of charts, tables, and figures. Overall, this is a very interesting document that will be of particular interest to those working in the fields of international public policy and technology development.

  17. Continuous measurements of aerosol particles in Arctic Russia and Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmi, Eija; Kondratyev, Vladimir; Brus, David; Lihavainen, Heikki; Laurila, Tuomas; Aurela, Mika; Hatakka, Juha; Viisanen, Yrjö; Reshetnikov, Alexander; Ivakhov, Victor; Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    The Arctic and northern boreal regions of Eurasia are experiencing rapid environmental changes due to pressures by human activities. The largest anthropogenic climate forcings are due to aerosol particles and greenhouse gases (GHGs). The Arctic environment is highly sensitive to changes in aerosol concentrations or composition, largely due to the high surface reflectance for the most part of the year. Concentrations of aerosols in winter and spring Arctic are affected by 'Arctic Haze', a phenomenon suggested to arise from the transport of pollutants from lower latitudes and further strengthened by the strong stratification of the Arctic wintertime atmosphere. Sources and transport patterns of aerosols into the Arctic are, however, not fully understood. In order to monitor the changes within the Arctic region, as well as to understand the sources and feedback mechanisms, direct measurements of aerosols within the Arctic are needed. So far, direct year-round observations have been inadequate especially within the Russian side of the Arctic. This is the reason why a new climate observatory was founded in Tiksi, Russia. Tiksi meteorological observatory in northern Siberia (71o 36' N; 128o 53' E) on the shore of the Laptev Sea has been operating since 1930s. Recently, it was upgraded and joint in the network of the IASOA, in the framework of the International Polar Year Activity project. The project is run in collaboration between National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) with the support of the National Science Foundation (NSF), Roshydromet (AARI and MGO units), government of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) and the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The research activities of FMI in Tiksi include e.g. continuous long-term measurements of aerosol physical properties, which have been successfully continued since summer 2010. These, together with the FMI measurements in Pallas station in northern Finland since 1999, provide important information on the year-round Arctic aerosol concentrations and properties. Here, we will present the annual cycle of Arctic aerosol concentrations, which is characterized by winter minimum and spring and summer maxima. We will show the most important Arctic aerosol source regions and their variability with seasons. Also, we will look the processes such as new particle formation, which takes frequently place at both the two stations and in particular in spring season.

  18. Short communication: Molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1, a recently originated HIV-1 circulating recombinant form spreading in Siberia.

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, Nadezhda S; Shalamova, Lyudmila A; Delgado, Elena; Fernández-García, Aurora; Vega, Yolanda; Karpenko, Larissa I; Ilyichev, Alexander A; Sokolov, Yuri V; Shcherbakov, Dmitry N; Pérez-Álvarez, Lucía; Thomson, Michael M

    2014-09-01

    The HIV-1 epidemic in Russia is dominated by the former Soviet Union subtype A (A(FSU)) variant, but other genetic forms are circulating in the country. One is the recently described CRF63_02A1, derived from recombination between a CRF02_AG variant circulating in Central Asia and A(FSU), which has spread in the Novosibirsk region, Siberia. Here we phylogenetically analyze pol and env segments from 24 HIV-1 samples from the Novosibirsk region collected in 2013, with characterization of three new near full-length genome CRF63_02A1 sequences, and estimate the time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) and the demographic growth of CRF63_02A1 using a Bayesian method. The analyses revealed that CRF63_02A1 is highly predominant in the Novosibirsk region (81.2% in pol sequences) and is transmitted both among injecting drug users and by heterosexual contact. Similarity searches with database sequences combined with phylogenetic analyses show that CRF63_02A1 is circulating in East Kazakhstan and the Eastern area of Russia bordering China. The analyses of near full-length genome sequences show that its mosaic structure is more complex than reported, with 18 breakpoints. The tMRCA of CRF63_02A1 was estimated around 2006, with exponential growth in 2008-2009 and subsequent stabilization. These results provide new insights into the molecular epidemiology, phylogeny, and phylodynamics of CRF63_02A1. PMID:25050828

  19. 69 FR 58957 - Solid Urea From Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2004-10-01

    ...Urea From Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...urea from Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...urea from Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan,...

  20. Thermokarst Lake Carbon Storage and Transport near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Griffin, C. G.; Zimov, N.

    2013-12-01

    Thermokarst lakes are prevalent features across the pan-Arctic landscape. As the Arctic climate warms further, thermokarst lakes currently situated in continuous permafrost will likely increase in size and number. Shifting lake distributions may have significant impacts on the land-atmosphere exchange of carbon, as these lakes act as reservoirs and conduits that store and transport carbon and other organic material across the landscape. Using field data collected in the Kolyma River basin in the continuous permafrost region near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia, we investigate the carbon dynamics of four thermokarst lakes in the Y4 watershed, a small, upland drainage area. Through bathymetric mapping of these four lakes, total lake volume was calculated. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen were collected across horizontal transects and subsequently integrated with these total volume measurements to determine physical characteristics of the lakes. Additionally, water samples were collected at various stations and depths for analyses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). With these physical and biogeochemical measurements in concert, we investigated the ability for these lakes to store and transport carbon through the Y4 watershed. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of CDOM concentrations in these lakes provides an understanding of the lability and molecular weight of the organic matter as well as potential light transmittance through the water column. This watershed area provides a representative example of the potential for thermokarst lakes in yedoma regions to process and move carbon across the landscape and ultimately to larger systems such as the Kolyma River basin. This baseline characterization of regional lakes will lead to a better understanding of how further warming and permafrost instability may impact the carbon dynamics of thermokarst lakes and ultimately how they function in the broader biogeochemical and hydrological systems throughout the region.

  1. Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Bárta, Ji?í; Capek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Santr??ková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A; Richter, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH4 (+) using an array of (15)N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling. PMID:24302785

  2. Persistent organochlorines in air and water from East Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Iwata, H.; Tanabe, S.; Ouchi, E.; Tatsukawa, R. [Ehime Univ. (Japan); Timonin, A.

    1995-12-31

    In order to assess the east Siberia for persistent organochlorine (POC) contaminations such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs, the residue levels in air and water collected from Chaun, Magadan, Khabarovsk and Listvyanka during 1992--1993 have been determined. The levels of atmospheric PCBs and DDTs concentrations in Magadan and Khabarovsk were one to two orders of magnitude higher than the global baseline levels, while the prominent contaminations in water were found in Listvyanka which is in the southwest coast of Lake Baikal. The results suggest that these areas are exposed by different local sources. Chaun, located in the coast of Chaunskaya Guba (Gulf) facing the East Siberian Sea, exhibited the lowest POCs residues. Apart from the concentrations, aerial PCB congener compositions varied with the total concentration levels. Khabarovsk air, where the highest PCB levels (2,860 pg/M{sup 3}) were found, contained mainly tetra and pentachlorobiphenyls. In contrast, samples from Chaun (36--160 pg/M{sup 3}) showed the higher predominance of di and trichlorinated congeners and Magadan air (320--880 pg/M{sup 3}) was a mixed type for both the air. Regarding DDTs composition, high percentages of p,p{prime}-DDT to total DDT compounds in the air from Magadan and Khabarovsk indicate the recent usage. Annual concentrations of aerial POCs in Listvyanka were strongly dependent on air temperature. Hence, heats of vaporization (desorption) for POCs were calculated from the relationships between logarithmic concentrations (partial pressure) and inverse temperatures. The values ranged from 26 kJ/mol to 43 kJ/mol in order of HCB < {alpha}-HCH < {gamma}-HCH < p,p{prime}DDE < total PCBs < p,p{prime}DDT. In addition, highly chlorinated PCBs tended to show higher values than the less chlorinated PCBs. The heats of vaporization estimated from the field survey were lower than those from the laboratory experiments previously reported.

  3. Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland?

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Bárta, Ji?í; ?apek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Šantr??ková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A.; Richter, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH4+ using an array of 15N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling. PMID:24302785

  4. An ordinary chondrite impactor for the Popigai crater, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagle, Roald; Claeys, Philippe

    2005-06-01

    With a diameter of ˜100 km, Popigai in Northern Siberia is the largest crater known in the Cenozoic. The concentrations in platinum group elements (PGE) were analyzed in twenty samples of homogeneous impact melt collected in the northwestern flank of the crater to identify the composition of the projectile. The method selected was preconcentration by NiS fire assay followed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique measures all the PGE (except Os) and by using aliquots >10g, the results are highly reproducible. The major and trace element composition of the impact melt resembles that of gneissic lithologies of the Anabar shield, which are representative of the target rock. The PGE are enriched in the melt by factors of 3 to 14 compared to the main target lithology, but the meteoritic contamination is only around 0.2 wt.%. Using plots of elemental ratios such as Ru/Rh vs. Pt/Pd or Ru/Rh vs. Pd/Ir, the Popigai impactor is clearly identified as an ordinary chondrite and most likely L-chondrite. This study indicates that PGE elemental ratios allow discrimination of the type of impactor, even in the case of low meteoritic contamination. This study confirms that a significant fraction of the crater-forming projectiles presently documented could have an ordinary chondrite composition. Their probable source, the S-type asteroids, appears to form the majority of the bodies in the main asteroid belt and among Near Earth Objects (NEOs). The ordinary chondrite origin of the Popigai projectile supports an asteroidal origin for the late Eocene impacts as a plausible alternative to the comet shower scenario proposed by Farley et al. (1998).

  5. Science and technology forecasts and problems of Russia’s energy development up to 2030

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Makarov

    2009-01-01

    Russia’s Energy Strategy up to 2030 is based on the analysis of trends and forecasts of anthropogenic energy development and the global fuel market situation (for details, see Vest. Ross. Akad. Nauk, No. 4 (2008)). The strategy has formulated the global trends of technological progress in the energy sector, their dependence on achievements in other knowledge spheres, and how science

  6. The role of oil prices and the real exchange rate in Russia‘s economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jouko Rautava

    2002-01-01

    Most people seem to think that Russia’s economy and fiscal situation are still crucially tied up with international oil prices and the exchange rate of the rouble, although this view has recently been challenged by some analysts. Empirical research on this topic is, however, scanty. In this paper, the impact of international oil prices and the real exchange rate on

  7. Why Russia is not a state

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, J.E.

    1993-08-16

    This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

  8. Aircraft measurements of the concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO and the carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios of CO2 in the troposphere over Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Sugawara, Satoshi; Inoue, Gen; Machida, Toshinobu; Makshyutov, Shamil; Mukai, Hitoshi

    1997-02-01

    About 370 air samples were collected using aircraft in the troposphere over Russia in the summers of 1992, 1993, and 1994. These were then analyzed for the CO2, CH4, N2O and CO concentrations, as well as for ?13C and ?18O of CO2. Measured vertical profiles of tropospheric CO2 showed that the concentration increased with height over all locations. In the lower troposphere over the wetland and taiga regions, extremely low CO2 concentrations of 335-345 parts per million by volume (ppmv) were often observed. Measured values of ?13C and the CO2 concentration were negatively correlated with each other, the rate of change in ?13C with respect to the CO2 concentration being about -0.05‰/ppmv. This implies that the variations in the CO2 concentration observed over Russia in the summer are primarily caused by terrestrial biospheric activities. In the middle and upper troposphere, the CO2 concentration and ?13C showed systematic differences between each other in 1992, 1993, and 1994, probably due to their secular changes. The ?18O and CO2 observed in the lowest part of the troposphere over east and west Siberia were also negatively correlated with each other, with the rate of change in ?18O with respect to CO2 estimated to be about -0.1 l‰/ppmv. This relation may be caused by isotopic equilibrium of oxygen in CO2 with soil water through respiration of living plants and decomposition of organic matter and with chloroplast water in leaves through photosynthesis of living plants. In contrast to CO2, the CH4 concentration decreased with height. Extremely high CH4 concentrations were observed over the west Siberian lowland, owing to a large amount of CH4 emitted from wetlands. The N2O concentrations were fairly constant through the troposphere over all locations covered by this study, with an average value of about 311 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The CO concentrations also showed vertical profiles, with a small gradient over natural wetlands, taiga, and tundra. High values of the CH4, CO, and CO2 concentrations were observed over Moscow, owing to emissions of the respective gases by human activities in an urban area. It was also found that over natural wetlands and tundra the CO2 and CH4 concentrations were negatively correlated with each other, reflecting a strong biospheric CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions from wetlands. The relationship between the CH4 and CO concentrations was strongly positive over areas with their anthropogenic and natural sources; the relationship was only slightly positive over wetlands, possibly due to CO emissions from wetlands and/or photochemically produced CO.

  9. Ride West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    Kinder-artists at Oakhurst Elementary love rodeo time, which is an annual event in Fort Worth, Texas. The spirit of the Old West pervades as children don jeans, hats, boots, and bandannas to be a cowboy or cowgirl for the day. Furthermore, Fort Worth is a city that celebrates not only its history as "Cowtown" but also the fine arts! An amazing…

  10. On Eulimnogammarus messerschmidtii, sp. n. (Amphipoda: Gammaridea) from Lake Baikal, Siberia, with redescription of E. cyanoides (Sowinsky) and remarks on taxonomy of the genus Eulimnogammarus.

    PubMed

    Bedulina, Daria S; Takhteev, Vadim V; Pogrebnyak, Svyatoslav G; Govorukhina, Ekaterina B; Madyarova, Ekaterina V; Lubyaga, Yulia A; Vereshchagina, Kseniya P; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Luckenbach, Till

    2014-01-01

    A new amphipod species of the endemic fauna of Lake Baikal (East Siberia, Russia), Eulimnogammarus messerschmidtii sp. n., from the littoral zone of the northern part of the lake is described. The species is characterized by the presence of a group of spines with dense setae on the last 4 body segments. The basal peduncular segment of antenna 1 bears bunches of dense setae without spines, uropods 3 are covered by dense simple setae without plumose setae and the outer ramus has a second small article. The body length of sampled specimens ranges from 7.5 to 18 mm. Population analysis at one of the sampling points revealed a spring-summer reproduction period for this species. This species was previously erroneously identified as E. cyanoides. E. cyanoides is here redescribed in details based on the lectotype. The differences between E. messerschmidtii sp. n., E. cyanoides and other closely related Eulimnogammarus species are described. The taxonomy of the genus Eulimnogammarus is discussed. PMID:25081795

  11. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Flooding of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Environmental regulation of xylem sap flow and total conductance of Larix gmelinii trees in eastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Arneth, A.; Kelliher, F. M.; Bauer, G.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Byers, J. N.; Hunt, J. E.; McSeveny, T. M.; Ziegler, W.; Vygodskaya, N. N.; Milukova, I.; Sogachov, A.; Varlagin, A.; Schulze, E.-D.

    1996-01-01

    Xylem sap flow and environmental variables were measured on seven consecutive midsummer days in a 130-year-old Larix gmelinii (Rupr.) Rupr. forest located 160 km south of Yakutsk in eastern Siberia, Russia (61 degrees N, 128 degrees E, 300 m asl). The site received 20 mm of rainfall during the 4 days before measurements, and soil samples indicated that the trees were well watered. The tree canopy was sparse with a one-sided leaf area index of 1.5 and a tree density of 1760 ha(-1). On a clear day when air temperature ranged from 9 to 29 degrees C, and maximum air saturation deficit was 3.4 kPa, daily xylem sap flux (F) among 13 trees varied by an order of magnitude from 7 l day(-1) for subcanopy trees (representing 55% of trees in the forest) to 67 l day(-1) for emergent trees (representing 18% of trees in the forest). However, when based on xylem sap flux density (F'), calculated by dividing F by projected tree crown area (a surrogate for the occupied ground area), there was only a fourfold range in variability among the 13 trees, from 1.0 to 4.4 mm day(-1). The calculation of F' also eliminated systematic and large differences in F among emergent, canopy and subcanopy trees. Stand-level F', estimated by combining half-hourly linear relationships between F and stem cross-sectional area with tree size distribution data, ranged between 1.8 +/- 0.4 (standard deviation) and 2.3 +/- 0.6 mm day(-1). These stand-level F' values are about 0.6-0.7 mm day(-1) (30%) larger than daily tree canopy transpiration rates calculated from forest energy balance and understory evaporation measurements. Maximum total tree conductance for water vapor transfer (G(tmax), including canopy and aerodynamic conductances), calculated from the ratio of F' and the above-canopy air saturation deficit (D) for the eight trees with continuous data sets, was 9.9 +/- 2.8 mm s(-1). This is equivalent to a leaf-scale maximum stomatal conductance (g(smax)) of 6.1 mm s(-1), when expressed on a one-sided leaf area basis, which is comparable to the published porometer data for Larix. Diurnal variation in total tree conductance (G(t)) was related to changes in the above-canopy visible irradiance (Q) and D. A saturating upper-boundary function for the relationship between G(t) and Q was defined as G(t) = G(tmax)(Q/[Q + Q(50)]), where Q(50) = 164 +/- 85 micro mol m(-2) s(-1) when G(t) = G(tmax)/2. Accounting for Q by excluding data for Q < Q(85) when G(t) was at least 85% of G(tmax), the upper limit for the relationship between G(t) and D was determined based on the function G(t) = (a + blnD)(2), where a and b are regression coefficients. The relationship between G(t) and D was curvilinear, indicating that there was a proportional decrease in G(t) with increasing D such that F was relatively constant throughout much of the day, even when D ranged between about 2 and 4 kPa, which may be interpreted as an adaption of the species to its continental climate. However, at given values of Q and D, G(t) was generally higher in the morning than in the afternoon. The additional environmental constraints on G(t) imposed by leaf nitrogen nutrition and afternoon water stress are discussed. PMID:14871769

  14. Integrated Paleomagnetism and U-Pb Geochronology of Mafic Dikes of the Eastern Anabar Shield Region, Siberia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic Paleolatitude of Siberia and Comparison with Laurentia.

    PubMed

    Ernst; Buchan; Hamilton; Okrugin; Tomshin

    2000-07-01

    This article reports the first joint paleomagnetic and U-Pb geochronologic study of Precambrian diabase dikes in the Anabar Shield and adjacent Riphean cover of Siberia. It was undertaken to allow comparison with similar published studies in Laurentia and to test Proterozoic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia. An east-trending Kuonamka dike yielded a provisional U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1503+/-5 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 16 degrees S, 221 degrees E (dm=17&j0;, dp=10&j0;). A paleomagnetic pole at 6 degrees N, 234 degrees E (dm=28&j0;, dp=14&j0;) was obtained from five Kuonamka dikes. An east-southeast-trending Chieress dike yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1384+/-2 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 4 degrees N, 258 degrees E (dm=9&j0;, dp=5&j0;). Kuonamka and Chieress poles are interpreted to be primary but do not average out secular variation. Assuming that the Siberian Plate has remained intact since the Mesoproterozoic, except for mid-Paleozoic opening of the Viljuy Rift, then the above results indicate that the Siberian Plate was in low latitudes at ca. 1503 and 1384 Ma, broadly similar to low latitudes determined for Laurentia from well-dated paleopoles at 1460-1420, 1320-1290, and 1267 Ma. This would allow Laurentia and Siberia to have been attached in the Mesoproterozoic, as suggested in several recent studies based on geological criteria. However, because paleomagnetic results from the Anabar Shield region do not average out secular variation and the ages of poles from Siberia and Laurentia are not well matched, it is not yet possible to distinguish between these reconstructions or to rule out other configurations that also maintain the two cratons at low paleolatitudes. PMID:10856011

  15. Petrography of impact glasses and melt breccias from the El'gygytgyn impact structure, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittarello, Lidia; Koeberl, Christian

    2013-07-01

    The El'gygytgyn impact structure, 18 km in diameter and 3.6 Ma old, in Arctic Siberia, Russia, is the only impact structure on Earth mostly excavated in acidic volcanic rocks. The Late Cretaceous volcanic target includes lavas, tuffs, and ignimbrites of rhyolitic, dacitic, and andesitic composition, and local occurrence of basalt. Although the ejecta blanket around the crater is nearly completely eroded, bomb-shaped impact glasses, redeposited after the impact event, occur in lacustrine terraces within the crater. Here we present detailed petrographic descriptions of newly collected impact glass-bearing samples. The observed features contribute to constrain the formation of the melt and its cooling history within the framework of the impact process. The collected samples can be grouped into two types, characterized by specific features: (1) "pure" glasses, containing very few clasts or new crystals and which were likely formed during the early stages of cratering and (2) a second type, which represents composite samples with impact melt breccia lenses embedded in silicate glass. These mixed samples probably resulted from inclusion of unmelted impact debris during ejection and deposition. After deposition the glassy portions continued to deform, whereas the impact melt breccia inclusions that probably had already cooled down behaved as rigid bodies in the flow.

  16. Moult migration of emperor geese Chen canagica between Alaska and Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.; Syroechkovskiy, E.E., Jr.; Kondratyev, A.V.; Eldridge, W.D.; Lappo, E.

    2007-01-01

    We studied reproductive success and post-breeding movements of 32 adult female emperor geese Chen canagica that were marked with satellite radio transmitters on their nesting area on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska 2000-2004. All 16 females that failed to successfully reproduce departed the YKD and moulted remiges either on the north coast of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia (n=15), or on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska (n=1). Of 16 females that successfully nested, one migrated to Russia following hatch whereas the remainder stayed on the YKD. While moulting on the Chukotka Peninsula, emperor geese with satellite transmitters primarily used coastal lagoons west of Kolyuchin Bay. We observed 21,150 adult-plumaged emperor geese during aerial surveys in Chukotka in 2002. Most (95%) were in the same region used by geese that had been marked with satellite transmitters in Alaska. The number of emperor geese observed in Russia was comparable to our estimate of ???20,000 adults that either do not nest or nest unsuccessfully each year on the YKD, suggesting that most nonproductive adults, or ???28% of the adult population departs the YKD to moult elsewhere. The number of moult migrants may be substantially higher in years of poor reproductive success or if adult-plumaged birds that are not of breeding age also leave the YKD. Moult migration of emperor geese between Alaska and Russia is likely substantially greater than previously believed. Russian moulting habitats are important to the North American population of emperor geese and events that affect survival of geese in Russia could impact population trends on the YKD. Protection of coastal lagoons on the north coast of Chukotka is warranted. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

  17. [Diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome in Siberia and in the Far East].

    PubMed

    Nikitin, Iu P; Voevoda, M I; Simonova, G I

    2012-01-01

    In Siberia and in the Far East region overall incidence of diabetes mellitus is somewhat lower than in the European part of the country, though these indices reduplicate on average in 10-15 years. The prevalence of both diabetes (both types) and metabolic syndrome among indigenous mongoloid population is lower than among Caucasian. PMID:22550714

  18. Paleomagnetic Results From Cretaceous and Tertiary Basalts of The Trans-baikal Region, Southeastern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Zhao; R. S. Coe; D. V. Metelkin; I. V. Gordienko; J. Lyons; V. Klimuk; A. Petroutchik; A. Davydov; E. Hromova; L. Novokrechennih

    2002-01-01

    Early Cretaceous basaltic rocks from the southeastern margin of the Siberian Platform record relative rotations that are probably older than Tertiary. We have obtained pre- liminary results from dated Cretaceous basaltic lava flows exposed in three separated depressions of the Trans-Baikal region, southeastern Siberia. Progressive thermal and AF demagnetization in each case removed a secondary magnetization, after which the characteristic

  19. Vegetation structure in gullies developed by the melting of ice wedges along Kolyma River, northern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shiro Tsuyuzaki; Takeshi Ishizaki; Toshiyuki Sato

    1999-01-01

    Vegetation structure was surveyed in gullies developed by the melting of ice wedges along the Kolyma River, northern Siberia, using 72–50 × 50 cm plots. The mean total plant cover was approximately 50% on gley soils, which were only distributed in the gullies. Based on twinspan cluster analysis, four vegetation types were recognized: (i) Agrostis purpurascens grassland with Ceratodon purpureus

  20. Epigenetic salt accumulation and water movement in the active layer of central Yakutia in eastern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Larry Lopez; A. Brouchkov; H. Nakayama; F. Takakai; A. N. Fedorov; M. Fukuda

    2007-01-01

    Observations of soil moisture and salt content were conducted from May to August at Neleger station in eastern Siberia. Seasonal changes of salt and soil moisture distribution in the active layer of larch forest (undisturbed) and a thermokarst depression known as an alas (disturbed) were studied. Electric conductivity ECe of the intact forest revealed higher concentrations that increased with depth

  1. Institutional setting and mechanisms of implementation of Strategy of Social-economic Development of Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ye. Seliverstov

    2005-01-01

    The paper considers new approaches to the institutional framework and instruments for application of STRATEGY II in the economic development of Siberia. The main attention is devoted to initiation, financing, management and follow-up of investment projects that are the pillar of the strategy. The projects are identified as productive, social and supporting. Instruments for productive projects must correspond with their

  2. Building organizational and economic mechanisms of the accelerated socio-economic development in Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Kryukov; V. V. Kuleshov; V. Ye. Seliverstov

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers the issues of building organizational and economic mechanisms required to strengthen a position of Siberia in the Russian economic space. Our proposals concern such issues as how to modernize the regional policy and regional strategic planning, to ensure the implementation of the Siberian Socio-Economic Development Strategy and innovations in regions, and to build economic mechanisms required for

  3. Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

    1994-01-01

    Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

  4. Mate Guarding by Curlew Sandpipers (Calidris ferruginea) during Spring Migration in North Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER FRODIN; FREDRIK HAAS; AKE LINDSTROM

    It is poorly known whether arctic-breeding shorebirds form pairs before or after arrival at the breeding site. We describe the display and mate-guarding behavior of curlew sandpipers Calidrisfermginea at a stopover site in high arctic Siberia, suggesting that in this species pairs may be forrned before the birds reach their final nesting localities.

  5. Rifting processes in the centre of Siberia revealed by BEST (Baikal Explosion Seismic Transects)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Nielsen; H. Thybo; M. M. Jensen; A. Ross; V. D. Suvorov; A. Emanov; V. Seleznev; G. Tatkov; E. Perchuc; E. Gazcynski

    2003-01-01

    The Baikal Rift Zone is located in Siberia at the centre of the world's largest continental area. It offers a unique opportunity for studying the processes of intra-cratonic rifting. The BEST project (Baikal Explosion Seismic Transects) comprises two deep seismic profiles at the southern end of Lake Baikal. The field project was carried out in October 2002 after a pilot

  6. A preliminary investigation of siliceous microfossil succession in late Quaternary sediments from Lake Baikal, Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Julius; E. F. Stoermer; S. M. Colman; T. C. Moore

    1997-01-01

    Siliceous microfossil assemblage succession was analyzed in a 100 m sediment core from Lake Baikal, Siberia. The core was recovered from the lake's central basin at a water depth of 365 m. Microfossil abundance varied greatly within the intervals sampled, ranging from samples devoid of siliceous microfossils to samples with up to 3.49 × 1011 microfossils g-1 sediment. Fluctuations in

  7. Lignin phenols in sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia: application to paleoenvironmental studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Orem; Steven M. Colman; Harry E. Lerch

    1997-01-01

    Sediments from three cores obtained from distinct depositional environments in Lake Baikal, Siberia were analyzed for organic carbon, total nitrogen and lignin phenol concentration and composition. Results were used to examine changes in paleoenvironmental conditions during climatic cycles of the late Quaternary (<125 ka). Average organic carbon, and total nitrogen concentrations, atomic CN ratios and organic carbon accumulation rates were

  8. Late Quaternary clay mineral record in Central Lake Baikal (Academician Ridge, Siberia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Fagel; T. Boski; L. Likhoshway; H. Oberhaensli

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the mineralogical composition of two cores recovered on the Academician Ridge (Central Lake Baikal, Siberia). Sedimentological features show that the cores are unaffected by turbidity currents. However, hemipelagic deposition is not continuous, but intermittently disturbed by syn- or post-sediment reworking (e.g., bioturbation, slumps, faulting). Such modes of deposition are consistent with the complex uplift history of the ridge.

  9. Molecular and serological studies on the recent seal virus epizootics in Europe and Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Barrett; J. Crowther; A. D. M. E. Osterhaus; S. M. Subbarao; J. Groen; L. Haas; L. V. Mamaev; A. M. Titenko; I. K. G. Visser; C. J. Bostock

    1992-01-01

    The virus epizootics which occurred in seals in both Europe and Siberia during 1987\\/1988 were caused by two different morbilliviruses, referred to as phocid distemper virus (PDV) 1 and 2, respectively. Molecular and serological studies have shown that the European virus is quite distinct from canine distemper virus (CDV), its closest relative in the morbillivirus group. Analysis of tissues obtained

  10. Processing mineral raw materials in Siberia: ores of molybdenum, tungsten, lead and gold

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. Kholmogorov; O. N. Kononova

    2005-01-01

    Problems related to the processing of mineral raw materials from Siberia (i.e. molybdenum-, tungsten-, lead- and gold-containing ores and concentrates) are reviewed. It is shown that hydrometallurgical methods for processing such raw materials are more advantageous than pyrometallurgical ones. For example, hydrometallurgical treatment of molybdenum and tungsten concentrates can be used industrially. Studies have shown that the recovery and concentration

  11. Subducted oceanic crust as diamond hosts revealed by garnets of mantle xenoliths from Nyurbinskaya, Siberia

    E-print Network

    Perfect, Ed

    , Siberia Amy J.V. Riches a, , Yang Liu a , James M.D. Day b , Zdislav V. Spetsius c , Lawrence A. Taylor a a Planetary Geosciences Institute, Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee Article history: Received 10 May 2010 Accepted 9 September 2010 Available online xxxx Keywords: Yakutia

  12. The Taimyr fold belt, Arctic Siberia: timing of prefold remagnetisation and regional tectonics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trond H. Torsvik; Torgeir B. Andersen

    2002-01-01

    Late Precambrian and Palaeozoic platform sediments from the Central–South Taimyr Peninsula (Arctic Siberia) are all remagnetised. The remagnetisation is prefold and is related to thermal remagnetisation caused by Taimyr Trap magmatism. The remagnetisation age is estimated to 220–230 Ma and, hence, is considerably younger than the ca. 251 Ma age for the main body of Siberian Trap flood basalts. The

  13. The Taimyr fold belt, Arctic Siberia: timing of prefold remagnetisation and regional tectonics

    E-print Network

    Andersen, Torgeir Bjørge

    shortening continued in Taimyr, Novaya­Zemlya and the South Barents Sea, well into the Mesozoic. D 2002The Taimyr fold belt, Arctic Siberia: timing of prefold remagnetisation and regional tectonics main parts: North, Central and South Taimyr. North Taimyr, together with Severnaya Zemlya (Fig. 1a

  14. Discharges and yields of suspended sediment in the Ob' and Yenisey Rivers of Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NELLY N. BOBROVITSKAYA; CLAUDIA ZUBKOVA; ROBERT H. MEADE

    1996-01-01

    The northward-flowing rivers of Siberia deliver immense quantities of water but only relatively small quantities of sediment to the Arctic Ocean. The relatively low delivery of sediment to the ocean by these rivers is explained by the large areas of forest and swamp in their basins. In the Ob' River, sediment yields tend to increase between the headwaters and Kamen'

  15. (*) Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Twente, The Netherlands (**) Moscow State University, Russia

    E-print Network

    Fominov, Yakov

    University, Russia (***) Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russia Mechanisms of 0Mechanisms of 0:Experimental realization of SFS junctions: VV..RyazanovRyazanov et alet al.,., ChernogolovkaChernogolovka, Russia, Russia J

  16. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 93.0 x 105.7 kilometers ( 57.7 x 65.6 miles) Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 Image courtesy NASA/JPL/NIMA

  17. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 80 km (50 miles) x 100 km (62 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: View toward the East Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  18. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  19. Analyses of changes in vegetation cover in the South and Sub-Taiga of Western Siberia using Landsat data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyukarev, Egor; Pologova, Nina; Golovatskaya, Eugenia

    2010-05-01

    Understanding human impact on vegetation composition and structure, at scales from the patch to the globe, and capacity to monitor change over time is fundamental research problem to address Global Change and ensure sustainable development. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early successional states, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances (e.g., fire, dieback due to insect attacks) appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data. The studied area of the first test site ("Bakchar") is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site "Tomsk" covered by cultivated lands in the south, dark coniferous forest complexes an early and old-growth state in the north part. Mire types at the test sites are presented by open fens, ridge-hollow / ridge-lake complexes and pine-shrub-sphagnum communities with different tree height and layer density. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed revealing dynamics in vegetation cover. Forest change was calculated using the Disturbance Index (Healey, 2006). Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have damaged forests between 1990 and 1999 in stripes oriented from south-west to north -east in the prevailing wind direction. Strong winds were registered in 2003, 2005, and 2007. Tree cutting in 1999-2007 was significantly smaller than in previous time due to depression in economical activity. Some invasion of young trees in to abandoned agricultural lands also can be found at comparison of 1999 and 2007 images. After 1999 many agricultural lands stopped to plug, transformed to unmanaged meadows (grassland) and now occupying by young birch. Small burned areas are exists on the studied territory primary at drainage peatlands but fires does not affect forests significantly. Work was performed under project "Human Impact on Land-cover Changes in the Heart of Asia" supported by Asia-Pacific Network (ARCP2009-02CMY).

  20. WEST AFRICA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ALHAJI M S BAH

    2005-01-01

    In the post-Cold World era, West Africa, like most other regions of the world, experienced significant shifts in its approach to, and understanding of security. The outbreak of brutal domestic conflicts in the sub-region and ECOWAS's subsequent deployment of its peacekeeping force, ECOMOG, marked a turning point in the sub-region's attempt to develop a security architecture that began in the

  1. Third International~CorifereneE'VVHCT Moscow, Russia

    E-print Network

    Brusilovsky, Peter

    Third International~CorifereneE'VVHCT Moscow, Russia Selected papers #12;Towards an Adaptive, Russia E-mail: plb@plb.icsti.su and Department of Applied Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia Abstract. This paper discusses the problem of Integration of hypermedla

  2. Intra-Household Inequality in Transitional Russia Ekaterina Kalugina

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Intra-Household Inequality in Transitional Russia Ekaterina Kalugina Natalia Radtchenko Catherine and satisfaction. Using two different subjective questions of the Russian data RLMS (Russia Longitudinal Monitoring and social changes in Russia, we investigate the dynamics of household behavior. Keywords: subjective data

  3. Labor Hoarding In Russia: Where Does It Come From?

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Labor Hoarding In Russia: Where Does It Come From? By: Rouslan Koumakhov and Boris Najman William Davidson Working Paper Number 394 October 2001 #12;Labor Hoarding In Russia: Where Does It Come From. This explains why there has been no massive unemployment in Russia until now. In conclusion, Russian labor

  4. Advances in Engineering and Applications of Hexagonal Ferrites in Russia

    E-print Network

    Koledintseva, Marina Y.

    4 Advances in Engineering and Applications of Hexagonal Ferrites in Russia Marina Y. Koledintseva1, Missouri 2Moscow Power Engineering Institute (Technological University), Moscow 1U.S.A. 2Russia 1-80 GHz), W (80-100 GHz) bands, and higher, have been also studied and applied in Russia since middle 1950

  5. December 12, 2011 Putins Russia and the Elections

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    December 12, 2011 Putins Russia and the Elections On Monday November 14, 2011, the Harriman Institute hosted a panel of scholars and journalists to speak about Putins Russia and the upcoming elections (both presidential and parliamentary). On December 4 the parliamentary elections in Russia led

  6. Starting your career in Russia Country Guide for International Students

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    Starting your career in Russia Country Guide for International Students #12;Country profile Main country, Russia. You stand at the beginning of an exciting career, but what are the steps you need to take provides you with practical advice about returning to work in Russia, to help you make a successful start

  7. September 15, 2011 Elections in Russia: Polling and Perspectives

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    September 15, 2011 Elections in Russia: Polling and Perspectives "Despite international interest in the upcoming parliamentary (State Duma) and presidential elections scheduled to occur in Russia in December Russia, the party currently dominant in the Duma, if the ballot had been held in August. Similar

  8. Russia, China veto UN resolution on Syria 4 February 2012

    E-print Network

    Russia, China veto UN resolution on Syria 4 February 2012 UNITED NATIONS (AP) ­ The U.N. Security Council failed again Saturday to take decisive action to stop the escalating violence in Syria as Russia. It was the second time in four months that Russia and China used their veto power to block a Security Council

  9. Smoke and Clouds over Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Several mountain ranges and a portion of the Amur River are visible in this set of MISR images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 during Terra orbit 7452. The view from MISR's 70-degree forward-looking camera is at the top left; the 26-degree forward-looking view is at the top right. The larger image at the bottom is a stereo 'anaglyph' created using the cameras at two intermediate angles. To view the stereo image in 3-D you need red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over your left eye. All of the images are oriented with north to the left to facilitate stereo viewing. Each image covers an area about 345 kilometers x 278 kilometers.

    The Amur River, in the upper right, and Lake Bolon, at the top center, are most prominent in the 26-degree view due to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and cranes and a stopover for large numbers of migratory birds. About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to agricultural uses. Other notable features in these images are several mountain chains, including the Badzhal'skiy to the left of center and the Bureiskiy in the lower left.

    Smoke plumes from several forest fires can be seen. They are especially apparent in the 70-degree view where the smoke's visibility is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some smaller plumes above and to the right of the image centers. In the upper images the hazy region in the vicinity of these smaller plumes has the appearance of low-altitude smoke, but depth perception provided by the stereo anaglyph shows that it is actually a distinct layer of high-altitude cirrus clouds. Whether the cirrus is related to the fires is uncertain. It is possible, however, for the fires have to have heated the lower atmosphere enough to create bubbles of hot air. As such bubbles rise, they can force stable, nearly saturated air above to move even higher, triggering the formation of ice clouds. Visualization of other three-dimensional characteristics of the scene, such as the intermediate-altitude layer of cumulus clouds along the left side, is made possible by the stereo imagery.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  10. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia’s Mortality Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia’s 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985–1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978–2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign’s end explains a large share of the mortality crisis – implying that Russia’s transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. PMID:24224067

  11. Winners and Losers in Russia's Economic Transition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Brainerd

    1998-01-01

    The transition to a market economy has produced a substantial and rapid change in the wage structure in Russia. Household surveys taken before and after the transition indicate that overall wage inequality nearly doubled from 1991 to 1994 and has reached a level higher than that in the United States. Returns to both measured skills (education, occupation) and unmeasured skills

  12. Involution and Destitution in Capitalist Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Burawoy; Pavel Krotov; Tatyana Lytkina

    2000-01-01

    While much has been written on the unprecedented degeneration of the Russian economy, how people survive or do not survive remains a mystery. A close 5-year tracking of workers from a liquidated furniture enterprise in Northern Russia reveals two types of survival strategy: defensive and entrepreneurial. Defensive strategies retreat to a primitive domestic economy in the face of the collapse

  13. Russia's Integration into the World Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram Schrettl

    The paper discusses the foreign trade, capital movement, mi- gration, and, somewhat more extensively, the institutional dimen- sions of Russia's integration into the world economy. Possible implications of the sheer size of the Russian nation are outlined. It is argued that the desire to avoid a break-up of the nation may necessitate excessive centralization. Also discussed are some specific aspects

  14. Russia begins Fed Cup title defence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Zimmer; April Venue

    Russia begins the defence of its Fed Cup title when the first round of the 2005 Fed Cup World Group takes place on 23-24 April. The 2005 competition features a new format with the top eight nations competing in World Group I over three weekends for a chance to lift the Fed Cup trophy; while the eight nations in World

  15. Education in the Fate of Today's Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borisenkov, V.P.; Kraevskii, V.V.; Valeev, G.Kh.; Avtonomova, N.S.; Evdokimov, A.K.; Shchedrina, T.G.; Belomestnova, N.V.; Beliaeva, M.A.; Shimina, A.N.; Karmanchikov, A.J.; Korol, A.D.; Varnavskaia, N.Ia.; Berezhnova, E.V.; Daniliuk, A.Ia.; Anua, R.G.; Sidorina, T.Iu.; Tarba, I.D.; Arlamov, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Education in the fate of today's Russia was the topic of a scientific seminar titled "Philosophy, Education, and Society," held in the summer of 2007 in the city of Gagra by the editors of the journals "Voprosy filosofii" and "Pedagogika," the Moscow N.E. Bauman State Technical University, and the Russian Academy of Education. Philosophers,…

  16. SEISMIC CALIBRATION AND DISCRIMINATION IN NORTHEAST RUSSIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Mackey; Kazuya Fujita

    In an effort to obtain ground truth (GT) classifications in support of nuclear explosion monitoring for continental regions of northeastern Russia, we relocated and assigned GT classifications to 118 seismic events reported in the International Seismological Centre (ISC) supplemented with previously unavailable local data. Of the relocated events, 26 events are classified as GT10. From these events, consistent patterns of

  17. Child Care in Russia: In Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ispa, Jean

    With the advent of "perestroika" and "glasnost," Russian childcare and education underwent a transitional period in practice and theory. Contrasting impressions from an earlier visit under the Communist regime, this book describes the experiences of Jean Ispa in her travels to Russia, observing children in six child care centers. Interviews are…

  18. Bankrtuptcy in Russia: External Management Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zakolyukina Anastasia

    2006-01-01

    The project examines the performance of the external management procedure on the data set from the arbitration court of the Udmurt Republic and the unique data set of politically connected firms that went bankrupt 1995–2004 in Russia. We use a narrow definition of political connections: a CEO or a member of an executive board being a member of par-liament or

  19. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  20. Aerosol particle number size distributions and particulate light absorption at the ZOTTO tall tower (Siberia), 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintzenberg, J.; Birmili, W.; Otto, R.; Andreae, M. O.; Mayer, J.-C.; Chi, X.; Panov, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers measurements of the number-size distribution of aerosol particles, particulate absorption at 570 nm wavelength and CO as tracer gas from 2006 through 2009 at 50 and 300 m on the ZOTTO tower, Siberia at 60.8° N; 89.35° E. Average number, surface and volume concentrations are similar to results given for continental and boreal background locations. When fitted with lognormal functions, the probability distribution function of modal diameters shows three main maxima in the Aitken and accumulation size range and a possible secondary maximum in the nucleation size range below 25 nm. The seasonal distributions of the different particle parameters differ substantially. Particulate absorption has a clear single maximum in high winter and minimum values in mid-summer. The 90%-percentile, however, indicates a possible secondary maximum in July/August that may be related to forest fires. The strongly combustion derived CO shows a single winter maximum and a late summer minimum, albeit with a considerable smaller seasonal swing than the particle data due to its longer atmospheric lifetime. Total volume and even more so total number show a more complex seasonal variation with maxima in winter, spring, and summer. A cluster analysis of back trajectories complemented by local stability information yielded ten clusters with three levels of particle concentration: Low concentrations for the northernmost (Arctic) clusters mid-level concentrations for clusters reaching rapidly west between 55° and 65° latitude, and high concentrations for the cluster reaching southwest via Kazakhstan to the central Russian industrial region.

  1. Basalt weathering in Central Siberia under permafrost conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Schott, J.; Kudryavtzev, D. I.; Dupré, B.

    2005-12-01

    Chemical weathering of basalts in the Putorana Plateau, Central Siberia, has been studied by combining chemical and mineralogical analysis of solids (rocks, soils, river sediments, and suspended matter) and fluid solution chemistry. Altogether, 70 large and small rivers, 30 soil pore waters and groundwaters and over 30 solids were sampled during July to August 2001. Analysis of multiannual data on discharge and chemical composition of several rivers of the region available from the Russian Hydrological Survey allowed rigorous estimation of mean annual major element concentrations, and dissolved and suspended fluxes associated with basalt weathering. For the rivers Tembenchi and Taimura that drain monolithologic basic volcanic rocks, the mean multiannual flux of total dissolved cations (TDS_c = Ca + Mg + Na + K) corrected for atmospheric input is 5.7 ± 0.5 t/km 2/yr. For the largest river Nizhniya Tunguska—draining essentially basic rocks—the TDS_c is 6.1 ± 1.5 t/km 2/yr. The overall CO 2 consumption flux associated with basalt weathering in the studied region (˜700,000 km 2) achieves 0.08 × 10 12 mol/yr, which represents only 2.6% of the total CO 2 consumption associated with basalt weathering at the Earth's surface. The fluxes of suspended matter were estimated as 3.1 ± 0.5, 9.0 ± 0.8, and 6.5 ± 2.0 t/km 2/yr for rivers Taimura, Eratchimo, and Nizhniya Tunguska, respectively. Based on chemical analyses of river solutes and suspended matter, the relative dissolved versus particulate annual transport of major components is C inorg ? C org > Na + K > Ca > Mg > Si > Fe ? Mn ? Ti ? Al which reflects the usual order of element mobility during weathering. According to chemical and mineralogical soil and sediment analyses, alteration of basalt consists of (1) replacement of the original basaltic glass by Si-Al-Fe rich amorphous material, (2) mechanical desegregation and grinding of parent rocks, leading to accumulation of "primary" hydrothermal trioctahedral smectite, and (3) transformation of these trioctahedral (oxy)smectites and mixed-layer chlorite-smectite, into secondary dioctahedral smectite accompanied by removal of Ca, Mg, and Fe, and enrichment in Al. No vertical chemical differentiation of fluid and solid phases within the soil profile was identified. All sampled soil pore waters and groundwaters were found to be close to equilibrium with respect to chalcedony, gibbsite, halloysite, and allophanes, but strongly supersaturated with respect to goethite, nontronite, and montmorillonite. Over the annual cycle, the contribution of atmospheric precipitation, permafrost melting, underground reservoirs, litter degradation, and rock and soil mineral weathering for the overall TDS_c transport in the largest river of the region (Nizhniya Tunguska) is 9.3 ± 3, 10 ± 5, 10.5 ± 5, 25 ± 20, and 45 ± 30%, respectively. In the summertime, direct contribution of rocks and soil mineral weathering via solid/fluid interaction does not exceed 20%. The main unknown factors of element mobilization from basalt to the river is litter degradation in the upper soil horizon and parameters of element turnover in the vegetation.

  2. Seasonal variability as a source of uncertainty in the West Siberian regional CH4 flux upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabrekov, A. F.; Runkle, B. R. K.; Glagolev, M. V.; Kleptsova, I. E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2014-04-01

    This study compares seasonal and spatial variations in methane fluxes as sources of uncertainty in regional CH4 flux upscaling from the wetlands of West Siberia. The study examined variability in summertime CH4 emissions from boreal peatlands, with a focus on two subtaiga fen sites in the southern part of West Siberia (Novosibirskaya oblast). We measured CH4 flux, water table depth, air and peat temperature, pH and electric conductivity of peat water during three field campaigns in summer 2011 (9-12 July, 26-28 July and 20-21 August). Fluxes were measured with static chambers at sites chosen to represent two of the most widespread types of wetlands for this climatic zone: soligenous poor fens and topogenous fens. In both sites the water table level acts as the primary control on fluxes. For the poor fen site with good drainage, water table controls CH4 fluxes on the seasonal scale but not on a local spatial scale; for the fen site with weak drainage and microtopographic relief, the water table controls fluxes on the local spatial scale, but does not drive seasonal variations in the flux magnitude. This difference in hydrology shows the necessity of including detailed wetland type classification schemes into large-scale modeling efforts. From these three measurement periods, we estimated the relative seasonal variation in CH4 emissions as 8% for the fen site and 26% for the poor fen site. These results were compared to estimates of other sources of uncertainty (such as interannual variation and spatial heterogeneity) to show that quantifying seasonal variability is less critical than these other variations for an improved estimate of regional CH4 fluxes. This research demonstrates and ranks the challenges in upscaling measured wetland CH4 fluxes across West Siberia and can guide future field campaigns.

  3. DISTRIBUTION AND COLOR VARIATION OF

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID H. ELLIS; CATHERINE H. ELLIS; GREY W. PENDLETON; ANDREI V. PANTELEYEV; IRENA V. REBROVA; YURI M. MARKIN

    1992-01-01

    Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west

  4. Flooding of the Taz, Pur, and Yenisey Rivers, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Each spring and summer, rivers across Siberia experience flooding as the waters in the south begin to melt and run before the ice has retreated from the northern limits. The ice causes jams which are sometimes loosened up using explosives. This pair of MODIS images from June 18, 2002, shows flooding on the Pur (left), Taz (center), and Yenisey (right) Rivers in central Siberia. In the false-color image, ice and snow are red, clouds are white, water is black, and vegetation is green. Bare soil is brown. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. [Problems of epidemiology and diagnostics of leptospiroses in Siberia and Far East].

    PubMed

    Breneva, N V; Kiseleva, E Iu; Makeev, S M

    2012-01-01

    Multi-year literature data as well as materials of the Reference centre of monitoring of natural foci infections of Irkutsk Research Institute of Plague Control of Siberia and the Far East regarding epidemiology, epizootology and laboratory diagnostics of leptospiroses in Siberia and the Far East are analyzed and summarized in the review. Situation on leptospiroses in the region has changed significantly. In 50 - 70s of the 20th century diseases were registered ubiquitously in the form of outbreaks, group and single cases. Currently a low level of sporadic morbidity is noted in separate subjects of the Russian Federation. The contemporary state of the problem remains insufficiently clear, this demands the expansion of studies, creation of modern databases, as well as introduction into the practice of highly sensitive methods of express diagnostics in a complex with bacteriologic and serologic methods. PMID:22830283

  6. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel C. Fisher; Alexei N. Tikhonov; Pavel A. Kosintsev; Adam N. Rountrey; Bernard Buigues; Johannes van der Plicht

    2012-01-01

    A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June 2006. It then lay exposed on a point-bar surface until recovery the following May. AMS dating of

  7. Modern Human Colonization of the Siberian Mammoth Steppe: A View from South-Central Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly E. Graf

    \\u000a Was the transition from the middle Upper Paleolithic (MUP) to late Upper Paleolithic (LUP) in Siberia the result of gradual,\\u000a in situ cultural change or abrupt change that resulted from multiple recolonization attempts? Past studies have primarily\\u000a focused on chronology and typology in attempts to reconstruct culture histories. As a result reconstruction of hunter-gatherer\\u000a ecology has been limited to broad

  8. Last glacial–interglacial vegetation and environmental dynamics in southern Siberia: Chronology, forcing and feedbacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena V. Bezrukova; Pavel E. Tarasov; Nadia Solovieva; Sergey K. Krivonogov; Frank Riedel

    2010-01-01

    Radiocarbon-dated pollen and diatom records from Lake Kotokel in southern Siberia help to reconstruct the environmental history of the area since ~47kyr BP. Pollen spectra composition and reconstructed biome scores suggest predominance of a tundra–steppe vegetation and variable woody cover (5–20%) between ~47 and 30kyr BP, indicating generally a harsh and unstable climate during this interval, conventionally regarded as the

  9. Continental response to Heinrich events and Bond cycles in sedimentary record of Lake Baikal, Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander A. Prokopenko; Douglas F. Williams; Eugene B. Karabanov; Galina K. Khursevich

    2001-01-01

    The sedimentary core BDP-93-2, Lake Baikal, southeast Siberia, provides a high-resolution record of the interval corresponding to marine oxygen isotope stage 3 (MIS 3). Sharp drops in fossil diatom abundance suggest the occurrence of short-term cooling episodes in Lake Baikal area during this time interval. AMS radiocarbon dates on core BDP-93-2 constrain the age of the upper three episodes (younger

  10. Multi-frequency seismic study of gas hydrate-bearing sediments in Lake Baikal, Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Vanneste; M De Batist; A Golmshtok; A Kremlev; W Versteeg

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present and discuss the frequency-dependent behaviour of the acoustic characteristics of methane hydrate-bearing sediments in Lake Baikal, Siberia. Five different types of seismic sources (airgun-array, two types of single airguns, watergun and sparker) are used, encompassing a frequency bandwidth from 10 up to 1000Hz. On low-frequency airgun-array data, the base of the hydrate stability zone (HSZ)

  11. Patterns of spatial distribution of positive thunderstorm discharges in Eastern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. A. Mullayarov; A. A. Toropov; V. I. Kozlov; R. R. Karimov

    2009-01-01

    Patterns of spatial distributions of the thunderstorm positive discharges, which were obtained by using a one-point storm\\u000a direction and distance finder with observation radius of ?1200 km in Eastern Siberia in 2003–2007, are considered in this\\u000a paper. It was found that distributions of positive discharges reflect, in general, overall patterns of thunderstorm activity.\\u000a Two centers corresponding to maximum activity of

  12. Lieutenant Colonel Robert L. Eichelberger and the American Military Intelligence Division in Siberia, 1919-1920 

    E-print Network

    Luckett, Judith Blodgett

    1974-01-01

    rla mAR 1 THE RAILROADS OF' RUSSIAN CENTRAL AND EASTERN ASIA third fragment of' track rsn from Spssskoe (about 100 miles north of Vladivostok) to Ussuri and was commanded by Colonel Robert H ~ Sillmano These f irst three seg- ments were...LIEUTENANT COLONEL ROBERT L ~ EICHELBERGER ANO THE AMERICAN MILITARY INTELLIGENCE OIVISION IN SIBERIA, 1919-1920 A Thesis by JUO ITH BLODGETT LUCKETT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&% University in partial fulfillment...

  13. High methane flux from an arctic floodplain (Indigirka lowlands, eastern Siberia)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. van Huissteden; T. C. Maximov; A. J. Dolman

    2005-01-01

    Methane fluxes from arctic tundra soils on a river terrace and floodplain in northeastern Siberia, measured with flux chambers, show a high spatial variability. The methane fluxes on the river terrace compare well with fluxes reported in other studies on tundra methane fluxes. The average methane flux is 4.3 mg CH4 m?2 hr?1, and the average flux for wet sites

  14. Dissolved Organic Carbon in Upland Forested Watersheds Underlain by Continuous Permafrost in Central Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. S. Prokushkin; I. V. Gavrilenko; A. P. Abaimov; S. G. Prokushkin; A. V. Samusenko

    2006-01-01

    Hydroclimatic variability and plant species ecology cause mosaics in forested watersheds in permafrost zones. Measurements\\u000a of organic matter accumulation, stock of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DOC concentrations in litter leachates, subsurface\\u000a flow, stream and seasonal and annual export were made in two contrasting slopes and valleys in the northern taiga of Central\\u000a Siberia. Increased organic carbon accumulation in litter was

  15. Lieutenant Colonel Robert L. Eichelberger and the American Military Intelligence Division in Siberia, 1919-1920

    E-print Network

    Luckett, Judith Blodgett

    1974-01-01

    --the 7emstvo coup d' etat Eichelberqer's reports also qive a more complete picture of' the actions of' the commandino qeneral of the expedition, William S. Graves. For many years a contro- versy has raced concerninq the correct posit, ion ths mili... inf'ormation to major General William S ~ Graves, Commander of the A ~ E ~ f ~, Siberiae From this information Graves formed his Siberian policy i 1Letter from unknown American officer ta his wife, July, 1919, Newton Da Baker Papers, Division...

  16. Russia clamps downs on data release

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-30

    This paper reports that Russia is stepping up enforcement of laws banning unauthorized release of detailed geological and geophysical data to foreign companies. But companies authorized to sell or license information about Russian minerals say the stricter oversight isn't affecting their activities. That's because the effort is intended to curb illegal sales of data by Russian regional organizations and federal agencies. In addition, Russia's state tax department and ministries of finance and justice are considering sanctions to be imposed for violations of lawful procedures. The added vigilance by Russian officials likely will help clear up confusion among foreign companies, resulting from vague laws and regulations, about how and from whom data may be obtained obtained legally.

  17. Political Dissidents in Putin’s Russia 

    E-print Network

    Streetman, Amanda Leigh

    2013-03-11

    for prosecuting the perpetrators and acknowledge the government role in persecuting its journalists if citizens want Russia to achieve greatness. Politkovskaya?s noble commitment to the Russian people did not go unpunished, as she was murdered at her apartment... use the murder of journalists for their own purposes, by suggesting a murder was completed by a political enemy. Genuine efforts are not applied when searching for the true perpetrators behind murders related to reporters. The state only gives...

  18. New Steps in EML Research in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp G. Rutberg; Gennady A. Shvetsov; Irina I. Kumkova

    2009-01-01

    The overview summarizes the main electromagnetic activities in Russia since the 13th Electromagnetic Launch Technology Symposium in 2006. This research has been focused on the development and improvement of electric-discharge launchers, railguns, and electrothermal-chemical launchers. Research efforts have been directed toward studying the physical phenomena and processes limiting the attainment of high velocities and life time of launchers. Considerable attention

  19. Maastrichtian angiospermous pollen records from Sakhalin, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masamichi Takahashi; Ken'ichi Saiki

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes dispersed angiospermous pollen grains from the Maastrichtian of Sakhalin, Russia, with scanning electron\\u000a microscopy. These pollen grains includeClavatipollenites, Tricolpites, andBetulaepollenites. Exine sculpture of the pollen grains are shown in detail. The palynomorphs imply a wide range of angiosperm diversity during\\u000a Maastrichtian time at the mid- or high-latitudes in the eastern Eurasia.

  20. US / Russia Collaboration in Plasma Astrophysics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US/Russia collaboration in plasma astrophysics combines the efforts of scientists from two groups -- the Russian Academy of Science Institutes and Cornell University -- to solve many of the complicated problems associated with the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD). Students and educators can find thorough descriptions about the collaboration's studies in wind accretion to dipoles, disk accretion to dipoles, the origin of jets, and the accretion disks theory. Researchers will also find numerous downloadable published papers from 1992 to present.

  1. Environmental health collaboration: United States and Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Rubin; R. L. Jones; B. Revich; S. L. Avaliani; E. Gurvich

    2003-01-01

    Developed nations share similar challenges to human health from commercial and agricultural chemicals that are released into the environment. Although Russia and the United States are historically distinct and unique, both countries are geographically large and economically dependent on emission-producing surface transportation. This paper describes U.S.-Russian collaborative activities that grew from a 1995 conference in Moscow that brought together environmental

  2. WEST VIRGINIA ECONOMIC OUTLOOK

    E-print Network

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    WEST VIRGINIA ECONOMIC OUTLOOK 2009 BUREAU OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH College of Business and Economics West Virginia University #12;West Virginia Economic Outlook 2009 George W. Hammond, Associate Director, BBER, and Associate Professor of Economics West Virginia Economic Outlook 2009 is published

  3. From East to West: patterns of genetic diversity of populations living in four Eurasian regions.

    PubMed

    Kutuev, I; Khusainova, R; Karunas, A; Yunusbayev, B; Fedorova, S; Lebedev, Y; Hunsmann, G; Khusnutdinova, E

    2006-01-01

    We have analyzed the distribution and patterns of the genetic diversity of eight Alu loci (ACE, ApoA1, PV92, TPA25, NBC27, NBC102, NBC148, and NBC182) in 1,049 individuals representing 16 populations of the Volga-Ural region (Bashkirs, Tatars, Komis, Maris, Mordvins, and Udmurts), Central Asia (Kazakhs, Uzbeks, and Uighurs), the North Caucasus (Karachays, Kumyks, Kuban Nogays, and Karanogays), and Central South Siberia (Yakuts, Kalmyks and Evenks). Geographic divide between Europe and Asia, e.g. the Ural Mountains and the Caspian Sea, can also be considered as a genetic boundary. The data indicates that the populations of the two boundary regions between Europe and Asia, the Volga-Ural region of Russia, and populations of the North Caucasus are more similar to European than to Asian populations. Finally, Siberian and Central Asian populations are genetically closely related to each other. PMID:16465065

  4. Modeling of nutrient concentrations in the river Loktinka, Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheludkov, Artyom; Kiesel, Jens; Veshkurtseva, Tatyana

    2014-05-01

    Nutrient pollution is the process where too many nutrients, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus, are added to bodies of water and act as fertilizer, causing excessive growth of algae and threatening the natural species assemblages. The investigated catchment area is the river Loktinka which is located in the southern part of the West Siberian Plain, in the forest-steppe vegetation region. One of the most serious contaminant of the surface waters in the region are nutrients. The main input of nutrients comes from untreated runoff from agricultural fields and pastures. To mitigate agricultural non-point source pollution, simulation tools can aid in the development of temporal and spatial management plans. This study presents a software application of a Geohydrological Analysis Model, developed by Prof. Kalinin, Tyumen State University, Russian Federation (1998) for the region. The model is based on "Runoff Forming Surfaces", which are a distinguished part of the catchment characterized by a set of natural components such as land use, soil and elevation. These areas are relatively homogeneous and lead to the same parameters for representing the hydrological cycle. The model is used to simulate the water quality situation which was sampled during spring runoff in 2013. Results of the Siberian Geohydrological Analysis Model are compared to simulations carried out with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT).

  5. First record of shared species of Late Permian small foraminiferids in Australia and Russia: Time correlations and plate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmieri, V.; Foster, C. B.; Bondareva, E. V.

    At least 12 species of small calcareous foraminiferids known from early Late Permian assemblages from Arctic Russia and adjacent areas also occur in assemblages from the earstern Australian Ingelara Formation of the Bowen Basin (Queensland). A key species is Pseudonodosaria borealis (Gerke 1952), newly recognized in Australia. The shared species allow direct correlation with Late Permian Russian assemblages of Kazanian age. This is the first microfaunal evidence of correlative strata in Gondwana; previous chronologic ties in this region have relied on rate and geographically scattered records of ammonoids from both eastern and western Australia. Other shared foraminiferids from the Ingelara Formation include taxa described in 1914 by Tscherdynzev (Nodosaria krotovi, N. noinskii and N. netchajevi, Lenticulina (Astacolus) rotaliaeformis); and by Gerke in 1952 and 1961 (Frondicularia inflata, F. bella, F. prima, F. tijanica, F. dilemma, Tristix permiana, Nodosaria cuspidulata). A brief synonymy shows that almost all of these Russian taxa may have been recognized previously in Australian assemblages, but under different names. Pseudonodosaria serocoldensis (Crespin 1945) is considered an ancestor of P. borealis and its appearance in older assemblages in both Spitsbergen (Kungurian) and Australia (Bowen Basin, late Artinskian) suggests that similar evolutionary developments of the faunas occurred throughout a continuous seaway that connected these areas since the early Permian. Migration of these benthic forms is presumed to have occurred via deep ocean currents and suggests that either Arctic Russia (Nordvik Basin, Siberia: parts of Novaya Zemlya) and Spitsbergen were in closer proximity to Australia than is generally accepted in modern plate reconstructions for the Late Permian or, most likely, that new oceanic dispersal patterns are required to explained their distributions.

  6. Y-Chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia

    PubMed Central

    Mirabal, Sheyla; Regueiro, Maria; Cadenas, Alicia M; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Underhill, Peter A; Verbenko, Dmitry A; Limborska, Svetlana A; Herrera, Rene J

    2009-01-01

    Populations of northeastern Europe and the Uralic mountain range are found in close geographic proximity, but they have been subject to different demographic histories. The current study attempts to better understand the genetic paternal relationships of ethnic groups residing in these regions. We have performed high-resolution haplotyping of 236 Y-chromosomes from populations in northwestern Russia and the Uralic mountains, and compared them to relevant previously published data. Haplotype variation and age estimation analyses using 15 Y-STR loci were conducted for samples within the N1b, N1c1 and R1a1 single-nucleotide polymorphism backgrounds. Our results suggest that although most genetic relationships throughout Eurasia are dependent on geographic proximity, members of the Uralic and Slavic linguistic families and subfamilies, yield significant correlations at both levels of comparison making it difficult to denote either linguistics or geographic proximity as the basis for their genetic substrata. Expansion times for haplogroup R1a1 date approximately to 18?000 YBP, and age estimates along with Network topology of populations found at opposite poles of its range (Eastern Europe and South Asia) indicate that two separate haplotypic foci exist within this haplogroup. Data based on haplogroup N1b challenge earlier findings and suggest that the mutation may have occurred in the Uralic range rather than in Siberia and much earlier than has been proposed (12.9±4.1 instead of 5.2±2.7 kya). In addition, age and variance estimates for haplogroup N1c1 suggest that populations from the western Urals may have been genetically influenced by a dispersal from northeastern Europe (eg, eastern Slavs) rather than the converse. PMID:19259129

  7. The surface energy balance and its drivers in a boreal peatland fen of northwestern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runkle, B. R. K.; Wille, C.; Gažovi?, M.; Wilmking, M.; Kutzbach, L.

    2014-04-01

    Boreal peatland energy balances using the eddy covariance technique have previously been made in Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Western Siberia, but not in the European portion of the Russian Federation. European Russia contains approximately 200,000 km2 of peatlands and has a boreal (subarctic), continental climate influencing the region's energy balance. To help fill this research gap, the surface energy balance was determined for a boreal peatland fen in the Komi Republic of Russia for an 11-month period in 2008-2009 using the eddy covariance method. The total measurement period's cumulative energy balance closure rate was 86%, with higher closure during the critical summer growing season. Similar to other boreal peatland sites, the mid-summer shortwave radiation demonstrated albedo between 0.13 and 0.19 as calculated on a cumulative monthly basis, whereas monthly albedo was >0.9 during the months with greatest snow (January, February 2009). Mid-summer Bowen ratios averaged 0.20-0.25 on a cumulative basis, with monthly averaged mid-day values in the range 0.35-0.53 during the growing season. Latent energy (LE) fluxes exceeded 70% of net radiation and 60% of potential evapotranspiration. During the study period, total evapotranspiration (406 mm) was slightly greater than rainfall (389 mm), with later snowfalls creating excess moisture in the atmospheric water budget. These characteristics together point to a peatland whose energy balance behavior is generally consistent with data from other boreal fens. The LE fluxes were dominantly controlled by net radiation, with less canopy resistance than at other northern fens and a lighter role for vapor pressure deficit to play in the energy balance. The aerodynamic and canopy conductance terms were of similar magnitude, both through the season and through any given diurnal cycle. The consequently high decoupling coefficient (0.65 ± 0.16 in the growing season) allows further modeling of fens in this region with reduced effects from the uncertainties of parameterizing surface conductance terms and their responses to water table and vapor pressure deficit changes. The Priestley-Taylor method provides a reasonable approach to modeling evapotranspiration, given some assumptions about the site's energy balance closure. This understanding of the local drivers on the energy and water budgets has important implications for peatland ecology and growth, regional carbon dynamics, and downstream hydrology.

  8. Late Mesozoic magmatic records in NE Russia and coeval events in Arctic ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akinin, V. V.

    2013-12-01

    Magmatic records onshore of Arctic Siberia and Alaska may provide constrains on formation of Arctic ocean including Amerasia and Eurasia basins, helps to interpret geophysical data and better understand meaning of spars dredged samples. We used new geochemistry and geochronology (U-Pb and Ar-Ar) data collected in the last decade across North East Russia and partly Alaska to better understand timing and tectonic setting of main magmatic events. It is widely accepted that opening of the Canada basin could have occurred as early as the late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous (Grantz et al., 1998). Some of the models suggest initial rifting in the early Jurassic and seafloor spreading initiated at 145-142 Ma (Seton et al., 2012). Much older Devonian oceanic crust fragments found in the continental part of Arctic Alaska (Angaucham) as well as in Chukotka (Billings-Provideniya suture zone). Recently we mapped spars outcrops of metaultramafic rocks located within Velitkenay granite-migmatite complex and within Koolen metamorphic dome and Senyavin uplift. Metamorphic growth zircon from ultramafic rocks have U-Pb ages between 360 to 400 Ma. The most important Late Jurassic - Cretaceous collision and subduction-related magmatic provinces in NE Russia related mostly to paleo-Pacific events but some coincide with tectonic episodes in Arctic: (1) 155-145 Ma granitoids of Main Kolyma batholith belt and coeval Uyandino-Yasachnaya volcanic arc (partly coeval with closure of the Anyui Ocean around c. 160-145 Ma); (2) 150-140 Ma volcanics of subduction related Uda-Murgal and Nutesyn margin continental arcs; (3) 130-135 Ma Northern belt granites and oldest granitic complexes in Eastern Chukotka (coeval with beginning of HALIP volcanism); (4) 118-124 Ma Tytylveem continental volcano-plutonic belt in Chukotka coeval with suggested cessation of spreading in the Canada basin; (5) 100-109 Ma extension-related granite-metamorphic core complexes along Arctic cost of Chukotka (coeval with within-plate alkaline basalts of De-Longy archipelago) (6) 106-78 Ma subduction-related Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanic belt (final stage of volcanism in Chukotka at 88-90 Ma coeval with Iceland plume and opening of the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay between 90 and 55 Ma, which might have affected the Central Arctic region). Small volume alkali basalts eruption happened during 54 to to 37 Ma in the Chersky seismic belt triggered by extension and thinning of the lithosphere combined with adiabatic upwelling of the underlying mantle (coeval with opening of the Eurasia basin at 55-33 Ma).

  9. A review of "Russia’s Steppe Frontier. The Making of a Colonial Empire." by Michael Khodarkovsky 

    E-print Network

    Jakub Basista

    2004-01-01

    and the coasts of the Pacific Ocean. It is the growth of the Russia?s expansion to these territories, along with its mechanisms, that Michael Khodarkovsky analyzes in his work Russia?s Steppe Frontier. After reading the book and looking at its title, I am... own pride was involved, I diplomatically advised him to strive to respect my colleague?s credentials and to remember the necessity of passing one?s core classes. The discord between the artist and authority is certainly a Romantic trope, yet...

  10. News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

  11. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce...10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4...

  12. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce...10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4...

  13. III JOINT SYMPOSIUM OF TAIWAN-RUSSIA RESEARCH COOPERATION ON ADVANCED PROBLEMS IN

    E-print Network

    Kaplan, Alexander

    .. III - « , » III JOINT SYMPOSIUM OF TAIWAN-RUSSIA RESEARCH: Institute of Mechanics, LMSU, Moscow, Russia Dates: November 0712, 2012 Sponsors: National Science Council, Taiwan Institute of Mechanics, LMSU, Moscow, Russia 2012 #12; 531/534 22.2 63

  14. 15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce...10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4...

  15. Changes in Russia's gas exportation strategy: Europe versus Asia? Catherine Locatelli, Research Fellow,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Changes in Russia's gas exportation strategy: Europe versus Asia? Catherine Locatelli, Research policy. JEL classification: Industrial organization, International economics. Abstract: Russia's gas strategy is currently undergoing fundamental changes. The internationalisation of Russia's gas exchanges

  16. Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

  17. Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of precipitation (especially in liquid form) in cold seasons and alternation of thaw periods and cold spells may trigger abruption of transmission facilities and other lines of communication, sudden collapses of structures and roofs, increasing in number of transport accidents. Fires and explosions caused by heat may be more frequent in south regions. The area of agricultural accidents may be extending. Permafrost area comes to 63 percent in total area of Russia. Expected permafrost thawing may produce risk of roads, railways, and pipelines disruption, destruction of dangerous waste storages, and sudden collapse of buildings and other structures. The problem of relationships between natural hazards and technological disasters needs further investigation, especially from the point of view of climate change expected.

  18. Political Shake-up In Russia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    de Nie, Michael Willem.

    1998-01-01

    This week's In the News discusses the recent political turmoil in Russia. The resources discussed offer background, analysis, and commentary. Russian President Boris Yeltsin recently stunned politicians and political commentators around the world by dismissing his entire cabinet. Rather than turning his back on reform, Yeltsin claims he seeks a new political team that will pursue economic liberalization more vigorously. Some analysts, however, see these maneuverings as yet another example of Yeltsin's quirky and high-handed political style. This sentiment was reinforced when Yeltsin named a relative political-unknown, Sergei Kiriyenko, to be the next Prime Minister.

  19. Introduction: Intelligentsia science inside and outside Russia.

    PubMed

    Gordin, Michael D; Hall, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The concept of "intelligentsia" has had a long life both as an actors' category and as a tool of historical analysis to understand the role of the educated elite in Russia and the Soviet Union. For a variety of reasons, this term has not achieved much prominence in exploring the assimilation of science and technology into Russian culture. This essay examines the term's convoluted historiography and makes a case for the utility of its revival--understanding "intelligentsia" not as a single concept or group but as a heterogeneous and evolving social institution. The entire volume is then introduced with these features in mind. PMID:18831316

  20. Temporal trends of anthropogenic SO2 emitted by non-ferrous metal smelters in Peru and Russia estimated from Satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhar, M. F.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2008-09-01

    We report on satellite observations of atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emitted from metal smelting industries in Peru, South America and Siberia, Russia. Most of the non-ferrous metal ores are sulfidic and during the smelting process the sulfur is emitted as SO2. In addition to Norilsk, Russia, Peruvian copper smelters are among the most polluting point sources in the world. We retrieve SO2 column amounts from spectra of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on the Earth Research Satellite 2 (ERS-2) for the years 1996 to 2002 using an algorithm based on differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). Areas of enhanced SO2 column amounts are clearly identified on a 7-years mean map of GOME observations over the regions with La Oroya and Ilo copper smelters of Peru and Norilsk smelters of Russia. Since the instrument sensitivity is highly dependent on surface albedo, SO2 vertical profile, solar zenith angle (SZA), wavelength, clouds, and aerosol, radiative transfer modelling is used to convert the analysed slant column densities into vertical column densities. In this study, the full spherical Monte-Carlo radiative transport model TRACY-II is used for SO2 AMF calculation. GOME data is analysed in further detail by calculating time series over these regions. For the different locations, the results demonstrate both, increasing and decreasing trends in the SO2 column amounts over the time period of 1996 2002. The decreasing trend for the Ilo copper smelter is in good agreement with implemented measures for emission reductions. However, even for the cases with decreasing trends, these point sources are still a dominant source of anthropogenic SO2 emissions in their region. For the smelters in Peru, the potential influence due to SO2 emission by the nearby volcanoes is investigated and found to be negligible.

  1. Study of geochemical aspects of the peat bog genesis in eutrophic marshes in West Siberia by neutron activation analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. T. Efremova; S. P. Efremov; K. P. Koutzenogii; V. F. Peresedov

    1998-01-01

    Siberian peat bog are the largest in the world. Collecting of data on contaminating elements in Siberian peat deposits is\\u000a important because no quantitative information has been available till recently. As a rule, the distribution of the concentrations\\u000a of elements over the vertical profile of the stratigraphic column is used to study the evolution of pollutants in the environment.\\u000a Using

  2. SRP4760R List of Lots By Purchaser As at :-02-may-2012:08:43 WEST ARGYLL (Siberia Junction)

    E-print Network

    -APR-12 MOAI TENDER SCO #12;SRP4760R List of Lots By Purchaser As at :- 02-may-2012:08:43 Page 2 2.07 2 Purchaser SCOTLAND Tender18-APR-12 MOAI TENDER SCO #12;SRP4760R List of Lots By Purchaser As at :- 02-may) Treelogic Not Sold Country :- Event :- Lot No Lot Name Purchaser SCOTLAND Tender18-APR-12 MOAI TENDER SCO

  3. Diversity of the major capsid genes (g23) of T4-like bacteriophages in the eutrophic Lake Kotokel in East Siberia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Butina, Tatyana V; Belykh, Olga I; Potapov, Sergey A; Sorokovikova, Ekaterina G

    2013-07-01

    Numerous studies revealed high diversity of T4-like bacteriophages in various environments, but so far, little is known about T4-like virus diversity in freshwater bodies, particularly in eutrophic lakes. The present study was aimed at elucidating molecular diversity of T4-like bacteriophages in eutrophic Lake Kotokel located near Lake Baikal by partial sequencing of the major capsid genes (g23) of T4-like bacteriophages. The majority of g23 fragments from Lake Kotokel were most similar to those from freshwater lakes and paddy fields. Despite the proximity and direct water connection between Lake Kotokel and Lake Baikal, g23 sequence assemblages from two lakes were different. UniFrac analysis showed that uncultured T4-like viruses from Lake Kotokel tended to cluster with those from the distant lake of the same trophic status. This fact suggested that the trophic conditions affected the formation of viral populations, particularly of T4-like viruses, in freshwater environments. PMID:23539063

  4. Radiogenic argon distribution within a mineral grain: implications for dating of hydrothermal mineral-forming event in Sludyanka complex, Siberia, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan S. Brandt; Sergei V. Rasskazov; Alexei V. Ivanov; Leonid Z. Reznitskii; Sergei B. Brandt

    2006-01-01

    Usually, in age-determination procedures, the experimenter is interested in the mean concentrations of parent and daughter substances. However, the structure of a solution of the Fick’s diffusion equation enables one to specify a procedure, allowing, through macroscopic experiments, one to determine the distribution of radiogenic argon (as well as any of other isotopes) within a mineral grain. Argon, influenced in

  5. The Ioko-Dovyren layered massif (Southern Siberia, Russia): 1. Internal structure, magma compositions, and fingerprints of open magma chamber behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariskin, Alexey; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Nikolaev, Georgy

    2013-04-01

    The Yoko-Dovyren massif (YDM) is located ~60 km to NE of the Baikal Lake, being morphologically a ridge of 26 km long and up to 2114 m high. Geologically, the pluton is a lens-shaped body (up to 3.5 thick) which together with associated peridotite sills, diabase dikes, and overlying volcanics represents a volcanic-plutonic association (728+/-2.4 Ma [1]), formed in the Late Riphean within a huge rifting system (the Olokit trough) at the southern margin of the Siberian craton. A unique feature of the regional geology is the concordance of the igneous rocks with the enclosing carbonate-terrigenous sediments along its strike and dip, which is nearly vertical due to post-intrusive folding. This allows one to sample the intrusive complex across the strike, from the lower to upper contacts. The modal layering of YDM includes a bottom unit of plagioclase lherzolites (100-150 m) followed by a succession of cumulates including: Pl-bearing and adcumulate dunites (Ol+Chr, 800-900 m), troctolite (Ol+Pl+Chr, ~700 m), Ol gabbro (Pl+Ol+Cpx, Pig-gabbro and quartz gabbronorites (Pl+Cpx±Opx±Pig). Despite its Precambrian age, YDM was not metamorphosed significantly, so that most of intrusive rocks are very fresh, preserving both their igneous textures and original mineralogy. Parental magma compositions have been evaluated based on studies of the chilled zones and underlying ultramafic sills. The most primitive rocks of YDM have been discovered at the lower contact composed of chilled diabases and picritic rocks containing variable amounts of Ol, and ophitic textures of their groundmass. The FeO-MgO trend displayed by these high porosity cumulates suggests them to contain originally olivine ~Fo88. The COMAGMAT model calculations indicate the initial temperature of the heterogeneous magma is to be of 1310oC, with the magmatic melt containing ~12% MgO [2]. Using this composition as starting one, we simulated the parent crystallization sequence which corresponds to that observed in the YDM cumulates. Estimates for Ol-gabbronorites and Pl-dunites from ultramafic sills result in more evolved magma containing Ol~Fo85 at T~1190oC. Both geochemical and cumulate structure of YDM is indicative of a significant amount of mafic melts to be extracted from the original cumulate piles, followed by their expulsion from the magma staging chamber. Fingerprints of such an open-system behavior are recorded in (1) strong depletion in incompatible elements of the bulk YDM composition with respect to parental magmas, (2) a complimentary "over-enrichment" with Ol cumulates and sulfides, (3) insignificant variations of Ol composition throughout the Layered Series, and (4) the absence of the Upper Border Series as a marginal compositional reversal. This research was supported by AngloAmerican, BHP Billiton and Votorantim Metais through AMIRA project P962, by the Australian Research Council funding to the CODES, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 08-05-00194a, 11-05-00268a). [1] Ariskin et al. (2013) Geochem. Intern. [2] Ariskin et al. (2012)Abs. 12th Intern. Ni-Cu-(PGE) symp. (China)

  6. Model of erosion-landslide interaction in the context of the reservoir water level variations (East Siberia, Russia): Factors, environment and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaeva, Oksana; Khak, Viktoria; Kozyreva, Elena

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive investigation of landslide-erosion interactions has been carried out in the local shore geosystem of the Bykovo site located on the left shore of the Bratsk reservoir. The landslide process develops in the Mid-Quaternary grounds (aQ of the erosion-accumulative terrace's fragment that comprises sand, sand with pebbles, sandy loams and loams. This study aims to assess the environmental factors of interacting landslide and gully erosion processes, to estimate their temporal dynamics by comparative analysis of cartographic models based on the data of repeated theodolite surveys, and to find out what level regime of the reservoir stimulates the activation of the landslide process. The authors propose two-stage descriptive model of erosion-landslide interaction and development mechanisms in the context of the reservoir water level variations in the Bratsk reservoir. The activation of landslide processes in the reservoir shores follows the periods of high water level stands. Shore slope stability is disturbed by abrasion of slope foot and inundation of the slide zone. The soils subject to landslide, erosion-landslide and erosion processes differ in their microstructure and properties. Largest erosion susceptibility is typical of soils with skeleton-aggregated microstructure, fine- and coarse-silt sandy loams and loams of high porosity, whose interstructural bonds are attributed to water-soluble salts (Sws = 0.4-0.5%) and high carbonate contents (Scr = 34-66%). High dispersion and aggregation of clay fractions is typical of the loams of the slide zone. The structure of soils subject to deformation slide is represented primarily by fine-sand particles and aggregates with smaller cohesion and strength properties.

  7. Effect of microrelief and vegetation on methane emission from wet polygonal tundra, Lena Delta, Northern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Kutzbach; Dirk Wagner; Eva-Maria Pfeiffer

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microrelief and vegetation on methane (CH4) emission was investigated in a wet polygonal tundra of the Lena Delta, Northern Siberia (72.37N, 126.47E). Total and plant-mediated CH4 fluxes were measured by closed-chamber techniques at two typical sites within a low-centred polygon. During the study period, total CH4 flux averaged 28.0?±?5.4?mg?m-2?d-1 in the depressed polygon centre and only 4.3?±?0.8?mg?m-2?d-1

  8. Correlation of upper Bajocian-Bathonian zones in Siberia with the stage standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meledina, S. V.; Nal'Nyaeva, T. I.; Shurygin, B. N.

    2009-06-01

    The suggestions to transfer the Arcticoceras ishmae Zone from the middle to the lower Bathonian and the Arctocephalites arcticus Zone from the lower Bathonian to the upper Bajocian put forward by some researchers, are critically considered. These suggestions are based on paleontological records from the Sokur quarry near Saratov. Based on paleontological data from Siberia represented in a number of regional ammonite, belemnite, and retroceram zonations, we infer that the proposed zonal subdivision of the Jurassic in the Sokur quarry to be untrue and believe the revision of the correlation of the above-mentioned zones with the stage and zonal standard to be premature because of insufficient argumentation.

  9. Federalism with and without Political Centralization: China versus Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier J. Blanchard; Andrei Shleifer

    2000-01-01

    In China, local governments have actively contributed to the growth of new firms. In Russia, local governments have typically stood in the way, be it through taxation, regulation, or corruption. There appears to be two main reasons behind the behavior of local governments in Russia. First, capture by old firms, leading local governments to protect them from competition by new

  10. Putin's Etatization project and limits to democratic reforms in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mohsin Hashim

    2005-01-01

    The paper evaluates Putin's state building efforts in terms of its impact on democratic change in Russia. Putin's evolution is treated as a response and not a solution to the legacy of the Yeltsin era reforms that created a politico-economic system lacking widespread legitimacy. It is argued that Putin's consolidation of power through his centralization measures seriously undermines Russia's prospects

  11. Higher Education Reform in Russia: Democratization or Bureaucratization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panfilova, T. V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent reforms have increased the level of administrative oversight, and also of interference of the structure and content of university education in Russia. This is leading to a weakening of Russian higher education. In this article, the author talks about the reform of the system of higher education in Russia and the bureaucratization of higher…

  12. In Russia, a Model Program Reunites Research and Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bryon

    2007-01-01

    Scientific research has traditionally been left to professionals in Russia. Here, though, graduates and undergraduates work alongside established scientists from different fields, on modern equipment. Some even earn enough money to support themselves. The students have been given this chance under a joint program of the United States and Russia

  13. The Process and Impact of Privatization in Russia and Ukraine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trevor Buck; Igor Filatotchev; Mike Wright; Yves van Frausum

    1996-01-01

    Differing in pace and scope, privatization in Russia and Ukraine has resulted in insiders usually dominating the ownership structure. Despite following a “giveaway” distribution of shares, Russia more than Ukraine favors outside investors. Russian managers, more so than their Ukrainian counterparts, have assembled larger shareholdings at the expense of other employees. Surveys were conducted of enterprise perceptions to see if

  14. Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rybakova, L. N.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

  15. Cable networks evolution for multimedia delivery in Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. V. Makhrovskiy; V. S. Shibanov; I. N. Tkachman

    1996-01-01

    The paper presents some results of the first step of multimedia service introduction on broadcast networks in Russia. A cable network evolution strategy toward a full service network (FSN) on the basis of service requirements is proposed as a possible path of transition to broadband ISDN for Russia using the St. Petersburg region's example. Network topologies are analysed and future

  16. Russia's Policy and Standing in Nanotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terekhov, Alexander I.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I consider the historical stages of development of nanotechnology in Russia as well as the political framework for this. It is shown that early federal nanotechnology programs in Russia date back to the 1990s and that since the mid-2000s, nanotechnology has attracted the increasing attention of government. I characterize the…

  17. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  18. Mouth of the Ob River, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite shows the cause and effect of the large-scale seasonal flooding experienced on rivers throughout Siberia each year. Because many Siberian rivers flow from south to north, they flood regularly in the spring as meltwater from southern latitudes backs up against the still-frozen northern reaches of the rivers.These images show the Ob' River on the western edge of the Central Siberian Plateau. The images from June 20, 2002, show the mouth of the Ob' River (large river at left) where it empties into Kara Sea. In the false-color image, Vegetation appears in bright green, water appears dark blue or black, and ice appears bright blue. The ice is still choking the river's outlet to the sea.The effect of this ice block on the more southern stretches of the river can be seen in the images captured on June 17. In the false-color image, water is black, vegetation is in shades of gold and green, and clouds are pale orange. In the northernmost portion of the Ob' visible in this image (the Ob' runs southeast to northwest in the image), what is normally a fine mesh of braided streams and branches of the river channel has become almost a lake in places. The flood waters have engorged the river to 52 kilometers (32 miles) wide in places. Rivers can back up for hundreds of miles, and cause devastating flooding for towns and villages along the banks. Often, explosives are dropped into ice jams in an effort to free the river and give the flood waters a chance to escape. The spring and summer floods of 2002 have proven to be quite severe and perhaps as many as 100,000 people have been affected across the country. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Fire Regime and Land Abandonment in European Russia: Case Study of Smolensk Oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Turubanova, S.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Manisha, A.; Romanenkov, V.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Hansen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in anthropogenically-dominated landscapes are generally attributed to ecosystem management, agriculture, and policy drivers. In European Russia, fire mainly occurring on agricultural lands, wetlands, and abandoned lands. In the agricultural practice in Russia prescribed fires are believed to increase pasture and hay productivity, suppress trees and shrub expansion, and reduce fire hazards, with fire frequency fire dependent on land use and agricultural practices. The large-scale socio-economic transition since the fall of the Soviet Union has led to changes in land use and land management, including land abandonment and changing agricultural practices. In June 2014, an extensive field campaign was completed in the Smolensk Oblast, located approximately two hundred kilometers west of Moscow on the border with Belarus. Our field sampling was based on circa 1985 Landsat-based forest cover map (Potapov et al., 2014). Points were randomly selected from the non-forested class of the 1985 classification, prior to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Of total field collects, 55% points were sampled on land in either early or late stage of abandonment, 15% from actively cropped fields, and 30% from hay or pasture. Fire frequency was calculated for the 108 field points using 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) active fire data for years 2000-2014. Also we calculated percent of points burned in spring 2014 using 30 m Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data to derive burn scars. Actively cropped fields had lowest burn frequency while abandoned lands - early and late stage abandonment - had highest frequency. Fire frequency was significantly higher on wet soils than dry soils, with no relationship between fire frequency and tree canopy cover. We hypothesize, higher fire frequency on abandoned lands was likely due to greater fuel loads and because of traditional belief in rural Russia that fire is efficient way to suppress tree and shrub expansion.

  20. Modeling and Assessing Insect Disturbance on Boreal Forests in the Krasnoyarsk region of Russia by Employing the FAREAST Gap Model and Local Forest Inventory and Disturbance Data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, A. E.; Shuman, J. K.; Soukhavolosky, V.; Kovalev, A.; Stevens, T.; Shugart, H. H.

    2008-12-01

    FAREAST: an individual-based forest dynamics model was initially developed to simulate the forested region around Changbai Mountain in northern China. In recent years the model has been expanded across Siberia. The model output for biomass (tCha-1) has been verified against forest inventory data for a number of sites across Russia. With this success, an additional module for the model was written by Anton Kovalev to predict the impact of insect disturbance on the Boreal forests. This model predicts the probability of an insect outbreak occurring, and then, by assessing each individual tree in a modeled stand, predicts whether a tree will be killed as a result of insect predation. From this, a disturbance index is calculated that includes lost biomass as a result of insect disturbance and subsequent species composition. This disturbance "fingerprint" is being compared to forest inventory and insect disturbance data from the Usolsky forests in the Krasnoyarsk region of central Siberia. Silkworm disturbance is expressed in this geo- database as a percentage of trees damaged or killed in a stand. The forest inventory data allows us to calculate a biomass estimate that will be compared to the biomass outputs generated by the model post insect disturbance. The validation of simulated biomass with independent inventory data confirms that FAREAST is a robust model of Russian forest dynamics. Effective validation of the insect disturbance model will allow us to generate a more complete picture of the changing ecology of the Siberian Boreal landscape. The economic cost of lumber lost as a result of Silkworm damage has been enormous, if verified, FAREAST will afford us the opportunity to estimate the extent of that loss and predict the changing ecological dynamics of the Boreal forest system under the worlds evolving climate.

  1. On the discovery of a cave lion from the Malyi Anyui River (Chukotka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, I. V.; Tiunov, A. V.; Levchenko, V. A.; Chernova, O. F.; Yudin, V. G.; Bertuch, F.; Shidlovskiy, F. K.

    2015-06-01

    An incomplete postcranial skeleton (67 elements) of a cave lion, a lower jaw and a bundle of fine yellowish hair were found by a local resident in 2008 and 2009 washed out from the perennially frozen Pleistocene sediments in the lower reaches of the Malyi Anyui River (western Chukotka). This is the first skeleton of a cave lion (Panthera spelaea Goldfuss) to be found in Russia. The bone sizes are similar to finds of cave lion bones known from N-E Russia, but larger than East Beringian and smaller than West European ones. The remains have been studied using a variety of methods, including morphology, morphometry, SEM-examination, AMS-dating, and isotopic study, which included examination of over 100 samples of various members of the mammoth faunal assemblage (mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, bison, horse, bear, etc.). The results showed that the northeastern Asian cave lion hunted mainly bison and horses, but not reindeer, unlike its Western Europe counterpart. Bone and claw sheath dating showed an unexpectedly old geochronological age of over 61,000 years (OZQ290, OZQ291), while the hair was dated 28,690 ± 130 (OZQ292), which makes its affinity with the same individual as the skeleton questionable. Further studies to investigate possible unremoved contamination and obtain more reliable date are planned.

  2. Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

    2008-01-01

    In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

  3. Observation of tropospheric ?D by IASI and comparison with LMDZiso over the Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pommier, Matthieu; Lacour, Jean-Lionel; Risi, Camille; Bréon, François-Marie; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François; Gribanov, Konstantin; Hurtmans, Daniel; Jouzel, Jean; Zakharov, Vyacheslav

    2014-05-01

    Western Siberia has undergone a sharp increase in temperature during the last decades, modifying the biogeochemical and the hydrological cycles. Water vapor plays an important role in the atmosphere including in the radiative transfer, cloud formation and precipitation. Information about evaporation/condensation processes of water vapor can be provided by water stable isotopologues such as H216O and HDO. This study presents the joint H216O and HDO retrievals from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) spectra over Siberia. IASI is an instrument on board the MetOp-A European satellite launched in October 2006. The global coverage of this instrument and the good signal-to-noise ratio allow us to provide information on ?D over this region. IASI measurements may be used to estimate integrated ?D between the surface and 3 km altitude or from 1 to 5 km depending on the thermal contrast between the surface and the low troposphere. The retrieved data are compared to simulations from an isotopic GCM, LMDZiso, for 2011. The data show variations that are well correlated with the model at seasonal (r up to 0.8) and day-to-day (r?0.6) time scales. The IASI-based retrievals and the model capture also well the seasonal variation of the specific humidity in the [0-3km] and the [1-5km] altitude ranges.

  4. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Zeller, B.; Derrien, D.; Barsukov, P.; Nikitich, P.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most limiting nutrients in many ecosystems and mineral reserves available for fertilizer production are forecasted to last for no more than 100 yrs. Crop requirements for P are often lower in forests than in agriculture and P fertilization to forest ecosystems is not very common on a global scale. In southern Siberia, expected climate change would lead to higher overall precipitation, higher temperatures and subsequently to changes in land use (i.e. agricultural land could increase on detriment of forests). In the present work we evaluated P status in four forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia including 1 site with lowland Populus tremula, and 3 upland sites in the Salair mountains with Populus tremula, Abies siberica or with small forest openings. The upland sites feature twice higher productivity than the lowland sites and it was suggested that thick snow cover on those sites would enable winter activity of microbial communities leading to faster soil degradation processes and higher nutrient availability. We thus wanted to test whether biological processes in the upland sites were of larger impact on P status than in the lowland sites. We combined 32P isotopic dilution techniques (for diffusive P), chemical extractions (for total P, organic P) and fumigation/incubation/respiration methods (for microbial P) to test this hypothesis. Additional soil analyses (C, N and othes) were performed. Results will be interpreted in the light of the exising knowledge on botany, climate, pedology and expected implications for future land use, would this occur to change.

  5. Early influence of the steppe tribes in the peopling of Siberia.

    PubMed

    Amory, S; Crubézy, E; Keyser, C; Alekseev, A N; Ludes, B

    2006-10-01

    The Yakuts, Middle Age Turkic speakers (15th-16th centuries), are widely accepted as the first settlers of the Altai-Baikal area in eastern Siberia. They are supposed to have introduced horses and developed metallurgy in this geographic area during the 15th or 16th century A.D. The analysis of the Siberian grave of Pokrovsk, recently discovered near the Lena River (61 degrees 29' N) and dated by accelerator mass spectrometry from 2,400 to 2,200 years B.P., may provide new elements to test this hypothesis. The exceptional combination of various artifacts and the mitochondrial DNA data extracted from the bone remains of the Pokrovsk man might prove the existence of previous contacts between autochthonous hunters of Oriental Siberia and the nomadic horse breeders from the Altai-Baikal area (Mongolia and Buryatia). Indeed, the stone arrowhead and the harpoons relate this Pokrovsk man to the traditional hunters of the Taiga. Some artifacts made of horse bone and the pieces of armor, however, are related to the tribes of Mongolia and Buryatia of the Xiongnu period (3rd century B.C.). This affinity has been confirmed by the match of the mitochondrial haplotype of this subject with a woman of the Egyin Gol necropolis (Mongolia, 2nd/3rd century A.D.) as well as with two modern Buryats. This result allows us to postulate that contacts between southern steppe populations and Siberian tribes occurred before the 15th century. PMID:17506285

  6. Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean

    PubMed

    Alerstam; Gudmundsson

    1999-12-22

    Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes. PMID:10693821

  7. Sexuality education moves forward in Russia.

    PubMed

    Popova, V J

    1996-01-01

    Efforts in the late-1980s to provide sex education to young people in Russia were interrupted, temporarily, by peristroika and the need to focus on political and economic concerns. In the early 1990s, several public family planning associations emerged with support from foreign funds and began limited condom distribution programs. Beginning in 1996, a sex and family life education curriculum developed by the Russian Sexological Association will be taught to students in grades 5-11. The curriculum moves from basic facts on reproduction to a consideration, in the higher grades, of the family, the psychological aspects of sexual relationships, and interpersonal communication and conflict resolution. Although the comprehensive nature of the curriculum has been commended, there is a shortage of educators with the social-psychological background required to present the material. PMID:12320002

  8. Bios-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia

    PubMed

    Wheeler, R M

    1994-01-01

    The article in this issue by Gitelson and Okladnikov provides a valuable summary of some of the work conducted at the Bios-3 project in Krasnoyarsk, Russia. As the title suggests, the focus is on humans and their role in a CELSS biosphere. I am aware of several translated reports and some recent articles by Dr. Gitelson and colleagues in which the Bios project is described, but this paper provides some information that I have not seen previously in an english article. Although the discussion is focused on bioregeneration, the authors state that complementary physicochemical technologies and some stowage may be needed in a CELSS. For example, animal protein foods were taken into the Bios-3 chamber, since, as the authors state, "products of animal origin would make the system considerably more complicated and energy inefficient." PMID:11538718

  9. Whole-Genome Sequencing of a Vibrio cholerae El Tor Strain Isolated in the Imported Cholera Focus in Siberia

    PubMed Central

    Balakhonov, S. V.; Basov, E. A.; Gladkikh, A. S.; Afanasev, M. V.; Ganin, V. S.; Urbanovich, L. Y.; Sidorova, E. A.

    2015-01-01

    The draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae O1 strain I-1263, isolated from a patient in the imported focus in Siberia, was determined. The established structural features of the mobile genetic elements indicate stage-by-stage formation of a highly pathogenic V. cholerae clone and promote understanding of the mechanisms of evolutionary pathogen transformations. PMID:25814617

  10. Virologic and genetic studies relate Amerind origins to the indigenous people of the Mongolia/Manchuria/southeastern Siberia region.

    PubMed Central

    Neel, J V; Biggar, R J; Sukernik, R I

    1994-01-01

    A commonly held theory is that the first wave of migrants into the New World was derivative from the ethnic groups then inhibiting eastern Siberia. However, these ethnic groups lack a mtDNA haplogroup (B) that is well represented in Amerindian tribes. Also, the time depth of the other three mtDNA haplogroups found in Amerindians (A, C, and D) appears to be greater in the Amerindians than in the eastern Siberian ethnic groups. In this communication we demonstrate that the human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type II, present in 11 of the 38 Amerindian tribes thus far examined, is not present in any of the 10 ethnic groups of eastern Siberia that we have studied. However, the virus has just been reported in the indigenous population of Mongolia, and mtDNA haplogroup B is also represented in this region. On the basis of these facts, we propose that the ancestors of the first migrants to the New World were not derived from north and central Siberia but from populations to the south, inhabiting the regions of Mongolia, Manchuria, and/or the extreme southeastern tip of Siberia. Images PMID:7938021

  11. The role of pingos in the development of the Dzhangyskol lake–pingo complex, central Altai Mountains, southern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Blyakharchuk; H. E. Wright; P. S. Borodavko; W. O. van der Knaap; B. Ammann

    2008-01-01

    Dzhangyskol is a small lake of glacial origin in the central part of the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia. Pollen stratigraphies and chronologies of two cores record the vegetational development of the area from the Late Glacial treeless landscape to the forest and steppe of today. The modern lake is a remnant of a much larger ice-dammed lake, which was

  12. Middle and upper cretaceous amber from the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia: Evidence for a new structural sub-class of resinite

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, K.B.

    1994-08-01

    Analysis of three amber (resinite) samples collected from Middle and Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia, indicates that these materials are based on copolymers of biformene (I) and communol (II). No resinites of similar structural character have previously been described and hence, these samples represent a previously unknown structural sub-class of resinite.

  13. Virologic and Genetic Studies Relate Amerind Origins to the Indigenous People of the Mongolia\\/Manchuria\\/Southeastern Siberia Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James V. Neel; Robert J. Biggar; Rem I. Sukernik

    1994-01-01

    A commonly held theory is that the first wave of migrants into the New World was derivative from the ethnic groups then inhabiting eastern Siberia. However, these ethnic groups lack a mtDNA haplogroup (B) that is well represented in Amerindian tribes. Also, the time depth of the other three mtDNA haplogroups found in Amerindians (A, C, and D) appears to

  14. Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchinsky, Leah R.

    This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

  15. Russia's national space weather service in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Viatcheslav; Avdyushin, Sergei; Denisova, Valentina

    RWC Russia (Institute of Applied Geophysics, Moscow) -forecasting center unites activity of the National Heliogeophysics Service of Russia and the Regional Warning Center of ISES. Nowadays the centre operates and fulfils numerous functions such as space weather monitoring, collecting, working and handing out the data to both Russian and foreign customers, compiling and spreading various kinds of the space weather condition forecasts. The first regular space weather forecast is known to have been issued on June 10, 1974. Since then this kind of activity has been processed and issued permanently 7 days a week. During year 2009 there were more than 17000 various short terms (semi -day, 1,2,3 and five days) forecasts of the geomagnetic fields and ionosphere conditions, magnetic fields, flare activity, radiation hazard in polar zones and the satellites traces. In the end of 2008 the Institute of Applied Geophysics was provided with necessary subsidizing to support the Space Weather Center. The fundamental repairs of the Institute's building have begun and are being done at present. They are to be completed this year. The allocated funds are sufficient to start the technical renovation of the Service, including: provision of the staff with up-to-date computing machinery; up-grading the observation stations equipment; preparing the apparatus and instruments for monitoring the near-earth space by two of our satellites "Meteor" and "Electro" ("Electro" -geostationary satellite). The "Meteor" satellite (subpolar orbit on altitude of 900 km) equipped with complex including: measurements of electron fluxes with energy more than 0.15 MeV, and proton fluxes with energy more than 5 MeV (40 channels) was launched on September 2009. These data (as well as ionosphere and geomagnetic data) are available on Web page www.geospace.ru since 2 quarter of the2010.

  16. WestRedwoodDrive West Redwood Drive

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    Community Meeting Rooms Residential Community Services The Cooperage Police & Parking Services 707Marsanne Fume Blanc Colombard Alicante Police Chardonnay Grenache Meritage Riesling Tokay Muscat Path Chateau Playground Area Chalk Hill Residential Community - West Campus Inset Map Residential

  17. Pushpa Bhat, Fermilab June 24-28, 2002 ACAT2002, Moscow, Russia Pushpa Bhat 2

    E-print Network

    Bhat, Pushpalatha

    1 Pushpa Bhat, Fermilab #12;June 24-28, 2002 ACAT2002, Moscow, Russia Pushpa Bhat 2 Richard Feynman automata-based programs on the connection machine #12;June 24-28, 2002 ACAT2002, Moscow, Russia Pushpa Bhat@fnal.gov ACAT 2002 Workshop June 24-28, 2002 Moscow, Russia #12;June 24-28, 2002 ACAT2002, Moscow, Russia Pushpa

  18. [Tuberculosis services of Russia under present-day socioeconomic conditions].

    PubMed

    Kucherov, A L

    1995-01-01

    By the data obtained from a special questionnaire survey current prospects in pathological service in Russia, approaches to updating this service, trends in basic epidemiological indices, outcomes of treatment and follow-up are outlined. PMID:7567862

  19. Some data on Cenozoic intraplate and subduction-related events in west Baluchistan, Mid East

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Romanko

    2010-01-01

    We present some data on the Alpine intraplate, and subduction-related rocks of the West Baluchestan Mid East, received by a group led by known regional specialists Dr. E. Romanko (Russia), Dr. A. Hushmandzadeh, and Dr. M.A.A. Nogol Sadat (Iran). Some important features on the intraplate rocks studied are as follows: mainly subalkaline affinity with the Middle-K, not very High-Ti, lower

  20. Assessment of the regional atmospheric impact of wildfire emissions based on CO observations at the ZOTTO tall tower station in central Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Vasileva; K. B. Moiseenko; J.-C. Mayer; N. Jürgens; A. Panov; M. Heimann; M. O. Andreae

    2011-01-01

    Wildfires in Siberia: important contributor to regional background CO levelsContributions from wildfires are seen in synoptic and year-to-year variabilityAnthropogenic emissions play minor role in synoptic CO variations

  1. Molecular Characterization of Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates, Russia, 1957–1987

    PubMed Central

    Cherkasova, Valentina V.; Maksimova, Nina; Marston, Chung K.; Sjursen, Haakon; Reeves, Michael W.; Olsvik, Ørjan; Popovic, Tanja

    2002-01-01

    In the 1990s, the Newly Independent and Baltic States of the former Soviet Union experienced the largest diphtheria outbreak since the 1960s; it was caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains of a unique clonal group. To address its origin, we studied 47 clinical isolates from Russia and demonstrated that this clonal group was an integral part of the endemic reservoir that existed in Russia at least 5 years before the epidemic began. PMID:11996689

  2. Russia's Foreign Policy Toward Iran: A Critical Geopolitics Perspective

    E-print Network

    Omelicheva, Mariya Y.

    2012-01-01

    accused Tehran in a malicious intent to build nuclear weapons and have supported a variety of diplomatic and economic sanctions against Iran to pressure it into the renouncement of its nuclear aspirations. Russia has traditionally objected to using... and Europe had been insisting for a long time. The same year, Russia joined Security Council Resolution 1696 that called for the suspension of all nuclear enrichment and plutonium processing activities in Iran by August 2006 or face further Security...

  3. Formation and growth rates of atmospheric nanoparticles: four years of observations at two West Siberian stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Boris D.; Davydov, Denis K.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Arshinova, Victoria

    2015-04-01

    In spite of fact that the first report on the new particle formation (NPF) itself was done by John Aitken more than one century ago (Aitken, 1898), a phenomenon of NPF bursts taken place in the atmosphere was discovered not very long ago. Nevertheless, to date it is known that they may occur quite often in a variety of environments (Kulmala et al., 2004; Hirsikko et al., 2011). Siberia occupies a vast area covered by forests, but the comprehensive data on burst frequency, as well as on formation and growth rates of freshly nucleated particles in this key region are still lacking. Continuous measurements of aerosol size distribution carried out in recent years at two West Siberian stations (TOR-station - 56o28'41"N, 85o03'15"E; Fonovaya Observatory - 56o25'07"N, 84o04'27"E) allowed this gap in data to be filled up. Analysis of the size spectra classified in accordance with criteria proposed by Dal Maso et al. (2005) and Hammed et al. (2007) enabled a conclusion to be drawn that NPF events in Wets Siberia are more often observed during spring (from March to May) and early autumn (secondary frequency peak in September). On average, particle formation bursts took place on 23-28 % of all days. Such a seasonal pattern of the NPF occurrence is very similar to one observed at SMEAR II Station (Hyytiälä, Finland; Dal Maso et al. 2005, 2007). Formation rates (FR) of particles with diameters below 25 nm varied in a wide range from 0.1 to 10 cm-3 s-1. Mean values of FR for the entire period of observations were 1.7 cm-3s-1 (median = 1.13 cm-3 s-1) at TOR-station and 0.88 cm-3 s-1 (median = 0.69 cm-3 s-1) at Fonovaya Observatory. Enhanced values of FR are usually observed from spring to autumn. Mean growth rates of observed at TOR-station and Fonovaya Observatory were 6.5 nm h-1 (median = 5.0 nm h-1) and 8.3 nm h-1 (median = 6.4 nm h-1), respectively. This work was supported by the Branch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5); State contracts of the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia No. 14.604.21.0100, (RFMTFIBBB210290) and No. 14.613.21.0013 (RFMEFI61314X0013); and Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant No. 14-05-00590). Dal Maso, M., Kulmala, M., Riipinen, I., Wagner, R., Hussein, T., Aalto, P. P., and Lehtinen, K. E. J. (2005). Formation and growth of fresh atmospheric aerosols: eight years of aerosol size distribution data from SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, Boreal Environ. Res. 10, 323-336. Dal Maso, M., Sogacheva, L., Aalto, P., Riipinen, I., Komppula, M., Tunved, P., Korhonen, L., Suur-uski, V., Hirsikko, A., Kurten, T., Kerminen, V., Lihavainen, H., Viisanen, Y., Hansson, H., and Kulmala, M. (2007). Aerosol size distribution measurements at four Nordic field stations: identification, analysis and trajectories analysis of new particle formation bursts, Tellus B 59, 350-361. Hamed, A., Joutsensaari, J., Mikkonen, S., Sogacheva, L., Dal Maso, M., Kulmala, M., Cavalli F., Fuzzi S., Facchini, M. C., Decesari, S., Mircea, M., Lehtinen, K. E. J., and Laaksonen, A. (2007). Nucleation and growth of new particles in Po Valley, Italy, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7, 355-376. Hirsikko, A., Nieminen, T., Gagné, S., Lehtipalo, K., Manninen, H. E., Ehn, M., Hõrrak, U., Kerminen, V.-M., Laakso, L., McMurry, P. H., Mirme, A., Mirme, S., Petäjä, T., Tammet, H., Vakkari, V., Vana, M., and Kulmala, M. (2011). Atmospheric ions and nucleation: a review of observations, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11, 767-798. Kulmala, M., Vehkamäki, H., Petäjä, T., Dal Maso, M., Lauri A., Kerminen, V.-M., Birmili, W., and McMurry, P. H. (2004a) Formation and growth rates of ultrafine atmospheric particles: a review of observations, J. Aerosol Science 35, 143-176.

  4. Lithospheric delamination underneath Far East Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntaflos, Theodoros; Koutsovitis, Petros; Aschchepkov, Igor; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Prikhodko, Vladimir; Asseva, Anna

    2013-04-01

    In the back-arc environment of Far East Russia, mantle xenoliths from Sikhoti-Alin( Komku area, KO) and Primorie (Sviyaginsky area, SV), Far East Russia are fertile spinel lherzolites with traces of amphibole, phlogopite and hyalophane in some of the studied samples. Though samples from both localities are fertile there is a systematic difference in their fertility. The KO samples have mg# varying from 0.891 to 0.899 and are slightly more fertile than the SV samples that have mg# ranging from 0.898 to 0.904. LA-ICP-MS analyses on clinopyroxenes confirm this trend as the (La/Yb)N in KO samples range from 0.1to 1.0 and in SV samples from 0.15 to 1.73. The estimated equilibration temperatures for the KO suite range from 940 °C to 1035 °C and for the SV suite from 770 to 945. The differences in the estimated equilibrium temperatures between the KO and SV suites suggest that the less fertile SV suite originated in shallower depths than the more fertile KO suite. Pargasitic amphibole, kaersutite, and extremely Ti-rich phlogopite, up to 14 wt% TiO2, are associated with intergranular glass indicating clearly metasomatism of undersaturated hydrous alkaline melts. Incompatible element abundances, besides Ba, Sr and Ti that are slightly enriched in the amphibole, are similar in both phases suggesting minor metasomatism due to percolation of small amounts of water-rich fluids. The Sr and Nd cpx isotopic ratios range from 0.702599 to 0.703567 and 0.512915 to 513153, repectively and the model Nd isotope age range from 1.5 to 2.2 Ga indicating an old (Proterozoic?) partial melt event. The lithospheric mantle beneath the studied area represents the residue after partial melting of up to 2 % of a primitive mantle and is comparable to that of Mongolia. Despite the fact that the studied area experienced several subducting episodes, the lithospheric mantle appears to be unaffected from the upwelling fluids/melts of the subducted slab(s). Since there is no indication for plume activity, and/or evidence for refertilization, it is likely that the lithospheric mantle has been delaminated as the result of tectonic events (lithospheric attenuation, inverse tectonic) associated with the subduction processes and that the studied spinel lherzolites represent upwelling asthenosphere.

  5. A preliminary investigation of siliceous microfossil succession in late Quaternary sediments from Lake Baikal, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julius, M.L.; Stoermer, E.F.; Colman, Steven M.; Moore, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    Siliceous microfossil assemblage succession was analyzed in a 100 m sediment core from Lake Baikal, Siberia. The core was recovered from the lake's central basin at a water depth of 365 m. Microfossil abundance varied greatly within the intervals sampled, ranging from samples devoid of siliceous microfossils to samples with up to 3.49 ?? 1011 microfossils g-1 sediment. Fluctuations in abundance appear to reflect trends in the marine ??18O record, with peak microfossil levels generally representing climate optima. Microfossil taxa present in sampled intervals changed considerably with core depth. Within each sample a small number of endemic diatom species dominated the assemblage. Changes in dominant endemic taxa between sampled intervals ranged from extirpation of some taxa, to shifts in quantitative abundance. Differences in microfossil composition and the association of variations in abundance with climate fluctuations suggest rapid speciation in response to major climatic excursions. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  6. Genetic structure of a Sakha population from Siberia and ethnic affinities.

    PubMed

    Pakendorf, B; Spitsyn, V A; Rodewald, A

    1999-04-01

    The red cell enzymes ACP1, ESD, GLO1, PGM1 and RDS and the serum proteins GC, HP, PI, and TF were determined for samples of 150 and 144 Sakha, respectively. The Sakha, a Turkic-speaking population, inhabit the Sakha-Yakutia Republic in northeastern Siberia. High gene frequencies were found for ACP1*A, GLO1*1 and GC*1F, whereas no P1*S or P1*Z alleles were found. In addition, 1 heterozygous phenotype with ACP1*C and 2 heterozygous phenotypes with ESD*7 were found. The genetic distance measures show close affinities of the Sakha population to Buryats (especially Western Buryats), Mongols, and Evenks, whereas the genetic distance to Turkic-speaking Altay and Tuvan populations is great. PMID:10222645

  7. Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, Donald R, Jr.; Stocks, Brian J.; Levine, Joel S.; Cofer, Wesley R., III; Pierson, Joseph M.

    1994-01-01

    Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the Heilongjiang Province of China. Satellite imagery is used to examine the development and areal distribution of 1987 forest fires in this region. Overall trace gas emissions to the atmosphere from these fires are determined using a satellite-derived estimate of area burned in combination with fuel consumption figures and carbon emission ratios for boreal forest fires.

  8. The Age and Amount of Carbon Released From Incubations of Permafrost Soil From Northeastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, K.; Zimov, S. A.; Schuur, E. A.

    2004-12-01

    Permafrost soils are important reservoirs of carbon (C) in arctic and boreal ecosystems. Rising global temperatures are expected to enhance decomposition of permafrost organic matter, and in turn, respired CO2 may cause a positive feedback to warming. Yedoma soils from northeastern Siberia represent a large and poorly understood reservoir of permafrost soil organic matter, and are estimated to contain up to 450 Gt of C frozen since the Pleistocene. These mineral soils from the ice-rich areas of northeastern Siberia accumulated as wind blown loess buried organic matter fragments that were subsequently frozen in permafrost. We conducted laboratory incubations of Yedoma soils in order to understand the lability and the temperature dependence of this frozen organic matter. We collected frozen Yedoma soils from four different locations in northeastern Siberia and incubated them at 5° C, 10° C and 15° C to monitor CO2 flux from microbial decomposition. The four locations included two tundra sites close to the Arctic Ocean and two locations located in boreal forest along the banks of the Kolyma River near Cherskii, Siberia. At all sites, permafrost soils were collected from deep within the soil profile, at depths >10m. Additionally at one of the boreal forest sites, soils were also collected from the modern mineral soil surface, which is currently unfrozen in summer and at 2m depth, which is below the modern active layer. We found more than a four-fold range in the rate of CO2 flux among sites during the initial period of the incubation. This range in CO2 flux increased to more than a ten-fold range later in the incubation as the rates at some sites declined to very low levels. Incubation temperature had a positive effect on flux rates. The modern surface soil from the boreal forest had among the lowest fluxes, even though it receives current inputs of labile C from actively growing plant roots, dissolved organic C, and root exudates. The low fluxes from the modern soil relative to the permafrost soils demonstrates the lability of organic matter stored frozen in these Yedoma soils. In addition to fluxes, we measured C isotopes to determine the age and sources of respired CO2. Radiocarbon measurements showed that respired CO2 had 14C-ages ranging from 21,000 to 25,000BP across all sites, with the exception of the surface soil where modern `bomb' carbon was observed in respiration. Measurements of stable C isotopes (? 13C) ranged from -23 to -29.7‰ for all soils, and there was a significant relationship with 14C-ages, where younger respired C had more depleted ? 13C values. Our results indicate the potential for ancient C to fuel microbial respiration and C release once permafrost Yedoma soils are thawed.

  9. Morphogenetic diagnostics of soil formation on tailing dumps of coal quarries in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, D. A.; Androkhanov, V. A.; Kulizhskii, S. P.; Domozhakova, E. A.; Loiko, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Morphological diagnostics of soil-forming processes in the young soils of technogenic landscapes are considered. Comprehensive multilevel studies of soils developed on the tailings of coal mines of different age in a wide range of climatic conditions in Siberia are performed. The processes of the mineral substrate transformation predominate at the initial stages of soil formation. Then, with the development of the soil profiles, the processes of the organic matter transformation begin to play the major role, and the organoprofiles of the soils specific to the particular climatic zone are formed. Micro- and submicroscopic studies allow us to judge the character of major soil processes and to identify the features attesting to the activity of some associated processes.

  10. Structural studies of the lipid membranes at the Siberia-2 synchrotron radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, M. A.; Ermakova, E. V.; Ryabova, N. Yu.; Nayda, O. V.; Zabelin, A. V.; Pogorely, D. K.; Korneev, V. N.; Balagurov, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Lipid membranes are a subject of contemporary interdisciplinary studies at the junction of biology, biophysics, pharmacology, and bionanotechnology. The results of the structural studies of several types of lipid membranes by the lamellar and lateral diffraction of X-ray synchrotron radiation are presented. The experiments were performed at the Mediana and DICSI stations of the Siberia-2 synchrotron radiation source at the Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute. The data obtained are compared with the results of studying lipid membranes at the small-angle scattering beamlines D22 and D24 at LURE (France) and at the A2 beamline at DESY (Germany). The parameters of the DICSI station are shown to meet the basic requirements for the structural study of lipid systems, which are of fundamental and applied interest.

  11. Attaining khinem: challenges, coping strategies and resilience among Eveny adolescents in northeastern Siberia.

    PubMed

    Ulturgasheva, Olga

    2014-10-01

    This article examines challenges, coping strategies, and resilience among Eveny adolescents in northeastern Siberia. It explores situations which the study participants associate with challenge and hardship, namely their experiences of transition from life in the family reindeer herding camp to schooling at the age of 7, bullying, boredom, and violence. By situating the data within the Eveny framework of resilience (khinem), the study provides the ethnographic context for coping strategies and efforts (e.g., sharing, inter- and intragenerational support, availability of safe homes) undertaken by the community in order to mitigate the situations of risk and hardship and to facilitate adolescents' resilience. The account emphasizes that instead of identifying adolescents as either resilient or vulnerable, it is necessary to explore culturally specific processes and practices which potentially contribute to their acquisition of resilience. PMID:25116205

  12. Microfossils in cherts from the Mesoproterozoic (Middle Riphean) Debengda Formation, the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Kolosova, S. P.; Kolosov, P. N.

    1994-01-01

    Silicified shallow-water marine carbonate deposits of the Proterozoic Debengda Formation (the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia) contain well preserved microfossils. One or two distinct assemblages consists only of filamentous Siphonophycus microfossils, which are presumably the extracellular sheaths of hormogonium cyanobacteria. The other is dominated by coccoidal microfossils, first by the entophysalidacean cyanobacterium Eoentophysalis. The coccoidal assemblage was recognized in the layered carbonate precipitate structures of a superficially stromatolite appearance. Despite its simple composition, the microfossil assemblage supports the generally accepted Mesoproterozoic (middle Riphean) age of the Debengda Formation. This conclusion corresponds to the available data on isotopic geochronology, and to the composition of columnar stromatolites from the Dehengda Formation. Both the structural features and carbon isotopic composition of its rocks are comparable to those of rocks of known Mesoproterozoic age, but differ from the characteristics of definitely Neoproterozoic deposits.

  13. Retrieval of aerosol microstructure and radiative properties for moderate turbidity under conditions of Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravleva, Tatiana B.; Bedareva, Tatiana V.; Sviridenkov, Mikhail A.

    2013-05-01

    This study focuses on the results of testing an algorithm for retrieval of aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics in the total atmospheric column from ground-based measurements of direct and diffuse solar radiation. Clear-sky photometric measurements carried out under moderate aerosol loading of the atmosphere in summer for 2003-2009 at Tomsk station of AERONET network were used. The retrieved aerosol optical and microphysical parameters are compared with AERONET data, an empirical model of the vertical profiles of aerosol optical characteristics over Western Siberia, well-known OPAC (Optical Properties of Aerosol and Clouds) model and model recommended by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) (continental aerosol). In the visible spectral range, the mean value of single scattering albedo is 0.9-0.92, in good agreement with other data. It is shown, however, that asymmetry factor of aerosol scattering phase function disagrees with the WMO and OPAC values. A short description of the inversion strategy is also presented.

  14. The Taimyr fold belt, Arctic Siberia: timing of prefold remagnetisation and regional tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, Trond H.; Andersen, Torgeir B.

    2002-08-01

    Late Precambrian and Palaeozoic platform sediments from the Central-South Taimyr Peninsula (Arctic Siberia) are all remagnetised. The remagnetisation is prefold and is related to thermal remagnetisation caused by Taimyr Trap magmatism. The remagnetisation age is estimated to 220-230 Ma and, hence, is considerably younger than the ca. 251 Ma age for the main body of Siberian Trap flood basalts. The folding that affected the Taimyr region platform sediments also included the Taimyr "Traps," hence, relegating Taimyr deformation to post-Mid Triassic time, and most probably, to a Late Triassic age. This shows that whilst thrusting terminated in the Urals during the Permian, crustal shortening continued in Taimyr, Novaya-Zemlya and the South Barents Sea, well into the Mesozoic.

  15. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  16. Investigating the effects of prehistoric migrations in Siberia: genetic variation and the origins of Yakuts.

    PubMed

    Pakendorf, Brigitte; Novgorodov, Innokentij N; Osakovskij, Vladimir L; Danilova, Al'bina P; Protod'jakonov, Artur P; Stoneking, Mark

    2006-10-01

    The Yakuts (also known as Sakha), Turkic-speaking cattle- and horse-breeders, inhabit a vast territory in Central and northeastern Siberia. On the basis of the archaeological, ethnographic and linguistic evidence, they are assumed to have migrated north from their original area of settlement in the vicinity of Lake Baykal in South Siberia under the pressure of the Mongol expansion during the thirteenth to fifteenth century AD: . During their initial migration and subsequent expansion, the ancestors of the Yakuts settled in the territory originally occupied by Tungusic- and Uralic-speaking reindeer-herders and hunters. In this paper we use mtDNA and Y-chromosomal analyses to elucidate whether the Yakut immigration and expansion was accompanied by admixture with the indigenous populations of their new area of settlement or whether the Yakuts displaced the original inhabitants without intermarriage. The mtDNA results show a very close affinity of the Yakuts with Central Asian and South Siberian groups, which confirms their southern origin. There is no conclusive evidence for admixture with indigenous populations, though a small amount cannot be excluded on the basis of the mtDNA data alone. The Y-chromosomal results confirm previous findings of a very strong bottleneck in the Yakuts, the age of which is in good accordance with the hypothesis that the Yakuts migrated north under Mongol pressure. Furthermore, the genetic results show that the Yakuts are a very homogenous population, notwithstanding their current spread over a very large territory. This confirms the historical accounts that they spread over their current area of settlement fairly recently. PMID:16845541

  17. Contraints On Lithospheric Extension From Break-Up Of The Proterozoic Siberia-Laurentia Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    A robust Proterozoic plate reconstruction that joins the NE Siberian and SW North American cratons provides constraints on tectonic, sedimentary, and thermal evolution of lithospheric extension leading to continental break-up. The reconstruction blends clues from Siberia and North America to show that the lithospheric extension occurred in temporally isolated episodes spanning more than one billion years. The first episode culminated in opening of the intracratonic Mesoproterozoic Belt basin at about 1.5 Ga, with widespread anorogenic magmatism, dike swarms, and rifting. It may have responded to drift stagnation of the parent supercontinent with attendant entrapment of heat and thermal expansion of the sub-lithospheric mantle. The rifting and magmatism followed a continent-wide icosahedral pattern but did not open into sea-floor spreading. The second episode took place at about 780 Ma, much along the lines of the first rifts, culminating in the Gunbarrel magmatic event and Windermere rift sedimentation, as drift stagnation and thermal expansion re-opened the older icosahedral lithospheric fractures. The third episode began in latest Proterozoic to earliest Cambrian, and proceeded to sea-floor spreading and thermal subsidence of conjugate margins, with transform movement along some earlier rift lines. Transform segments of the rift system evolved into steep continental margins, as along the Rocky Mountain trench of Canada, whereas linking segments formed low-angle detachment surfaces with broad continental shelves on upper and lower plates, as in the Verkhoyansk Mountains of Siberia and and conjugate Great Basin of North America. The relative pole of rotation between the cratons appears to have shifted in Late Devonian leading to renewed extension and mafic magmatism in some areas and convergence in other areas of the developing conjugate margins. The overall history implies that initial rifting of sluggish supercontinents may be driven by thermal expansion of insulated asthenosphere, but that an advance to seafloor spreading awaits permissive plate-tectonic circuits that exploit previously opened lithospheric fractures.

  18. Greenhouse gases measurements at Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Bin; Lavri?, Jošt V.; Kolle, Olaf; Vesala, Timo; Panov, Alexey; Heimann, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Boreal ecosystems play a crucial role in atmospheric carbon budget calculations as they represent about one third of the Earth's forested land surface area and are typically a net sink of carbon dioxide and a net source of methane. However, direct measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and methane in large areas of the boreal zone, such as Central Siberia, are sparse and unevenly distributed in space. In order to improve the spatial coverage and representativeness of flux estimates and reduce their uncertainty, our group has begun eddy covariance measurements to complement our tall tower measurements in Central Siberia. The Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, www.zottoproject.org) measurement site is located in pristine taiga near the Yenisei river (60°48'N, 89°21'E). The ZOTTO tall tower is equipped with continuous, low-maintenance CO2/CH4 concentration measurements by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) from six heights up to 301 m since May 2009. Additionally, we have set up two eddy covariance flux measurement systems in the forest and in the bog, located 1 and 3 km from the tall tower, respectively. Both towers are equipped with an enclosed CO2/H2O gas analyzer and ultrasonic anemometers. The bog tower includes a CH4 eddy covariance gas analyzer. Here, we report atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, focusing on growing season of 2012. The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration in boreal forest eddy site, and carbon fluxes in the wetland area (60°49'N, 89°23'E) are examined in terms of their relationship with major controlling factors such as temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficits, soil moisture, and friction velocity.

  19. EU, U.S., Russia, Asian States Sign Nuclear-Fusion Reactor May 24 (Bloomberg) --The European Union, the U.S., Russia and Asian nations

    E-print Network

    Europe EU, U.S., Russia, Asian States Sign Nuclear-Fusion Reactor Pact May 24 (Bloomberg) -- The European Union, the U.S., Russia and Asian nations including China signed a treaty to build the first percent, China, India, South Korea and Russia 10 percent each and France 8 percent, #12;according

  20. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  1. Late Glacial and Holocene Palaeoenvironmental Changes in the Rostov-Yaroslavl’ Area, West Central Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Wohlfarth; Pavel Tarasov; Ole Bennike; Terri Lacourse; Dmitry Subetto; Peter Torssander; Fedor Romanenko

    2006-01-01

    Three lake sediment sequences (lakes Nero, Chashnitsy, Zaozer’e) from the Rostov-Jaroslavl’ region north of Moscow were studied\\u000a to provide information on palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental changes during the past 15,000 cal yr. The multi-proxy study\\u000a (i.e., pollen, macrofossils, mineral magnetic measurements, total carbon, nitrogen and sulphur) is chronologically constrained\\u000a by AMS 14C measurements. Lake Nero provided the longest sedimentary record back to

  2. West Siberian basin hydrogeology - regional framework for contaminant migration from injected wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, M.G.

    1994-05-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in massive contamination of the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. Our long-term goal at Pacific Northwest Laboratory is to help determine future environmental and human impacts given the releases that have occurred to date and the current waste management practices. In FY 1993, our objectives were to (1) refine and implement the hydrogeologic conceptual models of the regional hydrogeology of western Siberia developed in FY 1992 and develop the detailed, spatially registered digital geologic and hydrologic databases to test them, (2) calibrate the computer implementation of the conceptual models developed in FY 1992, and (3) develop general geologic and hydrologic information and preliminary hydrogeologic conceptual models relevant to the more detailed models of contaminated site hydrogeology. Calibration studies of the regional hydrogeologic computer model suggest that most precipitation entering the ground-water system moves in the near-surface part of the system and discharges to surface waters relatively near its point of infiltration. This means that wastes discharged to the surface and near-surface may not be isolated as well as previously thought, since the wastes may be carried to the surface by gradually rising ground waters.

  3. San Augustine West Side School 

    E-print Network

    Raiford Stripling Associates, Inc.; Stripling, Raiford L.

    2011-08-29

    , CETAC-WEST (Canadian Environmental Technology Advancement Corporation - West), in mid-2000, introduced a practical approach to eco-efficiency to Western Canada's upstream oil and gas sector. The CETAC-WEST Eco-Efficiency Program, focused primarily...

  4. West Coast Fog

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    COMET

    2000-09-29

    This is part of the Physical Processes Professional Competency Unit of the Forecasting Low-Altitude Clouds and Fog for Aviation Operations Professional Development Series. West Coast Fog discusses the climatology, physical processes, and evolution of hot spell fogs along the U.S. West Coast.

  5. DATA DIGEST WEST LAFAYETTE

    E-print Network

    Petriu, Emil M.

    DATA DIGEST 2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE PreparingTomorrow'sLeaders for a Changing World #12-mail: datadigest@purdue.edu URL: www.purdue.edu/DataDigest DATA DIGEST2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE #12;DATA DIGEST2009-2010 This tenth edition of the Purdue University Data Digest provides information on a variety of topics

  6. Paleozoic and Mesozoic Stratigraphy and Detrital Zircon Geochronology of Wrangel Island, Arctic Russia: Rosetta Stone for Arctic Reconstructions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, E. L.; Gehrels, G. E.; Pease, V. L.; Sokolov, S.

    2008-12-01

    Wrangel Island represents a unique exposure of Neoproterozoic basement and its Paleozoic-Mesozoic cover sequence surrounded by the vast waters of the unexplored Siberian Shelf. Its geology is critical for testing the continuity of units, facies and structure from offshore Alaska to Arctic Russia across the Chukchi Sea and for placing constraints on various proposed plate tectonic reconstructions of the Arctic Ocean. Strata on Wrangel Island are highly deformed (tight to isoclinal folds at all scales) and metamorphosed to greenschist facies. Despite deformation, its Paleozoic lithologic succession appears to be a good match to the Hannah Trough section on Alaska's Chukchi Shelf. Dev(?)-Miss(?) conglomerates and sandstone overlie basement dated as 630-700 Ma (Kos'ko et al., 1986) and are overlain conformably by late Paleozoic limestone, shale and lesser clastic rocks deposited in a shelf basin setting. Like its counterparts on mainland Arctic Russia, the thick Triassic siliciclastic section was deposited in a series of rift basins, but dolerite dikes and sills are absent on Wrangel. Detrital zircon suites from Paleozoic strata on Wrangel Island are similar through the upper Paleozoic, reflecting a platformal setting with stable sources for siliciclastic detritus. Basement detritus is present in all sandstones but decreases upsection, replaced by Ordovician zircons (~ 490-440 Ma). All Pz units contain lesser Precambrian zircons in the 1000-2000 Ma interval. A significant change in provenance occurs at the base of the Triassic where 1000-1500 Ma sources disappear in concert with the arrival of upper Paleozoic sources (320-250 Ma zircons). Zircon ages in the range 215-235 Ma validate their previously inferred age. Comparison of Pz and Mz detrital zircon populations of Wrangel to the Russian mainland and to new data from Lisburne Hills, Alaska, suggests basin continuity between these three regions throughout the Pz-Mz, establishing more firmly the continuity of the Arctic Alaska-Chukotka microplate. These data also narrow the possibilities for plate tectonic reconstructions of the Cretaceous Amerasian Basin. The new data suggest restoration of Wrangel/Chukotka/N.Alaska back to the Lomonosov Ridge where it was once continuous with Taimyr and/or Barents Shelf region in order to receive Caledonian as well as Baltic shield detritus in the upper Paleozoic and to share its Permo-Triassic rift history with Siberia.

  7. Human Biogeography and Climate Change in Siberia and Arctic North America in the Fourth and Fifth Millennia BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, W. R.; Jordan, R. H.

    1990-04-01

    This paper explores the relation between the geographic shifts in prehistoric hunting populations and changes in climate between 4500 and 3000 before present (BP) within the polar regions from the Yenisei River in Siberia to Greenland. We have chosen this time period because major human geographic changes occurred over much of northeastern Asia and northern North America, and because these changes appear to be linked, at least in part, to a palaeoclimatic fluctuations. The cultures under consideration have been termed the Early and Middle Neolithic (Syalakh and Bel'kachi) in Siberia and the Arctic Small Tool Tradition (with such local variants as Denbigh, Independence I, Pre-Dorset, and Sarqaq) in North America. Despite these terminological differences, these groups shared such a close similarity in their technology and adaptive patterns that they must have once shared a direct historical relation.

  8. Regional Assessment of soil organic matter profile distribution in the boreal forest ecosystems of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshalkina, Joulia; Belousova, Nataliya; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Boreal forest ecosystems play one of the key roles in the Global Change challenges responses. The soil carbon stocks are principal regulators of their environmental functions. Boreal forest soil cover is characterized by mutually increased spatial variability in soil organic matter content (SOMC) that one need to take into attention in its current and future environmental functions state assessment including the potential of regional soil organic matter stocks changes due to Global Change and inverse ones. Knowledge of the regional regularities in SOMC profile vertical distribution allows improving their soil environmental functions prediction land quality evaluation. More than 900 profiles of SOMC distribution were studied using the database Boreal that contains data on Russian boreal soils developed in drained conditions on loamy soil forming rocks. These soil profiles belong to seven main types of forest soils of Russian classification and six major regions of Russia. The predomination of accumulation profile type was observed for all cases. Thus the vertical distribution of OMC in the profiles of boreal soils can be described as follow: the layer of maximum OMC is replaced by the layer of dramatic OMC reduction; then the layer of minimal OMC extends up to 2.5 m. The layer of maximal OMC accumulation has the low depth of 5-15 cm. It carried out in different genetic horizons: A1, A1A2, A2, B, AB; sometimes it captures the A2B horizon or the upper part of the illuvial horizon. The OMC in this layer increases from the northern taiga to the southern taiga and from the European part of Russia to Siberia. The second layer is characterized by its depth and by the gradient of OMC decreasing. A great variety of the both parameters is observed. The layer of the sharp OMC fall most often fits with the eluvial horizons A2 or ?2? or even the upper part of the ?t (textural) or Bm (metamorphic) horizons. The layer of permanently small OMC may begin in any genetic horizon, except the A1. The OMC in it ranges from 0.05 to 0.5%. Organic matter stocks in the layer due to its high depth are comparable to the stocks of the top two layers, and sometimes exceed them. According to the database the depth of organic matter penetration is same in Podzolics (Albeluvisols Haplic) soils and Sod-podzolics (Albeluvisols Umbric) soils. It is noticeably deeply in Gley-podzolics (Albeluvisols Gleyic) soils, mainly because of the greater mobility of organic matter in the more humid and cold climates conditions. Also this may be explained by frequent trees falls. It was found that regional differences often exceed differences between soil classification types. So, the vertical distribution of soil organic matter content is not associated with the morphological profile in boreal genetic soil types. The organic matter profile of mountain analogues of different soil types has specific features: high OMC (3-5%), unstable penetration deepness. The study was supported by the RFBR grants N 11-04-02089, 13-04-00480, and partially supported by the RF Government grants # 11.G34.31.0079 and # 14.120.14.4266 and by FP7 Grant # 603542 LUC4C.

  9. Occurrence of phosphatic microfossils in an Ediacaran–Cambrian mid-oceanic paleo-atoll limestone of southern Siberia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuko Uchio; Yukio Isozaki; Michael M. Buslov; Shigenori Maruyama

    2008-01-01

    New phosphatic microfossils were recently discovered in an Ediacaran–Cambrian mid-oceanic paleo-atoll limestone in the southern Gorny Altai Mountains in southern Siberia. Microfossils with calcium phosphate shells are abundant in the limestone that occurs as an exotic block within a Cambrian accretionary complex in the Kurai area. SEM observations confirm that the calcium phosphatic shells are ellipsoidal and equal-sized, about 200–300 ?m

  10. Precambrian\\/Cambrian boundary problem: Carbon isotope correlations for Vendian and Tommotian time between Siberia and Morocco

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mordeckai Magaritz; Joseph L. Kirschvink; Andrew J. Latham; A. Yu. Zhuravlev; A. Yu. Rozanov

    1991-01-01

    At least three distinctive cycles are preserved in the carbon-isotope patterns for the Vendian\\/Tommotian interval for the Siberian platform and the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco. In Siberia, and early Tommotian carbon cycle provides the first detailed test of correlations based on archaeocyathid biostratigraphy between classic sequences on the Aldan and Lena rivers, and demonstrates that the Early Cambrian zone boundaries

  11. Century-scale climate-driven vegetation and environmental dynamics in southern Siberia during the last 47 kyr

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Tarasov; Elena Bezrukova; Nadia Solovieva; Frank Riedel

    2010-01-01

    Radiocarbon-dated pollen and diatom records from Lake Kotokel in southern Siberia are used to reconstruct the environmental history of the area since ~47 kyr BP. Pollen data and reconstructed biome scores suggest predominance of a tundra-steppe vegetation and variable woody cover (5-20%) between ~47-30 kyr BP, indicating generally a harsh and unstable climate during this interval, conventionally regarded as the

  12. Climate change and climate-induced hot spots in forest shifts in central Siberia from observed data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Tchebakova; E. I. Parfenova; A. J. Soja

    Regional Siberian studies have already registered climate warming over the last several decades. We evaluated ongoing climate\\u000a change in central Siberia between 1991 and 2010 and a baseline period, 1961–1990, and between 1991 and 2010 and Hadley 2020\\u000a climate change projections, represented by the moderate B1 and severe A2 scenarios. Our analysis showed that winters are already\\u000a 2–3°C warmer in

  13. Forecasting the Development of the Tourism Industry in the Regions of Russia in Light of Global Climate Change and Environmental Situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evreinov, O. B.; Maksimova, E. M.; Bakanova, A. A.; Yakovleva, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Forecasting the development of the tourism industry is a strategic planning for periods ranging from 20 to 50 years. Basis for the development of tourism in the region is the presence of the necessary infrastructure - roads, communications, accommodation facilities and hospitality. Thus, all investments in the tourism industry are very long-term. Current approaches to long-term planning in tourism based on the most efficient use of the region's resources - natural, cultural, etc. But what will happen to these resources in 20-30 years? Global warming and climate change, a change in environmental conditions - all this gives the real impact today. Summer 2010 in Moscow and in the whole of Europe, warm snowless winters in St. Petersburg, monthly temperature records, permafrost thawing in Siberia - all this can affect the characteristics of the tourist regions in the future. In the presentation, the authors have tried to reflect the basic principles of strategic planning with regard to global and regional changes and to show the possible impact of such changes on Tourism industry in specific regions of Russia for the next 30-50 years.

  14. Evaluation of short-term changes of hydrological response in mountainous basins of the Vitim Plateau (Russia) after forest fires based on data analysis and hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, O. M.; Lebedeva, L. S.; Nesterova, N. V.; Vinogradova, T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Twelve mountainous basins of the Vitim Plateau (Eastern Siberia, Russia) with areas ranging from 967 to 18 200 km2 affected by extensive fires in 2003 (from 13 to 78% of burnt area) were delineated based on MODIS Burned Area Product. The studied area is characterized by scarcity of hydrometeorological observations and complex hydrological processes. Combined analysis of monthly series of flow and precipitation was conducted to detect short-term fire impact on hydrological response of the basins. The idea of basin-analogues which have significant correlation of flow with "burnt" watersheds in stationary (pre-fire) period with the assumption that fire impact produced an outlier of established dependence was applied. Available data allowed for qualitative detection of fire-induced changes at two basins from twelve studied. Summer flow at the Amalat and Vitimkan Rivers (22 and 78% proportion of burnt area in 2003, respectively) increased by 40-50% following the fire.The impact of fire on flow from the other basins was not detectable.The hydrological model Hydrograph was applied to simulate runoff formation processes for stationary pre-fire and non-stationary post-fire conditions. It was assumed that landscape properties changed after the fire suggest a flow increase. These changes were used to assess the model parameters which allowed for better model performance in the post-fire period.

  15. For Immediate Release --Wednesday, June 26, 2013 Canada Day in St. Petersburg, Russia: U of L computer

    E-print Network

    Seldin, Jonathan P.

    . Petersburg, Russia: U of L computer programming team celebrates at prestigious Collegiate Programming Contest (ICPC) World Finals in St. Petersburg, Russia challenge In addition to sending a team to Russia, Mathematics and Computer

  16. CDC: West Nile Virus

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site contains the most recent West Nile virus data from the Centers for Disease Control. The main features include a 2003 Human Case Count and updated maps representing the spread of the virus. A downloadable document outlines the CDC's West Nile virus surveillance and control program, which involves weekly data collection for wild birds, sentinel chicken flocks, human cases, veterinary cases, and mosquito surveillance. The site also provides links to general information about the virus, from the ecology and virology of West Nile to epidemiological and laboratory issues.

  17. Continuous CO2/CH4 measurement at Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winderlich, Jan; Chen, Huilin; Höfer, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Panov, Alexey; Heimann, Martin

    2010-05-01

    Global climate change has particular impact on Siberia, where one tenth of global vegetation and soil carbon is stored. The increase in temperature lengthens the vegetation period and consequently enlarges the carbon sink. On the other hand, a warming climate will enhance thawing of permafrost which contains organic carbon that can be released either as carbon dioxide or methane depending on the local hydrological conditions. Long-term biogeochemical trace gas measurements on tall towers (> 250 m) over continents help to improve the knowledge about surface source/sink processes at regional to continental scales. Without the usage of aircrafts, the height of the tower allows regular probing of the mixed part of the boundary layer, which is - unlike the surface layer - only moderately influenced by diurnal variations of local surface fluxes and thus representative for a larger region (~1000km). The recently established Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO, 304 m, www.zottoproject.org) is located near the village of Zotino at the Yenisei River in central Siberia (60° N, 89° E). The ZOTTO facility was built in the perspective to monitor and determine variability and trends in the carbon balance of central Siberian forests. Since April 2009 we measure CO2 and CH4 from 6 height levels reaching from 4 to 301 m with an analyzer based on the cavity ring-down spectroscopy technique (Picarro Inc., CA, USA, model G1301). Experiments have shown that reliable accurate measurements can be obtained even without drying the sample gas. To obtain dry air mixing ratios for CO2 and CH4, the simultaneous water vapor measurements are used to correct dilution and pressure broadening effects, resulting in a precision and accuracy that is better than WMO recommendations. Furthermore, the system requires only a very low amount of calibration gases, because calibration takes place only every 100 hrs. These two aspects allow keeping maintenance low, which is an important requirement for this remote station. In each sampling line buffer volumes integrate the atmospheric signal over a typical time period of 40 minutes. With these the periodic switching from line to line every three minutes with only one single analyzer provides a quasi continuous, concurrent measurement from each height level. As a consequence of the averaging as well as the precision of the analyzer, the data show a low noise level and still moderately high temporal resolution, and gradients between different levels can be determined to a very high accuracy. The new data from 2009 and 2010 will be presented and interpreted in the context of regional sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4 in central Siberia. As the nocturnal boundary develops during night, it locally traps respired CO2 and CH4 and builds up vertical gradients. The analysis of the gradients allows estimating the trapped carbon amount in this layer which can be assigned to a certain region by using the Lagrangian transport model STILT.

  18. Price elasticities of alcohol demand: evidence from Russia.

    PubMed

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Roberts, Bayard; McKee, Martin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we estimate price elasticities of demand of several types of alcoholic drinks, using 14 rounds of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-HSE, collected from 1994 until 2009. We deal with potential confounding problems by taking advantage of a large number of control variables, as well as by estimating community fixed effect models. All in all, although alcohol prices do appear to influence consumption behaviour in Russia, in most cases the size of effect is modest. The finding that two particularly problematic drinks-cheap vodka and fortified wine-are substitute goods also suggests that increasing their prices may not lead to smaller alcohol consumption. Therefore, any alcohol pricing policies in Russia must be supplemented with other measures, such as restrictions on numbers of sales outlets or their opening times. PMID:24535047

  19. Zn isotope fractionation in a pristine larch forest on permafrost-dominated soils in Central Siberia.

    PubMed

    Viers, Jerome; Prokushkin, Anatoly S; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Zouiten, Cyril; Chmeleff, Jerome; Meheut, Merlin; Chabaux, Francois; Oliva, Priscia; Dupré, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Stable Zn isotopes fractionation was studied in main biogeochemical compartments of a pristine larch forest of Central Siberia developed over continuous permafrost basalt rocks. Two north- and south-oriented watershed slopes having distinctly different vegetation biomass and active layer depth were used as natural proxy for predicting possible future climate changes occurring in this region. In addition, peat bog zone exhibiting totally different vegetation, hydrology and soil temperature regime has been studied. The isotopic composition of soil profile from Central Siberia is rather constant with a ?(66)Zn value around 0.2‰ close to the value of various basalts. Zn isotopic composition in mosses (Sphagnum fuscum and Pleurozium schreberi) exhibits differences between surface layers presenting values from 0.14 to 0.2‰ and bottom layers presenting significantly higher values (0.5 - 0.7‰) than the underlain mineral surface. The humification of both dead moss and larch needles leads to retain the fraction where Zn bound most strongly thus releasing the lighter isotopes in solution and preserving the heavy isotopes in the humification products, in general accord with previous experimental and modeling works [GCA 75:7632-7643, 2011]. The larch (Larix gmelinii) from North and South-facing slopes is enriched in heavy isotopes compared to soil reservoir while larch from Sphagnum peatbog is enriched in light isotopes. This difference may result from stronger complexation of Zn by organic ligands and humification products in the peat bog compared to mineral surfaces in North- and South-facing slope. During the course of the growing period, Zn followed the behavior of macronutrients with a decrease of concentration from June to September. During this period, an enrichment of larch needles by heavier Zn isotopes is observed in the various habitats. We suggest that the increase of the depth of rooting zone, and the decrease of DOC and Zn concentration in soil solution from the root uptake zone with progressively thawing soil could provoke heavy isotopes to become more available for the larch roots at the end of the vegetative season compared to the beginning of the season, because the decrease of DOC will facilitate the uptake of heavy isotope as it will be less retained in strong organic complexes. PMID:25931985

  20. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees down from horizontal Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Vertical Exaggeration: 3 times Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 (SRTM) August 1, 1999 (Landsat) Image: NASA/JPL/NIMA

  1. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees down from horizontal. Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet). Vertical Exaggeration: 3 times.

  2. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 93.0 x 105.7 kilometers ( 57.7 x 65.6 miles) Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  3. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 5.3 km (3.3 miles) x 6.0 km (3.7 miles) Location: 57 deg. North lat., 159 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at left Original Data Resolution: SRTM 30 meters (99 feet); Landsat 15 meters (45 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  4. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

    Size: 240 km (150 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

  5. Impact of wildfire emissions on trace gas and aerosol concentration measured at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, A.; Chi, X.; Winderlich, J.; Birmili, W.; Lavri?, J. V.; Andreae, M. O.

    2012-04-01

    Boreal wildfires are large sources of reactive trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere, accounting for 20% of carbon emissions from global biomass burning. Siberian wildfires are a major extratropical source of carbon monoxide (CO), as well as a significant source of black carbon, smoke aerosols, and other climate-relevant atmospheric gas/particle species. Smoke particles released by Siberian wildfires could be tracked thousands of kilometers downwind in the entire Northern Hemisphere, perturbing regional to global radiation budgets by influencing light scattering and cloud microphysical processes. The boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere are expected to experience the largest temperature increases, which will likely increase the severity and frequency of fires. Consequently, long-term continuous trace gas and aerosol measurements in central Siberia are vital for assessing the atmospheric impact of Siberian boreal fires on regional to global air quality and climate. Since 2006, the Zotino Tall Tower Facility (ZOTTO; www.zottoproject.org), a unique international research platform for large-scale climatic observations, is operational about 20 km west of the Yenisei river (60.8°N; 89.35°E). A 300 m-tall tower allows regular probing of the mixed part of the boundary layer, which is only moderately influenced by diurnal variations of local surface fluxes and thus, in comparison with surface layer, representative for a larger region. Our investigation of the wildfires' impact on surface air composition in Central Siberia is based on four years of CO/CO2/CH4 and aerosol particle mass data measured at 300 m a.g.l.. Episodes of atmospheric transport from wildfires upwind of the measurements site are identified based on ensembles of HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS active fire products. The emission factors are calculated using the Carbon Mass Balance method. In an effort to simplify combustion to its most fundamental principles, the combustion efficiency (CE) is used to represent the completeness of combustion. The following general notion is applied: if the CE exceeds 90 %, a fire is typically in the flaming phase, whereas if CE is less than 85 % combustion is in the smoldering phase. Most fires can be considered as being in a "mixed" phase. Ideally, the emission ratios can be obtained by dividing the excess concentrations of trace gas species measured in a fire plume (e.g. CO, CO2) by the excess concentration of a measured reference gas from the data set. Ground-based CO and CO2 measurements in plumes from relatively distant fires can usually not be used to extract CO/CO2 emission ratios due to the uncertain contributions of biogenic CO2 from respiration to the plume air. We present our attempt to extract CO/CO2 relationships related to sources from statistical analysis of our data set. The burnt biomass load is taken from the Global Land Cover 2000 project and validated by our in situ data set. Finally, episodes of emissions from the wildfires identified at the given location and time are calculated with a simple bottom-up approach using the equation of Seiler and Crutzen.

  6. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis H.

    1999-01-14

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices.

  7. What's West Nile Virus?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... discovered all the way back in 1937 in Africa, the West Nile virus probably didn't make ... Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  8. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907–12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L–H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  9. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español ... Image West Nile Virus KidsHealth > Teens > Infections > Bacterial & ...

  10. 64 FR 31610 - Solid Urea From Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-06-11

    ...Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan...investigation numbers are as follows: Romania is 731-TA- 339 (Review) and Armenia...Armenia, Belarus, Estonia, Lithuania, Romania, Russia, Tajikistan,...

  11. Chaos and Cossacks, two fatal vendettas : the invasions of Russia in 1708 and 1812

    E-print Network

    Hollander, Samuel, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: There were two invasions of Russia by foreign powers in the early eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Charles XII of Sweden entered Russia in 1708 and was destroyed in battle outside Poltava in 1709. Napoleon ...

  12. Review of shape memory alloys medical applications in Russia.

    PubMed

    Brailovski, V; Trochu, F

    1996-01-01

    In the last twenty-five years a large variety of research has been carried out in Russia using Shape Memory Alloys (SMA), particularly nearly equiatomic NiTi alloys, for medical applications. In this field of activity, Russian research centers have been quite successful in treating different kinds of diseases, from bone fractures to dental implants. This review is intended to give a panorama of SMA medical applications in Russia in order to illustrate the remarkable possibilities offered by SMA materials in the medical field. PMID:8980836

  13. Household Survival Strategies and New Forms of Employment in Russia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Russian household subsistence research soon to be discussed at the London School of Economics, Centre for Economic Performance conference "Household Survival Strategies, Job Creation and New Forms of Employment in Russia" January 18, 1999 is available at the above University of Warwick (UK) location. Currently, three reports entitled "Employment in the New Private Sector in Russia," "Making Ends Meet in a Non-Monetary Market Economy," and "Labour Market Behavior and Institutions" are accessible in self-extracting .zip and .doc formats in addition to a series of background papers on the Russian labor market in Russian and English.

  14. Changes in atmospheric chemical composition determined from ice core records in southwestern Siberia during the twentieth century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joswiak, Daniel R.

    The presented research includes analysis and interpretation of the upper 50 m of a deep ice core which was drilled at 49°48'22"N, 86°33'52" (4115 m.a.s.l.) on the Belukha Plateau, Altai, in southwestern Siberia. The main goal was to examine variability of geochemical records preserved in the ice in relation to climatic and environmental changes; and to determine the main aerosol sources using ground- and upper-level meteorological data. Ion chromatography was used to determine concentrations of anions (SO4, NO3, NO2, Cl), cations (NH4, Ca, K, Mg, Na), the carboxylic (organic) acids acetate (CH3COOH), formate (HCOOH), oxalate (C2O4), and methanesulfonic acid (CH3SO 3H). Major ion concentrations were dominated by sulfate (30.3%), nitrate (18.1%), formate (15.0%), and ammonium (12.4%). Highest concentrations were observed for sulfate; over 1460 ppb. Laser particle counting was used to determine size resolved number concentrations of particles ranging from 0.5 to 16.0 mum. Logarithmic distribution of particles was observed, with over 90% of the particle number concentration coming from particles less than 1.4 mum. Particle mass, calculated from the number concentration, revealed the greatest contribution (59%) to mass arrived with medium size particles (4.0-8.0 microm). Back-trajectories were modeled using NOAA's Hyplit model were modeled for the four days of maximum annual precipitation during a year of increased (1991) and decreased (1990) ion and particle concentrations. Principle components factor analysis was used to determine the main aerosol sources. The upper 50 m covers the time period from 1917 to 2002. Glacier flow models indicated the full depth of 170 m should provide over 1000 years of records. Insoluble particle concentrations preserved in the ice core were affected mainly by climatic conditions including precipitation regimes and wind speed variability. The small size particles (0.5-1.0 mm) are transported inter-continentally and associated with background atmospheric concentrations in the middle-troposphere. The large size particles (4.0-16.0 mum) are deposited from the atmosphere rapidly compared to small particles and were transported to high elevations from the central Asian desert sources. All size particles were found to be negatively correlated with average monthly temperatures indicating low temperatures during the dry particle deposition. During the first half of the 20th Century, soluble ions were dominated by organic acids; indicating mainly natural sources from vegetation and biomass burning. Ion profiles associated with human activities such as fuel combustion (SO4, NO3) significantly increased in concentration from the mid-1950s; coinciding with population growth in large industrialized cities upwind from the study location. Highest correlations between major ions and the ground and upper level wind speed were observed for SO4, indicating long-range transport of pollution to the Altai Mountains. Ion profiles associated with central Asian dust (Ca, Mg) and with sea salt aerosols (Na, Cl) were mainly influenced by climatic factors, and average concentrations did not significantly change during the 20th Century. Factor analysis revealed that ions typically associated with biomass burning (NH4, K) were not resolvable as indicators of separate aerosol source. The organic acid components better preserve forest fire signatures at this study location. The back-trajectories exhibited several notable differences in transport paths of air masses. The trajectories modeled for 1991 show a farther transport distance with significant time of transfer over heavily populated regions of Europe and Russia. The modeled back-trajectories over the Middle-East on two heaviest precipitation days in 1991 provided evidence of the large oil fires in Kuwait, appeared as increased concentrations in sulfate, nitrate, and organic acids. The modeled back-trajectories for 1990 show more localized transport paths or transport over sparsely populated Arctic and Polar Regions. Correlations were not found between the ic

  15. A new species of the gamasid mite genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 (Parasitiformes, Mesostigmata, Ascidae) from Russia with a key to the multidentatus species-group

    PubMed Central

    Makarova, Olga L.; Lindquist, Evert E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new gamasid mite species belonging to the genus Arctoseius Thor, 1930 is described from Russia. Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n. is distributed in the plain and mountain tundras from Khibiny Mountains to Chukotka on the north and to West Sayan Mountains on the south. A diagnosis and a key for identification of species comprising the multidentatus species-group (Arctoseius multidentatus Evans, 1955; Arctoseius wisniewskii Gwiazdowicz & Kamczyc, 2009; Arctoseius sexsetus Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; Arctoseius haarlovi Lindquist & Makarova, 2011; and Arctoseius koltschaki sp. n.) are given. PMID:23840162

  16. The Merensky Reef in the Chineisky Pluton (Siberia)? A myth or a reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitova, L.; Sharapov, V.; Zhukova, I.

    2006-12-01

    It is a dream of each geologist to find a `Merensky Reef' in each layered basic intrusion. Scientists have been trying many various techniques to come this dream to reality. The most perspective way to do so is probably a combination of physicochemical and computer modeling of layered basic intrusion crystallization together with fluid and melt inclusions studies in situ. This combination allows us to do the following: 1. To study boundary conditions for separation of low density gas phase and salt melt from the crystallizing primary basic melt in large magma chamber. 2. To determine correct quantitative parameters for formation of residual fluid-bearing brines extracting high metal concentrations. 3. To compute critical levels for substance differentiation at phase, geochemical and other `barriers' in those basic mantle-crust ore magmatic systems. 4. To model metal extraction, transportation and deposition at these `barriers' for systems of various `silicate melt - residual salt brines' ratios under the conditions of continental lithosphere. Comparison of real and modeled data allows us to conclude if a formation of a narrow zone of high metal concentration is possible at those critical levels (phase and geochemical `barriers'). The above-mentioned algorithm has been used for the Chineisky Pluton (the Transbaikal region, Siberia). Fortunately we have found our own `Merensky Reef', which happened to be a PGE enrichment marginal zone of the Chineisky Pluton due to specific fluid regime of crystallization! This work was supported by the Ministry for Russian Science and Education, Grant #DSP.2.1.1.702.

  17. The Lena River Delta Observatory, Arctic Siberia: a Contribution to the ESA DUE Permafrost Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Moritz, Langer; Annett, Bartsch; Sina, Muster; Jennifer, Sobiech; Konstanze, Piel; Günter, Stoof; Anne, Morgenstern; Mathias, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The major task of the ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST is to develop and use Earth Observation services specifically for monitoring and modelling of permafrost. In order to setup the required information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Long-term ground data series and multidisciplinary ongoing projects make the Lena River delta (Arctic Siberia) a prime study region for evaluation and validation of the DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing products. The Lena River Delta located in the zone of continuous permafrost is a key region for Arctic system science. Since 1998, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research AWI in collaboration with the Lena Delta Reserve in Tiksi has operated the German-Russian research station Samoylov. Relevant ground-based data (air temperature, radiation, snow, albedo, soil temperature and moisture) are collected continuously. The high landscape heterogeneity (wet polygonal centres, dry polygonal rims, ponds and lakes) challenges all ground data observations. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and location are being built up. Exclusion and selection criteria will be based on experience, especially the knowledge on parameter variability in time and space. The main focus are the remote sensing products ‘surface temperature', ‘surface moisture', ‘albedo', ‘vegetation' and ‘water'. Statistical and contextural methods will be used for the upscaling from the plot to the meso-scale. Problems will have to be identified such as process-dependent scales and the water body ratio within the pixel.

  18. Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiaomei; Li, Heng; Moorjani, Priya; Jay, Flora; Slepchenko, Sergey M; Bondarev, Aleksei A; Johnson, Philip L F; Aximu-Petri, Ayinuer; Prüfer, Kay; de Filippo, Cesare; Meyer, Matthias; Zwyns, Nicolas; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V; Keates, Susan G; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Razhev, Dmitry I; Richards, Michael P; Peristov, Nikolai V; Lachmann, Michael; Douka, Katerina; Higham, Thomas F G; Slatkin, Montgomery; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Reich, David; Kelso, Janet; Viola, T Bence; Pääbo, Svante

    2014-10-23

    We present the high-quality genome sequence of a ?45,000-year-old modern human male from Siberia. This individual derives from a population that lived before-or simultaneously with-the separation of the populations in western and eastern Eurasia and carries a similar amount of Neanderthal ancestry as present-day Eurasians. However, the genomic segments of Neanderthal ancestry are substantially longer than those observed in present-day individuals, indicating that Neanderthal gene flow into the ancestors of this individual occurred 7,000-13,000 years before he lived. We estimate an autosomal mutation rate of 0.4 × 10(-9) to 0.6 × 10(-9) per site per year, a Y chromosomal mutation rate of 0.7 × 10(-9) to 0.9 × 10(-9) per site per year based on the additional substitutions that have occurred in present-day non-Africans compared to this genome, and a mitochondrial mutation rate of 1.8 × 10(-8) to 3.2 × 10(-8) per site per year based on the age of the bone. PMID:25341783

  19. Viliuisk encephalomyelitis in Eastern Siberia – analysis of 390 cases: In memory of D Carleton Gajdusek

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, Lev G; Vladimirtsev, Vsevolod A; Platonov, Fyodor A; Lee, Hee-Suk; McLean, Catriona A; Masters, Colin L

    2009-01-01

    Viliuisk encephalomyelitis (VE) is a unique disease occurring in the Yakut (Sakha) population of Eastern Siberia. VE is always fatal, with some patients dying during the acute encephalitic phase of illness; those surviving the acute phase develop progressive dementia, rigidity and spastic quadriparesis as part of a more prolonged pan-encephalitic syndrome. The disease is characterized neuropathologically by multiple widespread micronecrotic foci with marked inflammatory reactions and subsequent gliosis throughout the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum and brain stem. The acute febrile onset with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and increased protein and neuropathology showing inflammatory reactions suggest that VE is an infectious disease, but the causative agent has not been identified. Initially detected in a small mixed Yakut-Evenk population of the mid-Viliui region, the disease subsequently spread south to densely populated areas around the capital city of Yakutsk. The occurrence of secondary VE cases in households and the introduction of the disease by migrants into new populations indicate that the disease is horizontally transmitted in a setting of a long intra-household contact. Although there has been a recent decline in the number of cases, increasing travel may result in further spread of this fatal disease to susceptible individuals in other regions of the world. PMID:19618339

  20. DNA diversity of human populations from Eastern Europe and Siberia studied by multilocus DNA fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Shabrova, E V; Khusnutdinova, E K; Tarskaia, L A; Mikulich, A I; Abolmasov, N N; Limborska, S A

    2004-04-01

    We used DNA fingerprinting with M13 phage DNA as a probe to estimate the degree of genomic variability and genetic relationships in a heterogeneous group of 13 populations from Eastern Europe and Siberia. The popultaions belong to three language families: Indo-European (Slavonic: Russians, Byelorussians), Uralic (Finno-Ugric: Maris, Mordvinians, Udmurts), and Altaic (Turkic: Bashkirs, Tatars, Chuvashes, Yakuts). Multivariate statistical analyses were used (multidimensional scaling, cluster, and multiple correspondence analyses), and coefficients of gene differentiation ( Gst') were evaluated. The level of interpopulation subdivision in the various ethnic groups appeared to be different: the Byelorussian populations revealed no regional differences, in contrast to the Bashkir populations, which formed a heterogeneous group. The populations subdivided into three general clusters: Slavonic populations formed a separate tight cluster characterized by a minimal level of interpopulation diversity, Bashkir and Yakut populations formed the second cluster, and the Finno-Ugric and several populations of the Turkic linguistic groups formed the third cluster. The robustness of these results obtained by different statistical data treatments reveals that multilocus DNA fingerprinting can be reliably used for population studies. PMID:14986107

  1. Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic transition: the Sukhaya Tunguska Formation, Turukhansk Uplift, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    Silicified carbonates of the latest Mesoproterozoic Sukhaya Tunguska Formation, northwestern Siberia, contain abundant and diverse permineralized microfossils. Peritidal environments are dominated by microbial mats built by filamentous cyanobacteria comparable to modern species of Lyngbya and Phormidium. In subtidal to lower intertidal settings, mat-dwelling microbenthos and possible coastal microplankton are abundant. In contrast, densely woven mat populations with few associated taxa characterize more restricted parts of tidal flats; the preservation of vertically oriented sheath bundles and primary fenestrae indicates that in these mats carbonate cementation was commonly penecontemporaneous with mat growth. Eoentophysalis mats are limited to restricted environments where microlaminated carbonate precipitates formed on or just beneath the sediment surface. Most microbenthic populations are cyanobacterial, although eukaryotic microfossils may occur among the simple spheroidal cells interpreted as coastal plankton. Protists are more securely represented by large (up to 320 micrometers in diameter) but poorly preserved acritarchs in basinal facies. The Sukhaya Tunguska assemblage contains 27 species in 18 genera. By virtue of their stratigraphic longevity and their close and predictable association with specific paleoenvironmental conditions, including substrates, Proterozoic cyanobacteria support a model of bacterial evolution in which populations adapt rapidly to novel environments and, thereafter, resist competitive replacement. The resulting evolutionary pattern is one of accumulation and stasis rather than the turnover and replacement characteristic of Phanerozoic plants and animals.

  2. Assimilation of solids during ascent of magmas from the Bartoy Field of the Baikal Region, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Johnson R.; Haskin, Larry A.; Luhr, James; Rasskazov, Sergei

    1993-01-01

    Most investigators ascribe mare basalt magma genesis to partial melting at depths of approximately 130 to greater than 400 km within the cumulate pile deposited from a lunar magma ocean. Mare basalts share with mid-ocean ridge basalts the characteristic of relative depletion in LREE and other incompatible trace elements that arises from melting within 'used' mantle, from which crust-forming elements have already been separated. Some mare basalt types do not show the classical, La-Nd depleted mare basalt REE distributions; however, some types are isotopically heterogeneous. These differences have been ascribed to assimilation, mainly AFC-style, of KREEPy highland material overlying the source region. Might such assimilation occur during magma ascent through the KREEPy material? To gain information from a terrestrial setting on possible assimilation during ascent, we have studied a suite of Quaternary nepheline-hawalites and nepheline-mugearites from the Bartoy cinder cone complex of the Baikal Rift, Siberia. The Bartoy magmas originated from greater than 80 km deep, and erupted through thick Archean crust. We find evidence for assimilation of approximately 31 wt. percent xenocrysts of garnet, aluminous clinopyroxene, kaersutite, and olivine, all presumably from the basalt source region, but no appreciable assimilation of overlying crust, consistent with isotopic constraints. Magmatic superheat made available by rapid ascent and decomposition accounts adequately for the energy of assimilation; no accompanying fractional crystallization is required or evident.

  3. RESEARCH PAPERS : A magnetic investigation of a Late Quaternary loess/palaeosol record in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlachula, J.; Evans, M. E.; Rutter, N. W.

    1998-01-01

    A Late Quaternary loess/palaeosol sequence at Kurtak in the Yenisey River valley, southern Siberia, has been studied magnetically. The 34 m section (340 samples) exhibits variations in magnetic susceptibility which can be correlated with oxygen isotope stages 1-7. A detailed sampling of stage 5 (a further 209 samples) permits the identification of substages 5a-e. The susceptibility variations themselves are in the opposite sense to that found in the classic sections of the Chinese Loess Plateau, but are in agreement with the `wind-intensity' model which has been put forward to explain similar findings in loess sequences in Alaska. Published results for the susceptibility of magnetite imply volume fractions of ~0.2 per cent in glacial stages 2 and 4, dropping to ~0.05 per cent in stages 1, 3 and 5. These fluctuations match the aeolian flux variations observed in core V21-146 from the north Pacific. Even though the warmer intervals are characterized by lower susceptibilities, the observed frequency dependence of susceptibility indicates that new magnetic material is produced as a result of pedogenesis during interglacial and interstadial times.

  4. Vegetation responses to interglacial warming in the Arctic, examples from Lake El'gygytgyn, northeast Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozhkin, A. V.; Anderson, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Palynological data from Lake El'gygytgyn reveal responses of plant communities to a range of climatic conditions that can help assess the possible impact of global warming on arctoboreal ecosystems. Vegetation associated with climatic optima suggests two types of interglacial responses: one is dominated by deciduous taxa (the postglacial thermal maximum (PGTM) and marine isotope stage (MIS5)) and the second by evergreen conifers (MIS11, MIS31). The MIS11 forests show a similarity to Picea-Larix-Betula-Alnus forests of Siberia. While dark coniferous forest also characterizes MIS31, the pollen taxa show an affinity to the modern boreal forest of the lower Amur valley in the Russian Far East. Despite vegetation differences during the thermal maxima, all four glacial-interglacial transitions are alike, being dominated by deciduous woody taxa. Initially Betula shrub tundra established and was replaced by tundra with tree-sized shrubs (PGTM), Betula woodland (MIS5), or Betula-Larix (MIS11, MIS31) forest. The consistent occurrence of deciduous forest and/or high shrub tundra in all interglaciations as they approach or achieve maximum warmth underscores the significance of this biome for modeling efforts. The El'gygytgyn data also suggest the possible elimination or massive reduction of arctic plant communities under extreme warm-earth scenarios.

  5. Cnidarian-like embryos associated with the first shelly fossils in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouchinsky, Artem; Bengtson, Stefan; Gershwin, Lisa-Ann

    1999-07-01

    Phosphatized spheroids, ˜0.5 mm in diameter, in the Lower Cambrian Manykay Formation at the Bol'shaya Kuonamka River in northern Sakha (Yakutia) are interpreted as cnidarian embryos of late developmental stages. One of the poles has a double cross-like structure, consisting of two sets of four bands each. The bands of the upper set radiate at 90° from each other; those of the lower set also radiate at about right angles from each other, but the set is rotated 45° in respect to the upper set. Although there is a resemblance to the cross-like arrangements of cells in pregastrulation spiralian eggs, in particular those of annelids, the combined evidence favors an interpretation of the bands as incipient tentacles of a cnidarian actinula larva. The embryos occur with one of the first assemblages of shelly fossils in northern Siberia, that of the Angustiochrea lata zone. The co-occurring shelly fossils, anabaritids, probably also represent the phylum Cnidaria, but because their tubes have a consistent triradial symmetry, the connection with the tetraradially symmetrical embryos is problematic. The size of the embryos suggests that they are nonplanktotrophic, and the presence of actinula-like features suggests the lack of a free planula stage.

  6. Characteristics of Forests in Western Sayani Mountains, Siberia from SAR Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. Jon; Sun, Guoqing; Kharuk, V. I.; Kovacs, Katalin

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigated the possibility of using spaceborne radar data to map forest types and logging in the mountainous Western Sayani area in Siberia. L and C band HH, HV, and VV polarized images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C instrument were used in the study. Techniques to reduce topographic effects in the radar images were investigated. These included radiometric correction using illumination angle inferred from a digital elevation model, and reducing apparent effects of topography through band ratios. Forest classification was performed after terrain correction utilizing typical supervised techniques and principal component analyses. An ancillary data set of local elevations was also used to improve the forest classification. Map accuracy for each technique was estimated for training sites based on Russian forestry maps, satellite imagery and field measurements. The results indicate that it is necessary to correct for topography when attempting to classify forests in mountainous terrain. Radiometric correction based on a DEM (Digital Elevation Model) improved classification results but required reducing the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) resolution to match the DEM. Using ratios of SAR channels that include cross-polarization improved classification and

  7. Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to temperature change,Sayan Mountains, Siberia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K Jon; Kharuk, Vyetcheslav I.

    2007-01-01

    Models of climate change predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where temperature mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation change on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these changes occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive temperature (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer temperatures and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for temperature increase.

  8. Studying the NDVI dynamics features for vegetation monitoring method development in the south of Central Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugacheva, Irina

    Monitoring of vegetation state can be based on studying their dynamics features. Effective methods of satellite data interpretation using spectral feature distinctions should be applied for this purpose. Studying the time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) during growth period is one of such approaches. The analysis of NDVI temporal profile shape allows to identify vegetation objects on satellite image. The NDVI curve transformation regularities during growth period are studied in the process of study carried out. Growth rate in specific phenological phases (growth of vegetative organs; maturation and fruiting) and extreme NDVI values during total growth period are detected. Growth rate is calculated as a NDVI curve slope. The NDVI dynamics of different vegetation types (agricultural crops - wheat, oats, buckwheat; abandoned fields of different age, meadow steppe, stony steppe, feather-grass steppe, flood meadow etc.), located in the south of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk krai, Khakasia), has been derived and analyzed. Results of this study are as the basis for developed software, which produces the automatic identification of canopy using Terra Modis satellite measurement data.

  9. A rock-magnetic record from Lake Baikal, Siberia: Evidence for Late Quaternary climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, J.A.; King, J.W.; Colman, Steven M.; Kravchinsky, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Rock-magnetic measurements of sediment cores from the Academician Ridge region of Lake Baikal, Siberia show variations related to Late Quaternary climate change. Based upon the well-dated last glacial-interglacial transition, variations in magnetic concentration and mineralogy are related to glacial-interglacial cycles using a conceptual model. Interglacial intervals are characterized by low magnetic concentrations and a composition that is dominated by low coercivity minerals. Glacial intervals are characterized by high magnetic concentrations and increased amounts of high coercivity minerals. The variation in magnetic concentration is consistent with dilution by diatom opal during the more productive interglacial periods. We also infer an increased contribution of eolian sediment during the colder, windier, and more arid glacial conditions when extensive loess deposits were formed throughout Europe and Asia. Eolian transport is inferred to deliver increased amounts of high coercivity minerals as staining on eolian grains during the glacial intervals. Variations in magnetic concentration and mineralogy of Lake Baikal sediment correlate to the SPECMAP marine oxygen-isotope record. The high degree of correlation between Baikal magnetic concentration/mineralogy and the SPECMAP oxygen-isotope record indicates that Lake Baikal sediment preserves a history of climate change in central Asia for the last 250 ka. This correlation provides a method of estimating the age of sediment beyond the range of the radiocarbon method. Future work must include providing better age control and additional climate proxy data, thereby strengthening the correlation of continental and marine climate records. ?? 1994.

  10. Kitoy sillimanite deposit (Eastern Siberia): an example of Neoarchaean-Paleoproterozoic paleoweathering crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnikova, Ekaterina; Yakovleva, Sonya; Levitsky, Ivan; Kotov, Alexander; Levitsky, Valery; Reznitsky, Leonid; Anisimova, Irina

    2010-05-01

    We present the first reliable geochronological data on the age of the Kitoy sillimanite deposit (south-western Siberian craton) composed by andalusite-sillimanite, garnet-sillimanite and essentially sillimanite rocks intercalated with quartzite. These rocks experienced metamorphic reworking under amphibolite facies condition. Geochemical data indicates that hydrolysate clay rocks with kaolin, kaolinite and metalaterite or pyrophyllite have been a protholites of the high-alumina Kitoy rocks. Thus the Kitoy deposit high-alumina schist corresponds to mature paleoweathering crust (laterite and bauxite) with negligible amount of clastic material. U-Pb zircon geochronological investigations were undertaken for leucocratic biotite gneisses directly subjacent productive high-alumina suite as well as for migmatitic orthotektite vein cutting the andalusite-sillimanite rocks. Both samples contain typical magmatic zircon which was dated at 2578+/-16 Ma in the biotite gneisses and at 2483+/-4 Ma in the veined orthotektite. Pb-Pb age of sillimanite from high-alumina rocks is at 2536+/-27 Ma (Levchenkov et al., 2009) that is in good correspondence with our data. Results of our study allow to bracket the formation of the Kitoy deposit in the age interval 2536-2483 Ma and consider the high-alumina rocks of this deposit as example of the ancient paleoweathering crust recognized in the Eastern Siberia.

  11. Remote Sensing in the Vicinity of the El'gygytgyn Impact Crater, Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, C. G.; Sharpton, V. L.

    2001-12-01

    The 18 km wide El'gygytgyn impact crater is located at 67°29'N, 172°5'E within the Anadyr Plateau of eastern Siberia. Isotopic studies, by Layer (MAPS, v. 35, p. 591-599, 2000), indicate a formation age of 3.58 +/- 0.04 Ma. A 12 km wide lake occupies the center of the crater. Local target rocks of the Anadyr Plateau consist of a mid-Cretaceous volcanic sequence (the Okhotsk-Chukotka Volcanic Field). The majority of the crater lies within a zone characterized largely by andesitic to rhyolitic tuffs and ignimbrites of primarily acidic composition; however some subalkaline basaltic andesites have been identified in the southwest quadrant (Belyi and Raikevich, Moscow Bulletin About Tests of Nature, Geologic Division, v. 71, p. 56-72, 1996). We are assessing the utility of satellite image data for discriminating volcanic lithologies and for identifying any possible outliers of ejected impact debris. Supervised classification of four Landsat images and six high-resolution IKONOS multispectral images relies on training areas selected from a 1998 geological map produced by Belyi and Belaya. Our goal is to evaluate spectral variability within mapped volcanic units and to identify any unmapped regions with similar spectral signatures. Hindrances include snow patches, thick cloud patches, long shadows, and sparse vegetation. These factors are taken into account during the classification process, using sophisticated spectral masking algorithms.

  12. Late Quaternary lake-level changes of Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juschus, Olaf; Pavlov, Maksim; Schwamborn, Georg; Preusser, Frank; Fedorov, Grigory; Melles, Martin

    2011-11-01

    Lake El'gygytgyn is situated in a 3.6 Ma old impact crater in northeastern Siberia. Presented here is a reconstruction of the Quaternary lake-level history as derived from sediment cores from the southern lake shelf. There, a cliff-like bench 10 m below the modern water level has been investigated. Deep-water sediments on the shelf indicate high lake levels during a warm Mid-Pleistocene period. One period with low lake level prior to Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 has been identified, followed by a period of high lake level (10 m above present). In the course of MIS 2 the lake level dropped to - 10 m. At the end of MIS 2 the bench was formed and coarse beach sedimentation occurred. Subsequently, the lake level rose rapidly to the Holocene level. Changes in water level are likely linked to climate variability. During relatively temperate periods the lake becomes free of ice in summer. Strong wave actions transport sediment parallel to the coast and towards the outlet, where the material tends to accumulate, resulting in lake level rise. During cold periods the perennial lake ice cover hampers any wave activity and pebble-transport, keeping the outlet open and causing the lake level to drop.

  13. Microbial nitrogen dynamics in organic and mineral soil horizons along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Knoltsch, Anna; Takriti, Mounir; Mooshammer, Maria; Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Alves, Ricardo J. Eloy; Gittel, Antje; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Soil N availability is constrained by the breakdown of N-containing polymers such as proteins to oligopeptides and amino acids that can be taken up by plants and microorganisms. Excess N is released from microbial cells as ammonium (N mineralization), which in turn can serve as substrate for nitrification. According to stoichiometric theory, N mineralization and nitrification are expected to increase in relation to protein depolymerization with decreasing N limitation, and thus from higher to lower latitudes and from topsoils to subsoils. To test these hypotheses, we compared gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification (determined using 15N pool dilution assays) in organic topsoil, mineral topsoil, and mineral subsoil of seven ecosystems along a latitudinal transect in western Siberia, from tundra (67°N) to steppe (54°N). The investigated ecosystems differed strongly in N transformation rates, with highest protein depolymerization and N mineralization rates in middle and southern taiga. All N transformation rates decreased with soil depth following the decrease in organic matter content. Related to protein depolymerization, N mineralization and nitrification were significantly higher in mineral than in organic horizons, supporting a decrease in microbial N limitation with depth. In contrast, we did not find indications for a decrease in microbial N limitation from arctic to temperate ecosystems along the transect. Our findings thus challenge the perception of ubiquitous N limitation at high latitudes, but suggest a transition from N to C limitation of microorganisms with soil depth, even in high-latitude systems such as tundra and boreal forest.

  14. The last Scandinavian Ice Sheet in northwestern Russia: ice flow patterns and decay dynamics

    E-print Network

    Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F The last Scandinavian Ice Sheet in northwestern Russia: ice flow Sheet in northwestern Russia: ice flow patterns and decay dynamics. Boreas, Vol. 35, pp. xxxÁxxx. Oslo) in northwestern Russia took place after a period of periglacial conditions. Till of the last SIS, Bobrovo till

  15. March 25, 2010 Electoral Politics in Russia: Are Citizens Speaking Up?

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    March 25, 2010 Electoral Politics in Russia: Are Citizens Speaking Up? On February 25, 2010, two Federation. Russia is a managed democracy; competitive elections exist, but only in certain spheres, and with strict state regulation. There are four dominant parties: the United Russia Party, the Communist Party

  16. LYSTROSAURUS GEORGI, A DICYNODONT FROM THE LOWER TRIASSIC OF RUSSIA MIKHAIL V. SURKOV1

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    LYSTROSAURUS GEORGI, A DICYNODONT FROM THE LOWER TRIASSIC OF RUSSIA MIKHAIL V. SURKOV1 , NIKOLAS N Saratov, Russia, SurkovMV@info.sgu.ru 2 Paleontologicheskii Institut, Profsoyuznaya 123, 117647 Moscow, Russia. 3 Department of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, BS8 1RJ, U.K., mike

  17. Holocene Paleohydrology and Paleoclimate at Treeline, North-Central Russia, Inferred from Oxygen Isotope

    E-print Network

    Edwards, Thomas W.D.

    Holocene Paleohydrology and Paleoclimate at Treeline, North-Central Russia, Inferred from Oxygen Institute for Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Staromonetny Pereulok 29, Moscow 109017, Russia, 1998 Lake-water oxygen-isotope histories for three lakes in northern Russia, derived from the cellulose

  18. ACM ICPC 2014-2015, Moscow Subregional Russia, Moscow, October 2014

    E-print Network

    Kaplan, Alexander

    ACM ICPC 2014-2015, Moscow Subregional Russia, Moscow, October 2014 Problem A. Advanced 2048 Input Subregional Russia, Moscow, October 2014 Examples standard input standard output 6 5 2 1 2 2 1 3 4 1 5 4 1 6 2 #12;ACM ICPC 2014-2015, Moscow Subregional Russia, Moscow, October 2014 Problem B. Bring Your Own

  19. Criminal Justice in Moscow, Russia Class: CJA 496 -Comparative Russian Criminal Justice

    E-print Network

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Criminal Justice in Moscow, Russia Class: CJA 496 - Comparative Russian Criminal Justice Class information about the CJ program in Russia please go to the SDSU College of Extended Studies Website Students beautiful structures in Russia and at the same time, learned about the Rus- sian Criminal Justice System

  20. Presidential Address 2007: The end-Permian mass extinction events on land in Russia

    E-print Network

    Benton, Michael

    Presidential Address 2007: The end-Permian mass extinction ­ events on land in Russia Michael J. Benton BENTON, M. J. 2008. The end-Permian mass extinction ­ events on land in Russia. Proceedings. Field work in Russia over the past decade has shown evidence for massive erosion at the boundary

  1. Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia

    E-print Network

    Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia VALERY I): Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia. Boreas, Vol. 28, pp. 23­45. Oslo. ISSN 0300-9483. Glacial landforms in northern Russia, from the Timan Ridge

  2. February 21, 2011 Declaring Mother's Day in Russia: Laws and Decrees in a

    E-print Network

    Qian, Ning

    February 21, 2011 Declaring Mother's Day in Russia: Laws and Decrees in a Super-Presidential System-making in Russia--a relationship that embodies the balance of power between the executive and legislative branches, but a symptom of the failure to establish democracy in Russia. "Certainly its the case that among post

  3. "zwu0247" --2005/3/7 --page 1 --#1 WHO ARE RUSSIA'S ENTREPRENEURS?

    E-print Network

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WHO ARE RUSSIA'S ENTREPRENEURS? Simeon Djankov World Bank Edward Miguel UC Berkeley Yingyi Qian UC,000 interviews from a pilot study in Russia, we find evidence that the three sets of variables matter set that is being collected in five developing and transition countries: Russia, Brazil,

  4. Empire, Religious Freedom, and the Legal Regulation of "Mixed" Marriages in Russia*

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Empire, Religious Freedom, and the Legal Regulation of "Mixed" Marriages in Russia* Paul W. Werth. Petersburg, Russia); LVIA Lietuvos Valstybes Istorijos Archyvas (Vilnius, Lithuania). 1 Highlighting only, Converging Worlds: Religion and Community in Peasant Russia, 1861­1917 (DeKalb, IL, 2003); Valerie Kivelson

  5. Returns to schooling in Russia and Ukraine: A semiparametric approach to cross-country comparative analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Klara Sabirianova Peter

    2005-01-01

    Measuring the returns to schooling over an extended period in Russia and Ukraine from 1985 to 2002, we find an increase in both countries but the increase is much bigger in Russia than in Ukraine. To investigate why returns to schooling in Russia and Ukraine diverged over the transition period while the skill composition of employment did not, we compare

  6. Russia and Islam: State approaches, radicalisation and the 'War on Terror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Dannreuther; Luke March

    Contesting the official rhetoric of inter-confessional harmony, some analysts now predict the inexorable spread of radical jihadism throughout Russia. This article challenges such bleak forecasts while providing a general overview of dynamics among Russia's Muslim communities. While such pessimistic prognoses are exaggerated and ignore the varieties of Muslim expression in Russia, Putin's policies of the securitisation of the Islamic threat

  7. Petroleum potential of deeply buried formations: Precaspian and West Siberian provinces

    SciTech Connect

    Nemchenko, N.; Rovenskaya, A.; Girshgorn, L.; Shpilyman, K. (IGIRNI, Moscow, (Russian Federation))

    1991-03-01

    Further increases in the hydrocarbon commercial resources in the Precaspian and West Siberian petroliferous provinces are connected with the development of superdeep sediments. The right orientation of exploration works greatly depend on the reliability of the hydrocarbon phase-state prediction. The hydrocarbon phase-state prediction is based on geology-geochemical indices combined analyses that allow the carrying out of the zonation of potential areas in accordance with development of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons and the evaluation of their possible commercial potential. The West Siberian and Precaspian petroliferous provinces are characterized by a number of geology-geochemical indices and have the distinction of determining prediction of different phase-state zones. There is a reftogenic marginal through on the Siberian platform in the northeastern part of Western Siberia. It arose in conjunction with the zone of discordant paleorift systems and was named the Purgydan syneclise. It is a rather full tectonic analog of the classic marginal syneclise - Precaspian - and on that was based the possibility of a comparative analysis of the oil and gas percent in spite of a variety of heat-flow intensity, both of the provinces are characterized by similar paleo- and modern geothermal conditions. The hydrocarbon phase-state prediction carried out on Precaspian and West Siberian petroliferous provinces at a 5000-m level has enabled the authors to outline a row of potential zones of exploration of pools with different phase states.

  8. Space Radar Image of Kiluchevskoi, Volcano, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of the area of Kliuchevskoi volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, which began to erupt on September 30, 1994. Kliuchevskoi is the blue triangular peak in the center of the image, towards the left edge of the bright red area that delineates bare snow cover. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 88th orbit on October 5, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 75 kilometers by 100 kilometers (46 miles by 62 miles) that is centered at 56.07 degrees north latitude and 160.84 degrees east longitude. North is toward the bottom of the image. The radar illumination is from the top of the image. The Kamchatka volcanoes are among the most active volcanoes in the world. The volcanic zone sits above a tectonic plate boundary, where the Pacific plate is sinking beneath the northeast edge of the Eurasian plate. The Endeavour crew obtained dramatic video and photographic images of this region during the eruption, which will assist scientists in analyzing the dynamics of the recent activity. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). In addition to Kliuchevskoi, two other active volcanoes are visible in the image. Bezymianny, the circular crater above and to the right of Kliuchevskoi, contains a slowly growing lava dome. Tolbachik is the large volcano with a dark summit crater near the upper right edge of the red snow covered area. The Kamchatka River runs from right to left across the bottom of the image. The current eruption of Kliuchevskoi included massive ejections of gas, vapor and ash, which reached altitudes of 15,000 meters (50,000 feet). Melting snow mixed with volcanic ash triggered mud flows on the flanks of the volcano. Paths of these flows can be seen as thin lines in various shades of blue and green on the north flank in the center of the image. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.v.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

  9. Indigenous Minority Languages of Russia: A Bibliographical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matsumura, Kazuto, Ed.

    This publication is a printed version of 54 Web documents as they were at the end of March 2002. It includes selected lists of school textbooks, dictionaries, grammars, grammatical descriptions, and folklore collections in and on 54 indigenous minority languages of Russia, many of which are endangered. The 54 languages are arranged in the…

  10. The gender wage gap in Russia: Some empirical evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Newell; Barry Reilly

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents estimates for wage equations and the gender wage gap for Russia using data drawn from the first sweep of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) carried out between July and November of 1992. The results reported provide a set of estimates that reflect the legacy of the Soviet planning system. In addition, given they are at a

  11. The New Universities of Russia: Problems and Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiroi, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    Russian universities do poorly in international rankings, and this will hurt Russia's ability to compete successfully in the global market. One way in which to try to improve this situation is to create new universities by merging institutions and organize them in innovative ways to become more efficient and effective. [This article was translated…

  12. The state and economic involution: Russia through a China lens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Burawoy

    1996-01-01

    Why has the Russian economy declined at the rate the Chinese economy has grown? In China the party-state has made possible the decentralization of property relations and the hardening of budget constraints whereas in Russia the disintegration of the party-state has led to privatization and soft budget constraints. Whereas the former combination entailed accumulation, the latter combination entailed “involution,” that

  13. Satellite imagery gives clear picture of Russia's boreal forest fires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric S. Kasischke; Kathleen Bergen; R. Fennimore; F. Sotelo; G. Stephens; Anthony Janetos; H. Hank Shugart

    1999-01-01

    Boreal forest fires in Russia in 1998 may have covered a much larger area than originally reported and may have been mostly crown fires, releasing more greenhouse gases into the atmosphere than surface fires. These conclusions are based on analysis of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data and discussions with Russian fire officials. A more complete analysis of AVHRR

  14. The Household and the Family in Rural Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patsiorkovskii, V. V.; Patsiorkovskaia, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    There is a great need to improve rural life in Russia, and this must involve the development of the agricultural economy. This will require improving life for rural families, making it easier for them to obtain land to farm, and providing adequate housing and cultural facilities in the Russian village. (Contains 1 table.) [This article was…

  15. The Internet in Putin's Russia: Reinventing a Technology of Authoritarianism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Alexander

    By focusing on Internet policy in Russia, this article addresses the po- tential and actual impact of the Internet on increasing freedom in an au- thoritarian regime. Traditionally, authoritarian governments have responded to the IT revolution by censoring sources of free and unbiased information (China, Singapore, Middle East), while democratic governments focused on public concerns such as protection of minors

  16. How Putin's Russia embraces authoritarianism: The case of Yegor Gaidar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Shlapentokh

    2007-01-01

    The ability of an Orwellian society to bend the will of individuals and force them to change their minds is well known. Putin's Russia, however, has proved that not only a harsh totalitarian state, such as the Soviet Union, but also a somewhat milder, authoritarian regime is able to achieve almost the same result. Such a regime can threaten to

  17. Children and Young People Are the Future of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimashevskaia, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of a country's population as the carrier of its intellectual potential increases greatly in a postindustrial country, where the nation's intelligence, comprised of an aggregate of the intelligence of individuals, becomes the true engine and decisive factor of progress. Any loss of human resources in Russia, without regard to age and…

  18. Corporate entrepreneurs and privatized firms in russia, ukraine, and belarus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igor Filatotchev; Mike Wright; Trevor Buck; Vladimir Zhukov

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary examination of the development of corporate entrepreneurship in privatized firms in Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine, three countries with a common background as part of the Soviet Union, but with different incentives and constraints on entrepreneurship since the beginning of transition. Using large-scale surveys of newly privatized companies, the paper shows that there are differences in

  19. The Social and Pedagogical Protection of Orphans in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantiukhina, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the history of the provision of children's care ("prizrenie") in Russia which provides evidence that the desire to help those close to one, especially orphans and the poor, was a traditional trait of the Russian national character. The system of children's welfare as it took shape over many centuries is unique in its own…

  20. The Narcotics Situation in Russia as a Social Pedagogical Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popov, V. A.

    2012-01-01

    The increase in the use of narcotics in Russia has been complicated by the spread of new kinds of drugs that are less visible than more traditional kinds. A worsening of the situation must be prevented. This requires studying the accumulation of world experience, searching for up-to-date approaches to prevention, combining the efforts of science…

  1. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  2. Foreign Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aref'ev, A. L.

    2005-01-01

    In the next few years, higher educational institutions in Russia are going to have difficulties recruiting applicants for enrollment owing to the decline of the country's population and the reduced number of young people. One of the most important indicators of the effectiveness of the educational process and the level of competitiveness of the…

  3. SPECIES CAUSING WHEAT SEPTORIA DISEASES IN VARIOUS REGIONS OF RUSSIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Among important fungal diseases on wheat in Russia, Septoria diseases have been dominant. Crop losses from Septoria diseases were up to 30-40%. Epidemics have occurred in 4-5 out of 10 years. From naturally-infected plants in the field, diseased wheat leaves with spots and pycnidia were collected in...

  4. Locating Women's Human Rights in Post-Soviet Provincial Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vikki Turbine

    2012-01-01

    This essay provides insights into studies on citizens' engagement with human rights in Russia through its focus on a relatively under-researched area, namely, the ways in which women perceive the role of human rights in daily life contexts. This essay argues for the importance of analysing how women's perceptions of human rights are formed in situ in order to understand

  5. Variants of Russia's Policy towards the Rise of China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexei D. Voskressenski

    ussia and China maintain complex external relations with the rest of the world, notably in their strategies towards Asia, and both aim to exploit the potential of the other to accelerate their national modernisation projects. It is against this background that the political elites of Russia and China strive to construct a strategic partnership. 2 A number of actors explain

  6. FOREST FIRES IN RUSSIA: CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS IN THE ATMOSPHERE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Boreal forests of Russia play a significant role in the global carbon cycle and the f lux of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. ecause f ire and other disturbances are ecologically inherent in boreal forests, large areas are burned annually and contributions to the flux of carbo...

  7. Naltrexone for heroin dependence treatment in St. Petersburg, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evgeny M Krupitsky; Edwin E Zvartau; Dimitry V Masalov; Marina V Tsoi; Andrey M Burakov; Valentina Y Egorova; Tatyana Y Didenko; Tatyana N Romanova; Eva B Ivanova; Anton Y Bespalov; Elena V Verbitskaya; Nikolai G Neznanov; Alexandr Y Grinenko; Charles P O'Brien; George E Woody

    2004-01-01

    Naltrexone may be more effective for treating opioid (heroin) dependence in Russia than in the U.S. because patients are mostly young and living with their parents, who can control medication compliance. In this pilot study we randomized 52 consenting patients who completed detoxification in St. Petersburg to a double blind, 6-month course of biweekly drug counseling and naltrexone, or counseling

  8. Responses to Agrarian Reforms in Russia: Evidence from Novosibirsk Oblast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davydova, Irina; Franks, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    Interviews with Directors of restructured collective farms, private farmers, Rural Development Officers, and Agricultural specialists in the Administration from Suzun raion, Novosibirsk oblast, central Russia revealed a regional response to recent agrarian reforms. Distinct differences emerged between the objectives of the restructured collective…

  9. Needs Assessment for Health Care Management Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rekhter, Natalia; Togunov, Igor A.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: For more than 70 years, health care management in the Soviet Union reflected a centralized directive style familiar to the Soviet political system. Market-oriented reform in post-Soviet Russia is pushing practicing physicians and physician-executives to acquire new information and skills regarding health care management. To assist…

  10. Indicators of the Education Potential of the Population of Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikhomirov, N. P.; Ushchev, V. I.

    2007-01-01

    The steady tendencies toward the decline in the size of Russia's population in the twenty-first century, owing to the effect of global political, social, and economic factors, are giving rise to a number of fundamental problems that have to do with the erosion of the conditions that are essential not only for the stable development of society, but…

  11. Social Inequality and Access to Higher Education in Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinovskiy, David L.

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses research on social inequality and access to higher education in Russia. It argues that the myth about equality of life chances, as with certain other myths, was an important part of the Soviet ideology. However, children from privileged groups traditionally received the education and professional training which were most…

  12. Competition Enhancing Policies and Infrastructure: Evidence from Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. David David Brown; John S. Earle

    2001-01-01

    This Paper investigates whether the efficiency effect of product market dispersion is a function of the infrastructural and policy environment. We hypothesise that more developed transportation and communication infrastructure and lower government regulation may reduce transaction costs, intensifying the competition associated with a given market structure, and we use data from the recently liberalized and regionally diverse country of Russia

  13. Understanding Care for the Poor in Rural Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubin, Sergei

    2012-01-01

    The issues surrounding care and care-provision have been key themes in social scientific research, yet the intersections between care and poverty, particularly in rural contexts, have not been sufficiently explored. This paper addresses this gap by studying care for the poor in rural Russia. It argues that isolated, disengaged and decontextualised…

  14. Distance Education in Russia: Between the Past and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moiseeva, Marina

    2005-01-01

    The history of distance education in Russia and in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) is a history of dramatic change in ideology, conceptual framework, and approach. It can be divided into two main stages: initial formation and development into the world's largest system of correspondence learning, from the mid 1920s to the…

  15. The Hydrography of the Chupa Estuary, White Sea, Russia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. M. Howland; A. N. Pantiulin; G. E. Millward; R. Prego

    1999-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the fate and fluxes of materials from Arctic estuaries to the coastal zone. The paper is the first of a series addressing questions relating to the physics and chemistry of the region. Three seasonal cruises were undertaken in the Chupa Estuary, White Sea, Russia; in summer (July 1994), autumn (September, 1995) and spring (May\\/June

  16. Russia's waterborne trade and transport: issues in market transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans J. Peters

    1993-01-01

    During the Soviet era most of the Union's international non-oil trade was transported over water. Following the former Soviet Union's break-up, the share of water transport in accomodating Russia's trade has become modest, as the railways carry most goods that are traded domestically or with the new republics of the Commonwealth of Independence States, which are now treated as foreign

  17. U.S.-RUSSIA TIES: Spy Conviction Strains Science Collaborations.

    PubMed

    Stone, R

    2000-12-15

    The conviction last week in Russia of U.S. businessman Edward Pope on charges of espionage may add to already growing tensions in scientific collaborations between the two countries, according to officials on both sides. The recent strains appear to be a reaction to a broad range of national security concerns in each nation. PMID:17733043

  18. EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

    2010-03-01

    This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in Northern Eurasia that follow the Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach. Under the direction of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (IGBP), SIRS is one of the Integrated Regional Studies (IRS) that aims to investigate environmental change in Siberia under the current environment of global change, and the potential impact on Earth system dynamics [1]. The regions of interest are those that may function as 'choke or switch points' for the global Earth system, where changes in regional biophysical, biogeochemical and anthropogenic components may have significant consequences for the Earth system at the global scale. Siberia is a large and significant region that may compel change [2]. Regional consequences of global warming (e.g. anomalous increases in cold season temperatures) have already been documented for Siberia [3]. This result is also supported by climate modeling results for the 20th-22nd centuries [4]. Future climatic change threatens Siberia with the shift of permafrost boundaries northward, dramatic changes in land cover (redistribution among boreal forest, wetlands, tundra, and steppe zones often precipitated by fire regime change) and the entire hydrological regime of the territory [5-8]. These processes feed back to and influence climate dynamics through the exchange of energy, water, greenhouse gases and aerosols [9]. Even though there have been a handful of national and international projects focused on the Siberian environment, scientists have minimal knowledge about the processes that control change in this understudied region, particularly those concerning the primary components that influence regional climate (i.e. cloud cover, precipitation) and responses and feedbacks to and from terrestrial and aquatic systems. This provides a strong impetus for the SIRS project. SIRS was initiated at a boreal forest conference in Krasnoyarsk in 2002 under the auspices of the IGBP and ESSP regional strategy by Will Steffen (IGBP) and the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SB RAS). Russian and foreign scientific activities continued under the Siberian Center for Environmental Research and Training (SCERT) in 2003. In 2005, the Siberian Branch of the Russian National Committee (SB RNC) for IGBP endorsed these activities and recommended investigations focus on four major themes: quantification of the terrestrial biota full greenhouse gas budget, with a focus on the exchange between biota and atmosphere; monitoring and modeling of regional climate change impacts; development of SIRS informational-computational infrastructure; and development of a regional strategy of adaptation to and mitigation of the negative consequences of global change. SIRS development [10, 11] supports Siberian Earth science investigations funded by the RAS Foundation for Basic Research, the European Commission (EC), the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). SB RNC is responsible for SIRS advances, and SCERT hosts the Committee office and houses major SIRS informational-computational infrastructure development. NEESPI (www.neespi.org/) serves as an IGBP and World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) external project, and as a NEESPI mega-project, SIRS has organized distribution centers in Krasnoyarsk and Tomsk to support NEESPI activity, and has coordinated training and educational activity aimed at young scientists. SIRS approaches and outcomes Organizational activity The 'Siberian Geosphere-Biosphere Program: integrated regional study of contemporary natural and climatic changes' is one of se

  19. Possible climate warming effects on vegetation, forests, biotic (insect, pathogene) disturbances and agriculture in Central Siberia for 1960- 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.; Lysanova, G. I.; Baranchikov, Y. N.; Kuzmina, N. A.

    2012-04-01

    Regional Siberian studies have already registered climate warming over the last half a century (1960-2010). Our analysis showed that winters are already 2-3°C warmer in the north and 1-2°C warmer in the south by 2010. Summer temperatures increased by 1°C in the north and by 1-2°C in the south. Change in precipitation is more complicated, increasing on average 10% in middle latitudes and decreasing 10-20% in the south, promoting local drying in already dry landscapes. Our goal was to summarize results of research we have done for the last decade in the context of climate warming and its consequences for biosystems in Central Siberia. We modeled climate change effects on vegetation shifts, on forest composition and agriculture change, on the insect Siberian moth (Dendrolimus suprans sibiricus Tschetv) and pathogene (Lophodermium pinastri Chev) ranges in Central Siberia for a century (1960-2050) based on historical climate data and GCM-predicted data. Principal results are: In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over 50% of central Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats; At least half of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture at the end of the century although potential croplands would be limited by the availability of suitable soils agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming Crop production may twofold increase as climate warms during the century; traditional crops (grain, potato, maize for silage) could be gradually shifted as far as 500 km from the south northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) and new crops (maize for grain, apricot, grape, gourds) may be introduced in the very south depending on winter conditions and would necessitate irrigation in a drier 2080 climate; The environment for the Siberian moth may considerably shrink in the future leaving suitable habitats only in highlands of mountains and the north of Eurasia. The moth habitats also depend on migration rates of tree species Larix spp., Abies sibirica, and Pinus sibirica being main food resources. Siberian moth may not be considered as a threat in climates with mild winter because larvae require continuos continental type winters. Needle-cast of Pinus sylvestris caused by Lophodermium pinastri Chev. was found to be strongly related to precipation including snow depth. In a predicted dryer climate, it would shift northwards followed sufficient water.

  20. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA