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1

Strategic aspects of the Chinese-Russian cooperation between Northwest region of China and West Siberia of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese-Russian cooperation is the important part of strategic partnership of two countries. Especially the cooperation (hereinafter abbreviated form designated «W-W») between Northwest region of China and West Siberia has great value. Thanks to the rich natural resources, these extensive regions are world-known, play the important role in development of economy and society of two countries, possess good prospects of

Gu Tszyayui; Lyu Litsay

2

Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

Clarke, J. W.

1994-01-01

3

Radioactive Elements in Soils of Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk In the course of long-term research a great deal of information on the content of natural and artificial radionuclides in soils of the Siberian regions has been obtained and summarized (Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Yakutia, Khakassia, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk Oblasts and a number of other Siberian regions). The content level of U(Ra), Th and K in soil of studied areas is within the range of values obtained for soil of other areas of Russia and the world and defined, first of all, by radioactivity of parent rocks. The authors have studied the total level of specific activity for 137Cs most completely in soils of different Siberian regions. The maximum density of such sites with global fallouts (nuclear air explosions in Novaya Zemlya, Lop Nor, Semipalatinsk etc.) is typical for the areas of Altai Territory and Buryatia Republic. Elevated level of radiocesium (to 1000 and more than Bq/kg) is characteristic for the sites adjacent to the area of NFP (Seversk, Zheleznogorsk). Our data obtained in determination of plutonium in soils of different Siberian regions excess remarkably its background accepted for Siberia. Particularly high accumulation levels of Pu in soil were observed in the zones of NFP operation (Seversk, Tomsk Oblast; Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the sites of accidents fallouts at underground nuclear explosions in Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Abnormally high ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soils of Sakha republic, Aginsk Buryatia Autonomous District, Krasnoyarsk Territory has engaged our attention.

Baranovskaya, N. V.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. N.; Strakhovenko, V. D.; Malikova, I. N.; Shcherbakov, B. L.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Aturova, V. P.

2012-04-01

4

East Siberia and Bering Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On June 5, 2001 MODIS captured this true-color image of Eastern Siberia and the Bering Strait. To the right of the image is the western tip of Alaska's St. Lawrence Island. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

2002-01-01

5

An aborted Triassic Ocean in west Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small buried oceanic basin named the Obsky paleo-ocean has been found in West Siberia. It developed from 235 to 218 m.y. during the Triassic by rift propagation and seafloor spreading inside the west Siberian region of the continent. During the postspreading period the Obsky paleo-ocean did not collapse but instead was covered intact by a layer of sediments with a thickness of up to 15 km. This conclusion is based on detailed interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Striped magnetic anomalies marking the paleo-ocean spreading have been separated from the total magnetic field. They have been dated and interpreted within the framework of the Vine-Matthews concept. Seismic and gravitational data have permitted delineation of the Obsky paleo-ocean depression and contouring of the basement relief within its bounds. Investigation of the Obsky paleo-ocean basalts by means of deep boreholes has indicated that they are chemically similar to oceanic tholeiites and has also confirmed the presence of strong residual magnetism in them. Spreading of the Obsky paleo-ocean was a stage in the initial disintegration of Pangea at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary. The presence of a north trending buried spreading center along the axial zone of West Siberia accounts for many features of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the region and its present-day structure.

Aplonov, Sergei

1988-12-01

6

[Detection of Babesia spp. DNA in small mammals and ixodic ticks on the territory of north Ural, west Siberia and far east of Russia].  

PubMed

Totally, 932 small mammals and 458 questing adult Ixodes persulcatus from Sverdlovsk and Novosibirsk regions and Khabarovsk Territory, as well as 128 Haemaphysalis japonica, 34 H. concinna and 29 Dermacentor silvarum from Khabarovsk Territory were examined for the presence of Babesia by nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia microti DNA was found in samples of small mammals from all the studied regions--in 36.2% of samples from Sverdlovsk region, 5.3% of samples from Novosibirsk region, and 6.7% of samples from Khabarovsk Territory. The determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Novosibirsk region (6 sequences) and from Khabarovsk Territory (10 sequences) were identical to each other and to the sequences of pathogenic for human B. microti US-type, while the determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Sverdlovsk region (12 sequences) were identical to those of B. microti strain Munich. B. microti were found most frequently in samples of Myodes spp., they were found also in Microtus spp., Apodemus spp., Sorer spp., and Sicista betulinav. It was shown that one of 347 analyzed I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region and one of 77 I. persulcatus from Khabarovsk Territory contained B. microti US-type DNA. One I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region contained B. divergens DNA. In this work B. divergens was for the first time determined in I. persulcatus and B. microti in I. persulcatus in Asian part of Russia. Three different genetic variants of Babesia sensu stricto were found in three H. japonica from Khabarovsk Territory. The first genetic variant was closely related to Babesia sp. revealed in a feral raccoon in Japan (99.9% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). Two others Babesia genetic variants were most similar to the ovine pathogen Babesia crassa (97.1-97.6% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). PMID:20886686

Rar, V A; Epikhina, T I; Livanova, N N; Panov, V V; Pukhovskaia, N M; Vysochina, N P; Ivanov, L I

2010-01-01

7

A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

2002-01-01

8

Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km2, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

Dyukarev, E. A.; Pologova, N. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, A. G.

2011-07-01

9

Giant gas field of northern West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m³ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m³ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m³ or

J. D. Grace; G. F. Hart

1986-01-01

10

New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) in Russia (Siberia, Kamchatka).  

PubMed

New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were found in Russia. P. primaurelia was recorded in Tulun (Siberia, Irkutsk region) and in three stands situated on the Kamchatka peninsula: in Lake Chalaktyrskoye, in the Valley of Geysers, and Petropavlovsk Kamchatski. P. biaurelia was also found in Tulun and in two stands in the vicinity of Lake Baikal and the Buriatia region. P. dodecaurelia was recorded in Cheboksary in European Russia and in other stands situated in Asian Russia: Novosibirsk, the vicinity of Lake Baikal, Buriatia, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, Lake Chalaktyrskoye, and Nalychevo). These data extend the ranges of species of the P. aurelia complex in Russia, however, this large territory remains understudied. PMID:23767291

Przybo?, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta; Bieliavskaya, Alexandra

2013-01-01

11

Giant gas field of northern West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

1986-06-01

12

Influenza A (H15N4) virus isolation in Western Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events. PMID:23283950

Sivay, Mariya V; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y; Sharshov, Kirill A; Govorkova, Elena A; Shestopalov, Aleksander M; Webby, Richard J

2013-03-01

13

Influenza A (H15N4) Virus Isolation in Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events.

Sivay, Mariya V.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y.; Sharshov, Kirill A.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Shestopalov, Aleksander M.

2013-01-01

14

Densities and distribution of flagellates and ciliates in the chemocline of saline, meromictic Lake Shunet (Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical and seasonal distributions of the phytoflagellate Cryptomonas spp., and its most common, the planktonic ciliate predators (Oligotrichida, Scuticociliatida, Hypotrichida and Prostomatida) were investigated in chemocline region of small saline, meromictic lake Shunet (Siberia, Russia) during 2003 and 2005. The\\u000a lake has a pronounced chemocline, with abundance of purple and green sulphur bacteria. Vertical distribution of the Cryptomonas populations

E. B. Khromechek; Y. V. Barkhatov; D. Y. Rogozin

2010-01-01

15

HLA genes of Aleutian Islanders living between Alaska (USA) and Kamchatka (Russia) suggest a possible southern Siberia origin.  

PubMed

Aleuts HLA profile has been compared with that of neighboring and worldwide populations. Thirteen thousand one hundred and sixty-four chromosomes have been used for this study. Computer programs have obtained HLA allele frequencies, genetic distances between populations, NJ relatedness dendrograms, correspondence analysis and most frequent HLA extended haplotypes. Aleuts have inhabited Aleutian Islands since about 9000 years BP according to fossil and genetic (mtDNA) records. They are genetically different to Eskimo, Amerindian and Na-Dene speakers according to their HLA profile; this correlates with cultural and anthropological Aleut distinctiveness. No typical Amerindian HLA alleles have been found in a significant frequency. Their HLA relatedness to Saami (or Lapps, northern Scandinavians), Finns and Pomors (North-West Russia) indicates an ancient possible origin from the Baikal Lake Area (southern Siberia) around the present day Buryat peopling area; other origins are not discarded. Aleuts characteristic HLA profile may influence future transplantation programs in the region and be useful to study diseases linked to HLA epidemiology. PMID:17825912

Moscoso, Juan; Crawford, Michael H; Vicario, Jose L; Zlojutro, Mark; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Reguera, Raquel; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

2008-02-01

16

International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow

D. Ablyazina; A. Boitsov; V. Grebenets; D. Kaverin; A. Klene; A. Kurchatova; E. M. Pfeiffer; A. Zschocke; N. Shiklomanov; D. Streletskiy

2009-01-01

17

Radioisotope contaminations from releases of the Tomsk-Seversk nuclear facility (Siberia, Russia).  

PubMed

Soils have been sampled in the vicinity of the Tomsk-Seversk facility (Siberia, Russia) that allows us to measure radioactive contaminations due to atmospheric and aquatic releases. Indeed soils exhibit large inventories of man-made fission products including 137Cs (ranging from 33,000 to 68,500 Bq m(-2)) and actinides such as plutonium (i.e. 239+240Pu from 420 to 5900 Bq m(-2)) or 241Am (160-1220 Bq m(-2)). Among all sampling sites, the bank of the Romashka channel exhibits the highest radioisotope concentrations. At this site, some short half-life gamma emitters were detected as well indicating recent aquatic discharge in the channel. In comparison, soils that underwent atmospheric depositions like peat and forest soils exhibit lower activities of actinides and 137Cs. Soil activities are too high to be related solely to global fallout and thus the source of plutonium must be discharges from the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) plant. This is confirmed by plutonium isotopic ratios measured by ICP-MS; the low 241Pu/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios with respect to global fallout ratio or civil nuclear fuel are consistent with weapons grade signatures. Up to now, the influence of Tomsk-Seversk plutonium discharges was speculated in the Ob River and its estuary. Isotopic data from the present study show that plutonium measured in SCC probably constitutes a significant source of plutonium in the aquatic environment, together with plutonium from global fallout and other contaminated sites including Tomsk, Mayak (Russia) and Semipalatinsk (Republic of Kazakhstan). It is estimated that the proportion of plutonium from SCC source can reach 45% for 239Pu and 60% for 241Pu in the sediments. PMID:17996340

Gauthier-Lafaye, F; Pourcelot, L; Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Le Roux, G; Rhikvanov, L P; Stille, P; Renaud, Ph; Mezhibor, A

2008-04-01

18

Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods. PMID:11542910

Matsumoto, G I; Friedmann, E I; Gilichinsky, D A

1995-10-01

19

Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

1995-01-01

20

Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

EIA Publications

Provides an assessment of the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The report was prepared in cooperation with the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and is part of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP).

Floyd Wiesepape

1997-11-01

21

Outbreak of West Nile virus infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999.  

PubMed Central

From July 25 to October 1, 1999, 826 patients were admitted to Volgograd Region, Russia, hospitals with acute aseptic meningoencephalitis, meningitis, or fever consistent with arboviral infection. Of 84 cases of meningoencephalitis, 40 were fatal. Fourteen brain specimens were positive in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, confirming the presence of West Nile/Kunjin virus.

Platonov, A. E.; Shipulin, G. A.; Shipulina, O. Y.; Tyutyunnik, E. N.; Frolochkina, T. I.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Yazyshina, S.; Platonova, O. V.; Obukhov, I. L.; Zhukov, A. N.; Vengerov, Y. Y.; Pokrovskii, V. I.

2001-01-01

22

Bryozoans from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Upper Devonian) of the Tom-Kolyvansk area (Western Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine bryozoan species are described from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Late Devonian) from Western Siberia, Russia, namely: Leptotrypella pojarkovi Orlovski, 1961, Rhombopora subtilis Nekhoroshev, 1977, Klaucena lalolamina Yang, Hu, Xia, 1988, Eofistulotrypa famennensis sp. n., Atactotoechus cellatus sp. n., Nikiforopora jurgensis sp. n., Eridotrypella tyzhnovi sp. n., Mediapora elegans sp. n., and Klaucena gracilis sp. n. The studied assemblage shows palaeogeographical affinity with Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Transcaucasia, China, and the United States of America.

Tolokonnikova, Zoya

2010-10-01

23

Allochthonous native gold in piedmont alluvium in the southern West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of our investigations carried out to examine the behavior of native gold in the southern West\\u000a Siberia during the fluvial transport of an auriferous terrigenous material at the mountain-to-plain transition geomorphological\\u000a zone. The piedmont alluvium accumulates the small- and, to a lesser extent, fine-grained gold transported from the denudation\\u000a zones by the main mountain-lowland rivers.

G. V. Nesterenko; V. V. Kolpakov

2010-01-01

24

Structural and dynamic features of microbial complexes of forest-swamp ecosystems in West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In deep peat soils of forest-swamp ecosystems of West Siberia, the structural, dynamic and functional features of microbial\\u000a complexes are estimated. Data on biological and chemical activity of peat deposits in the context of processes of organic\\u000a matter decomposition and humus accumulation are presented. Quantitative indicators of microbiological mineralization and soil\\u000a oligotrophicity are given, and their coefficients are calculated. The

I. D. Grodnitskaya; N. D. Sorokin

2008-01-01

25

Discovery of Middle Jurassic mammals from Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammal remains from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) Berezovsk Quarry on the south of Krasnoyarsk Territory, West Siberia, Russia are referred to Docodonta indet. (two edentulous fragmentary dentaries) and Mammalia indet. (a sin? gle?rooted tooth). The dentaries exemplify a unique combination of plesiomorphic characters found among stem mam? mals only in Docodonta and Morganucodon: well developed Meckel's groove, trough for postdentary

ALEXANDER O. AVERIANOV; ALEXEY V. LOPATIN; PAVEL P. SKUTSCHAS; NIKOLAI V. MARTYNOVICH; SERGEI V. LESHCHINSKIY; ANTON S. REZVYI; SERGEI A. KRASNOLUTSKII; ALEXEY V. FAYNGERTZ

26

Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

NONE

1997-12-01

27

West Nile encephalitis in Russia 1999-2001: were we ready? Are we ready?  

PubMed

In 1963-1993, several strains of West Nile virus (WNV) were isolated from ticks, birds, and mosquitoes in the southern area of European Russia and western Siberia. In the same regions, anti-WNV antibody was found in 0.4-8% of healthy adult donors. Sporadic human clinical cases were observed in the delta of the Volga River. In spite of this, WNV infection was not considered by the health authorities as a potentially emerging infection, and the large WNV outbreak in southern Russia, started in late July 1999, was not recognized in a timely fashion. First evidence suggesting a WNV etiology of the outbreak was obtained by IgM ELISA on September 9. Two weeks later, the specific WNV RT-PCR was developed and WNV disease was confirmed in all 14 nonsurvivors from whom brain tissue samples were available. Retrospective studies of serum samples by IgM ELISA indicated WNV etiology in 326 of 463 survivors with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Moreover, 35 of 56 patients who contracted aseptic meningitis in 1998 had a high titer of WNV IgG antibody, so the WNV infection seems to have been introduced into the Volgograd region before 1999. A complete sequence (AF317203) of WN viral RNA, isolated from the brain of one Volgograd fatality, and partial sequences of an envelope E gene from other nonsurvivors showed that the Volgograd isolate had the greatest homology (99.6%) with WN-Romania-1996 mosquito strain RO97-50. PMID:11797768

Platonov, A E

2001-12-01

28

Assessment of the Fate of Radioactive Contaminants in the Ob River, Siberia, Russia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project has studied the distribution of particle reactive natural and artificial radionuclides in sediment cores of the Ob River, Siberia in order to determine the release and transport of nuclides from nuclear weapons related activities of the forme...

F. L. Sayles

1999-01-01

29

Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Although reserve (or field) growth has proven to be an important factor contributing to new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is still a poorly understood phenomenon. Limited studies show that the magnitude of reserve growth is controlled by several major factors, including (1) the reserve booking and reporting requirements in each country, (2) improvements in reservoir characterization and simulation, (3) application of enhanced oil recovery techniques, and (4) the discovery of new and extensions of known pools in discovered fields. Various combinations of these factors can affect the estimates of proven reserves in particular fields and may dictate repeated estimations of reserves during a field's life. This study explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest oil fields in the West Siberian Basin, which contain about 55 percent of the basin's total oil reserves. The West Siberian Basin occupies a vast swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River, and extends offshore into the Kara Sea; it is the richest petroleum province in Russia. About 600 oil and gas fields with original reserves of 144 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and more than 1,200 trillion cubic feet of gas (TCFG) have been discovered. The principal oil reserves and most of the oil fields are in the southern half of the basin, whereas the northern half contains mainly gas reserves. Sedimentary strata in the basin consist of Upper Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. Most oil is produced from Neocomian (Lower Cretaceous) marine to deltaic sandstone reservoirs, although substantial oil reserves are also in the marine Upper Jurassic and continental to paralic Lower to Middle Jurassic sequences. The majority of oil fields are in structural traps, which are gentle, platform-type anticlines with closures ranging from several tens of meters to as much as 150 meters (490 feet). Fields producing from stratigraphic traps are generally smaller except for the giant Talin field which contains oil in Jurassic river-valley sandstones. Principal source rocks are organic-rich marine shales of the Volgian (uppermost Jurassic) Bazhenov Formation, which is 30-50 m (98- 164 feet) thick. Bazhenov-derived oils are mostly of medium gravity, and contain 0.8-1.3 percent sulfur and 2-5 percent paraffin. Oils in the Lower to Middle Jurassic clastics were sourced from lacustrine and estuarine shales of the Toarcian Togur Bed. These oils are medium to low gravity, with low sulfur (less than 0.25 percent) and high paraffin (commonly to 10 percent) contents. Among the 42 fields analyzed for reserve growth, 30 fields are located in the Middle Ob region, which includes the Samotlor field with reserves of more than 25 BBO and the Fedorov field with reserves of about 5 BBO. Data used in the study include year of discovery, year of first production, annual and cumulative production, and remaining reserves reported by Russian reserve categories (A+B+C1 and C2) in January of each year. Correlation of these Russian resource categories to U.S. categories of the Society of Petroleum Engineers classification is complex and somewhat uncertain. Reserve growth in oil fields of West Siberia was calculated using a newly developed Group Growth method, which requires that the total reserve (proven reserve plus cumulative production) of individual fields with an equal length of reserve record be added together starting with discovery year or the first production year. Then the annual growth factor (AGF), which is the ratio of total reserves of two consecutive years, is calculated for all years. Once AGFs have been calculated, the cumulative growth factor (CGF) is calculated by multiplying the AGFs of all the previous years. The CGF data are used to develop reserve growth models. The West Siberian oil fields show a 13-fold reserve growth 20 years after the discovery year and only about a 2-fold growth after the first production year. This difference is attributed to extensive exploration and field delineation activities between the discovery and the first production years. Because of u

Verma, Mahendra K.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2006-01-01

30

Origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale, Yamal Peninsula, Siberia, Russia: contrasting views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of permafrost and ground ice of the Cape Marre-Sale polar station area, Western Yamal Peninsula, Russia, has been debated for decades. This can be explained by the extremely complex morphology of sedimentary strata and cryofacies exposed along the costal bluffs. Here, we report massive ice observations realized during summer 2012 as well as numerous laboratory and field analysis previously conducted on the massive ice bodies and reported in the literature. Our objective is to present contrasting views currently being proposed to explain the origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale. Several types of massive ice bodies can be observed along the exposures. One striking cryofacies observed shows alternating cm-thick ice lenses and cm-to-dm thick bands of sediment-rich ice, which are commonly folded with an amplitude of several meters. This very ice-rich cryofacies is interpreted either as buried basal ice of the Eurasian ice-sheet or alternatively as massive segregated ice formed during epigenetic permafrost aggradation. This cryofacies comprised meters large clasts of stratified sand with organics, with some of these stratifications being folded and faulted and showing boudinage structure. The location of these large sand clasts within the foliated ice-rich massive ice could be explained either by glacio-tectonic activity (glacio-dislocation during ice flow) or alternatively by regional tectonic activity. Large m-thick and meters-long pure ice bodies were also observed within the foliated massive ice. The first type is withish and contains a very large amount of air bubbles without any clear orientation. The second type is made of blueish to clear ice and contains a few air bubbles and rare, randomly distributed, fine-grained sediment inclusions suspended in the ice. Ice crystallography revealed the presence of large (cm) ice crystals in both types of ice. These pure ice bodies cross-cut the massive foliated ice. They could be interpreted as refrozen water trapped in intra-glacial tunnels formed within the basal ice (oxygen-rich water and suspension freezing of fine-grained sediments) of the ice-sheet or alternatively as groundwater injection (and subsequent refreezing) during freezing of taliks following lake drainage. Finally, wedge-shaped massive ice can also be observed near the top of the exposures. The first type is yellowish, vertically foliated, extends downward for several meters in the massive foliated ice and contains a significant amount of fine-grained sediment. This is either interpreted as Pleistocene ice wedge (frost-cracking) or alternatively as hydrolaccolith formed by the upward intrusion/expulsion of water within the foliated massive ice, likely due to the joint action of groundwater, permafrost aggradation and tectonic processes. The second type of wedge ice is withish in color and foliated and has been interpreted unanimously as Holocene ice wedges (frost-cracking). The contrasting views presented here represent new and reasonable working hypothesis to explain the genesis of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale. These hypotheses have considerable implications for the reconstruction of paleoclimates and paleoenvironments of Western Siberia.

Fortier, D.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Godin, E.; M-Lepage, J.; Stephani, E.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.

2012-12-01

31

[Genetic analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains from West Siberia].  

PubMed

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus strains were isolated in West Siberia in the forest-steppe region near the Ob river in 1981-1992. Hybridization of genome RNA of 46 TBE strains with [32P]cDNA of TBE Sofyin strain revealed essential differences in the genomes of West-Siberian and Far-Eastern Sofyin strains of TBE virus. Nucleotide sequences of 6 TBE strains (1348-1503 n.) have been determined. A 89-98% homology of Siberian TBE strains has been shown, while the similarity of the respective fragment of E gene for West Siberian and Sofyin strains was no more than 81%. No significant changes in E gene of TBE strains have been detected over a 12-year period. PMID:11107646

Bakhvalova, V N; Rar, V A; Tkachev, S E; Dobrikova, E Iu; Morozova, O V

2000-01-01

32

Surface Fire Influence on Carbon Balance Components in Scots Pine Forest of Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances in boreal forests, and it can have a profound effect on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands of Siberia are strongly impacted by fires of low to high severity. Biomass distribution in mature lichen\\/feathermoss Scots pine stands indicates that they are carbon sinks before fire. Fires contribute significantly to the

E. Kukavskaya; G. A. Ivanova; S. G. Conard; A. J. Soja

2008-01-01

33

Surface water quality assessment of the Vatinsky Egan River catchment, West Siberia.  

PubMed

Stream water chemistry were analyzed across Vatinsky Egan River Catchment (West Siberia). The objective of the study is to reveal the spatial and seasonal variations of the water quality and to assess the anthropogenic chemical inputs into the river system. Stream chemistry were monitored in 24 sampling sites for a period extended from January 2002 to December 2005. Spatial distribution of constituents in the Vatinsky Egan River basin indicated pollution from non-point sources associated with oil development. Data revealed that ion concentrations of river waters are usually negatively correlated with stream discharge. The major spatial variations of the hydrochemistry are related to the salinity. Chloride exhibited wide and high concentration range. A comparison with another rivers of West Siberia reveals that Vatinsky Egan River is the most saline and regional impacts further out in the watershed. The salinity of the river water increases substantially as it crosses Samotlor oil field. Many Cl(-) concentrations in the middle and lower parts of the catchment exceed the world average river values by one or more orders of magnitude. For 38% of sampling events, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) concentrations were above the recommended water quality standards. PMID:18283550

Moskovchenko, D V; Babushkin, A G; Artamonova, G N

2009-01-01

34

Jom-Bolok Holocene volcanic field in the East Sayan Mts., Siberia, Russia: structure, style of eruptions, magma compositions, and radiocarbon dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jom-Bolok volcanic field is located in the East Sayan Mts. of Siberia (Russia), a portion of the Asian convergent zone. It\\u000a is located at the boundary of the Riphean Tuva-Mongolia massif, which was probably reactivated because of the interplay between\\u000a far-field tectonic stress derived from the India–Asia collision zone and extension in the south-western Baikal rift system.\\u000a The volcanic field

Alexei V. Ivanov; Sergei G. Arzhannikov; Elena I. Demonterova; Anastasia V. Arzhannikova; Lyubov A. Orlova

35

Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation, position of ecosystems in the landscape (lateral migration) and types of bedrocks [2]. The results allow better understanding of the coupling between biogeochemical cycles of carbon and major and trace elements in peat soils in order to predict the future changes in both concentrations and stocks of chemical elements in the Western Siberia peat bog systems under climate warming.

Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

2012-04-01

36

Physical and chemical stability of nanostructured lipid drug carriers (NLC) based on natural lipids from Baikal region (Siberia, Russia).  

PubMed

At the turn of the millennium, a new generation of lipid nanoparticles for pharmacology was developed, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The features of NLC structure which allow the inclusion of natural biologically active lipids in the NLC matrix open a wide prospect for the creation of high performance drug carriers. In this study NLC formulations were developed based on natural lipids from the Siberia region (Russia): fish oil from Lake Baikal fish; polyunsaturated fatty acid fractions and monounsaturated and saturated fatty acid fractions from fish oil and Siberian pine seed oil. Formulation parameters of NLC such as as type of surfactant and storage conditions were evaluated. The data obtained indicated high physical stability of NLC formulated on the basis of pure fish oil stabilized by Tween 80 and NLC formulated on the basis of free fatty acids stabilized by Poloxamer 188. The good chemical stability of the lipid matrix and the high concentrations of the biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the NLC developed open wide prospects for their use in pharmaceutics and cosmetics. PMID:21699068

Averina, E S; Müller, R H; Popov, D V; Radnaeva, L D

2011-05-01

37

Tree-ring dating of meteorite fall in Sikhote-Alin, Eastern Siberia - Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with the fall of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite on the morning of 12 February 1947, at about 00:38 h Utrecht, in a remote area in the territory of Primorsky Krai in Eastern Siberia (46°09?36?N, 134°39?22?E). The area engulfed by the meteoritic fall was around 48 km2, with an elliptic form and thousands of craters. Around the large craters the trees were torn out by the roots and laid radially to the craters at a distance of 10-20 m; the more distant trees had broken tops. This research investigated through dendrocronology n.6 Scots pine trees (Pinus Sibirica) close to one of the main impact craters. The analysis of growth anomalies has shown a sudden decrease since 1947 for 4-8 years after the meteoritic impact. Tree growth stress, detected in 1947, was analysed in detail through wood microsection that confirmed the winter season (rest vegetative period) of the event. The growth stress is mainly due to the lost crown (needle lost) and it did not seem to be caused due to direct damages on trunk and branches (missing of resin ducts).

Fantucci, R.; Di Martino, Mario; Serra, Romano

2012-01-01

38

[Genetic diversity of local spring soft wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) of west and east Siberia in gliadin genes].  

PubMed

A considerable polymorphism in gliadin genes was detected in the local wheats of West Siberia (Altai krai, Omsk oblast, and Kurgan oblast) and the local cultivars characteristic of several East Siberian regions (Krasnoyarsk krai, Irkutsk oblast, Tuva, and Yakutia), and the genetic formulas were determined. The common alleles characteristic of the wheats of both regions were detected, namely, Gli-A1f, Gli-A1j, Gli-A1i, Gli-A1m, Gli-B1e, Gli-B1m, Gli-D1a, Gli-A2q, Gli-A2k, Gli-A2u, Gli-D2a, and Gli-D2q, as well as 14 novel alleles unknown earlier. It was demonstrated that several genotypes had formed in Siberia. Of them, the genotypes Gli-Alf_Gli-Ble_Gli-D1a and Gli-Alj_Gli-Ble_Gli-D1a occur both in West and East Siberia, whereas the genotypes Gli-Ali Gli-Blm Gli-D1a Gli-A2new10, Gli-A1m_Gli-B1b_Gli-D1a_Gli-A2f, and Gli-A1m_Gli-B1m_Gli-D1a_Gli-A2u are found only in East Siberia. PMID:19334616

Nikolaev, A A; Pukhal'ski?, V A; Upel'niek, V P

2009-02-01

39

Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3 s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This has already profoundly altered the discharge rates of the Lena River. But the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea have also been hypothesized to undergo considerable compositional changes, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of the phytoplankton communities. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic phytoplankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and food web interactions within the delta have to be established. In 2010, as part of the AWI Lena Delta programme, the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels of the delta (Trofimov, Bykov and Olenek) as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small, shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykov channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore. Of the five stations in this area, three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects, on the other hand, salinities varied between 5 and 30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and chlorophytes. In contrast, in the stratified stations the plankton was mostly dominated by dinoflagellates, ciliates and nanoflagellates, with only an insignificant diatom component from the genera Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira (brackish as opposed to freshwater species). Ciliate abundance was significantly coupled with the abundance of total flagellates. A pronounced partitioning in the phytoplankton community was also discernible with depth, with a different community composition and abundance above and below the thermocline in the stratified sites. This work is a first analysis of the phytoplankton community structure in the region where Lena River discharge enters the Laptev Sea.

Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

2013-11-01

40

Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the middle floodplain. Correlation analysis between element concentrations, grain-size distribution and carbon content revealed a direct dependence of the element distribution within all soil profiles on its mineralogical composition. Based on the obtained results we suggest that there are negligible atmospheric depositions caused by human activity on the investigation site. Therefore this data can provide a point of comparison against man-made influences on permafrost-affected landscapes and also on similar pristine areas in the Arctic region.

Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

2012-04-01

41

Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a~continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This is likely to profoundly change the discharge rates of the Lena River and the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients, DOC and importantly methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of and interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, forming the basis of the food web. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic plankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and linked foodweb interactions within the delta need to be established. As part of the AWI Lena Delta Programme in 2010 the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small a shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykovskaya channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore (transect 3). Of the five stations in this area three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects on the other hand salinities varied between 5-30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and chlorophytes, in those stations characterized by river outflow (stations in the Lena itself and in coastal transect 3). In contrast in the stratified stations the plankton was mostly dominated by dinoflagellates, ciliates and nanoflagellates, with only an insignificant diatom component from the genera Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira (brackish as opposed to freshwater species). Ciliate abundance was significantly coupled with the abundance of total flagellates. A pronounced partitioning in the phytoplankton community was also discernible with depth, with a different community composition and abundance above and below the thermocline in the stratified sites. This work represents the first attempt at analyzing the phytoplankton structure of the region of freshwater influence at confluence Lena-Laptev sea.

Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

2013-02-01

42

Chemostratigraphy of early Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest Proterozoic sedimentary basins in Russia is around the Siberian platform. This study about little part of them - Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Southwestern margin of Siberian Platform). Thise geological structure is ancient and very difficult for reaserch. It is a collage of different blocks: volcanic arcks, ophiolite complexes and sedimentary rocks of various ages and degrees of metamorphism. Sedimentary complexes of Siberian platform are outcropping along Angara River and its tributary. Neoproterozoic ones are presented by terrigenous-carbonate rocks of Tungusik and Oslyan groups. Despite the long study history of the area is still controversial question of time of formation of these rocks. As determination of the age of Precambrian sedimentary rocks is very difficult, Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy appears to be the only approach to establish the age of carbonate sequences. All Rb-Sr author's data was investigated by the method of selective dissolution with the preliminary removal of epigenetic carbonate phases. The isotope dilution method with mixed 87Rb + 84Sr spike was used to determine Rb and Sr concentrations in both fractions on the MI 1201AT mass spectrometer. Sr isotope ratios were measured on the Finnigan MAT-262 (BAC CU, Irkutsk, Russia) and Triton Plus (IGG UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia). The C-O isotopic composition in carbon samples was measured on the Finnigan MAT-253 equipment. The main criteria for integrity were correlations of impurity-elements (Mn, Fe, Sr) and stable isotopes (C, O) with each other. The less altered rocks of the Tungusik Group are characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7055-0.7058, and wide variations in the ?13CPDB values from 0 to +5o [1]. The primary 87Sr/86Sr of Dashka Formation (Oslyan Group) is 0.7057 - 0.7060 and ?13CPDB value varies in interval 3.7-4.3o like in upper part of Tungusik Group. High positive values of ?13CPDB indicate that carbonates had accumulated in warm sea, without a long period of cold weather. Comparison of isotopic (Sr, C) characteristics Dashka Formation carbonates show identity of these indicators with Tungusik Group rocks. In addition can be compared with carbonate sequences of: Minyar Formation (Pb-Pb age of 780 ± 85 dolomites Ma [2]) Karatav Group in Southern Ural (87Sr/86Sr 0.7055-0.7056, ?13CPDB +2.4 + ... 3.0 ), also the Reynolds Point Formation of Shaler Group (about 840 million years; [3]) and the lower part of Little Dal Formation in Canada (more than 780 million years [4]). Such agreement chemostratigraphic characteristics of these formations is the basis for their correlation and allows to consider that carbonate rocks of Oslyan and Tungusik groups had deposited in the first half of Neoproterozoic (1000 - 800 million years ago). The work was supported by the RFBR (projects nos. 12-05-00569, 12-05-33076) and the Presidium of SB RAS (project no. 68). 1. Vishnevskaya et al. 2012, Doklady Earth Sci. 443 (2), 431-435 2. Ovchinnikova et al. 2000 Stratigr. Geol. Cor. 8 (6), 3-19 3. Asmerom et al. 1991 Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 55 (10), 2883-2894 4. Halverson et al., 2007 Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol. 256 (3-4), 103-129

Vishnevskaya, Irina; Pisareva, Natalia; Kanygina, Nadejda; Proshenkin, Artem

2014-05-01

43

Runoff generation and storage dynamics of a polygonal tundra catchment, Lena River Delta, northern Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present understanding of the hydrology of catchments underlain by permafrost is still insufficient to correctly predict ecological impacts brought about by climate change. Ice-wedge polygonal tundra is a typical landscape type of the continuous permafrost zone and is characterised by a pronounced micro- but a flat meso-topography. It consists of polygon sub-catchments with low-lying centres and surrounding elevated rims that feature a range of connectedness to other polygons and the inter-rim surface drainage network of troughs above degraded ice-wedges. This pattern distinguishes the hydrology of polygonal tundra from other permafrost-affected landscapes. Therefore, this study aims to define the hydrological functions of characteristic landscape units of polygonal tundra (i.e. polygon rims, centres, and troughs). We examine runoff generation and water storage dynamics in a small polygonal tundra catchment in northern Siberia (0.6 km2) by analysing spatially distributed water balances together with catchment runoff dynamics between May and August 2011. Despite the evapotranspiration rate (137.9 mm) exceeding precipitation (108.6 mm), and the low topographic gradient, lateral outflow (60.9 mm - 167.4 mm) considerably influenced the water storage of the main landscape units within the catchment. Low polygon centres with intact rims stored snow melt water longer than either polygons with degraded rims or the troughs. The micro-topography of the rims and the associated soil thaw dynamics determined the magnitude and the timing of outflow through the blocking function of frozen soils. These dynamics controlled the redistribution of storage water within the catchment during the summer. Hydraulic conductivity in the rims declines by three orders of magnitude within the first 15 cm of the soil. The high conductivities in the shallow soil layers cause a rapid shallow subsurface drainage of rainwater towards the depressed centres and troughs. Once the rims are deeply thawed, the re-release of storage water from the centres through deeper and less conductive layers helps maintain a high water table in the surface drainage network of troughs throughout the summer. In turn, catchment runoff was mainly controlled (R2 = 0.99, RMSE = 0.34 L s-1, N = 2165) by the water level (i.e. hydraulic gradient) in this drainage network, and baseflow was maintained throughout the study period. The interconnected network contracts and expands in relation to the water level. Together with sharp declines of hydraulic conductivity within the upper soil layers, this catchment characteristic favours the observed exponential increase of catchment runoff with ascending water levels in the network. This relationship promotes enhanced runoff as a response to large, infrequent inputs of rain or snow melt water whereas vertical water fluxes dominate during periods of frequent but homogeneously distributed rain events of smaller magnitude. This study shows that a nested approach is suitable to identify characteristic hydrological processes at different scales and to assess how the hydrological functions of the main landscape units interact on the catchment scale. The results emphasise the need to account for micro-topography of polygonal tundra and temporal distributions of precipitation and evapotranspiration when investigating the storage and runoff dynamics, and the interactions with carbon or energy fluxes.

Helbig, Manuel; Boike, Julia; Langer, Moritz; Schreiber, Peter; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Kutzbach, Lars

2013-04-01

44

Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt west of the Baykit high are probable source rocks. Their areal distribution extends from the foldbelt into the foredeep along the province?s western margin. Potential source rocks also are present in platform depressions in eastern areas of the province. Hydrocarbon generation and migration west of the province started as early as Riphean time, before the beginning of the deformation in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt that occurred about 820?850 million years ago. However, the presently known oil and gas accumulations were formed after deposition of the Lower Cambrian salt seal. Available data allow identification of only one assessment unit, and it covers the entire TPS area. Undiscovered oil and gas resources are moderate, primarily due to the poor quality of reservoir rocks. However, the reserve growth in the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone may be large and may exceed the volume of undiscovered resources in the rest of the province. Most oil and gas resourcesareexpectedtobeinstructuralandstratigraphictrapsin Riphean carbonate reservoirs. Vendian clastic reservoirs are probably gas-prone.

Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2001-01-01

45

Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011  

PubMed Central

Background The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011). Results Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed.

Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

2013-01-01

46

Russia  

article title:  Smoke and Clouds over Russia     View Larger Image ... of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 ...

2013-04-16

47

Modeling of regional meteorological fields with high spatial resolution for West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As well known, global climate changes are inhomogeneous that is most clearly pronounced in the northern regions of the Earth. To study these inhomogeneities and trends, it is necessary to analyze climate changes in the ?? century in the specific region. Now data of different reanalyses (USA, Europe, Japan), as well as observational data from weather stations, are used for such an analysis. Modeling data validity is mostly determined by amount of assimilated measurement data and by weather station network density. For example, for the 2nd edition of USA reanalysis, data of only 300 weather stations of Russian Federation have been used, where most stations are located in European part of the country. Comparison of meteorological fields obtained using reanalysis to measurements of Rosgidromet weather stations gives significant discrepancy. Reanalyses spatial resolution does not allow studying local inhomogeneities that inherent to regional climate changes. Therefore to study local climate dynamics in Siberian region, it is necessary to calculate meteorological fields with higher spatial resolution. Modern mesoscale meteorological models that use reanalyses archives and assimilate measurements of weather stations can solve this problem. We calculated fields of climatic characteristics for West Siberia for the period from 1960 to 2000. The regional weather forecast WRF model (http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/modeling/wrf/index.php) and data assimilation system WRF-VAR (WRFDA) have been installed and debugged on the base of multiprocessor computational complex. Vertical boundary conditions, as well as initial conditions are formed using ERA-40 reanalysis data. NCEP data and USGS map with spatial resolution of 9.25 km are used for the lower boundary, measurements of weather stations, located within calculation area, are used for observation nudging. As a result of the model run, we have meteorological fields, which are reanalysis fields' projections with high spatial resolution (10 km) corrected by weather stations' measurements. Primary analysis of the data obtained allows us to depict changes of climatic characteristics in local areas not as smoothed disturbances (as in reanalysis fields), but as local inhomogeneities that have specific geographical reference to specific regional ecosystem. Key parameters characterizing the main local climate dynamics trends will be chosen for further analysis and processing. The work has been partially supported by SB RAS integration projects Nos. 50 and 66.

Bogomolov, Vasiliy; Gordov, Evgeny

2010-05-01

48

Russia Escalates Chechen War, Risks Reprisals from the West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Late last week, Russian forces launched a massive bombardment of the Chechen capital, inaugurating a new offensive using more high-powered artillery than had been previously employed in the conflict. Chances for a peaceful resolution diminished earlier this month when Yeltsin rejected appeals from Western leaders to find a political settlement to the strife. Yeltsin and Russian officials insist that they are fighting Muslim terrorists, while Western leaders point to collateral damage of Chechen civilians and the mass exodus of over 200,000 Chechen refugees in recent months. Meanwhile, the situation is sure to be the primary subject of talks begun yesterday between Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov and Knut Vollebaek, chairman of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Recently, the head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) suggested that Russia's actions in Chechnya could affect the release of the IMF's next loan installment of 630 million dollars to Moscow. Russia has reacted with outrage to the proposal of such a linkage. The conflict has also worsened Russia's relations with its neighbor Georgia as officials accuse the Georgian government of allowing the movement of rebel troops and supplies back and forth across their mountainous border with Chechnya. Georgia steadfastly denies any collusion with the rebels.

Charbonneau, David D.

49

[Molecular-biologic analysis of avian influenza virus isolates which caused epizootics on the south of West Siberia and in Crimea].  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to determine reasons of poultry deaths in Crimea Republic in December 2005 as well as isolation, identification, and comparative analysis of pathogens, which caused epizootics in Siberia and Crimea. During epizootic in poultry in North-East Crimea highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA sequences revealed that they belong to one big cluster. Isolated strain was close to viruses, which caused epizootic in July-August 2005 in the south of West Siberia. Conclusion about the high importance of the south of West Siberia in spreading of highly pathogenic influenza viruses H5N1 in Eurasia was made. PMID:18041121

Onishchenko, G G; Berezhnov, S P; Shestopalov, A M; Alekseev, A Iu; Ternovo?, V A; Kha?tovich, A B; Kroviakova, M T; Netesov, S V; Drozdov, I G

2007-01-01

50

Effect of winter conditions on distributions of anoxic phototrophic bacteria in two meromictic lakes in Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The year-to-year variations of vertical distribution and biomass of anoxic phototrophic bacteria were studied during ice periods\\u000a 2003–2005 and 2007–2008 in meromictic lakes Shira and Shunet (Southern Siberia, Russian Federation). The bacterial layers\\u000a in chemocline of both lakes were sampled with a thin-layer hydraulic multi-syringe sampler. In winter, biomass of purple sulphur\\u000a bacteria varied considerably depending on the amount of

D. Y. Rogozin; V. V. Zykov; M. Y. Chernetsky; A. G. Degermendzhy; R. D. Gulati

2009-01-01

51

Influence of fire events on permafrost, Yubileynoe Gas Field, West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is located in the Subarctic region of Western Siberia at Nadym and Pur Rivers interfluve. The mean monthly air temperature of the coldest month is -25…-27oC and of the warmest month is 8…10oC. The mean annual air temperature is increasing at 0.03…0.06oC per year. The mean annual precipitation is 550…600 mm. The continuous permafrost up to 50-70 m thick have temperature of -1..-3oC. The study site is located 40 km west of Noviy Urengoy City. The study site is dominated by typical forest-tundra, where the cup-mossy larch-birch light forests neighbors with typical tundra, and the boreal fir-larch forest spread across minor river valleys. Ecosystems of the study area experience strong technogenic stress from the large gas-producing enterprise "Yubileinoe" which is situated nearby. A polygonal peatland with 2-2.5 m peat at the southern bank of Nashe-to Lake was disturbed by fire in July, 2005. The fire event lasted for 2 days have burned vegetation dominated by semifrutex, sedges, mosses, and underlaying peat. Following years the succession rates were rather slow. The peatland surface is elevated relative to the surrounding drained lake basin (hasyrey) and free of snow in winter. After the disturbance of the thermo-insulating layers (peat, moss and vegetation cover) the activation of frost-cracking was observed, especially strong at completely burnt areas on sandy loam. The second site of the hasyrey has experienced the fire in the middle of July, 2007. It is located within the plain watershed with drainage hollows. The Arctic birch, semifrutex and cup-mosses were dominating in the vegetation cover of hillocky tundra. The vegetation cover has experienced slow succession after the fire. In August, 2008, we found the semifrutex, sedges and cotton-grass growing sparsely between the burnt bare hillocks. The wetness of the territory increased. As a result of vegetation cover and mosses disturbance, the thermoinsulation have decreased and the frost cracks of 2007/08 winter were 5 m long and 2…5 cm wide. The thermal borehole located at the site reflected in the temperature changes after the fire event. Temperature changes at 10-30 m in 2006-07 were close to those observed in 2007-08. The temperature increase below 10 m depth (at and below the depth of the zero annual amplitudes) was 0.35oC at 10 m depth, 0.15oC at 15 m, and 0.02oC at 30 m depth. The disturbance of vegetation and peat layer and associated moisture increase allowed temperature fluctuations to penetrate deeper. The activation of frost cracking combined with the penetration of summer heat in grounds was evident.

Grebenets, V.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Shmelev, D.; Streletskiy, D. A.

2012-12-01

52

Genesis of carbonates within Abalak and Bazhenov formations (West Siberia), revealed from stable carbon and oxygen isotopes distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Upper Jurassic deposits of Bazhenov formation are the main source rocks of the West Siberia Basin. Now the Bazhenov suite is intensively investigated not only as a source rock, but as unconventional reservoir of oil due to its vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The rocks of Bazhenov formation are composed of four main units: silica minerals, clay (predominantly hydromica), kerogen and carbonates. To predict the distribution of different lithological units it is important to reveal their genesis and facial conditions during their formation. One of the reservoir types is presented by cavernous-porous carbonates. Stable carbon and oxygen isotopes investigations has been carried out to reveal origin of carbonate material in Late Abalak - Bazhenov time. Four genetic types of carbonates have been subdivided according to mineralogical composition and stable carbon and oxygen isotopes distribution: 1) belemnites and other faunal remains; 2) secondary dolomites of Bazhenov formation; 3) secondary calcite filling cracks and composing inclusions of Abalak deposits; 4) methane-derived authigenic carbonates of Abalak formation. The first three types are presented by normal marine carbonates according to their carbon isotopes composition. Light oxygen isotopes composition indicates high temperatures during their precipitation (diagenesis). The fourth type is characterized by light carbon isotopes composition, which indicates presence of isotopically light biogenic CO2 in the environment. According to oxygen isotopic composition the carbonate material is primary and precipitated in subsurface conditions. Such carbon and oxygen isotopes composition is characteristic for methane-derived carbonates formed in the areas of active fluids discharge to the seafloor (cold seeps) as a result of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM). Thus in Late Jurassic time active fluid escape to the sea floor took place in the West Siberia Basin.

Yurchenko, A.; Blinova, V.; Kalmikov, G. A.; Balushkina, N. S.

2013-12-01

53

Distribution and color variation of gyrfalcons in Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west of the Ural Mountains. Frequencies were as follows: European Russia 4% white, 50% gray (the remainder were intermediates); western Siberia 0% white, 58% gray; central Siberia 15% white, 42% gray; and eastern Siberia 47% white, 33% gray. Remarkably, in the easternmost subregion, white birds predominated even near the southernmost extension. Because the northernmost portions of the species' range in continental Russia are in central Siberia where white variants were rare, we propose that a better predictor of the white variant is longitude, not latitude. White birds were most frequent at the eastern reaches of both the Palearctic and Nearctic. The best environmental correlates of this distribution pattern may be the southward bending thermal isoclines proceeding eastward toward Greenland or Kamchatka, where both land masses are bathed by cold oceanic currents of Arctic origin. By contrast, the western reaches of both land masses are bathed by warm currents. In these western reaches, Gyrfalcon summer distribution is displaced northward and dark variants predominate. The breeding range of the Gyrfalcon, determined by mapping the locations of the specimens we examined, differs little from the range proposed in 1951.

Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, C.H.; Pendleton, G.W.; Panteleyev, A.V.; Rebrova, I.V.; Markin, Y.M.

1992-01-01

54

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

Klett, T. R.

2011-01-01

55

Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms during Neocomian time. The clastic material was transported by a system of rivers dominantly from the eastern provenance. Sandstones within the Neocomian clinoforms contain the principal oil reservoirs. The thick continental Aptian?Cenomanian Pokur Formation above the Neocomian sequence contains giant gas reserves in the northern part of the basin. Three total petroleum systems are identified in the West Siberian basin. Volumes of discovered hydrocarbons in these systems are 144 billion barrels of oil and more than 1,300 trillion cubic feet of gas. The assessed mean undiscovered resources are 55.2 billion barrels of oil, 642.9 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 20.5 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. The largest known oil reserves are in the Bazhenov-Neocomian total petroleum system that includes Upper Jurassic and younger rocks of the central and southern parts of the basin. Oil reservoirs are mainly in Neocomian and Upper Jurassic clastic strata. Source rocks are organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation. Most discovered reserves are in structural traps, but stratigraphic traps in the Neocomian clinoform sequence are pro-ductive and are expected to contain much of the undiscovered resources. Two assessment units are identified in this total petroleum system. The first assessment unit includes all conventional reservoirs in the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Jurassic to the Cenomanian. The second unit includes unconventional (or continuous), self-sourced, fractured reservoirs in the Bazhenov Formation. This unit was not assessed quantitatively. The Togur-Tyumen total petroleum system covers the same geographic area as the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, but it includes older, Lower?Middle Jurassic strata and weathered rocks at the top of the pre-Jurassic sequence. A Callovian regional shale seal of the Abalak and lower Vasyugan Formations separates the two systems. The Togur-Tyumen system is oil-prone; gas reserves are insignificant. The principal o

Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2003-01-01

56

Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there are quite a few cases of the use of woodland valuable in recreational and forestry respects for dacha or country-cottage construction. From fast change the pattern of ownership on ground is necessary urgent inventory of being available ground resources, including with the purposes of creation of new especially protected territories. It is important to emphasise, that to guards should be subject not only sites so-called quot.; untouched quot.; a nature, but also area with different overgrowth succession stages agricultural lands, where biodiversity raises.

Guzel, N.

2012-04-01

57

Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial resolution. However, we recognize that the extent of Yedoma deposits presented in this database is not complete for a global assessment, because Yedoma deposits also occur in the Taymyr lowlands and Chukotka, and in parts of Alaska and northwestern Canada.

Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

2013-01-01

58

Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N-69.5° N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to background levels reported for other pristine arctic areas and did not exceed mean global background concentrations examined for the continental crust as well as for the world's soils.

Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

2013-02-01

59

The influence of environmental factors on the CO2 emission from the surface of oligotrophic peat soils in West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of various ecological factors (air and soil temperature, atmospheric pressure, level of peatland waters, and the content of CO2 in the atmosphere) on the emission of CO2 from the surface of a peat deposit of an oligotrophic peatland in the south taiga subzone of West Siberia was studied. On the basis of the investigations, day and seasonal dynamics of the emission of CO2 from the surface of the peat deposit were revealed. A detailed correlation analysis allowed us to describe the dependences of the CO2 flux from the surface of the peat deposit on the environmental parameters at various levels of averaging: hour, day, and month. It was shown that the temperature of the air and surface of the peat deposit have a reliable impact on the emission of CO2 on all time scales. The atmospheric pressure, as a factor that changes relatively slowly, influences the emission of CO2 weakly. The performed studies did not allow us to draw an unambiguous conclusion about the influence of the level of bog waters on the emission of CO2 from the surface of a peat deposit.

Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, E. A.

2012-06-01

60

Development of Biosensors for Phenol Determination from Bacteria Found in Petroleum Fields of West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine gram-negative bacterial strains, selected from 300 strains isolated from soils of the West Siberian petroliferous basin and growing on oil and oil products, consume phenol as a single carbon and energy source. The strains were used for the development of a sensor bioreceptor. The most active 32-I strain was shown to bear a plasmid responsible for phenol degradation. The

A. A. Makarenko; I. P. Bezverbnaya; I. A. Kosheleva; T. N. Kuvichkina; P. V. Il'yasov; A. N. Reshetilov

2002-01-01

61

Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant.  

PubMed

We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

Pavlova, S V; Tchabovsky, A V

2011-01-01

62

Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant  

PubMed Central

Abstract We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare.

Pavlova, S.V.; Tchabovsky, A.V.

2011-01-01

63

Spatial-typological structure and mapping of reptile population of West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Siberian reptiles were studied on the basis of the materials collected in forest, forest-steppe, and steppe zones of\\u000a the Ob’ region during 12 years. Their abundance in certain biotopes has been determined. The relationship between the heterogeneity\\u000a of reptile community and basic structure-forming environmental factors has been estimated, and a map of population of this\\u000a faunal class was compiled.

Yu. S. Ravkin; V. A. Yudkin; S. M. Tsybulin; V. N. Kuranova; O. B. Borisovich; N. A. Bulakhova; S. V. Patrakov; R. R. Shamgunova

2008-01-01

64

Extraction of wetland areas in West Siberia using NOAA/AVHRR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for extracting wetland areas in northern high-latitude zones using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (Ts) calculated from midday NOAA/AVHRR data. Wetland areas have been distinguished from other land-cover types using signatures on a scattergram of NDVI vs. Ts. The method was applied for extracting wetland areas in the basin of the Ob River in the west Siberian lowland. The result have been verified with ground-truth data and land-cover classification results obtained from high-resolution satellite images.

Tamura, Masayuki; Yasuoka, Yoshifumi

1998-12-01

65

Norilsk, Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Norilsk is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and the northernmost city in Siberia. The city was founded in the 1930s as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex, sitting near the largest nickel-copper-palladium deposits on Earth. Mining and smelting of nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium are the major industries. The nickel ore is smelted on site at Norilsk. The smelting is directly responsible for severe pollution, generally acid rain and smog. By some estimates, 1 percent of the entire global emissions of sulfur dioxide comes from this one city. Heavy metal pollution near Norilsk is so severe that it is now economically feasible to mine the soil, which has been polluted so severely that it has economic grades of platinum and palladium.

The image was acquired July 21, 2000, covers an area of 36.9 x 37.6 km, and is located at 69.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

66

[Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains prevalent in North-West of Russia by spoligotyping].  

PubMed

Spoligotyping was used for genotyping of 238 M. tuberculosis cultures isolated from 302 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis living in the north-west of Russia, including those in Saint Petersburg, in 1998-2001, and the M. tuberculosis strains H37Rv, M. bovis, and M. bovic BCG and M. tuberculosis in the specimens painted for microscopy. The quality of spoligotyping was high and similar to that when DNA from the cultured mycobacteria and slide scrapes. The findings were compared with the data available in the International database. There was heterogenicity in the microbial population: the clinical strains showed 58 (RO-R57) types of profiles, of them 56% were revealed in single cases. The spoligotype RO(1; S1) was found in 153 (51%) patients. This spoligotype is predominant in the world and characteristic of polyresistant high-transmissive strains of the genetic family Beijing. The spoligotypes R24 (251), R14 (252), and R8 (253) first described by the authors are now encountered only in Russia. To extend the Russian database that contains M. tuberculosis spologotyping profiles from different regions will promote the improvement of an epidemiological surveillance system and tuberculosis control programmes not only within administrative territorial entities, but also within the whole country. PMID:12125254

Narvskaia, O V; Mokrousov, I V; Limeshchenko, E V; Steklova, l N; Otten, T F; Vishnevski?, B I

2002-01-01

67

On deep electric conductivity of the lithosphere in the Tobol-Ishim interfluve (West Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of exploration magnetotelluric soundings (MTS) carried out by the Tyumen Geological Survey in 1980-1981 within the Tobol-Ishim interfluve, the top of the conductive horizon with the electric resistivity of dozens of ? m is identified in the geoelectrical section at a depth of 75-80 km. Two segments of the locally elevated top of this horizon are revealed. One segment, where the depth of the top of the conductor is 60-65 km, corresponds to the region of the Kiselevskii fault-the main fault in this territory; another segment is associated with the edge zone of the Ishim branch of the Triassic rift system within the West Siberian Plate. Within this segment, the top of the conductive layer rises to a depth of 55-60 km. It is assumed that the Ishim geoelectrical anomaly, which projects into the geothermal anomaly and is coherent with the features of the deep geological structure of its display region, is conditioned by the element of the mantle-crustal magmatogene fluid paleosystem.

Borisova, V. P.; Vasil'eva, T. A.; Kostyuchenko, S. L.; Narskii, N. V.; Sysoev, B. K.; Fainberg, E. B.; Charushin, A. G.; Sheinkman, A. L.

2013-05-01

68

Sub-fossil cladoceran remains from the sediment of the lakes in Arctic Siberia, Russia: relationship to physical and chemical variables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lakes examined in this study are located on the catchment area of Anabar river in the north-west part of Yakutia (Russia), just west of the Lena River. All presented samples and data were obtained in frame of a joint Russian-German expedition to Yakutia in summer 2007. The study sites included 35 lakes that were distributed along a broad north-south transect across northwest Yakutia, Russia, ranging from latitude 71° 50' to 73° 39'. This transects captures considerable changes in geology, vegetation, and climate. The studied lakes are shallow thermokarst lakes with maximal depths of about 10 m (mean 4.27±0.76). The waters were dominated by Ca-Mg, Fe and HCO3, but the ion concentration was generally low in all studied waters. From the initial 35 localities, only 31 contained a sufficient number of cladoceran remains for reasonable quantification. From these, a total of 28 cladoceran taxa representing 14 genera were identified, comprising predominantly littoral chydorid species. Species richness (i.e. the total number of taxa per lake) ranged between 5 (07-SA-05, 07-SA-14, 07-SA-18) and 20 (07-SA-24), with a mean of 9, and was not significantly correlated with any of the measured environmental variables. With forward selection and Monte Carlo permutation tests (999 permutations), RDA identified a minimal subset of four environmental variables that explained a significant (p ? 0.05) amount of the variation in the species data. These variables are TJuly, water depth, SO42-, Si4+. RDA axis 1 (? = 0.174) and axis 2 (? = 0.157) were both significant and explained almost all of the relationships between the cladoceran taxa and measured environmental variables (85.8%). Distributions of the cladoceran taxa, however, revealed major shifts in abundance in relation to the temperature along our transect. Constrained cluster analysis (CONISS), based on the structure of cladoceran community, disclosed three groups of lakes in the tundra and forest-tundra zones of the north-western part of Yakutia. Frontiers of divisions, separated on the basis structure of sub fossil cladoceran assemblages along a temperature gradient completely coincided with landscape zoning on the basis vegetative communities (typical tundra, southern tundra, forest-tundra).

Frolova, Larisa; Nazarova, Larisa; Herzschuh, Ulrike

2010-05-01

69

Ferrotochilinite, 6FeS · 5Fe(OH)2, a new mineral from the Oktyabr'sky deposit, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mineral, ferrotochilinite, ideally 6FeS · 5Fe(OH)2, was found at the Oktyabr'sky Mine, Oktyabr'skoe Cu-Ni deposit, Noril'sk, Krasnoyarsk krai, Siberia, Russia. It is associated with ferrovalleriite, magnetite and Fe-rich, chlorite-like phyllosilicate in the cavities of pentlandite-mooihoekite-cubanite ore with subordinate magnetite and chalcopyrite. Ferrotochilinite occurs as flattened on [001], prismatic to elongated lamellar crystals up to 0.1 × 0.5 × 3.2 mm, typically split and curved. Aggregates (up to 6.5 mm in size) are fanlike, rosette-like, or chaotic. Ferrotochilinite is dark bronze. The streak is black. The luster is moderately metallic. The Mohs' hardness is ca. 1; VHN is 13 kg/mm2. Cleavage is {001} perfect, micalike. Individuals are flexible, inelastic. D(calc) = 3.467 g/cm3. In reflected light, ferrotochilinite is gray, with the hue changing from pale beige to bluish; bireflectance is distinct. Anisotropy is distinct, with gray bluish to yellowish beige rotation colors. No internal reflections. Reflectance values [ R min- R max, % (?, nm)] are: 11.6-11.4 (470), 11.2-12.4 (546), 11.1-13.6 (589), 11.0-15.5 (650). The IR spectrum shows the presence of (OH) groups bonded with Fe cations and the absence of H2O molecules. Chemical composition (wt %; electron probe; H content is calculated) is as follows: 0.02 Mg, 61.92 Fe, 0.03 Ni, 0.09 Cu, 19.45 S, 16.3 O, 1.03 H calc; the total is 98.84. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 6 S atoms is: Mg0.01Fe10.96Ni0.005Cu0.015S6(OH)10.07 = (Fe5.98Cu0.0015Ni0.005)?6S6(OH)9.80(Fe{4.89/2+}Mg0.01)?4.90(OH)9.80Fe{0.09/3+}(OH)0.27. Ferrotochilinite is monoclinic, space group is C2/ m, Cm or C2, the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 5.463(5), b = 15.865(17), c = 10.825(12) Å, ? = 93.7(1)°, V = 936(3) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are: 10.83-13[001], 5.392-100[002], 3.281-7[023], 2.777-7[150], 2.696-12[004, ], 2.524-12[, ], 2.152-8[134, 153], 1.837-11[135, ]. Ferrotochilinite is a structural analog of tochilinite, with Fe2+ instead of Mg in the hydroxide part. The type specimen is deposited in Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Pekov, I. V.; Sereda, E. V.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Britvin, S. N.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Bryzgalov, I. A.

2013-12-01

70

Radiogenic argon distribution within a mineral grain: implications for dating of hydrothermal mineral-forming event in Sludyanka complex, Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Usually, in age-determination procedures, the experimenter is interested in the mean concentrations of parent and daughter substances. However, the structure of a solution of the Fick's diffusion equation enables one to specify a procedure, allowing, through macroscopic experiments, one to determine the distribution of radiogenic argon (as well as any of other isotopes) within a mineral grain. Argon, influenced in the geological past by a metamorphic event, has a half-sinusoidal distribution, whereas argon preserved in geological time has a rectangular distribution. The ratio of the quantity of argon of the first type to the total argon is called an alpha-factor. It is believed that this coefficient can be of great interest for geochronological studies, being a symptom of virtual Ar losses and the time instant, at which they happened. A laboratory procedure and a mathematical algorithm to determine the alpha-factor are developed. As an example, a determination of the alpha-factor on a vein-phlogopite from the well-studied Sludyanka deposit, Southern Baikal, Siberia, Russia, is described. Rb-Sr isochron age on phlogopite-calcite-apatite paragenetic assemblage yielded 460+/-7 Ma and is constrained by U-Pb zircon ages of 471+/-1 and 447+/-2 Ma, respectively, on an emplacement of early syenites and monzonites and later 'post-phlogopitic' pegmatites [E.B. Salnikova, S.A. Sergeev, A.B. Kotov, S.Z. Yakovleva, R.H. Steiger, L.Z. Reznitskiy, E.P. Vasil'ev. U-Pb zircon dating of granulite metamorphism in the Sludyanskiy complex, Eastern Siberia. Gondwana Res., 1, 195-205 (1998). L.Z. Reznitskii, G.P. Sandimirova, Y.A. Pakhol'chenko, S.V. Kuznetsova. The Rb-Sr age of phlogopite deposits in Sludyanka, southern Baikal region. Dokl. Earth Sci., 367, 711-713 (1999). L.Z. Reznitskii, A.B. Kotov, E.B. Salnikova, E.P. Vasil'ev, S.Z. Yakovleva, V.P. Kovach, A.M. Fedoseenko. The age and time span of the origin of phlogopite and lazurite deposits in the Southwestern Baikal area: U-Pb geochronology. Petrology, 8, 66-76 (2000).]. In this study, the phlogopite gave an apparent K-Ar age of 365.6+/-10.4 Ma which has no geological meaning. The alpha-factor of 0.27 was derived from a laboratory kinetic experiment. The age determined by the rectangularly distributed argon corresponded to alphax0.129 nmm3/g (total radiogenic argon in the sample)=94.17 nmm3/g, and an age of approximately 274 Ma (e.g. a period without any argon losses). Here, at the first sight, we deal with common argon losses not conjugated with any geological event, because after 447 Ma only lower temperature (in a range of 50-300 degrees C) hydrothermal processes were recorded. A paragenetic phlogopite-bearing vein mineral, hyalophane, having a disturbed Rb-Sr isotopic system, however, yielded 40Ar/39Ar subplateau age of 271+/-2 Ma [V.V. Ivanenko, M.I. Karpenko, M.A. Litsarev. Age of the Sludyanka phlogopite deposits (in Russian; data of the 39Ar-40Ar method). In Geological Series 5, pp. 92-98, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moskva (1990).], marking similar timing of the K-Ar isotopic system closure. This indicates that K-Ar isotopic system in the phlogopite was not closed (or was partially reset) long after its crystallisation and closing of the Rb-Sr system, in spite of the fact that the crystal was not affected by processes having temperatures above the accepted closure temperatures for micas. There seems to have acted an exchange mechanism of OH-groups between surrounding fluid and hydrocrystal structure. Thus the argon loss did not occur, spontaneously, but argon particles seem to have been captured and carried to the mineral surface by vacancies formed during displacements of OH-groups. PMID:16707319

Brandt, Ivan S; Rasskazov, Sergei V; Ivanov, Alexei V; Reznitskii, Leonid Z; Brandt, Sergei B

2006-06-01

71

[Epidemiology of malignant tumors of the brain and other parts of the CNS in the North-West Federal District of Russia].  

PubMed

For the first time in Russia the dynamics of morbidity and mortality from malignant tumors of the brain and other parts of the CNS in the North-West Federal District of Russia is presented. A precise elaboration of data on cases is performed according to the database of the Population-based Cancer Registries of St. Petersburg and Arkhangelsk region. PMID:24772614

Merabishvili, V M; Diachenko, A A; Val'kov, M Iu; Krasil'nikov, A V

2014-01-01

72

Scale Estimation and Intensity of Exogenous Geological Processes in Western Siberia with Use of the Remote Data (by the Example of Tomsk Region, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of modern bogging was accomplished in Western Siberia, representing for the first time the mechanism of bogging intensity. The combined use of the remote land probe data, schemes of natural zoning and extensive field research, resulted in bogging scale estimation, river valleys overflow modeling, prediction of the river-bed deformation intensity as well as river-bank erosion.

Victor A. L'gotin; Oleg G. Savichev

2008-01-01

73

Assessment of the fate of radioactive contaminants in the Ob River, Siberia, Russia. Final report, 1 June 1995--31 May 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project has studied the distribution of particle reactive natural and artificial radionuclides in sediment cores of the Ob River, Siberia in order to determine the release and transport of nuclides from nuclear weapons related activities of the former Soviet Union. The Ob River drainage basin houses the bulk of the former Soviet Union`s weapons production facilities (Mayak and Tomsk-7)

Sayles

1999-01-01

74

[Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].  

PubMed

In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded. PMID:22567967

Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

2012-01-01

75

Investigating the Potential Impacts of Chlorophenols on the Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) Food Web by Employing Daphnia Grazing Bioassays and a Chlorella Growth Bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   A grazing bioassay was employed to assess the impacts of chlorophenols on Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex. The effects of two chlorophenols, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 4-chlorophenol, were investigated at concentrations of 0.001,\\u000a 0.01, and 0.1 mg?·?L?1 over a 96-h period. All tests were conducted in water from the southern basin of Lake Baikal (Siberia). For D. magna, grazing rates

J. E. Gokcen

1998-01-01

76

Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000-2011  

PubMed Central

Background Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000–2011. Results Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23–43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security.

Dudarev, Alexey A.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

2013-01-01

77

Assessment of the fate of radioactive contaminants in the Ob River, Siberia, Russia. Final report, 1 June 1995--31 May 1999  

SciTech Connect

This project has studied the distribution of particle reactive natural and artificial radionuclides in sediment cores of the Ob River, Siberia in order to determine the release and transport of nuclides from nuclear weapons related activities of the former Soviet Union. The Ob River drainage basin houses the bulk of the former Soviet Union`s weapons production facilities (Mayak and Tomsk-7) as well as the major test site of Semipalatinsk. In addition, some 2 billion curies of nuclear waste from weapons production are stored or have been released to the environment in this area. The potential for catastrophic future releases from poorly maintained tanks and open storage ponds is real. This project has sought to develop a history of transport and deposition of nuclides released from these plants, and to use these data as a basis for estimating delivery to the Arctic Ocean and to predict rates of transport in the event of future releases.

Sayles, F.L.

1999-06-29

78

Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”.

Zinovyev, Evgeniy

2011-01-01

79

Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the "mammoth fauna" in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia.  

PubMed

The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called "mammoth fauna" with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a "mixed" type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called "mammoth savannas". PMID:21738409

Zinovyev, Evgeniy

2011-01-01

80

Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found between EC and pH on the one hand , and soil moisture content on the other. However, soil moisture content in the topsoil appeared to have a major influence on the crop water stress index, which on its turn affected the leaf area index, the fresh biomass and the mean plant height. The crop leaf color as detected by a regular digital camera appeared to be correlated with pH and EC properties of the soil. The visible light band ratios red/green and blue/green correlated well with the crop water stress index. More research is necessary to prove if this relation is applicable in different environments, and for different crops. A confirmation of these findings would offer scope to increase the spatial support of this technique using satellite images.

Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

2012-04-01

81

Hypolactasia in the indigenous populations of northern Russia.  

PubMed

The distribution of hypolactasia (PH) in the indigenous populations of the polar and related territories of the Russian Federation was investigated by an oral lactose tolerance. The frequency of hypolactasia in Kildin Saami population is 48%, Komi-Izhem-63%, Northern Mansi-71%, Northern Khanty-72%, West Siberia Nenets-78%. Generally hypolactasia frequencies in indigenous groups of Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories of Russia are higher than in the "reference" samples of Slav (Russian, 40-49%) and Permian Finn (Komi-Permiak and Udmurtian, 50-59%) groups. PMID:9567572

Kozlov, A I

1998-01-01

82

Ukrainian Dilemma: Relations with Russia and the West in the Context of the 2004 Presidential Elections.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report stresses Ukraine's importance for the stability and security of Europe, which lies, basically, in the fact that it is the largest country in Europe after Russia, and because of its geo- political position between the post-Soviet and Euro-Atlant...

J. Hedenskog

2004-01-01

83

Association of FGFR2 gene polymorphisms with the risk of breast cancer in population of West Siberia  

PubMed Central

Polymorphisms within intron 2 of the FGFR2 gene have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer (BC) in European and Asian populations. The study by Easton et al reported two FGFR2 SNPs, rs2981582 and rs7895676, to be among those most strongly associated with BC risk. Statistical modeling suggested that rs7895676 was the variant responsible for the association observed in the region. In this work, we studied the association between seven FGFR2 SNPs, including rs2981582 and rs7895676, and BC risk in the Russian population of 766 case and 665 control women from Siberia, Russian Federation. In our population, allelic frequencies and the magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were different from those observed in European and Asian populations. The following three SNPs were significantly associated with BC in our study: rs7895676[C] (odds ratio (OR)=1.28 (1.12–1.43), P=1.7 × 10?3), rs2981582[T] (OR=1.46 (1.30–1.62), P=2 × 10?6) and rs3135718[G] (OR=1.43 (1.27–1.58), P=6 × 10?6). The latter two SNPs were in strong (r2=0.95) LD in our sample. Maximum likelihood analysis showed that the model, including rs7895676, only explains that the association is significantly (P<0.001) worse than any of the models, including either rs2981582 or rs3135718. Thus, in addition to the confirmation of association of FGFR2 with the BC risk in this new population, our study has suggested that rs7895676 is not likely to represent the causative variant.

Boyarskikh, Uljana A; Zarubina, Natalja A; Biltueva, Julia A; Sinkina, Tatjana V; Voronina, Elena N; Lazarev, Aleksander F; Petrova, Valentina D; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Filipenko, Maxim L

2009-01-01

84

Investigating the potential impacts of chlorophenols on the lake baikal (Siberia, russia) food web by employing daphnia grazing bioassays and a chlorella growth bioassay  

PubMed

A grazing bioassay was employed to assess the impacts of chlorophenols on Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex. The effects of two chlorophenols, pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 4-chlorophenol, were investigated at concentrations of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1 mg . L-1 over a 96-h period. All tests were conducted in water from the southern basin of Lake Baikal (Siberia). For D. magna, grazing rates were significantly depressed after exposure to 0.001 mg . L-1 of PCP for 48 h or to 0.01 mg . L-1 of 4-chlorophenol for 96 h. However, neither chemical continued to depress filtering rates as either dose or time increased, thus effective concentrations (EC50s) could not be determined. This prevents the use of this bioassay as a tool for assessing exposure to chlorophenols, but it is still useful in that it provides insight into potential ecological effects. In the case of D. pulex, depressed rates were also found at 0.001 mg . L-1 of PCP after 48 h; due to problems with the control, no conclusions were drawn for the effect of 4-chlorophenol on this species. The growth rates of Daphnia's prey, Chlorella vulgaris, were also investigated in the presence of these chemicals; no observable effects were found at any concentration during the 96-h period, implying that ecosystem effects may be limited to higher trophic levels. PMID:9504970

Gokcen

1998-04-01

85

Sugmut field: A forced regression deposit within the Neocomian prograding clinoform complex, West Siberian Basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Volgian-Neocomian interval of the Middle Ob Region of the intracratonic West Siberian Basin consists of between 35 and 45 regional transgressive\\/regressive cycles infilling a basin which had an average water depth of approximately 200 meters. Within local clinoforms, wells have encountered elongate shelf-edge sandstone bodies ranging from 15 to 100 kilometers in strike-oriented length. In most areas the seismic

J. M. Armentrout; M. Oleg; M. Igirgi

1996-01-01

86

Sugmut field: A forced regression deposit within the Neocomian prograding clinoform complex, West Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The Volgian-Neocomian interval of the Middle Ob Region of the intracratonic West Siberian Basin consists of between 35 and 45 regional transgressive/regressive cycles infilling a basin which had an average water depth of approximately 200 meters. Within local clinoforms, wells have encountered elongate shelf-edge sandstone bodies ranging from 15 to 100 kilometers in strike-oriented length. In most areas the seismic interval correlative to the reservoir sandstone pinches-out against the foreset of the preceding clinoform. This geometric relationship, and the sharp-based log pattern of sandstones along the more landward margin of the sandstone body, suggests that the sandstone may have been deposited as a consequence of marked downward shift in baselevel as part of a lowstand prograding complex, or possibly as a late highstand forced regression deposit. The Sugmut field, located in the northeast part of the study area, is 12 km wide east-west and 75 km long north-south, and grades laterally into shale to the west, south and east. Relative to the regressive phase isopach, the transgressive phase isopach thick shifts slightly northward and eastward indicating the direction of littoral drift and marginward transgression. In the northern part of the field the shelf-edge sandstone interval may correlate with a thin depositional-dip oriented shelf sandstone mapped within the transgressive interval. This mapped pattern may be interpreted as lowstand incision of a fluvial system supplying sand to a shelf-edge delta followed by infilling of the fluvial valley during transgression. Subsequent down-to-the-north regional tilt resulted in structural closure forming the Sugmut field trap.

Armentrout, J.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Ctr., Dallas, TX (United States)); Oleg, M.; Igirgi, M.

1996-01-01

87

Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic developments make the tour unique and very attractive for BSc and MSc students and soil science professionals. Detailed information about the next tour is under: www.uni-goettingen.de/soilrus

Kuzyakov, Yakov

2013-04-01

88

Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309  

SciTech Connect

Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation protection infrastructure and general preparation of the site for construction of the facilities for the removal of the SNF. This paper describes the development and implementation of the strategy and work to improve the safe and secure management of SNF, preparing it for retrieval and removal from Andreeva Bay. (authors)

Field, D.; McAtamney, N. [Nuvia Limited (United Kingdom)] [Nuvia Limited (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

89

High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social-ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia  

PubMed Central

Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience.

Forbes, Bruce C.; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejarvi, Elina

2009-01-01

90

40Ar/39Ar Thermochronology west of the Main Uralian fault, southern Urals, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

West of the Main Uralian fault, the main suture in the southern Urals, 40Ar/39Ar apparent ages of amphibole, muscovite and potassium feldspar are interpreted as cooling ages. A fast exhumation of the metamorphic complex of Kurtinsky during Upper Carboniferous time is indicated by the small age difference (15 Ma) between cogenetic amphibole and muscovite. Differentiated movement in the footwall of the Main Uralian fault along strike is indicated by the age difference of 70 Ma between the metamorphic complexes of Kurtinsky (north) and Maksyutov (south). No Upper Paleozoic (Uralian) medium- to high-temperature event is recorded in 40Ar/39Ar data from the metamorphic complex of Beloretzk (MCB). An amphibole age of 718+/-5 Ma and the occurrence of mafic intrusions might signal the break-up of Rodinia and therefore indicate the rifting period followed by the separate movement of the "Beloretzk terrane". Muscovite ages of approximately 550+/-5 Ma, the unique pre-Ordovician tectonometamorphic evolution of the MCB and the Late Vendian sedimentary history of the western Bashkirian Megaanticlinorium (BMA) imply the existence of a Neoproterozoic orogeny at the eastern margin of Baltica. This orogeny might have been initiated by the accretion of the "Beloretzk terrane". The metamorphic grade of the overlain Silurian shales and the K/Ar microcline ages from the "Beloretzk terrane" give evidence for a new thermal event at approximately 370 Ma. A microcline age of 530-550 Ma obtained for the Vendian conglomerate in the western BMA suggests that a maximum temperature of approximately 200°C was reached in Cambrian or Vendian times. An orthoclase age (590-630 Ma) of the Vendian Zigan flysch deposits might be inherited from the eastern source area, the Cadomian orogen. An orthoclase age (910-950 Ma) from the Riphean Zilmerdak conglomerate coincides with a documented decrease in the subsidence rate of the Upper Riphean basin.

Glasmacher, U. A.; Reynolds, P.; Alekseyev, A. A.; Puchkov, V. N.; Taylor, K.; Gorozhanin, V.; Walter, R.

91

Return to Siberia: The 2008 Kotuykan River Expedition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the September-October 2007 issue of'The Earth Observer [volume 19, Number 4, pp. 13-21] we presented an article entitled "Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account." In that article we shared excerpts from a blog that chronicled the adventures of a team of scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science as they embarked on a three-week adventure in the wilds of Siberia in hopes of collecting measurements to validate data from satellites flying 700 km overhead. The same team, plus a couple new participants, headed back to Siberia this past sumner and we are now pleased to present the continuation of their story. For more background details on the expedition to Siberia or if you missed the first part of the story, please refer to the previous article.

Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

2009-01-01

92

Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small international team of remote sensing and forest ecosystem scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science set off on a three-week scientific expedition through the heart of the remote, wild forests of Siberia. They traveled southward down the Kochechum River observing the gradual transition from tundra to taiga, taking inventory of plant species along the way, and making ground-truth measurements to validate data being collected by several NASA satellites flying 700 kilometers overhead.

Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

2007-01-01

93

[Molecular variability in the commom shrew Sorex araneus L. from European Russia and Siberia inferred from the length polymorphism of DNA regions flanked by short interspersed elements (Inter-SINE PCR) and the relationships between the Moscow and Seliger chromosome races].  

PubMed

Genetic exchange among chromosomal races of the common shrew Sorex araneus and the problem of reproductive barriers have been extensively studied by means of such molecular markers as mtDNA, microsatellites, and allozymes. In the present study, the interpopulation and interracial polymorphism in the common shrew was derived, using fingerprints generated by amplified DNA regions flanked by short interspersed repeats (SINEs)-interSINE PCR (IS-PCR). We used primers, complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: mammalian element MIR and the SOR element from the genome of Sorex araneus. Genetic differentiation among eleven populations of the common shrew from eight chromosome races was estimated. The NP and MJ analyses, as well as multidimensional scaling showed that all samples examined grouped into two main clusters, corresponding to European Russia and Siberia. The bootstrap support of the European Russia cluster in the NJ and MP analyses was respectively 76 and 61%. The bootstrap index for the Siberian cluster was 100% in both analyses; the Tomsk race, included into this cluster, was separated with the bootstrap support of NJ/MP 92/95%. PMID:16871777

Bannikova, A A; Bulatova, N Sh; Kramerov, D A

2006-06-01

94

International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network. Specific emphasis was made on the study of permafrost soils. Throughout the course students were exposed to a wide range of field techniques, including surveying, coring, geothermal monitoring, thaw-depth measurements, landscape characterization, geomorphologic investigations, soil description and classification according to International, Russian, German, and U.S. classification schemes, and hydrologic and botanical field investigations. Significant portion of the course curriculum was devoted to problems of industrial development in permafrost regions. Pipelines, material sites, operating gas wells, processing plants, pump stations, and permafrost engineering testing facilities associated with three major gas fields (Yamburg, Yubileinoe, and Zapolyarnoe) were visited as part of the field excursions. Several meetings with Russian gas industry executives and workers were arranged to openly discuss economic and political issues associated with GasProm activities in West Siberia. The field work was complemented by daily lectures prepared by instructors and students, covering a wide range of topics. Students also participated in active permafrost research through daily data collection and analysis activities. Analysis of the diverse data sets obtained during the course was conducted at Moscow State University, presented in a series of detailed reports. The data collected by students were contributed to the international IPY permafrost monitoring programmes. Several students have presented results of their research at the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost and other national and international scientific meetings. This presentation describes research and educational activities of the IUCP, provides results of student research, and outlines the plan for the future.

Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

2009-04-01

95

Aircraft and tower measurements of CO2 concentration in the planetary boundary layer and the lower free troposphere over southern taiga in West Siberia: Long-term records from 2002 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

situ measurements of the vertical distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) carried out with a light aircraft over a tower site (Berezorechka; 56°08'45?N, 84°19'49?E) in the taiga region of West Siberia from October 2001 to March 2012 document the detailed seasonal and vertical variation of CO2 concentrations during daytime. The variation appears to be controlled mainly by the CO2 flux from taiga ecosystems and the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). We calculated average CO2 concentrations in the PBL and the lower free troposphere (LFT), both of which show clear seasonal cycles and an increasing long-term trend. Seasonal amplitude in the PBL had a larger value (29 ppm) than that in the LFT (14 ppm), demonstrating strong CO2 source-sink forcing by the taiga ecosystems. Mean CO2 concentrations during 13:00-17:00 local standard time observed at the four levels of the tower (5, 20, 40, and 80 m) showed lower CO2 concentrations than that observed in the PBL by aircraft during June-August (growing season). This negative bias decreased with increasing inlet height such that the minimum difference appeared at the 80-m inlet (-2.4 ± 0.8 ppm). No such bias was observed during other months (dormant season). The daytime CO2 flux, based on multiple vertical profiles obtained on a single day, ranged from -36.4 to 3.8 µmol m-2 s-1 during July-September. There was a clear difference in the fluxes between the morning and afternoon, suggesting that these data should be considered examples of fluxes during several daytime hours from the West Siberian taiga.

Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.

2013-08-01

96

EWHCI '93 (East-West international conference on Human-Computer Interaction): conference report, Moscow, Russia, August 3--7  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third annual East-West Human-Computer Interaction conference was held in Moscow in early August, 1993. The first meeting of this kind was a single-track symposium held just before the collapse of the USSR in 1991; the second used the East-West name and was held in St. Petersburg in 1992. The conference took place at the International Centre for Scientific and

Keith Instone; Allen Cypher; Claus Unger

1994-01-01

97

EWHCI '93 (East-West international conference on Human-Computer Interaction): conference report, Moscow, Russia, August 3–7  

Microsoft Academic Search

The third annual East-West Human-Computer Interaction conference was held in Moscow in early August, 1993. The first meeting of this kind was a single-track symposium held just before the collapse of the USSR in 1991; the second used the East-West name and was held in St. Petersburg in 1992. The conference took place at the International Centre for Scientific and

Keith Instone; Allen Cypher; Claus Unger

1994-01-01

98

Bam HI Sac I RFLP and Gm analysis of the immunoglobulin IGHG genes in the Northern Selkups (west Siberia): new haplotypes with deletion, duplication and triplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gm immunoglobulin allotypes have been studied in 1157 individuals of seven Northern Selkup populations, which account for 80% of the entire population of this west Siberian tribe. This study confirms that the northern Selkup populations are a Caucasoid-Mongoloid hybrid. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the IGHG genes using double BamHI-SacI digests, performed on 475 DNA samples, allowed us

Ludmila P. Osipova; Olga L. Posukh; Victor P. Wiebe; Tokiko Miyazaki; Hideo Matsumoto; Gérard Lefranc; Marie-Paule Lefranc

1999-01-01

99

Sequence stratigraphic setting of the Priob Field within the Neocomian prograding complex of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neocomian strata of the West Siberian Basin are a prograding complex unique in its aerial extent, structure and hydrocarbon reserves, such as Priob Field in the Ob River area. Interpretation of the basin history is based on well data and seismic reflection profile. As many as 45 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences, called cyclites, prograde into the deep-water basin formed during

O. M. Mkrtchyan; J. M. Armentrout

1995-01-01

100

Neurosurgery in Siberia.  

PubMed

There is archaeological evidence that the first neurosurgical procedure in what is now known as Siberia was performed in 8005 ± 100 B.C. According to signs of bone growth, perhaps more than half of the individuals who received the ancient trepanations survived. In Siberia, the first operations on the human brain and spinal cord were performed in 1909 at Tomsk University Hospital by the outstanding Russian surgeon and professor Vladimir M. Mysh. Professor Mysh initially moved from Saint Petersburg to Tomsk and later to Novosibirsk. Nicolay N. Burdenko, the founder of Russian neurosurgery and the Moscow Neurosurgical Institution, began his medical education at the Tomsk Imperial University. In the 1950s, Professor Ksenia I. Kharitonova exerted her great influence upon the development of neurosurgery in Siberia. Since 1955, and for 30 years thereafter, Professor Kharitonova was recognized as a principal leader of Siberian neurosurgery. She applied every effort to spread neurosurgical knowledge, and she popularized best practices around Siberia and the Far East. Perestroika deconstructed and ultimately eliminated the orderly system of neurosurgical service in the Soviet Union. From another perspective, the process opened the window to the world. Fully equipped centers and clinics with state-of-the-art techniques for neuro-oncology, cerebrovascular diseases, neurotrauma, and spinal pathology management in Novosibirsk, Barnaul, Kemerovo, and Irkutsk were enabled. PMID:22387212

Krivoshapkin, Alexey L; Zelman, Vladimir L

2012-02-01

101

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in post-pyrogenic soils of drained peatlands in West Meshchera (Moscow Region, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority pollutants and they arrive to the environment from numerous anthropogenic and natural sources, but the data on their natural sources which include wildfires remains insufficient. The level of contamination and the composition of PAHs in soils of the areas affected by wildfires were studied in this work. The study was conducted in Moscow Region (Russia) on the territories occupied with drained peatland and strongly damaged by fires of 2002, 2010 and 2012. The features of PAHs accumulation and profile distribution in histosols and histic podzols after the fires of different time were analyzed. It was shown that new soil horizon form after the fires - Cpir, Hpir and incipient O horizons, and these horizons differ in PAHs accumulation rate. Maximal total concentrations of 14 PAHs were detected in charry peat horizons Hpir (up to 330 ng g-1) and in post-pyrogenic incipient O horizons (up to 180 ng g-1), but the high-molecular weight PAHs (benz(ghi)perylene, benz(a)pyrene, benz(k)fluoranthene) were revealed only in charry peat horizons. The trends to higher PAHs concentrations were found in cases of incomplete burning out of peat horizons while in cases of almost complete pyrogenic destruction of He horizons total PAHs concentration were no more than 50 ng g-1. Also the PAHs accumulation in upper horizons of soils near the sites of latest fires was observed.

Tsibart, A. S.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Koshovskii, T. S.

2014-05-01

102

Yana Ring Structure, North-Eastern Siberia: A Possible Counterpart of Coronae on Venus.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An arch of Verkhoyansky Range in NE Siberia, Russia is considered as W and S parts of the rim of the large ring structure, referred hereafter as Yana Ring Structure (YRS). It has general appearance similar to coronae on Venus and could be considered as th...

G. A. Burba

1993-01-01

103

Dragon Lake, Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

104

Sequence stratigraphic setting of the Priob Field within the Neocomian prograding complex of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The Neocomian strata of the West Siberian Basin are a prograding complex unique in its aerial extent, structure and hydrocarbon reserves, such as Priob Field in the Ob River area. Interpretation of the basin history is based on well data and seismic reflection profile. As many as 45 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences, called cyclites, prograde into the deep-water basin formed during Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Each transgressive-regressive sequence is defined by a coarsening-upward cycle of shale, siltstone and sandstone, and is considered a chronostratigraphic subdivision of the prograding complex. Each sequence boundary is regionally correlatable on seismic reflection profiles, and is identified on well logs by sharp contacts between regressive sandstones below and thin transgressive shales above. Subordinate progradational wedges are locally developed within these sequences and contain major hydrocarbon reserves. These depositional wedges map as lens-shaped packages downlapping the outermost shelf (Priob zone) or as narrow progradational wedges downlapping the foreset reflections of the slope clinoforms immediately beyond the shelf break (Sugmut zone). Regressive facies of the shelf consist of thin but wide spread sandstones that also contain major hydrocarbon reserves. Pervasive sediment starvation during the Late Neocomian resulted in deposition of thin regionally extensive shales that provide top-seal to the Neocomian hydrocarbon system. At the Priob field, a deep erosional incision has been mapped at the AS11 shelf-edge. Sands transported through this incised valley were deposited as a prograding wedge along the shoreline, forming the reservoir facies for the Priob hydrocarbon accumulation. Stratigraphic aspects of the Priob trap include top and lateral shale seals and subtle regional structural tilt. Types of stratigraphic traps are discussed and the possibility of predicting additional such traps are analyzed.

Mkrtchyan, O.M. [IGIRGI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Armentrout, J.M. [Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

105

Russia Profile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The availability of high-quality news reporting on the Internet continues to improve, though at times finding reputable sources can still be difficult for certain parts of the world. Russia Profile is one such source, as it is produced by the Independent Media group, which is responsible for publishing The Moscow Times along with a number of other magazines across Russia. The goal of this website is to both broaden the scope of news coming out of Russia and "to provide a platform for an informed discussion of issues related to or concerning Russia". From the site's homepage, visitors can read about the latest from Russia Profile, view a calendar of events, and subscribe for free to the print edition of Russia Profile. Visitors can also participate in a number of online forum discussions.

106

Moscow, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

107

Heroin Trafficking in Russia's Troubled East. Drug Intelligence Brief.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Russia's Siberian Federal District (Siberia) and the Far Eastern Federal District (the Russian Far East, or RFE) have experienced a surge in heroin trafficking and abuse over the past several years. The reasons for the increase are complex, but the combin...

2003-01-01

108

THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

Motomura, Masumi

109

The Contributions of Leonid M. Parfenov to the Tectonics of Eastern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leonid M. Parfenov (1937-2002) was the leading force behind theinterpretation of northeast Russia in the context of plate tectonics. Originally interested in Precambrian geology, he conducted his early field work in southern Siberia in the 1960s. He was exposed to plate tectonics at Liverpool University in 1970 and published the first mobilistic reconstructions of the Precambrian in Russia in 1973. Starting in 1971, he began to systematically conduct field work and accumulate geologic data on what is now considered the accretionary collage of northeast Russia. With colleague Boris A. Natal'in, he published a series of papers on the tectonic evolution of eastern Russia starting in 1977, with a doctoral dissertation on "Comparative Tectonics and Evolution History of Mesozoides of Northeast Asia" in 1983. His work became known in the west with his publication in 1978 in the Journal of Physics of the Earth on "Geodynamics of the North-Eastern Asia in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Time and the Nature of Volcanic Belt" in which the volcanic belts of eastern Russia were interpreted in the context of subduction zones. From the mid-1980s to his death, he concentrated on understanding the evolution of the fold belts of eastern Yakutia. Parfenov immediately became a proponent of terrane analysis as it evolved in the early 1980s and was the primary mover in developing the terrane map of northeast Russia in the late 1990s. In 1990, he developed joint programs with the University of Alaska Fairbanks and Michigan State University, and later with Stanford University and the U.S. Geological Survey, opening eastern Russia to western scientists. His life's work was synthesized in a monograph entitled "Tectonics, Geodynamics, and metallogenesis of the Territory of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia)" published in Russian in 2001 and currently being prepared in English translation. As a result of his efforts we now have a basic understanding of the plate tectonic evolution of northeast Russia as a region of Phanerozoic rifting, terrane development, and collision.

Prokopiev, A. V.; Fujita, K.; Stone, D. B.

2004-12-01

110

Russia and the Return of Geopolitics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Russia is again the subject of serious concern in the West. After a steady decline in its fortunes in the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact, Russia is aggressively flexing its economic and politic...

M. N. Vego

2007-01-01

111

A Normal Country: Russia after Communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, Russia underwent an extraordinary transformation from a communist dictatorship to a multi-party democracy, from a centrally planned economy to a market economy, and from a belligerent adversary of the West to a cooperative partner. Yet a consensus in the US circa 2000 viewed Russia as a disastrous and threatening failure, and the 1990s as a decade of

Andrei Shleifer; Daniel Treisman

2005-01-01

112

Interrelations of global change and Siberia regional climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some results of analysis of recent observations and coupled climatic model projections of Siberia climate, surface hydrology and vegetation dynamics under global changes are reported. Special attention is paid to surface temperature behavior, circulation regime changes that play a significant role in Northern Eurasia/Arctic Climate System and to feedbacks between regional climate and the terrestrial surface hydrology and vegetation. In particular, significant positive trends of growing season length accompanied by statistically significant increase of sum of the growing degree day temperatures and precipitation are occurring over the south of West Siberia. It might lead to an increase of vegetation productivity in this region. Results of a comparative analysis of observational and modeled time series for surface temperature in Siberia are presented as well. It reveals a number of stable periodicities in the observed changes of average annual temperature and statistically significant correlation of these periodicities with the planetary indices such as North Atlantic Oscillations and Southern Oscillations (in the Pacific Ocean). Also a role of regional biosphere (including the surface air layer, the vegetation layer, soil, and hydrosphere) in 21st century regional and global climate formation is studied. In particular feedbacks generated by variations of some parameters of the atmosphere and surface hydrology are assessed and analyzed. Still many important impacts of climate change on regional environment can not be quantified due to multiple environmental and human factors coming into play and additional study is required to better understand both the impacts and generated by those in Siberia feedbacks to the Earth system.

Gordov, E. P.; Kabanov, M. V.; Krupchatnikov, V. N.; Lykosov, V. N.; Martynova, Yu. V.; Shulgina, T. M.

2012-04-01

113

Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia.  

PubMed

In Russia, both alveolar and cystic echinococcoses are endemic. This study aimed to identify the aetiological agents of the diseases and to investigate the distribution of each Echinococcus species in Russia. A total of 75 Echinococcus specimens were collected from 14 host species from 2010 to 2012. Based on the mitochondrial DNA sequences, they were identified as Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.), E. canadensis and E. multilocularis. E. granulosus s.s. was confirmed in the European Russia and the Altai region. Three genotypes, G6, G8 and G10 of E. canadensis were detected in Yakutia. G6 was also found in the Altai region. Four genotypes of E. multilocularis were confirmed; the Asian genotype in the western Siberia and the European Russia, the Mongolian genotype in an island of Baikal Lake and the Altai Republic, the European genotype from a captive monkey in Moscow Zoo and the North American genotype in Yakutia. The present distributional record will become a basis of public health to control echinococcoses in Russia. The rich genetic diversity demonstrates the importance of Russia in investigating the evolutionary history of the genus Echinococcus. PMID:23985385

Konyaev, Sergey V; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Nakao, Minoru; Ingovatova, Galina M; Shoykhet, Yakov N; Bondarev, Alexandr Y; Odnokurtsev, Valeriy A; Loskutova, Kyunnyay S; Lukmanova, Gulnur I; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E; Spiridonov, Sergey; Alshinecky, Mikhail V; Sivkova, Tatyana N; Andreyanov, Oleg N; Abramov, Sergey A; Krivopalov, Anton V; Karpenko, Sergey V; Lopatina, Natalia V; Dupal, Tamara A; Sako, Yasuhito; Ito, Akira

2013-11-01

114

Biogeochemical phosphorus mass balance for Lake Baikal, southeastern Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive data for Lake Baikal have been synthesized into a geochemical mass balance for phosphorus (P). Some of the P budget and internal cycling terms for Baikal have been compared to similar terms for oligotrophic Lake Superior, mesotrophic Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and the Ocean. Lake Baikal has a large external source of fluvial P compared to the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Ocean. The major tributary to Lake Baikal has experienced substantial increases in organic P loading during the past 25 years. This, coupled with potential P inputs from possible phosphorite mining, may threaten Baikal's oligotrophic status in the future. Water-column remineralization of particulate organic P is substantially greater in Lake Baikal than in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This is probably due to the great water depths of Lake Baikal. There is a gradient in P burial efficiency, with very high values (80%) for Lake Baikal and Lake Superior, lower values (50%) for Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and a low value (13%) for the Ocean. The accumulation rate of P in Lake Baikal sediments is somewhat greater than that in the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea, and much greater than in the Ocean. Benthic regeneration rates are surprisingly similar for large lacustrine and marine environments and supply less than 10% of the P utilized for primary production in these aquatic environments.

Callender, E.; Granina, L.

1997-01-01

115

Kondyor Massif, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

116

Mastering space in Eurasia: Russia’s geopolitical thinking after the Soviet break-up  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay assumes the significance of spatial imagination in shaping the political and cultural boundaries of the post-Soviet Eurasia and reviews the newly emerged geopolitical arguments in Russia. Rather than perceiving Eurasianist views in Russia as relatively homogeneous, I argue that such thinking is highly diverse and varies from West-friendly versions to those that are openly isolationist and expansionist. To

A. P. Tsygankov

2003-01-01

117

The Yudomian of Siberia, Vendian and Ediacaran systems of the International stratigraphic scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Russia, the terminal Neoproterozoic formally includes the Vendian of western part of the East European platform and the\\u000a concurrent Yudoma Group of Siberia. As is shown in this work, the designated subdivisions correspond in the stratotypes only\\u000a to the upper, Yudomian Series of the Vendian. In the Siberian platform, the Ust-Yudoma and Aim horizons of the Yudomian are\\u000a tightly

V. V. Khomentovsky

2008-01-01

118

Two Virtual Journeys: Siberia Diary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though most people have returned to work and school, the opportunity for travel and adventure still exists...via computer. Washington Post correspondents Robert G. Kaiser and Lucian Perkins are in the midst of a month-long expedition through Siberia, sending back dispatches on and photographs off the people and natural resources along the way. A few of the places their journey has taken them are the town of Chita, along the Chinese border, Irkutsk on Lake Baikal, and Siberia's wealthiest city, Surgut. The site is arranged so that readers can choose a featured dispatch and then see oodles of photographs, learn facts, and understand issues about the dispatch location. Interesting examples of the dispatches include "Aids Orphans," "City of Uranium," and "A River Feast." Helpful links to related news and information, and a section where readers can email questions to Kaiser and Perkins round out Siberia Diary.

Kaiser, Robert G., 1943-; Perkins, Lucian.

2001-01-01

119

Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At least 30 languages of the Siberian region are considered endangered, and UNESCO is hoping to preserve, anchor, and develop them. The "Roundtable" link in the menu near the top of the page, allows visitors to read a few sentences by the contributors to the roundtable, on three thematic blocks. Visitors can click on "text" at the end of the paragraph to read the whole discussion, and view a picture of the contributor. "Thematic Block II" is particularly interesting, and concerns the "Experience and problems of teaching endangered languages in universities in Russia", and offers such contributor discussions as "Languages of numerically small peoples of the North, Siberia, and the Far East in the dynamics of linguistic education environment change". The "Instruments" link gives visitors a glimpse into what a linguist in the field might find useful to do their work. The sections of instruments include "software", "fonts (UNICODE)" and "voice recording". In the "software" section, there are "electronic dictionaries", "programs for managing keyboard layout" and "programs for input and manipulation of linguistic data". [KMG

120

Mapping forest succesion types in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a forest typology system based on dynamic vegetation approach and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), one in Central Siberia and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas covered with analysis of the ground truth and inventory data, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects published in literature. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information seem to be a promising way to complement Landsat data, including SAR-based biomass maps and terrain data

Maksyutov, S. S.; Sedykh, V.; Kleptsova, I.; Frolov, A.; Silaev, A.; Kuzmenko, E.; Farber, S.; Kuzmik, N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Fedorov, A.; Nikolaeva, S.

2013-12-01

121

Seabirds of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We conducted seabird surveys along the entire coast of the Chukotka Peninsula (northwestern Siberia, Russia) from 1983 to 1991. We present the first comprehensive descriptions of the distribution and size of Chukotkan seabird colonies. Thirteen species of seabirds were recorded breeding on the peninsula, with an additional 13 migrant or vagrant species. Our estimate that at least 3 300 000 seabirds breed on the Chukotka Peninsula demonstrates the importance of this region to arctic seabird populations. Colony size and species composition may be determined by availability of adequate breeding sites, access to foraging areas, and variable ice conditions.

Konyukhov, N. B.; Bogoslovskaya, L. S.; Zvonov, B. M.; Van Pelt, T. I.

1998-01-01

122

Temporal trends of anthropogenic SO2 emitted by non-ferrous metal smelters in Peru and Russia estimated from Satellite observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on satellite observations of atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) emitted from metal smelting industries in Peru, South America and Siberia, Russia. Most of the non-ferrous metal ores are sulfidic and during the smelting process the sulfur is emitted as SO2. In addition to Norilsk, Russia, Peruvian copper smelters are among the most polluting point sources in the world. We

M. F. Khokhar; U. Platt; T. Wagner

2008-01-01

123

Some results of observations of positive lightning discharges and relative phenomena in the east of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have considered spatial distributions of positive lightning discharges in the east of Siberia for the summer seasons of 2003–2007 and properties of their electromagnetic signals with the ELF “slow tail”, which, as is known, can be accompanied by sprites. There are two main regions of positive discharges located in the south and west of Yakutsk. Two other “centers” (the

V. A. Mullayarov; V. I. Kozlov; A. A. Toropov; R. R. Karimov

2010-01-01

124

Flooding on Russia's Lena River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

125

Confronting Russia, Again.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The resurgence of Russia and its determined trajectory towards great power tatus have re-ignited once dormant tensions between the United States and Russia. Russia's rhetoric and campaign to expand its strategic influence are indicative of a perception by...

B. J. Armstrong

2009-01-01

126

Vibroseismic Research in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-power vibration sources were developed in Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences during 30 years for use in active seismology and studies of Earth's deep structure. Most of data is obtained using eccentric 40- and 100-ton vibrators. Current research involving these sources covers Baikal rift zone, Altay- Sayan folded area and Okhotsk-Chukotski regions in Russia. Using one week to 15-20 days recording intervals, the vibroseismic observations were repeated for several years in the south of Baikal Lake and in Novosibirsk region in the framework of active monitoring technology. The total area of vibroseismic monitoring in the south of Lake Baikal exceeds 20000 km2. Such spatial scale allows to control stress changes in the zones of large faults (Obruchevski, Primorski, Bolsherechenski), which repeatedly activate during rift genesis. Near Novosibirsk, the system of vibroseismic monitoring is focused on changes of the Earth crust physical characteristics caused by seasonal changes of water levels in Novosibirsk reservoir. It is oriented transversely and along the spread of reservoir at 50-70 km distances from the source location. Variations of elastic waves correlate with process of earthquake preparation in 2002 and were detected in the south of Lake Baikal. Results of long-term experiment near Novosibirsk suggest that the observed 0.3- 0.6% variations in velocities of longitudinal and shear waves are connected with seasonal changes of water levels (up to 5m) in the biggest reservoir. Overall results suggest possibility of vibroseismic monitoring with small number of high-power vibrators and a large number of recording stations.

Kovalevsky, V.; Seleznev, V.; Emanov, A.; Glinskiy, B.; Soloviev, V.; Chichinin, I.; Tatkov, G.; Kashun, V.; Danilov, I.

2008-12-01

127

Estimating methane releases from natural gas production and transmission in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane releases from the RAO Gazprom gas production and transmission facilities in Russia were determined in an extensive measurement program carried out in 1996 and 1997. Subsequently, the measurements were extrapolated to the Russian scale. The results show that methane releases from gas transmission are less than 1% of throughput. Methane loss from gas production in northwestern Siberia appears to

J. V. Dedikov; H. Kaesler; A. Ramm; A. Müller von Blumencron; J. Lelieveld

1999-01-01

128

Hepatitis delta virus genotypes I and II cocirculate in an endemic area of Yakutia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, three genotypes of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are described. The most common, genotype I, has a worldwide distribution; in contrast, genotype II has been found previously only in Japan and Taiwan, while genotype III is found exclusively in South America. Considering the high prevalence of HDV in Northern Siberia (Russia), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was used to analyse

Valeria Ivaniushina; Nadjia Radjef; Marfa Alexeeva; Elyanne Gault; Sergei Semenov; Mohammed Salhi; Oleg Kiselev

2001-01-01

129

Mapping wetland and forest landscapes in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat data availability provides opportunity for improving the knowledge of the Siberian ecosystems necessary for quantifying the response of the regional carbon cycle to the climate change. We developed a new wetland map based on Landsat data for whole West Siberia aiming at scaling up the methane emission observations. Mid-summer Landsat scenes were used in supervised classification method, based on ground truth data obtained during multiple field surveys. The method allows distinguishing following wetland types: pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bogs or ryams, ridge-hollows complexes, shallow-water complexes, sedge-sphagnum poor fens, herbaceous-sphagnum poor fens, sedge-(moss) poor fens and fens, wooded swamps or sogra, palsa complexes. In our estimates wetlands cover 36% of the taiga area. Total methane emission from WS taiga mires is estimated as 3.6 TgC/yr,which is 77% larger as compared to the earlier estimate based on partial Landsat mapping combined with low resolution map due to higher fraction of fen area. We make an attempt to develop a forest typology system useful for a dynamic vegetation modeling and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in West and East Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas where ample ground truth and inventory data are available, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exists for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Forest classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills.

Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander

2014-05-01

130

Natural gas and gas hydrate accumulations within permafrost in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden natural gas blowouts from within the permafrost sections in West and East Siberia and some results of permafrost core samples study are presented. Topics covered include gas geochemistry, blowout intensity (gas flow rate), depth interval and permafrost rock peculiarities in places of these gas releases. Although microbial gas is widespread within permafrost, thermogenic gas can also occasionally migrate from

V. S. Yakushev; E. M. Chuvilin

2000-01-01

131

Carbonaceous aerosols over Siberia and Indonesia with GOSAT/CAI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonaceous aerosols absorb the visible light, and hence play an important role for climate study. This work intends to develop an algorithm for extracting the optical properties of biomass burning aerosols based on the cloud aerosol imager (CAI) on board greenhouse gases observing satellite (GOSAT). Our algorithm is mainly based on the radiative transfer calculations in the atmosphere involving various kinds of aerosols. This algorithm has been examined for several forest fire events as Siberia in Russia and Kalimantan Island in Indonesia in 2009. As results, aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and single scattering albedo (SSA) at a wavelength 0.55 ?m are retrieved. It is of interest to note that AOT takes the values larger than ~2 over Siberia plume, and ~5 or more over the plume in Kalimantan of Indonesia, and the values of SSA are low such as ~0.8 to ~0.9 over core region of the plume. In addition, the AOT results are partially validated by MODIS level-2 products (MYD04).

Sano, Itaru; Tanabe, Mizuki; Kamei, Takamasa; Nakata, Makiko; Mukai, Sonoyo

2010-10-01

132

Conversations on Russia: Reform from Yeltsin to Putin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the discussion of Russia's recent post-Communist history has amounted, both in Russia and the West, to a series of monologues by strong-minded people with starkly divergent views. In contrast, Padma Desai's conversations with influential, intelligent participants and observers provide the reader with a broad, nuanced view of what has and has not happened in the last fourteen years,

Padma Desai

2006-01-01

133

The effect of 11 September on Russia?NATO relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terrorist attacks against the United States on 11 September 2001 appeared to act as an unexpected catalyst, bringing Russia and its former Cold War adversaries in the West closer together This article examines President Vladimir Putin's motives for Russia's seemingly unconditional support for the international anti?terrorist coalition organised by the US, and analyses the success of Putin's ‘wish?list’ of

Kara Bosworth

2002-01-01

134

Where was the outlet of the ice-dammed Lake Komi, Northern Russia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When ice-sheets on the continental shelves of the Barents and Kara seas expanded onto the Russian mainland, north-flowing rivers were blocked. The last proglacial lake in European Russia dammed between the ice-sheet in the north and the drainage divide in the south was Lake Komi, which has been dated to the Early Weichselian, 80-100 ka. The lake was about 1400 km long with a water level of about 100 m a.s.l. In the present paper, we discuss four alternative outlets: (1) Across the drainage divide towards the Volga River, leading the water southwards into the Caspian Sea; (2) across the Polar Urals towards West Siberia; (3) between the Barents Ice Sheet and the northern slope of the Kola Peninsula, leading the water northwestwards into the Norwegian Sea; and (4) across the drainage divide between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea catchment areas. Based on present knowledge, we consider the first three options unlikely. Across the divide to the Baltic Sea, a buried channel is mapped where the threshold altitude is lower than the Lake Komi level. We conclude that the outlet of Lake Komi probably followed this valley towards the Baltic Sea. However, the Scandinavian Ice Sheet overran this drainage divide during the Late Weichselian and therefore a younger till and other sediments cover the channel.

Maslenikova, Olga; Mangerud, Jan

2001-11-01

135

Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will occur during the forecasted period. This is resolved using an interactive method that continually updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability to classify fire severity on burn scar areas for predicting carbon release better over the vast areas of Russia. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as key independent variables. Modern wildfire prevention programs cannot be successful unless they are fully supported by fire-danger analysis acquired from detailed daily fire-danger mapping. This enables better coordination and potential success of limited suppression forces. Currently the existing network of weather stations in Russia, especially in remote areas, does not allow for the estimation of fire danger over the entire country. Thus, northern forests are deprived of badly needed fire protection information because of the lack of weather stations. Remote sensing analysis and diagnosis of forest fire danger conditions is an emerging field both in Russia and abroad. V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, located in Krasnoyarsk, is supporting research this field and is proposing the development of methodology for generating daily fire weather danger maps based on the digital multispectral images obtained from satellites. This will allow the computation of fire danger for remote areas without the need for supplementary on-ground weather stations. KEYWORDS: Fire weather danger system, meteorological data, remote sensing data, wildfires, Siberian boreal forests.

Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

2010-05-01

136

Fire Impact on Carbon Emissions on Logged and Unlogged Scots pine Forest Sites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires cover millions ha of boreal forests of Russia annually, mostly in Siberia. Wildfire and forest harvesting are the major disturbances in Siberia's boreal zone. Logged areas appear to be highly susceptible to fire due to a combination of high fuel loads and accessibility for human-caused ignition. Fire spreading from logging sites to surrounding forest is a common situation in this region. Changing patterns of timber harvesting increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildfire on changing climate and on air quality. Fire effects on pine stands and biomass of surface vegetation were estimated on logged and unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Fires occurring on logged areas were typically of higher severity than those in unlogged forests, but the specific effects of fire and logging varied widely among forest types and as a result of weather patterns during and prior to the fire. Consumption of surface and ground fuels in spring fires was 25% to 50% of that in summer fires. Estimated carbon emissions due to fire were 2-5 times higher on logged areas compared to undisturbed sites. Post-fire soil respiration decreases found for both site types partially offset carbon losses. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions in Siberia.

Ivanova, G.; Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

137

First detection of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes pavlovskyi and Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Novosibirsk region, Russia.  

PubMed

Kemerovo group viruses are tick-transmitted members of Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family that can cause infections of the central nervous system of humans. In this work, Kemerovo virus (KEMV) RNA was detected for the first time in Novosibirsk region of Western Siberia, Russia, in Ixodes pavlovskyi and Ixodes persulcatus ticks. PMID:24880473

Tkachev, Sergey; Panov, Victor; Dobler, Gerhard; Tikunova, Nina

2014-09-01

138

Close genetic relationships in vast territories: autosomal and X chromosome Alu diversity in Yakuts from Siberia.  

PubMed

Twelve autosomal and 8 X chromosome Alu markers were genotyped for the first time in 161 Central and West Yakuts to test their ability to reconstruct the genetic history of these populations, the northernmost Turkic-speaker ethnic group living in Siberia. Autosomal data revealed that both groups showed extremely close genetic distances to other populations of Siberian origins that occupied areas from Lake Baikal, the ancestral place of origin of Yakuts, to North Siberia, their current territories. Autosomal and X chromosome data revealed some discrepancies on the genetic differentiation and the effective sizes of Central and West Yakuts. Such discrepancies could be related to the patrilineal and occasionally polygamous structure of these populations. Autosomal and X Alu markers are informative markers to reconstruct population past demography and history, but their utility is limited by the available data. This study represents a contribution for further investigations on these populations. PMID:24466640

Rocañín-Arjó, Ares; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Esteban, Esther; Theves, Catherine; Evdokimova, Larissa E; Fedorova, Sardana A; Gibert, Morgane; Crubezy, Eric; Moral, Pedro

2013-01-01

139

Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Measurement Network on Towers in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to estimate CO2 and CH4 fluxes at regional to sub-continental scale by an inverse model, a network of tall towers for atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements has been established over a region of thousand square kilometers in west Siberia. In-situ continuous measurements have been conducted at 6 stations: Berezorechka (56.17N, 84.33E) since 2002, Parabel (58.25N, 82.40E) and Igrim

K. Shimoyama; T. Machida; A. Shinohara; S. Maksyutov; M. Arshinov; D. Davydov; A. Fofonov; O. Krasnov; N. Fedoseev; B. Belan; H. Belan; G. Inoue

2006-01-01

140

[Testaceans (Testacea, Protozoa) of taiga soils in Western Siberia (Surgut woodland)].  

PubMed

We studied population structure of testaceans of automorphic and hydromorphic soils in the middle taiga of Western Siberia. Rich testacean fauna has been revealed. It was represented to a similar extent as compared to the soils of Ciscaucasian Russia. The bryophilic group was the most typical for the region, since its representatives inhabited the predominating hydromorphic soils of bogs. The typical species included Amphitrema flavum, Heleopera petricola, Placocista spinosa, Trigonopyxis arcula, Centropyxis laevigata, Nebela tincta, Arcella catinus, as well as other moss forms. Flood plain proved to be the richest by testacean species variability among the studied habitats. The set of species here included both representatives of watershed and typical aquatic forms present due to the flood conditions of a given area. The highest quantitative indices of the testacean complexes were revealed in the forest area soils. Quadrulella quadrigera Deflandre, 1936 has been found in a flood plain area for the first time in Russia. PMID:12561339

Rakhleeva, A A

2002-01-01

141

Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

142

Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

143

Estimation of nocturnal 222Rn soil fluxes over Russia from TROICA measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In TROICA (TRanscontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) experiments (1999-2008) simultaneous observations of near surface 222Rn concentrations and atmospheric boundary layer thermal structure were performed across North Eurasia including the central part of Russia, South Siberia and the Far East. The data on 222Rn and temperature vertical distribution are used to estimate regional scale 222Rn soil fluxes basing on calculations of nocturnal 222Rn accumulation rates in the surface layer under inversion conditions. An effect of seasonal soil thawing on 2-4 times surface 222Rn concentration increase from summer 1999 to autumn 2005 is observed. The 222Rn flux estimated from our experiments varies over Russia from 0.01 to 0.15 Bq m-2 s-1 with the highest 222Rn fluxes being derived in the mountain regions of South Siberia and the Far East.

Berezina, E. V.; Elansky, N. F.; Moiseenko, K. B.; Belikov, I. B.; Shumsky, R. A.; Safronov, A. N.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2013-06-01

144

Effects Of Climate, Permafrost And Fire On Potential Vegetation Change In Siberia In A Warming Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century, which are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Increased permafrost melt and forest fire directly affected by climate warming are predicted to additionally influence vegetation change. Our goal is to model potential vegetation change across Siberia (within the territory between the Urals and Yakutia and between the southern border of Russia and the Arctic ocean) using several Hadley Center climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. To predict vegetation change, we use SiBCliM, our Siberian BioClimatic Model, an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5oC; negative degree days below 0oC; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). All vegetation predictions are corrected for the influence of climate on permafrost active layer depth. Potential fire danger is evaluated using a regression model that relates the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10000) to annual moisture index. Shifts in the climate necessary to support current Siberian vegetation are notable by 2020. Biomes and major tree species are predicted to shift northwards as far as 600-1000 km by 2080. Forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems rather than forests are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of their ability to withstand continuous permafrost. Our model also predicts new temperate broadleaf and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Fire danger is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia, where wildland fires would promote habitats for steppe and forest-steppe. Melting permafrost and fire are the principal mechanisms that facilitate vegetation change, which leads to a new equilibrium between vegetation and climate across Siberia.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

2008-12-01

145

Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

146

Family business in Russia: the path to middle class?  

PubMed

The paper seeks to explore via a series of interview-based case studies aspects of the emergence of an entrepreneurial middle-class in Russia. The paper notes the origins of those studied in the professional or highly skilled workers in the former Soviet Union. The paper reveals the complexity and fragility of the circumstances of these entrepreneurs and suggests that commentary in both Russia and the West that pins its hopes for social stability on the emergence of a new property owning middle class in Russia are, at best, premature. PMID:11440056

Barkhatova, N; McMylor, P; Mellor, R

2001-06-01

147

Vendian reference section of southern Middle Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological, chemo-, and biostratigraphic data indicate that the Vendian section of the Ura uplift is the most complete one in southern Middle Siberia and contains analogs of main units of the Vendian stratotype. This section is well known having been investigated by several generations of geologists, well exposed, and easily accessible; therefore, it is proposed to serve as a regional reference section for Vendian deposits of the entire southern Middle Siberia. Its description is accompanied by presentation of new biostratigraphic and radioisotopic data. The section is correlated with other Vendian sections of the Baikal-Patom and some other world regions.

Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Sergeev, V. N.

2013-07-01

148

Window-to-Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Window-to-Russia is a Moscow-based project by Relcom Corporation, oriented towards the international network community. WWW access to a variety of information resources from and about Russia, including two original Virtual Exhibitions: "Moscow Kremlin" and "Contemporary Russian Fine Arts." Extensive list of pointers to other Russian web-servers.

149

Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them in perfect condition. The fossils, and especially mummies, present a perfect material for genetic studies. Woolly rhinoceros, Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blum.), is one of the symbols of the Ice Age and one of few large mammal species that disappeared from Eurasia about 14 000 years ago. Recently, a substantially complete mummy of woolly rhinoceros was found in permafrost at the Rodinka site near Cherskiy, northeastern Yakutia, Russia (68.76°N, 161.63°E). It is the body of an adult female, weighing almost 900 kg, with the preserved skull, two horns, lower jaw, one ear, and tail. The length of the carcass is about 2 m, the live length of the animal is estimated as more than 3 m. The right legs are partly preserved and the chest and belly cavities are partly empty; almost all hair has been lost. Despite these defects, it is the most complete mummy of woolly rhino ever found in permafrost. A fragment of rib from the body has been AMS dated to 39140±390 BP (OxA-18755). In recent years the Rodinka site has yielded an unprecedented number of woolly rhino fossils and is so far the richest locality for this extinct species. The woolly rhino had a very wide distribution in the Late Pleistocene - from France to the Bering Strait and from China to the high-arctic islands. It was perfectly adapted to the variety of severe periglacial (tundra-steppe) environments. Intriguingly, it was the only large Siberian mammal that never crossed the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska. In the vast lowlands of Arctic Siberia Coelodonta fossils are common, but much less abundant (below 1%) compared to those of other large Ice Age mammals such as mammoth, bison, or horse. The unusual abundance of rhino fossils in the low hills of submontane area confirms an earlier hypothesis that such a terrain was especially attractive for these animals, although they could make long (probably, seasonal) excursions to the North along the plains. The collection of woolly rhino fossils from Cherskiy is now under study by paleontologists and geneticists in Russia, Denmark, and the UK. Research was partly supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 07-05-00313-a and Far East 09-04-98568-r_vostok_a).

Davydov, S.; Sher, A.; Boeskorov, G.; Lazarev, P.; Binladen, J.; Willerslev, E.; Tikhonov, A.

2009-12-01

150

Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small intern...

J. Howl J. Ranson S. Kharuk

2007-01-01

151

Uranium and thorium in Kimberlites of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the determination of Th and U in kimberlites of Siberia ; it was shown that in comparison with ultrabasic and basic rocks the kimberlites ; are characterized by an increased concentration of Th and U, but the Th\\/U ratio ; is characterized by abnormal values. This characteristic can be used in the ; search for kimberlite

B. G. Lutts; I. G. Mineeva

1973-01-01

152

Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy

Reams

1996-01-01

153

Denudation and cooling of the Lake Teletskoye Region in the Altai Mountains (South Siberia) as revealed by apatite fission-track thermochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Teletskoye occupies a narrow graben located in the northwestern sector of the Altai fold belt in South Siberia. The lake basin is thought to have formed during the Pleistocene as a distant result of the Cenozoic collision of India and Eurasia that caused a tectonic reactivation of the Palaeozoic Gorny–Altai (GA) and West Sayan (WS) blocks.The present work reports

Johan De Grave; Peter Van den haute

2002-01-01

154

Full Carbon Account for Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Forestry Project (FOR) at IIASA has produced a full carbon account (FCA) for Russia for 1990, together with scenarios for 2010. Currently, there are rather big question marks regarding the existing carbon accounts for Russia, and Russia is critical to the global carbon balance due to its size. IIASA is in a position to perform solid analysis of Russia

S. Nilsson; A. Shvidenko; V. Stolbovoi; M. Gluck; M. Jonas; M. Obersteiner

2000-01-01

155

[Genetic differentiation in plants of the genus Cypripedium from Russia inferred from allozyme data].  

PubMed

Ten gene loci of nine enzyme systems (PGI, 6-PGD, NADHD, SKDH, GDH, PGM, DIA, ADH, GOT-1, and GOT-2) were analyzed in Cypripedium calceolus, C. macranthon, C. shanxiense, and C. ventricosum plants from the south of the Russian Far East. Alleles of loci 6-PGD, NADHD, GDH, ADH, GOT-1, and PGIproved to be diagnostic for C. calceolus and C. macranthon. Plants of C. shanxiense from Primorye and Sakhalin Island were monomorphic at all of the loci examined, and their allelic structure can be regarded as diagnostic for the species. The allelic structure for fragments of the C. calceolus population from the western and eastern parts of the species range differed in two loci, PGl and SKDH: alleles absent in C. calceolus plants from the western part of the range occurred at a high frequency in the plants of this species from the eastern part of the range (28 and 55 plants or 41% and 68%, respectively). These alleles were found in C. shanxiense. The genetic structure of C. shanxiense was similar to that of C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range, i.e., the region when these species are sympartic. The additional alleles in C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range might have appeared as a result of hybridization with C. shanxiense. Our results indicate that C. calceolus plants occuring on the territory of Russia form two groups that represent two different units of genetic diversity preservation. We suggest that C. x ventricosum plants in southern Primorye were formed by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus x C. shanxiense hybrids. Thus, they differ from plants inhabiting the Urals and West Siberia, which originated by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus. The population of C. x ventricosum presumably also consists of two plant groups differing in genetic structure, which should be regarded as two different units of preservation of this taxon. PMID:21786667

Filippov, E G; Andronova, E V

2011-05-01

156

Self Study Guide: Russia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Self -Study Guide Russia is intended to provide U.S. government personnel in the foreign affairs community with an overview of important Russian issues related to history, culture, politics, economics, security and international relations. This guide shou...

2000-01-01

157

Russia's Demographic "Crisis"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rand Organization has recently made available via the Web the full text of Russia's Demographic "Crisis." "This volume is an outgrowth of a June 5-6, 1995 conference at which a group of Russian demographers presented the results of their pioneering research on Russia's demographic 'crisis' to American colleagues from the Rand Organization, the University of California-Los Angeles, the University of Southern California, and the International Programs Center of the US Bureau of the Census." The six papers that make up the volume deal with two broad categories: "(1) fertility and family planning; and (2) issues in the area of health and mortality--health status, health care, and population aging." The scope of a Russian demographic crisis is hotly debated, as well as "the interrelations between economic reforms and demographic trends in Russia." Russia's Demographic "Crisis" should shed some light on this topic.

1996-01-01

158

Siberia at the Last Glacial Maximum: Environment and Archaeology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the presence of humans in Siberia and the Russian Far East at the coldest time of the Late Pleistocene,\\u000a called the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and dated to c. 20,000–18,000 rcbp. Reconstruction of the LGM environment of Siberia,\\u000a based on the latest models and compilations, provides a background for human existence in this region. Most of Siberia

Yaroslav V. Kuzmin

2008-01-01

159

Western Siberia leads slide in former U. S. S. R. 's oil production  

SciTech Connect

The huge western Siberian basin, which Moscow had counted on to ensure rising Soviet petroleum production into the next century, is in steady leading the sharp decline in the former U.S.S.R.'s total oil flow. New data indicate that western Siberia's 1991 crude and condensate production fell to less than 6.5 million b/d. That's down from nearly 7.5 million b/d in 1990 and a peak of 8.28 million b/d in 1988. This paper reports that such low production would make it difficult for Russia to meet the oil needs of other members of the new Commonwealth of Independent States, let alone earn substantial amounts of desperately needed hard currency from crude and refined products sales to foreign countries.

Not Available

1992-02-03

160

Fire impact on carbon storage in light conifer forests of the Lower Angara region, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study focused on structural analysis of ground carbon storage following fires in light conifer stands of the Lower Angara region (Siberia, Russia). Experimental fires of varying frontal intensity were conducted at Scots pine and mixed larch forests of southern taiga. Considerable amounts of surface and ground forest fuels (21-38 tC ha - 1) enhanced low- to high-intensity fires. Post-fire carbon storage decreased by 16-49% depending on fire intensity and rate of spread, with depth of burn being 0.9-6.6 cm. Carbon emissions varied from 4.48 to 15.89 t ha - 1 depending on fire intensity and forest type. Depth of burn and carbon emissions for four major site types were correlated with a weather-based fire hazard index.

Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; McRae, D. J.

2011-10-01

161

Investigation of ancient DNA from Western Siberia and the Sargat culture.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial DNA from 14 archaeological samples at the Ural State University in Yekaterinburg, Russia, was extracted to test the feasibility of ancient DNA work on their collection. These samples come from a number of sites that fall into two groupings. Seven samples are from three sites, dating to the 8th-12th century AD, that belong to a northern group of what are thought to be Ugrians, who lived along the Ural Mountains in northwestern Siberia. The remaining seven samples are from two sites that belong to a southern group representing the Sargat culture, dating between roughly the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, from southwestern Siberia near the Ural Mountains and the present-day Kazakhstan border. The samples are derived from several burial types, including kurgan burials. They also represent a number of different skeletal elements and a range of observed preservation. The northern sites repeatedly failed to amplify after multiple extraction and amplification attempts, but the samples from the southern sites were successfully extracted and amplified. The sequences obtained from the southern sites support the hypothesis that the Sargat culture was a potential zone of intermixture between native Ugrian and/or Siberian populations and steppe peoples from the south, possibly early Iranian or Indo-Iranian, which has been previously suggested by archaeological analysis. PMID:20649397

Bennett, Casey C; Kaestle, Frederika A

2010-04-01

162

Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Forest Dynamics in Central Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The forested regions of Siberia, Russia are vast and contain about a quarter of the world's forests that have not experienced harvesting. However, many Siberian forests are facing twin pressures of rapidly changing climate and increasing timber harvest activity. Monitoring the dynamics and mapping the structural parameters of the forest is important for understanding the causes and consequences of changes observed in these areas. Because of the inaccessibility and large extent of this forest, remote sensing data can play an important role for observing forest state and change. In Central Siberia, multi-sensor remote sensing data have been used to monitor forest disturbances and to map above-ground biomass from the Sayan Mountains in the south to the taiga-tundra boundaries in the north. Radar images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C)/XSAR mission were used for forest biomass estimation in the Sayan Mountains. Radar images from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1), European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) and Canada's RADARSAT-1, and data from ETM+ on-board Landsat-7 were used to characterize forest disturbances from logging, fire, and insect damage in Boguchany and Priangare areas.

Ransom, K. J.; Sun, G.; Kharuk, V. I.; Howl, J.

2011-01-01

163

Molecular epidemiology of the hepatitis C virus in Western Siberia.  

PubMed

Western Siberia is the region with little information on the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, genotypic diversity of HCV isolates and risk factors. A molecular epidemiological survey was conducted to clarify these issues. Four groups of volunteers were included in a cross-sectional study (n = 500 in each group): health care workers; daycare patients from a hospital for drug users, daycare patients from an AIDS prevention and control center; and persons admitted to a local general practice clinic for any reason (outpatients). The anti-HCV IgG prevalence was 4.6% in health care workers, 48.0% in a narcological center, 35.8% in AIDS center, and 5.6% in outpatients. HCV RNA was found in 79.3%-86.3% of seropositives. A total of 388 HCV isolates were genotyped by direct sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR and NS5B regions of HCV genome. The genotypes distribution was: 1b--50.3%, 2a--4.4%, 2c--0.3%, 3a--44.8%. One isolate (0.3%) could not be typed unambiguously. This genotypic diversity is intermediate between that of European Russia and China. Genotype 1 prevailed in an older age group (75% among 51-60 years old), and genotype 3 was most prevalent in young people (51.4% in 16-20 years old). A statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in risk was found in intravenous drug users (odds ratio (OR) = 77.5), unemployed persons (OR = 16.3), persons having >4 sexual partners during lifetime (OR = 4.3), and male homosexuals (OR = 6.6). PMID:16173011

Shustov, A V; Kochneva, G V; Sivolobova, G F; Grazhdantseva, A A; Gavrilova, I V; Akinfeeva, L A; Rakova, I G; Aleshina, M V; Bukin, V N; Orlovsky, V G; Bespalov, V S; Robertson, B H; Netesov, S V

2005-11-01

164

The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the near-shore zone of the East-Siberian Arctic seas: (1999-2008)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary, Warming causes thawing of the permafrost underlying a substantial fraction of the Arctic; this process could accelerate coastal erosion, river discharge and carbon losses from soils. Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. Rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed. Thus studying carbon cycling in the East Siberian Arctic marginal seas has a high scientific priority in order to establish the carbon budget and evaluate the role of the Arctic region in global carbon cycling, especially in the coastal zone where the redistribution of carbon between terrestrial and marine environments occurs and the characteristics of carbon exchange with atmosphere are unknown. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2008).

Sergienko, V. I.; Shakhova, N.; Dudarev, O.; Gustafsson, O.; Anderson, L.; Semiletov, I.

2009-04-01

165

Wetland classification based on Landsat and its application for methane emission inventory of West Siberian taiga zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the wetland methane emissions is complicated by large heterogeneity of the methane emission rates and wetland landscapes. Wetland mapping is important component for assessing the global methane emissions. West Siberia wetlands are the biggest wetland area in Eurasia, are situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. A number of wetland, vegetation and peat maps of the West Siberia were developed in 1970s, but those are not easily applicable for methane emission mapping due to use of the generalized classifications which do not reflect heterogeneity of the landscapes at scales of less than 100 m. In this study, we developed a new wetland typology map based on Landsat imagery and applied it to scaling up the CH4 fluxes measured by a static chamber method. Taking into account relative abundance of different mire types a classification scheme oriented on methane emission estimates was developed. It is based on earlier classifications and consists of the simplest mire units or microlandscapes as the oligotrophic hollows, waterlogged hollows, forested bogs and ridges, fens (including poor fens and swamps) and wetland lakes. Taiga zone of West Siberia was chosen as a primary target for the land cover classification since its large wetland area. 68 Landsat scenes were classified. Totally, wetland area was estimated at 55.7 Mha that is slightly higher than the earlier estimate of 51.5 Mha (Romanova et al., 1977). Methane emission rates vary strongly among the microlandscapes. While the highest amounts are emitted by waterlogged hollows followed by fens, the lowest rates are emitted by elevated landcover units such as forested bogs and ridges. According to our estimates they account for only 3% of the regional flux despite occupying almost 40% of the total wetland area. The oligotrophic and waterlogged hollows as parts of patterned bogs cover more than quarter of the mire territory accounting for almost half of the total CH4 emission. Lakes are widespread over taiga mire systems occupying 16% of the territory and contributing 15% of CH4 flux to the atmosphere. The rest of the territory is mainly occupied by fens, poor fens and swamps (13%) contributing 33% of the total CH4 flux. Applying the new map resulted in total methane emissions from taiga zone of 3.53 TgC/yr which is 87% higher than the former estimates by Glagolev et al. (2011). This considerable revision is caused by the changes in fractional coverages of methane emitting landscapes. Glagolev M, Kleptsova I, Filippov I, Maksyutov S, Machida T. 2011. Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes. ERL 6 045214. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045214 Romanova EA, Bybina RT , Golitsyna EF , Ivanova GM , Usova LI, Trushnikova LG. 1977. Wetland typology map of West Siberian lowland scale 1:2500 000 GUGK: Leningrad, Russia

Kleptsova, Irina; Maksyutov, Shamil; Glagolev, Mikhail

2013-04-01

166

[Early encounters of German-language explorers with the Tibetan medicine in Siberia in the modern era].  

PubMed

The spreading of Tibetan Buddhism and with it the Tibetan medicine in the region east of Lake Baikal, goes back to the 17th century. At the beginning of the 18th century, German speaking scholars were among the first to undertake scientific expeditions through Siberia. As such they were amongst the first scientists of the modern era who encountered the traditions, concepts, and therapeutic methods of Tibetan medicine. The aim of this article is to describe and analyze these first encounters with Tibetan medicine by the example of selected men of science of the 18th and 19th century. This work is based on extensive studies of sources in archives and libraries in Russia and Switzerland. We found documents related to the following scientists: Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt (1685-1735), Johann Georg Gmelin (1709-1755), Erik Laxmann (1737-1796), Friedrich Adelung (1768-1843), and Joseph Rehmann (1779-1831). They mentioned the distribution of Tibetan medicine within Russia, the use of medicinal plants and formulas as well as therapeutic techniques. For the scientific community of the time these first encounters of Europeans with practitioners of Tibetan medicine could not lift Tibetan medicine out of other exotic context in the field of ethnography. For today's researchers, these encounters are an important evidence for more than 300 years of development of Tibetan medicine on the vast territory of Siberia. The practice and the scientific examination of Tibetan medicine in Siberia is an active endeavor until today. The present work shows that it is possible and rewarding to follow up the historic and cultural connections from Europe to Asia via the Siberian link. PMID:22759729

Surkova, Natalia; Chekhirova, Galina V; Aseeva, Tamara; Nikolaev, Sergey; Agalzew, Grigori; Melzer, Jörg; Vennos, Cécile; Schwabl, Herbert; Saller, Reinhard

2012-01-01

167

Flavonoids of Roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis Growing in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of phenolic components of roots and rhizomes ofGlycyrrhiza uralensisFisch. from Siberia is studied. A total of 15 components belonging to 8 structural types including 4' -methylglucoliquiritigenin, which was previously unknown in licorices, is found. The components in samples collected from various regions of Siberia are practically identical.

E. E. Shul'ts; T. N. Petrova; M. M. Shakirov; E. I. Chernyak; G. A. Tolstikov

2000-01-01

168

Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of Rodinia soon after 800 Ma and continued to be so until very near the end of the Palaeozoic, when it became an integral part of the Pangea Supercontinent. The boundaries of the cratonic core of the Siberian Terrane (including the Patom area) are briefly described, together with summaries of some of the geologically complex surrounding areas, and it is concluded that all of the Palaeozoic underlying the West Siberian Basin (including the Ob-Saisan Surgut area), Tomsk Terrane, Altai-Sayan Terranes (including Salair, Kuznetsk Alatau, Batenov, Kobdin and West Sayan), Ertix Terrane, Barguzin Terrane, Tuva-Mongol Terrane, Central Mongolia Terrane Assemblage, Gobi Altai and Mandalovoo Terranes, Okhotsk Terrane and much of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma region all formed parts of peri-Siberia, and thus rotated with the main Siberian Craton as those areas were progressively accreted to the main Siberian Terrane at various times during the latest Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic. The Ertix Terrane is a new term combining what has been termed the "Altay Terrane" or "NE Xinjiang" area of China, and the Baytag, Baaran and Bidz terranes of Mongolia. The Silurian Tuvaella brachiopod fauna is restricted only to today's southern parts of peri-Siberia. Thus, allowing for subsequent rotation, the fauna occurs only in the N of the Siberian Terrane, and, as well as being a helpful indicator of what marginal terranes made up peri-Siberia, is distinctive as being the only Silurian fauna known from northern higher latitudes globally. In contrast, the other terranes adjacent to peri-Siberia, the North China Terrane, the Manchurides terranes (including the Khingan-Bureya Massif area), the Gurvanshayan Terrane, the Ala Shan Terrane, the Qaidam-Qilian Terrane, the Tarim Terrane, the Junggar Terrane, the Tien Shan terranes and the various Kazakh terranes, did not become part of the Siberian Terrane assemblage until they accreted to it in the Upper Palaeozoic or later during the formation of Pangea. The Farewell Terrane of Alaska includes typical Lower and Middle Palaeozoic Siberian endemic faunas, but its Palaeozoic position is unknown. Cambrian to Early Silurian palaeomagnetic poles from the southern and northern parts of the Siberian Craton differ, but can be matched with an Euler pole of 60°N, 120°E and a rotation angle of 13°. We link this observation with Devonian rifting in the Viljuy Basin near the centre of the craton and also postulate that this rifting rejuvenated an older Precambrian rift zone, since 1-1.1 Ga poles from southern and northern Siberia differ as much as 23° around the same Euler pole. A revised Palaeozoic apparent polar wander (APW) path is presented for the Siberian Craton in which pre-Devonian poles are corrected for Viljuy Basin rifting. There is also much Late Devonian tectonic activity in the Altai-Sayan area, which may be linked. The APW path implies that Siberia was located at low southerly latitudes at the dawn of the Palaeozoic and slowly drifted northward (< 4 cm/yr.). A velocity burst is noted near the Ordovician-Silurian boundary (ca. 13 cm/yr between 450 and 440 Ma), whilst the Mid-Silurian and younger history is characterized by steady clockwise rotation (totalling about 75°) until the Late Permian. The Late Palaeozoic convergence history between Siberia and Baltica (Pangea) is hard to quantify from palaeomagnetic data because there are only two reliable poles (at 360 and 275 Ma) between the Early Silurian and the Permo-Triassic boundary. The Mid and Late Palaeozoic APW path for Siberia is therefore strongly interpolated and we discuss two different APW path alternatives that result

Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.

2007-05-01

169

Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005  

SciTech Connect

A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I. [Inst. for Energy Policy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-05-15

170

Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

171

Siberia Losing Lakes at an Alarming Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new study finds that more than 1,000 lakes in the Arctic region of Siberia have disappeared or shrunk dramatically over the past 30 years. The region has been getting markedly warmer and human activities are thought to be partly responsible. This radio broadcast reports on a study comparing Earth-observing satellite images over time, which show the Siberian lakes disappearing. The study concludes that as global warming causes the Arctic permafrost to thin, water from the Siberian lakes drains into the ground and vanishes. The clip is 3 minutes and 52 seconds in length.

172

Home Education in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

Staroverova, T. I.

2011-01-01

173

Dating Violence in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenon of violence in interpersonal relationships has been little studied in Russia, and the phenomenon of violence between dating partners has not been the object of scientific interest at all. The study on which the present article is based was designed to obtain information about the violence in dating among students enrolled in…

Lysova, A. V.

2007-01-01

174

Understanding barter in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the incidence and growth of non-monetary transactions - barter, veksels, debt offsets, tax offsets and other money surrogates - in Russia. The empirical backbone of the paper is a survey of 350 - predominantly industrial - firms, carried out in October and November 1998. The paper provides an analytical framework for understanding both firm-level incentives for using

Simon Commander; Christian Mumssen

175

White Sea - Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

2002-01-01

176

Seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In West and East Siberia a great deal of rivers and big lakes are situated. For oil and gas exploration these places hold much promise. It is very difficult to carry out seismic work in these regions, when temperature is fall down below 40 degrees centigrade. It is necessary to pave ways for technical equipment, to organize shooting operations in some cases, that harming ecology of investigated regions. It is well-known, that at seas and big reservoirs seismic works are carried out with use of air guns as sources and floating or ground cables as receivers. There is a special interest to carry out jointly processing and interpretation of seismic survey and electrical data. We should learn how to carry out such researches at rivers, developed a special combined technology on river seismic and electrical works carrying out. Geophysical Survey SB RAS has been carried out seismic and electrical works at rivers and reservoirs of Siberia for more then 20 years. We had to work in conditions, when depth of a reservoir was more then 10 meters or less then 1 meter. It was necessary to work out or adapt some floating equipment, to create air-guns working on light depths ("Malysh", "Sibiryak"), to create new recording equipment (seismic and electrical variants of "Baikal" equipment) for carrying out work in such conditions. There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe. For the first time it was determined, that the depth of sedimentary cover under Lake Baikal exceeds 14 km. On demands of government and private companies we carried out river works in Common-depth-point method at such rivers as: Ob, Volga, Enisey, Vakh, Lena, Kirenga, Nizhnya Tunguska. Comparison of results got at river profiles with surface ones, crossing the river, showed in difficult surface conditions (central part of the River Lena, the Nizhnya Tunguska) river seismic sections are better then surface sections. It is connected with the fact, that systems of observation with multiplicity of several hundreds could be realized at a river without costs increasing, and it is not necessary to set relief correction. It is also important, that data got at a river profile with length of 1000 km allow to correlate seismic boundaries of separate surface profiles, crossing the river. At mouth of the Enisey River qualitative material up to the depth of 20km was got. At the Lena River, in the region of oil field, complexation of seismic and electrical works was carried out. According to seismic survey data there are determined structural and velocity parameters of the section and, using this information, according to electrical survey data there was determined distribution of conductivity. The obtained results are useful for direct exploration of hydrocarbons. The paper presents the results of development of technology of seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes and showed some data got at the rivers of Siberia There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe.

Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Liseikin, A. V.; Sigonin, P.

2013-05-01

177

Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov  

SciTech Connect

Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-12-01

178

LUGOVSKOE, WESTERN SIBERIA: A POSSIBLE EXTRA-ARCTIC MAMMOTH REFUGIUM AT THE END OF THE LATE GLACIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven woolly mammoth bone samples from Lugovskoe (central West Siberian Plain, Russia) were radiocar- bon dated in 3 laboratories: Institute of Geology, Novosibirsk; Oxford University, Oxford; and Christian Albrechts Univer- sity, Kiel. Each laboratory used its own protocol for collagen extraction. Parallel dating was carried out on 3 samples in Novosibirsk and Oxford. Two results are in good agreement. However,

Lyobov A Orlova; Vasily N Zenin; Anthony J Stuart; Thomas F G Higham; Pieter M Grootes; Sergei V Leshchinsky; Yaroslav V Kuzmin; Aleksander F Pavlov; Evgeny N Maschenko

179

Health lifestyles in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing data from the nationwide Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), this paper analyzes health lifestyles in Russia. Heavy alcohol use and smoking, a high-fat diet, and lack of leisure-time exercise are the principal culprits in fostering high rates of heart disease and other causes of premature mortality. This is especially the situation for middle-age, working-class males whose mortality is greater

William C. Cockerham

2000-01-01

180

IMF Loan for Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the International Monetary Fund's recent lending agreement with Russia. The nine resources discussed offer commentary, news, analysis, and background information concerning the IMF's current economic package, and discuss the Russian economic crisis in general. A key player in the New Russian Federation's transition to a market economy, the IMF, agreed to ease Russia's ongoing financial crisis on July 13, 1998 with a loan of 15.1 billion dollars (to be dispersed over two years). According to IMF First Deputy Managing Director Stanley Fischer, this amount is "a very significant draw on our resources," although the IMF has protected its funding carefully via terms outlined in the agreement. Deliberators in Russia's Parliament, however, find the conditions set by the IMF, President Boris Yeltsin, and other international lenders to be too harsh -- particularly a condition to protect the rights of foreign investors. As the debate continues, many fear that future international funding will be withheld, and the ruble will continue its downward spiral set off by the Asian financial crisis in May 1998 (discussed in the January 30, 1998 Scout Report). With 5 billion dollars or more available from the IMF as early as next week, Russian government leaders must agree on a feasible economic plan, before conditions worsen.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

181

THE NATURE OF CENOZOIC UPPER MANTLE PLUMES IN EAST SIBERIA (Russia) AND CENTRAL MONGOLIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the space relationship between upper mantle plumes revealed earlier from analysis of long-wavelength isostatic gravity anomalies and the subducting Pacific slab. According to global seismic tomography, the oceanic slab in its segments corresponding to the Japan and Izu-Bonin island arcs flattens out at the bottom of the mantle transition zone, extends horizontally far beneath Eurasia, and then resumes

Yu. A. Zorin; E. Kh; V. M. Kozhevnikov; S. V. Rasskazov; A. I. Ivanov

182

Spatial and seasonal variability of polygonal tundra water balance: Lena River Delta, northern Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer water balance of a typical Siberian polygonal tundra catchment is investigated in order to identify the spatial and temporal dynamics of its main hydrological processes. The results show that, besides precipitation and evapotranspiration, lateral flow considerably influences the site-specific hydrological conditions. The prominent microtopography of the polygonal tundra strongly controls lateral flow and storage behaviour of the investigated catchment. Intact rims of low-centred polygons build hydrological barriers, which release storage water later in summer than polygons with degraded rims and troughs above degraded ice wedges. The barrier function of rims is strongly controlled by soil thaw, which opens new subsurface flow paths and increases subsurface hydrological connectivity. Therefore, soil thaw dynamics determine the magnitude and timing of subsurface outflow and the redistribution of storage within the catchment. Hydraulic conductivities in the elevated polygonal rims sharply decrease with the transition from organic to mineral layers. This interface causes a rapid shallow subsurface drainage of rainwater towards the depressed polygon centres and troughs. The re-release of storage water from the centres through deeper and less conductive layers helps maintain a high water table in the surface drainage network of troughs throughout the summer.

Helbig, Manuel; Boike, Julia; Langer, Moritz; Schreiber, Peter; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Kutzbach, Lars

2013-02-01

183

Soils of the Tiksi area and their carbon contents; Northeastern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant differences for the total organic carbon (TOC) contents in the surface horizons were found between all sites of the Tiksi area and the Lena River Delta region (Mann Whitney U, P < 0.05) suggesting higher carbon contents in the hinterland area. Since the soils of the Tiksi area were poorly studied in the past and are significantly different to soils of the well-studied Lena River Delta, this investigation was performed. Here we present preliminary results with interesting insights. All investigated soil profiles of the Tiksi area have developed on eluvial argillaceous shale. Most soil profile depths were relatively shallow (20 - 30 cm). Only several soil profiles, located to the north from Tiksi settlement, reached the depth of 40 cm and deeper. The Tiksi area was characterized by a variety of soil types. According to US Soils Taxonomy most of soils having developed in depressed micro-relief forms were described as Orthels and Histels. Soils of slopes and elevated forms of a micro relief belonged to Turbel suborder. The surface soil horizons were generally enriched by organic matter which likely reflects the inclusion of the vegetation. Minimum carbon content in surface soils amounted to 8 - 12 %. Surface soils of southern sites (remote from Tiksi settlement) were characterized by the lowest carbon content, whereas the surface horizons of eastern and western sites had particularly high in carbon. The median value of total organic carbon for these sites was 28 %. At the northern sites B-horizons were characterized by higher median values of carbon content. Similar results were found for the nitrogen content in the surface and B-horizons. The highest median values of nitrogen were found in surface soils for groups of eastern and western sites amounted to 1.2 % and 1.5 %, respectively. The highest median value of nitrogen in B-horizon was observed for soils of the northern sites group. Generally, the C/N ratio for all groups of investigation sites was higher in surface horizons than in B-horizons suggesting a higher abundance of organic matter and lower rates of its decomposition in the top soils. The highest variability of C/N ratio was found at northern sites, which reflects the cryoturbation processes development.

Antcibor, Iuliia; Zubrzycki, Sebastian

2014-05-01

184

Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: Environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling.  

PubMed

The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce the global warming completely and result in a net saving of 100 000 CO2-equivalents per year due to storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill beyond 100 years. Considering other first-order degradation rates for the landfilled organic matter did not overtly affect the results, while assumptions about the top cover oxidation of methane significantly affected the results. This shows the importance of controlling the gas escape from the landfill. PMID:24692457

Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut; Christensen, Thomas H

2014-05-01

185

Seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal-scale variability of biogeochemical trace gases and O2 from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present first results from 19 months of semicontinuous concentration measurements of biogeochemical trace gases (CO2, CO, and CH4) and O2, measured at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in the boreal forest of central Siberia. We estimated CO2 and O2 seasonal cycle amplitudes of 26.6 ppm and 134 per meg, respectively. An observed west-east gradient of about ?7 ppm

Elena A. Kozlova; Andrew C. Manning; Yegor Kisilyakhov; Thomas Seifert; Martin Heimann

2008-01-01

186

Insight Into West Siberian Gas and Wetland Methane Emissions From ? 13C Studies of Ambient Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ob River region of West Siberia is home to some of the largest known gasfields and wetlands, and a source of around 2.5% of the total global methane emissions. It is also a major source region of CO2 emissions. Carbon isotopes of ambient air and emission sources provide an important tool for understanding these poorly constrained sources. Tank samples of ambient air were collected overnight for ? 13C analysis of methane during the summer (August-September) campaigns of 1999 and 2000, as part of INTAS-funded projects. The main sampling centres were Nadym and Urengoy, with samples collected above the known gas reserves, near pumping stations and by boat on the Nadym River, downstream toward Salekhard. CH4 of up to 900 ppb above background was recorded and ? 13C depletions of up to 3‰ relative to background. West Siberian gas has measured ? 13C values of -51.5 to -49.5‰ based on well samples and supplies in St. Petersburg and Germany. Implications from aircraft flights (Sugawara et al. 1996) and measurements along the Trans-Siberian railroad (Bergamaschi et al., 1998) are that the wetland signature is around -67‰ . The ambient air samples give a range of calculated source inputs from -67.3 to -49.3‰ , the end members corresponding to sampling areas expected to contain only wetland or gas emissions and confirmed by back trajectory analysis for sampling times. Using the end members, the average excess methane from the wetland source was 62 ppb around Nadym and 61 ppb around Urengoy. The average excess from the gasfields was 30 ppb around Nadym but 82 ppb around Urengoy, reflecting the closer proximity to the gasfields. The maximum excess recorded from wetlands was 160 ppb and from gasfields was 710 ppb. Experiments during summer 2004 have focussed on bag sampling on the tower of a super deep well at Korotchaevo, SE of the Urengoy gas field. Samples collected at 20, 30 and 60m heights will be analysed for ? 13C of both CH4 and CO2 and apportioned to gas and wetland sources. Bergamaschi P.et al. Isotope analysis based source identification for atmospheric CH4 and CO sampled across Russia using the Trans-Siberian railroad. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D), 8227-8235, 1998. Suguwara S. et al. Aircraft measurements of the stable carbon isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane over Siberia. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 223-231, 1996.

Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Levin, I.; Privalov, S.; Nisbet, E.

2004-12-01

187

Genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, revealed by mitochondrial DNA haplogroup analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the genetic features of ancient West Siberian people of the Middle Ages, we studied ancient DNA from bone remains excavated from two archeological sites in West Siberia: Saigatinsky 6 (eighth to eleventh centuries) and Zeleny Yar (thirteenth century). Polymerase chain reaction amplification and nucleotide sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) succeeded for 9 of 67 specimens examined,

Takehiro Sato; Dmitry Razhev; Tetsuya Amano; Ryuichi Masuda

2011-01-01

188

Ozone profile observations in Siberia in 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station (66.5N, 66.7E) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation are carried out since January 1997. In 1997-2013 we used electrochemical 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring period to study the ozone loss in the Arctic regions. The results of ozonesonde observation at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In January 2014 we upgraded this ozonesounding station with the new iMet-1 radiosonde and electrochemical 2Z-V7 ozonesonde of Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), USA. The first results of ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in January-March 2014 at Salekhard aerological station will be presented and discussed.

Dorokhov, Valery; Balugin, Nikolay; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Alexander; Ivlev, Georgii; Shepelev, Dmitry; Nakajima, Hideaki

2014-05-01

189

Evaluating oil, gas opportunities in western Siberia; Reservoir description  

SciTech Connect

In this article, the authors discuss how to use the subsurface data to describe hydrocarbon reservoirs and estimate the original oil in place (OOIP) in western Siberia. The methodology for describing a reservoir and estimating the OOIP in western Siberia is similar to the approach for most reservoirs: Establish stratigraphic correlations across the field; Construct structure maps on key horizons; Construct porosity isopach maps for significant reservoirs; Construct net pay maps; Determine reservoir parameters; and Calculate pore-volume estimates of OOIP.

Connelly, W. (Pangea International Inc., Golden, CO (United States)); Krug, J.A. (Questa Engineering Corp., Golden, CO (United States))

1992-12-07

190

Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Measurement Network on Towers in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to estimate CO2 and CH4 fluxes at regional to sub-continental scale by an inverse model, a network of tall towers for atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements has been established over a region of thousand square kilometers in west Siberia. In-situ continuous measurements have been conducted at 6 stations: Berezorechka (56.17N, 84.33E) since 2002, Parabel (58.25N, 82.40E) and Igrim (63.20N, 64.48E) since 2004, Demyanskoe (59.78N, 70.87E) and Noyabrsk (63.43N, 76.76E) since 2005, and Yakutsk (62.83N, 129.35E) in east Siberia since 2005. Over next two years, installations of 4 more stations are planned. This study provides some results of observation from this network. Seasonal cycles of CO2 showed quite similar trends in growing season (May to September) among the west Siberian sites. The remarkable decrease of CO2 concentration occurred in early May and the seasonal minimum was observed between July and August. On the other hand, the short-term (from several days to week) variations in CO2 concentrations were quite different among the sites, particularly during the growing season. Rather large variation of more than 25 ppm within a week was observed during winter. The changes in CO2 concentrations at the nearby sites were almost identical. Monthly mean values of CO2 during the growing season were relatively higher at the northern sites than at southern sites. These observational results evidentially reflected the regional characteristics of CO2 flux variation, transportation, and mixing process. Daily cycles of CH4 in summer showed nocturnal increase and diurnal decrease which was due to emission of CH4 from wetland accumulated over night, and diurnal convective mixing. Relatively high concentrations of CH4 were observed in winter and summer. Because there is one of the world's vastest wetland in western Siberia, the peak of CH4 in summer implies the significant role of CH4 emissions from the west Siberian wetland to the atmosphere. On the other hand, an exceptionally high concentration of CH4 of more than 3 ppm was observed in several sites. It occurred irrespective of time of a day but was associated with the definite wind direction. This may be linked to a strong point source of CH4 such as the leakage of natural-gas from pipeline or compressor station located near the observation sites. Thus, the data presented in this study can contribute to the future effort to detect the leakage point in the pipeline using satellite data.

Shimoyama, K.; Machida, T.; Shinohara, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.; Fedoseev, N.; Belan, B.; Belan, H.; Inoue, G.

2006-12-01

191

Fire dynamic and forest cover loss in Russia, 2000-2012 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an important role in the ecosystem dynamics of Russia. A number of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based burned area and forest fire loss products for Russia were created in recent years (Bartalev et al. 2008, Loupian et al. 2011, Giglio et al. 2009). However, characterizing the drivers and consequences of forest fires in Russia is challenging with the use of coarse spatial resolution products. Specifically, these burned area products do not discriminate between forest and agriculture fires within areas of fine-scale forest/cropland mosaics or in the regions with extensive agricultural land abandonment and recent afforestation. The use of 30 m spatial resolution Landsat-based products allows for more accurate detection of forest areas damaged or destroyed by fires, especially on the boundaries between forests and agricultural lands. Forest cover loss was mapped annually using Landsat archive data. Fire-induced loss was separated from other stand-replacement dynamics using annual 500 m MODIS-based burned area products and 1 km MODIS active fire hotspots. Fire date was assigned for every forest burned area using MODIS hotspots. Preliminary analysis indicates that the southern parts of Siberia and Far East Russia have short fire return intervals and a small proportion of the fire is stand replacement. Conversely, the areas of European Russia, Northern Siberia and Far East Russia predominately experience stand replacement fires. The proportion of stand replacement fires in these regions is larger than was estimated before (Korovin, 1998). The majority of forests were burned during large, catastrophic fire events in dry years. Timing of these forest fire events (July-September) is different from the period of active agricultural burning (April-May) in the region. Stand replacement forest fires were typically located within large forested landscapes away from active agriculture regions. Therefore cropland fires are presumably not the major driver of forest fire initiation. Agriculture fires can contribute to the degradation of forests bordering croplands; however, this process is difficult to quantify at the regional scale using Landsat data. Our results are important for developing a regional forest fire mitigation strategy in Russia.

Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Loboda, T. V.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M.

2013-12-01

192

The Face of Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from PBS complements its three-part series of the same name. The series and site interpret the cultural history of Russia from 850 AD to the present. Exploring art, music, cinema, prose, and poetry, the show concentrates on Russian cultural history in three cities: Kiev, Moscow, and St. Petersburg. The site is highlighted by a detailed, partially annotated timeline; RealPlayer excerpts of interviews with Maxim Kantor, Dmitry Likhachev, and Mstislav Rostropovich, among others; artwork (including RealPlayer and QuickTime movies of selections from drama and cinema); and a reference section that includes a glossary, bibliography, lesson plans, and the Cyrillic alphabet.

1998-01-01

193

Permarfrost eco-hydrological changes in boreal larch forest manifested by wet climate in eastern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-latitude regions in the northern hemisphere have undergone unanticipated environmental changes during the past few decades. Environmental changes in these regions have been substantially impacted by changes in the hydrological cycle, such as precipitation regime, snow distribution and duration, soil water storage, evapotranspiration and river discharge. The present study examines recent changes in continuous permafrost region and evaluates the impact of these changes on boreal larch forests based on intensive hydro-meteorological observation after abrupt increases in depth and moisture within the active layer occurring during periods of increasing precipitation (wet climate) at study sites in eastern Siberia. Field studies were conducted in the Spasskaya-pad Experimental forest (62°15'N, 129°37', 220m a.s.l.) located approximately 20 km north of Yakutsk in the Republic of Sakha, Russia. The site is located on the highest terrace of the left bank of the Lena River and is covered with a thin layer of Quaternary deposits consisting of alluvial deposits with low content of ice complex. During the last decade, atmospheric anomalies in Arctic may cause intensifying storm activities from summer to early winter in eastern Siberia. An anomalous increase in summer and winter precipitation after 2004 winter was observed in the central Lena River basin. The increased precipitation resulted in warming and wetting of the active layer and near surface permafrost. Deepening of active layer in accordance with saturated soil moisture under the wet climate activates thermokarst subsidence in and around alas lakes and correspondingly causes fatal damage to the growth of boreal (larch) forest in this region. According to multi-year sap flow measurements between 2006 and 2009, transpiration from the forest significantly reduced because the most of the trees standing in the concaved micro-topography and permafrost valley with deeper active layer have been withered and dead after the long waterlogged conditions. Eastern Siberia had large amounts of precipitation and forests here could all be subject to the same negative effects imposed by a saturated active layer. Terrestrial water storage by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery Climate Experiment) satellite has identified an increasing trend in the water storage of Siberian rivers, with the largest increase noted in the central Lena River basin. Reduction of evapotranspiration in spite of increasing in water storage under wet climate forces the active layer to retain moisture. This ecohydrological positive feedback processes likely lead to further enhancement of perennially lasting water storage within the active layer, causing permafrost degradation and, ultimately, the collapse of larch forests.

Iijima, Y.; Fedorov, A. N.; Ohta, T.; Kotani, A.; Maximov, T. C.

2012-12-01

194

Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

2001-01-01

195

Hydrocarbons exploration in east Siberia southern basins  

SciTech Connect

The vast Lena-Tunguska province in the heart of Siberia is among the world's largest and least explored frontier basins. Some encouraging exploration has nevertheless been carried out in the four southern subbasins: PrePatom (PreBaykal) trough, Nepa-Botuobin anticlise, PreSayan-Yenisey basin, and Angara-Lena terrace. Source rocks are essentially Proterozoic, but younger sediments may contribute about 10% of the region's oil potential. Riphean-Cambrian subsalt reservoirs contribute more than 90% of the hydrocarbons discovered, whereas Cambrian salt provides the most common regional seals. The main hydrocarbon later migration occurred in Vendian-Cambrian. Traps include clastic wedging out along favorable structures and carbonate reef-like buildups. Many traps were transformed or destroyed by the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic volcanic activity, whereas Hercynian overthrust tectonics developed new traps in the PrePatom trough. About 30 discoveries, mainly gas and condensates, have been made in the area, but operations are hampered by poor logistics and limited infrastructure.

Resnick, V.S. (Petroconsultants Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-08-01

196

Germans from Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of online digital projects have taken on the challenge of documenting the experiences of immigrants and this particular website deals with this very subject quite nicely. Through the use of primary documents and detailed oral histories, this website illustrates the experiences of Germans from Russia who immigrated to Colorado in the 19th and 20th centuries. Drawing on work done by Professor Heitman at Colorado State University in the 1970s, visitors to the site can examine transcripts and listen to audio excerpts of interviews of these immigrants (and their descendants). They may also wish to view the online photo gallery which contains images of agriculture work, German-inspired architecture, and home life. Finally, visitors can use a search engine offered here to look for specific materials, if they wish to do so.

197

New Russia in the New Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Russia remains a key player in Asian security, although U.S. thinking about Asia tends to ignore Russia's Asian presence and its impact. The Bush and Clinton administrations' formal policy statements on Russia and Asia do not mention Russia in the Asian c...

S. J. Blank

1994-01-01

198

Research on Cryospheric Changes in Suntar-Khayata Mountains in Northeast Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the enhanced warming in the Arctic Regions owing to the sea-ice decrease and others processes, as a part of the global warming, other snow and ice such as glaciers are also decreasing (SWIPA, 2011) and melting region of Greenland are said to have increased in 2012. It is very important to know the present actual condition and the speed of the changes. Research group in Japan and Russia, started to look into the present state of the glaciers of the North-East Siberia which is one of the blank area in the Arctic Region. The glaciated area in the Sunta-Khayata Mountain Range, which exist between the large cities of Magadan in the Pacific Coast and Oimyakon known for its low air temperature, is said to be 156 km2 in 1945 and decreased to 162 km2 in 2002/2003 (SWIPA, 2011). This change should be accelerated during the recent ten years, due to the strong warming occurring in the 2000s. . In-situ research in this region has been made in IGY period (1957-1959) by Russian Groups, and after that, in year 2000 and 2004-2005 by joint Russian and Japanese Groups. Since old information exists in this region, this is a good area for studying cryospheric changes due to the recent strong warming. A new project has started to observe and study the glacier basic information and their changes, the permafrost changes, and look into the future variability applying glacier models. This is a project between Cold Region Program of JAMSTEC (Yokosuka, Japan), GRENE Project of NIPR(Tokyo, Japan) and Melinikov Permafrost Institute (Yakutsk, Russia), started from 2011, and in-situ observation will be done in 2012 and 2013. This presentation will show the research area, main objectives and preliminary results of the initiated project.

Ohata, T.; Takahashi, S.; Enomoto, H.; Fedorov, A. N.

2012-12-01

199

Why Has Russia’s Economic Transformation Been So Arduous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the problems of Russia’s post-communist economic,transformation. Its main thesis is that the Russian attempt at radical economic reform largely failed, because of extraordinary rent-seeking by old enterprise managers through export rents, subsidized credits, import subsidies and direct government subsidies, while they gained little from privatization. The reason why,the managers,were,so strong was,that the Soviet Union left large

Anders Åslund; Carnegie Endowment

200

Summer Harvest in Saratov, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russia's Saratov Oblast (province) is located in the southeastern portion of the East-European plain, in the Lower Volga River Valley. Southern Russia produces roughly 40 percent of the country's total agricultural output, and Saratov Oblast is the largest producer of grain in the Volga region. Vegetation changes in the province's agricultural lands between spring and summer are apparent in these images acquired on May 31 and July 18, 2002 (upper and lower image panels, respectively) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

The left-hand panels are natural color views acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Less vegetation and more earth tones (indicative of bare soils) are apparent in the summer image (lower left). Farmers in the region utilize staggered sowing to help stabilize yields, and a number of different stages of crop maturity can be observed. The main crop is spring wheat, cultivated under non-irrigated conditions. A short growing season and relatively low and variable rainfall are the major limitations to production. Saratov city is apparent as the light gray pixels on the left (west) bank of the Volga River. Riparian vegetation along the Volga exhibits dark green hues, with some new growth appearing in summer.

The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras displayed as red, green and blue respectively. In these images, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and the spring and summer views were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between the two dates. Urban areas and vegetation along the Volga banks look similar in the two seasonal multi-angle composites. The agricultural areas, on the other hand, look strikingly different. This can be attributed to differences in brightness and texture between bare soil and vegetated land. The chestnut-colored soils in this region are brighter in MISR's red band than the vegetation. Because plants have vertical structure, the oblique cameras observe a greater proportion of vegetation relative to the nadir camera, which sees more soil. In spring, therefore, the scene is brightest in the vertical view and thus appears with an overall greenish hue. In summer, the soil characteristics play a greater role in governing the appearance of the scene, and the angular reflectance is now brighter at the oblique view angles (displayed as red and blue), thus imparting a pink color to much of the farmland and a purple color to areas along the banks of several narrow rivers. The unusual appearance of the clouds is due to geometric parallax which splits the imagery into spatially separated components as a consequence of their elevation above the surface.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. These images are a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbits 13033 and 13732, and cover an area of about 173 kilometers x 171 kilometers. They utilize data from blocks 49 to 50 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

201

Lithosphere Response to Intracratonic Rifting: Examples from Europe and Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several cratons have experienced a significant modification of their crustal and mantle lithosphere structure during Phanerozoic large-scale lithosphere-mantle interactions. In Eurasia, the most prominent examples include the Dniepre-Donets rift in the East European craton, the Oslo graben in the Baltic shield, the Viluy rift and the Baikal rift in Siberia. Despite some similarities, mostly in the crustal structure, there are also significant differences in the lithospheric structure of these rifts. Besides, a large lithosphere-scale Riphean suture/rift runs across the East European craton. While this suture can be recognized in the crustal structure, it is not clearly seen in the structure of the lithospheric mantle. In contrast, Phanerozoic processes associated with emplacement of large magma volumes had a strong effect on modification of the lithosphere structure, primarily by infiltration of basaltic magmas and consequently in a change in mantle density and seismic velocities. Although kimberlite magmatism is commonly not considered as a rifting events, its deep causes may be similar to the mantle-driven rifting and, as a consequence, modification of mantle density and velocity structure may also be expected. We present a new model for the structure of the crust in an area that encompasses the East European craton, the West Siberian basin, and the Siberian cratons. The region includes a nearly continuous age record for lithosphere evolution over ca. 3.6-3.8 billion years. The crustal model is based on critically assessed results from various seismic studies, including reflection and refraction profiles and receiver function studies. We also use global shear-wave tomography models, gravity constraints based on GOCE data, and thermal models for the lithosphere to speculate on thermo-chemical heterogeneity of the mantle. An analysis of the lithosphere structural heterogeneity is presented in relation to geotectonic setting and mantle geodynamics based on interpretations of geophysical models. The results indicate that there is no simple rule for lithosphere modification by intracontinental rifting. The pattern of is controlled by the pre-existing tectonic setting and the intensity of lithosphere-mantle interaction. The results are summarized in a series of maps of lateral variations in lithosphere structure, including the depth to the LAB and compositional heterogeneity of the lithosphere as reflected in it seismic wave velocity and density structure.

Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.; Herceg, M.; Cherepanova, Y. V.; Chemia, Z.; Cammarano, F.

2012-12-01

202

An 84-kyr paleomagnetic record from the sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of sediment cores obtained from the Selenga prodelta region of Lake Baikal, Russia. This record, which spans approximately the last 84 kyr, contributes to a better understanding of the nature of geomagnetic field behavior in Siberia and is a useful correlation and dating tool. We demonstrate that the Lake Baikal sediments are recording variations in the geomagnetic field. The directional record displays secular variation behavior with a geomagnetic excursion at 20 ka and additional excursions appearing as large-amplitude secular variation at 41, 61, and 67 ka. Smoothing of the geomagnetic excursion behavior occurs in Lake Baikal sediments owing to the intermediate sedimentation rate (13 cm kyr-1). The Lake Baikal relative paleointensity record correlates to absolute paleointensity data for the last 10 kyr and to relative paleointensity records from the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean for the last 84 kyr. This correlation suggests a strong global (i.e., dipole) component to these records and further supports the reliability of sediments as recorders of relative geomagnetic paleointensity. We show that a relative geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy has a potential resolution of 7 kyr by correlating continental and marine records. The geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy helps constrain the age of the difficult to date Lake Baikal sediments.

Peck, J. A.; King, J. W.; Colman, S. M.; Kravchinsky, V. A.

1996-01-01

203

Genetic diversity of two haploid markers in the Udegey population from southeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

The Udegeys are a small ethnic group who live along the tributaries of the Amur River Basin of southeastern Siberia in Russia. They are thought to speak a language belonging to a subdivision of the Tungusic-Manchu branch of the Altaic family. To understand the genetic features and genetic history of the Udegeys, we analyzed two haploid markers, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and Y-chromosomal variation, in 51 individuals (including 21 males) from the Udegey population. In general, the Udegeys' mtDNA profiles revealed similarities to Siberians and other northeastern Asian populations, although a moderate European contribution was also detected. Interestingly, pairwise values of F(ST) and the MDS plots based on the mtDNA variation showed that the Orok and Nivkh inhabiting the very same region of the Udegey were significantly different from the Udegey, implying that they may have been isolated and undergone substantial genetic drift. The Udegeys were characterized by a high frequency (66.7%) of Y chromosome haplogroup C, indicating a close genetic relationship with Mongolians and Siberians. On the paternal side, however, very little admixture was observed between the Udegeys and Europeans. Thus, the combined haploid genetic markers of both mtDNA and the Y chromosome imply that the Udegeys are overall closest to Siberians and northeast Asians of the Altaic linguistic family, with a minor maternal contribution from the European part of the continent. PMID:19953529

Jin, Han-Jun; Kim, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Wook

2010-06-01

204

West Siberian oil and the Northern Sea route: Current situation and future potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey paper explores interrelationships between the development of oil and gas condensate deposits in northern areas of West Siberia and adjacent Krasnoyarsk Kray and the volume and character of traffic along the Northern Sea Route. Initial sections examine the magnitude of petroleum resources in the region, the allocation of development rights, and past and potential future production. Coverage then

Arild Moe

1995-01-01

205

Paleomagnetic dating of Phanerozoic kimberlites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond bearing kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. Three main time intervals are considered to be the age of emplacement: the Devonian-Early Carboniferous, Triassic, and Cretaceous. However, isotopic age data from of the pipes are scattered and provide a very broad age interval for the magmatic activity. New paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes (Eastern Udachnaya, Western Udachnaya, International and Obnazhennaya) are obtained to estimate their paleomagnetic age. The mean primary magnetization directions for the pipes are as follows: D = 4.3°, I = - 44.5° (k = 29.4, ?95 = 7.4°, N = 14); D = 340.5°, I = - 65.6° (k = 12.9, ?95 = 19.4°, N = 6); D = 291.1°, I = - 78.1° (k = 27.5, ?95 = 14.9°, N = 5); and D = 306.7°, I = - 82.6° (k = 38.4, ?95 = 5.8°, N = 17), respectively. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian apparent polar wander path (APWP) we estimate the age of kimberlite magmatism, assuming primary magnetizations in these rocks. The paleomagnetic ages are as follows: 428 ± 13 Ma for Eastern Udachnaya; 251 ± 30 Ma for International pipe; and 168 ± 11 Ma for Obnazhennaya pipe. The Western Udachnaya pipe was remagnetized and no clear paleomagnetic age could be determined. The ages of magmatic activity span the Early Silurian to Middle Late Jurassic. Early Silurian magmatism could be associated with the formation of the Viluy rift. Middle to Late Jurassic magmatic activity is most likely related to subduction related to the accretion of surrounding terranes to Siberia.

Blanco, Dunia; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Konstantinov, Konstantin M.; Kabin, Konstantin

2013-01-01

206

BRDF characteristics of tundra vegetation communities in Yamal, Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite data from platforms with pointing capabilities (CHRIS/Proba, RapidEye) or from sensors with wide swath (AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS) is influenced by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This effect can cause significant changes in the measured spectral surface reflectance depending on the solar illumination geometry and sensor viewing conditions. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), a German hyperspectral mission with expected launch in 2016, will provide high spectral resolution observations with a ground sampling distance of 30 meters. Since the EnMAP sensor has pointing capabilities, both spectral and directional reflection characteristics need to be taken into account for the algorithms development for vegetation parameters. The 'hyperspectral method development for Arctic VEGetation biomes' (hy-Arc-VEG) project is part of the national preparation program for the EnMAP mission. Within the EnMAP projcect hy-Arc-VEG we developed a portable field spectro-goniometer, named ManTIS (Manual Transportable Instrument for Spherical BRDF observations), for the in-situ measurements of anisotropic effects of tundra surfaces (national and international patent pending - DE 102011117713.6). The goniometer was designed for field use in difficult as well as challenging terrain and climate. It is therefore of low weight, without electrical devices and weatherproof. It can be disassembled and packed into small boxes for transport. The current off-nadir viewing capacity is matched to the EnMAP sensor configuration (up to 30°). We carried out spectral field and goniometer measurements on the joint YAMAL 2011 expedition (RU-US-DE) organized by the Earth-Cryosphere Institute (ECI) in August 2011 on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, Russia. The field goniometer measurements (conducted under varying sun zenith angles) as well as field spectro-radiometrical measurements were carried out at the NASA Yamal Land Cover/Land Use Change (NASA Yamal-LCLUC) transects and réleves at Laboravaya (southern Yamal) and Vaskiny Dachi (central Yamal), and at the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site in Vaskiny Dachi. The LCLUC plots are Greening of the Arctic (GOA) sites established in 2007 by Walker et al. (2009). The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site was established by M. Leibman (ECI) in 1993. BRDF processing for the tundra test sites demonstrate the mirror asymmetry in relative azimuth with respect to the principal plane. It also showed that the maximum scattering appears in the backward direction, but that there is no minimal forward scattering. Instead, the forward scattering is characterized by similar to higher reflectance values compared to the nadir position. Moreover, the analysis of the anisotropic behaviour of moss-dominated tundra types with 10 to 15% vascular plant cover show that the BRDF influence on vegetation indices (VI) of low-growing arctic vegetation communities can be up to 15% of the nadir value. The low sun elevation at the arctic latitudes prevents hotspot-effects, but a BRDF normalization still should be taken into account for the development of tundra-adapted vegetation indices. Walker, D.A. et al. (2009): Data Report of the 2007 and 2008 Yamal Expeditions. AGC Data Report. 133.

Buchhorn, Marcel; Heim, Birgit; Walker, Donald A. Skip; Epstein, Howard; Leibman, Marina

2013-04-01

207

Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacial landforms in northern Russia, from the Timan Ridge in the west to the east of the Urals, have been mapped by aerial photographs and satellite images supported by field observations. An east-west trending belt of fresh hummock-and-lake glaciokarst landscapes has been traced to the north of 67 °N. The southern bound- ary of these landscapes is called the Markhida

JOHN INGE SVENDSEN; ALEXEI MATIOUCHKOV; JAN MANGERUD; OLGA MASLENIKOVA; JAN TVERANGRE

1999-01-01

208

Chaos Reigns in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the third time in the last 14 months, Russian President Boris Yeltsin deposed his Prime Minister and Cabinet, intensifying the political chaos in a country beleaguered by economic insolvency, administrative corruption, and governmental mismanagement. The dismissals handed down on Wednesday, which included the popular PM Yevgeny M. Primakov, occurred the day before impeachment proceedings were to begin against Yeltsin in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the communist-led State Duma. Russia's first democratically elected President faces five impeachment charges, including initiating the collapse of the USSR, ordering an attack on parliament in 1993, destroying the armed forces, punishing the Russian people through harsh economic policies, and waging an illegal war against the secessionist Chechnya in 1994 through 1996. Political analysts forecast that only the last charge has a chance of passing the necessary two-thirds vote, slated for Saturday, in the 450-seat State Duma. Even if charged, it is unlikely that Yeltsin will be removed from office because the charge must also be approved by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Council of Federation, the parliament's upper house. However, the political imbroglio will paralyze the Russian government for months to come, and has already disrupted Russian diplomatic efforts to mediate a resolution to the crisis in Yugoslavia. The sites listed provide insight into this current Russian political crisis.

Osmond, Andrew.

209

Remobilisation of the continental lithosphere by a mantle plume: major-, trace-element, and Sr, Nd, and Pb-isotope evidence from picritic and tholeiitic lavas of the Noril'sk District, Siberian Trap, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Permian to Early Triassic Siberian Traps have been sampled by drill core (core SG-9) and from surface exposure (section 1F) in the Noril'sk region of the Siberian Platform, Russia. Combined major, trace element, and Nd-, Sr-, and Pb-isotope data on selected samples through the Siberia Trap, offer new chemostratigraphic criteria for the identification and characterisation of two fundamentally

P. C. Lightfoot; C. J. Hawkesworth; J. Hergt; A. J. Naldrett; N. S. Gorbachev; V. A. Fedorenko; W. Doherty

1993-01-01

210

Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia  

SciTech Connect

Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with unpredictable regional and global effects.

Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T. [International Inst. for Strategic Studies, London (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31

211

Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent

Anatoly Sukhinin; Douglas McRae; Jin Ji-Zhong; Olga Dubrovskaya; Eugene Ponomarev

2010-01-01

212

A new model of crustal structure of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a new model of the structure of the crust in Siberia that encompasses two large tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberian Basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton. The area of study covers a significant part of the north Eurasia and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. The new crustal model is based on our new ("from scratch") compilation of all available reliable seismic data and includes the results of seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data (from the late 1960-ies until present). Seismic structure along seismic profiles is digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with the resolution of seismic models. Structural parameters based on gravity modeling, or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps are excluded from the new crustal database. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition problems and interpretation limitations, a special attention is paid to the data quality problem, and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and provides valuable constraints for geophysical modeling of the mantle structure. We observe important spatial correlations between the crustal structure (thickness of the sediments, the basement, and different crustal layers, and average basement velocities) and tectonic and geological settings. Statistical analysis of age-dependence (we use tectono-thermal ages) of crustal parameters allows for distinguishing the effects of various tectonic processes on the crustal structure. The analysis provides the basis for studies of crustal evolution and geodynamic process in the region where the age of tectonic structures spans over ~4 Ga. Archean terranes have a large (39-44 km) thickness of consolidated crust (excluding sediments), which decreases in Paleo-Mesoproterozoic terranes to 34-42 km. Thickness of consolidated crust in Mesozoic and Cenozoic regions is 32-34 km only. The total crustal thickness (including the sedimentary layer) is the largest in the Paleoproterozoic and Mesoproterozoic regions of the Siberian Craton. A block with an unusually thick crust (47-58 km), bounded by the regions of thinned crust, extends in the longitudinal direction across the Siberian craton and cuts major tectonic boundaries which have sublatitudinal orientation. Low surface heat flow (on average around 20-22 microW/m3) and the absence of the high-velocity (Vp>7.2 km/s) lowercrustal layer in the block with the thick crust suggest that eclogitization in the crustal root was subdued, thus allowing preservation of the ultra thick, seismically distinguishable, crust.

Cherepanova, Y.; Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.

2010-12-01

213

The Enisei River of Central Siberia in the Late Pleistocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent Paleolithic work along the middle Enisei River of central Siberia has revealed a long history of occupation that almost certainly begins in the Middle Pleistocene. Although the evidence for the Lower Paleolithic is somewhat tentative, there is good reason to believe that hunter-gatherers had periodically occupied the middle Enisei before the last interglacial. The steppe environment of the region

Richard S. Davis

1998-01-01

214

Agroclimatic Zoning of Sugar Beets in Western Siberia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One of the primary tasks in sugar-beet production is to study the natural resources for the purpose of introducing sugar-beet growing in new areas and to increase the yield and sugar content of the beets. This especially concerns Siberia where sugar beet ...

L. S. Kelchevskaya

1965-01-01

215

Crustal structure of Siberia: a new appraisal of old seismic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the structure of the crust and the sedimentary cover in an area that encompasses two largest tectonic regions, the Paleozoic West Siberia basin and the Precambrian Siberian craton, and extends from the Ural mountains in the west to the Verkoyansk Ridge/Lena river in the east, and from the Arctic shelf in the north to the Tien Shan and Altay-Sayans mountains in the south. We compiled "from scratch" all available seismic data for the region, from the late 1960-ies until present. Our compilation includes results of seismic reflection, refraction and receiver functions studies, based on old and newly acquired seismic data; data along seismic profiles are digitized with a 50 km lateral spacing which is comparable with resolution of seismic models. Seismic data on the structure of the sedimentary cover was complemented by borehole data, where available. Due to uneven quality of seismic data related both to data acquisition and interpretation, a special attention was paid to this problem and quality parameters are incorporated into the new database of regional crustal structure. We have intentionally excluded unreliable constraints, such as based on gravity modelling or tectonic similarities, or seismic data reported not along seismic reflection/ refraction profiles but as interpolated contour maps. The present database comprises detailed and reliable information on the seismic structure of the crust for most of the tectonic structures of the region and allows examining spatial correlations with tectonic and geological structures, providing the basis for studies of crustal evolution and mantle modeling.

Cherepanova, Yu; Artemieva, I. M.; Milshtein, E.; Erinchek, Yu. M.; Thybo, H.

2010-05-01

216

Coast of the East Siberian Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea ice is pulling away from the coastline of northeastern Siberia in the east Siberia Sea. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 26, 2002, also the thinning of ice in bays and coves, and the blue reflection of the water from beneath causes the ice to appear bright blue. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

217

Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups  

PubMed Central

Summary In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A–D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region.

Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Sukernik, Rem I.; Derbeneva, Olga A.; Volodko, Natalia V.; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D.; Lott, Marie T.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C.

2014-01-01

218

Mitochondrial DNA diversity in indigenous populations of the southern extent of Siberia, and the origins of Native American haplogroups.  

PubMed

In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A-D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region. PMID:15638829

Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I; Derbeneva, Olga A; Volodko, Natalia V; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D; Lott, Marie T; Hosseini, Seyed H; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C

2005-01-01

219

Aviation Development in Russia's Far East.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The majority of western scholarship on Russia and the Soviet Union focuses on European involvements, particularly aviation studies. Such literature overlooks Russia's sprawling East Asia holdings, its strategic position in the North Pacific and the large ...

D. M. Bachler

1996-01-01

220

Russia and the Future Expansion of NATO.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Strategy Research Project (SRP) examines Russia s position on the enlargement of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization up to now and the possible influence that Russia could have on further prospective expansion in Europe in the near future, especia...

R. Cerny

2011-01-01

221

Total ozone and NO2 observations in Asiatic Russia by SAOZ spectrometers in 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenitale) is a UV-visible diode array spectrometer developed at the Service d'Aeronomie, CNRS, France in the late 80s for monitoring stratospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). The spectrometer uses the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths of sun in the registration of the zenith sky. The wavelength range of the SAOZ instrument is in Chappuis band of ozone absorption, with a spectral resolution of 1 nm for version V-1024. Measurement absolute accuracy is 6% for total ozone and 10% for nitrogen dioxide. Data for the atmospheric content of O3 and NO2 measured by the SAOZ spectrometers are available at the World SAOZ database. The first Asiatic SAOZ station started operation in 1991 at Zhigansk aerological station, East Siberia. A SAOZ spectrometer has been operating at Salekhard aerological station, West Siberia, since 1998. The resulting total ozone and nitrogen dioxide observations recorded in Siberia in 2012 will be shown and discussed.

Shepelev, Dmitry; Dorokhov, Valery; Goutail, Florence; Pazmino, Andrea; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre

2013-04-01

222

The White Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

2002-01-01

223

Late and post-glacial vegetation and climate history of the south-western Taymyr Peninsula, central Siberia, as revealed by pollen analysis of a core from Lake Lama  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the Taymyr Peninsula and Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, Central Siberia, a joint German\\/Russian multidisciplinary research project focuses on the Late Quaternary history of climate and environment. Within the scope of this project, palynological studies were carried out on a 10.8-m core from Lama Lake, situated in the south-west of the research area. The core, which did not reach the base

Jiirgen Hahne; Martin Melles

1997-01-01

224

START II and the politics of arms control in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The arguments for nuclear weapons reduction in the post-Cold War era are compelling, but as the nuclear confrontation has receded, so has the urgency attached to the destruction of nuclear weapons. In Russia, pressing economic and political problems have diverted attention from the nuclear issue, while the polarization of politics has reduced chances for the early ratification of START II. The increasing mistrust of the West in Russian political conservative circles, combined with the cost of disarmament, have given rise to a strong lobby for slowing the arms reduction process. 88 refs. 3 tabs.

Lepingwell, J.W.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

225

Global Education Comes to Russia in 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the first international conference on the future of education in Russia held in Sochi, Russia, in September of 1991. The focus was on recent efforts that have been made by educators to develop global education in Russian schools. These efforts include a detailed project for the development of global education in Russia and…

Tucker, Jan L.

226

Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

Rimashevskaia, N. M.

2011-01-01

227

Russia's Place in Central Asia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis assesses the need for U.S.-Russian cooperation in Central Asia to create a stronger, more reliable long-term stability in the region. Current United States policy toward Russia in Central Asia is tailored to isolate and minimize Russian influe...

J. M. Edwards

2001-01-01

228

Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

1995-01-01

229

Scholars at Risk in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will share my general thoughts on safe haven for scholars at risk, based on my own experience, and will discuss scholars at risk in Russia. At the present time, these are mostly scientists falsely accused of espionage. I will highlight the special issues this fact raises for providing support or safe haven for such scientists.

Orlov, Yuri

2006-04-01

230

Tidal power plants in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the performance of tidal power plants in Russia and the expansion of tidal plant to new sites. The topics of the article include remote construction and transport techniques, pilot plant performance, economics and payback, and a review of global tidal power plant designs that are on hold due to economic problems relating to the global economy.

L. B. Bernshtein

1994-01-01

231

[Arborviruses of the California encephalitis serogroup 1N Russia and their contribution to infectious pathology].  

PubMed

This review focuses on arborviral infections associated with California serocomplex (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus). Results of relevant eco-epidemiological and clinical studies in Russia are presented suggesting the ubiquitious nature of diseases caused by viruses of the California encephalitis serocomplex (Inko, Tahyna, Snowshoe Hare). The etiologic structure of these diseases in taiga and mixed woods of the European part and Western Siberia is dominated by the Inco virus and in southern regions by Tahina. The diseases have a well apparent seasonal pattern (July-August) in agreement with the peak summer activity of the pathogens. Two clinical forms of pathology are distinguished, influenza-like and generalized, the latter affecting lungs, kidneys, liver, and CNS. The Inco virus plays a key role in pathogenesis of the generalized form affecting CNS. PMID:21786596

Kolobukhina, L V; L'vov, S D

2011-01-01

232

Precursor genes of future pandemic influenza viruses are perpetuated in ducks nesting in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Influenza A viruses of different subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of ducks in their nesting areas in Siberia in\\u000a summer from 1996 to 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of the NP genes of the isolates in Siberia and those in Hokkaido, Japan on\\u000a their flyway of migration from Siberia to the south in autumn revealed that they belong to the Eurasian

K. Okazaki; A. Takada; T. Ito; M. Imai; H. Takakuwa; M. Hatta; H. Ozaki; T. Tanizaki; T. Nagano; A. Ninomiya; V. A. Demenev; M. M. Tyaptirganov; T. D. Karatayeva; S. S. Yamnikova; D. K. Lvov; H. Kida

2000-01-01

233

Early Senonian climate reconstruction for southwestern Siberia on the basis of paleobotanical data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of study of fossil plants, the climate in southwestern Siberia in the Early Senonian was reconstructed to be warm temperate humid with the mean annual temperature of about 13°C. The CLAMP analysis (Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program) was applied for the first time to Cretaceous floras of Western Siberia. The comparison results of climatic variables estimated show that the climate in Western Siberia in the Early Senonian was more humid and warmer than in Northeast Asia.

Alekseev, P. I.

2014-05-01

234

Dinocyst biostratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous in North Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The described scheme of the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian-Barremian) stratigraphic subdivisions is elaborated based on palynological study of sections in the Khatanga depression, Ust-Yenisei region, Pur-Taz interfluve, and around the Ob River latitudinal segment, the North Siberia. Stratigraphic distribution of microphytoplankton studied in detail is used to distinguish 10 biostratigraphic units in the rank of dinocysts zones. Stratigraphic position of the zones is determined with confidence using data on the Lower Cretaceous reference sections in the Khatanga depression, which were principal ones by constructing the Boreal standard zonation. In majority, boundaries of the dinocysts beds are of a high correlation potential and can be regarded as reliable stratigraphic markers, as they are recognizable not only in Siberia, but also in northern Europe and America.

Pestchevitskaya, E. B.

2007-12-01

235

Patterns of smoking in Russia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Tobacco is a leading cause of avoidable death in Russia but there is, as yet, relatively little information in the public domain on who is smoking and how this is changing. This information is important for those seeking to develop effective policies to tackle this issue.?OBJECTIVE—To determine the prevalence of smoking in Russia and its association with sociodemographic factors.?DESIGN—Cross-sectional survey on patterns of tobacco consumption.?SETTING—Data were collected using the New Russia Barometer, a multi-stage stratified-sample survey of the population of the Russian Federation undertaken in the summer of 1996.?PARTICIPANTS—Data were available on 1587 individuals (response rate 65.7%). Respondents differed little from the overall Russian population in terms of age, sex, education, and voting intention.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Prevalence of current and past smoking.?RESULTS—Smoking is common among males of all ages and in all areas. Of those aged 18-24 years, 65% smoke, rising to 73% in those aged 25-34 and then falling steadily to reach 41% in those aged 65 and older. Among women, smoking is much more common among the young (27% in those aged 18-34) than among the middle-aged and elderly (5% in those aged 55 and older), and more common among those living in urban areas than in rural areas. Smoking is also more common among men and women suffering material deprivation but there is no independent association with education. Among men, but not women, church attendance is inversely associated with smoking. In both sexes, but especially women, heavy drinking and smoking are associated.?CONCLUSIONS—Tobacco poses a major threat to the health of future generations in Russia, especially among women. A robust policy response is required.???Keywords: prevalence; Russia; smoking

McKee, M.; Bobak, M.; Rose, R.; Shkolnikov, V.; Chenet, L.; Leon, D.

1998-01-01

236

The Enisei River of central Siberia in the Late Pleistocene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent Paleolithic work along the middle Enisei River of central Siberia has revealed a long history of occupation that almost\\u000a certainly begins in the Middle Pleistocene. Although the evidence for the Lower Paleolithic is somewhat tentative, there is\\u000a good reason to believe that hunter-gatherers had periodically occupied the middle Enisei before the last interglacial. The\\u000a steppe environment of the region

Richard S. Davis

1998-01-01

237

Composition of individual aerosol particles above Lake Baikal, Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 20,000 individual aerosol particles, taken from research vessels over the total area of Lake Baikal (Siberia) during June 1992 and September 1993, were analysed by automated electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The obtained data set was reduced by a combination of multivariate techniques. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated 11 major particle types, among which soil dust, Fe-rich, Ca-rich, organic, biogenic,

H. Van Malderen; R. Van Grieken; T. Khodzher; V. Obolkin; V. Potemkin

1996-01-01

238

Forests and swamps of Siberia in the global carbon cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of measurements and calculations of carbon budget parameters of forests and swamps of Siberia are reported. The zonal\\u000a variability of reserves (and an increment in reserves) of carbon in forest and swamp ecosystems is characterized, carbon dioxide\\u000a fluxes are measured directly by means of microeddy pulsations, and an uncertainty brought into the calculation of carbon budget\\u000a parameters by forest

E. A. Vaganov; E. F. Vedrova; S. V. Verkhovets; S. P. Efremov; T. T. Efremova; V. B. Kruglov; A. A. Onuchin; A. I. Sukhinin; O. B. Shibistova

2008-01-01

239

Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia  

SciTech Connect

Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

2010-05-01

240

Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657 000 km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0 °C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P > 0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P < 0.05) with Ts across 56% of the watershed (r = 0.52 ± 0.09, mean ± SD), principally in cold areas, and with CMIgy across 9% of the watershed (r = 0.45 ± 0.06), largely in warm areas. Larch ring-width measurements from nine sites revealed that year-to-year (i.e., high-frequency) variation in growth positively correlated (P < 0.05) with June temperature (r = 0.40) and prior summer CMI (r = 0.40) from 1938 to 2007. An unexplained multi-decadal (i.e., low-frequency) decline in annual basal area increment (BAI) occurred following the mid-20th century, but over the NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P > 0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r = 0.44, P < 0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies that projections of future forest distribution and productivity in this area should take into account the interactions of energy and moisture limitations. PMID:23813896

Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

2013-11-01

241

Seasonal variation in basal metabolic rates among the yakut (Sakha) of Northeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

Objectives: Previous research has shown that indigenous circumpolar populations have elevated basal metabolic rates (BMRs), yet few studies have explored whether metabolic rates increase during the winter. This study addresses this gap by examining seasonal variation in BMR and its associations with thyroid function and lifestyle factors among the Yakut (Sakha) of Siberia. Methods: Anthropometric dimensions, BMR, and thyroid hormone levels (free triiodothyronine [fT3], free thyroxine [fT4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH]) were measured on two occasions (July/August, 2009 and January 2011) on a sample of 94 Yakut (Sakha) adults (35 men, 59 women) from the rural village of Berdygestiakh, Sakha Republic, Russia. Results: Seasonal changes in BMR varied by age. Younger Yakut adults (19-49 years) showed significant elevations in winter-time BMR of 6% (P?

Leonard, W R; Levy, S B; Tarskaia, L A; Klimova, T M; Fedorova, V I; Baltakhinova, M E; Krivoshapkin, V G; Snodgrass, J J

2014-07-01

242

Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

Bukharin, O. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1995-07-01

243

Long-term trends and changes of soil temperature of recent decade in the permafrost zone of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern regions of Russia have rich natural resources (oil, gas). In recent years in these areas are increasingly built engineering structure for oil and gas production and their transportation. Current global warming has a great influence on soil condition in the permafrost zone. This can lead to negative effects on buildings and infrastructure which are built on frozen soils. Changes of the soil state in area of permafrost demand serious studying. Next steps have been done for research of this problem: Part 1. a) The daily data set of soil temperature under natural surface at depths up to 320 cm at the Russian meteorological stations has been prepared. The earliest year of data set is 1963, the current version is ending in 2011 (660 stations of Russia). Quality control of original data was performed in creating this data set. b) The data set of computed depth of soil seasonal thawing at the Russian meteorological stations till 2011 has been prepared (107 stations with yearly depth of thawing). Part 2. Changes of soils' condition for the last five decades have been researched based on the prepared data sets. The change of mean annual soil temperature at depths has been researched and soil warming in the vast area for 1963 - 2010 has been shown, the great trends (0,2 ÷ 0,4°C /10 years) increase at 320 cm have been found in Western and Eastern Siberia, and the greatest trends (0,4 ÷ 0,5°C/10 years) are found in their south part. This creates favorable conditions for increase of seasonal thawing depth in a permafrost zone, especially in its south part. The map of average depth of soil seasonal thawing for the same period (1963-2010) was made. It showed that the greatest depths of thawing 300-400 cm were observed near the border of permafrost and the smallest depths 50-250 cm predominate in the area of continuous permafrost. Part 3. Global warming of climate was slowed down from the beginning of the XXI century as it is known from publications. Additional researches of soil temperature change in recent decade showed that positive trends of soil temperature for this decade were changed on negative trends (-0,2 ÷ -0,6°C/10 years) in the South and the southeast of Western Siberia. The most intensive decrease of soil temperature in this region is observed since 2007. Trends of the thawing depth for permafrost soils were obtained for 2001-2011. Greatest significant positive trends of thawing depth have been obtained in Eastern Siberia (3÷5 cm/year). However, spots with significant negative trends are obtained in central Yakutia, and also to the south of Lake Baikal and near the Kolyma River mouth. Conclusions: 1. Using the Russian daily data set of soil temperature at depths up to 320 cm for last 40-50 years, soil warming is shown over the vast territory of the Russia. Maximum trends at the 320 cm depth are found in the south part of Western and Eastern Siberia. 2. One of the impacts of the current climate changes is the general tendency for the increase in the seasonal thawing depth on the vast territory of Western and Eastern Siberia. 3. In recent decade the tendency of soil temperature decrease has been appeared in south part of Western Siberia near south border of permafrost also decrease of seasonal thawing depth has been appeared in some regions. The work was done with the financial support of RFBR (project 11-05-00691).

Sherstiukov, A.

2013-12-01

244

Total ozone changes and predictions of the abnormal winters in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for the extended-range predictions of extreme cold/warm winters in the distinct regions of Russia using the total ozone data as the stratospheric predictor is proposed. It was shown that cold (warm) Februarys in the western Siberia and southern Russia are strongly associated with increases (decreases) of the total ozone over the western North Atlantic in Jan-uary during 1979-1994 [Jadin, 2004]. This linkage is stable during 1980-2004 with the slight re-routing of the total ozone key point for predictions [Jadin and Zyulyaeva, 2010]. A possible mechanism of the relationship between the total ozone changes over the western North Atlantic in January and the weather changes in the western Siberia in February can be connected with the influence of the downward planetary wave propagation in the lower stratosphere over North Atlantic ("stratospheric bridge") [Zyulyaeva and Jadin, 2009] on the ozone changes in this re-gion in January and its subsequent forcing on the tropospheric circulation in Eurasia especially on the interannaul variability of the Siberian high. Analysis of the daily total ozone (TOMS) and surface temperature (NCEP) data is confirming this strong linkage for the last years, for ex-ample, for the very cold early February in the western Siberia in 2009 and 2010. These findings give evidences that the total ozone can be used as a good stratospheric predictor for the statis-tical extended-range predictions of extreme weather events in the distinct regions of Eurasia. References: Jadin E.A., Ozone and Surface Air Temperature Changes, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, v.10, 64-73, 2004. Jadin, E.A. and Yu.A.Zyulyaeva, Interannual variations of the total ozone, stratospheric dynamics, extra-tropical SST anomalies and predictions of ab-normal winters in Eurasia, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2010, in press. Zyulyaeva Yu.A., Jadin E.A., Analysis of three -dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes in the lower strato-sphere, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, v.8, 5-14, 2009. (http://ao.atmos.colostate.edu).

Jadin, Evgeny

245

Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC). After correcting for missing data, we calculated FWI System values based on a fire season running from March 15 to October 31. Since the number of stations is small relative to the area of interest, we also used station data for neighboring countries (Mongolia, northern China) to assist interpolation. Seven spatial data layers created using GIS software included daily fuel moisture code and fire behavior indices of the FWI System along with Daily Severity Index across Russia and the adjacent boundary areas (1617 maps/yr). When we compared distribution of FWI values across Russia to daily fire scar data from AVHRR imagery for selected years, distribution of fire activity appeared to be well related to the FWI values. Our goal is to develop a reasonable estimate of seasonal and interannual carbon emissions for fires burning in Siberia based on daily values of the FWI System. In a related project, we are creating a post-1979 fire burn area database for Russia using AVHRR images. Our goal is to combine historical and current burned area and weather data to develop improved estimates of annual carbon emissions for the boreal zone in Russia.

McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

2009-12-01

246

Soil attribute database of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russia has long needed a world-level soil attribute (profile) information database which should become the basis for creating a system of monitoring of the state of soils and for developing measures for their conservation and efficient land use. A unified system of gathering and storing information on soils, which at the same time would be open for general use, is needed. The present work is devoted to problems of the concept and methodology of creating a soil geographic database (SGDB) of Russia. The structure and content of the soil attribute database, underlying which is the concept of representative soils profiles, are given. A list of classifiers for preparing data presentation formats in the SGDB on the basis of existing concepts of soil morphology and classifiers characterizing the main physicochemical properties of soils is developed. The work underlies the creation of an information resource—“Soil-Geographic Database of Russia. Project of the Dokuchaev Soil Science Society”—on the Internet at the address http://db.soi.msu.ru .

Kolesnikova, V. M.; Alyabina, I. O.; Vorob'eva, L. A.; Molchanov, E. N.; Shoba, S. A.; Rozhkov, V. A.

2010-08-01

247

Seroepidemiology of nine zoonoses in Viljujsk, Republic of Sakha (Northeastern Siberia, Russian Federation).  

PubMed

A seroepidemiology survey of nine zoonoses was carried out in 2007 on 90 healthy adult volunteers in Viljujsk, a northern city in the Republic of Sakha (Eastern Siberia). The seroprevalence of Lyme borreliosis was 3.3% by immunofluorescence. None of the subjects displayed a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay/Western blot result for alveolar or cystic echinococcosis. The seroprevalence of toxocariasis by Western blot was 4.4%, and 8.9% of the subjects had anti-Toxoplasma IgG. By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the seroprevalence of trichinellosis was 4.4%. Three subjects were simultaneously positive for tick-borne encephalitis and West Nile infection, so no clear diagnostic conclusion could be reached for these flavivirus diseases. Interestingly, Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever had an 11.1% seroprevalence rate, indicating that Viljujsk is the most northern focus of this infection. Additionally, this finding suggests a potential involvement of Crimea-Congo hemorrhagic fever agent, or of another member of the Bunyaviridae family, in the genesis of the so-called Viljujsk encephalomyelitis. PMID:20575641

Magnaval, Jean-François; Tolou, Hugues; Gibert, Morgane; Innokentiev, Vladimir; Laborde, Mylène; Melnichuk, Olga; Grandadam, Marc; Crubézy, Eric; Alekseev, Anatoly

2011-02-01

248

Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

Vibe, Yulia

2014-05-01

249

Cholera diffusion in Russia, 1823-1923.  

PubMed

All six cholera pandemics of the 19th and early 20th centuries struck Russia, causing millions of deaths. Cholera entered Russia from the south, with the Volga river system being a common and efficient route into the heart of the country. Diffusion was predominantly linear, along the navigable rivers and later, along the railroads. In contrast to Pyle's findings for the U.S.A., urban hierarchical diffusion was of only local significance in Russia. PMID:8016683

Patterson, K D

1994-05-01

250

[Characterization of the H5N1 influenza virus isolated during an outbreak among wild birds in Russia (Tuva Republic) in 2010].  

PubMed

The study of basic biological properties of H5N1 subtype strain isolated during an outbreak among wild birds in Russia in 2010 was presented. The study was carried out using conventional methods according to the WHO recommendations. H5N1 influenza virus isolated in Siberia belonged to clade 2.3.2 of the hemagglutinin gene; the phylogenetic analysis was performed. The antigenic characteristics and the basic genetic markers of biological properties were studied. It was shown that all strains were highly pathogenic for chickens and white mice. Thus, it was shown that in Russia in the 2010 H5N1 virus phylogenetically closely related to Asian variants caused epizootic among wild birds. The potential danger of this variant of the virus for humans was confirmed by different methods. We discussed the possibility of formation of H5N1 influenza natural focus. PMID:22312899

Marchenko, V Iu; Sharshov, K A; Silko, N Iu; Susloparov, I M; Durymanov, A G; Za?kovskaIa, A V; Alekseev, A Iu; Smolovskaia, O V; Stefanenko, A P; Malkova, E M; Shestopalov, A M

2011-01-01

251

Free Trade between the EU and Russia - Sectoral Effects and Impacts on Northwest Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyse the implications of free trade between the EU25 and Russia using GTAP, a computable general equilibrium model. We review the sectoral effects by countries and make a tentative assessment of the impact on the regions in Northwest Russia. Free trade on its own would have a negative terms-of-trade effect in Russia and cause a small decline in welfare.

Ville Kaitila

2007-01-01

252

Modelling The Continental Effect Of Oxygen Isotopes Over Europe And Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

18O in atmospheric CO2 bears the potential to separate the biospheric gross fluxes, namely assimilation and respiration. It has thus the potential to tell if assimilation or respiration is the key parameter which determines the inter­annual variability of the carbon cycle in Europe. But the knowledge of CO18O fluxes is still in its infancy. An enormous work was done in the laboratory but in­situ measurements are rare. To study processes, close the gap between small scale measurements and existing global models and investigate on e. g. continental scales, we built an integrated global 3D model of 18O in atmospheric CO2 that calculates 18O in the water cycle pools, the CO2 and the inherent 18O­CO2 fluxes and transports these in the atmosphere, all with a time step of 40 minutes. Hence, the model is capable to investigate small scale, local and regional processes in a global context. Within the framework of the European Project EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX, we investigated the 18O processes in Europe and Siberia north of 40 N. We show that there is a well­known large impoverishment in the water isotopic composition of rain in the continental interior but it is significantly reduced during growing season. We validated the model directly by comparing it to net ecosystem exchange measurements from eddy­flux towers and indirectly by comparing it to atmospheric measurements of CO2 and 18O­CO2 in 3000 m a. s. l. We analyzed the longitudinal gradient in leaf discrimination which reflects primarily the gradient in leaf water isotopic composition. There are three prominent features: 1. The leaf water gradient is itself determined only 25% by the longitudinal gradient in source water but 75% by the change of relative humidity with longitude. 2. West and East of the Ural are two distinguished land areas with very different behavior in terms of CO2 and 18O­CO2 whereas Europe in contrary to Siberia is very homogeneous. 3. Leaf discrimination falls well below 0 East of 90 E which should be a detectable strong signal.

Cuntz, M.; Ciais, P.; Hoffmann, G.

253

Bibliography of studies on hybrid zones of the common shrew chromosome races distributed in Russia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The common shrew, Sorex araneus Linnaeus, 1758, has become a model species for cytogenetic and evolutionary studies after discovery of extraordinary Robertsonian polymorphism at the within-species level. Development of differential staining techniques (Q-, R-and G-banding) made it possible to identify the chromosomal arms and their combination in racial karyotypes. Entering into contact with each other, the chromosomal races might form hybrid zones which represent a great interest for understanding of the process of speciation. Until recently all known hybrid zones of S. araneus were localized in Western Europe and only one was identified in Siberia (Russia) between Novosibirsk and Tomsk races (Aniskin and Lukianova 1989, Searle and Wójcik 1998, Polyakov et al. 2011). However, a rapidly growing number of reports on discovery of interracial hybrid zones of Sorex araneus in the European part of Russia and neighboring territories appeared lately. The aim of the present work is to compile the bibliography of all studies covering this topic regardless of the original language and the publishing source which hopefully could make research data more accessible to international scientists. It could also be a productive way to save current history of Sorex araneus researches in full context of the ISACC (International Sorex araneus Cytogenetics Committee) heritage (Searle et al. 2007, Zima 2008).

Nadjafova, Rena S.

2013-01-01

254

The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia  

PubMed Central

Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM.

2008-01-01

255

Paleohydrology of late pleistocene superflooding, altay mountains, siberia.  

PubMed

Cataclysmic flooding is a geomorphological process of planetary significance. Landforms of flood origin resulted from late Pleistocene ice-dammed lake failures in the Altay Mountains of south-central Siberia. Peak paleoflows, which exceeded 18 x 10(6) cubic meters per second, are comparable to the largest known terrestrial discharges of freshwater and show a hydrological scaling relation to floods generated by catastrophic dam failures. These seem to have been Earth's greatest floods, based on a variety of reconstructed paleohydraulic parameters. PMID:17832349

Baker, V R; Benito, G; Rudoy, A N

1993-01-15

256

[Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established. PMID:20799643

Kur'ina, I V; Pre?s, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

2010-01-01

257

71 FR 25609 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from Russia AGENCY: International Trade...duty order on ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium from Russia...duty order on ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium from Russia would be likely to lead...

2006-05-01

258

65 FR 55047 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2000-09-12

259

77 FR 51825 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

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2012-08-27

260

59 FR- Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from Russia  

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1994-07-27

261

65 FR 35668 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

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2000-06-05

262

60 FR 3873 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

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1995-01-19

263

60 FR 35923 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

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1995-07-12

264

71 FR 58630 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

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2006-10-04

265

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2001-05-23

266

65 FR 71120 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2000-11-29

267

75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1071 and 1072 (Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be...

2010-03-01

268

75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-06-21

269

Breeding barnacle geese in Kolokolkova Bay, Russia: number of breeding pairs, reproductive success and morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the results of an expedition to a barnacle-goose ( Branta leucopsis) breeding area in Kolokolkova Bay, west of the lower Pechora delta in northern Russia, undertaken in July 2002. In total, 6 breeding colonies were found within the study area, harbouring 1,324 nests. Mean clutch size was 2.77±0.10 but may have been underestimated because of nest predation. Nest

Henk P. van der Jeugd; Elena Gurtovaya; Götz Eichhorn; KonstantinYe. Litvin; Oleg. Y. Mineev; Mennobart van Eerden

2003-01-01

270

The criteria of heavy snowfalls in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, unfortunately, the number of victims of natural hazards doesn't decrease in Russia. There are many reasons of that situation - both geographical and human. Russia is one of the most spread countries in the world and it has the big number of different types of natural phenomena, which can cause natural disaster. One of the reasons is the fact that the criteria of which meteorological or hydrological hazards can cause an emergency situation are equal for the whole territory of Russia. .And that's why many dangerous situations are underestimated. The analysis of the distribution of criteria in Russia shows that only temperature phenomena (such as frost or heat) have really space differentiation. According to directive documents in Russia, the criteria of heavy snowfall in all the territory of Russia is 20 mm per 12 hours - from subtropical to arctic regions. But the socio-economical and climatic conditions are so different, that using this one criteria is not rational at all. In the investigation held the author developed the method of differentiation the territoty of Russia and proposed different criteria of heavy snowfalls for chosen regions. The method is based, on one hand on analysis of 30-years statistics of natural disasters in Russia, and on other hand on the analysis of the density of population and the mean quantity of precipitation in the cold period in Russia. The geographical zoning of Russia was conduct and clusters with equal parameters were determined. That means that in these areas the same hydro meteorological characteristics can be used for. The new criteria for the number of natural phenomena (such as hale, snowfalls etc) were found. The analysis of this criteria of heavy snowfalls showed, that on 70 the territory of Russia this criteria (20 mm per 12 hours) is overstated. In the most of the big cities (according to the statistics and calculated data) in different climatic regions this criteria should be much lower - from 8 to 10 mm per 12 hours.

Gavrilova, Sofia

2013-04-01

271

Estimation of periphytic microalgae gross primary production with DCMU-fluorescence method in Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periphyton (epilithon) gross primary production (GPP) was estimated using the DCMU-fluorescence method in the Yenisei River.\\u000a In the unshaded littoral zone, chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) and GPP value varied from 0.83 to 973.74 mg m?2and 2–304,425 O2 m?2 day?1 (0.64–95 133 mg C m?2 day?1), respectively. Positive significant correlation (r?=?0.8) between daily GPP and periphyton Chl a was found. Average ratio GPP:Chl

V. I. Kolmakov; O. V. Anishchenko; E. A. Ivanova; M. I. Gladyshev; N. N. Sushchik

2008-01-01

272

Aerospace Medical Support in Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

2011-01-01

273

Evaluating oil, gas ventures in W. Siberia: Feasibility studies  

SciTech Connect

This article discusses the methodology and calculations used in performing the economic evaluations for a typical western Siberia oil project venture. The discussion of taxes, funds, depreciation, and costs assumes the venture is a stock company and that economics are calculated on a project basis. Most ventures available to western companies are delineated oil fields that are not yet developed or producing. The authors focus on this type of property. The required elements for an economic evaluation include original-oil-in-place (OOIP) and recoverable reserves; development plan and associated production forecast; and capital requirements and operating costs. The level of evaluation-i.e., screening, preliminary feasibility study, Technical Efficiency of Organization (TEO), or full feasibility study-determines the detail needed for each of these elements. Several economic analyses of a venture should be made to evaluate the sensitivity of alternative development plans, joint venture deal terms, capital requirements, operating costs, product prices, and taxation variables. The first three parts of this five part series dealt with (1) log and core data, (2) reservoir description and (3) flow tests and reservoir performance, and provided a technical foundation for the evaluation of oil and gas ventures in western Siberia.

Krug, J.A. (Questa Engineering Corp., Golden, CO (United States)); Connelly, W. (Pangea International Inc., Golden, CO (United States))

1993-02-08

274

Heilongjiang's Green Food Trade Strategies towards Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand of Russian to green food is great, and Heilongjiang has a production and operating system of green foods which has a great competitiveness at the Russia market where Heilongjiang's green food has a large international-market and a promising future. Heilongjiang's green food towards Russia should take such \\

Zhao Yan-li

2007-01-01

275

Russia's defense industry and the arms trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kimberly Marten Zisk, Weapons, Culture, and Self?Interest: Soviet Defense Managers in the New Russia. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998. Pp.xi + 202, notes, index. $47.50. ISBN 0–231–11078–2.Ian Anthony (ed.), Russia and the Arms Trade. London: Oxford University Press, 1998. Pp.xiv + 304, appendices, index. $65. ISBN 0–19–829278–3.

Walter C. Uhler

1999-01-01

276

Computer Information Systems Education in Modern Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Business and economics education in Russia is flourishing, as many universities, technical schools, and private institutions seek to exploit the few curricula that are capable of producing substantial tuition income. This growth in business education is particularly strong within the microcomputer specialties. However, computer information systems education in Russia still has much of the same “look and feel” as its

Alexander Mechitov; Robert Schellenberger; Raymond G. Taylor

1996-01-01

277

Cholera diffusion in Russia, 1823-1923  

Microsoft Academic Search

All six cholera pandemics of the 19th and early 20th centuries struck Russia, causing millions of deaths. Cholera entered Russia from the south, with the Volga river system being a common and efficient route into the heart of the country. Diffusion was predominantly linear, along the navigable rivers and later, along the railroads. In contrast to Pyle's findings for the

K. David Patterson

1994-01-01

278

Russia [Teachers Guide and Student Readings].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit, one of a series of curriculum guides on different world areas for use at the secondary level, treats the culture and history of Russia, oftentimes comparing it with that of the United States. Major teaching objectives are to have students compare and contrast basic geographic, cultural, and historical information on Russia and…

Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA. Intercultural Understanding Project.

279

Modeling of regional meteorological fields with high spatial resolution for West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

As well known, global climate changes are inhomogeneous that is most clearly pronounced in the northern regions of the Earth. To study these inhomogeneities and trends, it is necessary to analyze climate changes in the ?? century in the specific region. Now data of different reanalyses (USA, Europe, Japan), as well as observational data from weather stations, are used for

Vasiliy Bogomolov; Evgeny Gordov

2010-01-01

280

Geochemistry of resins in dispersed organic matter and oils of West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition and structure of petroleum resins have been discussed in many works [1?3 and others]. The genetic geochemistry of resins in dispersed organic matter (OM) and oils is insufficiently studied [4, 5]. This work continues our studies of resin?asphaltene components in oils and dispersed OM carried out at the Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics, and Raw Mineral Materials

L. S. Borisova; A. E. Kontorovich

2008-01-01

281

Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra-fine particles were even lower than ones observed in the polar FT. Summarising the data obtained during two intensive measurement campaigns carried out over the vast territory of Siberia we can draw the conclusion that remote Siberian troposphere is a relatively efficient source of recently formed particles. Measurements carried out in the FT (3-7 km) showed that about 44% of them satisfied criteria of new particle formation. At the same time, more favourable conditions are observed between 5 and 7 km (48%). The present work was funded by ANR grant BLAN06-1_137670, CNRS, CEA, the French Ministry of Research, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (YAK-AEROSIB project) and by RFBR (grants 07-05-00645, 08-05-10033 and 08-05-92499) and by the Norwegian Research Council as part of POLARCAT-Norway. Flights over Baikal Lake were financed by Russian Government (State Contract No 02.515.11.5087). Young, L.H., Benson, D.R., Montanaro, W.M., Lee, S.H., Pan, L.L., Rogers, D.C., Jensen, J., Stith, J.L., Davis, C.A., Campos, T.L., Bowman, K.P., Cooper,W.A., Lait, L.R., 2007. Enhanced new particle formation observed in the northern midlatitude tropopause region. Journal of Geophysical Research 112. doi:10.1029/2006JD008109

Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

2010-05-01

282

Snow ablation process in the southern mountainous taiga of eastern Siberia, during an early spring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The southern mountain taiga region is the water source of the Lena and Bikal basins. Ma et al. (2000) showed that most of the water in these rivers flows from south-eastern Siberia, which has heavy rain, especially in the summer. From August 2000 to May 2002, we made long-term observations of the water, energy, and carbon cycles on a catchment scale. This paper presents results of an intensive observation on snowmelt, sublimation and energy balance during a spring in 2002. The Mogot experimental watershed is located in the southern mountain region of eastern Siberia (55.5°N, 124.7°E) approximately 60 km north of Tynda, in the Amur region, Russia. The observation site is the catchment of the Nelka River. The basin is about 12 km long and 2.5 km wide, with a total area of approximately 30.8 km2; the slopes are exposed to the northeast and southwest. In this basin, altitudes range from approximately 580 to 1150 m. The land surface is predominantly covered by larch forest, but birch forest partly covers the ridge area and higher elevations are covered by pine forest. Three sites with typical surface conditions were selected to observe meteorological elements. Two sites, LF (Larch forest, 610m) and OP (grassland, 608m) were at the bottom of the valley, and another site ES (Larch forest, 635m) was located in an east slope. Snowmelt begun from 4 April 2002 and snow disappearance date was 7 May 2002. There was large difference of air temperature and relative humidity between Site OP or LF and ES in March 2002, but difference of air temperature and relative humidity between Site OP and LF was not significant. The difference of altitude between OP or LF and ES was approximately 30 m. Thus, this demonstrated that strong inversion layer existed above the snow surface. As season has gone on, then inversion layer was getting weak. Monthly mean evaporation was 0.26 mm/day in March. We also observed evaporation pan observation. The amount of evaporation was 0.24 mm/day so both observational values for evaporation from snowpack were similar. Furthermore, evaporation of site LF was greater than that of site ES. The most important energy to evaporation was soil heat flux during an early spring. Soil heat flux of site LF also was greater than that of site ES. Thus, different soil heat flux made the differences in evaporation. During early spring, strong inversion layer occurred at the atmospheric surface layer above the snow surface. There was good positive correlation between soil heat flux and strength of atmospheric inversion. The strength of atmospheric inversion increased the soil surface flux into a snowpack and we think that soil heat flux contributed the latent heat flux during March because the most of net radiation was negative and sensible heat flux was not significant. Therefore, strong atmospheric inversion caused the energy for latent heat flux and spatial variation of evaporation during early spring.

Suzuki, K.; Kubota, J.; Zhang, Y.; Kadota, T.; Ohata, T.; Vuglinsky, V.

2002-12-01

283

New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, climate and relative sea-level changes at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

New data on the Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial, climate and relative sea-level changes at Fildes Peninsula, King George Island (South Shetlands Islands, West Antarctica) Verkulich S. R. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Pushina Z.V. (Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia) Tatur A. (Department of Antarctic Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland) During the

Sergey Verkulich; Zina Pushina; Andrej Tatur

2010-01-01

284

Estimation of Fire Radiative Energy in Siberia Using MODIS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity of heat release during biomass combustion is an important characteristic of wildfires. Space-borne systems, such as MODIS radiometer, provide observations of fire locations, as well as an estimate of the amount of radiant energy emitted by the fire. Such measures of fire radiative power (FRP) provide information on the fireline heat release intensity and on the rate of biomass combustion in large scale and are important for the analysis of fire impact on vegetation. In this study we analyzed the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of detected wildfires in Siberia considering their radiative power. For the analysis we used database of fire detections made by MODIS instrument located on TERRA and AQUA satellites for 2002- 2013. For the detected fire pixels the frequency of their occurrence was calculated depending on the radiative power. More than 80% of all detected pixels had radiative power less than 100 MW. The distribution of fires according to their radiative power values was obtained for different regions of Siberia characterized by various vegetation and climatic conditions. Geospatial analysis performed using vegetation maps for the territory of Siberia and GIS layers of active fire detections showed that fires in deciduous and pine forests generally had lower intensities than fires in larch and spruce/fir forests. The rate of biomass combustion and the amount of heat emitted are strongly related to fuel moisture and therefore to weather conditions. In this study weather conditions were characterized using Russian and Canadian weather fire danger indices. Using images obtained during day and night satellite passes daily and long-term dynamics of fire radiative power was calculated. The long-term dynamics of fire radiative power measured by MODIS sensor was compared to weather fire danger indices calculated using on-ground weather stations data located in several Siberian regions mostly liable to fires. For most of the weather stations considered the Canadian fire weather index has better correlation with fire radiative power dynamics. However, the relationships between fire danger indices and fire radiative power have region specific parameters which can vary significantly.

Shvetsov, Eugene; Ponomarev, Evgenii

2014-05-01

285

Phylogeography and sympatric differentiation of the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) complex in Siberia as revealed by mtDNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Sequence variation in the mtDNA control region of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma from 56 Siberian and North American populations was analysed to assess their phylogeographic relationships and the origins of sympatric forms. Phylogenetic trees confirm the integrity of phylogroups reported in previous mtDNA studies except that the Siberian group does not separate as a single cluster. Haplotype network analysis indicates the proximity of Siberian and Atlantic haplotypes. These are considered as one Eurasian group represented by the Atlantic, east Siberian (interior Siberia including Transbaikalia, Taimyr) and Eurosiberian (Finland, Spitsbergen, Taimyr) sub-groups. Salvelinus alpinus with presumably introgressed Bering group (malma) haplotypes were found along eastern Siberian coasts up to the Olenek Bay and the Lena Delta region, where they overlap with the Eurasian group and in the easternmost interior region. It is proposed that Siberia was colonized by S. alpinus in two stages: from the west by the Eurasian group and later from the east by the Bering group. The high diversity of Eurasian group haplotypes in Siberia indicates its earlier colonization by S. alpinus as compared with the European Alps. This colonization was rapid, proceeded from a diverse gene pool, and was followed by differential survival of ancestral mtDNA lineages in different basins and regions, and local mutational events in isolated populations. The results presented here support a northern origin of Transbaikalian S. alpinus, the dispersion of S. alpinus to the Lake Baikal Basin from the Lena Basin, segregation of S. alpinus between Lena tributaries and their restricted migration over the divides between sub-basins. These results also support sympatric origin of intralacustrine forms of S. alpinus. PMID:20738544

Alekseyev, S S; Bajno, R; Gordeeva, N V; Reist, J D; Power, M; Kirillov, A F; Samusenok, V P; Matveev, A N

2009-08-01

286

Linkage between seasonal hydrology and carbon flux dynamics in tundra ponds: Samoylov Island, Lena River Delta, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic ponds have been recently recognized as being highly sensitive to changing climate. To date, ponds and lakes are disappearing in Alaska, Siberia and Canadian High Arctic because of climate warming (Fitzgerald et al. 2003; Smith et al. 2005; and Smol et al. 2007). While numerous limnological studies have been done on arctic ponds located in the Canadian High Arctic (Douglas and Smol, 1994; Hamilton et al. 2001; Lim et al., 2001), there is a limited number of studies on tundra ponds located in other circumpolar environments (e.g. Northern Siberia). Duff et al. (1999) describes tundra lakes in northern Russia as clear, dilute, oligotrophic lakes with low nutrients and dissolved organic carbon concentration. While numerous ponds and lakes exists in the Lena River Delta averaging to 2120 lakes of all sizes for every 1000 km2, no studies have been done to understand carbon flux dynamics of these freshwater ecosystems. In this study hydrological monitoring based on water balance framework was applied to a series of ponds and lakes located on Samoylov Island, 120 km south of the Arctic Ocean in the southern central Lena River Delta (72° 22' N, 126 ° 30' E) from July to September 2008. To better understand spatial differences in pond hydrology and carbon flux dynamics, the physical and biochemical data was collected from 42 tundra ponds. The selection of the ponds was based on their size (small, medium, large) and depth values ranging from 10 to 120 cm. The estimation of the seasonal water budget in 2008 showed that losses through evapotranspiration were offset by similar precipitation inputs and resulted in the equilibrium storage values in the study ponds prior to the freeze-back. Preliminary analysis showed that more than 50% of the ponds had DOC > 6.5 mg/l which exceeds average value of other Arctic ponds reported in literature (Duff et al. 1999 and Hamilton et al. 2001). Elevated DOC concentrations (> 8 mg/l) were found in the small and medium ponds with depth values ranging from 15 to 30 cm. The values of other environmental variables were significantly correlated with high correlations among Ca, Mg and Sr (r = 0.89 to 0.92). Similar to Duff et al. (1999) significant but weak correlations were found between conductivity, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and DOC values. While arctic pond ecosystems are highly sensitive to the harmful effect of ultraviolet radiation, such elevated DOC values in the study ponds might contribute to better resilience of the pond ecosystem.

Abnizova, Anna; Bornemann, Niko; Boike, Julia

2010-05-01

287

[Priest-doctors in Russia].  

PubMed

Jean Pierre Frank offers in the early nineteenth century a revolution in medical Russian Empire. Indeed, Russia is in an emergency situation where the lack of practitioners is obvious. The imperial project is inspired by past practices in some European countries. Frank fits these transfers and implements a unique model where the priest-doctor stands out as the solution to overcome the lack of medicalization of the Empire. Even if the attempt was a failure, it remains that the proposals were part of Frank in both an ancient tradition that priests and physicians providing care for souls and bodies, but also showed that called his wishes the advent of "public health" in this country disinherited. PMID:23923338

Berlan, Hélène; Triaire, Dominique

2012-01-01

288

Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

289

[Organization of medical genetic service in Russia].  

PubMed

Short history of the development of medical genetic service in Russia from the 1960s till now is described. Analysis of many orders of the Ministry of Health of USSR and Russia was performed which shows how separate components of the service were designed and integrated into the efficacious genetic counseling system. All of them were supported by educational programs. The important contribution made by professor Nikolai Bochkov to the creation of genetic service in Russia especially at the early stages is underlined. PMID:22145367

Ginter, E K; Kozlova, S I

2011-01-01

290

Russia's energy policy: A framing comment  

SciTech Connect

A prominent specialist on the Russian economy provides a framing comment on two preceding papers entitled 'Russia's Energy Policy' (by Vladimir Milov, Leonard Coburn, and Igor Danchenko) and 'Russia's Energy Policy: A Divergent View' (by Matthew J. Sagers). The author argues that Russia's current energy policy should be viewed as an outcome of competition between three overlapping programs. In this context, he identifies three policy models - the old Soviet, the liberal or oligarchic, and the most recent state capitalist. The latter is currently supported by President Putin, who prioritizes diversification of the country's economy at the expense of diminished investments in the oil and gas sector.

Aslund, A. [Institute for International Economics, Washington, DC (United States)

2006-05-15

291

Fire Danger Estimation in Siberia Using SMOS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important tasks of fire monitoring is to forecast the conditions that determine the possibility of occurrence and spread of fire in forests. Weather fire danger assessment is mainly based on the analysis of the meteorological parameters recorded by weather stations. The main drawback of such a method for the fire danger assessment is an absence of regular network of weather stations. This situation takes place, for example, in Siberia. The area of possible interpolation of weather stations data is generally up to 30 km. The analysis of the existing network of weather stations shows that there should be an interpolation in the zone up to 100 - 150 km between weather stations which restricts the correctness of weather fire danger distribution maps for the forest zone of Siberia. The area of research associated with the development of methodologies for the forest fire danger assessment remains urgent today. To solve this problem it is necessary to perform a geospatial analysis of fire distribution and distribution of forest fuel moisture which can only be done with the involvement of satellite monitoring. This can provide the necessary spatial coverage and frequency of data updates. Over the past 30 years the technical means of remote sensing and methods of land cover moisture measurement were developed. In 2009 the SMOS spacecraft was launched by the European Space Agency, equipped with microwave radiometer operating at the frequency of 1.4 GHz. Moisture is restored based on the angular dependence of the brightness of temperatures measured by spacecraft (Level 1C product). Geospatial analysis of the relationship between occurrence of fires, burned areas as well as fire radiative power during the fire season and land cover moisture measured by SMOS was performed. Daily updated database of forest fires detected using MODIS radiometer over the fire seasons of 2010 - 2012 as well as the land cover moisture data obtained from SMOS measurements were used in the analysis. The study area covered the territory of Siberia, including areas where extreme fire behavior was observed. Also the time series of land cover moisture measured by SMOS satellite and weather fire danger indices calculated using ground weather stations were compared. The results showed that in most cases the relationship between moisture and fire danger index values can be found. The increase in soil moisture was accompanied by a reduction of weather fire danger indices values. The highest correlation coefficients between moisture measurements and fire danger indices were obtained for southern regions (-0.5 - -0.6), however for the stations located in the central and northern regions the relationship was weaker. The analyses indicated that it was difficult to obtain a reliable relationship between remote sensed land cover moisture and fire weather indices for the whole territory of Siberia. However such dependencies can be apparent for individual regions.

Shvetsov, Eugene

2013-04-01

292

Main phytostratigraphic boundaries in the Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the large collections of plant remains gained from cores of numerous boreholes drilled in Western Siberia made it possible to determine the taxonomic composition of the Jurassic flora of this region, the stages of its evolution, and the sequence of floral assemblages, which characterize the regional stratigraphic horizons indirectly correlated via series of parallel faunal, microfaunal, spore and pollen zonal scales with a general stratigraphic scale. The compositions of floral assemblages was established in the Hettangian-lower part of the upper Pliensbachian, upper part of the upper Pliensbachian, lower Toarcian, upper Toarcian, Aalenian, Bajocian, Bathonian, and Callovian-Oxfordian sediments. Criteria were elaborated to substantiate the Triassic-Jurassic and Lower-Middle Jurassic boundaries. Lithologically and biostrati-graphically, the Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary is poorly expressed.

Mogutcheva, N. K.

2014-05-01

293

[Genetic diversity of hepatitis A virus in Siberia].  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of a region of VP1/2A genes of a large group of hepatitis A virus (HAV) isolates circulating in Siberia (the Altai Territory, the Irkutsk and Novosibirsk Regions) were determined. Comparison of these sequences with those of prototype HAV of genotypes IA, IB, and IIA revealed their high similarity to prototype genotype IA strains. The above domains were shown to contain the types of viruses, which were close to both the European subtypes of HAV genotypes IA (78.3%) and the Far Eastern subtypes of this genotype (21.7%). The similar comparison of the derived amino acid sequences suggests that VP1 and 2A contains the amino acid substitutions that are typical of this geographical region. PMID:16515038

Ternovo?, V A; Chausov, E V; Bondarenko, T Iu; Kochneva, G V; Sivolobova, G F; Grazhdantseva, A A; Netesov, S V

2006-01-01

294

Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia.  

PubMed

Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n. sp., Veteronostocale medium n. sp., Filiconstrictosus cephalon n. sp., and Partitiofilum yakschinii n. sp. PMID:11539491

Sergeev, V N; Knoll, A H; Grotzinger, J P

1995-01-01

295

Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations). This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia). Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today.

2010-01-01

296

Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

2013-04-01

297

Impact of current climate on soil condition changes in the permafrost zone of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the permafrost zone climate changes have a great influence on soil condition. This can lead to negative effects on buildings and infrastructure. In this zone structures are built on frozen soils. Their strength properties depend on their thermal condition. For research of this problem: 1. The daily data set of soil temperature under natural surface at depths up to 320 cm at the Russian meteorological stations has been prepared. Current version is ending in 2010 (458 stations of WMO). 2. The yearly data set of computed depth of soil seasonal thawing at the Russian stations till 2010 has been prepared (74 stations of WMO). 3. Changes of soils' condition for the last five decades have been researched based on the prepared data sets. The change of mean annual soil temperature at depths has been researched and soil warming in the vast area for 1963 - 2010 has been shown, the great trends (0,2 - 0,4 /10 years) increase at 320 cm have been found in Western and Eastern Siberia, and the greatest trends (0,4 - 0,5/10 years) have been found in their south part. The greatest loss of the load-carrying capacity of foundations can be during a warm season. During the warm season the analysis of soils' temperature trends at depth 320 cm has shown that the greatest soils' warming is observed in south part of Siberia (0,4 - 0,6 /10 years). Trends which are more than 0,6/10 years are found in the Baikal lake area, also in the Amur river region. So, favorable conditions for increase of seasonal thawing depth in a permafrost zone, especially in its south part, have been shown. The map of average depth of soil seasonal thawing for 1963-2010 was made. It showed the following: the greatest depths of thawing 300-400 ?m were observed near the border of permafrost, the smallest depths 50-250 ?m predominate over the area of continuous permafrost. Thawing depth changes for 2001-2010 compared with 1971-1980 were researched. Prevail significant increase of thawing depth in Eastern Siberia (increase in 40-120 cm for different stations) and more moderate increase in the north part of the Russian Far East were showed. Trends of average thawing depth for 1963-2010 have been obtained. The greatest significant positive trends have been found in the north part of Eastern Siberia (3-4cm/year) and also in the Russian Far East (2-3cm/year). Conclusions: 1. The 40-50 years long observations show soil warming down to the 320 cm depth over the vast territory of the Russia. 2. The general tendency for the increase in the seasonal thaw depth on the vast territory of Eastern and Western Siberia is one of the impacts of the current climate changes. 3. The increase of seasonal thawing depth of permafrost soils in the basement of buildings can lead to deformation of the basements and buildings and their further destruction.

Sherstiukov, Artem

2013-04-01

298

Agroclimatic potential in central Siberia in an altered 21st century climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-1990, 1990-2010 from historical data and for 2020 and 2080 from HadCM3 B1 and A2 projections. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia was predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future climatic resources in Siberia would provide potential growth for a variety of crops that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops, nonexistent today, may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming. Adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N.; PArfenova, E.; Lysanova, G. I.

2011-12-01

299

The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E.; Soja, A. J.

2009-10-01

300

The Migration Behavior of College Students in Siberia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the conditions of the aging of the population of Russia there has been a steady decline in the size of the population, and starting in 2006 that includes a decline in the size of the working-age population. This is a very serious problem in regard to the social and economic development of the country, and the ways to solve the problem will…

Gorbacheva, E. A.

2008-01-01

301

Ukraine's Relations with Russia: Competition or Cooperation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Independent since 1991, Ukraine continues to struggle in its efforts to improve its political stability and economic strength. Because of Ukraine's geographic proximity to and intertwined history with Russia, Ukrainian leaders measure their actions agains...

M. J. Oswald

2002-01-01

302

Political and Economic Crisis in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the tumultuous state of affairs in Russia. The ten resources discussed offer background, news, analysis, and commentary. In recent weeks, political turmoil and economic chaos have severely threatened Russia's stability as an emerging free-market democracy, prompting regional governor and former general Alexander Lebed to say that "the situation in Russia is catastrophic--worse than in 1917." Russia's latest political upheaval began on August 23 when the unpredictable President Boris Yeltsin discharged his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko, and reinstalled the previous prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin (see the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). Chernomyrdin plans to create an "economic dictatorship" in Russia and to print billions of rubles to avoid total economic collapse. Yesterday, in an approval ballot to reinstate Chernomyrdin as prime minister, the Duma rejected his appointment for the second time in two weeks. Analysts predict that next week a subsequent ballot for approval will fail, the Duma will dissolve, and Yeltsin will rule by decree, without a functioning government, until new parliamentary elections are held. Russian political dissension has been induced by the country's severe financial crisis. On September 6, the Russia economy suffered a blow when the European Union decided not to offer money to Russia and spurned a moratorium on debts Russia owes to EU members. Today in another setback, chairman of the central bank, Sergei Dubinin, tendered his resignation. These events, compounded by ruble devaluation, limited tax revenue, and skittish foreign investments, have left the economy in shambles, despite the recent receipt of an enormous loan from the International Monetary Fund (discussed in the July 16, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics).

Osmond, Andrew.

1998-01-01

303

Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2001-01-01

304

Northwest Siberian Khanty and Mansi in the junction of West and East Eurasian gene pools as revealed by uniparental markers.  

PubMed

Northwest Siberia is geographically remote territory, which has been settled by indigenous human populations probably since the Upper Paleolithic. To investigate the genetic landscape of Northwest Siberians, we have analyzed mitochondrial and Y chromosome DNA polymorphisms of 169 unrelated individuals from Khanty and Mansi ethnic groups in Northwest Siberia. In addition, HVS-I sequences (N = 3522) and Y chromosome SNP data (N = 2175), obtained from the literature, were used to elucidate the genetic relationships among the North Eurasian populations. The results show clinal distributions of mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroups along East-West axis of Northern Eurasia. In this context, the Ugric-speaking Khanty and Mansi appear as unique intermediate populations carrying Upper Paleolithic and more recent haplotypes typical for both West and East Eurasian gene pools. This admixture indicates that the Khanty and Mansi populations have resided in the contact zone of genetically distinguishable eastern and western Eurasia. PMID:18506205

Pimenoff, Ville N; Comas, David; Palo, Jukka U; Vershubsky, Galina; Kozlov, Andrew; Sajantila, Antti

2008-10-01

305

The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the East-Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) during the last decade (1999-2009): an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on he ESAS which is poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2009). Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. We suggest that rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed.. It has been found that 1) carbon dioxide and methane fluxes are significant (and non-counted) components of the carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean; 2) transport of eroded terrestrial material plays a major role in the accumulation of carbon in the ESAS (Dudarev et al., Gustafsson et al., Vonk et al., Sanchez-Garcia et al., Charkin et al., Semiletov et al., this session) ; 3) the seabed is a major CH4 source over the ESAS (N.Shakhova et al., this session); 3) eroded carbon is biodegradable (all reports, this session); 4) oxidation of eroded carbon onshore and offshore is a strong source of carbon dioxide (Piko et al. and Semiletov et al., this session). Thus studying carbon cycling in the East Siberian Arctic marginal seas has a high scientific priority in order to establish the carbon budget and evaluate the role of the Arctic region in global carbon cycling, especially in the coastal zone where the redistribution of carbon between terrestrial and marine environments occurs and the characteristics of carbon exchange with atmosphere are unknown. Initial scientific plan for the next decade is discussed. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (since 1994), International (Soros) Scientific Foundation, ISF (1994-1995), Russian Government and ISF (1995), McArthur Foundation (2000-2001), FEBRAS/RAS (since 2003), IARC (since 2001), NSF (since 2003), NOAA (since 2005), SU (since 2007), and Wallenberg Foundation (since 2008).

Sergienko, Valentin; Shakhova, Natalia; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Orjan; Anderson, Leif; Semiletov, Igor

2010-05-01

306

Russia and the Information Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a great deal of general talk and commentary about the role of the so-called "information revolution", it is at times difficult to tell exactly what these developments may mean for different regions of the world. This report from the RAND Corporation looks at how Russia is utilizing various forms of information and communication technologies to modernize business and industry, stimulate economic growth, and enhance the quality of life for Russian peoples. With significant funding from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the report (authored by D. J. Peterson) is based on six years of research in this area, and contains chapters on the role of information technology in Russian society, government, and concludes with a brief summary of key findings. Data in the report also receives nice visual representation through a host of charts, tables, and figures. Overall, this is a very interesting document that will be of particular interest to those working in the fields of international public policy and technology development.

2005-01-01

307

Russia’s International Adoption Policies: Realities of the Soviet Happy Childhood Myth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia’s International Adoption Policies: Realities of the Soviet Happy Childhood Myth, focuses on dispelling the Soviet myth of happy childhood through revealing the numerous groups of children who were systematically left out of this upbringing. The paper focuses in particular on the plight of orphans in the USSR and continues to follow their childhood experience through investigating the intercountry adoption

Hannah L Freeman

2012-01-01

308

Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.  

PubMed

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. PMID:23459685

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

309

Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe  

PubMed Central

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans.

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

310

Why Russia is not a state  

SciTech Connect

This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

Stern, J.E.

1993-08-16

311

Studying climate change in Siberia based on climatic indices assessment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays substantial progress has been achieved in studying climatic changes. However, standrad set of meteorological and climatic characteristics, used for climate change assessment on global scale, is not sufficient for assessment of regional manifestations of climate changes. To study peculiarities of climate behavior in the selected region, it is necessary to enlarge the set of indicators and to improve spatial resolution. The most practically important are the data on change of extreme values of meteorological elements and not just on change of their average values. This paper is devoted to studying climate change in Siberia based on analysis of climate change indices characterizing behavior of thermal conditions and precipitation in the region considered. The indices used for calculation have been developed by CC1/CLIVAR working group (http://cccma.seos.uvic.ca/ETCCDMI/indices.shtml) and approved by Expert Group on detection, monitoring and climate change indices at WMO Climatology Commission. Initial data are data from JMA/CRIEPI JRA Reanalysis on air temperature and precipitation amount over period from 1979 till 2001 with resolution of 1.25o?1.25o, as well as observation data at weather stations (meteorological data of RIHMI-WDC /NOAA and Zapsibgidromet). Using the data available we determined spatial behavior of climatic characteristics on Siberian territory for the first half of 20th century, when there was no anthropogenic impact, and for the second half of that century, when such an impact become sufficient. Comparative analysis was made for behavior of thermal conditions and precipitation amount. The results obtained refine pattern of regional climate change in Siberia. For example, we revealed that on the Siberian territory number of freezing days and days with frost sufficiently changed towards increase by 1 day annually, while number of summer days decreased by 0.5 - 1 day. The Reanalysis datasets used for this study are provided from the cooperative research project of the JRA long-term reanalysis by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI).

Shulgina, T.; Bogomolov, V.; Genina, E.; Gordov, E.; Nikitchuk, K.; Okladnikov, I.; Titov, A.

2009-04-01

312

A multitracer study of peat profiles from Tunguska, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two peat columns from Tunguska (Siberia) were analysed for pollen, spores, charcoal, trace elements and ?-emitters in order to identify the fingerprints of the impact of a still unidentified cosmic body (TCB), which occurred in the summer of 1908, and the level of environmental pollution in a background area of central Siberia. Peat layers were subject to non-destructive ?-ray spectrometry to derive radiochronology by the excess210Pb method. The age-to-depth relationship was crosschecked by using both 1963 horizon of 137Cs associated to maximum global fallout deposition and palynological data profiles. Vertical distributions of trace elements in the peat columns were obtained by PIXE multielemental analysis allowing determination of the levels of environmental contamination in a background region of the Siberian taiga. The association of heavy metals such as Ni, Co and Cu in the profiles suggests the connection of the area with mining and metal smelting activity in the north of the region through atmospheric circulation. As concerns global scale contamination, the inventory of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs (4.6 kBq m - 2 ) shows a value typical of remote slightly contaminated areas resulting from global scale redistribution of radioactive fallout from Cold War nuclear weapon testing. The atmospheric inventory of the natural radionuclide 210Pb, for which a mean annual flux of 200 Bq m - 2 yr - 1 has been calculated, is typical of continental regions. The influence of Tunguska Cosmic Body in the peat is recognizable by a large discontinuity in the palynological profile of the peat monolith at a depth coinciding with the 1908 layer as determined by the 210Pb technique, showing a large peak of total pollen counting attributed to the impact of the shockwave on the area in which huge tree stands were destroyed. Following the event, tree pollen concentration decreases abruptly showing the temporary inception of a mire environment with an increase of Sphagnum spore concentrations. Results of elemental analysis so far available do not show anomalies in the concentration profiles at depths coinciding with the Tunguska event layer indicating the need for pre-concentration technique enabling the detection of element associations typical of extraterrestrial materials.

Tositti, L.; Mingozzi, M.; Sandrini, S.; Forlani, L.; Buoso, M. C.; De Poli, M.; Ceccato, D.; Zafiropoulos, D.

2006-10-01

313

Where was Siberia in Mid Paleozoic? New paleomagnetic evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New reliable paleomagnetic data from the Siberian Platform help in deciphering its paleogeography during ~450-400 Ma.Geochronology of late Devonian mafic sills provides time constraints for tectonic deformation along the southern margin and thus a minimum age for the regional magnetic overprint.From a late Ordovician-Silurian sedimentary section of the Nyuya syncline in the southern part of the Siberian platform with the Devonian sills hosted nearby in early Paleozoic sediments, pre-folding presumably primary magnetization was isolated from the sediments during stepwise thermal cleaning.Another component recorded in both the Silurian and Ordovician samples is pre-folding.This component was probably formed during a regional remagnetization event, which took place in post-early Silurian time.Putting this secondary component into a framework with available Paleozoic data and geochronology further constrains its age to be early Devonian.The isolated components yield new late Ordovician, early Silurian and early-middle Devonian paleomagnetic poles.The revised middle Paleozoic segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) for the Siberian Platform provides new paleogeographic constraints.Our data suggest that in late Ordovician the platform was situated in equatorial latitudes and was rotated 180 deg. with respect to its present position.During middle-late Ordovician time the platform did not experience any noticeable latitudinal drift.It started drifting to the north in the late Ordovician, and by the late Silurian it had traveled ~1500 km northward and had rotated ~30 deg. CCW.During late Silurian time the platform continued northward drift and counterclockwise rotation, and by the early Devonian it had drifted ~1100 km northward and rotated 10 deg. CCW.After that, the rotation of the platform changed to clockwise, and by the late Devonian had drifted another 1500 kilometers to the north and had rotated ~60 deg. CW.We evaluated paleomagnetically viable positions from 450-400 Ma of the three largest Laurasian cratons,Siberia,Baltica and Laurentia,based on the new data and previously published APW paths.Contrary to several published reconstructions,the Siberian platform could not have been situated to the north of the Caledonian suture in mid-Silurian time,but was probably located either at the eastern or the western side of Laurussia.The new data are compatible with an early Devonian position of Siberia similar to the modern Eurasian configuration.They also support the post- early or middle Devonian relative rotation between the Aldan and Angara blocks of the Siberian platform.

Powerman, V.; Shatsillo, A.; Coe, R. S.; Zhao, X.; Gladkochub, D.; Buchwaldt, R.; Pavlov, V.

2013-12-01

314

Respiration fluxes in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, tree stems and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56N 33E) during growing seasons of 2002 - 2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere-biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all of the years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability ranging from 0.7 to 10 mkmol m-2s-1. Generally soil respiration depended on soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. Stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September and in October it dramatically decreased. Tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3-5 mkmol•m-2s-1 for dominant trees and about 1-2 mkmol•m-2s-1 for subdominant trees. Respiration of living tree stems was about 10-20% of ER.

Kurbatova, Juliya

2014-05-01

315

Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, tree stems, and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56° N 33° E) during the growing seasons of 2002-2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere-biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of the total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of the ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability, ranging from 0.7 to 10 ?mol m-2 s-1. Generally, the soil respiration depended on the soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions, the soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. The stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September, and in October it dramatically decreased. The tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3-5 ?mol m-2 s-1 for dominant trees and about 1-2 ?mol m-2 s-1 for subdominant trees. The respiration of living tree stems was about 10-20% of the ER.

Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F.; Molchanov, A.; Varlagin, A.; Avilov, V.; Kozlov, D.; Ivanov, D.; Valentini, R.

2013-12-01

316

West Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

2002-01-01

317

Heterotrophic soil respiration in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration (SR) is one of the largest fluxes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It varies substantially in spatial and temporal resolution depending on climate, soil, vegetation, land use and disturbances. We have built a system which assesses SR based on all available sources of information: Soil map 2.5 Mio scale (Fridland, 1988); Landcover 1 km2 resolution (Schepaschenko et al., 2010); a database of SR in situ measurements (3592 records over the globe from 1109 studies, the substantial part of non-Russian measurements was taken from Bond-Lamberty and Thomson, 2010); climatic parameter reanalysis for 1974-2009 (FOODSEC, 2011). The procedure of SR assessment comprised of 1) build regression models of total SR dependent upon climatic parameters and soil type based on the SR database and climatic variables in the year of SR measurements; 2) regional, vegetation type, current level of NPP, land use and disturbances corrections of the models; and 3) model of root contribution to the total SR dependent upon vegetation type. The system of SR assessment provides estimation for the Russian territory with spatial resolution of 1 km and temporal resolution of 1 year. It can absorb new initial data and provide advanced assessment in the future. The average heterotrophic SR flux for the Russian territory is 3.4 Pg C yr-1 with interannual deviation up to 20%. The average SR flux distribution by region, natural zone and vegetation type is shown in the table. The SR map can be found at http://russia.geo-wiki.org.
Average heterotrophic soil respiration flux, g C m-2 yr-1

Shchepashchenko, D.; Mukhortova, L.; Shvidenko, A.; McCallum, I.

2011-12-01

318

Moult migration of emperor geese Chen canagica between Alaska and Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied reproductive success and post-breeding movements of 32 adult female emperor geese Chen canagica that were marked with satellite radio transmitters on their nesting area on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska 2000-2004. All 16 females that failed to successfully reproduce departed the YKD and moulted remiges either on the north coast of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia (n=15), or on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska (n=1). Of 16 females that successfully nested, one migrated to Russia following hatch whereas the remainder stayed on the YKD. While moulting on the Chukotka Peninsula, emperor geese with satellite transmitters primarily used coastal lagoons west of Kolyuchin Bay. We observed 21,150 adult-plumaged emperor geese during aerial surveys in Chukotka in 2002. Most (95%) were in the same region used by geese that had been marked with satellite transmitters in Alaska. The number of emperor geese observed in Russia was comparable to our estimate of ???20,000 adults that either do not nest or nest unsuccessfully each year on the YKD, suggesting that most nonproductive adults, or ???28% of the adult population departs the YKD to moult elsewhere. The number of moult migrants may be substantially higher in years of poor reproductive success or if adult-plumaged birds that are not of breeding age also leave the YKD. Moult migration of emperor geese between Alaska and Russia is likely substantially greater than previously believed. Russian moulting habitats are important to the North American population of emperor geese and events that affect survival of geese in Russia could impact population trends on the YKD. Protection of coastal lagoons on the north coast of Chukotka is warranted. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

Hupp, J. W.; Schmutz, J. A.; Ely, C. R.; Syroechkovskiy, Jr. , E. E.; Kondratyev, A. V.; Eldridge, W. D.; Lappo, E.

2007-01-01

319

Arctic East Siberia had a lower latitude in the Pleistocene.  

PubMed

Remains of mammoths in Arctic East Siberia, where there is not sufficient sunlight over the year for the growth of the plants on which these animals feed, indicate that the latitude of this region was lower before the end of the Pleistocene than now. Reconstructing this geographic pole shift, we introduce a massive object, which moved in an extremely eccentric orbit and was hot from tidal work and solar radiation. Evaporation produced a disk-shaped cloud of ions around the Sun. This cloud partially shielded the solar radiation, producing the cold and warm periods characterizing the Pleistocene. The shielding depends on the inclination of Earth's orbit, which has a period of 100,000 years. The cloud builds up to a point where inelastic particle collisions induce its collapse The resulting near-periodic time dependence resembles that of Dansgaard-Oeschger events. The Pleistocene ended when the massive object had a close encounter with the Earth, which suffered a one per mil extensional deformation. While the deformation relaxed to an equilibrium shape in one to several years, the globe turned relative to the rotation axis: The North Pole moved from Greenland to the Arctic Sea. The massive object split into fragments, which evaporated. PMID:17625673

Woelfli, Willy; Baltensperger, Walter

2007-06-01

320

Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia  

SciTech Connect

One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

2007-02-10

321

Agroclimatic potential across central Siberia in an altered twenty-first century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and are likely to be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed potential climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-90 and 1990-2010 using historic data and data taken from 2020 and 2080 HadCM3 B1 and A2 scenarios. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future Siberian climatic resources could provide the potential for a great variety of crops to grow that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km/decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops nonexistent today may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming. Adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Lysanova, G. I.; Soja, A. J.

2011-10-01

322

Degradation processes of hydrological resources by human and climate - example of small lakes in Northern Kazakhstan and Southern Siberia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation discusses (on the basis of an actual application in the development of a curriculum for Integrated Water Cycle Management in Kazakhstan; TEMPUS I-WEB project) the diverse scientific approaches to explain the degradation of hydrological resources in West-Siberia and Nord-Kazakhstan by focussing on natural and anthropogenic causes by the example of the dry out of small lakes. Since Pleistocene in the region a diverse mosaic of large and small lakes of at total shrinking surface area was formed. On natural causes it includes (1) climatic cycling, (2) lake developments since the Pleistocene originate by the Northern glaciations by ice dammed lakes (without tectonics). The man made causes are (1) the sediment accumulation in lakes, (2) the (problematic) water management and water usage and (3) the land use changes in the watersheds. Climate change includes finally both natural and climatic causes of the change. The latter is explained using actual reports of (1) IPCC on extreme events and (2) gives a note about radiative forcing components as proxy to integrate.

Meyer, Burghard; Schreiner, Vera

2014-05-01

323

Flooding of the Ob River, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

324

Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

325

EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in

E. P. Gordov; E. A. Vaganov

2010-01-01

326

A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE FOR EXTINCTION CHRONOLOGIES FOR FIVE SPECIES OF UPPER PLEISTOCENE MEGAFAUNA IN SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the radiocarbon chronology of some late Upper Pleistocene mammals from Siberia is presented. Previously published data has been supplemented by new 14C dates for 5 species (woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, bison, horse, and muskox) to reconstruct chronological extinction patterns. The final extinction of woolly rhinoceros and bison in Siberia can be dated to approximately 11,000-9700 BP, but

Lyobov A Orlova; Yaroslav V Kuzmin; Vyacheslav N Dementiev

2004-01-01

327

Well-logging activities in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The report is a brief survey of the current state of well-logging service in Russia (number and types of crews, structure of well-logging jobs, types of techniques used, well-logging equipment, auxiliary downhole jobs, etc.). Types and peculiarities of well data acquisition and processing hardware and software are discussed (petrophysics included). New well-logging technologies used in Russia (new methods of electric logging data processing, electromagnetic logging, pulse neutron logging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, acoustic tomography, logging-testing-logging technique, etc.) are surveyed. Comparison of the Tengiz field (Kazakhstan) well data obtained by Schlumberger and Neftegazgeofizika Association crews is given. Several problems and drawbacks in equipment and technology used by well-logging crews in Russia are discussed.

Savostyanov, N.A. (Neftegazgeofizika, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

328

59 FR- Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-702 (Preliminary)] Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION...reason of imports from Russia of ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium, provided for in subheadings 7202.92.00 and...

1994-06-08

329

Neutron sources for investigations on extracted beams in Russia  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the current status and prospects for the development of neutron sources intended for investigations on extracted beams in Russia. The participation of Russia in international scientific organizations is demonstrated.

Aksenov, V. L. [Russian Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute' (Russian Federation)], E-mail: Aksenov@kiae.ru

2007-05-15

330

[Genetic variability and the origin of house mouse from the territory of Russia and neighboring countries].  

PubMed

Genetic differentiation and gene geographic variation of house mouse from the territory of Russia and neighboring countries was examined based on the allozyme analysis of samples from natural, semisynanthropic, and obligate synanthropic populations. The results of analysis of genetic differentiation, performed using 22 interpreted loci, as well as the data on gene geographic variation of four allozyme markers (Idh-1, Sod-1, Aat-1, and hemoglobin) validated the hypothesis on rapid mice expansion from the south of Eastern Europe to the Pacific coast of Asia. It was demonstrated that moving eastwards led to the formation currently expanding zones of hybridization between the "northern" M. musculus group and the "Central Asian" M. wagneri group in Siberia, and with the M. castaneus group in the south of the Russian Far East. The allozyme data were compared with the data of molecular genetic and karyological analyses performed using the same experimental material. The phenomenon of hybrid zones of the house mouse from Eurasia is discussed. PMID:21786673

Frisman, L V; Korobitsyna, K V; Iakimenko, L V; Muntianu, A I; Moriwaki, K

2011-05-01

331

Petrography of impact glasses and melt breccias from the El'gygytgyn impact structure, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The El'gygytgyn impact structure, 18 km in diameter and 3.6 Ma old, in Arctic Siberia, Russia, is the only impact structure on Earth mostly excavated in acidic volcanic rocks. The Late Cretaceous volcanic target includes lavas, tuffs, and ignimbrites of rhyolitic, dacitic, and andesitic composition, and local occurrence of basalt. Although the ejecta blanket around the crater is nearly completely eroded, bomb-shaped impact glasses, redeposited after the impact event, occur in lacustrine terraces within the crater. Here we present detailed petrographic descriptions of newly collected impact glass-bearing samples. The observed features contribute to constrain the formation of the melt and its cooling history within the framework of the impact process. The collected samples can be grouped into two types, characterized by specific features: (1) "pure" glasses, containing very few clasts or new crystals and which were likely formed during the early stages of cratering and (2) a second type, which represents composite samples with impact melt breccia lenses embedded in silicate glass. These mixed samples probably resulted from inclusion of unmelted impact debris during ejection and deposition. After deposition the glassy portions continued to deform, whereas the impact melt breccia inclusions that probably had already cooled down behaved as rigid bodies in the flow.

Pittarello, Lidia; Koeberl, Christian

2013-07-01

332

Land Change in Russia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural reform has been an important anthropogenic change process shaping landscapes in European Russia since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most evident side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. While land abandonment as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union is relatively well documented, few studies have investigated the unfolding process of abandonment that results from rural population declines. Russia’s population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050 and population dynamics are predicted to play a significant role structuring rural landscapes across European Russia. While often treated as a unified whole with respect to agricultural reform, significant regional diversity exists in Russia. Official statistics at the rayon (county) level are typically skewed toward large-scale farming and farm data from important household productions are summarized into regional averages. In addition, data at sub-district level can often only be obtained by visiting rural administrators in person. Large scale official data thus need to be interpreted with caution. Here we present data collected during the summer of 2010 from representative settlements and enterprises in selected counties within the oblasts (states) of Kostroma and Samara. These field data will provide an initial overview of the economic and social state in modern rural western Russia. We will combine the field data with established socio-demographic observations as well as satellite observations at multiple scales to understand the effect of global change and to project future developments.

de Beurs, K.; Ioffe, G.; Nefedova, T.

2010-12-01

333

Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 80 km (50 miles) x 100 km (62 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: View toward the East Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

334

Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

335

Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 93.0 x 105.7 kilometers ( 57.7 x 65.6 miles) Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 Image courtesy NASA/JPL/NIMA

2002-01-01

336

United States/Russia Space Cooperation Documentary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video documents the initiative to develop a multinational, permanent space research laboratory. Historical background on the U.S. and Soviet manned space flight program as well as joint efforts such as the Apollo-Soyuz link up is shown. The current initiative will begin with collaborative missions involving NASA's space shuttle and Russia's Mir space station, and culminate in a permanently manned space station involving the U.S., Russia, Japan, Canada, and ESA. Shown are computer simulations of the proposed space station. Commentary is provided by the NASA administrator, former astronauts, cosmonauts, and Russian and American space experts.

1993-01-01

337

75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

2010-12-01

338

76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

2011-03-21

339

76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On...of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely...4279 (December 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine:...

2011-12-09

340

Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

Aref'ev, A. L.

2012-01-01

341

The United States Should Establish Normal Trade Relations with Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential benefits to the US economy from Russia's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) are substantial but the United States can enjoy them only if it grants Russia permanent normal trade relations (PNTR) status—by repealing application to Russia of the Jackson-Vanik Amendment, which bars favorable trade relations with countries that restrict emigration. While congressional approval is not necessary

Anders Aslund; Gary Clyde Hufbauer

2011-01-01

342

Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in Southwestern Siberia: combined effects of plant species and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal forest, which mainly consists of extensive forests in Siberia, is the largest continuous forest region on Earth and represents 70 % of the world's boreal forest. Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deeper to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of forest ecosystems are thus required. Relative contributions of organic and inorganic P and, consequently, P availability in forest ecosystems depend on decomposition processes, which could be strongly affected by vegetation composition, temperature, precipitation, and their changes due to a warming climate. The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate P status of surface and deep forest soil horizons from two contrasted biomes in Southwestern Siberia (i.e. forest steppe in the West Siberian plain and blackish ("chernevaya" in Russian) taiga in the low Salair mountains) and (2) assess the effects of vegetation (siberian fir stand, common aspen stand and herbs in a forest gap) and local climate on soil P fractions. Results revealed high contents in total P (645-1042 mg kg-1 in the surface mineral soils) and available inorganic P (diffusive phosphate ions in one week = 83-126 mg kg-1). In addition, there was an accumulation of diffusive phosphate ions in the subsoils resulting from differences between soil horizons in total inorganic P and soil properties. Consequently, deeper root systems may mine substantial amounts of available P for the trees and the potential enhanced growth and C sequestration due to climate change should thus a~priori not be P-limited. High proportions of total organic P (47-56 % of total P in the surface mineral soils) show that decomposition processes potentially play a significant role in P availability. Results show that decomposition processes are affected by vegetation (deciduous broadleaved trees, evergreen coniferous, herbs) and local climate (precipitations; snow cover with its isolating effect on soil). Results on the effects of plant species and local climate improved our understanding of the potential effects of climate change on P availability through warming and vegetation redistribution.

Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Augusto, L.; Derrien, D.; Gallegos, N.; Lashchinskiy, N.; Milin, S.; Nikitich, P.; Raudina, T.; Rusalimova, O.; Zeller, B.; Barsukov, P.

2012-06-01

343

Control on sediment and organic carbon delivery to the Arctic Ocean revealed with space-borne synthetic aperture radar: Ob' River, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important control on river biogeochemistry and sediment load is the process of water exchange between primary channels and the flood plain, particularly in low-relief areas containing lakes, ephemeral channels, and other aquatic ecosystems. Flood-plain exchange may be a dominant process on the lowland rivers of Arctic Russia, which are among the world's largest in water discharge yet are strikingly deficient in their delivery of sediment to the Arctic shelf. Temporal synthetic aperture radar (SAR) amplitude and interferometric images of the Ob' River, Siberia, reveal a time-varying limnological network controlling water, sediment, and nutrient exchange between flood-plain wetlands and the main channel. The amount of hydrologic exchange decreases by one order of magnitude from June to September, enhancing sedimentation over as much as 90% of the flood plain and enriching channel waters with colloidal organic carbon. This observation, combined with Russian field measurements of water discharge and sediment load, indicates that a major sediment sink on the lower Ob' flood plain may be responsible for the low amount of sediment delivery by the Ob' River to its estuary and the Kara Sea.

Smith, Laurence C.; Alsdorf, Douglas E.

1998-05-01

344

Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ of points into 3 groups of agrolandscapes, which have high, medium and low medium agronatural potential. Thus the typological landscape and agrolandscape medium scale map had been worked out, estimation of agronatural potential, and the map had been worked out on the base of detailed agrolandscape research and study of natural geosystems of Minusinskaya Basin. Consideration of agronatural potential of a territory helps to determine regions of perspective development of its separate types, proceeding from presents of natural and economical preconditions. Successful development of agriculture is mainly connected with the right agrolandscape use. That is why the optimum variant of land use could be and should be found with the definite ratio of transformational organizational-economical and adaptive landscape-ecological measures, which could allow abruptly increase the potential of their self-regulation. REFERENCES: 1. G. I. Lysanova landscape analyses of agronatural potential of geosystems. - Irkutsk, 2001. - 187 p. 2. V. A. Nikolaev Regional agrolandscape research // Natural complexes and agriculture. - Voprosy geografii. - M.: Mysl, 1984. - Coll. 124. - P. 73-83.

Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

2012-12-01

345

Tick-borne encephalitis virus in Eastern Siberia: complete genome characteristics.  

PubMed

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most important arboviral diseases across Eurasia. TBE virus (TBEV) is transmitted by tick bite and causes a potentially fatal neurological infection in humans. In the Russian Federation, TBE is endemic in most regions, with 3000-5000 cases of the disease annually. To characterise TBEV in Eastern Siberia, the complete genomes of five TBEV isolates from patients with different clinical manifestations were sequenced. The results show that the Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes of TBEV cause the disease in people in Eastern Siberia. Complete genome analysis revealed an unexpectedly high genetic variability within the Siberian subtype. PMID:22828779

Kulakova, Nina V; Andaev, Evgenii I; Belikov, Sergei I

2012-11-01

346

Agroclimatic potential in central Siberia in an altered 21st century climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest temperature increases are currently found in Northern Hemishpere upper latitudes, and this is where temperature increases from climate change are predicted to be the greatest in the future. Alteration of boreal and Arctic landscapes is already apparent, particularly in Siberia. In this work, we will explore the current spatial and temporal patterns of agriculture potential in Siberia and then investigate potential future agriculture dynamics. Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. It is predicted that forests will move northwards in a warmer climate and be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. Climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia are analyzed based on the hypothesis that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models are used to determine crop range and regression models are constructed to determine crop yield, and these are applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-1990, 1990-2010 using historic data and for 2020 and 2080 using HadCM3 B1 and A2 projections. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia is predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future climatic resources in Siberia would provide potential growth for a variety of crops that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops, nonexistent today, may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming but would also result in different feedbacks to the atmosphere and climate systems, in terms of an altered landscape albedo, substantially modified hydrological regimes and an extended and altered fire regime. However, adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

Soja, A.; Tchebakova, N.; Parfenova, E.; Lysanova, G.

2012-04-01

347

Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme activities. Since microorganisms produce enzyme according to their nutrient demand, enzyme activities can enhance nutrient cycling differently in distinct soil horizons.

Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

2014-05-01

348

Thermokarst Lake Carbon Storage and Transport near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermokarst lakes are prevalent features across the pan-Arctic landscape. As the Arctic climate warms further, thermokarst lakes currently situated in continuous permafrost will likely increase in size and number. Shifting lake distributions may have significant impacts on the land-atmosphere exchange of carbon, as these lakes act as reservoirs and conduits that store and transport carbon and other organic material across the landscape. Using field data collected in the Kolyma River basin in the continuous permafrost region near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia, we investigate the carbon dynamics of four thermokarst lakes in the Y4 watershed, a small, upland drainage area. Through bathymetric mapping of these four lakes, total lake volume was calculated. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen were collected across horizontal transects and subsequently integrated with these total volume measurements to determine physical characteristics of the lakes. Additionally, water samples were collected at various stations and depths for analyses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). With these physical and biogeochemical measurements in concert, we investigated the ability for these lakes to store and transport carbon through the Y4 watershed. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of CDOM concentrations in these lakes provides an understanding of the lability and molecular weight of the organic matter as well as potential light transmittance through the water column. This watershed area provides a representative example of the potential for thermokarst lakes in yedoma regions to process and move carbon across the landscape and ultimately to larger systems such as the Kolyma River basin. This baseline characterization of regional lakes will lead to a better understanding of how further warming and permafrost instability may impact the carbon dynamics of thermokarst lakes and ultimately how they function in the broader biogeochemical and hydrological systems throughout the region.

Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Griffin, C. G.; Zimov, N.

2013-12-01

349

Yana ring structure, North-Eastern Siberia: A possible counterpart of coronae on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An arch of Verkhoyansky Range in NE Siberia, Russia is considered as W and S parts of the rim of the large ring structure, referred hereafter as Yana Ring Structure (YRS). It has general appearance similar to coronae on Venus and could be considered as the terrestrial counter part of coronae. The structure is located between 63 and 70 deg N, 125 and 140 deg E. The outer diameter of YRS (between the rim feet) is 680-700 km. The rim crest diameter is 500-520 km. The inner diameters (between the inner feet of the rim) is 320-350 km. The rim of YRS consist of the following topographic features: W segment is Orulgan Range (N part of Verkhoyansky Range), SW and S segments consist of S part of Verkhoyansky Range, SE segment is Elginskoye Ploskogorye (Tableland), E segment is Chersky Range (its part W of Indigirka River), NE segment is Selennyakhsky Range, and NW segment is Kular Range. Inside this ring of mountains Yanskoye Ploskogorye (Tableland) is located. The circular outlines of YRS are marked with the large river valleys located outside: Lena River (lower of Aldan River mouth) is located W from YRS, Aldan River (lower of Amga River mouth) is from S, Indigirka River (between 64 and 67 deg N lat) is from E, and Selennyakh River (the part running N to S) is from NE. The ring patterns inside the mountaineous rim of YRS are marked with the tributaries of Yana River. The largest ring here, 300 km in diameter, consists of Bytangay (with Bellyakh) River at W, Nelgese and Derbeke Rivers at S/SE, and Tuostakh River at E. The typical altitudes of YRS mountain rim are 1000-2000 m. The maximal ones are: 2400 m in W part of the rim, 2300 m in S, 1600 m in SE, 2200-2500 m in E, and 1300-1500 m in N. The central part of YRS have typical altitudes of 400-600 m. There are lowlands with altitudes 50-200 m to the S, W, N, and NW outside YRS Oymyakonskoye Nagorye (Highland) is located SE of YRS at 500-1500 m altitudes. It should be recognized from this description YRS have a general appearance of circular highland with its central plateau located 1000-2000 m lower than surrounding mountain rim, but 300-400 m higher than plains of lowlands located outside the rim. Such topographic patterns are typical for coronae on Venus. The diameter of YRS is equal to the largest coronae on Venus. There are only 3 or 4 structures of such or larger size on the whole Venus. This calls to compare morphology and geologic evolution of YRS with morphology and models of coronae evolutions especially the largest ones, to search the similarities and/or differences in geologic histories of the structures on the Earth and Venus.

Burba, G. A.

1993-01-01

350

Space Radar Image of Moscow, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a vertically polarized L-band image of the southern half of Moscow, an area which has been inhabited for 2,000 years. The image covers a diameter of approximately 50 kilometers (31 miles) and was taken on September 30, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour. The city of Moscow was founded about 750 years ago and today is home to about 8 million residents. The southern half of the circular highway (a road that looks like a ring) can easily be identified as well as the roads and railways radiating out from the center of the city. The city was named after the Moskwa River and replaced Russia's former capital, St. Petersburg, after the Russian Revolution in 1917. The river winding through Moscow shows up in various gray shades. The circular structure of many city roads can easily be identified, although subway connections covering several hundred kilometers are not visible in this image. The white areas within the ring road and outside of it are buildings of the city itself and it suburban towns. Two of many airports are located in the west and southeast of Moscow, near the corners of the image. The Kremlin is located north just outside of the imaged city center. It was actually built in the 16th century, when Ivan III was czar, and is famous for its various churches. In the surrounding area, light gray indicates forests, while the dark patches are agricultural areas. The various shades from middle gray to dark gray indicate different stages of harvesting, ploughing and grassland. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes which are caused by nature and those changes which are induced by human activity. SIR-C was developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. X-SAR was developed by the Dornier and Alenia Spazio companies for the German space agency, Deutsche Agentur fuer Raumfahrtangelegenheiten (DARA), and the Italian space agency, Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI), with the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft und Raumfahrt e.V.(DLR), the major partner in science, operations and data processing of X-SAR.

1994-01-01

351

Smoke and Clouds over Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several mountain ranges and a portion of the Amur River are visible in this set of MISR images of Russia's far east Khabarovsk region. The images were acquired on May 13, 2001 during Terra orbit 7452. The view from MISR's 70-degree forward-looking camera is at the top left; the 26-degree forward-looking view is at the top right. The larger image at the bottom is a stereo 'anaglyph' created using the cameras at two intermediate angles. To view the stereo image in 3-D you need red/blue glasses with the red filter placed over your left eye. All of the images are oriented with north to the left to facilitate stereo viewing. Each image covers an area about 345 kilometers x 278 kilometers.

The Amur River, in the upper right, and Lake Bolon, at the top center, are most prominent in the 26-degree view due to sunglint (mirror-like reflection of the Sun's rays by the water). The Amur River valley is a primary breeding ground for storks and cranes and a stopover for large numbers of migratory birds. About 20% of the Amur wetlands are protected by official conservation measures, but human development has converted large portions to agricultural uses. Other notable features in these images are several mountain chains, including the Badzhal'skiy to the left of center and the Bureiskiy in the lower left.

Smoke plumes from several forest fires can be seen. They are especially apparent in the 70-degree view where the smoke's visibility is accentuated, in part, by the long slant path through the atmosphere. The largest plumes are in the lower left and upper right, with some smaller plumes above and to the right of the image centers. In the upper images the hazy region in the vicinity of these smaller plumes has the appearance of low-altitude smoke, but depth perception provided by the stereo anaglyph shows that it is actually a distinct layer of high-altitude cirrus clouds. Whether the cirrus is related to the fires is uncertain. It is possible, however, for the fires have to have heated the lower atmosphere enough to create bubbles of hot air. As such bubbles rise, they can force stable, nearly saturated air above to move even higher, triggering the formation of ice clouds. Visualization of other three-dimensional characteristics of the scene, such as the intermediate-altitude layer of cumulus clouds along the left side, is made possible by the stereo imagery.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2001-01-01

352

What kind of capitalism for Russia?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post-communist governing elites had a vision of a transition to a type of society characterised by wealth, markets, private ownership, democracy and civil society. The transformation in Russia is analyzed in terms of company structure, economic outcomes and patterns of social integration, elite and class fragmentation. On the basis of a comparative political economy, different models of capitalism are defined

2000-01-01

353

Phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium cerealis in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungus Fusarium cerealis is described, which had not been previously identified in Russia. F. cerealis was isolated from wheat and barley roots and grains, as well as from the leaves of thistle collected in the Far Eastern,\\u000a North Caucasus, and Central regions. F. cerealis strains may be misidentified as F. culmorum or F. graminearum, since the morphological characteristics of

T. Yu. Gagkaeva

2010-01-01

354

Piracy, Policy, and Russia's Emerging Media Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The birth of a media market in Russia affords a unique opportunity to study the collision of international and national norms and practices. The refraction of globalization—involving, in this case, copyright protection and the program market—through local values and the rather different outcomes of sanctions and market inducements emerge as critical issues. The players in this drama are major and

Ellen Mickiewicz

2001-01-01

355

Experience of western oil companies in Russia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oil and gas industry is the most important industry to Russia providing 52% of all hard currency earnings for the country. The oil production is declining by more than 30% during recent years from 10.3 billion barrels per day in 1990 to 7.1 billion ba...

A. Moerland

1994-01-01

356

The Health Sciences Library Network in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of libraries in Russia focuses on science and medical libraries. Topics addressed include historical background; library science education; a consortium formed to build national databases and disseminate information; producers of scientific and medical information; international cooperation; interlibrary loans; the Russian Medical…

Accart, Jean-Philippe

1992-01-01

357

Education and Society in the New Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays examines the changes that have occurred in Russia since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. A historical perspective is used to show that many of the changes were underway during perestroika and that post-Soviet developments are an extension of those changes. The book is divided into four sections. Section 1, "The Soviet…

Jones, Anthony, Ed.

358

Privatisation and Economic Development Strategy in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic development in Russia has dominated discussions on economic strategies world wide. In the unipolar scenario, it has attracted a greater attention than the economic strategies formulated by the erstwhile Soviet Union. The Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, led to the emergence of a new development paradigm consisting of new economic policy, collectivisation movement, electricity everywhere and electricity for all, resolving

Ram Kumar Mishra

359

The Drug Trade in Contemporary Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia has had one of the fastest growing drug problems in the world in the past five years. With its limited border controls and large illicit migration, it is now integrated into the global drug market with links to the synthetic drug markets of Western Europe and the Far East, as well as the booming heroin trade from Central Asia.

Louise Shelley

2006-01-01

360

Feasibility Study: Central Park Hotel, Magadan, Russia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study, conducted by Walsh Investment Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report shows the results of a study done for the proposed construction and operation of a Western-style hotel in the city of Magadan, Russia. The s...

1997-01-01

361

Winners and Losers in Russia's Economic Transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transition to a market economy has produced a substantial and rapid change in the wage structure in Russia. Household surveys taken before and after the transition indicate that overall wage inequality nearly doubled from 1991 to 1994 and has reached a level higher than that in the United States. Returns to both measured skills (education, occupation) and unmeasured skills

Elizabeth Brainerd

1998-01-01

362

Involution and Destitution in Capitalist Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much has been written on the unprecedented degeneration of the Russian economy, how people survive or do not survive remains a mystery. A close 5-year tracking of workers from a liquidated furniture enterprise in Northern Russia reveals two types of survival strategy: defensive and entrepreneurial. Defensive strategies retreat to a primitive domestic economy in the face of the collapse

Michael Burawoy; Pavel Krotov; Tatyana Lytkina

2000-01-01

363

On the history of psychosurgery in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The history of psychosurgery in Russia can be divided into 3 periods: The first period starts at the turn of the century under the initiative of Bekhterev. His pupil and one of the fathers of Russian neurosurgery Puusepp performed leucotomy-like cuttings of frontal association fibers in manic-depressive cases and psychic equivalents of epileptics as early as 1906–1910.

B. L. Lichterman

1993-01-01

364

The Beginnings of Women's Education in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maintains that education for men and women in Russia, which were once sharply distinct from each other, have grown more alike. Reviews Russian education history prior to 1917, examining sex bias and educational discrimination. Maintains that the Russian Orthodox Church was a primary force in shaping women's education. (CFR)

Kosheleva, O. E.

1995-01-01

365

Tsarist Russia and the World Wheat Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russian grain trade, production, and consumption during the Tsarist period (1861–1914) is empirically evaluated. Russia was the world's largest wheat exporter during this period. Tsarist Russian agriculture is often characterized in the literature as having been “backward” and not well-integrated with international markets. In contrast to this view, this analysis finds that the Russian grain trade was significantly influenced by

Barry K. Goodwin; Thomas J. Grennes

1998-01-01

366

Education in the Fate of Today's Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education in the fate of today's Russia was the topic of a scientific seminar titled "Philosophy, Education, and Society," held in the summer of 2007 in the city of Gagra by the editors of the journals "Voprosy filosofii" and "Pedagogika," the Moscow N.E. Bauman State Technical University, and the Russian Academy of Education. Philosophers,…

Borisenkov, V.P.; Kraevskii, V.V.; Valeev, G.Kh.; Avtonomova, N.S.; Evdokimov, A.K.; Shchedrina, T.G.; Belomestnova, N.V.; Beliaeva, M.A.; Shimina, A.N.; Karmanchikov, A.J.; Korol, A.D.; Varnavskaia, N.Ia.; Berezhnova, E.V.; Daniliuk, A.Ia.; Anua, R.G.; Sidorina, T.Iu.; Tarba, I.D.; Arlamov, A.A.

2008-01-01

367

Integrated Paleomagnetism and U-Pb Geochronology of Mafic Dikes of the Eastern Anabar Shield Region, Siberia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic Paleolatitude of Siberia and Comparison with Laurentia.  

PubMed

This article reports the first joint paleomagnetic and U-Pb geochronologic study of Precambrian diabase dikes in the Anabar Shield and adjacent Riphean cover of Siberia. It was undertaken to allow comparison with similar published studies in Laurentia and to test Proterozoic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia. An east-trending Kuonamka dike yielded a provisional U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1503+/-5 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 16 degrees S, 221 degrees E (dm=17&j0;, dp=10&j0;). A paleomagnetic pole at 6 degrees N, 234 degrees E (dm=28&j0;, dp=14&j0;) was obtained from five Kuonamka dikes. An east-southeast-trending Chieress dike yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1384+/-2 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 4 degrees N, 258 degrees E (dm=9&j0;, dp=5&j0;). Kuonamka and Chieress poles are interpreted to be primary but do not average out secular variation. Assuming that the Siberian Plate has remained intact since the Mesoproterozoic, except for mid-Paleozoic opening of the Viljuy Rift, then the above results indicate that the Siberian Plate was in low latitudes at ca. 1503 and 1384 Ma, broadly similar to low latitudes determined for Laurentia from well-dated paleopoles at 1460-1420, 1320-1290, and 1267 Ma. This would allow Laurentia and Siberia to have been attached in the Mesoproterozoic, as suggested in several recent studies based on geological criteria. However, because paleomagnetic results from the Anabar Shield region do not average out secular variation and the ages of poles from Siberia and Laurentia are not well matched, it is not yet possible to distinguish between these reconstructions or to rule out other configurations that also maintain the two cratons at low paleolatitudes. PMID:10856011

Ernst; Buchan; Hamilton; Okrugin; Tomshin

2000-07-01

368

Time trends in cardiovascular disease mortality in Russia and Germany from 1980 to 2007 - are there migration effects?  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. Large variations in CVD mortality between countries and also between population subgroups within countries have been observed. Previous studies showed significantly lower risks in German repatriates and Jews emigrating from Russia than in the general Russian population. We examined to what degree the migration of large subgroups influenced national CVD mortality rates. Methods We used WHO data to map the CVD mortality distribution in Europe in 2005. Supplemented by data of the Statistisches Bundesamt, the mortality trends in three major CVD groups between 1980 and 2007 in Russia and Germany are displayed, as well as demographic information. The effects of migration on demography were estimated and percentage changes in CVD mortality trends were calculated under the assumption that migration had not occurred. Results Cardiovascular disease mortality patterns within Europe showed a strong west-east gradient with ratios up to sixfold. In Germany, the CVD mortality levels were low and steadily decreasing, whereas in Russia they fluctuated at high levels with substantial differences between the sexes and strong correlations with political changes and health campaigns. The trends in both Russia and Germany were affected by the migration that occurred in both countries over recent decades. However, our restricted focus in only adjusting for the migration of German repatriates and Jews had moderate effects on the national CVD mortality statistics in Germany (+1.0%) and Russia (-0.6%). Conclusions The effects on CVD mortality rates due to migration in Germany and Russia were smaller than those due to secular economical changes. However, migration should still be considered as a factor influencing national mortality trends.

2010-01-01

369

Structure and diversity of oldest sponge-microbe reefs: Lower Cambrian, Aldan River, Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oldest sponge reef is a small Early Cambrian bioherm at the base of the Tommotian Stage (˜535 540 Ma) in southeast Siberia. The mainly archaeocyath construction may be a response to turbid conditions. Cambrocyathellus bowls fused to create a rigid cavernous frame colonized by cryptic Archaeolynthus and calcified microbes (Renalcis). In addition to these constructors and binders, other reef

Robert Riding; Andrey Yu. Zhuravlev

1995-01-01

370

Integrated approaches to terminal Proterozoic stratigraphy: an example from the Olenek Uplift, northeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Olenek Uplift of northeastern Siberia, the Khorbusuonka Group and overlying Kessyusa and Erkeket formations preserve a significant record of terminal Proterozoic and basal Cambrian Earth history. A composite section more than 350 m thick is reconstructed from numerous exposures along the Khorbusuonka River. The Khorbusuonka Group comprises three principal sedimentary sequences: peritidal dolomites of the Mastakh Formation, which

Andrew H. Knoll; John P. Grotzinger; Alan J. Kaufman; Petr Kolosov

1995-01-01

371

Climate on Abnormal Occurrence of Wildland Fires in Siberia and Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great many wildland fires occurred in Siberia and Mongolia in 2002. Especially in Mongolia, the Prime Minister declared that the whole area should ready for civil defense to assist fighting the wildfires from August 16. Generally speaking, the wildfires are caused by extreme hot and dry conditions, but few analyzed climatic data can be found as the reason. Then

K. Kimura; H. Hayasaka; K. Yamazaki; M. Fukuda

2002-01-01

372

Lignin phenols in sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia: application to paleoenvironmental studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments from three cores obtained from distinct depositional environments in Lake Baikal, Siberia were analyzed for organic carbon, total nitrogen and lignin phenol concentration and composition. Results were used to examine changes in paleoenvironmental conditions during climatic cycles of the late Quaternary (<125 ka). Average organic carbon, and total nitrogen concentrations, atomic CN ratios and organic carbon accumulation rates were

William H. Orem; Steven M. Colman; Harry E. Lerch

1997-01-01

373

A preliminary investigation of siliceous microfossil succession in late Quaternary sediments from Lake Baikal, Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siliceous microfossil assemblage succession was analyzed in a 100 m sediment core from Lake Baikal, Siberia. The core was recovered from the lake's central basin at a water depth of 365 m. Microfossil abundance varied greatly within the intervals sampled, ranging from samples devoid of siliceous microfossils to samples with up to 3.49 × 1011 microfossils g-1 sediment. Fluctuations in

M. L. Julius; E. F. Stoermer; S. M. Colman; T. C. Moore

1997-01-01

374

Late Quaternary clay mineral record in Central Lake Baikal (Academician Ridge, Siberia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the mineralogical composition of two cores recovered on the Academician Ridge (Central Lake Baikal, Siberia). Sedimentological features show that the cores are unaffected by turbidity currents. However, hemipelagic deposition is not continuous, but intermittently disturbed by syn- or post-sediment reworking (e.g., bioturbation, slumps, faulting). Such modes of deposition are consistent with the complex uplift history of the ridge.

N. Fagel; T. Boski; L. Likhoshway; H. Oberhaensli

2003-01-01

375

Fotoyadernye ehksperimenty na nakopitele ehlektronov SIBIR'-2. (Photonuclear experiments at the SIBERIA-2 storage ring).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Photonuclear experiments prospects at the SIBERIA-2 facility to be launched in Moscow in 1992 are considered. The feasibility at nuclear photoexcitation and photodisintegration low-background correlation and polarization experiments in the 10 MeV - 1.5 Ge...

S. T. Belyaev G. M. Gurevich V. G. Nedorezov I. M. Pavlichenkov A. A. Turinge

1990-01-01

376

Fish and Fishing in Holocene Cis-Baikal, Siberia: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern Siberia's Lake Baikal and its tributaries are productive fisheries, and the region's Holocene archaeological sites confirm that this is a long-standing phenomenon. Recent zooarchaeological investigations of sites here allow Holocene fishing practices to be examined in more detail than was previously possible. Along much of the lake's coast, bathymetry is very steep and the water very cold; here fishing

Robert J. Losey; Tatiana Nomokonova; Dustin White

2012-01-01

377

Determination of aerodynamic diameters of pollen grains and their agglomerates for Western Siberia plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of determination of aerodynamic characteristics of 17 plants dominating the ecosystem of Western Siberia are reported. Pollen of cereals and woody plants was examined. The sedimentation velocities of single pollen grains and their agglomerates were determined. The data obtained were used to calculate the aerodynamic diameters of pollen grains of all investigated plants.

Istomin, V. L.; Koutsenogii, K. P.; Golovko, V. V.

2012-12-01

378

Sources and transport of anthropogenic radionuclides in the Ob River system, Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential sources of anthropogenic radionuclides to the Ob River system of western Siberia include global stratospheric fallout, tropospheric fallout from atomic weapons tests and releases from production and reprocessing facilities. Samples of water, suspended and bottom sediments collected in 1994 and 1995 have been used to characterize the sources and transport of 137Cs, Pu isotopes, 237Np and 129I through

J. K. Cochran; S. B. Moran; N. S. Fisher; T. M. Beasley; J. M. Kelley

2000-01-01

379

Discharges and yields of suspended sediment in the Ob' and Yenisey Rivers of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northward-flowing rivers of Siberia deliver immense quantities of water but only relatively small quantities of sediment to the Arctic Ocean. The relatively low delivery of sediment to the ocean by these rivers is explained by the large areas of forest and swamp in their basins. In the Ob' River, sediment yields tend to increase between the headwaters and Kamen'

NELLY N. BOBROVITSKAYA; CLAUDIA ZUBKOVA; ROBERT H. MEADE

1996-01-01

380

Oxygen and hydrogen isotope systematics of Lake Baikal, Siberia: Implications for paleoclimate studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We interpret oxygen and hydrogen isotope data for water samples from Lake Baikal, Siberia, its tributaries and other local rivers, and local precipitation in terms of the known water budget for the modern lake in order to gain insight into past limnological and climatic processes that influenced the lake. Lake Baikal is remarkably uniform in its isotopic composition @I80 =

Robert R. Seal II; Wayne C. Shanks

1998-01-01

381

Transformation of ground vegetation under the effect of fires in pine forests of Middle Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Siberia, pine forests are widespread and grow in diverse habitats. Under zonal conditions, pine shows a wide amplitude of ecological flexibility, being an edificator species in areas with different soils, from shallow podzols with a low base exchange capacity to soddy calcareous soils. The expansion of pine forests far beyond the limits of the zone with a true forest

V. D. Perevoznikova; G. A. Ivanova; V. A. Ivanov; N. M. Kovaleva

2007-01-01

382

Permafrost and surface energy balance of a polygonal tundra site in Northern Siberia - Part 2: Winter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Permafrost is largely determined by the surface energy balance. Its vulnerability to degradation due to climate warming depends on complex soil-atmosphere interactions. This article is the second part of a comprehensive surface energy balance study at a polygonal tundra site in Northern Siberia. It comprises two consecutive winter periods from October 2007 to May 2008 and from October 2008 to

M. Langer; S. Westermann; S. Muster; K. Piel; J. Boike

2010-01-01

383

The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the exception of Neanderthals, from which DNA sequences of numerous individuals have now been determined, the number and genetic relationships of other hominin lineages are largely unknown. Here we report a complete mitochondrial (mt) DNA sequence retrieved from a bone excavated in 2008 in Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia. It represents a hitherto unknown type

Johannes Krause; Qiaomei Fu; Jeffrey M. Good; Bence Viola; Michael V. Shunkov; Anatoli P. Derevianko; Svante Pääbo

2010-01-01

384

A Trek in the Sayan Mountains: How I Sent My Class to Siberia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a summer trip taken by 2 teachers, a parent, and 11 boys aged 14 to 16 to the Sayan Mountains of Siberia. The group was from a small private secondary school in the backwoods of Canada. A Siberian mountaineering club from Irkutsk led the group to the summit of Munku Sardik. (KS)

Arthur, Tony

1991-01-01

385

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

1994-01-01

386

Modeling and evaluating the effect of forest fire control on the CO 2 cycle in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The forests of Siberia play an important role in absorbing carbon dioxide. Resent increases in forest fires, due to both human negligence and global warming, appear to cause significant damage to the forests. In the present research, basic models were established to evaluate changes in land area and carbon flux by forest fires and by disturbances of permafrost. Basic data

T. Chikahisa; H. Anzai; Y. Hishinuma; K. Kudo

2005-01-01

387

Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic records from permafrost deposits in the Arctic region of Northern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice Complexes, extremely ice-rich permafrost deposits with large ice wedges, are widely distributed in the Arctic region of northeast Siberia. They present excellent archives for the reconstruction of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental conditions in non-glaciated areas. In 1998, 1999, and 2000 Russian and German scientists worked together on the Bykovsky Peninsula southeast of the Lena Delta in order to investigate the

Lutz Schirrmeister; Christine Siegert; Tatyana Kuznetsova; Svetlana Kuzmina; Andrei Andreev; Frank Kienast; Hanno Meyer; Anatoly Bobrov

2002-01-01

388

Holocene peat and carbon accumulation rates in the southern taiga of western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent studies have recognized peatlands as a sink for atmospheric CO2, little is known about the role of Siberian peatlands in the global carbon cycle. We have estimated the Holocene peat and carbon accumulation rate in the peatlands of the southern taiga and subtaiga zones of western Siberia. We explain the accumulation rates by calculating the average peat accumulation

Wiebe Borren; Wladimir Bleuten; Elena D. Lapshina

2004-01-01

389

Primary multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 regions, Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation.  

PubMed

Of 235 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients who had not received tuberculosis treatment in the Irkutsk oblast and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), eastern Siberia, 61 (26%) were multidrug resistant. A novel strain, S 256, clustered among these isolates and carried eis-related kanamycin resistance, indicating a need for locally informed diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:24047678

Zhdanova, Svetlana; Heysell, Scott K; Ogarkov, Oleg; Boyarinova, Galina; Alexeeva, Galina; Pholwat, Suporn; Zorkaltseva, Elena; Houpt, Eric R; Savilov, Eugeniy

2013-10-01

390

Primary Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 Regions, Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation  

PubMed Central

Of 235 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients who had not received tuberculosis treatment in the Irkutsk oblast and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), eastern Siberia, 61 (26%) were multidrug resistant. A novel strain, S 256, clustered among these isolates and carried eis-related kanamycin resistance, indicating a need for locally informed diagnosis and treatment strategies.

Zhdanova, Svetlana; Ogarkov, Oleg; Boyarinova, Galina; Alexeeva, Galina; Pholwat, Suporn; Zorkaltseva, Elena; Houpt, Eric R.; Savilov, Eugeniy

2013-01-01

391

The Deep Permafrost Carbon Pool of Siberia and Alaska (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the amount of organic carbon stored in Arctic permafrost and its biogeochemical characteristics are important topics in today's permafrost research. While the uppermost cryosoil horizons are reasonably studied and recorded in the Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database (NCSCD), there are large uncertainties concerning the quantity and distribution of permafrost deep organic carbon. We studied the organic carbon content of the Yedoma region of unglaciated Siberia and Alaska. This region is unique because of its long-term accumulation of organic carbon, which was deeply incorporated into permafrost during the late Quaternary. Inclusion of labile organic matter into permafrost halted decomposition and resulted in a deep long-term carbon sink. Organic carbon in the Yedoma region occurs mainly as peat inclusions, twigs and root fragments, other solid and fine detrital plant remains, fossil remains of mammals, insects, aquatic plankton and soil microorganisms, and finally their decompositional and metabolic products in terms of particulate and dissolved organic matter. With our study we show that two major sub-reservoirs compose the Yedoma region deep frozen organic carbon; Yedoma deposits (late Pleistocene ice- and organic-rich silty sediments) and deposits formed in thaw-lake basins (generalised as thermokarst deposits). Thaw-lake basins result when lake formation degrades Yedoma deposits, then the lakes drain and deposits refreeze. Therefore, the deep Yedoma region organic carbon pool is far from homogeneous and strongly linked to depositional and permafrost dynamics as well as the ecological and climatic history. Using of approximately 1000 frozen samples from 23 Siberian and Alaskan study sites and a new approach for upscaling, we find significant differences to former estimates of the Yedoma coverage area, thickness of the relevant frozen deposits, ground ice content and finally in organic carbon content that lead to a reassessment of the deep permafrost carbon pools of the northern high latitude Yedoma region. Because of high inherent (spatial) heterogeneity and non-normal input parameter distributions, we used median values (rather than means) and bootstrapping statistics for carbon budget calculation and error estimation. Based on this approach we quantified the organic carbon pool to 54 +15/-9 Gt for Yedoma deposits and to 80+32/-23 Gt for thermokarst deposits. The total Yedoma region deep organic carbon pool of 134+47/-32 Gt is a substantial amount of thaw-vulnerable organic carbon that must be accounted for in global carbon-cycle models.

Strauss, J.; Schirrmeister, L.; Grosse, G.; Ulrich, M.; Wetterich, S.; Herzschuh, U.; Hubberten, H. W.

2013-12-01

392

Seasonal variability as a source of uncertainty in the West Siberian regional CH4 flux upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares seasonal and spatial variations in methane fluxes as sources of uncertainty in regional CH4 flux upscaling from the wetlands of West Siberia. The study examined variability in summertime CH4 emissions from boreal peatlands, with a focus on two subtaiga fen sites in the southern part of West Siberia (Novosibirskaya oblast). We measured CH4 flux, water table depth, air and peat temperature, pH and electric conductivity of peat water during three field campaigns in summer 2011 (9–12 July, 26–28 July and 20–21 August). Fluxes were measured with static chambers at sites chosen to represent two of the most widespread types of wetlands for this climatic zone: soligenous poor fens and topogenous fens. In both sites the water table level acts as the primary control on fluxes. For the poor fen site with good drainage, water table controls CH4 fluxes on the seasonal scale but not on a local spatial scale; for the fen site with weak drainage and microtopographic relief, the water table controls fluxes on the local spatial scale, but does not drive seasonal variations in the flux magnitude. This difference in hydrology shows the necessity of including detailed wetland type classification schemes into large-scale modeling efforts. From these three measurement periods, we estimated the relative seasonal variation in CH4 emissions as 8% for the fen site and 26% for the poor fen site. These results were compared to estimates of other sources of uncertainty (such as interannual variation and spatial heterogeneity) to show that quantifying seasonal variability is less critical than these other variations for an improved estimate of regional CH4 fluxes. This research demonstrates and ranks the challenges in upscaling measured wetland CH4 fluxes across West Siberia and can guide future field campaigns.

Sabrekov, A. F.; Runkle, B. R. K.; Glagolev, M. V.; Kleptsova, I. E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

2014-04-01

393

SAYANI'91 - A joint United States/Commonwealth of Independent States field campaign to investigate forest decline damage in the Krasnoyarsk region of southcentral Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The field experiment described took place in the Sayani Mountains of Siberia. The purpose of the joint field campaign was to observe and exchange methodologies with Russian scientists with regard to the development of remote sensing techniques for the early detection and assessment of forest decline damage believed to be associated with atmospheric deposition and/or insect and disease infestations. Several types of passive and active remote sensing measurements were made in conjunction with biophysical measurements on vegetative samples collected from four study sites representing a strong elevational gradient. Relatively cloud-free SPOT data were also acquired over the study area. Moderate canopy damage was recorded at the mid-elevation site (3400 ft/1037 m). The lowest levels of damage were recorded at the lowest elevation site (2300 ft/701 m.) At all sites, east versus west flagging of the canopy was noted (i.e., full canopy on the west-facing side of the canopy, significantly less foliage on the east-facing side).

Williams, D. L.; Kharuk, V. I.; Zhirin, V. M.; Rock, B. N.; Ranson, K. J.; Wessman, C. A.; Curtiss, B.

1992-01-01

394

Modern nature and climate changes in Siberia: new methods and results of analysis of instrumented observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peculiarity of nature and climate changes in middle latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere and in Siberia is that the temporal variability of meteorological quantities here has a wide range and their spatial variability has a complicated zone structure. Therefore, regional monitoring of modern nature and climate changes in Siberia is of scientific interest from the viewpoint of the global changes observed. Another Siberian peculiarity is associated with the fact that there are many unique objects that have global importance both as natural complexes (boreal forests, water- bog systems, Baikal lake, etc.) And as technogenic objects (oil and gas production, coal mining, metallurgy, transport, etc.). Therefore monitoring and modeling of regional nature and climate changes in Siberia have great practical importance, which is underestimated now, for industrial development of Siberia. Taking into account the above peculiarities and tendencies on investigation of global and regional environmental and climate changes, the multidisciplinary project on Climate and Ecological Monitoring of Siberia (CEMS) was accepted to the research and development program Sibir' since 1993. To realize this project, the Climate and Ecological Observatory was established in Tomsk at the Institute for Optical Monitoring (IOM) SB RAS. At the present time the stations (the basic and background ones) of this observatory are in a progress and theory and instruments for monitoring are being developed as well. In this paper we discuss some results obtained in the framework of CEMS project that were partially published in the monographs, in scientific journals, and will be published in the Proceedings of the 8th Joint International Symposium on Atmospheric and Ocean Optics and Atmosphere Physics. This review has a purpose not only to discuss the obtained regularities but also to formulate scientific and technical tasks for further investigations into the regional changes of technogenic, natural, and climate systems.

Kabanov, Mikhail V.

2002-03-01

395

The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers are only now beginning to uncover important family archives that tell of life in Russia during the reign of Joseph Stalin. One team from the Memorial Society in St. Petersburg was able to successfully recover family archives that included letters, personal papers, memoirs, and photographs. Led by Orlando Figes, this team of researchers has created this website to offer the public a selection from these powerful documents. The materials on the site are divided into sections such as "Family Histories", "Interviews", "Sound", and "Photographs". The "Interviews" area contains dozens of interview transcripts, but the majority of them are offered only in Russian. Fortunately, visitors can click on the "English" tab to review extracts from four of the interviews in English. Moving on, the "Photographs" area contains photos culled from the various family histories. Finally, the "Family Histories" area contains brief profiles of each family's history and their experiences in Stalin's Russia.

Figes, Orlando

396

Russia clamps downs on data release  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports that Russia is stepping up enforcement of laws banning unauthorized release of detailed geological and geophysical data to foreign companies. But companies authorized to sell or license information about Russian minerals say the stricter oversight isn't affecting their activities. That's because the effort is intended to curb illegal sales of data by Russian regional organizations and federal agencies. In addition, Russia's state tax department and ministries of finance and justice are considering sanctions to be imposed for violations of lawful procedures. The added vigilance by Russian officials likely will help clear up confusion among foreign companies, resulting from vague laws and regulations, about how and from whom data may be obtained obtained legally.

Not Available

1992-11-30

397

Treatment needs, diagnoses and use of services for acutely admitted psychiatric patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway  

PubMed Central

Background We compared demography, diagnoses and clinical needs in acutely admitted psychiatric hospital patients in northwest Russia and northern Norway. Method All acutely admitted psychiatric patients in 1 psychiatric hospital in north-west Russia and 2 in northern Norway were in a three months period assessed with HoNOS and a Norwegian form developed to study acute psychiatric services (MAP). Data from a total of 841 patients were analysed (377 Norwegian, 464 Russian) with univariate and multivariate statistics. Results Russian patients were more often males who had paid work. 2/3 were diagnosed with alcohol and organic disorders, and 70% reported problems related to sleep. Depression was widespread, as were problems associated with occupation. Many more Norwegian patients were on various forms of social security and lived in community supported homes. They had a clinical profile of affective disorders, use of drugs, suicidality and problems with activities involved of daily life. Slightly more Norwegian patients were involuntary admitted. Conclusion Acutely admitted psychiatric patients in North West Russia and Northern Norwegian showed different clinical profiles: alcohol, depression and organic disorders characterised Russian patients, affective disorders, suicidality and use of drugs characterised the Norwegians. Whereas Norwegian patients are mainly referred from GPs the Russians come via 1.line psychiatric services (“dispensaries”). Average length of stay for Russian patients was 2.5 times longer than that of the Norwegian.

2013-01-01

398

Terrorism and the fall of imperial Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the role of terrorism in the decline and fall of Imperial Russia. It analyzes the struggle between terrorists and the Tsarist government during three stages: (1) 1861–66, amidst the ‘Great Reforms’ and radicalization of students; (2) 1877–81, a confrontation between populist terrorists and government; and (3) the crisis of 1904–7, which witnessed open battles between terrorists on

Norman M. Naimark

1990-01-01

399

Utilization of geothermal energy in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present geothermal energy is utilized in Russia mostly for space and district heating, and for industrial and agricultural purposes. Six towns with a total population of about 100,000 use geothermal district heating systems. The total area of geothermally heated greenhouses is about 700,000 m[sup 2]. Electric energy generated at geothermal power stations remains negligible: the installed capacity of the

Kononov

2009-01-01

400

Biogerontology in Russia: from past to future  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents major steps of gerontology development in Russia. The issues of training in gerontology and geriatrics,\\u000a institutional infrastructure within the Gerontological Society of the Russian Academy of Sciences and its activities have\\u000a been considered therein. Some results of Russian researchers obtained during 2005–2010 have been summarized as well. Special\\u000a attention is given to the prospects of gerontology in

Vladimir N. Anisimov; Vladimir Kh. Khavinson; Olga N. Mikhailova

2011-01-01