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1

Bazhen Fm matured reservoir evaluation (West Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The depletion of the traditional sources of hydrocarbons leads to the situation when the biggest players of the oil and gas production market turn to unconventional reserves. Commercial shale oil and gas production levels in the USA have largely determined world prospects for oil and gas industry development. Russia takes one of the leading place in the world in terms of shale oil resources. The main source rock of the West Siberia, the biggest oil and gas basin in Russia under development, the Bazhen Fm and its stratigraphic and lithologic analogs, is located in the territory of over 1,000,000 square kilometers. Provided it has similar key properties (organic carbon content, porosity, permeability) with the deposits of the Bakken Fm and Green River Fm, USA, it is still extremely poorly described with laboratory methods. We have performed the laboratory analysis of core samples from a well drilled in Bazhen Fm deposits with matured organic matter (Tmax>435 °C). It was demonstrated the applicability of the improved steady-state gas flow method to evaluate the permeability of nanopermeable rocks. The role of natural fracturing in forming voids was determided that allows regarding potential Bazhen Fm reservoirs as systems with dual porosity and dual permeability.

Parnachev, S.; Skripkin, A.; Baranov, V.; Zakharov, S.

2015-02-01

2

Spatial displacement of Odonata in south-west Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account is presented of mass dragonfly migrations observed previously in Russia and West Siberia in particular. A mass migration in Libellula quadrimaculata is described in detail. It occurred on 1 July 1981 in the south-western part of the West Siberian Plain in the valley of the Ishym River. From 1968 to 2008 we studied population dynamics, spatial distribution

Anatoly Haritonov; Olga Popova

2011-01-01

3

Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

Clarke, J.W.

1994-01-01

4

Petroleum habitat of East Siberia, Russia  

SciTech Connect

East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. In the Lena-Tunguska province, rifts that developed during Riphean time are filled by thick sedimentary rocks, in which petroleum deposits have formed. In Early Cambrian time a barrier reef extended across the East Siberian craton from southeast to northwest. A lagoon to the west of this reef was the site of thick rhythmic salt deposits, which are the main seals for petroleum in the province. The sedimentary sections of the platform cover ranges in age from Late Proterozoic to Permian. More than 25 oil and gas fields have been discovered in the province, all in Riphean through Lower Cambrian rocks. 17 refs., 7 figs.

Clarke, J.W. [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

1994-03-01

5

Role of Siberia's territories in the economic development of Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of Russia's largest macroregion, Siberia, in the economic development of the country is demonstrated. The emphasis is on examining the delimitation of Siberia, and on substantiating its paramount spatial, resource and ecological significance. An economicgeographical analysis of the consequences of the macroregion's inland location is carried out.

L. A. Bezrukov; L. M. Korytny

2009-01-01

6

Tickborne Pathogen Detection, Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

Ixodes persulcatus (n = 125) and Dermacentor reticulatus (n = 84) ticks from Western Siberia, Russia, were tested for infection with Borrelia, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia, Bartonella, and Babesia spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays with subsequent sequencing. I. persulcatus ticks were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (37.6% ± 4.3% [standard deviation]), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4% ± 1.4%), Ehrlichia muris (8.8% ± 2.5%), and Bartonella spp. (37.6% ± 4.3%). D. reticulatus ticks contained DNA of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (3.6% ± 2.0%), Bartonella spp. (21.4% ± 4.5%), and Babesia canis canis (3.6% ± 2.0%). Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and their mixed infections were observed among I. persulcatus, whereas B. garinii NT29 DNA was seen in samples from D. reticulatus. Among the I. persulcatus ticks studied, no Babesia spp. were observed, whereas B. canis canis was the single subspecies found in D. reticulatus. PMID:16318722

Rar, Vera A.; Fomenko, Natalia V.; Dobrotvorsky, Andrey K.; Livanova, Natalya N.; Rudakova, Svetlana A.; Fedorov, Evgeniy G.; Astanin, Vadim B.

2005-01-01

7

Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

2009-04-01

8

Radioactive Elements in Soils of Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk In the course of long-term research a great deal of information on the content of natural and artificial radionuclides in soils of the Siberian regions has been obtained and summarized (Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Yakutia, Khakassia, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk Oblasts and a number of other Siberian regions). The content level of U(Ra), Th and K in soil of studied areas is within the range of values obtained for soil of other areas of Russia and the world and defined, first of all, by radioactivity of parent rocks. The authors have studied the total level of specific activity for 137Cs most completely in soils of different Siberian regions. The maximum density of such sites with global fallouts (nuclear air explosions in Novaya Zemlya, Lop Nor, Semipalatinsk etc.) is typical for the areas of Altai Territory and Buryatia Republic. Elevated level of radiocesium (to 1000 and more than Bq/kg) is characteristic for the sites adjacent to the area of NFP (Seversk, Zheleznogorsk). Our data obtained in determination of plutonium in soils of different Siberian regions excess remarkably its background accepted for Siberia. Particularly high accumulation levels of Pu in soil were observed in the zones of NFP operation (Seversk, Tomsk Oblast; Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the sites of accidents fallouts at underground nuclear explosions in Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Abnormally high ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soils of Sakha republic, Aginsk Buryatia Autonomous District, Krasnoyarsk Territory has engaged our attention.

Baranovskaya, N. V.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. N.; Strakhovenko, V. D.; Malikova, I. N.; Shcherbakov, B. L.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Aturova, V. P.

2012-04-01

9

Biological Work in Russia, Siberia, and Turkestan  

Microsoft Academic Search

MY wife and I reached Leningrad early in July, and left for England about the middle of September. In the interval we journeyed in Siberia so far as Lake Baikal, to Archan in the Buriat Republic, and to Tashkent in Usbekistan (Russian Turkestan). We visited the old town of Tashkent, where the women are veiled and the general aspect of

T. D. A. Cockerell

1927-01-01

10

East Siberia and Bering Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On June 5, 2001 MODIS captured this true-color image of Eastern Siberia and the Bering Strait. To the right of the image is the western tip of Alaska's St. Lawrence Island. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team

2002-01-01

11

Petroleum Habitat of East Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces—Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar—that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks

James W. Clarke

1994-01-01

12

Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

2014-01-01

13

An aborted Triassic Ocean in west Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A small buried oceanic basin named the Obsky paleo-ocean has been found in West Siberia. It developed from 235 to 218 m.y. during the Triassic by rift propagation and seafloor spreading inside the west Siberian region of the continent. During the postspreading period the Obsky paleo-ocean did not collapse but instead was covered intact by a layer of sediments with a thickness of up to 15 km. This conclusion is based on detailed interpretation of geophysical and geological data. Striped magnetic anomalies marking the paleo-ocean spreading have been separated from the total magnetic field. They have been dated and interpreted within the framework of the Vine-Matthews concept. Seismic and gravitational data have permitted delineation of the Obsky paleo-ocean depression and contouring of the basement relief within its bounds. Investigation of the Obsky paleo-ocean basalts by means of deep boreholes has indicated that they are chemically similar to oceanic tholeiites and has also confirmed the presence of strong residual magnetism in them. Spreading of the Obsky paleo-ocean was a stage in the initial disintegration of Pangea at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary. The presence of a north trending buried spreading center along the axial zone of West Siberia accounts for many features of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of the region and its present-day structure.

Aplonov, Sergei

1988-12-01

14

[Detection of Babesia spp. DNA in small mammals and ixodic ticks on the territory of north Ural, west Siberia and far east of Russia].  

PubMed

Totally, 932 small mammals and 458 questing adult Ixodes persulcatus from Sverdlovsk and Novosibirsk regions and Khabarovsk Territory, as well as 128 Haemaphysalis japonica, 34 H. concinna and 29 Dermacentor silvarum from Khabarovsk Territory were examined for the presence of Babesia by nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia microti DNA was found in samples of small mammals from all the studied regions--in 36.2% of samples from Sverdlovsk region, 5.3% of samples from Novosibirsk region, and 6.7% of samples from Khabarovsk Territory. The determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Novosibirsk region (6 sequences) and from Khabarovsk Territory (10 sequences) were identical to each other and to the sequences of pathogenic for human B. microti US-type, while the determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Sverdlovsk region (12 sequences) were identical to those of B. microti strain Munich. B. microti were found most frequently in samples of Myodes spp., they were found also in Microtus spp., Apodemus spp., Sorer spp., and Sicista betulinav. It was shown that one of 347 analyzed I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region and one of 77 I. persulcatus from Khabarovsk Territory contained B. microti US-type DNA. One I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region contained B. divergens DNA. In this work B. divergens was for the first time determined in I. persulcatus and B. microti in I. persulcatus in Asian part of Russia. Three different genetic variants of Babesia sensu stricto were found in three H. japonica from Khabarovsk Territory. The first genetic variant was closely related to Babesia sp. revealed in a feral raccoon in Japan (99.9% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). Two others Babesia genetic variants were most similar to the ovine pathogen Babesia crassa (97.1-97.6% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). PMID:20886686

Rar, V A; Epikhina, T I; Livanova, N N; Panov, V V; Pukhovskaia, N M; Vysochina, N P; Ivanov, L I

2010-01-01

15

A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

2002-01-01

16

Annual variation of methane emissions from forested bogs in West Siberia (2005-2009): a case of high CH4 and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have been conducting continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 on a network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe, and wetland biomes of Siberia. Here we describe measurements from two forested bog sites, Karasevoe (KRS; 58°15' N, 82°25' E) and Demyanskoe (DEM; 59°47' N, 70°52' E), in West Siberia from 2005 to

M. Sasakawa; A. Ito; T. Machida; N. Tsuda; Y. Niwa; D. Davydov; A. Fofonov; M. Arshinov

2010-01-01

17

Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. (Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

18

Correlation of Upper Pleistocene sediments in northern West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A geochronometric database, comprising 121 optically stimulated luminescence and 59 radiocarbon dates plus U/Th date on peat from 24 key sections in northern West Siberia is presented and discussed. These data have been obtained during Russian-Norwegian joint research for the past 15 years and are augmented by reports on radiocarbon dated mammoth carcasses in West Siberia. Together they provide the basis for revising the regional stratigraphic scheme and for correlation to the European Quaternary chronostratigraphy and marine oxygen isotope record. The geochronologic correlation of sedimentary formations across West Siberia involves classical stratotypes of fluvial, shallow limnic and temperate marine sediments of the Karginsky Horizon, ca 130 ka, which was previously attributed to MIS 3. The older Kazantsevo marine formation is thus assigned a Middle Pleistocene age. The uppermost glacial sedimentary complex containing glacial ice was deposited by shelf-based ice sheets between ca 100 and 60 ka BP. The postglacial Pleistocene sediments are mostly ice-bound loess-like deposits and sink-hole silts containing numerous mammoth carcasses that are radiocarbon dated to between ca 42 and 25 ka BP. There are no traces of glacial activity on the Siberian plains during MIS 2, a period for which palaeoclimatic proxies suggest a cold and dry environment. This synthesis indicates that the prior usage of the Siberian correlation horizons of Kazantsevo and Karginsky as equivalents of the Eemian and Middle Pleniglacial is stratigraphically invalid.

Astakhov, Valery; Nazarov, Dmitry

2010-12-01

19

Forest cover disturbances in the South Taiga of West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of vegetation cover and tendencies in forest cover changes at a typical site in the south of West Siberia was performed using remote sensing observations from Landsat. The Northern Eurasia Land Cover legend was used for the assessment of unsupervised classification results. The land cover maps constructed have shown that about half of the study area is occupied by wetlands with several distinctively different vegetation types. The area studied is typical for the South Taiga zone (ecoregion) of Western Siberia from the Ob' river to the Irtysh river, where loamy and clayey soil forming rocks are widespread. Similar vegetation structures dominate over 600 000 km2, or about 20%, of the West Siberia area. Analyses of the forest cover changes show that the forest cover loss is not very significant. The area of forest disturbed in 1990-9 is equal to 16 008 ha. The area of forest disturbances during the 2000-7 period was about twice as high (30 907 ha). The main reasons for the forest reduction are intensive forest harvesting and strong windthrow. The high sustainability of the region studied against anthropogenic impacts is explained by the high overall wetness of the territory, the small population density, and the prevalence of deciduous forests at different succession stages with rich vegetation cover.

Dyukarev, E. A.; Pologova, N. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, A. G.

2011-07-01

20

Giant gas field of northern West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m³ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m³ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m³ or

J. D. Grace; G. F. Hart

1986-01-01

21

New stands of species of the Paramecium aurelia complex (Ciliophora, Protista) in Russia (Siberia, Kamchatka).  

PubMed

New stands of P. primaurelia, P. biaurelia, and P. dodecaurelia were found in Russia. P. primaurelia was recorded in Tulun (Siberia, Irkutsk region) and in three stands situated on the Kamchatka peninsula: in Lake Chalaktyrskoye, in the Valley of Geysers, and Petropavlovsk Kamchatski. P. biaurelia was also found in Tulun and in two stands in the vicinity of Lake Baikal and the Buriatia region. P. dodecaurelia was recorded in Cheboksary in European Russia and in other stands situated in Asian Russia: Novosibirsk, the vicinity of Lake Baikal, Buriatia, Kamchatka (Petropavlovsk Kamchatski, Lake Chalaktyrskoye, and Nalychevo). These data extend the ranges of species of the P. aurelia complex in Russia, however, this large territory remains understudied. PMID:23767291

Przybo?, Ewa; Rautian, Maria; Surmacz, Marta; Bieliavskaya, Alexandra

2013-01-01

22

Geochemical evidence for the characteristic of the 1908 Tunguska explosion body in Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two peat samples collected at different depths of a core including the layer affected by the 1908 explosion in Tunguska\\u000a area of Central Siberia, Russia, and three basalt samples collected near the site, are analyzed by ICP-MS. The concentrations\\u000a of Pd, Ni, Co, ?REE, Ti and Sr in the event layers are 4–35 times higher than the background values in

Liewen Xie; Quanlin Hou; E. M. Kolesnikov; N. V. Kolesnikova

2001-01-01

23

Emissions of Trace Gases from Experimental Fires in Central Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the boreal forest in Siberia, Russia contains approximately one-fourth of the world's terrestrial biomass, emissions data from biomass burning in Siberia is scarce. Five experimental fires of varying intensity were conducted in Central Siberia in 2000 and 2001. The vegetation type is Scotch pine forest with a lichen, feather moss, and vaccinium understory. Smoke samples were taken from the ground and by helicopter, as part of the FIREBEAR project. We analyzed concentrations of CO2, CO, H2, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6 and C3H8 in stainless steel canisters that were collected by helicopter. Emitted hydrogen concentrations were highly linearly correlated with CO concentrations for the 3 fires sampled in 2001. Emitted CO2 and CH4 also showed a high degree of correlation with CO emissions for most fires. Emissions were sampled at ground level into glass bottles. CO2, CH4, ethylene, and propane were linearly correlated with CO. No significant differences were found in the emission ratios of different trace gases to CO for different fire intensities or vegetation. We will also present emission factors of CO2, CO, CH4, ethylene, ethane, propylene, and propane for different fire intensities in Central Siberia.

Baker, S. P.; Hao, W.

2002-05-01

24

Influenza A (H15N4) Virus Isolation in Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events. PMID:23283950

Sivay, Mariya V.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y.; Sharshov, Kirill A.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Shestopalov, Aleksander M.

2013-01-01

25

Seewis Virus: Phylogeography of a Shrew-Borne Hantavirus in Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Hantaviral antigens were originally reported more than 20 years ago in tissues of the Eurasian common shrew (Sorex araneus), captured in European and Siberian Russia. The recent discovery of Seewis virus (SWSV) in this soricid species in Switzerland provided an opportunity to investigate its genetic diversity and geographic distribution in Russia. Methods Lung tissues from 45 Eurasian common shrews, 4 Laxmann's shrews (Sorex caecutiens), 3 Siberian large-toothed shrews (Sorex daphaenodon), 9 pygmy shrews (Sorex minutus), 28 tundra shrews (Sorex tundrensis), and 6 Siberian shrews (Crocidura sibirica), captured in 11 localities in Western and Eastern Siberia during June 2007 to September 2008, were analyzed for hantavirus RNA by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction. Results Hantavirus L and S segment sequences, detected in 11 S. araneus, 2 S. tundrensis, and 2 S. daphaenodon, were closely related to SWSV, differing from the prototype mp70 strain by 16.3–20.2% at the nucleotide level and 1.4–1.7% at the amino acid level. Alignment and comparison of nucleotide and amino acid sequences showed an intrastrain difference of 0–11.0% and 0% for the L segment and 0.2–8.5% and 0% for the S segment, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis, using neighbor-joining, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian methods, showed geographic-specific clustering of SWSV strains in Western and Eastern Siberia. Conclusions This is the first definitive report of shrew-borne hantaviruses in Siberia, and demonstrates the impressive distribution of SWSV among phylogenetically related Sorex species. Coevolution and local adaptation of SWSV genetic variants in specific chromosomal races of S. araneus may account for their geographic distribution. PMID:20426688

Abramov, Sergey A.; Gutorov, Valery V.; Dupal, Tamara A.; Krivopalov, Anton V.; Panov, Victor V.; Danchinova, Galina A.; Vinogradov, Vladislav V.; Luchnikova, Ekaterina M.; Hay, John; Kang, Hae Ji; Yanagihara, Richard

2010-01-01

26

Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action in Russia. In March 2006,  

E-print Network

Articles Lake Baikal in southeastern Siberia,the "Sacred Sea,"incites strong emotions and action pipeline scheduled to pass within 800 me- ters (m) of Lake Baikal's shoreline, and, within days, President,Russia,located within the airshed of Lake Baikal; one protester was killed and several were seriously injured by young

Dever, Jennifer A.

27

Low seismic velocity layers in the Earth's crust beneath Eastern Siberia (Russia) and Central Mongolia: receiver function data  

E-print Network

Low seismic velocity layers in the Earth's crust beneath Eastern Siberia (Russia) and Central suggests that low-velocity layers in the Earth's crust exist not only beneath the Baikal rift zone, where-velocity layers are interpreted to reflect inhomogeneities of the Earth's crust formed during its evolution. Most

Gao, Stephen Shangxing

28

Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans for development of oil-gas fields (Yamal, Gydan and Kara Sea shelf). Presently the enterprises independently determine the necessary research for ecological control of the territory. Therefore, the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) together with one of the leading gas enterprises "Nadymgasprom" started to create an observational network along the meridian transect of northern West Siberia (Yamal-Nenets administrative district). Observational network consists from a number of monitoring sites - Technical-Environmental permafrost Observatories (TEPO). The research complex includes temperature observations in boreholes (depths of 30) equipped with automatic systems for registration and data collection; seasonal field investigations on spatial distribution and temporal variability of the snow cover and vegetation and soil distribution. TSOGU and "Nadymgasprom" plan for the realization of long-term monitoring to obtain representative results on permafrost-climate interaction. At present there are three monitoring observatories located in the main landscape types and gas fields in use since 1972 (Medvezhye), 1992 (Yubileynoe) and in development (Harasavey). The next contribution to International Polar Year (2007-2008) will be renewal of one of the former monitoring sites (established in 1972) with a long-term period of observation and creation of a new site at the Yamal peninsula (Arctic tundra zone). At the last site the installation of an automatic Climate-Soil Station is being planned in the framework of the INTAS Infrastructure Action project with cooperation of the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research and the University of Hamburg, Germany. One of the responsibilities of TEPO is to provide assistance to students taking part in scientific research (undergraduate and post-graduate practical work and organization of summer schools and seminars). In 2005 a joint summer student field excursion with the Moscow State University Department of Cryolithology and Glaciology took place at TEPO headquarters. The teaching courses consist of the following main topics: 1. Environment and Permafrost of northern West Siberia; 2. Paleocryogenic Formation of Alluvial Terraces; 3. Hydrology and Hydrogeological Conditions of the Territory; 4. Geotechnical Monitoring of Gas Fields; 5. Geotechnical Dangers in the Cryolithozone. The workshop "Stability of Pipelines in the Cryolithozone" held in Nadym at August, 29-31 with participation of "Nadymgasprom", TSOGU and Hokkaido University, Graduate School of Engineering (Japan) included a field excursion. TEPO is expected to be the basis for scientific and educational exchange with national and foreign universities and research institutes and part of the global international monitoring in the northern regions.

Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

2005-12-01

29

Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. (ZapSibNIGNI, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

30

HLA genes of Aleutian Islanders living between Alaska (USA) and Kamchatka (Russia) suggest a possible southern Siberia origin.  

PubMed

Aleuts HLA profile has been compared with that of neighboring and worldwide populations. Thirteen thousand one hundred and sixty-four chromosomes have been used for this study. Computer programs have obtained HLA allele frequencies, genetic distances between populations, NJ relatedness dendrograms, correspondence analysis and most frequent HLA extended haplotypes. Aleuts have inhabited Aleutian Islands since about 9000 years BP according to fossil and genetic (mtDNA) records. They are genetically different to Eskimo, Amerindian and Na-Dene speakers according to their HLA profile; this correlates with cultural and anthropological Aleut distinctiveness. No typical Amerindian HLA alleles have been found in a significant frequency. Their HLA relatedness to Saami (or Lapps, northern Scandinavians), Finns and Pomors (North-West Russia) indicates an ancient possible origin from the Baikal Lake Area (southern Siberia) around the present day Buryat peopling area; other origins are not discarded. Aleuts characteristic HLA profile may influence future transplantation programs in the region and be useful to study diseases linked to HLA epidemiology. PMID:17825912

Moscoso, Juan; Crawford, Michael H; Vicario, Jose L; Zlojutro, Mark; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Reguera, Raquel; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

2008-02-01

31

Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

2010-12-01

32

Climate signals in tree-ring width, density and ? 13C from larches in Eastern Siberia (Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first and longest (413 years) dataset on stable carbon isotope ratios in tree-ring cellulose (?13C), tree-ring width (TRW), and maximum latewood density (MXD) obtained from larch trees growing on permafrost under continental climate in the Suntar Khayata mountain ridge in Eastern Siberia (Russia). With this first study we calibrate tree-ring parameters against climate quantities, and based on these

Alexander V. Kirdyanov; Kerstin S. Treydte; Anatolii Nikolaev; Gerhard Helle; Gerhard H. Schleser

2008-01-01

33

Vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in two saline lakes Shira and Shunet (South Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feature of meromictic lakes is that several physicochemical and biological gradients affect the vertical distribution of\\u000a different organisms. The vertical stratification of physical, chemical and biological components in saline, fishless meromictic\\u000a lakes Shira and Shunet (Siberia, Russia) is quite different mainly because both mean depth and maximum depth of lakes differ\\u000a as well as their salinity levels differ. The

Andrey G. DegermendzhyEgor; Egor S. Zadereev; Denis Yu. Rogozin; Igor G. Prokopkin; Yuri V. Barkhatov; Alexander P. Tolomeev; Elena B. Khromechek; Jan H. Janse; Wolf M. Mooij; Ramesh D. Gulati

2010-01-01

34

Radioisotope contaminations from releases of the Tomsk-Seversk nuclear facility (Siberia, Russia).  

PubMed

Soils have been sampled in the vicinity of the Tomsk-Seversk facility (Siberia, Russia) that allows us to measure radioactive contaminations due to atmospheric and aquatic releases. Indeed soils exhibit large inventories of man-made fission products including 137Cs (ranging from 33,000 to 68,500 Bq m(-2)) and actinides such as plutonium (i.e. 239+240Pu from 420 to 5900 Bq m(-2)) or 241Am (160-1220 Bq m(-2)). Among all sampling sites, the bank of the Romashka channel exhibits the highest radioisotope concentrations. At this site, some short half-life gamma emitters were detected as well indicating recent aquatic discharge in the channel. In comparison, soils that underwent atmospheric depositions like peat and forest soils exhibit lower activities of actinides and 137Cs. Soil activities are too high to be related solely to global fallout and thus the source of plutonium must be discharges from the Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) plant. This is confirmed by plutonium isotopic ratios measured by ICP-MS; the low 241Pu/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atomic ratios with respect to global fallout ratio or civil nuclear fuel are consistent with weapons grade signatures. Up to now, the influence of Tomsk-Seversk plutonium discharges was speculated in the Ob River and its estuary. Isotopic data from the present study show that plutonium measured in SCC probably constitutes a significant source of plutonium in the aquatic environment, together with plutonium from global fallout and other contaminated sites including Tomsk, Mayak (Russia) and Semipalatinsk (Republic of Kazakhstan). It is estimated that the proportion of plutonium from SCC source can reach 45% for 239Pu and 60% for 241Pu in the sediments. PMID:17996340

Gauthier-Lafaye, F; Pourcelot, L; Eikenberg, J; Beer, H; Le Roux, G; Rhikvanov, L P; Stille, P; Renaud, Ph; Mezhibor, A

2008-04-01

35

Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

1995-01-01

36

Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods. PMID:11542910

Matsumoto, G I; Friedmann, E I; Gilichinsky, D A

1995-10-01

37

Computer simulation of Neocomian clinoform reservoirs in northern and arctic West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neocomian reservoirs in the Mesozoic sedimentary cover of West Siberia have a complex geological structure. Their wedge-like (clinoform) geometry, with abrupt thickness changes and facies diversity (continental, shoreface, and pelagic deposits), causes difficulty in correlation between drilling- and seismics-based sand formations and clay caps. East-wedging (west-dipping) clinoforms consisting of interbedded clay and sand have the greatest reservoir potential in the

S. V. Ershov; G. F. Bukreeva; V. O. Krasavchikov

2009-01-01

38

High spatial resolution image object classification for terrestrial oil spill contamination mapping in West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is a part of the OSCaR pilot study (Oil Spill Contamination mapping in Russia). A synergetic concept for an object based and multi temporal mapping and classification system for terrestrial oil spill pollution using a test area in West Siberia is presented. An object oriented image classification system is created to map contaminated soils, vegetation and changes in the oil exploration well infrastructure in high resolution data. Due to the limited spectral resolution of Quickbird data context information and image object structure are used as additional features building a structural object knowledge base for the area. The distance of potentially polluted areas to industrial land use and infrastructure objects is utilized to classify crude oil contaminated surfaces. Additionally the potential of Landsat data for dating of oil spill events using change indicators is tested with multi temporal Landsat data from 1987, 1995 and 2001. OSCaR defined three sub-projects: (1) high resolution mapping of crude oil contaminated surfaces, (2) mapping of industrial infrastructure change, (3) dating of oil spill events using multi temporal Landsat data. Validation of the contamination mapping results has been done with field data from Russian experts provided by the Yugra State University in Khanty-Mansiyskiy. The developed image object structure classification system has shown good results for the severely polluted areas with good overall classification accuracy. However it has also revealed the need for direct mapping of hydrocarbon substances. Oil spill event dating with Landsat data was very much limited by the low spatial resolution of Landsat TM 5 data, small scale character of oil spilled surfaces and limited information about oil spill dates.

Hese, S.; Schmullius, C.

2009-04-01

39

Outbreak of West Nile virus infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999.  

PubMed Central

From July 25 to October 1, 1999, 826 patients were admitted to Volgograd Region, Russia, hospitals with acute aseptic meningoencephalitis, meningitis, or fever consistent with arboviral infection. Of 84 cases of meningoencephalitis, 40 were fatal. Fourteen brain specimens were positive in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, confirming the presence of West Nile/Kunjin virus. PMID:11266303

Platonov, A. E.; Shipulin, G. A.; Shipulina, O. Y.; Tyutyunnik, E. N.; Frolochkina, T. I.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Yazyshina, S.; Platonova, O. V.; Obukhov, I. L.; Zhukov, A. N.; Vengerov, Y. Y.; Pokrovskii, V. I.

2001-01-01

40

Bryozoans from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Upper Devonian) of the Tom-Kolyvansk area (Western Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine bryozoan species are described from the Jurginskaya Formation (Famennian, Late Devonian) from Western Siberia, Russia, namely: Leptotrypella pojarkovi Orlovski, 1961, Rhombopora subtilis Nekhoroshev, 1977, Klaucena lalolamina Yang, Hu, Xia, 1988, Eofistulotrypa famennensis sp. n., Atactotoechus cellatus sp. n., Nikiforopora jurgensis sp. n., Eridotrypella tyzhnovi sp. n., Mediapora elegans sp. n., and Klaucena gracilis sp. n. The studied assemblage shows palaeogeographical affinity with Kazakhstan, Kirgizia, Transcaucasia, China, and the United States of America.

Tolokonnikova, Zoya

2010-10-01

41

Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

NONE

1997-12-01

42

West Nile encephalitis in Russia 1999-2001: were we ready? Are we ready?  

PubMed

In 1963-1993, several strains of West Nile virus (WNV) were isolated from ticks, birds, and mosquitoes in the southern area of European Russia and western Siberia. In the same regions, anti-WNV antibody was found in 0.4-8% of healthy adult donors. Sporadic human clinical cases were observed in the delta of the Volga River. In spite of this, WNV infection was not considered by the health authorities as a potentially emerging infection, and the large WNV outbreak in southern Russia, started in late July 1999, was not recognized in a timely fashion. First evidence suggesting a WNV etiology of the outbreak was obtained by IgM ELISA on September 9. Two weeks later, the specific WNV RT-PCR was developed and WNV disease was confirmed in all 14 nonsurvivors from whom brain tissue samples were available. Retrospective studies of serum samples by IgM ELISA indicated WNV etiology in 326 of 463 survivors with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Moreover, 35 of 56 patients who contracted aseptic meningitis in 1998 had a high titer of WNV IgG antibody, so the WNV infection seems to have been introduced into the Volgograd region before 1999. A complete sequence (AF317203) of WN viral RNA, isolated from the brain of one Volgograd fatality, and partial sequences of an envelope E gene from other nonsurvivors showed that the Volgograd isolate had the greatest homology (99.6%) with WN-Romania-1996 mosquito strain RO97-50. PMID:11797768

Platonov, A E

2001-12-01

43

Separate prognosis and formation of hydrocarbon systems in west Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The west Siberian oil and gas province occupies an area of more than 2.5 million km[sup 2]. More than 1900 oil and gas pools have been discovered there. A study of the vertical and regional distribution of hydrocarbons suggests there is a regular zonation of the various phase state. Within the Mesozoic to Cenozoic series, five major zones have been

N. Nemchenko; A. Rovenskaya; V. Podshibyakin

1993-01-01

44

The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of west Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system contains approximately 85% of the discovered oil in the West Siberian basin. The source is the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation, a 30 meter thick highly bituminous shale covering 2.3 million square kilometers. It has a 10% average total organic carbon content. Approximately 80% is Type II kerogen. Maturation modeling yields time series maps of oil and

J. D. Grace; D. B. Walsh

1996-01-01

45

Middle Jurassic sand reservoirs of Tazovskoe field (West Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspectives of Tazovskoe field Jurassic strata development are associated with lithological and mineralogical characteristics of reservoirs, which are the main reserve of the region, because of the high rate of depletion of the most prolific Cenomanian gas pools. Tazovskoye field is multibedded and is unique in terms of hydrocarbon reserves. Middle Jurassic strata occur everywhere and are represented by rocks of the Tyumenskaya formation, comprising layers J2 - J5. The producing horizons are composed of sandstones, sandy siltstones, cemented by shaly-carbonate cement mass. According to laboratory data, the Jurassic reservoirs are characterized by a wide range of porosity (up to 22.5%) and mainly low permeability (up to 2 mD), except for a few samples of J3 reservoir with permeability up to 100-150 mD. Test objects were the core samples taken from 7 intervals of the well T-83 and logging data from 4 intervals of wells 73, 93 in the Tazovskoye field. Depth and core recovery from T-83 well of the Tazovskoye field are shown in Table 1. Total linear core recovery from the Jurassic strata was 79.4 m. Late Bajocian-Bathonian alluvial-lacustrine strata compose the first regressive cycle of sedimentation in the Tazovskoye field. They are represented by alternating thin sandy, siltstone-sandy, siltstone, shaly-siltstone, siltstone-shaly, and shaly rocks with coal interbeds. They include three main productive formations: J2, J3 and J4. Above in the vertical section, the Upper Jurassic rocks occur, while lower, basal strata of the Callovian stage overlay them with a distinct unconformity. In the Upper Jurassic time, the main transgression phase of the Jurassic period occurred over the whole territory of the Western Siberia. These strata are built by non-uniform alternating sandstones, siltstones and shales with coal interbeds of the continental genesis (alluvial-lacustrine); The reservoirs contain cyclites that as a rule have binary structure, less often - ternary structure: the lower element of cyclites is represented by sandy and siltstone-sandy strata formed in a channel and in a point-bar, the upper element of cyclites is represented by siltstone, siltstone-shaly, shaly, and carbonaceous-shaly strata formed in the floodplain or in lacustrine-boggy sedimentation environment; The producing strata of J2-J4 formations are characterized in general by moderate porosity (11-17%) and low permeability (1 mD); This genetic type of the Middle Jurassic reservoirs is typical throughout the Pur-Taz petroleum region, as well is possible for the Nadym-Pur petroleum region, except for the most eastern areas of Nadym, where these rocks have flysch nature, and therefore one can predict their presence in adjacent fields, where the Jurassic reservoirs are not discovered yet.Core recoveries from T83 well;

Kurasov, I. A.

2012-12-01

46

[Genetic analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus strains from West Siberia].  

PubMed

Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus strains were isolated in West Siberia in the forest-steppe region near the Ob river in 1981-1992. Hybridization of genome RNA of 46 TBE strains with [32P]cDNA of TBE Sofyin strain revealed essential differences in the genomes of West-Siberian and Far-Eastern Sofyin strains of TBE virus. Nucleotide sequences of 6 TBE strains (1348-1503 n.) have been determined. A 89-98% homology of Siberian TBE strains has been shown, while the similarity of the respective fragment of E gene for West Siberian and Sofyin strains was no more than 81%. No significant changes in E gene of TBE strains have been detected over a 12-year period. PMID:11107646

Bakhvalova, V N; Rar, V A; Tkachev, S E; Dobrikova, E Iu; Morozova, O V

2000-01-01

47

Soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 1800-km South to North transect (N 5343? to 6943?) through Western Siberia was established to study the interaction of nitrogen and carbon cycles. The transect comprised all major vegetation zones from steppe, through taiga to tundra and corresponded to a natural temperature gradient of 9.5C mean annual temperature (MAT). In order to elucidate changes in the control of C

H. Meyer; C. Kaiser; C. Biasi; R. Hämmerle; O. Rusalimova; N. Lashchinsky; C. Baranyi; H. Daims; P. Barsukov; A. Richter

2006-01-01

48

Ozone vertical flux within the lower troposphere over background areas of west Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the results of the vertical ozone flux profiles calculated within the lower troposphere over background area of west Siberia are presented. The data on the vertical distribution of the ozone and meteorological parameters derived from AN-2 aircraft measurements supplemented by radiosonde launches. Profiles of turbulent diffusion coefficient were calculated based on "K-theory" with the use of nonlocal closure scheme - "Troen and Mahrt". Calculations confirmed earlier findings that the formation of the daytime ozone maximum in the atmospheric boundary layer occurs due to its photochemical production from precursors.

Antokhin, P. N.; Antokhina, O. Yu.; Belan, S. B.; Belan, B. D.; Kozlov, A. V.; Krasnov, O. A.; Pestunov, D. A.

2014-11-01

49

Geochemistry of selected oils and rocks from the central portion of the West Siberian basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six analyzed oils, produced from Middle jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata in the Middle Ob region of the West Siberian basin, show biomarker and stable carbon isotope compositions indicating an origin from the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation. The chemical compositions of these oils are representative of more than 85% of the reserves in West Siberia (Kontorovich et al., 1975). Bazhenov-sourced

K. E. Peters; B. J. Huizinga; A. Eh. Kontorovich; V. E. Andrusevich; J. M. Moldowan; G. J. Demaison; O. F. Stasova

1993-01-01

50

Permafrost thawing inferred from Arctic lake sediment of the Taimyr Peninsula, East Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to reconstruct permafrost thawing at 71°N of Arctic Siberia during the termination of the Little Ice Age and the subsequent Recent Warming. Sediment samples from Lake Dalgan of the Taimyr Peninsula were analysed by high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at 1 mm scan resolution, and Fourier-transform infrared techniques. Intense permafrost thawing was calculated from the

A. P. Fedotov; M. A. Phedorin; A. S. Suvorov; M. S. Melgunov; T. V. Khodzher

2012-01-01

51

Seismo-geological models of stratigraphic sequences and their application to oil and gas exploration in west Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In west Siberia, large structural prospects for oil exploration have been exhausted. Further discoveries are expected to be made in small to medium structural traps and in lithostratigraphic traps. Prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps is based on new seismo-geological models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences. In middle Paleozoic rocks, small hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in structural highs; the

1993-01-01

52

Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins  

SciTech Connect

Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

Mogutcheva, N.K. [Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics & Mineral Resource, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15

53

Physical and chemical stability of nanostructured lipid drug carriers (NLC) based on natural lipids from Baikal region (Siberia, Russia).  

PubMed

At the turn of the millennium, a new generation of lipid nanoparticles for pharmacology was developed, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC). The features of NLC structure which allow the inclusion of natural biologically active lipids in the NLC matrix open a wide prospect for the creation of high performance drug carriers. In this study NLC formulations were developed based on natural lipids from the Siberia region (Russia): fish oil from Lake Baikal fish; polyunsaturated fatty acid fractions and monounsaturated and saturated fatty acid fractions from fish oil and Siberian pine seed oil. Formulation parameters of NLC such as as type of surfactant and storage conditions were evaluated. The data obtained indicated high physical stability of NLC formulated on the basis of pure fish oil stabilized by Tween 80 and NLC formulated on the basis of free fatty acids stabilized by Poloxamer 188. The good chemical stability of the lipid matrix and the high concentrations of the biologically active polyunsaturated fatty acids in the NLC developed open wide prospects for their use in pharmaceutics and cosmetics. PMID:21699068

Averina, E S; Müller, R H; Popov, D V; Radnaeva, L D

2011-05-01

54

First Asian record of Panthera (Leo) fossilis (Mammalia, Carnivora, Felidae) in the Early Pleistocene of Western Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

A lion-like pantherine felid is described as Panthera (Leo) fossilis from the late Early Pleistocene sediments of the Kuznetsk Basin (Western Siberia, Russia). The find of P. fossilis first recorded in Asia considerably extends the current notion of the eastward expansion of the most ancient lions. The Siberian lion is geologically the oldest form and is dimensionally among the largest members of the group of fossil lions on the Eurasian continent. Although known by mandibular remains only, it is readily distinguished from Panthera (Leo) spelaea by a heavy built mandibular corpus with rectangular profile in the cheek teeth area, a deep, well-outlined and narrow anterior section of the masseteric fossa, and a large p4 supported by a big unreduced anterior root. The Siberian lion shares these features with the European Middle Pleistocene P. fossilis and the American Late Pleistocene P. (Leo) atrox, which suggests their close relationship. P. atrox originated from P. fossilis and was isolated in North America south of the Late Pleistocene ice sheets. This explains why the American lion has retained more primitive features than the coeval Eurasian cave lion P. (L.) spelaea. PMID:24382145

Sotnikova, Marina V; Foronova, Irina V

2014-08-01

55

Comparative characteristic of the sphagnum moss and peat of upland bogs in Siberia, Russia and central part of Germany  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research represents the results of the ICP-MS study for the moss and peat samples from two upland bogs of Germany and one bog from Siberia, Russia (Tomsk region). Moss and upland peat are widely used for ecological studies. These substances enable to detect atmospheric pollution because of the peculiar structure of sphagnum moss. According to the obtained results, we can resume that moss and peat in Tomsk region are more enriched in such chemical elements as Cr, Fe, As, Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Hg, Th, and U. The samples from Germany are more enriched in Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se. The geochemical composition of the bogs reflects the specificity of industries that pollute the atmosphere with definite chemical elements. Thus, REE, Th and U in the moss and peat of Tomsk region can originate from nuclear facility near the Tomsk city. Coal combustion in power stations can be the source of Cr, As, Sr and REE as well. Mn, Cu, Zn, and Se possibly can originate from metallurgical facilities in Germany.

Mezhibor, Antonina; Podkozlin, Ivan

2013-04-01

56

Surface Fire Influence on Carbon Balance Components in Scots Pine Forest of Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances in boreal forests, and it can have a profound effect on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands of Siberia are strongly impacted by fires of low to high severity. Biomass distribution in mature lichen/feathermoss Scots pine stands indicates that they are carbon sinks before fire. Fires contribute significantly to the carbon budget resulting in a considerable carbon efflux, initially through direct consumption of forest fuels and later as a result of tree mortality and decomposition of dead material accumulated on the forest floor. In initial postfire years these processes dominate over photosynthetic carbon assimilation, and the ecosystems become a carbon source. Over several postfire years, above-ground carbon in dead biomass tends to increase, with the increase depending significantly on fire severity. High-severity fire enhances dead biomass carbon, while moderate- and low-severity fires have minimal effect on above-ground carbon distribution in Scots pine ecosystems. Dead stand biomass carbon increases, primarily during the first two years following fires, due to tree mortality. This increase can account for up to 12.4% of the total stand biomass after low- and moderate- intensity fires. We found tree dieback following a high-intensity fire is an order of magnitude higher, and thus the dead biomass increases up to 88.1% of total above-ground biomass. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreases with increasing tree mortality, and needle foliage and bark are incorporated into the upper layer of the forest floor in the course of years. Ground vegetation and duff carbon were >90, 71-83, and 82% of prefire levels after fires of low, moderate, and high severity, respectively for the first 4 to 5 years after fire. Fires of low and moderate severity caused down woody fuel carbon to increase by 2.1 and 3.6 t ha-1 respectively by four years after burning as compared to the pre-fire values. Climate change and increasing drought length observed in recent decades have increased the probability of high-intensity fire occurrence. Areas burned have increased in extent and severity across Siberia, resulting in increased carbon emissions to the atmosphere from fuel combustion and post fire decomposition.

Kukavskaya, E.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Soja, A. J.

2008-12-01

57

Tree-ring dating of meteorite fall in Sikhote-Alin, Eastern Siberia - Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research deals with the fall of the Sikhote-Alin iron meteorite on the morning of 12 February 1947, at about 00:38 h Utrecht, in a remote area in the territory of Primorsky Krai in Eastern Siberia (46°09?36?N, 134°39?22?E). The area engulfed by the meteoritic fall was around 48 km2, with an elliptic form and thousands of craters. Around the large craters the trees were torn out by the roots and laid radially to the craters at a distance of 10-20 m; the more distant trees had broken tops. This research investigated through dendrocronology n.6 Scots pine trees (Pinus Sibirica) close to one of the main impact craters. The analysis of growth anomalies has shown a sudden decrease since 1947 for 4-8 years after the meteoritic impact. Tree growth stress, detected in 1947, was analysed in detail through wood microsection that confirmed the winter season (rest vegetative period) of the event. The growth stress is mainly due to the lost crown (needle lost) and it did not seem to be caused due to direct damages on trunk and branches (missing of resin ducts).

Fantucci, R.; Di Martino, Mario; Serra, Romano

2012-01-01

58

Benthic bioindicators from the lakes of Northern Yakutia (Siberia, Russia) in paleoclimatic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High latitude regions are particularly affected by global climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are known to respond quickly and sensitively to such changes (Carpenter et al., 1992; Findlay et al. 2001; Smol et al., 2005). This effect is especially dramatic in regions with continental climates such as Northern and Eastern Siberia. In 2008, Russian-German expedition investigated 33 lakes of Kolyma river basin, North-Eastern Yakutia. The region of investigation is located in the mouth of Kolyma river between approximately 68°2' and 69°4' N and between 159°8' and 161°9' E. It's a most north-eastern region of Yakutia, so it's suitable for paleolimnological investigations. The investigated lakes are situated along the 200 km transect crossing 3 vegetation zones: polygonal tundra, forest tundra and northern taiga. The main aims were establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions by using aquatic organisms, investigation of limnological variables and the influence of the environmental conditions on distribution of aquatic organisms in Yakutian lakes. The modern benthic fauna of the lakes is represented by 89 taxa from 14 taxonomic groups. The most abundant group was Mollusca. The most taxonomically diverse group was Chironomidae. A unique for this region species were discovered, such as Cincinna kamchatica, Physa jarochnovitschae, Colymbetes dolabratus, Ilybius wasastjernae, Xestochironomus sp., Agrypnia sp. etc. Cluster analysis of taxonomical composition of the benthic fauna of these lakes showed high dependency to vegetation zones. The highest levels of hydrobiological indexes (Shannon, Evenness, species richness) were registered in forest tundra. CCA analysis showed that the most influential factors in species distribution were climate-dependant factors, such as mean Tair of July, pH and water depth. Data from taxonomical analysis of Chironomidae group were used for establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

Tumanov, O. N.; Nazarova, L. B.; Frolova, L. A.; Pestryakova, L. A.

2012-04-01

59

Formation of phreatomagmatic pipes in the Tunguska Basin (Siberia, Russia) during the end-Permian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We recently proposed that numerous pipes piercing sedimentary rocks of Tunguska Basin triggered the Permian-Triassic mass extinction (Svensen et al., 2009). Large amounts of greenhouse and poisonous gases were released through the pipes and into P-Tr atmosphere, partly formed by heating of petroleum-bearing evaporites. The sub-volcanic part of the Siberian Traps was emplaced in the Tunguska Basin sedimentary sequences, which includes Pre-Cambrian source rocks, Early Cambrian evaporites, and Paleozoic terrigenous and coal-bearing rocks. Spectacular breccia pipes are numerous in the evaporate-parts of the basin, and are filled with volcaniclastic rocks and commercial magnetite mineralization. Although these pipes have been intensively studied in order to understand the iron ore formation, the origin and formation of the pipes is poorly understood. Many researchers emphasize that magma-sediments interaction as a key reason of pipe formation, whereas phreatomagmatic hypothesis are also proposed. In order to improve the understanding of pipe formation and ore-deposition, we have studied a basalt-rich breccia pipe piercing Cambrian evaporates at the Nepa locality in East Siberia. Textural features of the volcanic fragments in the breccias include lapilli, Pele's hear, glassy basalt and dolerite clasts, blocks of tuffs in addition to sedimentary rocks. Calcite and halite are the most common types of cement. We have studied minerals from the breccia cement and from reaction rims around clasts in order to understand the hydrothermal system that developed after the pipe formed. Calcite and dolomite are the dominating carbonates, and two types of anhydrite is present. Biotite, Cl-Fe-bearing amphibole (hastingsite), and Cl-F-apatite are amongst early hydrothermal minerals covering magmatic clast and lapillies. Our new data confirm (i) the phreatomagmatic nature of breccia filling in the Tunguska Basin pipes and (ii) the key role of sedimentary brine and petroleum involved in the process of magma-sediment interactions.

Polozov, Alexander; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

2010-05-01

60

The Holocene environmental history of the Verkhoyansk Mountains region (northeastern Siberia, Russia) reconstructed from high-resolution pollen data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study presented here is part of the IPY project 106 "Lake Records of late Quaternary Climate Variability in northeastern Siberia" and the German Research Foundation project RI 809/17-1,2 "Late Quaternary environmental history of interstadial and interglacial periods in the Arctic reconstructed from bioindicators in permafrost sequences in NE Siberia". Both projects focus on generating high-resolution vegetation and climate proxy records mainly from lacustrine sediments along a north-south transect from Yakutia, Republic of Russia. This region is known for its climate extremes, with the Verkhoyansk Mountain Range being the coldest area in the Northern Hemisphere - "Pole of Cold". Radiocarbon-dated pollen records from Lake Billyakh (65°17'N, 126°47'E; 340 m a.s.l.) located in the central part of the Verkhoyansk Mountains were used to reconstruct vegetation and climate changes. The longest and oldest sediment core from the lake reaches back to >30 kyr BP, thus covering the last two Late Pleistocene Interstadials in Siberia. The pollen record and pollen-based biome reconstruction of the core PG 1756, which covers the last 15 kyr BP, suggest that open cool steppe and grass and sedge tundra communities with Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia, Chenopodiaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Selaginella rupestris dominated the area from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. On the other hand, the constant presence of Larix pollen in quantities comparable to today's values points to the constant presence of boreal deciduous conifer trees in the regional vegetation during the last glaciation. A major spread of shrub tundra communities, including birch (Betula sect. Nanae), alder (Duschekia fruticosa) and willow (Salix) species, is dated to 13.5-12.7 kyr BP, indicating a noticeable increase in precipitation toward the end of the last glaciation, particularly during the Allerød Interstadial. Between 12.7 and 11.4 kyr BP pollen percentages of herbaceous taxa rapidly increased, whereas shrub taxa percentages decreased, suggesting strengthening of the steppe communities associated with the cold and dry Younger Dryas Stadial. However, the pollen data in hand indicate that Younger Dryas climate was less severe than the climate during the earlier interval from 15 to 13.5 kyr BP. The onset of the Holocene is marked in the pollen record by the highest values of shrub and lowest values of herbaceous taxa, suggesting a return of warmer and wetter conditions after 11.4 kyr BP. Percentages of tree taxa increase gradually and reach maximum values after 7 kyr BP, reflecting the spread of boreal cold deciduous and taiga forests in the region. An interval between 7 and 2 kyr BP is noticeable for the highest percentages of Scots pine (Pinus subgen. Diploxylon), spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies) pollen, indicating mid-Holocene spread of boreal forest communities in response to climate amelioration and degradation of the permafrost layer.

Müller, S.; Tarasov, P. E.; Andreev, A. A.; Diekmann, B.

2009-04-01

61

[Surveillance for avian influenza virus in synanthropic birds during epizootic and postepizootic periods on the south of west Siberia].  

PubMed

Results of virologic examination of synanthropic birds procured on the south part of West Siberia during epizootic in autumn 2005 and during postepizootic period (winter 2005-2006) are presented. During epizootic period one strain belonging to H4 subtype of hemagglutinin, which was not highly pathogenic, was isolated from a magpie. During postepizootic period influenza A viruses in synanthropic species were not found. PMID:17886377

Sharshov, K A; Zolotykh, S I; Fedorov, E G; Ivanov, I V; Druziaka, A V; Shestopalov, A M; Netesov, S V

2007-01-01

62

Distribution of GHG over West Siberia: airborne and tower network observations.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In spite of high confidence level in understanding of greenhouse effect on climate change there is a lack of measurement data over significant part of the Northern Hemisphere. Taking into account the importance of the global climate changes and international cooperation in this field, NIES (National Institute for Environmental Studies) and IAO (Institute of Atmospheric Optics) combined their efforts in the framework of Joint Japanese-Russian Project on GHG monitoring to fill up this gap at least over West Siberia, which occupies a significant part of Northern Eurasia. This monitoring consists of airborne and tower network observations. Airborne study of vertical distribution of greenhouse gases nearby Novosibirsk (between 54°05'N-81°50'E and 54°35'N-82°40'E) has been started on July 1997. Monthly flight observation have been conducted at an altitude from 500 to 7000 km. The 11-year airborne study nearby Novosibirsk has revealed a positive trend in CO2 mixing ratio (>15 ppm) and the absence of a definite trend for CH4. Minimum of CO2 concentration is typically observed at the end of July. Highest annual amplitudes of CO2 mixing ratio (up to 40 ppm) are observed in the atmospheric boundary layer. During recent years a tower network (8 towers) for carbon dioxide and methane monitoring was established in West Siberia. This network covers several climatic zones from steppes in the south to northern taiga in the north (51°N to 63°N and 62°E to 82°E). In this paper we present the first results of the diurnal, seasonal, and annual behavior of these greenhouse gases in the surface atmospheric layer over West Siberia Diurnal behavior of CO2 mixing ratio showed its maximum amplitude in July and its minimum amplitude in January. Concentration gradient between northern and southern regions remains during the whole year. Carbon dioxide mixing ratio has a pronounced annual behavior with a maximum in December and a minimum in July-August. It starts to decrease on March, and this process becomes more intensive from May until July. Since the beginning of September and until December intensity of CO2 sink is smaller than the rate of its emission. Diurnal behavior of the CH4 mixing ratio is mainly neutral during the year except for the late spring and beginning of the summer when a significant one is observed. There is a CH4 concentration gradient directed from south to north with a difference in concentration from 100 to 340 ppb. In the annual behavior of CH4 concentration two maxima and two minima are observed in the center of the region under study (maxima: July and December-January; minima: April-May and October). At northern sites the main maximum is also observed in winter with one-month lag with respect to central regions. Summer maximum over southern regions is not so intensive and observed in August. Amplitude of annual behavior at northern sites is 200 ppb, and 100-120 ppb at southern. The most interannual variability is 150 ppb and observed during main and secondary maxima.

Arshinov, M. Yu.; Machida, T.; Inoue, G.; Belan, B. D.; Maksyutov, Sh.; Sasakawa, M.; Watai, T.; Shimoyama, K.; Sutoh, H.; Davydov, D. K.

2009-04-01

63

Low-temperature thermo-tectonic evolution of the Altai-Sayan mountains, South Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Altai-Sayan (AS) mountains are part of the vast intracontinental Central Asian Deformation Zone (CADZ), stretching out in front of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogenic system. The Russian (South Siberian) part of the AS mountains is composed of tectonic terranes (e.g. Gorny Altai, West Sayan) which collided with the Siberian craton during the Late Paleozoic evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. Strain and

J. de Grave; B. Dehandschutter; P. van den Haute; M. M. Buslov; A. Boven

2003-01-01

64

Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a~continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This is likely to profoundly change the discharge rates of the Lena River and the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients, DOC and importantly methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of and interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, forming the basis of the food web. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic plankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and linked foodweb interactions within the delta need to be established. As part of the AWI Lena Delta Programme in 2010 the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small a shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykovskaya channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore (transect 3). Of the five stations in this area three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects on the other hand salinities varied between 5-30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and chlorophytes, in those stations characterized by river outflow (stations in the Lena itself and in coastal transect 3). In contrast in the stratified stations the plankton was mostly dominated by dinoflagellates, ciliates and nanoflagellates, with only an insignificant diatom component from the genera Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira (brackish as opposed to freshwater species). Ciliate abundance was significantly coupled with the abundance of total flagellates. A pronounced partitioning in the phytoplankton community was also discernible with depth, with a different community composition and abundance above and below the thermocline in the stratified sites. This work represents the first attempt at analyzing the phytoplankton structure of the region of freshwater influence at confluence Lena-Laptev sea.

Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

2013-02-01

65

Phytoplankton community structure in the Lena Delta (Siberia, Russia) in relation to hydrography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3 s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This has already profoundly altered the discharge rates of the Lena River. But the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea have also been hypothesized to undergo considerable compositional changes, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of the phytoplankton communities. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic phytoplankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and food web interactions within the delta have to be established. In 2010, as part of the AWI Lena Delta programme, the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels of the delta (Trofimov, Bykov and Olenek) as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small, shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykov channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore. Of the five stations in this area, three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects, on the other hand, salinities varied between 5 and 30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and chlorophytes. In contrast, in the stratified stations the plankton was mostly dominated by dinoflagellates, ciliates and nanoflagellates, with only an insignificant diatom component from the genera Chaetoceros and Thalassiosira (brackish as opposed to freshwater species). Ciliate abundance was significantly coupled with the abundance of total flagellates. A pronounced partitioning in the phytoplankton community was also discernible with depth, with a different community composition and abundance above and below the thermocline in the stratified sites. This work is a first analysis of the phytoplankton community structure in the region where Lena River discharge enters the Laptev Sea.

Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.

2013-11-01

66

Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the middle floodplain. Correlation analysis between element concentrations, grain-size distribution and carbon content revealed a direct dependence of the element distribution within all soil profiles on its mineralogical composition. Based on the obtained results we suggest that there are negligible atmospheric depositions caused by human activity on the investigation site. Therefore this data can provide a point of comparison against man-made influences on permafrost-affected landscapes and also on similar pristine areas in the Arctic region.

Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

2012-04-01

67

Runoff generation and storage dynamics of a polygonal tundra catchment, Lena River Delta, northern Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Present understanding of the hydrology of catchments underlain by permafrost is still insufficient to correctly predict ecological impacts brought about by climate change. Ice-wedge polygonal tundra is a typical landscape type of the continuous permafrost zone and is characterised by a pronounced micro- but a flat meso-topography. It consists of polygon sub-catchments with low-lying centres and surrounding elevated rims that feature a range of connectedness to other polygons and the inter-rim surface drainage network of troughs above degraded ice-wedges. This pattern distinguishes the hydrology of polygonal tundra from other permafrost-affected landscapes. Therefore, this study aims to define the hydrological functions of characteristic landscape units of polygonal tundra (i.e. polygon rims, centres, and troughs). We examine runoff generation and water storage dynamics in a small polygonal tundra catchment in northern Siberia (0.6 km2) by analysing spatially distributed water balances together with catchment runoff dynamics between May and August 2011. Despite the evapotranspiration rate (137.9 mm) exceeding precipitation (108.6 mm), and the low topographic gradient, lateral outflow (60.9 mm - 167.4 mm) considerably influenced the water storage of the main landscape units within the catchment. Low polygon centres with intact rims stored snow melt water longer than either polygons with degraded rims or the troughs. The micro-topography of the rims and the associated soil thaw dynamics determined the magnitude and the timing of outflow through the blocking function of frozen soils. These dynamics controlled the redistribution of storage water within the catchment during the summer. Hydraulic conductivity in the rims declines by three orders of magnitude within the first 15 cm of the soil. The high conductivities in the shallow soil layers cause a rapid shallow subsurface drainage of rainwater towards the depressed centres and troughs. Once the rims are deeply thawed, the re-release of storage water from the centres through deeper and less conductive layers helps maintain a high water table in the surface drainage network of troughs throughout the summer. In turn, catchment runoff was mainly controlled (R2 = 0.99, RMSE = 0.34 L s-1, N = 2165) by the water level (i.e. hydraulic gradient) in this drainage network, and baseflow was maintained throughout the study period. The interconnected network contracts and expands in relation to the water level. Together with sharp declines of hydraulic conductivity within the upper soil layers, this catchment characteristic favours the observed exponential increase of catchment runoff with ascending water levels in the network. This relationship promotes enhanced runoff as a response to large, infrequent inputs of rain or snow melt water whereas vertical water fluxes dominate during periods of frequent but homogeneously distributed rain events of smaller magnitude. This study shows that a nested approach is suitable to identify characteristic hydrological processes at different scales and to assess how the hydrological functions of the main landscape units interact on the catchment scale. The results emphasise the need to account for micro-topography of polygonal tundra and temporal distributions of precipitation and evapotranspiration when investigating the storage and runoff dynamics, and the interactions with carbon or energy fluxes.

Helbig, Manuel; Boike, Julia; Langer, Moritz; Schreiber, Peter; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Kutzbach, Lars

2013-04-01

68

Annual variation of methane emissions from forested bogs in West Siberia (2005-2009): a case of high CH4 and precipitation rate in the summer of 2007  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have been conducting continuous measurements of CH4 and CO2 on a network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe, and wetland biomes of Siberia. Here we describe measurements from two forested bog sites, Karasevoe (KRS; 58°15' N, 82°25' E) and Demyanskoe (DEM; 59°47' N, 70°52' E), in West Siberia from 2005 to 2009. Although both CH4 and CO2 accumulation (?CH4 and ?CO2) during nighttime (duration of 7 h beginning 21:30 LST) at KRS in July 2007 showed an anomalously high concentration, the higher ratios of ?CH4/?CO2 compared with those in other years indicate that a considerably more CH4 flux occurred relative to the CO2 flux in response to large precipitation recorded in 2007 (~2.7 mm d-1 higher than the climatological 1979-1998 base). Estimated seasonal CH4 fluxes based on the ratio of ?CH4/?CO2 and the CASA 3-hourly CO2 flux for the 2005-2009 period exhibited a seasonal variation with a maximum in July at both sites. Annual values of the CH4 emission from the forested bogs around KRS (approx. 7.8×104 km2) calculated from a process-based ecosystem model, Vegetation Integrative Simulator for Trace gases (VISIT), showed inter-annual variation of 0.54, 0.31, 0.94, 0.44, and 0.41 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 2005 to 2009, respectively, with the highest values in 2007. It was assumed in the model that the area flooded with water is proportional to the cumulative anomaly in monthly precipitation rate.

Sasakawa, M.; Ito, A.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Niwa, Y.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Arshinov, M.

2010-11-01

69

Interception by sphagnum in a bog mire catchment of central West-Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrology of mires (pristine peatland ecosystems) hardly has been analyzed quantitatively. The general idea, that mires can retain precipitation water (‘sponge effect') has never been proved by real field data. Missing data for evaluation of these properties are actual evapotranspiration, water conductivity and interception of rainwater by peatland mosses and peat layers below. The newly opened Mukhrino Field Station, located in the centre of West Siberia (60,9oN, 68,7oE) at the margin of a giant mire complex gave the opportunity to start quantitative hydrological research. Water stage dynamics in mires has been recorded with pressure loggers in mires and in lysimeters to analyse the evapotranspiration, interception and the water balance. Air and water temperature and precipitation has been recorded simultaneously. By 1-Dimensional modelling interception appeared to be the most important water loss for mires. As expected, mostly snowmelt determined discharge dynamics of the studied peatland catchment area. Rainfall events resulted in relatively fast response in catchment discharge. The so-called ‘sponge effect' of mire systems could not be verified this time.

Bleuten, W.; Filippov, I.

2009-04-01

70

Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt west of the Baykit high are probable source rocks. Their areal distribution extends from the foldbelt into the foredeep along the province?s western margin. Potential source rocks also are present in platform depressions in eastern areas of the province. Hydrocarbon generation and migration west of the province started as early as Riphean time, before the beginning of the deformation in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt that occurred about 820?850 million years ago. However, the presently known oil and gas accumulations were formed after deposition of the Lower Cambrian salt seal. Available data allow identification of only one assessment unit, and it covers the entire TPS area. Undiscovered oil and gas resources are moderate, primarily due to the poor quality of reservoir rocks. However, the reserve growth in the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone may be large and may exceed the volume of undiscovered resources in the rest of the province. Most oil and gas resourcesareexpectedtobeinstructuralandstratigraphictrapsin Riphean carbonate reservoirs. Vendian clastic reservoirs are probably gas-prone.

Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2001-01-01

71

Interaction of rock, water, and plants in central Siberia (Russia) dominated by continuous permafrost: biotic versus abiotic fluxes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests mainly located between the latitudes 46°N and 66°N play a key role in regulating global carbon cycle and climate of the Earth. These forests store about 42 gigatons of carbon (Gt C) of above ground biomass and 200 Gt C of soil organic matter that represents about 8 and 13% of the global amounts (Jarvis et al., 2001 and references therein). The last technical paper on climate change and water of the IPCC reports abnormal thawing of permafrost, increase of the active period, increase of river runoff and changes in the distribution of plants and their productivity for artic and sub-arctic regions (www.ipcc.ch and references therein). Within the context of global warming, forested permafrost regions appear to be very sensitive and are likely to be deeply modified in a near future. In return, these modifications affecting the functioning of these ecosystems will influence the whole Earth system. Among forested boreal regions, Central Siberia (Russia), that spreads over more than 4,000,000 km2, is very interesting due to the presence of permafrost within the specific geological substratum. Indeed, this area offers large basaltic surface and chemical weathering of basaltic rocks is considered to be the main process removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere over geological time scale (Dessert et al., 2003). The sampling site is located in the drainage basin of the Nizhniya Tungunska River (eastern tributary of the Yenissey River) on the basaltic plateau of Putorana. Climate is cold with a mean annual air temperature of -9.5°C and annual precipitation of 350mm. 60% of rain is falling during the active period when the surface soil temperature is above zero degrees (end of May to September). At local scale, there are north-facing and south-facing slopes that receive equivalent precipitation but exhibit totally different heat input and consequently above-ground biomass and active layer thickness. Larches and mosses account for more than 85% of the above-ground biomass in this region. We analyzed large number of soils, larch needles, mosses, dwarf shrubs and waters (from soils and rivers) collected in the various local environments. Plant biomass was regularly collected from May to September 2007. Our efforts focus on weathering processes and elements transport mechanisms between the different chemical reservoirs (soil and litter, plants, atmosphere) using a multidisciplinary approach. The aim of the presentation is : i) to propose a conceptual model of the present-day “biogeochemical” functioning of basaltic watershed located in central Siberia, ii) to evaluate biotic and abiotic element fluxes from the watershed, and iii) to assess the effect of global warming through the local comparison of the north-facing and south-facing environments. The role of plants dominated by larches, dwarf shrubs and mosses will be particularly considered.

Viers, J.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Beaulieu, E.; Dupre, B.

2009-12-01

72

Trace element speciation and origin of colloids in surface waters of subarctic zone (NW of Russia and Central Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geochemistry of trace elements (TE) in boreal regions attracts large attention of researchers in view of on- going environmental changes that can affect both the fluxes of these elements to the ocean, their speciation and thus their bioavailability. Most of trace elements in waters of boreal zone are transported via organic and organo-mineral colloids. In order to better understand the processes of colloids formation in surface waters draining watersheds of various lithology and permafrost abundance, comparative study of TE speciation in various geographic zones is necessary. In this work we attempted to generalize the typical features of trace element speciation in boreal arctic and subarctic zones assessed via in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration. Surface waters of three circumpolar regions in Arkhangelsk region, NW Russia and Central Siberia were studied using unique and rigorous procedure via combination of in-situ dialysis and ultrafiltration (1 kDa, 3.5 kDa, 10 kDa, 100 kDa, 0.22 µm, 0.45 µm, 1 ?m, 5 µm). In both filtrates and dialysates, all major and trace elements and dissolved organic carbon were analyzed. In all studied regions, three typical features of colloid speciation have been revealed: i) high proportion of large-size colloids (10 kDa - 0.22 ?m and 0.22 ?m - 5 µm), mostly composed of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides stabilized by organic matter; ii) presence of organic-rich, small size colloids and conventionally "dissolved" substances (< 1 kDa and 1 - 10 kDa), presumably, fulvic acids, and iii) strong association of all trivalent and tetravalent elements with large-size mineral colloids. Results of the present work allow distinguishing between two possible pathways of colloids formation: 1) Groundwater-borne Fe(II) oxidation and TE coprecipitation in the presence of organic matter originated from plant litter and peat layers of surface horizons at the surface redox front between anoxic groundwaters and surficial OM-rich waters of the riparian zone, and 2) Plant litter-borne Fe(II) and TE originated from decomposing plant litter and mosses and coprecipitating together in the very surface horizons above the permafrost layer. The first pathway is typical for non-permafrost bearing zones such as European Russian Arctic where as in Central Siberia, plant litter degradation in surficial horizons is largely responsible for colloids formation. In both cases, dissolved organic matter in the form of essentially fulvic acids helps to stabilize the mineral colloids and prevents the aggregation of Fe oxyhydroxides. As a result, conventional thermodynamic modeling of TE association with dissolved organic matter can be misleading for these systems, where the processes of irreversible coprecipitation, not reversible complexation/adsorption on the surface, control the TE interaction with colloids. It is anticipated that knowledge of speciation of metal pollutants and organic carbon both in surficial fluids and in the permafrost ice and soils will allow the prediction of metals bioavailability change induced by permafrost thawing and human pollution - for example, around the smelters located in the arctic-zone. Elaborated models can be extended to other permafrost- bearing territories of the world which are likely to be highly sensitive to the global warming.

Pokrovsky, O. S.; Viers, J.; Prokushkin, A. S.; Vasukova, E. V.; Shirokova, L. S.; Dupre, B.

2008-12-01

73

Chineysky Layered Intrusion with unique V and PGE-Cu ores (Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South of the Siberian platform is an extraordinary metallogenic province. Many giant deposits of different genetic types are concentrated here: Udokan (Cu), Chiney (Ti-Fe-V, Pd-Cu), Katugin (Ta, Nb), Sulumat (Fe) etc. It is his considered this massif is the largest component of the Proterozoic volcanic-plutonic system of the Kodar-Udokan district. Chineisky massif located among Cu-rich sedimentary rocks is represented by interlayering horizons of gabbronorite and titanomagnetite gabbro in its lower zone and gabbro and anorthosite in the upper zone.The intrusive rocks were proved to be genetically interrelated and show certain similar geochemical features: they have elevated TiO2 concentrations and have similar trace element patterns and (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios (1.5-2.3 and 1.87-2.06, respectively). The Chineisky massif is thought to have been formed by the successive emplacement of genetically similar basic magmas, which produced four rock groups with fine and coarse layering and cyclicity of variable rank (micro-rhythms, rhythms, units, and series). The results of cluster analysis indicate that the rocks can be classified into 13 petrochemical types. The phase and chemical characteristics of the parental melts of these compositions were simulated with the use of the COMAGMAT-3.5 computer model, which was also applied to evaluate the composition of the most primitive initial magma of the whole Chineisky massif. Our results indicate that the primitive magma was heterogeneous (olivine + plagioclase titanomagnetite + melt) at a temperature of approximately 1130 C. The initial melt had a ferrobasaltic composition and was close to saturation with magnetite at ~NNO 0.5 The basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Luktur pluton are supposed to be the Mg-rich fraction of the parental melt. Gravimetric and magnetic geophysical data show that ultrabasic and basic rocks occur at shallow depths at the Chiney pluton and around it. These facts show the existence of huge magmatic system in Late Proterozoic. There are two types of commercial mineralization in the Chiney massif: Fe-Ti-V and Cu with precious metals. Nowadays the Chiney massif comprises the largest V recourses in Russia. The iron ores are concentrated in the central part of the intrusion and are represented by two varieties: disseminated and massive (the early-magmatic type); veins and irregular bodies (the late-magmatic type). Sulfide minerals occur as accessory disseminations in all rocks of the massif, but their higher concentrations are distributed locally. The copper commercial mineralization is confined to the contact zone of gabbroids with the host rocks, so endo-and exocontact ores are determined. The disseminated mineralization predominates sharply. Vein bodies are distributed in the limited region and localized at a small distance from the bottom of the intrusion. The main ore mineral is chalcopyrite, that is very unusual for Cu-Ni deposits (Cu/Ni=10-100, Pd/Pt=3 in ores). The major minerals are pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Many rare minerals of noble metals (Ag, Au, PGE) were found too. In general, the minerals consist of compounds of Pd with Bi, Te, Sb, Sn, As, and Ni; compounds of Pt with As, S, and Fe; a compound of Rh with As-S, as well hessite (Ag2Te) and Au-Ag-(Hg) alloys. It was found froodite; sobolevskite; kotulskite; sudburyite; stibiopalladinite; mertieite II; isomertieite; paolovite; michenerite; arsenopalladinite; merenskiite; majakite et ctr. References 1. Gongalskiy B.I., N.A. Krivolutskaya, A.A. Ariskin, G.S. Nikolaev.// Geochemistry International. 2008. Vol. 46. No. 7. P. 637-665. 2. Gongalskiy B. I., Yu. G. Safonov, N. A. Krivolutskaya, V. Yu. Prokof'ev, and A. A. Yushin. A // Doklady Earth Sciences. 2007.Vol. 415, No. 5. P. 671-674.

Gongalskiy, Bronislav; Krivolutskaya, Nadezda

2010-05-01

74

Food and water security issues in Russia III: food- and waterborne diseases in the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011  

PubMed Central

Background The food- and waterborne disease situation in Russia requires special attention. Poor quality of centralized water supplies and sewage systems, biological and chemical contamination of drinking water, as well as contamination of food products, promote widespread infectious diseases, significantly exceeding nationwide rates in the population living in the two-thirds of Russian northern territories. Objectives The general aim was to assess the levels of food- and waterborne diseases in selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (for the period 2000–2011), and to compare disease levels among regions and with national levels in Russia. Study design and methods This study is the first comparative assessment of the morbidity in these fields of the population of 18 selected regions of Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, using official statistical sources. The incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases among the general population (including indigenous peoples) have been analyzed in selected regions (per 100,000 of population, averaged for 2000–2011). Results Among compulsory registered infectious and parasitic diseases, there were high rates and widespread incidences in selected regions of shigellosis, yersiniosis, hepatitis A, tularaemia, giardiasis, enterobiasis, ascariasis, diphyllobothriasis, opistorchiasis, echinococcosis and trichinellosis. Conclusion Incidences of infectious and parasitic food- and waterborne diseases in the general population of selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East (2000–2011) are alarmingly high. Parallel solutions must be on the agenda, including improvement of sanitary conditions of cities and settlements in the regions, modernization of the water supply and of the sewage system. Provision and monitoring of the quality of the drinking water, a reform of the general healthcare system and the epidemiological surveillance (including gender-divided statistics), enhancement of laboratory diagnostics and the introduction of preventive actions are urgently needed. PMID:24350064

Dudarev, Alexey A.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Kolesnikova, Tatjana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengard, Birgitta

2013-01-01

75

Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) Infecting Cricetid Rodents from Alaska, U.S.A., and Northeastern Siberia, Russia, and Description of a  

E-print Network

clethrionomydis, Isospora clethrionomysis, and a new Eimeria species); 34/187 (18%) Synaptomys borealis (Eimeria spp. 6, 7, 8, Eimeria synaptomys). In the Cricetidae from Siberia, we found the following infections

76

Russia Escalates Chechen War, Risks Reprisals from the West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Late last week, Russian forces launched a massive bombardment of the Chechen capital, inaugurating a new offensive using more high-powered artillery than had been previously employed in the conflict. Chances for a peaceful resolution diminished earlier this month when Yeltsin rejected appeals from Western leaders to find a political settlement to the strife. Yeltsin and Russian officials insist that they are fighting Muslim terrorists, while Western leaders point to collateral damage of Chechen civilians and the mass exodus of over 200,000 Chechen refugees in recent months. Meanwhile, the situation is sure to be the primary subject of talks begun yesterday between Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov and Knut Vollebaek, chairman of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Recently, the head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) suggested that Russia's actions in Chechnya could affect the release of the IMF's next loan installment of 630 million dollars to Moscow. Russia has reacted with outrage to the proposal of such a linkage. The conflict has also worsened Russia's relations with its neighbor Georgia as officials accuse the Georgian government of allowing the movement of rebel troops and supplies back and forth across their mountainous border with Chechnya. Georgia steadfastly denies any collusion with the rebels.

Charbonneau, David D.

77

Diurnal variability of aerosol extinction of optical radiation in the surface atmosphere West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The physical causes of diurnal variability of aerosol extinction of visible and infrared radiation in the surface layer of the atmosphere. It is shown that in the haze of Western Siberia important factors such variability are diurnal variations in relative humidity and temperature.

Pkhalagov, Yuri A.; Uzhegov, Viktor N.

2014-11-01

78

First record of Mylagaulid rodents (Rodentia, mammalia) from the Miocene of Eastern Siberia (Olkhon island, Baikal Lake, Irkutsk Region, Russia).  

PubMed

A new genus and species of rodent, Lamugaulus olkhonensis, belonging to the subfamily Promylagaulinae of the family Mylagaulidae, is described on the basis of isolated teeth from the Khalagay Formation of the Lower Miocene Tagay locality (Olkhon island, Lake Baikal, Irkutsk Region). This is the first record of mylagaulids in Eastern Siberia, significantly expanding the data on the distribution of this mainly North American group of rodents in Asia and showing its presence outside the Central Asian arid zone. PMID:25773245

Tesakov, A S; Lopatin, A V

2015-01-01

79

Reserve Growth in Oil Fields of West Siberian Basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although reserve (or field) growth has proved to be an important contributing factor in adding new reserves in mature petroleum basins, it is a poorly understood phenomenon. Although several papers have been published on the U.S. fields, there are only a few publications on fields in other petroleum provinces. This paper explores the reserve growth in the 42 largest West

Mahendra K. Verma; Gregory F. Ulmishek

2003-01-01

80

Influence of fire events on permafrost, Yubileynoe Gas Field, West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is located in the Subarctic region of Western Siberia at Nadym and Pur Rivers interfluve. The mean monthly air temperature of the coldest month is -25…-27oC and of the warmest month is 8…10oC. The mean annual air temperature is increasing at 0.03…0.06oC per year. The mean annual precipitation is 550…600 mm. The continuous permafrost up to 50-70 m thick have temperature of -1..-3oC. The study site is located 40 km west of Noviy Urengoy City. The study site is dominated by typical forest-tundra, where the cup-mossy larch-birch light forests neighbors with typical tundra, and the boreal fir-larch forest spread across minor river valleys. Ecosystems of the study area experience strong technogenic stress from the large gas-producing enterprise "Yubileinoe" which is situated nearby. A polygonal peatland with 2-2.5 m peat at the southern bank of Nashe-to Lake was disturbed by fire in July, 2005. The fire event lasted for 2 days have burned vegetation dominated by semifrutex, sedges, mosses, and underlaying peat. Following years the succession rates were rather slow. The peatland surface is elevated relative to the surrounding drained lake basin (hasyrey) and free of snow in winter. After the disturbance of the thermo-insulating layers (peat, moss and vegetation cover) the activation of frost-cracking was observed, especially strong at completely burnt areas on sandy loam. The second site of the hasyrey has experienced the fire in the middle of July, 2007. It is located within the plain watershed with drainage hollows. The Arctic birch, semifrutex and cup-mosses were dominating in the vegetation cover of hillocky tundra. The vegetation cover has experienced slow succession after the fire. In August, 2008, we found the semifrutex, sedges and cotton-grass growing sparsely between the burnt bare hillocks. The wetness of the territory increased. As a result of vegetation cover and mosses disturbance, the thermoinsulation have decreased and the frost cracks of 2007/08 winter were 5 m long and 2…5 cm wide. The thermal borehole located at the site reflected in the temperature changes after the fire event. Temperature changes at 10-30 m in 2006-07 were close to those observed in 2007-08. The temperature increase below 10 m depth (at and below the depth of the zero annual amplitudes) was 0.35oC at 10 m depth, 0.15oC at 15 m, and 0.02oC at 30 m depth. The disturbance of vegetation and peat layer and associated moisture increase allowed temperature fluctuations to penetrate deeper. The activation of frost cracking combined with the penetration of summer heat in grounds was evident.

Grebenets, V.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Shmelev, D.; Streletskiy, D. A.

2012-12-01

81

Distribution and color variation of gyrfalcons in Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west of the Ural Mountains. Frequencies were as follows: European Russia 4% white, 50% gray (the remainder were intermediates); western Siberia 0% white, 58% gray; central Siberia 15% white, 42% gray; and eastern Siberia 47% white, 33% gray. Remarkably, in the easternmost subregion, white birds predominated even near the southernmost extension. Because the northernmost portions of the species' range in continental Russia are in central Siberia where white variants were rare, we propose that a better predictor of the white variant is longitude, not latitude. White birds were most frequent at the eastern reaches of both the Palearctic and Nearctic. The best environmental correlates of this distribution pattern may be the southward bending thermal isoclines proceeding eastward toward Greenland or Kamchatka, where both land masses are bathed by cold oceanic currents of Arctic origin. By contrast, the western reaches of both land masses are bathed by warm currents. In these western reaches, Gyrfalcon summer distribution is displaced northward and dark variants predominate. The breeding range of the Gyrfalcon, determined by mapping the locations of the specimens we examined, differs little from the range proposed in 1951.

Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, C.H.; Pendleton, G.W.; Panteleyev, A.V.; Rebrova, I.V.; Markin, Y.M.

1992-01-01

82

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2010  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey, using a geology-based assessment methodology, estimated mean volumes of technically recoverable, conventional, undiscovered petroleum resources at 8 billion barrels of crude oil, 670 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 21 billion barrels of natural gas liquids for the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of a program to estimate petroleum resources for priority basins throughout the world.

Klett, T.R.

2011-01-01

83

Iron-Oxides and Pedogenesis of Modern Gelisols and Paleosols of the Southern Lena Delta, Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five exposures on two arctic islands in southern Lena Delta, Russia, were investigated in order to determine the development of iron-oxides under different pedogenic conditions in permafrost-affected paleosols and to prove their application for describing environmental conditions during pedogenesis of buried soils and the predominant paleoclimate during their development. The samples were collected from the active layer on Samoylov Island

Sebastian Zubrzycki; Eva-Maria Pfeiffer

84

Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms during Neocomian time. The clastic material was transported by a system of rivers dominantly from the eastern provenance. Sandstones within the Neocomian clinoforms contain the principal oil reservoirs. The thick continental Aptian?Cenomanian Pokur Formation above the Neocomian sequence contains giant gas reserves in the northern part of the basin. Three total petroleum systems are identified in the West Siberian basin. Volumes of discovered hydrocarbons in these systems are 144 billion barrels of oil and more than 1,300 trillion cubic feet of gas. The assessed mean undiscovered resources are 55.2 billion barrels of oil, 642.9 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 20.5 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. The largest known oil reserves are in the Bazhenov-Neocomian total petroleum system that includes Upper Jurassic and younger rocks of the central and southern parts of the basin. Oil reservoirs are mainly in Neocomian and Upper Jurassic clastic strata. Source rocks are organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation. Most discovered reserves are in structural traps, but stratigraphic traps in the Neocomian clinoform sequence are pro-ductive and are expected to contain much of the undiscovered resources. Two assessment units are identified in this total petroleum system. The first assessment unit includes all conventional reservoirs in the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Jurassic to the Cenomanian. The second unit includes unconventional (or continuous), self-sourced, fractured reservoirs in the Bazhenov Formation. This unit was not assessed quantitatively. The Togur-Tyumen total petroleum system covers the same geographic area as the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, but it includes older, Lower?Middle Jurassic strata and weathered rocks at the top of the pre-Jurassic sequence. A Callovian regional shale seal of the Abalak and lower Vasyugan Formations separates the two systems. The Togur-Tyumen system is oil-prone; gas reserves are insignificant. The principal o

Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2003-01-01

85

Petroleum potential of reservoirs at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary in West Siberia: seismogeological criteria ( example of the Chuzik-Chizhapka regional oil-gas accumulation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aims at developing petroleum potential criteria for reservoirs at the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary in West Siberia, by the example of the Chuzik-Chizhapka regional oil and gas accumulation in the Parabel District (Tomsk Region).Oil and gas accumulations in formations of the Paleozoic-Mesozoic boundary were discovered in the Archa, Urman, Gerasimovka, Kalinovoe, North Kalinovoe, Tambai, Ostanino, North Ostanino, and other fields

V. A. Kontorovich

2007-01-01

86

Distribution of late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic permafrost of the Yedoma Suite in east and central Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This digital database is the product of collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Geophysical Institute at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; the Los Altos Hills Foothill College GeoSpatial Technology Certificate Program; the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam, Germany; and the Institute of Physical Chemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The primary goal for creating this digital database is to enhance current estimates of soil organic carbon stored in deep permafrost, in particular the late Pleistocene syngenetic ice-rich permafrost deposits of the Yedoma Suite. Previous studies estimated that Yedoma deposits cover about 1 million square kilometers of a large region in central and eastern Siberia, but these estimates generally are based on maps with scales smaller than 1:10,000,000. Taking into account this large area, it was estimated that Yedoma may store as much as 500 petagrams of soil organic carbon, a large part of which is vulnerable to thaw and mobilization from thermokarst and erosion. To refine assessments of the spatial distribution of Yedoma deposits, we digitized 11 Russian Quaternary geologic maps. Our study focused on extracting geologic units interpreted by us as late Pleistocene ice-rich syngenetic Yedoma deposits based on lithology, ground ice conditions, stratigraphy, and geomorphological and spatial association. These Yedoma units then were merged into a single data layer across map tiles. The spatial database provides a useful update of the spatial distribution of this deposit for an approximately 2.32 million square kilometers land area in Siberia that will (1) serve as a core database for future refinements of Yedoma distribution in additional regions, and (2) provide a starting point to revise the size of deep but thaw-vulnerable permafrost carbon pools in the Arctic based on surface geology and the distribution of cryolithofacies types at high spatial resolution. However, we recognize that the extent of Yedoma deposits presented in this database is not complete for a global assessment, because Yedoma deposits also occur in the Taymyr lowlands and Chukotka, and in parts of Alaska and northwestern Canada.

Grosse, Guido; Robinson, Joel E.; Bryant, Robin; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Harper, William; DeMasi, Amy; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Veremeeva, Alexandra; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Harden, Jennifer

2013-01-01

87

Carbon balances of freshwater ecosystems in summer and fall 2008 on Samoylov Island, Lena Delta, Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A large number of freshwater ecosystems, such as lakes and ponds, exist in the northern areas of Canada, Alaska and Siberia and have been recently recognized as highly sensitive to changing climate. While numerous studies reported northern lakes as heterotrophic and supersaturated in carbon dioxide gas (CO2) environments, seasonal variability and differences in estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from various aquatic systems to the atmosphere is currently not well-known. We explored variability in freshwater carbon dynamics on Samoylov Island in the Lena Delta, Northern Siberia (72.2°N, 126.3°E). The landscape of the island represents polygonized tundra dominated by wet depressed polygonal centres (31%) and dry rims (53%) with thermokarst lakes and polygonized ponds occupying 10 and 6 %, respectively. We measured aquatic carbon components, physical and chemical characteristics and water budget components from 2 lakes, 2 ponds and 2 island outflows in the summer and early fall of 2008. Aquatic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pools were significantly smaller in the ponds compared to the lakes suggesting different carbon sources fuelling different CO2 production. The carbon budget showed that the lakes and ponds were either neutral or large sinks of aquatic DOC and DIC (dissolved inorganic carbon), representing less than 1 % of the hydrologically incoming DIC loads and close to 40 % of available DOC load in the system. Concentrations of DIC increased 4 times during freezeback (end of September) highlighting the role of ponds as transient carbon stores decoupling times of production and emission of CO2. The observed systems had low concentrations of CH4 and N2O during the study season. However, aerial survey of 42 ponds during the time of freezeback revealed that 6 of them were sources of CH4 and 10 ponds were sources of N2O. Overall, the export of terrestrially fixed carbon to the Arctic Ocean from the island via outflow channels was 354 kg of DOC per active season which represents 7 % of DOC pools found in lentic systems of the island. Seasonal differences observed in aquatic carbon components between summer and freezeback periods determine the dynamics of CO2 in the lakes and ponds therefore affecting amounts of GHG contribution to the atmosphere.

Abnizova, A.; Siemens, J.; Langer, M.; Boike, J.

2010-12-01

88

Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean rate of tree line upward migration has been about 0.35 m/yr (with a range of 0.21-0.58), which translates to a tree line response to temperature of about 55 m/deg C.

Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

2013-01-01

89

Trace metal distribution in pristine permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its Hinterland, Northern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soils are an important compartment of ecosystems and have the ability to immobilize chemicals preventing their movement to other environment compartments. Predicted climatic changes together with other anthropogenic influences on Arctic terrestrial environments may affect biogeochemical processes enhancing leaching and migration of trace elements in permafrost-affected soils. This is especially important since the Arctic ecosystems are considered to be very sensitive to climatic changes as well as to chemical contamination. This study characterizes background levels of trace metals in permafrost-affected soils of the Lena River Delta and its hinterland in northern Siberia (73.5° N-69.5° N) representing a remote region far from evident anthropogenic trace metal sources. Investigations on total element contents of iron (Fe), arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co) and mercury (Hg) in different soil types developed in different geological parent materials have been carried out. The highest concentrations of the majority of the measured elements were observed in soils belonging to ice-rich permafrost sediments formed during the Pleistocene (ice-complex) in the Lena River Delta region. Correlation analyses of trace metal concentrations and soil chemical and physical properties at a Holocene estuarine terrace and two modern floodplain levels in the southern-central Lena River Delta (Samoylov Island) showed that the main factors controlling the trace metal distribution in these soils are organic matter content, soil texture and contents of iron and manganese-oxides. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that soil oxides play a significant role in trace metal distribution in both top and bottom horizons. Occurrence of organic matter contributes to Cd binding in top soils and Cu binding in bottom horizons. Observed ranges of the background concentrations of the majority of trace elements were similar to background levels reported for other pristine arctic areas and did not exceed mean global background concentrations examined for the continental crust as well as for the world's soils.

Antcibor, I.; Zubrzycki, S.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bol'shiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

2013-02-01

90

Paragenesis of unusual Fe-cordierite (sekaninaite)-bearing paralava and clinker from the Kuznetsk coal basin, Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sekaninaite (XFe > 0.5)-bearing paralava and clinker are the products of ancient combustion metamorphism in the western part of the Kuznetsk coal basin, Siberia. The combustion metamorphic rocks typically occur as clinker beds and breccias consisting of vitrified sandstone-siltstone clinker fragments cemented by paralava, resulting from hanging-wall collapse above burning coal seams and quenching. Sekaninaite-Fe-cordierite (XFe = 95-45) is associated with tridymite, fayalite, magnetite, ± clinoferrosilite and ±mullite in paralava and with tridymite and mullite in clinker. Unmelted grains of detrital quartz occur in both rocks (<3 vol% in paralavas and up to 30 vol% in some clinkers). Compositionally variable siliceous, K-rich peraluminous glass is <30% in paralavas and up to 85% in clinkers. The paralavas resulted from extensive fusion of sandstone-siltstone (clinker), and sideritic/Fe-hydroxide material contained within them, with the proportion of clastic sediments ? ferruginous component. Calculated dry liquidus temperatures of the paralavas are 1,120-1,050°C and 920-1,050°C for clinkers, with calculated viscosities at liquidus temperatures of 101.6-7.0 and 107.0-9.8 Pa s, respectively. Dry liquidus temperatures of glass compositions range between 920 and 1,120°C (paralava) and 920-960°C (clinker), and viscosities at these temperatures are 109.7-5.5 and 108.8-9.7 Pa s, respectively. Compared with worldwide occurrences of cordierite-sekaninaite in pyrometamorphic rocks, sekaninaite occurs in rocks with XFe (mol% FeO/(FeO + MgO)) > 0.8; sekaninaite and Fe-cordierite occur in rocks with XFe 0.6-0.8, and cordierite (XFe < 0.5) is restricted to rocks with XFe < 0.6. The crystal-chemical formula of an anhydrous sekaninaite based on the refined structure is | {{{K}}_{0.02} } |({{Fe}}_{1.54}^{2 + } {{Mg}}_{0.40} {{Mn}}_{0.06} )_{Upsigma 2.00}M [({{Al}}_{1.98} {{Fe}}_{0.02}^{2 + } {{Si}}_{1.00} )_{Upsigma 3.00}^{T1} ({{Si}}_{3.94} {{Al}}_{2.04} {{Fe}}_{0.02}^{2 + } )_{Upsigma 6.00}^{T2} {{O}}_{18} ].

Grapes, Rodney; Korzhova, Sophia; Sokol, Ella; Seryotkin, Yurii

2011-08-01

91

MDBT estimation ratio for transformation organic matter ratio in Bazhenov Formation of Western Siberia (Tomsk Oblast, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bazhenov Formation is the main source rock in the West Siberian Basin, because of high organic-rich Bazhenov black shales, with a total organic carbon (TOC) content of 10-15wt.% generally. Based on Rock-Eval pyrolysis data, the initial generative potential for a significant part of West Siberian Bazhenov Formation organic matter (OM) is from 10 to 60% expended. Most West Siberian oils are in the Bazhenov Formation due to very high oil potential (initial hydrogen index = 710mgHC/gTOC) and widespread regional distribution). Vitrinite reflectance (Ro) does not correctly indicate the transformation ratio (TR) of the OM in Bazhenov black shales. However, GC-MS analysis of extracts indicated a good correlation between some molecular maturity and Rock-Eval maturity parameters. Molecular maturity parameters based on naphthalenes and phenanthrenes are not applicable for Bazhenov Formation OM. While the parameters based on 4-methyldibenzothiophene and 1- methyldibenzothiophene ratio (4MDBT/1MDBT) is applicable in estimating the hydrocarbon potential of Bazhenov Formation black shales and, consequently, provides more reliable information about marine OM TR than does Ro. The 4MDBT/1MDBT ratio is more consistent and precise than pyrolysis data. Therefore, it is more applicable in the case of scarcity of core samples throughout the whole formation.

Goncharov, I.; Samoilenko, V.; Oblasov, N.; Fadeeva, S.

2015-02-01

92

Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant.  

PubMed

We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

Pavlova, S V; Tchabovsky, A V

2011-01-01

93

Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant  

PubMed Central

Abstract We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

Pavlova, S.V.; Tchabovsky, A.V.

2011-01-01

94

Development of Biosensors for Phenol Determination from Bacteria Found in Petroleum Fields of West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine gram-negative bacterial strains, selected from 300 strains isolated from soils of the West Siberian petroliferous basin and growing on oil and oil products, consume phenol as a single carbon and energy source. The strains were used for the development of a sensor bioreceptor. The most active 32-I strain was shown to bear a plasmid responsible for phenol degradation. The

A. A. Makarenko; I. P. Bezverbnaya; I. A. Kosheleva; T. N. Kuvichkina; P. V. Il'yasov; A. N. Reshetilov

2002-01-01

95

Methane released from groundwater: the source of natural gas accumulations in northern West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Siberian Basin is the largest continental sedimentary basin on earth and contains about one third of the world's conventional reserves of natural gas. From gas compositional and isotope data this gas can be described as a mixture of thermogenic gas from lower Cretaceous rocks (?13C1 ? ?36‰, C2+, ?10 vol%) and almost pure methane (98 vol%) with the

B. Cramer; H. S. Poelchau; P. Gerling; N. V. Lopatin; R. Littke

1999-01-01

96

Influencing of covers (peat, snow mosses) on the frost heave by the example of Yamburg (the North of West Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The frost heave is the one of the widespread and intensively influencing on the objects process. It's also one of the reasons of forming the cryogenic relief. Analytics methods and frost heave map composition, which connected with landscape, cryolithology and geology conditions - the most effective decision of this problem. Now a lot of considerable trends were found out in The Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Yamal and Tazovskiy peninsulas, and they have shown the increase of temperature on 0.02 - 0.06 °C per one year and about 0,7°C per one year in East Siberia. We have studied frost heave in different areas, and calculation of the general frost heave deformation has shown that in West Siberia it's about 40 cm, in East Siberia up to 2m. The Yamburg gas field characterized as the syngenetic type of continuous permafrost area with the sincryogenetic sandshale deposits which are found almost on the all geomorphological levels. This factors are determinates the widespread occurrence of cryolithology factors, especially frost heaving. The frost heave on the Yamburg in the singenetic permafrost happens because of deep seasonal thawing to 1,5m. We have had a set of experiments to determine influencing of peat cover on frost heave. In the laboratory we were modeling conditions of "closed system" with fragmentary freezing. The results have shown that the most influencing cover - peat, while the moss has no affects on the frost heave. The results could be comparing with calculating data which were received for this region, for example in the cold years the peat cover influencing will be lower than in warmer and in the future we could expected the enormous increasing of deformation. Sand deposits which are presents here in itself are not apply to heaving soils, but in case of widespread development of peat and with high dispersion of deposits they are also heaving every season. The maximum ice content was registered in peat or on the contact mineral ground - peat. For the appraisal of experimental data also were done calculations of seasonal frozen layer thickness, in the system sandy clay-clay 2,1m, on the boggy area with peat - 0, 95 m, and with the high thickness of peat on the sandy clay-sand 1m, corresponding to it the frost heaving value will be change, which is confirmed by experiment. These experiments have shown that peat is the most affecting cover on the frost heave and also peat is the most widespread cover in this region. In transition of landscapes including the human intervention most of the natural territorial complexes in tundra interchange to the peats with various thicknesses, therefore it's necessary to pay special attention for interaction peat cover and soils systems and to peat cover influencing for development of cryogenic process.

Ablyazina, D.; Yampolskiy, G.

2009-04-01

97

Paleogeothermal criteria for oil and gas distribution on the northern West Siberia platform  

SciTech Connect

IT HAS BEEN SHOWN THAT THE REFLECTIVITY OF VITRINITE CAN BE USED IN ANALYZING THE CATAGENESIS AND PALEOGEOTHERMAL REGIME OF THE ROCKS FORMING THE SEDIMENTARY COVER OF THE WEST SIBERIAN LOWLAND. THIS HAS ALLOWED THE EFFECT OF THE PALEOTHERMAL ZONING ON THE SEPARATE FORMATION OF OIL AND GAS POOLS TO BE ESTABLISHED. THE CLOSE RELATIONSHIP OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF HYDROCARBONS OF DIFFERENT PHASE STATES (OIL OR GAS) TO THE TYPE OF DISPERSED ORGANIC MATTER AND THE LEVEL OF ITS CATAGENIC TRANSFORMATION CAN BE TRACED BOTH IN VERTICAL SECTION AND OVER THE AREAS OCCUPIED BY INDIVIDUAL COMPLEXES OF DEPOSITS. NEW DATA ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF VITRINITE REFLECTIVITY IN SUBSURFACE HORIZONS HAVE MADE IT POSSIBLE TO DETERMINE THE MAXIMUM TEMPERATURES REACHED IN THE JURASSIC-CRETACEOUS DEPOSITS IN A NUMBER OF MAJOR STRUCTURES IN THE NORTHERN WEST SIBERIAN PLATFORM AND TO DISTINGUISH THE ZONES IN WHICH HYDROCARBON POOLS OF PARTICULAR PHASE STATE CAN BE EXPECTED.

Gorshkov, V.I.; Volkova, T.P.; Gorbenko, G.L.; Ampleeva, G.V.

1986-03-01

98

Extraction of wetland areas in West Siberia using NOAA/AVHRR data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for extracting wetland areas in northern high-latitude zones using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface temperature (Ts) calculated from midday NOAA/AVHRR data. Wetland areas have been distinguished from other land-cover types using signatures on a scattergram of NDVI vs. Ts. The method was applied for extracting wetland areas in the basin of the Ob River in the west Siberian lowland. The result have been verified with ground-truth data and land-cover classification results obtained from high-resolution satellite images.

Tamura, Masayuki; Yasuoka, Yoshifumi

1998-12-01

99

Norilsk, Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Norilsk is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and the northernmost city in Siberia. The city was founded in the 1930s as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex, sitting near the largest nickel-copper-palladium deposits on Earth. Mining and smelting of nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium are the major industries. The nickel ore is smelted on site at Norilsk. The smelting is directly responsible for severe pollution, generally acid rain and smog. By some estimates, 1 percent of the entire global emissions of sulfur dioxide comes from this one city. Heavy metal pollution near Norilsk is so severe that it is now economically feasible to mine the soil, which has been polluted so severely that it has economic grades of platinum and palladium.

The image was acquired July 21, 2000, covers an area of 36.9 x 37.6 km, and is located at 69.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

100

Altitudinal distribution of aldehydes and their contribution into organic atmospheric aerosol through photonucleation of biogenic compounds over forests in west Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical kinetic model describing the mechanism of the formation of aldehydes and the nuclei of the solid phase in the oxidation of biogenic isoprene was built on the basis of airborne measurements of aldehyde concentrations over the forests of West Siberia. It is demonstrated that the high formaldehyde concentrations at an altitude of 4 km and above are due to the photooxidation of hydrocarbons during the vertical transport from the surface. The contribution of aldehyde photonucleation into the formation of organic atmospheric aerosol is evaluated.

Maskaeva, Anastasiya A.; Maksimova, Tatyana A.; Dubtsov, Sergei N.; Dultseva, Galina G.

2014-11-01

101

The Incidence of West Nile Disease in Russia in Relation to Climatic and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Since 1999, human cases of West Nile fever/neuroinvasive disease (WND) have been reported annually in Russia. The highest incidence has been recorded in three provinces of southern European Russia (Volgograd, Astrakhan and Rostov Provinces), yet in 2010–2012 the distribution of human cases expanded northwards considerably. From year to year, the number of WND cases varied widely, with major WND outbreaks in 1999, 2007, 2010, and 2012. The present study was aimed at identifying the most important climatic and environmental factors potentially affecting WND incidence in the three above-mentioned provinces and at building simple prognostic models, using those factors, by the decision trees method. The effects of 96 variables, including mean monthly temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, etc. were taken into account. The findings of this analysis show that an increase of human WND incidence, compared to the previous year, was mostly driven by higher temperatures in May and/or in June, as well as (to a lesser extent) by high August-September temperatures. Declining incidence was associated with cold winters (December and/or January, depending on the region and type of model). WND incidence also tended to decrease during year following major WND outbreaks. Combining this information, the future trend of WND may be, to some extent, predicted, in accordance with the climatic conditions observed before the summer peak of WND incidence. PMID:24464233

Platonov, Alexander E.; Tolpin, Vladimir A.; Gridneva, Kristina A.; Titkov, Anton V.; Platonova, Olga V.; Kolyasnikova, Nadezhda M.; Busani, Luca; Rezza, Giovanni

2014-01-01

102

WETCHIMP-WSL: intercomparison of wetland methane emissions models over West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetlands are the world's largest natural source of methane, a powerful greenhouse gas. The strong sensitivity of methane emissions to environmental factors such as soil temperature and moisture has led to concerns about potential positive feedbacks to climate change. This risk is particularly relevant at high latitudes, which have experienced pronounced warming and where thawing permafrost could potentially liberate large amounts of labile carbon over the next 100 years. However, global models disagree as to the magnitude and spatial distribution of emissions, due to uncertainties in wetland area and emissions per unit area and a scarcity of in situ observations. Recent intensive field campaigns across the West Siberian Lowland (WSL) make this an ideal region over which to assess the performance of large-scale process-based wetland models in a high-latitude environment. Here we present the results of a follow-up to the Wetland and Wetland CH4 Intercomparison of Models Project (WETCHIMP), focused on the West Siberian Lowland (WETCHIMP-WSL). We assessed 21 models and 5 inversions over this domain in terms of total CH4 emissions, simulated wetland areas, and CH4 fluxes per unit wetland area and compared these results to an intensive in situ CH4 flux dataset, several wetland maps, and two satellite inundation products. We found that: (a) despite the large scatter of individual estimates, 12 year mean estimates of annual total emissions over the WSL from forward models (5.34 ± 0.54 Tg CH4 y-1), inversions (6.06 ± 1.22 Tg CH4 y-1), and in situ observations (3.91 ± 1.29 Tg CH4 y-1) largely agreed, (b) forward models using inundation products alone to estimate wetland areas suffered from severe biases in CH4 emissions, (c) the interannual timeseries of models that lacked either soil thermal physics appropriate to the high latitudes or realistic emissions from unsaturated peatlands tended to be dominated by a single environmental driver (inundation or air temperature), unlike those of inversions and more sophisticated forward models, (d) differences in biogeochemical schemes across models had relatively smaller influence over performance; and (e) multi-year or multi-decade observational records are crucial for evaluating models' responses to long-term climate change.

Bohn, T. J.; Melton, J. R.; Ito, A.; Kleinen, T.; Spahni, R.; Stocker, B. D.; Zhang, B.; Zhu, X.; Schroeder, R.; Glagolev, M. V.; Maksyutov, S.; Brovkin, V.; Chen, G.; Denisov, S. N.; Eliseev, A. V.; Gallego-Sala, A.; McDonald, K. C.; Rawlins, M. A.; Riley, W. J.; Subin, Z. M.; Tian, H.; Zhuang, Q.; Kaplan, J. O.

2015-01-01

103

Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the West Siberian Basin Province, Russia, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the undiscovered oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin Province in Russia as part of the USGS Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal program. This province is the largest petroleum basin in the world and has an areal extent of about 2.2 million square kilometers. It is a large rift-sag feature bounded to the west by the Ural fold belt, to the north by the Novaya Zemlya fold belt and North Siberian Sill, to the south by the Turgay Depression and Altay-Sayan fold belt, and to the east by the Yenisey Ridge, Turukhan-Igarka uplift, Yenisey-Khatanga Basin, and Taimyr High. The West Siberian Basin Province has a total discovered oil and gas volume of more than 360 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Ulmishek, 2000). Exploration has led to the discovery of tens of giant oil and gas fields, including the Urengoy gas field with more than 3500 trillion cubic feet of gas reserves and Samotlar oil field with reserves of nearly 28 billion barrels of oil (Ulmishek, 2003). This report summarizes the results of a reassessment of the undiscovered oil and gas potential of that part of the province north of the Arctic Circle; a previous assessment that included the entire province was completed in 2000 (Ulmishek, 2000). The total petroleum system (TPS) and assessment units (AU) defined by the USGS for the assessments in 2000 were adopted for this assessment. However, only those parts of the Aus lying wholly or partially north of the Arctic Circle were assessed for this study.

Schenk, Christopher J.; Bird, Kenneth J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Houseknecht, David W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, Thomas E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

2008-01-01

104

Carbon flux estimation for Siberia by inverse modeling constrained by aircraft and tower CO2 measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite Siberian ecosystems being one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the world, the Siberian carbon sink remains poorly understood due to the limited numbers of observations. We present the first results of atmospheric CO2 inversions utilizing measurements from a Siberian tower network (Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network; JR-STATION) and four aircraft sites, in addition to surface background flask measurements by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The inverse model estimates monthly fluxes for 68 regions globally. Our inversion with only the NOAA data yielded a boreal Eurasian CO2 flux of -0.56 ± 0.79 GtC yr-1, whereas we obtained a weaker uptake of -0.35 ± 0.61 GtC yr-1 when the Siberian data were also included. This difference is mainly explained by a weakened summer uptake, especially in East Siberia. We also found the inclusion of the Siberian data had significant impacts on inversion results over northeastern Europe as well as boreal Eurasia. The inversion with the Siberian data reduced the regional uncertainty by 22 % on average in boreal Eurasia, and further uncertainty reductions up to 80 % were found in eastern and western Siberia. Larger interannual variability was clearly seen in the inversion including the Siberia data than the inversion without the Siberia data. In the inversion with NOAA plus Siberia data, East Siberia showed larger interannual variability than that in West and Central Siberia. Finally, we conducted forward simulations using estimated fluxes and confirmed that the fit to independent measurements over Central Siberia, which were not included in the inversions, was visibly improved.

Saeki, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Arshinov, M.; Tans, P. P.; Conway, T. J.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Oda, T.; Andres, R. J.

2012-12-01

105

Carbon flux estimation for Siberia by inverse modeling constrained by aircraft and tower CO2 measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Being one of the largest carbon reservoirs in the world, the Siberian carbon sink however remains poorly understood due to the limited numbers of observation. We present the first results of atmospheric CO2 inversions utilizing measurements from a Siberian tower network (Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network; JR-STATION) and four aircraft sites, in addition to surface background flask measurements by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Our inversion with only the NOAA data yielded a boreal Eurasian CO2 flux of -0.56 ± 0.79 GtC yr-1, whereas we obtained a weaker uptake of -0.35 ± 0.61 GtC yr-1 when the Siberian data were also included. This difference is mainly explained by a weakened summer uptake, especially in East Siberia. We also found the inclusion of the Siberian data had significant impacts on inversion results over northeastern Europe as well as boreal Eurasia. The inversion with the Siberian data reduced the regional uncertainty by 22% on average in boreal Eurasia, and further uncertainty reductions up to 80% were found in eastern and western Siberia. Larger interannual variability was clearly seen in the inversion which includes the Siberia data than the inversion without the Siberia data. In the inversion with NOAA plus Siberia data, east Siberia showed a larger interannual variability than that in west and central Siberia. Finally, we conducted forward simulations using estimated fluxes and confirmed that the fit to independent measurements over central Siberia, which were not included in inversions, was greatly improved.

Saeki, T.; Maksyutov, S.; Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Arshinov, M.; Tans, P.; Conway, T. J.; Saito, M.; Valsala, V.; Oda, T.; Andres, R. J.; Belikov, D.

2013-01-01

106

Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia Using a Focus Reduction Neutralization Test  

PubMed Central

West Nile (WN) virus has been spreading geographically to non-endemic areas in various parts of the world. However, little is known about the extent of WN virus infection in Russia. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus, which is closely related to WN virus, is prevalent throughout East Asia. We evaluated the effectiveness of a focus reduction neutralization test in young chicks inoculated with JE and WN viruses, and conducted a survey of WN infection among wild birds in Far Eastern Russia. Following single virus infection, only neutralizing antibodies specific to the homologous virus were detected in chicks. The neutralization test was then applied to serum samples from 145 wild birds for WN and JE virus. Twenty-one samples were positive for neutralizing antibodies to WN. These results suggest that WN virus is prevalent among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia. PMID:21363987

Murata, Ryo; Hashiguchi, Kazuaki; Yoshii, Kentaro; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Kensuke; Ivanov, Leonid I.; Leonova, Galina N.; Takashima, Ikuo

2011-01-01

107

Ferrotochilinite, 6FeS · 5Fe(OH)2, a new mineral from the Oktyabr'sky deposit, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new mineral, ferrotochilinite, ideally 6FeS · 5Fe(OH)2, was found at the Oktyabr'sky Mine, Oktyabr'skoe Cu-Ni deposit, Noril'sk, Krasnoyarsk krai, Siberia, Russia. It is associated with ferrovalleriite, magnetite and Fe-rich, chlorite-like phyllosilicate in the cavities of pentlandite-mooihoekite-cubanite ore with subordinate magnetite and chalcopyrite. Ferrotochilinite occurs as flattened on [001], prismatic to elongated lamellar crystals up to 0.1 × 0.5 × 3.2 mm, typically split and curved. Aggregates (up to 6.5 mm in size) are fanlike, rosette-like, or chaotic. Ferrotochilinite is dark bronze. The streak is black. The luster is moderately metallic. The Mohs' hardness is ca. 1; VHN is 13 kg/mm2. Cleavage is {001} perfect, micalike. Individuals are flexible, inelastic. D(calc) = 3.467 g/cm3. In reflected light, ferrotochilinite is gray, with the hue changing from pale beige to bluish; bireflectance is distinct. Anisotropy is distinct, with gray bluish to yellowish beige rotation colors. No internal reflections. Reflectance values [ R min- R max, % (?, nm)] are: 11.6-11.4 (470), 11.2-12.4 (546), 11.1-13.6 (589), 11.0-15.5 (650). The IR spectrum shows the presence of (OH) groups bonded with Fe cations and the absence of H2O molecules. Chemical composition (wt %; electron probe; H content is calculated) is as follows: 0.02 Mg, 61.92 Fe, 0.03 Ni, 0.09 Cu, 19.45 S, 16.3 O, 1.03 H calc; the total is 98.84. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of 6 S atoms is: Mg0.01Fe10.96Ni0.005Cu0.015S6(OH)10.07 = (Fe5.98Cu0.0015Ni0.005)?6S6(OH)9.80(Fe{4.89/2+}Mg0.01)?4.90(OH)9.80Fe{0.09/3+}(OH)0.27. Ferrotochilinite is monoclinic, space group is C2/ m, Cm or C2, the unit-cell dimensions are: a = 5.463(5), b = 15.865(17), c = 10.825(12) Å, ? = 93.7(1)°, V = 936(3) Å3, Z = 2. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, Å- I[ hkl]) are: 10.83-13[001], 5.392-100[002], 3.281-7[023], 2.777-7[150], 2.696-12[004, ], 2.524-12[, ], 2.152-8[134, 153], 1.837-11[135, ]. Ferrotochilinite is a structural analog of tochilinite, with Fe2+ instead of Mg in the hydroxide part. The type specimen is deposited in Fersman Mineralogical Museum of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow.

Pekov, I. V.; Sereda, E. V.; Polekhovsky, Yu. S.; Britvin, S. N.; Chukanov, N. V.; Yapaskurt, V. O.; Bryzgalov, I. A.

2013-12-01

108

Radiogenic argon distribution within a mineral grain: implications for dating of hydrothermal mineral-forming event in Sludyanka complex, Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Usually, in age-determination procedures, the experimenter is interested in the mean concentrations of parent and daughter substances. However, the structure of a solution of the Fick's diffusion equation enables one to specify a procedure, allowing, through macroscopic experiments, one to determine the distribution of radiogenic argon (as well as any of other isotopes) within a mineral grain. Argon, influenced in the geological past by a metamorphic event, has a half-sinusoidal distribution, whereas argon preserved in geological time has a rectangular distribution. The ratio of the quantity of argon of the first type to the total argon is called an alpha-factor. It is believed that this coefficient can be of great interest for geochronological studies, being a symptom of virtual Ar losses and the time instant, at which they happened. A laboratory procedure and a mathematical algorithm to determine the alpha-factor are developed. As an example, a determination of the alpha-factor on a vein-phlogopite from the well-studied Sludyanka deposit, Southern Baikal, Siberia, Russia, is described. Rb-Sr isochron age on phlogopite-calcite-apatite paragenetic assemblage yielded 460+/-7 Ma and is constrained by U-Pb zircon ages of 471+/-1 and 447+/-2 Ma, respectively, on an emplacement of early syenites and monzonites and later 'post-phlogopitic' pegmatites [E.B. Salnikova, S.A. Sergeev, A.B. Kotov, S.Z. Yakovleva, R.H. Steiger, L.Z. Reznitskiy, E.P. Vasil'ev. U-Pb zircon dating of granulite metamorphism in the Sludyanskiy complex, Eastern Siberia. Gondwana Res., 1, 195-205 (1998). L.Z. Reznitskii, G.P. Sandimirova, Y.A. Pakhol'chenko, S.V. Kuznetsova. The Rb-Sr age of phlogopite deposits in Sludyanka, southern Baikal region. Dokl. Earth Sci., 367, 711-713 (1999). L.Z. Reznitskii, A.B. Kotov, E.B. Salnikova, E.P. Vasil'ev, S.Z. Yakovleva, V.P. Kovach, A.M. Fedoseenko. The age and time span of the origin of phlogopite and lazurite deposits in the Southwestern Baikal area: U-Pb geochronology. Petrology, 8, 66-76 (2000).]. In this study, the phlogopite gave an apparent K-Ar age of 365.6+/-10.4 Ma which has no geological meaning. The alpha-factor of 0.27 was derived from a laboratory kinetic experiment. The age determined by the rectangularly distributed argon corresponded to alphax0.129 nmm3/g (total radiogenic argon in the sample)=94.17 nmm3/g, and an age of approximately 274 Ma (e.g. a period without any argon losses). Here, at the first sight, we deal with common argon losses not conjugated with any geological event, because after 447 Ma only lower temperature (in a range of 50-300 degrees C) hydrothermal processes were recorded. A paragenetic phlogopite-bearing vein mineral, hyalophane, having a disturbed Rb-Sr isotopic system, however, yielded 40Ar/39Ar subplateau age of 271+/-2 Ma [V.V. Ivanenko, M.I. Karpenko, M.A. Litsarev. Age of the Sludyanka phlogopite deposits (in Russian; data of the 39Ar-40Ar method). In Geological Series 5, pp. 92-98, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moskva (1990).], marking similar timing of the K-Ar isotopic system closure. This indicates that K-Ar isotopic system in the phlogopite was not closed (or was partially reset) long after its crystallisation and closing of the Rb-Sr system, in spite of the fact that the crystal was not affected by processes having temperatures above the accepted closure temperatures for micas. There seems to have acted an exchange mechanism of OH-groups between surrounding fluid and hydrocrystal structure. Thus the argon loss did not occur, spontaneously, but argon particles seem to have been captured and carried to the mineral surface by vacancies formed during displacements of OH-groups. PMID:16707319

Brandt, Ivan S; Rasskazov, Sergei V; Ivanov, Alexei V; Reznitskii, Leonid Z; Brandt, Sergei B

2006-06-01

109

Assessment of the fate of radioactive contaminants in the Ob River, Siberia, Russia. Final report, 1 June 1995--31 May 1999  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project has studied the distribution of particle reactive natural and artificial radionuclides in sediment cores of the Ob River, Siberia in order to determine the release and transport of nuclides from nuclear weapons related activities of the former Soviet Union. The Ob River drainage basin houses the bulk of the former Soviet Union`s weapons production facilities (Mayak and Tomsk-7)

Sayles

1999-01-01

110

[Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].  

PubMed

In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded. PMID:22567967

Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

2012-01-01

111

Siberia's shrouded legacy.  

PubMed

Victoria Dvornichenko is director of Irkutsk Regional Oncology Centre and an oncologist for the Irkutsk region in eastern Siberia, Russian Federation. She has worked as an oncologist for 32 years and was a senior consultant during the break-up of the Soviet Union and the transition from central planning to a market economy. This transition has been more painful in Russia than in the central European countries that joined the European Union in May, 2004, and the 1990s in Russia were associated with a severe economic decline. But healthcare was given a high priority under the Soviet system, and this priority has remained throughout the transition. Investment in cancer care and research is still substantially high. PMID:15536690

Sansom, Clare

2004-11-01

112

Migrations of dragonflies (Odonata) in the south of the West Siberian plain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a summary of mass dragonfly migrations observed previously in Russia, in particular in West Siberia. From\\u000a 1969 to 2009, the authors studied the dynamics of dragonfly population, their spatial distribution and movements in the West\\u000a Siberian forest-steppe. The main studies were conducted in the Lake Chany basin (the Biological Station of the Institute of\\u000a Animal Systematics and

A. Yu. Kharitonov; O. N. Popova

2011-01-01

113

[The genotyping of the West Nile virus in birds in the far eastern region of Russia in 2002-2004].  

PubMed

Samples from 20 species of trapped and dead birds were collected in the Far Eastern Region in 2002-2004 and were analyzed by the anti-WNV MAb-modified immunoenzyme assay for antigen detection and RT-PCR for viral RNA detection. Five positive samples from cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) and two positive samples from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) were found in both tests. The sequencing of the 322 bp fragments of protein E gene showed 99-99.67% homology with the strain WNV/LEIV-VlgOO-27924 of the WNV isolated in Volgograd, Russia, 2000. Additionally, five positive samples from birds (Pica pica, Corvus macrorhynchos, Larus crossirostris, Parus minor, Emberiza spodocephala) collected in autumn 2004 were found during screening with anti-WNV MAb-modified ELISA. These results confirm that the WNV is circulating in the Far Eastern Region of Russia and outbreaks of WN fever in humans may be possible. This demonstrates that the genotype 1a of the West Nile virus could spread in the southern regions of the Far East by migrating birds and introduction of the WNV into other southern regions of the Asian part of Russia are probably. PMID:17094656

Ternovo?, V A; Protopopova, E V; Surmach, S G; Gazetdinov, M V; Zolotykh, S I; Shestopalov, A M; Pavlenko, E V; Leonova, G N; Loktev, V B

2006-01-01

114

Eimeria Species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Arctic Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus parryii ) and Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%),

Robert S. Seville; Clint E. Oliver; Andrew J. Lynch; Michelle C. Bryant; Donald W. Duszynski

2005-01-01

115

Food and water security issues in Russia I: food security in the general population of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, 2000–2011  

PubMed Central

Background Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000–2011. Results Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23–43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative control of chemical and biological contaminants in food is insufficient and demands radical enhancement aimed at improving food security. PMID:24471055

Dudarev, Alexey A.; Alloyarov, Pavel R.; Chupakhin, Valery S.; Dushkina, Eugenia V.; Sladkova, Yuliya N.; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M.; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A.; Fridman, Kirill B.; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta

2013-01-01

116

Assessment of the fate of radioactive contaminants in the Ob River, Siberia, Russia. Final report, 1 June 1995--31 May 1999  

SciTech Connect

This project has studied the distribution of particle reactive natural and artificial radionuclides in sediment cores of the Ob River, Siberia in order to determine the release and transport of nuclides from nuclear weapons related activities of the former Soviet Union. The Ob River drainage basin houses the bulk of the former Soviet Union`s weapons production facilities (Mayak and Tomsk-7) as well as the major test site of Semipalatinsk. In addition, some 2 billion curies of nuclear waste from weapons production are stored or have been released to the environment in this area. The potential for catastrophic future releases from poorly maintained tanks and open storage ponds is real. This project has sought to develop a history of transport and deposition of nuclides released from these plants, and to use these data as a basis for estimating delivery to the Arctic Ocean and to predict rates of transport in the event of future releases.

Sayles, F.L.

1999-06-29

117

Hypolactasia in the indigenous populations of northern Russia.  

PubMed

The distribution of hypolactasia (PH) in the indigenous populations of the polar and related territories of the Russian Federation was investigated by an oral lactose tolerance. The frequency of hypolactasia in Kildin Saami population is 48%, Komi-Izhem-63%, Northern Mansi-71%, Northern Khanty-72%, West Siberia Nenets-78%. Generally hypolactasia frequencies in indigenous groups of Arctic and Sub-Arctic territories of Russia are higher than in the "reference" samples of Slav (Russian, 40-49%) and Permian Finn (Komi-Permiak and Udmurtian, 50-59%) groups. PMID:9567572

Kozlov, A I

1998-01-01

118

Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) and red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%), and Eimeria morainensis (77%). A single species, Eimeria tamiasciuri (91%), was recovered from red squirrels. Eimerians recovered from arctic ground squirrels represent new host records, and the single species from red squirrels is a new geographic record. Alaskan arctic ground squirrel prevalence was higher for E. callospermophili (Alaska = 22% vs. Russia = 9%), E. cynomysis (34% vs. 2%), and E. lateralis (27% vs. 4%), but not E. morainensis (78% vs. 76%). PMID:17089755

Seville, Robert S; Oliver, Clint E; Lynch, Andrew J; Bryant, Michelle C; Duszynski, Donald W

2005-08-01

119

Feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) using fatty acid trophic markers in seston food in two salt lakes in South Siberia (Khakasia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

During two vegetation seasons (2004–2005), we compared feeding spectra of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Calanoida, Copepoda) populations inhabiting two neighboring salt lakes, Shira and Shunet, Khakasia, Russia, using fatty\\u000a acid (FA) trophic markers. Sestonic FA composition in two lakes moderately differed, whereas levels of diatom FA markers were\\u000a higher in Lake Shunet and of Cyanobacteria and green algae markers in Lake Shira.

A. P. Tolomeev; N. N. Sushchik; R. D. Gulati; O. N. Makhutova; G. S. Kalacheva; T. A. Zotina

2010-01-01

120

Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”. PMID:21738409

Zinovyev, Evgeniy

2011-01-01

121

Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found between EC and pH on the one hand , and soil moisture content on the other. However, soil moisture content in the topsoil appeared to have a major influence on the crop water stress index, which on its turn affected the leaf area index, the fresh biomass and the mean plant height. The crop leaf color as detected by a regular digital camera appeared to be correlated with pH and EC properties of the soil. The visible light band ratios red/green and blue/green correlated well with the crop water stress index. More research is necessary to prove if this relation is applicable in different environments, and for different crops. A confirmation of these findings would offer scope to increase the spatial support of this technique using satellite images.

Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

2012-04-01

122

Arctic climate change discourse: the contrasting politics of research agendas in the West and Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore how Western scientific concepts and attitudes towards indigenous knowledge, as they pertain to resource management and climate change, differ from the prevailing view in modern Russia. Western indigenous leaders representing the Inuit and Saami peoples are actively engaged in the academic and political discourse surrounding climate change, whereas their Russian colleagues tend to focus more

Bruce C. Forbes; Florian Stammler

2009-01-01

123

Enriched Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic signatures in the Dovyren layered intrusion ( eastern Siberia, Russia): Evidence for source contamination by ancient upper-crustal material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major- and trace-element concentrations and Nd-, Sr- and Pb-isotopic ratios are reported for the Dovyren layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the northern Baikal region, eastern Siberia. Sm-Nd internal isochrons for an olivine gabbro from the layered series and a gabbronorite from a sill at the bottom of the Dovyren intrusion yield ages of 673 ?? 22 and 707 ?? 40 Ma, respectively. Initial isotopic ratios: 87Sr/86Sr (673) from 0.7101 to 0.7135, ??Nd(673 Ma) from - 16.3 to - 14.1, 206Pb/204Pb from 16.80 to 17.14, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.477 to 15.501 and 208Pb/204Pb from 37.17 to 37.59, are similar to those of late Archean-early Proterozoic upper continental crust, but do not appear to be a result of wallrock assimilation in the magma chamber. These isotopic features, as well as high K, Rb and LREE and low Ti concentrations in the calculated composition of the Dovyren parental magma, may be explained by subduction of sediments derived from upper continental crust into depleted mantle and subsequent melting of the metasomatized peridotite.

Amelin, Yu. V.; Neymark, L.A.; Ritsk, E. Yu; Nemchin, A.A.

1996-01-01

124

Multivariate data base for the solution of geologic problems in exploring for oil and gas in West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exploration data bases are distinguished in that many data elements change continuously over geologic time. Also, for maximum practical utility in exploration, the data base must be distributed. The data base developed by Tyumengeologiya on the West Siberian basin is composed of three fundamental elements. The first elemental covers the overall geologic structure of the basin, including tectonic, stratigraphic, and

V. I. ShpilMan; V. M. Yakovlev

1991-01-01

125

The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

Lim, Young-Kwon

2014-01-01

126

Lake water geochemistry on the western Kola Peninsula, north-west Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples were taken from 120 lakes spread over the western half of the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia. The samples were analysed for 37 elements, pH and electrical conductivity. Lake water chemistry appears in most cases to be dominated by a Ca\\/Na–HCO3 signature, characteristic of natural carbonate\\/silicate weathering. Input of elements from marine derived salts and from the Ni industry

Clemens Reimann; David Banks; Igor Bogatyrev; Patrice de Caritat; Galina Kashulina; Heikki Niskavaara

1999-01-01

127

Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

2008-08-01

128

HIV-1 genetic diversity in Russia: CRF63_02A1, a new HIV type 1 genetic variant spreading in Siberia.  

PubMed

One of the factors determining a high degree of heterogeneity in the HIV population is recombination-based variation, which leads to the emergence of the virus variants with a mosaic genome. An example is CRF63_02A1, an HIV-1 variant currently spreading in the Siberian region of Russia. To prove that this HIV-1 variant is a new circulating recombinant form that had emerged as a result of repeated recombination between CRF02_AG and subtype A, we have isolated seven full-length HIV genomes and theoretically analyzed them, that is, reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships, determined recombination breakpoints and regions, and compared them with the regions known for CRF02_AG. PMID:24279614

Baryshev, Pavel B; Bogachev, Vladislav V; Gashnikova, Natalya M

2014-06-01

129

Immunological parameters and gene polymorphisms (C-590T IL4, C-597A IL10) in severe bronchial asthma in children from the Krasnoyarsk region, West Siberia  

PubMed Central

Background Bronchial asthma is a common disease caused by interplay between multiple determinants, including genetic and immune variations. Objective To investigate the main indices of humoral and cellular branches of immunity, features of cytokine regulation and cytokine genes in children with atopic bronchial asthma (BA) with different levels of disease control. Design Fifty children with controlled BA (CBA) and 50 with uncontrolled BA (UBA) were analyzed. Mean age in the sample was 13.36±2.24 years. A control group of healthy children (n=50) was also studied. All individuals were Russians (Eastern Slavs) from the Krasnoyarsk Territory, West Siberia. Diagnoses, severity and level of disease control were defined according to the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) recommendations. The lymphocytes were counted in blood using fluorescent microscopy. Humoral branch indices and cytokine levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and TNF-?) in blood serum were measured by ELISA. Genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in ?590 position of the IL4 and ?597 position of the IL10 gene was performed by restriction fragment length analysis. Results No statistically significant differences in total IgE and cytokines blood levels were found in CBA and UBA. However, significant differences between the groups were found for CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ cell counts. The T-590 allele of the IL4 gene, which is responsible for an increased serum level of IL-4, showed a tendency to an association with UBA. A decreased level of IL-10 enhances control over BA, which proves its association with the allelic variant A-597 IL10. Conclusion Our data show that children with UBA have higher counts of CD3+ cells and an increase of sub-population of CD4+-cells as well as higher levels of IgE, IL-4 and TNF-? in blood serum as compared to CBA. Polymorphisms of the IL4 and IL10 genes are associated with allergic inflammation in UBA. PMID:23984295

Smolnikova, Marina V.; Smirnova, Svetlana V.; Freidin, Maxim B.; Tyutina, Olga S.

2013-01-01

130

Continuous measurements of methane from a tower network over Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ABSTRACT We have been conducting continuous measurements of Methane (CH4) concentration from an expanding network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe and wetland biomes of Siberia since 2004. High daytime means (>2000 ppb) observed simultaneously at several towers during winter, together with in situ weather data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, indicate that high pressure systems caused CH4 accumulation at subcontinental scale due to the widespread formation of an inversion layer. Daytime means sometimes exceeded 2000 ppb, particularly in the summer of 2007 when temperature and precipitation rates were anomalously high over West Siberia, which implies that CH4 emission from wetlands were exceptionally high in 2007. Many hot spots detected by MODIS in the summer of 2007 illustrate that the contribution of biomass burning also cannot be neglected. Daytime mean CH4 concentrations from the Siberian tower sites were generally higher than CH4 values reported at NOAA coastal sites in the same latitudinal zone, and the difference in concentrations between two sets of sites was reproduced with a coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian transport model. Simulations of emissions from different CH4 sources suggested that the major contributor to variation switched from wetlands during summer to fossil fuel during winter.

Sasakawa, M.; Shimoyama, K.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Suto, H.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.; Saeki, T.; Koyama, Y.; Maksyutov, S.

2010-11-01

131

Causes of permeability variation in a Lower Cretaceous reservoir unit in the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of the Lower Cretaceous BS10 reservoir, taken from 11 oil fields in the central part of the West Siberian Basin, show a permeability variation of more than 4 orders of magnitude at the scale of the core plug. Much of this variation occurs in samples that fall within the fine-grained Wentworth class. However, application of 2-D Fourier analysis and

Robert A. James

1996-01-01

132

Sugmut field: A forced regression deposit within the Neocomian prograding clinoform complex, West Siberian Basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Volgian-Neocomian interval of the Middle Ob Region of the intracratonic West Siberian Basin consists of between 35 and 45 regional transgressive\\/regressive cycles infilling a basin which had an average water depth of approximately 200 meters. Within local clinoforms, wells have encountered elongate shelf-edge sandstone bodies ranging from 15 to 100 kilometers in strike-oriented length. In most areas the seismic

J. M. Armentrout; M. Oleg; M. Igirgi

1996-01-01

133

High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (?13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (?13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

2012-01-01

134

Epidemiology of West Nile infection in Volgograd, Russia, in relation to climate change and mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) bionomics.  

PubMed

In 1999, there was the large outbreak of West Nile fever (WNF) in Southern Russia (>500 cases in the Volgograd Province). In 2000-2004, the WNF incidence rate decreased steadily to zero, but a new outbreak occurred in 2007 (64 cases). The analysis of historical climate data for Volgograd from 1900 to present showed that the years 1999 and 2007 were the hottest ones due to a very mild "winter" (Dec.-Mar.) and a hot "summer" (June-Sep.). There are up to 15 potential WNF vectors in Volgograd, but only Culex pipiens and Culex modestus are abundant in late summer, both in urban and rural settings. Only these species are naturally attracted to and feed on both humans and birds. The RNA of pathogenic WN virus genovariant was found by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction only in Culex mosquitoes at the infection rate of about 0.04%. So these species may be considered as potential WNF "bridge vectors" between birds and humans as well as main vectors in sylvatic avain cycle. Their abundance in an epidemic season was higher in the years with a mild winter and a hot summer, so this phenomenon may serve as a connecting link between a climate and WNF epidemiology. These findings give some hints on the predisposing factors for WNF epidemic as well as the possibility to predict WNF outbreaks in the temperate climate zones. PMID:19030885

Platonov, Alexander E; Fedorova, Marina V; Karan, Ludmila S; Shopenskaya, Tatyana A; Platonova, Olga V; Zhuravlev, Vitaly I

2008-12-01

135

Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic developments make the tour unique and very attractive for BSc and MSc students and soil science professionals. Detailed information about the next tour is under: www.uni-goettingen.de/soilrus

Kuzyakov, Yakov

2013-04-01

136

Experiential Perestroika: The Russia Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1993, an educational exchange program sponsored by the Association for Experiential Education (AEE) sent six educators from North America to Russia to conduct workshops for students and teachers on concepts of experiential learning. As a result of this cooperative exchange, Altai Regional Educational Center (Siberia) was created to coordinate…

Proudman, Bill; Pavlova, Alona

1994-01-01

137

Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309  

SciTech Connect

Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation protection infrastructure and general preparation of the site for construction of the facilities for the removal of the SNF. This paper describes the development and implementation of the strategy and work to improve the safe and secure management of SNF, preparing it for retrieval and removal from Andreeva Bay. (authors)

Field, D.; McAtamney, N. [Nuvia Limited (United Kingdom)] [Nuvia Limited (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

138

High resilience in the Yamal-Nenets social–ecological system, West Siberian Arctic, Russia  

PubMed Central

Tundra ecosystems are vulnerable to hydrocarbon development, in part because small-scale, low-intensity disturbances can affect vegetation, permafrost soils, and wildlife out of proportion to their spatial extent. Scaling up to include human residents, tightly integrated arctic social-ecological systems (SESs) are believed similarly susceptible to industrial impacts and climate change. In contrast to northern Alaska and Canada, most terrestrial and aquatic components of West Siberian oil and gas fields are seasonally exploited by migratory herders, hunters, fishers, and domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus L.). Despite anthropogenic fragmentation and transformation of a large proportion of the environment, recent socioeconomic upheaval, and pronounced climate warming, we find the Yamal-Nenets SES highly resilient according to a few key measures. We detail the remarkable extent to which the system has successfully reorganized in response to recent shocks and evaluate the limits of the system's capacity to respond. Our analytical approach combines quantitative methods with participant observation to understand the overall effects of rapid land use and climate change at the level of the entire Yamal system, detect thresholds crossed using surrogates, and identify potential traps. Institutional constraints and drivers were as important as the documented ecological changes. Particularly crucial to success is the unfettered movement of people and animals in space and time, which allows them to alternately avoid or exploit a wide range of natural and anthropogenic habitats. However, expansion of infrastructure, concomitant terrestrial and freshwater ecosystem degradation, climate change, and a massive influx of workers underway present a looming threat to future resilience. PMID:20007776

Forbes, Bruce C.; Stammler, Florian; Kumpula, Timo; Meschtyb, Nina; Pajunen, Anu; Kaarlejärvi, Elina

2009-01-01

139

Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) [11]; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits [11]. Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°? and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits [11]; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons [14]. Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15]. Analyses of cores of some zircons from granodiorites of Lupveem batholith indicate Precambrian age of protolith (717, 1070.4 and 1581.5 m.a.) [15]. 40Ar-39Ar age of synmetamorphic biotite varies from 108 to 103 m.a. [15]. Intrusive rocks of Alarmaut dome are represented by wide spectrum of rocks: diorites, Q diorites, Q monzodiorites, granodiorites, tonalites, granites. Granodiorites and granites contain mafic enclaves of monzonites and Q monzonites. SiO2 contents in rocks of Alarmaut dome varies from 58,55% in diorites to 71,3% in granites; in enclaves - from 54,6% in monzonites to 61.89% in Q monzonites. Granitoids are normal and subalkaline rocks according to SiO2 vs K2O+Na2O and belong to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series according to K2O vs SiO2. They are mainly metaluminous rocks (ASI < 1.0). REE patterns of intermediate rocks are characterized by LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and insignificant negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=8,42-15,69; Eu/Eu*=0,66-0,94). Granodiorites and granites REE patterns are more enriched in LREE, more depleted in HREE and have deeper negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=11,48-45,6; Eu/Eu*=0,47-0,81). REE patterns of monzonites from enclaves in granites and granodiorites are similar to patterns of host rocks. REE patterns of intermediate rocks and granodiorites are well correlated with those of "mafic root" rocks of K2 Kigluaik pluton from the core part of the same name gneiss dome, Seward Peninsula, Alaska [16], and K1-2 granitoids of Chauna fold zone, West Chukotka [17]. Spidergrams of granitoids and enclaves are similar and characterized by LILE, LREE enrichment and Nb, Sr, P, Ti depletion, typical for supra-subduction magmatites. On F1-F2 diagram [18], separating granitoids by geodynamic settings, granitoids fall in the field of collisional granites; on Rb vs Y+Nb diagram, along the boundary between the fields of syncollisional granites and volcanic arc granites, but within the field of postcollisional [19]. Geochronological and structural data indicate temporal relation between magmatism, metamorphism and d

Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

2009-04-01

140

Return to Siberia: The 2008 Kotuykan River Expedition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the September-October 2007 issue of'The Earth Observer [volume 19, Number 4, pp. 13-21] we presented an article entitled "Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account." In that article we shared excerpts from a blog that chronicled the adventures of a team of scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science as they embarked on a three-week adventure in the wilds of Siberia in hopes of collecting measurements to validate data from satellites flying 700 km overhead. The same team, plus a couple new participants, headed back to Siberia this past sumner and we are now pleased to present the continuation of their story. For more background details on the expedition to Siberia or if you missed the first part of the story, please refer to the previous article.

Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

2009-01-01

141

Land-use Changes on Peatlands in Russia and Green House Gas Emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Russia possesses vast areas of peatlands and associated paludified shallow peat lands, over 8 and 20% respectively. The country is the largest World peatland nation, and thus could be responsible for the large part of GHG exchange between peatlands and the atmosphere. Russian peatlands present a high variety of natural conditions from permafrost mires to bogs, fens and swamps within boreal, temperate, steppe and semi-arid zones, which have quite different rates of GHG flux, emitting or absorbing carbon dioxide and methane. Many regions of Russia still contain vast areas of virgin mires but in the central European part of Russia, West Siberia and Far East the appreciable part of peatlands was already modified. Peatlands were used in a broad spectrum of human activities connected with direct water level draw-down: peat extraction for different purposes (up to 1.5 million ha), drainage for agriculture, and drainage for forestry (each over 3 million ha). Many peatlands all the over the country were affected by infrastructure development (by road, pipe line construction etc.) with related changes of their hydrology and GHG fluxes. These land uses are under consideration of LULUFC issues of UNFCCC, and peat excavation is directly included in IPCC 2006 Guidelines as a main wetland/peatland land use activity related to climate change mitigation. General estimates and geographical distribution of peatlands drained for agriculture and forestry as well as peatlands under excavation, extracted or abandoned are given based on existing statistical and sectoral information. GHG fluxes from disturbed peatlands are analyzed using available Russian data and the results of specially organized observations in 2004-2008 in the pilot regions in Central European Russia and West Siberia which included a variety of modified and virgin control sites.

Sirin, A.; Minaeva, T.; Chistotin, M.; Glagolev, M.; Suvorov, G.

2009-04-01

142

Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small international team of remote sensing and forest ecosystem scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science set off on a three-week scientific expedition through the heart of the remote, wild forests of Siberia. They traveled southward down the Kochechum River observing the gradual transition from tundra to taiga, taking inventory of plant species along the way, and making ground-truth measurements to validate data being collected by several NASA satellites flying 700 kilometers overhead.

Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

2007-01-01

143

Effects of mining industry waste waters on a shallow lake ecosystem in Karelia, north-west Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mining company Karelian Pellet in NW Russia extracts iron ore and processes it locally into iron pellets. The production operations have effects on the environment in the form of air pollution (SO2 and dust) and waste water emissions. The waste waters from the process and the mining pits are let out into a dammed basin, formerly the natural Lake

Ismo J. Holopainen; Anna-Liisa Holopainen; Heikki Hämäläinen; Minna Rahkola-Sorsa; Victoria Tkatcheva; Markku Viljanen

2003-01-01

144

Toward the problem of oil and gas bearing capacity of the East Tom-Kolyvan structural zone (Western Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast depression in the east Tom-Kolyvan folded zone (West Siberia) has been identified by the geophysical data. The well which uncovered 4000 m deep profile of the Jurassic and Paleozoic deposits has been drilled. The relevance of the research is the oil\\gas-bearing capacity evaluation of the discovered depression in this West Siberia area.

Stolbova, N. F.; Maerkov, P. O.

2014-08-01

145

International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network. Specific emphasis was made on the study of permafrost soils. Throughout the course students were exposed to a wide range of field techniques, including surveying, coring, geothermal monitoring, thaw-depth measurements, landscape characterization, geomorphologic investigations, soil description and classification according to International, Russian, German, and U.S. classification schemes, and hydrologic and botanical field investigations. Significant portion of the course curriculum was devoted to problems of industrial development in permafrost regions. Pipelines, material sites, operating gas wells, processing plants, pump stations, and permafrost engineering testing facilities associated with three major gas fields (Yamburg, Yubileinoe, and Zapolyarnoe) were visited as part of the field excursions. Several meetings with Russian gas industry executives and workers were arranged to openly discuss economic and political issues associated with GasProm activities in West Siberia. The field work was complemented by daily lectures prepared by instructors and students, covering a wide range of topics. Students also participated in active permafrost research through daily data collection and analysis activities. Analysis of the diverse data sets obtained during the course was conducted at Moscow State University, presented in a series of detailed reports. The data collected by students were contributed to the international IPY permafrost monitoring programmes. Several students have presented results of their research at the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost and other national and international scientific meetings. This presentation describes research and educational activities of the IUCP, provides results of student research, and outlines the plan for the future.

Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

2009-04-01

146

Ongoing climatic extreme dynamics in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Recent investigations indicate not only large changes in averaged climatic characteristics (Kabanov and Lykosov, 2006, IPCC, 2007; Groisman and Gutman, 2012), but more frequent occurrence and stronger impacts of climatic extremes are reported as well (Bulygina et al., 2007; IPCC, 2012: Climate Extremes, 2012; Oldenborh et al., 2013). This paper provides the results of daily temperature and precipitation extreme dynamics in Siberia for the last three decades (1979 - 2012). Their seasonal dynamics is assessed using 10th and 90th percentile-based threshold indices that characterize frequency, intensity and duration of climatic extremes. To obtain the geographical pattern of these variations with high spatial resolution, the sub-daily temperature data from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and daily precipitation amounts from APHRODITE JMA dataset were used. All extreme indices and linear trend coefficients have been calculated using web-GIS information-computational platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) developed to support collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts (Gordov et al., 2012). Obtained results show that seasonal dynamics of daily temperature extremes is asymmetric for tails of cold and warm temperature extreme distributions. Namely, the intensity of warming during cold nights is higher than during warm nights, especially at high latitudes of Siberia. The similar dynamics is observed for cold and warm day-time temperatures. Slight summer cooling was observed in the central part of Siberia. It is associated with decrease in warm temperature extremes. In the southern Siberia in winter, we also observe some cooling mostly due to strengthening of the cold temperature extremes. Changes in daily precipitation extremes are spatially inhomogeneous. The largest increase in frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation is observed in the north of East Siberia. Negative trends related to precipitation amount decrease are found in the central West Siberia and in the south of East Siberia. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research projects (11-05-01190 and 13-05-12034), SB RAS Integration project 131 and project VIII.80.2.1., the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation contract 8345 and grant of the President of Russian Federation (decree 181).

Gordov, E. P.; Shulgina, T. M.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

2013-12-01

147

Aircraft and tower measurements of CO2 concentration in the planetary boundary layer and the lower free troposphere over southern taiga in West Siberia: Long-term records from 2002 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

situ measurements of the vertical distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) carried out with a light aircraft over a tower site (Berezorechka; 56°08'45?N, 84°19'49?E) in the taiga region of West Siberia from October 2001 to March 2012 document the detailed seasonal and vertical variation of CO2 concentrations during daytime. The variation appears to be controlled mainly by the CO2 flux from taiga ecosystems and the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). We calculated average CO2 concentrations in the PBL and the lower free troposphere (LFT), both of which show clear seasonal cycles and an increasing long-term trend. Seasonal amplitude in the PBL had a larger value (29 ppm) than that in the LFT (14 ppm), demonstrating strong CO2 source-sink forcing by the taiga ecosystems. Mean CO2 concentrations during 13:00-17:00 local standard time observed at the four levels of the tower (5, 20, 40, and 80 m) showed lower CO2 concentrations than that observed in the PBL by aircraft during June-August (growing season). This negative bias decreased with increasing inlet height such that the minimum difference appeared at the 80-m inlet (-2.4 ± 0.8 ppm). No such bias was observed during other months (dormant season). The daytime CO2 flux, based on multiple vertical profiles obtained on a single day, ranged from -36.4 to 3.8 µmol m-2 s-1 during July-September. There was a clear difference in the fluxes between the morning and afternoon, suggesting that these data should be considered examples of fluxes during several daytime hours from the West Siberian taiga.

Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.

2013-08-01

148

A. Blanco and S. Aiello (Editors),Conference Proceedings vol. 68, pp. 121-124, Ed. Compositori, Bologna, 2000. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MEASURED IN TUNGUSKA (SIBERIA) AND  

E-print Network

, Bologna, 2000. ENVIRONMENTAL RADIATION MEASURED IN TUNGUSKA (SIBERIA) AND DURING THE FLIGHTS FROM FORLI) 6 Tomsk State University, Russia 1 Introduction In July 1999, during the TUNGUSKA99 expedition

Curci, Gabriele

149

Sequence stratigraphic setting of the Priob Field within the Neocomian prograding complex of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Neocomian strata of the West Siberian Basin are a prograding complex unique in its aerial extent, structure and hydrocarbon reserves, such as Priob Field in the Ob River area. Interpretation of the basin history is based on well data and seismic reflection profile. As many as 45 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences, called cyclites, prograde into the deep-water basin formed during

O. M. Mkrtchyan; J. M. Armentrout

1995-01-01

150

A mantle plume origin for the Siberian traps: uplift and extension in the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The West Siberian Basin (WSB) records a detailed history of Permo-Triassic rifting, extension and volcanism, followed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentation in a thermally subsiding basin. Sedimentary deposits of Permian age are absent from much of the basin, suggesting that large areas of the nascent basin were elevated and exposed at that time. Industrial seismic and well log data from

Andrew D. Saunders; Richard W. England; Marc K. Reichow; Rosalind V. White

2005-01-01

151

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Malformations among Newborns in Monchegorsk (North-West Russia): a Register-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia) and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 new-borns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM. Significance for public health Cardiovascular malformation is one of the most common groups of birth defects. It is considered an important public health issue, as these malformations are the main cause of infant deaths in developed countries. Precise estimates about the prevalence and perinatal survival are needed to organise and plan health care for such newborns. Our study is the first report from the Russian Federation based on data from population-based birth registers. PMID:25343136

Postoev, Vitaly A.; Talykova, Ljudmila V.; Vaktskjold, Arild

2014-01-01

152

Continuous measurements of methane from a tower network over Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT We have been conducting continuous measurements of Methane (CH4) concentration from an expanding network of towers (JR-STATION: Japan-Russia Siberian Tall Tower Inland Observation Network) located in taiga, steppe and wetland biomes of Siberia since 2004. High daytime means (>2000 ppb) observed simultaneously at several towers during winter, together with in situ weather data and NCEP\\/NCAR reanalysis data, indicate that

M. Sasakawa; K. Shimoyama; T. Machida; N. Tsuda; H. Suto; M. Arshinov; D. Davydov; A. Fofonov; O. Krasnov; T. Saeki; Y. Koyama; S. Maksyutov

2010-01-01

153

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of basalts from the West Siberian Basin: an extension of the Permo–Triassic Siberian Traps, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

New major and trace element data for the Permo–Triassic basalts from the West Siberian Basin (WSB) indicate that they are strikingly similar to the Nadezhdinsky suite of the Siberian Trap basalts. The WSB basalts exhibit low Ti\\/Zr (?50) and low high-field-strength element abundances combined with other elemental characteristics (e.g., low Mg#, and negative Nb and Ti anomalies on mantle-normalised plots)

Marc K. Reichow; A. D. Saunders; R. V. White; A. I. Al'Mukhamedov; A. Ya. Medvedev

2005-01-01

154

Geochemistry and petrogenesis of basalts from the West Siberian Basin: an extension of the Permo Triassic Siberian Traps, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

New major and trace element data for the Permo Triassic basalts from the West Siberian Basin (WSB) indicate that they are strikingly similar to the Nadezhdinsky suite of the Siberian Trap basalts. The WSB basalts exhibit low Ti\\/Zr (˜50) and low high-field-strength element abundances combined with other elemental characteristics (e.g., low Mg#, and negative Nb and Ti anomalies on mantle-normalised

Marc K. Reichow; A. D. Saunders; R. V. White; A. I. Al'Mukhamedov; A. Ya. Medvedev

2005-01-01

155

[Results of studies of human dirofilariasis in Russia].  

PubMed

Human dirofilariasis is a pressing health problem in Russia. By 2014, there have been as many as 850 Dirofilaria repens-infested people living in 42 subjects of the Russian Federation. One of the favorable factors for circulation and spread of invasion is a temperature of above +20-24 degrees C; when the latter is maintained during at least 20 days there may be 1.-1.5 circulations of invasion in the carrier and a 2.8-fold increase in transmission intensity. The border ofa dirofilariasis area with a temperate climate is southward to 58 degrees N in European Russia and West Siberia and southward to 50 degrees N in the Far East. The conditions in the human body have been found to be more favorable for the development of Dirofilaria than considered before and allow the helminth to achieve sexual maturity and to propagate. If man has microfilaremia, he may be a source of invasion. It is necessary to examine venous blood by the enrichment method and, if possible, polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay, which make it possible to establish a diagnosis in occult invasion and to identify a pathogen species. PMID:25286541

Sergiev, V P; Supriaga, V G; Bronshte?n, A M; Ganushkina, L A; Rakova, V M; Morozov, E N; Fedianina, L V; Frolova, A A; Morozova, L F; Ivanova, I B; Darchenkova, N N; Zhukova, L A

2014-01-01

156

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in post-pyrogenic soils of drained peatlands in West Meshchera (Moscow Region, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority pollutants and they arrive to the environment from numerous anthropogenic and natural sources, but the data on their natural sources which include wildfires remains insufficient. The level of contamination and the composition of PAHs in soils of the areas affected by wildfires were studied in this work. The study was conducted in Moscow Region (Russia) on the territories occupied with drained peatland and strongly damaged by fires of 2002, 2010 and 2012. The features of PAHs accumulation and profile distribution in histosols and histic podzols after the fires of different time were analyzed. It was shown that new soil horizon form after the fires - Cpir, Hpir and incipient O horizons, and these horizons differ in PAHs accumulation rate. Maximal total concentrations of 14 PAHs were detected in charry peat horizons Hpir (up to 330 ng g-1) and in post-pyrogenic incipient O horizons (up to 180 ng g-1), but the high-molecular weight PAHs (benz(ghi)perylene, benz(a)pyrene, benz(k)fluoranthene) were revealed only in charry peat horizons. The trends to higher PAHs concentrations were found in cases of incomplete burning out of peat horizons while in cases of almost complete pyrogenic destruction of He horizons total PAHs concentration were no more than 50 ng g-1. Also the PAHs accumulation in upper horizons of soils near the sites of latest fires was observed.

Tsibart, A. S.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Koshovskii, T. S.

2014-05-01

157

A mantle plume origin for the Siberian traps: uplift and extension in the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberian Basin (WSB) records a detailed history of Permo-Triassic rifting, extension and volcanism, followed by Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentation in a thermally subsiding basin. Sedimentary deposits of Permian age are absent from much of the basin, suggesting that large areas of the nascent basin were elevated and exposed at that time. Industrial seismic and well log data from the basin have enabled extension and subsidence modelling of parts of the basin. Crustal extension ( ?) factors are calculated to be in excess of 1.6 in the northern part of the basin across the deep Urengoy graben. 1-D backstripping of the Triassic to Cenozoic sedimentary sequences in this region indicates a period of delayed subsidence during the early Mesozoic. The combination of elevation, rifting and volcanism is consistent with sublithospheric support, such as a hot mantle plume. This interpretation accords with the geochemical data for basalts from the Siberian Traps and the West Siberian Basin, which are considered to be part of the same large igneous province. Whilst early suites from Noril'sk indicate moderate pressures of melting (mostly within the garnet stability field), later suites (and those from the West Siberian Basin) indicate shallow average depths of melting. The main region of magma production was therefore beneath the relatively thin (ca. 50-100 km) lithosphere of the basin, and not the craton on which the present-day exposure of the Traps occurs. The indicated uplift, widespread occurrence of basalts, and short duration of the volcanic province as a whole are entirely consistent with published models involving a mantle plume. The main argument against the plume model, namely lack of any associated uplift, appears to be untenable.

Saunders, Andrew D.; England, Richard W.; Reichow, Marc K.; White, Rosalind V.

2005-02-01

158

Aluminium phosphate and phosphate-sulphate minerals in kyanite schists of the Ichetuyskoye area, West Transbaikalia, Russia: crystal chemistry and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium phosphate and aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals occur as disseminated crystals and fine-grained aggregates in kyanite schists near Ichetuyskoye, in the Dzhida basin (West Transbaikal region, Russia). Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a metamorphic evolution through prograde and retrograde stages. Lazulite-scorzalite and trolleite in association with kyanite, quartz, muscovite, paragonite, topaz, rutile, magnetite and hematite formed during the prograde stage. More than 25 minerals identified in schists are genetically related to the retrograde stage. Some phosphates and all of the APS minerals belong to the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. Electron-microprobe data reveal the presence of wide compositional variations and complex solid-solution series among the members. The main crystal-chemical variations of the APS solid-solution series in the alunite supergroup concern the relative proportions of svanbergite, woodhouseite, goyazite, crandallite, florencite-(Ce) and natroalunite. Chemical analyses of APS minerals indicate extremely high amounts of LREE, Sr, Ba, Ca and Na. In some cases, APS minerals have compositions of Ba and Ca,Ba phosphates- sulphates.

Izbrodin, Ivan A.; Ripp, German S.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.

2011-01-01

159

Increased Pathogenicity of West Nile Virus (WNV) by Glycosylation of Envelope Protein and Seroprevalence of WNV in Wild Birds in Far Eastern Russia  

PubMed Central

In this review, we discuss the possibility that the glycosylation of West Nile (WN) virus E-protein may be associated with enhanced pathogenicity and higher replication of WN virus. The results indicate that E-protein glycosylation allows the virus to multiply in a heat-stable manner and therefore, has a critical role in enhanced viremic levels and virulence of WN virus in young-chick infection model. The effect of the glycosylation of the E protein on the pathogenicity of WN virus in young chicks was further investigated. The results indicate that glycosylation of the WN virus E protein is important for viral multiplication in peripheral organs and that it is associated with the strong pathogenicity of WN virus in birds. The micro-focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT) in which a large number of serum samples can be handled at once with a small volume (15 ?L) of serum was useful for differential diagnosis between Japanese encephalitis and WN virus infections in infected chicks. Serological investigation was performed among wild birds in the Far Eastern region of Russia using the FRNT. Antibodies specific to WN virus were detected in 21 samples of resident and migratory birds out of 145 wild bird samples in the region. PMID:24351738

Kariwa, Hiroaki; Murata, Ryo; Totani, Masashi; Yoshii, Kentaro; Takashima, Ikuo

2013-01-01

160

A review of myrmecophilous mites of the family Microdispidae (Acari, Heterostigmatina) of Western Siberia  

PubMed Central

Abstract Five species of myrmecophilous microdispid mites (Acari: Microdispidae) are recorded from Western Siberia, Russia. Unguidispus lasii Kurosa, 1979, Unguidispus japonicus Kurosa, 1979, Caesarodispus minutus (Sevastianov, 1981), and Caesarodispus samsinaki (Mahunka, 1967), comb. n. are reported from Russia for the first time. Unguidispus polyctenus (Sevastianov, 1969) and Caesarodispus samsinaki are redescribed. The keys to species of the genera Unguidispus Mahunka, 1970 and Caesarodispus Mahunka, 1977 are provided. PMID:25493064

Khaustov, Alexander A.

2014-01-01

161

ORIGINAL PAPER Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines for neglected northern Siberia (Russia), Arctic Alaska (USA), and the Canadian Arctic, extends over seven coastal Large-scale operations conducted mainly in estuaries and river deltas. Most of the catches have traditionally not been

Pauly, Daniel

162

Sequence stratigraphic setting of the Priob Field within the Neocomian prograding complex of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The Neocomian strata of the West Siberian Basin are a prograding complex unique in its aerial extent, structure and hydrocarbon reserves, such as Priob Field in the Ob River area. Interpretation of the basin history is based on well data and seismic reflection profile. As many as 45 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences, called cyclites, prograde into the deep-water basin formed during Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Each transgressive-regressive sequence is defined by a coarsening-upward cycle of shale, siltstone and sandstone, and is considered a chronostratigraphic subdivision of the prograding complex. Each sequence boundary is regionally correlatable on seismic reflection profiles, and is identified on well logs by sharp contacts between regressive sandstones below and thin transgressive shales above. Subordinate progradational wedges are locally developed within these sequences and contain major hydrocarbon reserves. These depositional wedges map as lens-shaped packages downlapping the outermost shelf (Priob zone) or as narrow progradational wedges downlapping the foreset reflections of the slope clinoforms immediately beyond the shelf break (Sugmut zone). Regressive facies of the shelf consist of thin but wide spread sandstones that also contain major hydrocarbon reserves. Pervasive sediment starvation during the Late Neocomian resulted in deposition of thin regionally extensive shales that provide top-seal to the Neocomian hydrocarbon system. At the Priob field, a deep erosional incision has been mapped at the AS11 shelf-edge. Sands transported through this incised valley were deposited as a prograding wedge along the shoreline, forming the reservoir facies for the Priob hydrocarbon accumulation. Stratigraphic aspects of the Priob trap include top and lateral shale seals and subtle regional structural tilt. Types of stratigraphic traps are discussed and the possibility of predicting additional such traps are analyzed.

Mkrtchyan, O.M. [IGIRGI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Armentrout, J.M. [Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

1995-08-01

163

Dragon Lake, Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nicknamed 'Dragon Lake,' this body of water is formed by the Bratskove Reservoir, built along the Angara river in southern Siberia, near the city of Bratsk. This image was acquired in winter, when the lake is frozen. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on December 19, 1999. This is a natural color composite image made using blue, green, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

164

Moscow, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

165

Comparison of the Impact of the Arctic Oscillation and East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection on Interannual Variation in East Asian Winter Temperatures and Monsoon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The large-scale impacts of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) teleconnection on the East Asian winter climate anomalies are compared for the past 34 winters focusing on 1) interannual monthly to seasonal temperature variability, 2) East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM), and 3) the Siberian high (SH) and cold surge. Regression analysis reveals warming by AO and EA/WR over mid-latitude East Asia during their positive phase and vice versa. The EA/WR impact is found to be comparable to the AO impact in affecting the East Asian temperature and monsoon. For example, warm (cold) months over mid-latitude East Asia during the positive (negative) AO are clearly seen when the AO and EA/WR are in the same phase. Near zero correlation is found between temperature and the AO phase when both teleconnections are in an opposite phase. The well-known negative relationship between SH and the AO phase is observed significantly more often when the AO is in the same phase with the EA/WR. Also, the indices of EAWM, cold surge, and SH are found to be more highly negative-correlated with the EA/WR rather than with the AO. The advective temperature change and associated circulation demonstrate that the anomalous large-scale field including the SH over the mid-latitude Asian inland is better represented by the EA/WR, influencing the East Asian winter climates. These results suggest that the impact of EA/WR should be considered more important than previously thought for a better understanding of East Asian winter temperature and monsoon variability.

Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Hae-Dong

2014-01-01

166

Geographic Assessment Of Permafrost Bearing Capacity In Siberia Under Warming Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 75% of engineering structures on permafrost in Russia are built according to the ”First Construction Principle”, which relies on the freezing strength (bearing capacity) of the frozen ground to support structures. For given surface and subsurface conditions, the bearing capacity depends strongly on the active layer thickness (ALT) and the temperature at the top of the permafrost (TTOP), both of which are strongly affected by the atmospheric climate. Increases in TTOP and ALT resulting from climatic warming can significantly reduce the bearing capacity of the frozen soil and the stability of engineered structures. We have developed a set of parameterizations to estimate the bearing capacity of frozen soils as function of TTOP and ALT, according to Russian Construction Rules and Regulations. The effect of climate on TTOP and ALT was estimated by an equilibrium permafrost model. Here, we present results from a geographic assessment of changes in the bearing capacity of permafrost soils attributable to observed climatic change in Siberia. Changes in bearing capacity for the last forty years were evaluated for several large settlements and industrial centers, representing different geographical conditions of the Russian Arctic. GIS-based landscape approach was used to apply model at the regional and continental scales to spatially assess changes in the permafrost temperature, the active-layer thickness and the bearing capacity in the North of West Siberia and for the entire Russian continuous permafrost zone. Substantial (up to 25%) loss in the bearing capacity of frozen soils is evident throughout the Russian permafrost zone. This in turn undermines the stability of infrastructure built on permafrost.

Shiklomanov, N. I.; Streletskyi, D.

2009-12-01

167

Russia Profile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The availability of high-quality news reporting on the Internet continues to improve, though at times finding reputable sources can still be difficult for certain parts of the world. Russia Profile is one such source, as it is produced by the Independent Media group, which is responsible for publishing The Moscow Times along with a number of other magazines across Russia. The goal of this website is to both broaden the scope of news coming out of Russia and "to provide a platform for an informed discussion of issues related to or concerning Russia". From the site's homepage, visitors can read about the latest from Russia Profile, view a calendar of events, and subscribe for free to the print edition of Russia Profile. Visitors can also participate in a number of online forum discussions.

168

THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

Motomura, Masumi

169

Aerosol index variations caused by severe forest fires in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol index variations, caused by large-scale forest fires in Siberia, Russia in 2012, 2013 were studied on remote sensing data (EOS Terra, Aqua and Aura). Analysis of the forest fire activity, variations of aerosol index distribution, pressure fields and winds shows that large-scale forest fires are the main factor determining the spatial and temporal distribution of the aerosol index from April to October as in the Siberia and the Far East. Formation of large-scale inhomogeneities in AI distribution is possible under appropriate meteorological conditions (low pressure, slow wind speed, etc.) which lead to formation of stagnation regions where aerosol particles are accumulated. Aerosol pollution from severe forest fires can be transported over a high distances from the fire location.

Tomshin, Oleg A.; Solovyev, Vladimir S.

2014-11-01

170

Genetic variability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes persulcatus ticks and small mammals in the Asian part of Russia.  

PubMed

The specimens of 3552 questing adult Ixodes persulcatus and 1698 blood/tissue samples of small mammals collected in Ural, Siberia, and Far East of Russia were assayed for the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum by nested PCR based on the 16S rRNA gene. Totally, A. phagocytophilum was detected in 112 tick and 88 mammalian samples. The nucleotide sequences of the 16S rRNA gene and groESL operon (1244-1295?bp) were determined for A. phagocytophilum samples from 65 ticks and 25 small mammals. Six different 16S rRNA gene variants differing by 1-5 nucleotide substitutions were detected, and only one variant matched the sequences deposited in GenBank. Analysis of groESL sequences allowed the A. phagocytophilum samples to be divided into three groups; moreover, the samples from different groups also differed in the 16S rRNA gene sequences. The A. phagocytophilum sequences from group I were detected in 11 Myodes spp. samples from West Siberia and Far East and in 19 I. persulcatus samples from all examined regions; from group II, in 10 samples of Myodes spp. and common shrews (Sorex araneus) from Ural; and from group III, in four samples of Asian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus) from West Siberia and Far East; and in 46 I. persulcatus samples from all examined regions. The nucleotide sequences of A. phagocytophilum groESL operon from groups I and II were strictly conserved and formed with A. phagocytophilum groESL sequence from a Swiss bank vole (Myodes glareolus) (GenBank accession no. AF192796), a separate cluster on the phylogenetic tree with a strong bootstrap support. The A. phagocytophilum groESL operon sequences from group III differed from one another by 1-4 nucleotides and formed a separate branch in the cluster generated by European A. phagocytophilum strains from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and Ixodes ricinus ticks. PMID:21612528

Rar, Vera A; Epikhina, Tamara I; Livanova, Natalya N; Panov, Victor V; Doroschenko, Elena K; Pukhovskaya, Natalya M; Vysochina, Nelya P; Ivanov, Leonid I

2011-08-01

171

A Normal Country: Russia after Communism  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the 1990s, Russia underwent an extraordinary transformation from a communist dictatorship to a multi-party democracy, from a centrally planned economy to a market economy, and from a belligerent adversary of the West to a cooperative partner. Yet a consensus in the US circa 2000 viewed Russia as a disastrous and threatening failure, and the 1990s as a decade of

Andrei Shleifer; Daniel Treisman

2005-01-01

172

Kondyor Massif, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

173

Ties That Do Not Bind: Russia and the International Liberal Order  

E-print Network

grounded in economics. Germany has been Russia’s largestRussia and other states (including the states of the West that espouse liberal economics andRussia that has the lowest GES score. 599 More importantly, the narrow focus on economics

Krickovic, Andrej

2012-01-01

174

Biogeochemical phosphorus mass balance for Lake Baikal, southeastern Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Extensive data for Lake Baikal have been synthesized into a geochemical mass balance for phosphorus (P). Some of the P budget and internal cycling terms for Baikal have been compared to similar terms for oligotrophic Lake Superior, mesotrophic Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and the Ocean. Lake Baikal has a large external source of fluvial P compared to the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Ocean. The major tributary to Lake Baikal has experienced substantial increases in organic P loading during the past 25 years. This, coupled with potential P inputs from possible phosphorite mining, may threaten Baikal's oligotrophic status in the future. Water-column remineralization of particulate organic P is substantially greater in Lake Baikal than in the Laurentian Great Lakes. This is probably due to the great water depths of Lake Baikal. There is a gradient in P burial efficiency, with very high values (80%) for Lake Baikal and Lake Superior, lower values (50%) for Lake Michigan and the Baltic Sea, and a low value (13%) for the Ocean. The accumulation rate of P in Lake Baikal sediments is somewhat greater than that in the Laurentian upper Great Lakes and the Baltic Sea, and much greater than in the Ocean. Benthic regeneration rates are surprisingly similar for large lacustrine and marine environments and supply less than 10% of the P utilized for primary production in these aquatic environments.

Callender, E.; Granina, L.

1997-01-01

175

Two Virtual Journeys: Siberia Diary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though most people have returned to work and school, the opportunity for travel and adventure still exists...via computer. Washington Post correspondents Robert G. Kaiser and Lucian Perkins are in the midst of a month-long expedition through Siberia, sending back dispatches on and photographs off the people and natural resources along the way. A few of the places their journey has taken them are the town of Chita, along the Chinese border, Irkutsk on Lake Baikal, and Siberia's wealthiest city, Surgut. The site is arranged so that readers can choose a featured dispatch and then see oodles of photographs, learn facts, and understand issues about the dispatch location. Interesting examples of the dispatches include "Aids Orphans," "City of Uranium," and "A River Feast." Helpful links to related news and information, and a section where readers can email questions to Kaiser and Perkins round out Siberia Diary.

Kaiser, Robert G., 1943-

2001-01-01

176

Mapping forest succesion types in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a forest typology system based on dynamic vegetation approach and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), one in Central Siberia and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas covered with analysis of the ground truth and inventory data, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects published in literature. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information seem to be a promising way to complement Landsat data, including SAR-based biomass maps and terrain data

Maksyutov, S. S.; Sedykh, V.; Kleptsova, I.; Frolov, A.; Silaev, A.; Kuzmenko, E.; Farber, S.; Kuzmik, N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Fedorov, A.; Nikolaeva, S.

2013-12-01

177

Total ozone and NO2 observations in Anadyr (64.5N, 177.3E), Russia in 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenitale) is a UV-visible diode array spectrometer developed at the Service d'Aeronomie, CNRS, France in the late 80s for monitoring stratospheric ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). It is now manufactured at the Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (LATMOS) for measuring total atmospheric ozone, nitrogen dioxide and some other atmospheric trace gases (BrO, O4). The spectrometer uses the technique of measurements in the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths of sun in the registration of the zenith sky. The wavelength range of the SAOZ instrument is in Chappuis band of ozone absorption, with a spectral resolution of 1 nm for version V-1024, and 0.7 nm for the new Mini-SAOZ version V-2048. Measurement accuracy is 6% for total ozone and 10% for nitrogen dioxide. Data for the atmospheric content of O3 and NO2 measured by SAOZ spectrometers are available at the World SAOZ database, http://saoz.obs.uvsq.fr/SAOZ-RT.html, since 1988 from Dumont d'Urville station in the Southern Hemisphere, since 1989 from the Sodankyla observatory in Finland, and from additional SAOZ stations in 1990-1991. The first Asiatic SAOZ station started operation in 1991 at Zhigansk, East Siberia, Russia. A SAOZ spectrometer has been operating at Salekhard station, West Siberia, Russia since 1997. The new SAOZ UV-visible instrument is used to measure atmospheric trace gases in the polar area of the Russian Far East for the first time. The resulting total ozone and nitrogen dioxide measurements from the new model V-2048 Mini-SAOZ UV-visible spectrometer at the Hydrometeorological observatory Anadyr in all seasons of 2011 will be shown and discussed.

Shepelev, D.; Dorokhov, V.; Yushkov, V.; Makshtas, A.; Goutail, F.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Pazmino, A.

2012-04-01

178

Paleomagnetism of the Siberian traps: New data and a new overall 250 Ma pole for Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flood basalt province in Siberia is one of the largest in the world but the number of reliable paleomagnetic data on these volcanics is still limited. We studied lava flows and trap-related intrusions from two areas in the north and west of the Siberian platform. A dual-polarity characteristic component was isolated from most samples with the aid of stepwise

V. E. Pavlov; V. Courtillot; M. L. Bazhenov; R. V. Veselovsky

2007-01-01

179

Flooding on Russia's Lena River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

180

Mapping wetland and forest landscapes in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat data availability provides opportunity for improving the knowledge of the Siberian ecosystems necessary for quantifying the response of the regional carbon cycle to the climate change. We developed a new wetland map based on Landsat data for whole West Siberia aiming at scaling up the methane emission observations. Mid-summer Landsat scenes were used in supervised classification method, based on ground truth data obtained during multiple field surveys. The method allows distinguishing following wetland types: pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bogs or ryams, ridge-hollows complexes, shallow-water complexes, sedge-sphagnum poor fens, herbaceous-sphagnum poor fens, sedge-(moss) poor fens and fens, wooded swamps or sogra, palsa complexes. In our estimates wetlands cover 36% of the taiga area. Total methane emission from WS taiga mires is estimated as 3.6 TgC/yr,which is 77% larger as compared to the earlier estimate based on partial Landsat mapping combined with low resolution map due to higher fraction of fen area. We make an attempt to develop a forest typology system useful for a dynamic vegetation modeling and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in West and East Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas where ample ground truth and inventory data are available, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exists for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Forest classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills.

Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander

2014-05-01

181

A new species of the genus Paravillersia (Acari: Prostigmata: Stigmaeidae) from Western Siberia, with supplementary description of Paravillersia grata Kuznetsov, 1978.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Paravillersia Kuznetsov, 1978 (Acari: Stigmaeidae), P. jamaliensis Khaustov sp. nov. is described from mosses on fen in Western Siberia, Russia. The supplementary description of Paravillersia grata Kuznetsov, 1978 is provided based on the type material.  PMID:25544206

Khaustov, Alexander A

2014-01-01

182

Evidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia  

E-print Network

are found at Kostenki on the west bank of the Don River in Russia. During the 1950s, A.N. Rogachev excavatedEvidence for kill-butchery events of early Upper Paleolithic age at Kostenki, Russia John F, Universitetskaya nab., 1, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia c Institute of the History of Material Culture, Russian

Holliday, Vance T.

183

Where was the outlet of the ice-dammed Lake Komi, Northern Russia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When ice-sheets on the continental shelves of the Barents and Kara seas expanded onto the Russian mainland, north-flowing rivers were blocked. The last proglacial lake in European Russia dammed between the ice-sheet in the north and the drainage divide in the south was Lake Komi, which has been dated to the Early Weichselian, 80-100 ka. The lake was about 1400 km long with a water level of about 100 m a.s.l. In the present paper, we discuss four alternative outlets: (1) Across the drainage divide towards the Volga River, leading the water southwards into the Caspian Sea; (2) across the Polar Urals towards West Siberia; (3) between the Barents Ice Sheet and the northern slope of the Kola Peninsula, leading the water northwestwards into the Norwegian Sea; and (4) across the drainage divide between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea catchment areas. Based on present knowledge, we consider the first three options unlikely. Across the divide to the Baltic Sea, a buried channel is mapped where the threshold altitude is lower than the Lake Komi level. We conclude that the outlet of Lake Komi probably followed this valley towards the Baltic Sea. However, the Scandinavian Ice Sheet overran this drainage divide during the Late Weichselian and therefore a younger till and other sediments cover the channel.

Maslenikova, Olga; Mangerud, Jan

2001-11-01

184

Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will occur during the forecasted period. This is resolved using an interactive method that continually updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability to classify fire severity on burn scar areas for predicting carbon release better over the vast areas of Russia. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as key independent variables. Modern wildfire prevention programs cannot be successful unless they are fully supported by fire-danger analysis acquired from detailed daily fire-danger mapping. This enables better coordination and potential success of limited suppression forces. Currently the existing network of weather stations in Russia, especially in remote areas, does not allow for the estimation of fire danger over the entire country. Thus, northern forests are deprived of badly needed fire protection information because of the lack of weather stations. Remote sensing analysis and diagnosis of forest fire danger conditions is an emerging field both in Russia and abroad. V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, located in Krasnoyarsk, is supporting research this field and is proposing the development of methodology for generating daily fire weather danger maps based on the digital multispectral images obtained from satellites. This will allow the computation of fire danger for remote areas without the need for supplementary on-ground weather stations. KEYWORDS: Fire weather danger system, meteorological data, remote sensing data, wildfires, Siberian boreal forests.

Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

2010-05-01

185

Petroleum geology of east Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Two oil-gas provinces are present in East Siberia: the Lena-Tunguska in the central, southern, and western parts, and the Khatanga-Viluy along the northern and eastern margins. The provinces developed as rift-sag features in late Proterozoic and Paleozoic time. The identified oil and gas deposits of the Lena-Tunguska province appear to be associated with a Proterozoic rift that extends east-northeast across the southern part of the basin. These deposits are in upper Proterozoic and Cambrian sandstones and carbonate rocks, sealed by Cambrian salt and argillites. The oil and gas deposits of the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are within foreland downwarps that developed in connection with docking of crustal plates during the Mesozoic: during the Triassic on the north and during the Cretaceous on the east. The source of the petroleum in the immature rocks of the southeastern Lena-Tunguska province is uncertain, perhaps being derived from rocks in a downwarp to the south or from source beds that are now beneath a conjectured thrust sheet. This province has both oil and gas pools, but is gas prone in general. The source beds for the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are Permian and Mesozoic in age; the province is gas prone. More than 40 oil and gas fields have now been discovered in East Siberia.

Clarke, J.W. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

1991-03-01

186

Close genetic relationships in vast territories: autosomal and X chromosome Alu diversity in Yakuts from Siberia.  

PubMed

Twelve autosomal and 8 X chromosome Alu markers were genotyped for the first time in 161 Central and West Yakuts to test their ability to reconstruct the genetic history of these populations, the northernmost Turkic-speaker ethnic group living in Siberia. Autosomal data revealed that both groups showed extremely close genetic distances to other populations of Siberian origins that occupied areas from Lake Baikal, the ancestral place of origin of Yakuts, to North Siberia, their current territories. Autosomal and X chromosome data revealed some discrepancies on the genetic differentiation and the effective sizes of Central and West Yakuts. Such discrepancies could be related to the patrilineal and occasionally polygamous structure of these populations. Autosomal and X Alu markers are informative markers to reconstruct population past demography and history, but their utility is limited by the available data. This study represents a contribution for further investigations on these populations. PMID:24466640

Rocañín-Arjó, Ares; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Esteban, Esther; Theves, Catherine; Evdokimova, Larissa E; Fedorova, Sardana A; Gibert, Morgane; Crubezy, Eric; Moral, Pedro

2013-01-01

187

Drought displaced movement of North American pintails into Siberia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the years 1954-70, 230 pintails (Anas acuta) banded in North America were reported from eastern Asia, primarily Siberia. Most of the birds were shot on the breeding grounds in May. The movement into eastern Asia of pintails banded in the interior of North America was directly correlated with the overflight of the southern portion of the breeding range in North America (r = +0.73**); this overflight resulted from drought conditions (Smith 1970). Thus, the magnitude of the pintail movement into eastern Asia is believed to be dependent upon water conditions some 3,000 miles away. A higher percentage of the pintails banded in the west was reported from eastern Asia, although the recovery rate index was not significantly correlated with the percentage of pintails found in northern Canada and Alaska (r = +0.46 NS). Apparently, a portion of the pintails which winter in the western United States annually nest in Siberia, regardless of water conditions on the North American breeding grounds.

Henny, C.J.

1973-01-01

188

Petroleum geology of East Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The unmetamorphosed geologic section of the East Siberian region consists of upper Proterozoic clastic and carbonate sediments; Cambrian evaporites, carbonates, and black shales; Ordovician to permian clastic and carbonate sediments; Triassic basaltic flows and intrusives; and Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic sediments. During the Cambrian, a barrier reef extended across the region. Salt and anhydrite were deposited in the vast lagoon to the southwest behind this reef. The structure is typical of platforms; broad, gentle warps are complicated by smaller highs. The total area of East Siberia that is potentially favorable for oil and gas is 3.23 million km/sup 2/ (1.24 million mi/sup 2/). Deposits in the Lena-Tunguska province are in stratigraphic traps in Proterozoic to Cambrian clastic and carbonate sediments sealed by Cambrian salt and in anticlinal structures in areas of salt tectonics. Source beds seem to be Proterozoic. Pools in the Khatanga-Vilyuy province are in anticlines in Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous clastic sedimentary rocks. Source beds are Permian carbonaceous shale. Most discoveries have been of gas; however, several fields have oil rings. The traps appear to have been filled by oil at one time. Undiscovered recoverable petroleum resources of East Siberia are assessed, at 90% probability, within the range of 2.2-14.6 billion bbl of oil and 72-278 tcf of gas. Mean estimates are 7.3 billion bbl of oil and 158 tcf of gas, respectively. Gas-hydrate deposits in the Lena-Vilyuy province, where permafrost is more than 400 m thick, are estimated to contain 27 tcf of possibly recoverable gas.

Clarke, J.W.

1986-05-01

189

[Testaceans (Testacea, Protozoa) of taiga soils in Western Siberia (Surgut woodland)].  

PubMed

We studied population structure of testaceans of automorphic and hydromorphic soils in the middle taiga of Western Siberia. Rich testacean fauna has been revealed. It was represented to a similar extent as compared to the soils of Ciscaucasian Russia. The bryophilic group was the most typical for the region, since its representatives inhabited the predominating hydromorphic soils of bogs. The typical species included Amphitrema flavum, Heleopera petricola, Placocista spinosa, Trigonopyxis arcula, Centropyxis laevigata, Nebela tincta, Arcella catinus, as well as other moss forms. Flood plain proved to be the richest by testacean species variability among the studied habitats. The set of species here included both representatives of watershed and typical aquatic forms present due to the flood conditions of a given area. The highest quantitative indices of the testacean complexes were revealed in the forest area soils. Quadrulella quadrigera Deflandre, 1936 has been found in a flood plain area for the first time in Russia. PMID:12561339

Rakhleeva, A A

2002-01-01

190

Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

191

Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

192

Arctic fisheries catches in Russia, USA, and Canada: baselines for neglected ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amerasian Arctic, covering northern Siberia (Russia), Arctic Alaska (USA), and the Canadian Arctic, extends over seven\\u000a coastal Large Marine Ecosystems and makes up the seasonally ice-free part of FAO Statistical Area 18 (Arctic Sea). Historically,\\u000a the harsh climate has limited marine fisheries (here excluding marine mammal hunting) to small-scale operations conducted\\u000a mainly in estuaries and river deltas. Most of

D. ZellerS; S. Booth; E. Pakhomov; W. Swartz; D. Pauly

2011-01-01

193

Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

194

Variability of mesopause temperature from the hydroxyl airglow observations over mid-latitudinal sites, Zvenigorod and Tory, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained data on temperature in the mesopause vicinity from ground-based observations of the hydroxyl airglow at mid-latitudinal sites, Zvenigorod (56°N, 37°E), located near Moscow, over 2000-2012, and Tory (52°N, 103°E), Eastern Siberia, over 2008-2012. Seasonal behavior of the temperature and its monthly and nightly mean variances are presented. A comparison of the results obtained at two different regions of Russia shows higher values of the mesopause temperature variability in Eastern Siberia. We perform an analysis of the multi-year changes in the temperature variability characteristics based on the Zvenigorod observational data.

Perminov, V. I.; Semenov, A. I.; Medvedeva, I. V.; Zheleznov, Yu. A.

2014-12-01

195

Polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA and infection with symbiotic cytoplasmic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis in mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens (Diptera, Culicidae) complex from Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 208 mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex from 15 basement and terrestrial populations collected in different regions of the European part of Russia and Siberia were examined by genetic methods. Among these, two major mitotypes, M and P, were identified. These mitotypes differed by six substitutions in the 246-bp mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene fragment examined.

E. V. Shaikevich; E. B. Vinogradova; A. E. Platonov; L. S. Karan; I. A. Zakharov

2005-01-01

196

Directions and intensities of the Earth’s magnetic field during a reversal: results from the Permo-Triassic Siberian trap basalts, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extensive palaeomagnetic study was carried out on an approximately 250 Ma old reversed to normal transition of the Earth’s magnetic field (EMF) recorded in 86 volcanic lava flows of the Siberian trap basalts, North Siberia, Russia. In addition to the investigation of the directional behaviour of the field (?700 specimens) a total of 298 specimens was subjected to Thellier-type

Christoph Heunemann; David Krása; Heinrich C Soffel; Evguenij Gurevitch; Valerian Bachtadse

2004-01-01

197

Vendian reference section of southern Middle Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological, chemo-, and biostratigraphic data indicate that the Vendian section of the Ura uplift is the most complete one in southern Middle Siberia and contains analogs of main units of the Vendian stratotype. This section is well known having been investigated by several generations of geologists, well exposed, and easily accessible; therefore, it is proposed to serve as a regional reference section for Vendian deposits of the entire southern Middle Siberia. Its description is accompanied by presentation of new biostratigraphic and radioisotopic data. The section is correlated with other Vendian sections of the Baikal-Patom and some other world regions.

Chumakov, N. M.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Sergeev, V. N.

2013-07-01

198

Window-to-Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Window-to-Russia is a Moscow-based project by Relcom Corporation, oriented towards the international network community. WWW access to a variety of information resources from and about Russia, including two original Virtual Exhibitions: "Moscow Kremlin" and "Contemporary Russian Fine Arts." Extensive list of pointers to other Russian web-servers.

199

Russia at the crossroads  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to define the basic causes of turmoil in Russia and to evaluate the course of future events. The manner in which the Soviet empire was allowed to disintegrate under Mikhail Gorbachev sowed seeds of deep trouble for both Russia and the international community. Internally, the swift Soviet collapse and the ensuing instability has generated conspiracy theories and

Andrei Shoumikhin

1994-01-01

200

Crisis and Response: The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of documents examines the response of the Jewish people--primarily in Russia but also in the West--to the sociological and political crises of Tsarist Russia between the years 1800 and 1914. It emphasizes in particular the emergence and interaction of the two ideologies which formulated the most radical solutions to the Jewish…

Ritterband, Paul

201

[Genetic differentiation in plants of the genus Cypripedium from Russia inferred from allozyme data].  

PubMed

Ten gene loci of nine enzyme systems (PGI, 6-PGD, NADHD, SKDH, GDH, PGM, DIA, ADH, GOT-1, and GOT-2) were analyzed in Cypripedium calceolus, C. macranthon, C. shanxiense, and C. ventricosum plants from the south of the Russian Far East. Alleles of loci 6-PGD, NADHD, GDH, ADH, GOT-1, and PGIproved to be diagnostic for C. calceolus and C. macranthon. Plants of C. shanxiense from Primorye and Sakhalin Island were monomorphic at all of the loci examined, and their allelic structure can be regarded as diagnostic for the species. The allelic structure for fragments of the C. calceolus population from the western and eastern parts of the species range differed in two loci, PGl and SKDH: alleles absent in C. calceolus plants from the western part of the range occurred at a high frequency in the plants of this species from the eastern part of the range (28 and 55 plants or 41% and 68%, respectively). These alleles were found in C. shanxiense. The genetic structure of C. shanxiense was similar to that of C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range, i.e., the region when these species are sympartic. The additional alleles in C. calceolus from the eastern part of the range might have appeared as a result of hybridization with C. shanxiense. Our results indicate that C. calceolus plants occuring on the territory of Russia form two groups that represent two different units of genetic diversity preservation. We suggest that C. x ventricosum plants in southern Primorye were formed by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus x C. shanxiense hybrids. Thus, they differ from plants inhabiting the Urals and West Siberia, which originated by hybridization between C. macranthon and C. calceolus. The population of C. x ventricosum presumably also consists of two plant groups differing in genetic structure, which should be regarded as two different units of preservation of this taxon. PMID:21786667

Filippov, E G; Andronova, E V

2011-05-01

202

Full Carbon Account for Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Forestry Project (FOR) at IIASA has produced a full carbon account (FCA) for Russia for 1990, together with scenarios for 2010. Currently, there are rather big question marks regarding the existing carbon accounts for Russia, and Russia is critical to the global carbon balance due to its size. IIASA is in a position to perform solid analysis of Russia

S. Nilsson; A. Shvidenko; V. Stolbovoi; M. Gluck; M. Jonas; M. Obersteiner

2000-01-01

203

Russia's scientific legacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many insights of Russian scientists are unknown or long-forgotten outside of Russia. Making the Russian literature accessible to the international scientific community could stimulate new lines of research.

2015-01-01

204

Russia's Demographic "Crisis"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rand Organization has recently made available via the Web the full text of Russia's Demographic "Crisis." "This volume is an outgrowth of a June 5-6, 1995 conference at which a group of Russian demographers presented the results of their pioneering research on Russia's demographic 'crisis' to American colleagues from the Rand Organization, the University of California-Los Angeles, the University of Southern California, and the International Programs Center of the US Bureau of the Census." The six papers that make up the volume deal with two broad categories: "(1) fertility and family planning; and (2) issues in the area of health and mortality--health status, health care, and population aging." The scope of a Russian demographic crisis is hotly debated, as well as "the interrelations between economic reforms and demographic trends in Russia." Russia's Demographic "Crisis" should shed some light on this topic.

1996-01-01

205

The perils and pitfalls of business in Russia  

SciTech Connect

It is not for the lack of trying that few Western oil companies have profitable operations in Russia. Quite the contrary. Every oil company with a thirst for opportunity has searched that once-forbidden region for deals. This gold rush was triggered by an apparent crying need or Western know-how and capital, but appearances in Russia often widely differ from reality. Hype of early oil ventures set a false tone of promise, but company and company came home poorer and wiser. The gold rush went bust. Now in the fourth year of the West`s involvement in Russia`s oilfields, operators are soberly evaluating their prospects. Even while signals are encouraging the West, like a reduction in export tariffs and some progress on contract law, a remarkable event is occuring that throws out many Western arguments for continuing involvement and investment: On their own, the Russians are arresting their production decline and have increased output. This will have immediate and long term effects on Westerners. First, it lends credibility to Russian voices demanding that Mother Russia not sign away its precious resources to foreigners. Second, it encourages trade barriers to protect domestic industry. Third, it weakens the bargaining position of Westerners. Fourth, it reduces the options available to Western operators. What remains will be E&P opportunities where Western technology and capital really can play a role-complex reservoirs, hostile environments-but poor contract terms.

Spears, R.B. [Spears & Associates, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States)

1995-09-01

206

Assembly and concept of a web-based GIS within the paleolimnological project CONTINENT (Lake Baikal, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) are excellent tools within interdisciplinary and multi-national geoscience\\u000a projects to exchange and visualize project data. The web-based GIS presented in this paper was designed for the paleolimnological\\u000a project ‘High-resolution CONTINENTal paleoclimate record in Lake Baikal’ (CONTINENT) (Lake Baikal, Siberia, Russia) to allow\\u000a the interactive handling of spatial data. The GIS database combines project data (core

Birgit Heim; Jens Klump; Hedi Oberhänsli; Nathalie Fagel

2008-01-01

207

Late orogenic processes between Baltica and Siberia cratons during the building of Pangea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the Middle Carboniferous, the territory between the Baltica, Kazakhstania and Siberia plates have been part of the continental crust, the last oceanic crust having by then been subducted. At this time continent-continent collision started and proceeded until the latest epochs of the Paleozoic, forming the Uralide orogen. Two features of this collision standout: 1) The northward movement of the Kazakhstanian block between the Baltica and Siberia plates resulted in a large-scale oroclinal bend of structures in West Siberia, which is well expressed in the magnetic field, as well as in the exposed Kazakhstanian structures, and 2) The orogenic event affected the whole territory between the Baltica and Siberia cratons, including the Kazakhstanian continent. A series of intermontane molasse basins are distributed throughout the orogen and in some places, like Bolshoi Karatau, are affected by Late Paleozoic deformation. Continent-continent collision had ceased by the end of the Permian, and in many places Triassic sediments unconformably overly the orogen. Triassic sedimentary sequences are typically coarse-grained (eventually proluvial), evidencing a new stage of mountain building, though many researchers have attributed this to a superplume event. The reason being the widespread flood basalt eruptions that took place not only between, but also on the cratons under discussion. There is a point of view that the break-up of the supercontinents (e.g., Pangea and Rodinia) was preceded by such a superplume event, passing to formation of linear graben systems and then to oceanic spreading. In the case under discussion, the process was arrested (the West Siberian basin with its grabens is often called a "failed ocean"). There is reason to suspect that the Paleozoic collision that led to formation of the Uralides left an enclosed ocean basin in the North, between the Baltica and Siberia plates. Only in the Early Jurassic, with the advent of the Old Kimmerian collision did it finally close, creating the Paykhoy-Novaya Zemlya foldbelt and reworking the Taymyr system. Paleomagnetic data support the conclusion that this event resulted from a rotation of the Siberian craton and high-amplitude strike-slip movements. Elsewhere in Pangea, the processes leading to its break-up had started by the time of the Old Kimmerian event.

Puchkov, V.

2003-04-01

208

Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: challenges, approaches and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in the both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Crucial challenges are formed by accelerated warming occurred in Siberia, scare observational network, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence and caused by this specific lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The approaches used to meet these challenges include development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required to generate high resolution data sets in demand, to manage multidisciplinary environmental data and to support of multidisciplinary and "distributed" teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for exchange and sharing of data, models and knowledge. The Climate site of the Enviro-RISKS web portal (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/), providing an access to interactive web-system for regional climate assessment on the base of available meteorological data archives is a prototype of one of key infrastructure elements optimizing the usage of information-computational resources, services and applications is described in details as well as a concept of its transformation to a web based information-computational system provided with GIS functionality. Another element is the mesoscale meteorological model WRF currently used for downscaling results of Reanalyzes and climatic modeling for the targeted region. Statistical analysis of available data sets reveals some remarkable features of on-going changes of regional climatic characteristics including those, which control vegetation dynamics. In particular,it is shown that fields of long-term temperature trends have inhomogeneous structure. One can separate regions with maximum warming rates, which are located mostly in East Siberia. Spatial distribution of seasonally mean temperature changes is specific for seasons. Winter and spring seasons made the main contribution to climate warming. However, autumn became more cool at the vast territories in the north of West and East Siberia. In general, changes are within range -0.5°? to +0.5°? every 10 years. Currently, efforts of the community involved are concentrated on issues related to regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes. There are three main scientific problems, whose solution is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics and has strong regional socio-economical impact: Permafrost fate, especially its border shift, which seriously threats to infrastructure and might form significant carbon source; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems borders shifts to North, which might change region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime change, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires thus increasing significantly carbon release from the region under study.

Gordov, Evgeny; Vaganov, Evgeny

2010-05-01

209

Interaction of Siberia and Baltica at the final stage of amalgamation of the Eurasian part of Pangea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The probable relative positions of the Siberian and East European cratons (Siberia and Baltica paleocontinents, respectively) during the Early Permian and the pattern of their movements at the stage of consolidation in the structure of the Pangea supercontinent are reconstructed from the paleomagnetic data. The kinematics of Siberia and Baltica indicates that they belonged to different lithospheric plates during the Permian, but since then they could have moved cooperatively. The structural data for the folded zones surrounding these cratons and the kinematical constraints suggest the most probable scenario of the interaction between Siberia and Baltica during the Permian, in which the motion of Siberia relative to Baltica was a clockwise rotation around the Euler pole located in the southwest of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago. This interaction between the paleocontinents agrees with the meridional lengthening, i.e., the squeezing out of the structures whose relics currently compose the basement of the West Siberian Plate along the shear zones in the southern and northern directions, and it is verified by the pattern of formation of some distinctive structures in the Central Asian folded belt and Arctic Region.

Shatsillo, A. V.

2015-03-01

210

Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing of Forest Dynamics in Central Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The forested regions of Siberia, Russia are vast and contain about a quarter of the world's forests that have not experienced harvesting. However, many Siberian forests are facing twin pressures of rapidly changing climate and increasing timber harvest activity. Monitoring the dynamics and mapping the structural parameters of the forest is important for understanding the causes and consequences of changes observed in these areas. Because of the inaccessibility and large extent of this forest, remote sensing data can play an important role for observing forest state and change. In Central Siberia, multi-sensor remote sensing data have been used to monitor forest disturbances and to map above-ground biomass from the Sayan Mountains in the south to the taiga-tundra boundaries in the north. Radar images from the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C)/XSAR mission were used for forest biomass estimation in the Sayan Mountains. Radar images from the Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 (JERS-1), European Remote Sensing Satellite-1 (ERS-1) and Canada's RADARSAT-1, and data from ETM+ on-board Landsat-7 were used to characterize forest disturbances from logging, fire, and insect damage in Boguchany and Priangare areas.

Ransom, K. J.; Sun, G.; Kharuk, V. I.; Howl, J.

2011-01-01

211

Age and composition of ophiloites from the basement of the West Siberian petroliferous megabasin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ophiolites are widespread in the basement of the West Siberian petroliferous megabasin, where they occur usually along large faults that separate different lithotectonic zones [1?8 and others]. Despite the widely admitted great significance of ophiolites for understanding the structure and evolution of foldbelts, ophiolites of West Siberia remain insufficiently studied because of unavailability of data on their age. In 2001?2006,

K. S. Ivanov; Yu. N. Fedorov; E. O. Amon; Yu. V. Erokhin; G. N. Borozdina

2007-01-01

212

Russia's energy policy, 1992-2005  

SciTech Connect

A team comprising a former Russian policymaker and American analysts of the current Russian energy policy examines the course of that policy and its limitations during the post-Soviet period. In the process, they critically analyze key problems in Russia's oil, gas, coal, and electricity sectors that represent a potential drag on growth of the entire Russian economy and at the very least call into question the sustainability of further increases in exports to the West. The authors explore in considerable depth and detail both the factors underlying the recent increase in government intervention in the energy sector and the likely consequences for domestic production, consumption, resource security, and critical exports.

Milov, V.; Coburn, L.L.; Danchenko, I. [Inst. for Energy Policy, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2006-05-15

213

[Early encounters of German-language explorers with the Tibetan medicine in Siberia in the modern era].  

PubMed

The spreading of Tibetan Buddhism and with it the Tibetan medicine in the region east of Lake Baikal, goes back to the 17th century. At the beginning of the 18th century, German speaking scholars were among the first to undertake scientific expeditions through Siberia. As such they were amongst the first scientists of the modern era who encountered the traditions, concepts, and therapeutic methods of Tibetan medicine. The aim of this article is to describe and analyze these first encounters with Tibetan medicine by the example of selected men of science of the 18th and 19th century. This work is based on extensive studies of sources in archives and libraries in Russia and Switzerland. We found documents related to the following scientists: Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt (1685-1735), Johann Georg Gmelin (1709-1755), Erik Laxmann (1737-1796), Friedrich Adelung (1768-1843), and Joseph Rehmann (1779-1831). They mentioned the distribution of Tibetan medicine within Russia, the use of medicinal plants and formulas as well as therapeutic techniques. For the scientific community of the time these first encounters of Europeans with practitioners of Tibetan medicine could not lift Tibetan medicine out of other exotic context in the field of ethnography. For today's researchers, these encounters are an important evidence for more than 300 years of development of Tibetan medicine on the vast territory of Siberia. The practice and the scientific examination of Tibetan medicine in Siberia is an active endeavor until today. The present work shows that it is possible and rewarding to follow up the historic and cultural connections from Europe to Asia via the Siberian link. PMID:22759729

Surkova, Natalia; Chekhirova, Galina V; Aseeva, Tamara; Nikolaev, Sergey; Agalzew, Grigori; Melzer, Jörg; Vennos, Cécile; Schwabl, Herbert; Saller, Reinhard

2012-01-01

214

Russia, America and missile defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia has sharply objected to US plans for ballistic missile defense. The Russian official explanation is that the real purpose of the US missile defense plan is to make it impossible for Russia to retaliate against a US nuclear (or massive conventional) attack, thus making Russia subject to military blackmail by the US. The Russian response has been the result

Mikhail Tsypkin

2012-01-01

215

Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air quality and human health. Accurate emission estimates are required by air quality agencies to calculate local emissions and to develop strategies to mitigate negative smoke impacts. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

216

Home Education in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

Staroverova, T. I.

2011-01-01

217

Russia's sorry infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of the nuclear submarine Kursk and the fire in Moscow's TV tower are indications of an infrastructure in grievous disrepair. The outlook for Russia's technological infrastructure remains grim, experts insist. Almost 70 percent of the population drinks water unfit by US standards. One-third of waste water is released untreated. Railways, electricity, oil and gas pipelines, roads and bridges

J. Oberg

2000-01-01

218

White Sea - Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

2002-01-01

219

Understanding barter in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses the incidence and growth of non-monetary transactions - barter, veksels, debt offsets, tax offsets and other money surrogates - in Russia. The empirical backbone of the paper is a survey of 350 - predominantly industrial - firms, carried out in October and November 1998. The paper provides an analytical framework for understanding both firm-level incentives for using

Simon Commander; Christian Mumssen

220

Evaluation of Seismic Risk of Siberia Territory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outcomes of modern geophysical researches of the Geophysical Survey SB RAS, directed on study of geodynamic situation in large industrial and civil centers on the territory of Siberia with the purpose of an evaluation of seismic risk of territories and prediction of origin of extreme situations of natural and man-caused character, are pre- sented in the paper. First of all it concerns the testing and updating of a geoinformation system developed by Russian Emergency Ministry designed for calculations regarding the seismic hazard and response to distructive earthquakes. The GIS database contains the catalogues of earthquakes and faults, seismic zonation maps, vectorized city maps, information on industrial and housing fund, data on character of building and popula- tion in inhabited places etc. The geoinformation system allows to solve on a basis of probabilistic approaches the following problems: - estimating the earthquake impact, required forces, facilities and supplies for life-support of injured population; - deter- mining the consequences of failures on chemical and explosion-dangerous objects; - optimization problems on assurance technology of conduct of salvage operations. Using this computer program, the maps of earthquake risk have been constructed for several seismically dangerous regions of Siberia. These maps display the data on the probable amount of injured people and relative economic damage from an earthquake, which can occur in various sites of the territory according to the map of seismic zona- tion. The obtained maps have allowed determining places where the detailed seismo- logical observations should be arranged. Along with it on the territory of Siberia the wide-ranging investigations with use of new methods of evaluation of physical state of industrial and civil establishments (buildings and structures, hydroelectric power stations, bridges, dams, etc.), high-performance detailed electromagnetic researches of ground conditions of city territories, roads, runways, etc., studying of seismic con- dition in large industrial and civil centers and others.

Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

221

[West Nile fever].  

PubMed

West Nile fever is a mosquito-borne febrile illness seen in Africa, Asia, and Europe, but reported in North America only once. West Nile virus is of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus. Several West Nile fever outbreaks were reported from Israel in the 1950s and in 1980. Since the mid-1990s, frequency and apparent clinical severity of West Nile virus outbreaks have increased. Outbreaks in Rumania (1996), Russia (1999), and Israel (2000) involved hundreds of persons with severe neurologic disease. In the summer of 1999, West Nile virus was recognized in the among Western Hemisphere for the first time when it caused an epidemic of encephalitis and aseptic meningitis among residents of greater New York City. Other outbreak occurred during the summer of 2000. West Nile fever in humans usually is a febrile, influenza-like illness characterized by abrupt onset. Occasionally (less than 15% of cases) are acute aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Although human vaccines for West Nile virus are under development, the most effective to way reduce local population of mosquitoes is to eliminate sources of standing water and preventing vector mosquitoes from biting humans by using mosquito repellents and barrier methods. PMID:19753724

Delgado-López, Nancy; Andrade-Zárate, Vicente; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Halabe-Cherem, José

2003-01-01

222

[Detection of a new species of Rickettsiae in the ticks of Ixodes persulcatus in Russia].  

PubMed

Genetic analyses (polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequence test) have been used to describe a new species of Rickettsiae in the ticks Ipersukarus in Russia. This species is named as Rzckettsia tarasevichiae after Academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences Irma Vladimirovna Tarasevich, Head of the Laboratory of Rickettsial Ecology, N.F.Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. A total of 317 Ipersukatus imagoes were collected in the regions of the Urals, Western Siberia, Eastern Siberia, and Far East in the spring of 2001 and 2002. The authors detected R. tarasevichiae in 25.5 +/- 2.4% (87/317) of the examined I. persulcarus ticks, from 3.8% in the Novosibirsk Region (Western Siberia) to 56.8% in the Primorye Territory (the Far East). This is the first detection of the Rickettsiae in the ticks of the genus Ixodes in Russia. Conceivably, the spread of this Rickettsia species coincides with the area of I. persulcatus that inhabits the biotopes of southern taiga and mixed forests in Eurasia from the western frontier of Russia to the Far East. The nucleotide sequences of the fragments of gene 165 of pRNA and citrate synthctase of this species of Rickettsiae have been declared at the GenBank under numbers AF503168 and AF503167, respectively. Its most phylogenetically close species of Rickettsiae R. canadenss (69% homology in terms of the gene of citrate synthetase and 98% homology in terms of gene 165 of pRNA) which is responsible for cases of acute cerebral vasculitis in Northern America. This requires further studies of a possible role of R. tarasevichiae in the pattern of tick-borne infections recorded in the area of I. persulcatus. PMID:15984607

Shpynov, S N; Rudakov, N V; Fournier, P E; Raoult, D

2005-01-01

223

Siberia Losing Lakes at an Alarming Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new study finds that more than 1,000 lakes in the Arctic region of Siberia have disappeared or shrunk dramatically over the past 30 years. The region has been getting markedly warmer and human activities are thought to be partly responsible. This radio broadcast reports on a study comparing Earth-observing satellite images over time, which show the Siberian lakes disappearing. The study concludes that as global warming causes the Arctic permafrost to thin, water from the Siberian lakes drains into the ground and vanishes. The clip is 3 minutes and 52 seconds in length.

224

Seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In West and East Siberia a great deal of rivers and big lakes are situated. For oil and gas exploration these places hold much promise. It is very difficult to carry out seismic work in these regions, when temperature is fall down below 40 degrees centigrade. It is necessary to pave ways for technical equipment, to organize shooting operations in some cases, that harming ecology of investigated regions. It is well-known, that at seas and big reservoirs seismic works are carried out with use of air guns as sources and floating or ground cables as receivers. There is a special interest to carry out jointly processing and interpretation of seismic survey and electrical data. We should learn how to carry out such researches at rivers, developed a special combined technology on river seismic and electrical works carrying out. Geophysical Survey SB RAS has been carried out seismic and electrical works at rivers and reservoirs of Siberia for more then 20 years. We had to work in conditions, when depth of a reservoir was more then 10 meters or less then 1 meter. It was necessary to work out or adapt some floating equipment, to create air-guns working on light depths ("Malysh", "Sibiryak"), to create new recording equipment (seismic and electrical variants of "Baikal" equipment) for carrying out work in such conditions. There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe. For the first time it was determined, that the depth of sedimentary cover under Lake Baikal exceeds 14 km. On demands of government and private companies we carried out river works in Common-depth-point method at such rivers as: Ob, Volga, Enisey, Vakh, Lena, Kirenga, Nizhnya Tunguska. Comparison of results got at river profiles with surface ones, crossing the river, showed in difficult surface conditions (central part of the River Lena, the Nizhnya Tunguska) river seismic sections are better then surface sections. It is connected with the fact, that systems of observation with multiplicity of several hundreds could be realized at a river without costs increasing, and it is not necessary to set relief correction. It is also important, that data got at a river profile with length of 1000 km allow to correlate seismic boundaries of separate surface profiles, crossing the river. At mouth of the Enisey River qualitative material up to the depth of 20km was got. At the Lena River, in the region of oil field, complexation of seismic and electrical works was carried out. According to seismic survey data there are determined structural and velocity parameters of the section and, using this information, according to electrical survey data there was determined distribution of conductivity. The obtained results are useful for direct exploration of hydrocarbons. The paper presents the results of development of technology of seismic and electrical work at rivers and lakes and showed some data got at the rivers of Siberia There are presented the results of seismic researches, carried out in the Lake Baikal, Lake Teletskoe.

Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Liseikin, A. V.; Sigonin, P.

2013-05-01

225

Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov  

SciTech Connect

Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-12-01

226

Health lifestyles in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilizing data from the nationwide Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS), this paper analyzes health lifestyles in Russia. Heavy alcohol use and smoking, a high-fat diet, and lack of leisure-time exercise are the principal culprits in fostering high rates of heart disease and other causes of premature mortality. This is especially the situation for middle-age, working-class males whose mortality is greater

William C. Cockerham

2000-01-01

227

IMF Loan for Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the International Monetary Fund's recent lending agreement with Russia. The nine resources discussed offer commentary, news, analysis, and background information concerning the IMF's current economic package, and discuss the Russian economic crisis in general. A key player in the New Russian Federation's transition to a market economy, the IMF, agreed to ease Russia's ongoing financial crisis on July 13, 1998 with a loan of 15.1 billion dollars (to be dispersed over two years). According to IMF First Deputy Managing Director Stanley Fischer, this amount is "a very significant draw on our resources," although the IMF has protected its funding carefully via terms outlined in the agreement. Deliberators in Russia's Parliament, however, find the conditions set by the IMF, President Boris Yeltsin, and other international lenders to be too harsh -- particularly a condition to protect the rights of foreign investors. As the debate continues, many fear that future international funding will be withheld, and the ruble will continue its downward spiral set off by the Asian financial crisis in May 1998 (discussed in the January 30, 1998 Scout Report). With 5 billion dollars or more available from the IMF as early as next week, Russian government leaders must agree on a feasible economic plan, before conditions worsen.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

228

The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former Soviet Union covers a vast area of land, and over the last 200 years, many dozens of extraordinary dinosaurs and other fossil amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals have been found in Mesozoic rocks in its territories. The Permo-Triassic of the Ural Mountains of Russia have produced hundreds of superb specimens, and many of the dinosaurs from Mongolia are unique. This is the first compilation in any Western language of this large body of Russian research and the first time so much of this research, previously unexplored by the West, has been introduced in English. The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia is written by a unique mix of Russian and Western palaeontologists, and provides an entrée to a range of fossil faunas, in particular reptiles, that have been little known outside Russia. It will undoubtedly become a major reference work for all vertebrate palaeontologists.

Benton, Michael J.; Shishkin, Mikhail A.; Unwin, David M.; Kurochkin, Evgenii N.

2003-12-01

229

The vertical distribution and abundance of Gammarus lacustris in the pelagic zone of the meromictic lakes Shira and Shunet (Khakassia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vertical distribution and abundance of Gammarus lacustris in the pelagic zone of two fishless meromictic lakes, L. Shira and L. Shunet, in Southern Siberia (Russia), was studied with\\u000a the underwater video recording system and using vertical hauls. In both lakes, during summer stratification, Gammarus was distributed non-homogenously, with a stable peak in the metalimnion. The average depth of Gammarus

Egor S. ZadereevAlexander; Alexander P. Tolomeyev; Anton V. Drobotov; Anna Yu. Emeliyanova; Mikhail V. Gubanov

2010-01-01

230

Insight Into West Siberian Gas and Wetland Methane Emissions From ? 13C Studies of Ambient Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ob River region of West Siberia is home to some of the largest known gasfields and wetlands, and a source of around 2.5% of the total global methane emissions. It is also a major source region of CO2 emissions. Carbon isotopes of ambient air and emission sources provide an important tool for understanding these poorly constrained sources. Tank samples of ambient air were collected overnight for ? 13C analysis of methane during the summer (August-September) campaigns of 1999 and 2000, as part of INTAS-funded projects. The main sampling centres were Nadym and Urengoy, with samples collected above the known gas reserves, near pumping stations and by boat on the Nadym River, downstream toward Salekhard. CH4 of up to 900 ppb above background was recorded and ? 13C depletions of up to 3‰ relative to background. West Siberian gas has measured ? 13C values of -51.5 to -49.5‰ based on well samples and supplies in St. Petersburg and Germany. Implications from aircraft flights (Sugawara et al. 1996) and measurements along the Trans-Siberian railroad (Bergamaschi et al., 1998) are that the wetland signature is around -67‰ . The ambient air samples give a range of calculated source inputs from -67.3 to -49.3‰ , the end members corresponding to sampling areas expected to contain only wetland or gas emissions and confirmed by back trajectory analysis for sampling times. Using the end members, the average excess methane from the wetland source was 62 ppb around Nadym and 61 ppb around Urengoy. The average excess from the gasfields was 30 ppb around Nadym but 82 ppb around Urengoy, reflecting the closer proximity to the gasfields. The maximum excess recorded from wetlands was 160 ppb and from gasfields was 710 ppb. Experiments during summer 2004 have focussed on bag sampling on the tower of a super deep well at Korotchaevo, SE of the Urengoy gas field. Samples collected at 20, 30 and 60m heights will be analysed for ? 13C of both CH4 and CO2 and apportioned to gas and wetland sources. Bergamaschi P.et al. Isotope analysis based source identification for atmospheric CH4 and CO sampled across Russia using the Trans-Siberian railroad. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D), 8227-8235, 1998. Suguwara S. et al. Aircraft measurements of the stable carbon isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane over Siberia. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 223-231, 1996.

Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Levin, I.; Privalov, S.; Nisbet, E.

2004-12-01

231

Seasonal, synoptic, and diurnal-scale variability of biogeochemical trace gases and O2 from a 300-m tall tower in central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present first results from 19 months of semicontinuous concentration measurements of biogeochemical trace gases (CO2, CO, and CH4) and O2, measured at the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory (ZOTTO) in the boreal forest of central Siberia. We estimated CO2 and O2 seasonal cycle amplitudes of 26.6 ppm and 134 per meg, respectively. An observed west-east gradient of about ?7 ppm

Elena A. Kozlova; Andrew C. Manning; Yegor Kisilyakhov; Thomas Seifert; Martin Heimann

2008-01-01

232

Genetic diversity of freshwater leeches in Lake Gusinoe (eastern Siberia, Russia).  

PubMed

The study of leeches from Lake Gusinoe and its adjacent area offered us the possibility to determine species diversity. As a result, an updated species list of the Gusinoe Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata) has been compiled. There are two orders and three families of leeches in the Gusinoe area: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae) and order Arhynchobdellida (family Erpobdellidae). In total, 6 leech species belonging to 6 genera have been identified. Of these, 3 taxa belonging to the family Glossiphoniidae (Alboglossiphonia heteroclita f. papillosa, Hemiclepsis marginata, and Helobdella stagnalis) and representatives of 3 unidentified species (Glossiphonia sp., Piscicola sp., and Erpobdella sp.) have been recorded. The checklist gives a contemporary overview of the species composition of leeches and information on their hosts or substrates. The validity of morphological identification of each taxon has been verified by phylogenetic approach with a molecular marker adopted for a DNA barcoding of most invertebrates. PMID:25544958

Kaygorodova, Irina A; Mandzyak, Nadezhda; Petryaeva, Ekaterina; Pronin, Nikolay M

2014-01-01

233

Palaeoenvironmental dynamics inferred from late Quaternary permafrost deposits on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The record mirrors the environmental history of Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island reflects the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

Wetterich, Sebastian; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Andreev, Andrei A.; Kienast, Frank; Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Sierralta, Melanie

2008-08-01

234

Genetic Diversity of Freshwater Leeches in Lake Gusinoe (Eastern Siberia, Russia)  

PubMed Central

The study of leeches from Lake Gusinoe and its adjacent area offered us the possibility to determine species diversity. As a result, an updated species list of the Gusinoe Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata) has been compiled. There are two orders and three families of leeches in the Gusinoe area: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae) and order Arhynchobdellida (family Erpobdellidae). In total, 6 leech species belonging to 6 genera have been identified. Of these, 3 taxa belonging to the family Glossiphoniidae (Alboglossiphonia heteroclita f. papillosa, Hemiclepsis marginata, and Helobdella stagnalis) and representatives of 3 unidentified species (Glossiphonia sp., Piscicola sp., and Erpobdella sp.) have been recorded. The checklist gives a contemporary overview of the species composition of leeches and information on their hosts or substrates. The validity of morphological identification of each taxon has been verified by phylogenetic approach with a molecular marker adopted for a DNA barcoding of most invertebrates. PMID:25544958

Kaygorodova, Irina A.; Mandzyak, Nadezhda; Petryaeva, Ekaterina; Pronin, Nikolay M.

2014-01-01

235

Spatial and seasonal variability of polygonal tundra water balance: Lena River Delta, northern Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The summer water balance of a typical Siberian polygonal tundra catchment is investigated in order to identify the spatial and temporal dynamics of its main hydrological processes. The results show that, besides precipitation and evapotranspiration, lateral flow considerably influences the site-specific hydrological conditions. The prominent microtopography of the polygonal tundra strongly controls lateral flow and storage behaviour of the investigated catchment. Intact rims of low-centred polygons build hydrological barriers, which release storage water later in summer than polygons with degraded rims and troughs above degraded ice wedges. The barrier function of rims is strongly controlled by soil thaw, which opens new subsurface flow paths and increases subsurface hydrological connectivity. Therefore, soil thaw dynamics determine the magnitude and timing of subsurface outflow and the redistribution of storage within the catchment. Hydraulic conductivities in the elevated polygonal rims sharply decrease with the transition from organic to mineral layers. This interface causes a rapid shallow subsurface drainage of rainwater towards the depressed polygon centres and troughs. The re-release of storage water from the centres through deeper and less conductive layers helps maintain a high water table in the surface drainage network of troughs throughout the summer.

Helbig, Manuel; Boike, Julia; Langer, Moritz; Schreiber, Peter; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Kutzbach, Lars

2013-02-01

236

Soils of the Tiksi area and their carbon contents; Northeastern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant differences for the total organic carbon (TOC) contents in the surface horizons were found between all sites of the Tiksi area and the Lena River Delta region (Mann Whitney U, P < 0.05) suggesting higher carbon contents in the hinterland area. Since the soils of the Tiksi area were poorly studied in the past and are significantly different to soils of the well-studied Lena River Delta, this investigation was performed. Here we present preliminary results with interesting insights. All investigated soil profiles of the Tiksi area have developed on eluvial argillaceous shale. Most soil profile depths were relatively shallow (20 - 30 cm). Only several soil profiles, located to the north from Tiksi settlement, reached the depth of 40 cm and deeper. The Tiksi area was characterized by a variety of soil types. According to US Soils Taxonomy most of soils having developed in depressed micro-relief forms were described as Orthels and Histels. Soils of slopes and elevated forms of a micro relief belonged to Turbel suborder. The surface soil horizons were generally enriched by organic matter which likely reflects the inclusion of the vegetation. Minimum carbon content in surface soils amounted to 8 - 12 %. Surface soils of southern sites (remote from Tiksi settlement) were characterized by the lowest carbon content, whereas the surface horizons of eastern and western sites had particularly high in carbon. The median value of total organic carbon for these sites was 28 %. At the northern sites B-horizons were characterized by higher median values of carbon content. Similar results were found for the nitrogen content in the surface and B-horizons. The highest median values of nitrogen were found in surface soils for groups of eastern and western sites amounted to 1.2 % and 1.5 %, respectively. The highest median value of nitrogen in B-horizon was observed for soils of the northern sites group. Generally, the C/N ratio for all groups of investigation sites was higher in surface horizons than in B-horizons suggesting a higher abundance of organic matter and lower rates of its decomposition in the top soils. The highest variability of C/N ratio was found at northern sites, which reflects the cryoturbation processes development.

Antcibor, Iuliia; Zubrzycki, Sebastian

2014-05-01

237

Waste management in the Irkutsk Region, Siberia, Russia: environmental assessment of current practice focusing on landfilling.  

PubMed

The municipal waste management system of the region of Irkutsk is described and a life cycle assessment (LCA) performed to assess the environmental performance of the system. Annually about 500 000 tons of waste are managed. The waste originates from three sources: household waste (27%), commercial waste (23%) and office & institutional waste (44%). Other waste of unknown composition constitutes 6%. Only 3% of the waste is recycled; 97% of the municipal waste is disposed of at the old Alexandrovsky landfill. The environmental impact from the current system is dominated by the landfill, which has no gas or leachate collection system. The global warming contribution is due to the emission of methane of the order of 420 000 tons CO2-equivalents per year. Collection and transport of the waste are insignificant compared with impacts from the landfill. As the old landfill runs out of capacity in a few years, the LCA modelling showed that introduction of a new and modern landfill with gas and leachate collection could improve the performance of the waste management system significantly. Collection of landfill gas and utilization for 30 years for electricity production (gas turbine) would reduce the global warming completely and result in a net saving of 100 000 CO2-equivalents per year due to storage of biogenic carbon in the landfill beyond 100 years. Considering other first-order degradation rates for the landfilled organic matter did not overtly affect the results, while assumptions about the top cover oxidation of methane significantly affected the results. This shows the importance of controlling the gas escape from the landfill. PMID:24692457

Starostina, Vlada; Damgaard, Anders; Rechberger, Helmut; Christensen, Thomas H

2014-05-01

238

Atmospheric CO2 and CH4 Measurement Network on Towers in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to estimate CO2 and CH4 fluxes at regional to sub-continental scale by an inverse model, a network of tall towers for atmospheric CO2 and CH4 measurements has been established over a region of thousand square kilometers in west Siberia. In-situ continuous measurements have been conducted at 6 stations: Berezorechka (56.17N, 84.33E) since 2002, Parabel (58.25N, 82.40E) and Igrim (63.20N, 64.48E) since 2004, Demyanskoe (59.78N, 70.87E) and Noyabrsk (63.43N, 76.76E) since 2005, and Yakutsk (62.83N, 129.35E) in east Siberia since 2005. Over next two years, installations of 4 more stations are planned. This study provides some results of observation from this network. Seasonal cycles of CO2 showed quite similar trends in growing season (May to September) among the west Siberian sites. The remarkable decrease of CO2 concentration occurred in early May and the seasonal minimum was observed between July and August. On the other hand, the short-term (from several days to week) variations in CO2 concentrations were quite different among the sites, particularly during the growing season. Rather large variation of more than 25 ppm within a week was observed during winter. The changes in CO2 concentrations at the nearby sites were almost identical. Monthly mean values of CO2 during the growing season were relatively higher at the northern sites than at southern sites. These observational results evidentially reflected the regional characteristics of CO2 flux variation, transportation, and mixing process. Daily cycles of CH4 in summer showed nocturnal increase and diurnal decrease which was due to emission of CH4 from wetland accumulated over night, and diurnal convective mixing. Relatively high concentrations of CH4 were observed in winter and summer. Because there is one of the world's vastest wetland in western Siberia, the peak of CH4 in summer implies the significant role of CH4 emissions from the west Siberian wetland to the atmosphere. On the other hand, an exceptionally high concentration of CH4 of more than 3 ppm was observed in several sites. It occurred irrespective of time of a day but was associated with the definite wind direction. This may be linked to a strong point source of CH4 such as the leakage of natural-gas from pipeline or compressor station located near the observation sites. Thus, the data presented in this study can contribute to the future effort to detect the leakage point in the pipeline using satellite data.

Shimoyama, K.; Machida, T.; Shinohara, A.; Maksyutov, S.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.; Fedoseev, N.; Belan, B.; Belan, H.; Inoue, G.

2006-12-01

239

Ozone profile observations in Siberia in 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station (66.5N, 66.7E) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation are carried out since January 1997. In 1997-2013 we used electrochemical 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring period to study the ozone loss in the Arctic regions. The results of ozonesonde observation at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In January 2014 we upgraded this ozonesounding station with the new iMet-1 radiosonde and electrochemical 2Z-V7 ozonesonde of Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), USA. The first results of ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in January-March 2014 at Salekhard aerological station will be presented and discussed.

Dorokhov, Valery; Balugin, Nikolay; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Alexander; Ivlev, Georgii; Shepelev, Dmitry; Nakajima, Hideaki

2014-05-01

240

77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-539-C (Third Review)] Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis...termination of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to...Publication 4307 (February 2012), entitled Uranium from Russia: Investigation No....

2012-03-02

241

76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Second Review] Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record...antidumping duty order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation...2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from Russia: Investigation No....

2011-08-04

242

76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Second Review)] Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade...investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia...investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to...

2011-03-01

243

Fire dynamic and forest cover loss in Russia, 2000-2012 (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires play an important role in the ecosystem dynamics of Russia. A number of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-based burned area and forest fire loss products for Russia were created in recent years (Bartalev et al. 2008, Loupian et al. 2011, Giglio et al. 2009). However, characterizing the drivers and consequences of forest fires in Russia is challenging with the use of coarse spatial resolution products. Specifically, these burned area products do not discriminate between forest and agriculture fires within areas of fine-scale forest/cropland mosaics or in the regions with extensive agricultural land abandonment and recent afforestation. The use of 30 m spatial resolution Landsat-based products allows for more accurate detection of forest areas damaged or destroyed by fires, especially on the boundaries between forests and agricultural lands. Forest cover loss was mapped annually using Landsat archive data. Fire-induced loss was separated from other stand-replacement dynamics using annual 500 m MODIS-based burned area products and 1 km MODIS active fire hotspots. Fire date was assigned for every forest burned area using MODIS hotspots. Preliminary analysis indicates that the southern parts of Siberia and Far East Russia have short fire return intervals and a small proportion of the fire is stand replacement. Conversely, the areas of European Russia, Northern Siberia and Far East Russia predominately experience stand replacement fires. The proportion of stand replacement fires in these regions is larger than was estimated before (Korovin, 1998). The majority of forests were burned during large, catastrophic fire events in dry years. Timing of these forest fire events (July-September) is different from the period of active agricultural burning (April-May) in the region. Stand replacement forest fires were typically located within large forested landscapes away from active agriculture regions. Therefore cropland fires are presumably not the major driver of forest fire initiation. Agriculture fires can contribute to the degradation of forests bordering croplands; however, this process is difficult to quantify at the regional scale using Landsat data. Our results are important for developing a regional forest fire mitigation strategy in Russia.

Krylov, A.; McCarty, J. L.; Potapov, P.; Loboda, T. V.; Tyukavina, A.; Turubanova, S.; Hansen, M.

2013-12-01

244

The Face of Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from PBS complements its three-part series of the same name. The series and site interpret the cultural history of Russia from 850 AD to the present. Exploring art, music, cinema, prose, and poetry, the show concentrates on Russian cultural history in three cities: Kiev, Moscow, and St. Petersburg. The site is highlighted by a detailed, partially annotated timeline; RealPlayer excerpts of interviews with Maxim Kantor, Dmitry Likhachev, and Mstislav Rostropovich, among others; artwork (including RealPlayer and QuickTime movies of selections from drama and cinema); and a reference section that includes a glossary, bibliography, lesson plans, and the Cyrillic alphabet.

245

Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

2001-01-01

246

Oil and gas development in East Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The East Siberian region, which comprises nearly 43% of Russia`s territory (including the Sakha (Yakut) republic), has substantial hydrocarbon potential that is impeded by significant logistical problems, the daunting physical environment, and technical challenges posed by the geological complexity of the region. The area`s three major oil and gas provinces are the Lena-Tunguska (with the greatest potential), Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar. The paper focuses on assessment of reserves, production potential, and history, as well as joint-venture activity involving foreign capital. Foreign investment is targeting gas deposits in the Vilyuy basin and elsewhere in the Sakha republic and small oil deposits serving local markets in the Yakutsk and Noril`sk areas. Forecasts do not envisage substantial production of oil from the region before the year 2010. Future gas production levels are less predictable despite the ambitious plans to export gas from Sakha to South Korea. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Sagers, M.J. [PlanEcon, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1994-03-01

247

Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia  

E-print Network

The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia EDITED BY MichaelJ. Bemon University of Bristol Mikhail the CloetaCeous of Russia, Middle Asia, and :rvlongolia, arc equally important. Some of the dinosaurs elsewhere, but these are sorely in need of revision (see Chapter 11). The dinosaurs and other tetrapods from

Benton, Michael

248

Winter 2010 EVENTS FOCUS: RUSSIA  

E-print Network

-1:30 pm CREES Brown Bag. "Leadership in the Soviet Republics: Nationalism and the Collapse of the USSR.S.-Russia Relations: Status of the `Reset'." John Beyrle, U.S. Ambassador to Russia. Co-sponsors: International Policy Center, Ford School of Public Policy, WCED. Founders Room, Alumni Center, 200 Fletcher. Wed, Jan 20, 12

Eustice, Ryan

249

Flooding in Southern Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

2002-01-01

250

Permarfrost eco-hydrological changes in boreal larch forest manifested by wet climate in eastern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-latitude regions in the northern hemisphere have undergone unanticipated environmental changes during the past few decades. Environmental changes in these regions have been substantially impacted by changes in the hydrological cycle, such as precipitation regime, snow distribution and duration, soil water storage, evapotranspiration and river discharge. The present study examines recent changes in continuous permafrost region and evaluates the impact of these changes on boreal larch forests based on intensive hydro-meteorological observation after abrupt increases in depth and moisture within the active layer occurring during periods of increasing precipitation (wet climate) at study sites in eastern Siberia. Field studies were conducted in the Spasskaya-pad Experimental forest (62°15'N, 129°37', 220m a.s.l.) located approximately 20 km north of Yakutsk in the Republic of Sakha, Russia. The site is located on the highest terrace of the left bank of the Lena River and is covered with a thin layer of Quaternary deposits consisting of alluvial deposits with low content of ice complex. During the last decade, atmospheric anomalies in Arctic may cause intensifying storm activities from summer to early winter in eastern Siberia. An anomalous increase in summer and winter precipitation after 2004 winter was observed in the central Lena River basin. The increased precipitation resulted in warming and wetting of the active layer and near surface permafrost. Deepening of active layer in accordance with saturated soil moisture under the wet climate activates thermokarst subsidence in and around alas lakes and correspondingly causes fatal damage to the growth of boreal (larch) forest in this region. According to multi-year sap flow measurements between 2006 and 2009, transpiration from the forest significantly reduced because the most of the trees standing in the concaved micro-topography and permafrost valley with deeper active layer have been withered and dead after the long waterlogged conditions. Eastern Siberia had large amounts of precipitation and forests here could all be subject to the same negative effects imposed by a saturated active layer. Terrestrial water storage by the GRACE (Gravity Recovery Climate Experiment) satellite has identified an increasing trend in the water storage of Siberian rivers, with the largest increase noted in the central Lena River basin. Reduction of evapotranspiration in spite of increasing in water storage under wet climate forces the active layer to retain moisture. This ecohydrological positive feedback processes likely lead to further enhancement of perennially lasting water storage within the active layer, causing permafrost degradation and, ultimately, the collapse of larch forests.

Iijima, Y.; Fedorov, A. N.; Ohta, T.; Kotani, A.; Maximov, T. C.

2012-12-01

251

Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can conclude that the volumetric activities of radionuclides in the near-the-ground atmospheric layer were by 3 to 6 orders of magnitude below the permissible volume activity set by Radiation Safety Standards of Russia Federation.

Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

2013-04-01

252

Germans from Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of online digital projects have taken on the challenge of documenting the experiences of immigrants and this particular website deals with this very subject quite nicely. Through the use of primary documents and detailed oral histories, this website illustrates the experiences of Germans from Russia who immigrated to Colorado in the 19th and 20th centuries. Drawing on work done by Professor Heitman at Colorado State University in the 1970s, visitors to the site can examine transcripts and listen to audio excerpts of interviews of these immigrants (and their descendants). They may also wish to view the online photo gallery which contains images of agriculture work, German-inspired architecture, and home life. Finally, visitors can use a search engine offered here to look for specific materials, if they wish to do so.

253

Is there epidemiology in Russia?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.?DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.?MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.?CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.???Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

Vlassov, V.

2000-01-01

254

Russia’s Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

E-print Network

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds ...

Paltsev, Sergey

255

Summer Harvest in Saratov, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russia's Saratov Oblast (province) is located in the southeastern portion of the East-European plain, in the Lower Volga River Valley. Southern Russia produces roughly 40 percent of the country's total agricultural output, and Saratov Oblast is the largest producer of grain in the Volga region. Vegetation changes in the province's agricultural lands between spring and summer are apparent in these images acquired on May 31 and July 18, 2002 (upper and lower image panels, respectively) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

The left-hand panels are natural color views acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Less vegetation and more earth tones (indicative of bare soils) are apparent in the summer image (lower left). Farmers in the region utilize staggered sowing to help stabilize yields, and a number of different stages of crop maturity can be observed. The main crop is spring wheat, cultivated under non-irrigated conditions. A short growing season and relatively low and variable rainfall are the major limitations to production. Saratov city is apparent as the light gray pixels on the left (west) bank of the Volga River. Riparian vegetation along the Volga exhibits dark green hues, with some new growth appearing in summer.

The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras displayed as red, green and blue respectively. In these images, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and the spring and summer views were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between the two dates. Urban areas and vegetation along the Volga banks look similar in the two seasonal multi-angle composites. The agricultural areas, on the other hand, look strikingly different. This can be attributed to differences in brightness and texture between bare soil and vegetated land. The chestnut-colored soils in this region are brighter in MISR's red band than the vegetation. Because plants have vertical structure, the oblique cameras observe a greater proportion of vegetation relative to the nadir camera, which sees more soil. In spring, therefore, the scene is brightest in the vertical view and thus appears with an overall greenish hue. In summer, the soil characteristics play a greater role in governing the appearance of the scene, and the angular reflectance is now brighter at the oblique view angles (displayed as red and blue), thus imparting a pink color to much of the farmland and a purple color to areas along the banks of several narrow rivers. The unusual appearance of the clouds is due to geometric parallax which splits the imagery into spatially separated components as a consequence of their elevation above the surface.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. These images are a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbits 13033 and 13732, and cover an area of about 173 kilometers x 171 kilometers. They utilize data from blocks 49 to 50 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

256

Neanderthals in central Asia and Siberia.  

PubMed

Morphological traits typical of Neanderthals began to appear in European hominids at least 400,000 years ago and about 150,000 years ago in western Asia. After their initial appearance, such traits increased in frequency and the extent to which they are expressed until they disappeared shortly after 30,000 years ago. However, because most fossil hominid remains are fragmentary, it can be difficult or impossible to determine unambiguously whether a fossil is of Neanderthal origin. This limits the ability to determine when and where Neanderthals lived. To determine how far to the east Neanderthals ranged, we determined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from hominid remains found in Uzbekistan and in the Altai region of southern Siberia. Here we show that the DNA sequences from these fossils fall within the European Neanderthal mtDNA variation. Thus, the geographic range of Neanderthals is likely to have extended at least 2,000 km further to the east than commonly assumed. PMID:17914357

Krause, Johannes; Orlando, Ludovic; Serre, David; Viola, Bence; Prüfer, Kay; Richards, Michael P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Hänni, Catherine; Derevianko, Anatoly P; Pääbo, Svante

2007-10-18

257

Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

258

Hydrocarbons exploration in east Siberia southern basins  

SciTech Connect

The vast Lena-Tunguska province in the heart of Siberia is among the world's largest and least explored frontier basins. Some encouraging exploration has nevertheless been carried out in the four southern subbasins: PrePatom (PreBaykal) trough, Nepa-Botuobin anticlise, PreSayan-Yenisey basin, and Angara-Lena terrace. Source rocks are essentially Proterozoic, but younger sediments may contribute about 10% of the region's oil potential. Riphean-Cambrian subsalt reservoirs contribute more than 90% of the hydrocarbons discovered, whereas Cambrian salt provides the most common regional seals. The main hydrocarbon later migration occurred in Vendian-Cambrian. Traps include clastic wedging out along favorable structures and carbonate reef-like buildups. Many traps were transformed or destroyed by the late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic volcanic activity, whereas Hercynian overthrust tectonics developed new traps in the PrePatom trough. About 30 discoveries, mainly gas and condensates, have been made in the area, but operations are hampered by poor logistics and limited infrastructure.

Resnick, V.S. (Petroconsultants Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1991-08-01

259

Marginal formations of the last Kara and Barents ice sheets in northern European Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glacial landforms in northern Russia, from the Timan Ridge in the west to the east of the Urals, have been mapped by aerial photographs and satellite images supported by field observations. An east-west trending belt of fresh hummock-and-lake glaciokarst landscapes has been traced to the north of 67 °N. The southern bound- ary of these landscapes is called the Markhida

JOHN INGE SVENDSEN; ALEXEI MATIOUCHKOV; JAN MANGERUD; OLGA MASLENIKOVA; JAN TVERANGRE

1999-01-01

260

Lithosphere Response to Intracratonic Rifting: Examples from Europe and Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several cratons have experienced a significant modification of their crustal and mantle lithosphere structure during Phanerozoic large-scale lithosphere-mantle interactions. In Eurasia, the most prominent examples include the Dniepre-Donets rift in the East European craton, the Oslo graben in the Baltic shield, the Viluy rift and the Baikal rift in Siberia. Despite some similarities, mostly in the crustal structure, there are also significant differences in the lithospheric structure of these rifts. Besides, a large lithosphere-scale Riphean suture/rift runs across the East European craton. While this suture can be recognized in the crustal structure, it is not clearly seen in the structure of the lithospheric mantle. In contrast, Phanerozoic processes associated with emplacement of large magma volumes had a strong effect on modification of the lithosphere structure, primarily by infiltration of basaltic magmas and consequently in a change in mantle density and seismic velocities. Although kimberlite magmatism is commonly not considered as a rifting events, its deep causes may be similar to the mantle-driven rifting and, as a consequence, modification of mantle density and velocity structure may also be expected. We present a new model for the structure of the crust in an area that encompasses the East European craton, the West Siberian basin, and the Siberian cratons. The region includes a nearly continuous age record for lithosphere evolution over ca. 3.6-3.8 billion years. The crustal model is based on critically assessed results from various seismic studies, including reflection and refraction profiles and receiver function studies. We also use global shear-wave tomography models, gravity constraints based on GOCE data, and thermal models for the lithosphere to speculate on thermo-chemical heterogeneity of the mantle. An analysis of the lithosphere structural heterogeneity is presented in relation to geotectonic setting and mantle geodynamics based on interpretations of geophysical models. The results indicate that there is no simple rule for lithosphere modification by intracontinental rifting. The pattern of is controlled by the pre-existing tectonic setting and the intensity of lithosphere-mantle interaction. The results are summarized in a series of maps of lateral variations in lithosphere structure, including the depth to the LAB and compositional heterogeneity of the lithosphere as reflected in it seismic wave velocity and density structure.

Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.; Herceg, M.; Cherepanova, Y. V.; Chemia, Z.; Cammarano, F.

2012-12-01

261

An 84-kyr paleomagnetic record from the sediments of Lake Baikal, Siberia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We have conducted a paleomagnetic study of sediment cores obtained from the Selenga prodelta region of Lake Baikal, Russia. This record, which spans approximately the last 84 kyr, contributes to a better understanding of the nature of geomagnetic field behavior in Siberia and is a useful correlation and dating tool. We demonstrate that the Lake Baikal sediments are recording variations in the geomagnetic field. The directional record displays secular variation behavior with a geomagnetic excursion at 20 ka and additional excursions appearing as large-amplitude secular variation at 41, 61, and 67 ka. Smoothing of the geomagnetic excursion behavior occurs in Lake Baikal sediments owing to the intermediate sedimentation rate (13 cm kyr-1). The Lake Baikal relative paleointensity record correlates to absolute paleointensity data for the last 10 kyr and to relative paleointensity records from the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean for the last 84 kyr. This correlation suggests a strong global (i.e., dipole) component to these records and further supports the reliability of sediments as recorders of relative geomagnetic paleointensity. We show that a relative geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy has a potential resolution of 7 kyr by correlating continental and marine records. The geomagnetic intensity stratigraphy helps constrain the age of the difficult to date Lake Baikal sediments.

Peck, J.A.; King, J.W.; Colman, Steven M.; Kravchinsky, V.A.

1996-01-01

262

Airborne trace metals and organochlorine compounds in arctic Alaska and Siberia: How important?  

SciTech Connect

Metal contaminants of anthropogenic origin identified in the arctic atmosphere and the presence of organochlorines in arctic marine mammal tissues has raised the question of the importance of long-range transport of contaminants to the Arctic. Research focused on arctic regions in Alaska and the Taimyr peninsula of north central Russia. Inland watersheds were examined for evidence of increases in trace metal flux during the past 150 years and the presence of organochlorine compounds. Fish and ground squirrels were examined for body burdens of organic contaminants and plasma biomarkers were examined to evaluate biological effects. Sediment data from several lakes suggest that over broad regions, trace metal fluxes have increased only slightly (< 10%), if at all, since the pre-industrial era. The highest metal concentrations in lake sediments are associated with known elevated geologic sources of metals within the respective watersheds. Organochlorines are present in remote inland arctic ecosystems and are most concentrated in the tissues (e.g. liver) of organisms representing higher trophic levels. Arctic Siberia and Alaska (Taimyr peninsula) are similar with regard to contaminant concentrations. However, lichen and moss data suggest that Pb from Eurasian sources does not reach arctic Alaska. The results indicate that long range, transpolar transport and deposition of trace metals is not a large scale current phenomena in the two study regions. The transport and deposition of organochlorine compounds, however, is occurring but at relatively low levels.

Landers, D.H.; Allen-Gil, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Environmental Research Lab.; Gubala, C.P. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Ford, J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife

1995-12-31

263

Debatable questions of Siberia settlement by early humans  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the age and natural environment of earliest archaeological sites in Siberia are critically analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the Karama site in the Altai Mountains, whose age was earlier estimated at about 1.77-1.95 Ma. The combination of geological, geomorphological, sedimentological, palynological, and paleomagnetic data makes it possible to determine the lower limit of the age of this object at only about 800 ka. Judging by the results of a preliminary study of the Zasukhino site in Trans-Baikal, early humans could have appeared in Siberia about 1 million years ago, but additional research is required in order to obtain reliable information.

Kuzmin, Ya. V.; Kazanskii, A. Yu.

2015-01-01

264

Chaos Reigns in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the third time in the last 14 months, Russian President Boris Yeltsin deposed his Prime Minister and Cabinet, intensifying the political chaos in a country beleaguered by economic insolvency, administrative corruption, and governmental mismanagement. The dismissals handed down on Wednesday, which included the popular PM Yevgeny M. Primakov, occurred the day before impeachment proceedings were to begin against Yeltsin in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the communist-led State Duma. Russia's first democratically elected President faces five impeachment charges, including initiating the collapse of the USSR, ordering an attack on parliament in 1993, destroying the armed forces, punishing the Russian people through harsh economic policies, and waging an illegal war against the secessionist Chechnya in 1994 through 1996. Political analysts forecast that only the last charge has a chance of passing the necessary two-thirds vote, slated for Saturday, in the 450-seat State Duma. Even if charged, it is unlikely that Yeltsin will be removed from office because the charge must also be approved by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Council of Federation, the parliament's upper house. However, the political imbroglio will paralyze the Russian government for months to come, and has already disrupted Russian diplomatic efforts to mediate a resolution to the crisis in Yugoslavia. The sites listed provide insight into this current Russian political crisis.

Osmond, Andrew.

265

Remobilisation of the continental lithosphere by a mantle plume: major-, trace-element, and Sr, Nd, and Pb-isotope evidence from picritic and tholeiitic lavas of the Noril'sk District, Siberian Trap, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Late Permian to Early Triassic Siberian Traps have been sampled by drill core (core SG-9) and from surface exposure (section 1F) in the Noril'sk region of the Siberian Platform, Russia. Combined major, trace element, and Nd-, Sr-, and Pb-isotope data on selected samples through the Siberia Trap, offer new chemostratigraphic criteria for the identification and characterisation of two fundamentally

P. C. Lightfoot; C. J. Hawkesworth; J. Hergt; A. J. Naldrett; N. S. Gorbachev; V. A. Fedorenko; W. Doherty

1993-01-01

266

Paleomagnetic dating of Phanerozoic kimberlites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond bearing kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. Three main time intervals are considered to be the age of emplacement: the Devonian-Early Carboniferous, Triassic, and Cretaceous. However, isotopic age data from of the pipes are scattered and provide a very broad age interval for the magmatic activity. New paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes (Eastern Udachnaya, Western Udachnaya, International and Obnazhennaya) are obtained to estimate their paleomagnetic age. The mean primary magnetization directions for the pipes are as follows: D = 4.3°, I = - 44.5° (k = 29.4, ?95 = 7.4°, N = 14); D = 340.5°, I = - 65.6° (k = 12.9, ?95 = 19.4°, N = 6); D = 291.1°, I = - 78.1° (k = 27.5, ?95 = 14.9°, N = 5); and D = 306.7°, I = - 82.6° (k = 38.4, ?95 = 5.8°, N = 17), respectively. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian apparent polar wander path (APWP) we estimate the age of kimberlite magmatism, assuming primary magnetizations in these rocks. The paleomagnetic ages are as follows: 428 ± 13 Ma for Eastern Udachnaya; 251 ± 30 Ma for International pipe; and 168 ± 11 Ma for Obnazhennaya pipe. The Western Udachnaya pipe was remagnetized and no clear paleomagnetic age could be determined. The ages of magmatic activity span the Early Silurian to Middle Late Jurassic. Early Silurian magmatism could be associated with the formation of the Viluy rift. Middle to Late Jurassic magmatic activity is most likely related to subduction related to the accretion of surrounding terranes to Siberia.

Blanco, Dunia; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Konstantinov, Konstantin M.; Kabin, Konstantin

2013-01-01

267

BRDF characteristics of tundra vegetation communities in Yamal, Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite data from platforms with pointing capabilities (CHRIS/Proba, RapidEye) or from sensors with wide swath (AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS) is influenced by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This effect can cause significant changes in the measured spectral surface reflectance depending on the solar illumination geometry and sensor viewing conditions. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), a German hyperspectral mission with expected launch in 2016, will provide high spectral resolution observations with a ground sampling distance of 30 meters. Since the EnMAP sensor has pointing capabilities, both spectral and directional reflection characteristics need to be taken into account for the algorithms development for vegetation parameters. The 'hyperspectral method development for Arctic VEGetation biomes' (hy-Arc-VEG) project is part of the national preparation program for the EnMAP mission. Within the EnMAP projcect hy-Arc-VEG we developed a portable field spectro-goniometer, named ManTIS (Manual Transportable Instrument for Spherical BRDF observations), for the in-situ measurements of anisotropic effects of tundra surfaces (national and international patent pending - DE 102011117713.6). The goniometer was designed for field use in difficult as well as challenging terrain and climate. It is therefore of low weight, without electrical devices and weatherproof. It can be disassembled and packed into small boxes for transport. The current off-nadir viewing capacity is matched to the EnMAP sensor configuration (up to 30°). We carried out spectral field and goniometer measurements on the joint YAMAL 2011 expedition (RU-US-DE) organized by the Earth-Cryosphere Institute (ECI) in August 2011 on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, Russia. The field goniometer measurements (conducted under varying sun zenith angles) as well as field spectro-radiometrical measurements were carried out at the NASA Yamal Land Cover/Land Use Change (NASA Yamal-LCLUC) transects and réleves at Laboravaya (southern Yamal) and Vaskiny Dachi (central Yamal), and at the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site in Vaskiny Dachi. The LCLUC plots are Greening of the Arctic (GOA) sites established in 2007 by Walker et al. (2009). The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site was established by M. Leibman (ECI) in 1993. BRDF processing for the tundra test sites demonstrate the mirror asymmetry in relative azimuth with respect to the principal plane. It also showed that the maximum scattering appears in the backward direction, but that there is no minimal forward scattering. Instead, the forward scattering is characterized by similar to higher reflectance values compared to the nadir position. Moreover, the analysis of the anisotropic behaviour of moss-dominated tundra types with 10 to 15% vascular plant cover show that the BRDF influence on vegetation indices (VI) of low-growing arctic vegetation communities can be up to 15% of the nadir value. The low sun elevation at the arctic latitudes prevents hotspot-effects, but a BRDF normalization still should be taken into account for the development of tundra-adapted vegetation indices. Walker, D.A. et al. (2009): Data Report of the 2007 and 2008 Yamal Expeditions. AGC Data Report. 133.

Buchhorn, Marcel; Heim, Birgit; Walker, Donald A. Skip; Epstein, Howard; Leibman, Marina

2013-04-01

268

Pierre Hassner - Russia's Transition to Autocracy - Journal of Democracy 19:2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under Putin's rule, Russian policy has considerably hardened both domestically and internationally. It has gone from a mixture of oligarchy, democracy, and anarchy to a regime of autocracy with some fascist features, and from an effort to imitate and join the West to a verbal aggressiveness towards the United States and an effort to reassert Russia's domination over its former

Pierre Hassner

2008-01-01

269

Russia`s Great Game in a nuclear South Asia  

SciTech Connect

Lost in the noise of Pakistan`s nuclear weapon tests in the western Baluchistan desert on 28 and 30 May was a surprising diplomatic move by Russia. On 23 May, Russia became the first state to express its willingness to recognize India as a nuclear-weapon state, provided that India commits itself to the international nonproliferation regime. Russia`s Ambassador to India, Albert Chernyshev, stated in the days after the Indian but before the Pakistani nuclear tests that ``India proclaimed itself a nuclear weapons power. One now hopes that India will behave as a nuclear weapons power by acting responsibly. Every nuclear weapons state has some rights. But for getting recognition it must have some obligations. Once it is ready to show these obligations by joining the nonproliferation regime, its recognition as a nuclear weapons power will follow.`` Russia`s Great Game in South Asia in pursuit of short-term economic and other interests appears to be a serious obstacle on the path to dealing effectively with the South Asian nuclear crisis. Grave damage to security, stability and nonproliferation has already resulted from India`s and Pakistan`s actions, but the situation does not have to spiral out of control. It is imperative that the international community respond appropriately to this challenge. The international community is at a crossroads and Russia`s actions will be critical. Will it be willing to go beyond the narrow economic and political calculations reflected in its diplomatic posturing, and take actions that will serve its long-term interests by bridging differences with other great powers in order to demonstrate to India that it has not chosen the right path. If Russia decides it can gain from India`s current, perilous path and blocks or otherwise frustrates appropriate responses, the nuclear danger on the subcontinent will escalate and the global regimes to promote nonproliferation and to ban testing will be seriously, perhaps fatally, weakened with unpredictable regional and global effects.

Pilat, J.F.; Taylor, T.T. [International Inst. for Strategic Studies, London (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31

270

Genesis of the West Siberian Basin and its Petroleum Geology: A Recent Interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prominent Western specialist on the geology of the oil and gas deposits of Russia provides an interpretation of the genesis of the West Siberian basin, relying, in part, on most recent Russian studies as well as information made available in 1994 evaluating the reserves of Russia's most important producing province. From Late Carboniferous through Middle Jurassic time, the region

James W. Clarke

1994-01-01

271

Coast of the East Siberian Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea ice is pulling away from the coastline of northeastern Siberia in the east Siberia Sea. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 26, 2002, also the thinning of ice in bays and coves, and the blue reflection of the water from beneath causes the ice to appear bright blue. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

272

Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need

Eric Crubézy; Sylvain Amory; Christine Keyser; Caroline Bouakaze; Martin Bodner; Morgane Gibert; Alexander Röck; Walther Parson; Anatoly Alexeev; Bertrand Ludes

2010-01-01

273

Sizing up the sub-Tommotian unconformity in Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sedimentary rocks in the western Anabar region, northwestern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolution and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Carbon isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at 1 to 2 m intervals support correlation of the lower Anabar succession (Staraya Reckha and lower Manykai Formations) with sub-Tommotian carbonates of the Ust'-Yu-doma Formation in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, the upper Manykai and most of the overlying Medvezhya Formation appear to preserve a sedimentary and paleontological record of an evolutionary important time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlation of the Anabar section with other northern Siberian successions that contain well-dated volcanic rocks permits the estimate that the sub-Tommotian unconformity in southeastern Siberia spans approximately 3 to 6 m.y. Diverse small shelly fossils (but not archaeocyathans) previously thought to mark the base of the Tommotian Stage evolved sequentially throughout this earlier interval.

Knoll, A. H.; Kaufman, A. J.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Adams, W.

1995-01-01

274

Reconstruction of environmental chanees in Holocen in Siberian Arctic, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of Arctic palaeoenvironmental records enables qualitative and quantitative estimations of past climate changes and provides basis for prediction of future changes in the region. The timing of Holocene climate events in North Atlantic region is relatively good studied. In contrast to it, at present there are very few quantitative palaeoclimatic data for eastern Siberia and proxy records from northern Eurasia mostly document environmental changes at low temporal resolution, and are derived from pollen studies. Due to relatively small magnitude of temperature changes throughout the Holocene, reconstructions based on a single proxy must be interpreted with caution. More reliable estimate of the Holocene climate changes can be obtained only by averaging results inferred from several proxies. The basis, however, of all quantitative reconstruction approaches are regional calibration datasets from which the empirical reconstruction model (i.e. the transfer function) will be established. A 380 cm long sediment core from Lake Temje (Central Yakutia, North-Eastern Russia) was studied to infer Holocene palaeoenvironmental change in the extreme periglacial setting of eastern Siberia during the last 10,000 yrs. Data on sediment composition were used to characterize changes in the depositional environment during the ontogenetic development of the Lake Temje. The analysis of fossil chironomid remains and statistical treatment of chironomid data by the application of a newly developed transfer functions provided inferences of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) and water depths (WD). We obtained a qualitative and quantitative reconstruction of Holocene climate in Central Yakutia and recognized three stages of palaeoenvironmental changes: The early Holocene between 10 and 8 kyr BP was characterized by colder-than-today and moist summer conditions. Cryotextures in the lake sediments document full freezing of the lake water during the winter time. A general warming trend started around 8.0 ka BP in concert with enhanced biological productivity and fluctuating lake level. Reconstructed mean TJuly were equal or up to 1.5 °C higher than today between 6,700 and 5,000 yrs BP. During the entire late Holocene after 4,800 yrs BP, reconstructed mean TJuly remained below modern value, consistent with climate deterioration. Limnological conditions did not change significantly. The inference of a mid-Holocene climate optimum supports conceptional scenarios of Holocene climatic change in the subpolar part of eastern Siberia and gives evidence of climate teleconnections to the North Atlantic realm. Investigation of lakes, located in the interfluve of Korotaiha and Bolshaya Rogovaya rivers in the east side of Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia using modern hydrobiological and palaeoecological methods has shown that the major compositional changes in diatom, cladoceran and chironomid communities are synchronous. The chironomid-inferred summer temperature show an increase during the last 100 years, which can be related to the end of LIA in the region and support previous investigations.

Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga; Tumanov, Oleg; Nourgaliev, Danis

2013-04-01

275

Mitochondrial DNA diversity in indigenous populations of the southern extent of Siberia, and the origins of Native American haplogroups.  

PubMed

In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A-D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region. PMID:15638829

Starikovskaya, Elena B; Sukernik, Rem I; Derbeneva, Olga A; Volodko, Natalia V; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D; Lott, Marie T; Hosseini, Seyed H; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C

2005-01-01

276

Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups  

PubMed Central

Summary In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A–D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region. PMID:15638829

Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Sukernik, Rem I.; Derbeneva, Olga A.; Volodko, Natalia V.; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D.; Lott, Marie T.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C.

2014-01-01

277

The White Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Editor's Note: The caption below, published on May 10, 2001, is incorrect. According to Masha Vorontsova, director of the International Fund for Animal Welfare in Moscow, the situation with the seal pups in the White Sea is normal. There is no disaster and there never was. For more details, refer to the article entitled 'No Danger' on the New Scientist home page. The Earth Observatory regrets the earlier errant report. Original Caption According to the Russian Polar Research Institute for Fisheries and Oceanography, between 250,000 and 300,000 Greenland seal pups face death by starvation over the next two months due to a cruel trick by mother nature. The seals, most of them less than two months old, are trapped on ice sheets that remain locked in the White Sea, located near Archangel in Northern Russia. Typically, during the spring thaw the ice sheets break up and flow with the currents northward into the Barents Sea, the seals' spring feeding grounds. The seal pups hitch a ride on the ice floes, living on their own individual stores of fat until they arrive in the Barents Sea. Their mothers departed for the Barents Sea weeks ago. In a normal year, the seal pups' trip from the White Sea out to the Barents takes about six weeks and the seals have adapted to rely upon this mechanism of mother nature. During their yearly migration, the mother seals usually stay with their pups and feed them until their pelts turn from white to grey--a sign that the pups are mature enough to swim and feed themselves. Unfortunately, this year unusually strong northerly winds created a bottleneck of ice near the mouth of the white sea, thus blocking the flow of ice and trapping the pups. These true-color images of the White Sea were acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. This image, taken May 2, 2000 that there is usually much less ice in the White Sea this time of year as most of it is typically en route to the Barents Sea.

2002-01-01

278

Early Visean paleogeography of northern Siberia: New evidence of rift to drift transition along the eastern margin of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous the eastern part of Siberia was affected by multi-stage rifting, which led to formation of a Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic passive margin. Four sections of the Lower Visean strata were studied in the northern part of the Kharaulakh Ridge, along the Lena River and Bykov Channel (north-east of Siberia). The studied sedimentary succession comprises two lithologically contrasting units: coarse-grained turbidites and hemipelagic cherts. Deposition occurred in a marine basin bounded by steep slopes, which is a key geomorphological feature facilitating deposition of coarse-grained turbidites. Within the studied sandy turbidites, several different zones of submarine sand-rich fans have been recognized. Integrated sedimentological and petrographical analyses allow us to interpret that the nearby uplifts composed of Proterozoic-Middle Paleozoic rocks were the main provenance areas for the Visean clastic rocks. Those uplifts were formed as a result of the latest stages of rifting in the study region that occurred in the earliest Visean, following termination of much of the tectonic activity during the Tournaisian. A similar rock association has been described previously from the central and southern part of the eastern margin of Siberia suggesting that the rift to drift transition occurred approximately at the same time across East Siberia and is of Early Visean age.

Ershova, Victoria B.; Khudoley, Andrey K.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.

2014-09-01

279

START II and the politics of arms control in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The arguments for nuclear weapons reduction in the post-Cold War era are compelling, but as the nuclear confrontation has receded, so has the urgency attached to the destruction of nuclear weapons. In Russia, pressing economic and political problems have diverted attention from the nuclear issue, while the polarization of politics has reduced chances for the early ratification of START II. The increasing mistrust of the West in Russian political conservative circles, combined with the cost of disarmament, have given rise to a strong lobby for slowing the arms reduction process. 88 refs. 3 tabs.

Lepingwell, J.W.R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

1995-12-31

280

Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery after fires of moderate- and low- severity.

Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

281

Moho topography and crustal heterogeneity in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new digital model of the crustal structure of the Archean-Proterozoic Siberian craton and the Paleozoic- Mesozoic West Siberian basin. The model is based on the digitized published seismic profiles. The new compilation represents significant improvement in coverage and resolution with a nominal sample interval of 50 km before interpolation onto a uniform 2x2 degree grid. The crustal model includes depth to Moho, thickness and average P-wave velocity of five crustal layers (sediments, and upper, middle, lower, and lowermost crust) and Pn velocity. Crustal structure shows weak correlation with tectono-thermal age and strong correlation with tectonic setting. The Moho depth generally increases with the age and shows high amplitude undulations at different tectonic areas. Typical Moho depths are 44-46 km in stable Archean crust, 40-42 km in Proterozoic craton and Neoproterozoic/Paleozoic orogens, 35-38 km in extended cratonic crust, and 38-40 km in the West Siberian basin. The crust generally consists of three layers and has no high-velocity lowermost crust (Vp 7.4 km/s), which is observed only in magmatic areas. Average crustal velocity is 6.2-6.4 km/s. It is ranging from <5.8 km/s in deep sedimentary basins to 6.6 km/s around the up-to 54 km thick Anabar shield crust. The upper mantle velocity is heterogeneous. The average velocity is 8.2 km/s in the craton and the West Siberian Basin, lower in areas affected by the Baikalian and Caledonian orogenies, higher in the Tunguska and the Viluy basins, and abnormally high (8.6-8.9 km/s) around kimberlite fields. We discuss the origin of crustal heterogeneity and evolution in Precambrian cratons and major Phanerozoic basins and rift zones.

Cherepanova, Y. V.; Artemieva, I. M.; Thybo, H.

2013-05-01

282

[Arborviruses of the California encephalitis serogroup 1N Russia and their contribution to infectious pathology].  

PubMed

This review focuses on arborviral infections associated with California serocomplex (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus). Results of relevant eco-epidemiological and clinical studies in Russia are presented suggesting the ubiquitious nature of diseases caused by viruses of the California encephalitis serocomplex (Inko, Tahyna, Snowshoe Hare). The etiologic structure of these diseases in taiga and mixed woods of the European part and Western Siberia is dominated by the Inco virus and in southern regions by Tahina. The diseases have a well apparent seasonal pattern (July-August) in agreement with the peak summer activity of the pathogens. Two clinical forms of pathology are distinguished, influenza-like and generalized, the latter affecting lungs, kidneys, liver, and CNS. The Inco virus plays a key role in pathogenesis of the generalized form affecting CNS. PMID:21786596

Kolobukhina, L V; L'vov, S D

2011-01-01

283

Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

Rimashevskaia, N. M.

2011-01-01

284

Tidal power plants in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the performance of tidal power plants in Russia and the expansion of tidal plant to new sites. The topics of the article include remote construction and transport techniques, pilot plant performance, economics and payback, and a review of global tidal power plant designs that are on hold due to economic problems relating to the global economy.

L. B. Bernshtein

1994-01-01

285

Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

1995-01-01

286

Precursor genes of future pandemic influenza viruses are perpetuated in ducks nesting in Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?Influenza A viruses of different subtypes were isolated from fecal samples of ducks in their nesting areas in Siberia in\\u000a summer from 1996 to 1998. Phylogenetic analysis of the NP genes of the isolates in Siberia and those in Hokkaido, Japan on\\u000a their flyway of migration from Siberia to the south in autumn revealed that they belong to the Eurasian

K. Okazaki; A. Takada; T. Ito; M. Imai; H. Takakuwa; M. Hatta; H. Ozaki; T. Tanizaki; T. Nagano; A. Ninomiya; V. A. Demenev; M. M. Tyaptirganov; T. D. Karatayeva; S. S. Yamnikova; D. K. Lvov; H. Kida

2000-01-01

287

Fire effects on hydrochemistry of streams draining watersheds with continuous permafrost distribution in Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfires, assumed to be the main disturbance factor in the boreal biome, are tended to increase in frequency and severity under "dry warming" (Conard et al. 2002). Short fire-return interval in larch dominated permafrost terrains of Siberia (Kharuk et al., 2008) exert significant control on ecosystem biogeochemical cycling throughout the complex influences of deforestation, ground vegetation and organic layer combustion as well as deepen soil active layer. Despite extensive research of fire impact on carbon exchange between soil, forest biomass and atmosphere in permafrost affected regions of Siberia, much less is known on the role of fire in control of element transport in rivers and watersheds affected by fire events. To analyze the effect of fires on chemical composition of surface fluids in permafrost zone, fourteen small forested watersheds (3-25 km2) have been selected in mid-stream of Nizhnyaya Tunguska River (Yenissey basin, Central Siberia, Russia). Analysis of larch trees in forest stands of the area demonstrated that presumably all basins were affected by wildfires in the past. Selected watersheds have been influenced by ground fires (>90% of watershed area) ca 110, 60 and 15 years ago (respectively in 1899, 1947 and 1993). Water sampling campaign has been conducted from snowmelt (mid-May) to the start of freezing (mid-October) on weekly and/or monthly interval in 2006-2009. In this study, we analyzed the dissolved loads for major and trace element concentrations. In terms of concentration changes in the course of the year, concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC as well as associated elements like Fe, Al, Y and REE) and inorganic ions (e.g. DIC, Cl, Ca, Na, Mg etc.) demonstrated opposite tendencies during a frost-free season in all streams. However, basins with recent fire effect exhibited generally lower DOC concentrations in streams along with much more pronounced seasonal increase in concentrations of inorganic compounds. The increased active layer thickness and major element leaching from mineral soil is the most likely cause of inorganic component concentration increase in watersheds affected by fire events. The larger watersheds have also shown talik (permanently unfrozen zones) formation resulting in deep solute appearance in the surface runoff (high concentrations of Na and Cl ions). Decreased discharge and reduced DOC export in fire-affected watersheds have been suggested to result respectively from larger water-holding capacity of the deepening active soil layer, which developed after the fire events, and the combustion of the organic layer, which is the main DOC source. Thus, under a drier climate, fires impose two limitations of DOC release from watersheds: (1) decreasing mobile C-source (combustion of organic layer), and (2) decreased volume of draining water (increased water-holding capacity of soil). Comparable concentrations of elements in streams draining from watersheds burnt 50 and 100 years ago corroborate earlier estimates of a recovery time of 50 years for ecosystem structures of larch forests of the region.

Prokushkin, Anatoly; Pokrovsky, Oleg; Kawahigashi, Masayuki; Viers, Jerome

2010-05-01

288

Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia  

SciTech Connect

Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

2010-05-01

289

Dinocyst biostratigraphy of the Lower Cretaceous in North Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The described scheme of the Lower Cretaceous (Berriasian-Barremian) stratigraphic subdivisions is elaborated based on palynological study of sections in the Khatanga depression, Ust-Yenisei region, Pur-Taz interfluve, and around the Ob River latitudinal segment, the North Siberia. Stratigraphic distribution of microphytoplankton studied in detail is used to distinguish 10 biostratigraphic units in the rank of dinocysts zones. Stratigraphic position of the zones is determined with confidence using data on the Lower Cretaceous reference sections in the Khatanga depression, which were principal ones by constructing the Boreal standard zonation. In majority, boundaries of the dinocysts beds are of a high correlation potential and can be regarded as reliable stratigraphic markers, as they are recognizable not only in Siberia, but also in northern Europe and America.

Pestchevitskaya, E. B.

2007-12-01

290

Status of forest resources and the environment in Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The Siberian forests are considered to be one of the most important biomes on earth. The forested area of Siberia constitutes about 20 percent of the total world forested area and nearly 50 percent of the total world coniferous forested area. About 605 million hectares are covered with stands, these areas make up about 48 percent of the total area. Nearly 450 million hectares are covered with coniferous species. The total growing stock of stemwood is 61.4 billion m{sup 3} as compared to North America - 50.3 billion m{sup 3} of which 51 billion m{sup 3} is made up of coniferous species. About 38.5 billion m{sup 3} (nearly 63 percent) of the growing stock are classified as mature and overmature forests. Nearly 65 percent of the Siberian forests are growing in areas with permafrost and more than 60 percent of the forested areas are classified as mountain forests. The carbon stock, accumulated in forest ecosystems of Siberia, exceeds 94 billion tons in total, with annual carbon sequestration at more than 170 million tons. This sink could be significantly increased by implementation of rational forestry in Siberia. Average stock per 1 ha of mature and overmature stands is 148 m{sup 3}. Average annual growth per 1 ha of forest-forming species is 1.31 m{sup 3}, among them conifers - 1.17 m{sup 3}. Siberia has roughly 40% of its original forests intact (the United States has less than 5% of its ancient forests).

Danilin, I.; Sokoly, V.

1997-12-31

291

Composition of individual aerosol particles above Lake Baikal, Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than 20,000 individual aerosol particles, taken from research vessels over the total area of Lake Baikal (Siberia) during June 1992 and September 1993, were analysed by automated electron probe X-ray microanalysis. The obtained data set was reduced by a combination of multivariate techniques. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated 11 major particle types, among which soil dust, Fe-rich, Ca-rich, organic, biogenic,

H. Van Malderen; R. Van Grieken; T. Khodzher; V. Obolkin; V. Potemkin

1996-01-01

292

What is a reindeer? Indigenous perspectives from northeast Siberia  

E-print Network

and ridden (though not in Fennoscandiavia where the breeds are too small). In some parts of Siberia they are also milked (Fondahl 1989). Almost everywhere there has grown up a large general herd of animals which exist only for breeding or (mostly... on Yamal Peninsula as follows: ‘The resilience of tundra ecosystems is limited... lemmings may reduce above-ground plant biomass by 50-70%. At the same time... potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen [in the urine of lemmings] promotes vascular plant growth...

Vitebsky, Piers; Alekseyev, Anatoly

2014-06-26

293

The antioxidant characteristics of medicinal plant extracts from Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An antioxidant activity of the water-alcohol extracts of leaves of ten herbs from Western Siberia was studied. In vivo the\\u000a capability of extracts to protect cells of Escherichia coli against the bacteriostatic action of H 2O2 and the influence of the extracts on the expression of the antioxidant gene katG coding catalase-hydroperoxidase I were investigated. In vitro the radical-binding activity

G. V. Smirnova; G. I. Vysochina; N. G. Muzyka; Z. Yu. Samoilova; T. A. Kukushkina; O. N. Oktyabr’ski

2009-01-01

294

Russia’s Natural Gas Export Potential up to 2050  

E-print Network

Recent increases in natural gas reserve estimates and advances in shale gas technology make natural gas a fuel with good prospects to serve a bridge to a low-carbon world. Russia is an important energy supplier as it holds the world largest natural gas reserves and it is the world’s largest exporter of natural gas. Energy was one of the driving forces of Russia’s recent economic recovery from the economic collapse of 1990s. These prospects have changed drastically with a global recession and the collapse of oil and gas prices from their peaks of 2008. An additional factor is an ongoing surge in a liquefied natural gas (LNG) capacity and a development of Central Asia’s and the Middle East gas supplies that can compete with Russian gas in its traditional (European) and potential (Asian) markets. To study the long-term prospects for Russian natural gas, we employ the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a computable general equilibrium model of the world economy. While we consider the updated reserve estimates for all world regions, in this paper we focus on the results for Russian natural gas trade. The role of natural gas is explored in the context of several policy assumptions: with no greenhouse gas mitigation policy and scenarios of emissions targets in developed countries. Scenarios where Europe takes on an even more restrictive target of 80

Sergey Paltsev; Sergey Paltsev

2011-01-01

295

Russia`s nuke complex: A case for downsizing  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear weapons stored in former Soviet republics, uncontrolled export of bomb-grade nuclear materials, and recruitment of ex-Soviet nuclear physicists by Third-World nations remain today`s top proliferation risks, reports Oleg Bukharin, a visiting researcher at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environment Studies. To address these risks, Russia {open_quotes}must shift its weapons production and development to weapons dismantlement, management of weapons materials, and maintenance of a much smaller...arsenal,{close_quotes} Bukharin writes. The goal of such conversion, he says, {open_quotes}is a nuclear complex that is environmentally safe...and compatible with nonproliferation objectives.{close_quotes} Reconfiguration of Russia`s weapons complex also must provide for redeployment of the hundreds of thousands of scientists, engineers, and technicians who have supported the federation`s nuclear weapons program, Bukharin insists. {open_quotes}A truly durable strategy to prevent the dispersion of Russian weapons expertise must [involve] these weapons experts in non-weapons research,{close_quotes} says Bukharin. Furthermore, Bukharin writes, the Russian conversion program must prevent nuclear materials from falling into the wrong hands. {open_quotes}Widespread corruption, crime, and emerging black markets increase the risk of diversion of weapons-grade uranium or plutonium,{close_quotes} he says.

Bukharin, O. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

1995-07-01

296

Long-term trends and changes of soil temperature of recent decade in the permafrost zone of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The northern regions of Russia have rich natural resources (oil, gas). In recent years in these areas are increasingly built engineering structure for oil and gas production and their transportation. Current global warming has a great influence on soil condition in the permafrost zone. This can lead to negative effects on buildings and infrastructure which are built on frozen soils. Changes of the soil state in area of permafrost demand serious studying. Next steps have been done for research of this problem: Part 1. a) The daily data set of soil temperature under natural surface at depths up to 320 cm at the Russian meteorological stations has been prepared. The earliest year of data set is 1963, the current version is ending in 2011 (660 stations of Russia). Quality control of original data was performed in creating this data set. b) The data set of computed depth of soil seasonal thawing at the Russian meteorological stations till 2011 has been prepared (107 stations with yearly depth of thawing). Part 2. Changes of soils' condition for the last five decades have been researched based on the prepared data sets. The change of mean annual soil temperature at depths has been researched and soil warming in the vast area for 1963 - 2010 has been shown, the great trends (0,2 ÷ 0,4°C /10 years) increase at 320 cm have been found in Western and Eastern Siberia, and the greatest trends (0,4 ÷ 0,5°C/10 years) are found in their south part. This creates favorable conditions for increase of seasonal thawing depth in a permafrost zone, especially in its south part. The map of average depth of soil seasonal thawing for the same period (1963-2010) was made. It showed that the greatest depths of thawing 300-400 cm were observed near the border of permafrost and the smallest depths 50-250 cm predominate in the area of continuous permafrost. Part 3. Global warming of climate was slowed down from the beginning of the XXI century as it is known from publications. Additional researches of soil temperature change in recent decade showed that positive trends of soil temperature for this decade were changed on negative trends (-0,2 ÷ -0,6°C/10 years) in the South and the southeast of Western Siberia. The most intensive decrease of soil temperature in this region is observed since 2007. Trends of the thawing depth for permafrost soils were obtained for 2001-2011. Greatest significant positive trends of thawing depth have been obtained in Eastern Siberia (3÷5 cm/year). However, spots with significant negative trends are obtained in central Yakutia, and also to the south of Lake Baikal and near the Kolyma River mouth. Conclusions: 1. Using the Russian daily data set of soil temperature at depths up to 320 cm for last 40-50 years, soil warming is shown over the vast territory of the Russia. Maximum trends at the 320 cm depth are found in the south part of Western and Eastern Siberia. 2. One of the impacts of the current climate changes is the general tendency for the increase in the seasonal thawing depth on the vast territory of Western and Eastern Siberia. 3. In recent decade the tendency of soil temperature decrease has been appeared in south part of Western Siberia near south border of permafrost also decrease of seasonal thawing depth has been appeared in some regions. The work was done with the financial support of RFBR (project 11-05-00691).

Sherstiukov, A.

2013-12-01

297

Lidar profiling of aerosol optical properties from Paris to Lake Baikal (Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2013, a ground-based mobile lidar performed the 10 000 km ride from Paris to Ulan-Ude, near Lake Baikal, profiling for the first time aerosol optical properties all the way from Western Europe to central Siberia. The instrument was equipped with N2-Raman and depolarization channels that enabled an optical speciation of aerosols in the low and middle troposphere. The backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) and particle depolarization ratio (PDR) at 355 nm have been retrieved. The BER in the lower boundary layer (300-700 m) was found to be 0.017 ± 0.009 sr-1 in average during the campaign, with slightly higher values in background conditions near Lake Baikal (0.021 ± 0.010 sr-1 in average) corresponding to dust-like particles. PDR values observed in Russian cities (>1.7%) are higher than the ones measured in European cities (<1.3%) due to the lifting of terrigenous aerosols by traffic on roads with a bad tarmac. Biomass burning layers from grassland or/and forest fires in southern Russia exhibit BER values ranging from 0.010 to 0.015 sr-1 and from 2 to 3% for the PDR. Desert dust aerosols originating from the Caspian and Aral seas regions were characterized for the first time, with a BER (PDR) of 0.022 sr-1 (21%) for pure dust, and 0.011 sr-1 (15%) for a mix between dust and biomass burning. The lidar observations also showed that this dust event extended over 2300 km and lasted for ~6 days. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) show that our results are comparable in terms of aerosol optical thickness (between 0.05 and 0.40 at 355 nm) with the mean aerosol load encountered throughout our route.

Dieudonné, E.; Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.; Shang, X.

2014-11-01

298

Plant response to climate change along the forest-tundra ecotone in northeastern Siberia.  

PubMed

Russia's boreal (taiga) biome will likely contract sharply and shift northward in response to 21st century climatic change, yet few studies have examined plant response to climatic variability along the northern margin. We quantified climate dynamics, trends in plant growth, and growth-climate relationships across the tundra shrublands and Cajander larch (Larix cajanderi Mayr.) woodlands of the Kolyma river basin (657 000 km(2) ) in northeastern Siberia using satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation indices (NDVI), tree ring-width measurements, and climate data. Mean summer temperatures (Ts ) increased 1.0 °C from 1938 to 2009, though there was no trend (P > 0.05) in growing year precipitation or climate moisture index (CMIgy ). Mean summer NDVI (NDVIs ) increased significantly from 1982 to 2010 across 20% of the watershed, primarily in cold, shrub-dominated areas. NDVIs positively correlated (P < 0.05) with Ts across 56% of the watershed (r = 0.52 ± 0.09, mean ± SD), principally in cold areas, and with CMIgy across 9% of the watershed (r = 0.45 ± 0.06), largely in warm areas. Larch ring-width measurements from nine sites revealed that year-to-year (i.e., high-frequency) variation in growth positively correlated (P < 0.05) with June temperature (r = 0.40) and prior summer CMI (r = 0.40) from 1938 to 2007. An unexplained multi-decadal (i.e., low-frequency) decline in annual basal area increment (BAI) occurred following the mid-20th century, but over the NDVI record there was no trend in mean BAI (P > 0.05), which significantly correlated with NDVIs (r = 0.44, P < 0.05, 1982-2007). Both satellite and tree-ring analyses indicated that plant growth was constrained by both low temperatures and limited moisture availability and, furthermore, that warming enhanced growth. Impacts of future climatic change on forests near treeline in Arctic Russia will likely be influenced by shifts in both temperature and moisture, which implies that projections of future forest distribution and productivity in this area should take into account the interactions of energy and moisture limitations. PMID:23813896

Berner, Logan T; Beck, Pieter S A; Bunn, Andrew G; Goetz, Scott J

2013-11-01

299

Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

Vibe, Yulia

2014-05-01

300

Spatio-temporal dynamics of climatic extreme indices over Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays numerous investigations are aimed at analysis of regional climatic extremes becoming more pronounced under climate change. In particular, obtained results indicate decrease of number of frost days and increase of growing season length over the most part of Siberian territory, and precipitation intensity increases in the northern part of Siberia [1]. To obtain the complete pattern of ongoing changes in climatic extremes the following indices dynamics should be analyzed: percentage of days when minimum/maximum temperature less than 10th percentile, percentage of days minimum/maximum temperature greater than 90th percentile, maximum length of dry/wet spell. Climatic extreme assessments are obtained based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis and APHRODITE JMA data for the time period from 1979 to 2007. These datasets reproduce the statistics of observed climate features in Siberia more accurately [1]. Modern techniques of mathematical statistics are used for analysis of the temporal and spatial behavior of above mentioned climatic characteristics. Data analysis has been done using computational-geoinformational web-system for analysis of regional climatic change [2]. Surface temperature and precipitation extreme assessments obtained for Siberian territory can help to get a better understanding of current changes in the biosphere and socio-economic aspects. Partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 11-05-01190a), SB RAS projects VIII.80.2.1 and 131, and the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science grant # 8345 is acknowledged. 1. Shulgina T.M., Genina E.Yu., Gordov E.P. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia // Environmental Research Letters, 2011. - DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045210. - 7 p. 2. Evgeny Gordov et al. Development of Information-Computational Infrastructure for Environmental research in Siberia as a baseline component of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) Studies / Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences // Series: Springer Environmental Science and Engineering. Ed.: Groisman, Pavel Ya., Gutman, Garik. Vol. XII, 2013. P. 19-55.

Shulgina, Tamara; Gordov, Evgeny; Genina, Elena

2013-04-01

301

Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC). After correcting for missing data, we calculated FWI System values based on a fire season running from March 15 to October 31. Since the number of stations is small relative to the area of interest, we also used station data for neighboring countries (Mongolia, northern China) to assist interpolation. Seven spatial data layers created using GIS software included daily fuel moisture code and fire behavior indices of the FWI System along with Daily Severity Index across Russia and the adjacent boundary areas (1617 maps/yr). When we compared distribution of FWI values across Russia to daily fire scar data from AVHRR imagery for selected years, distribution of fire activity appeared to be well related to the FWI values. Our goal is to develop a reasonable estimate of seasonal and interannual carbon emissions for fires burning in Siberia based on daily values of the FWI System. In a related project, we are creating a post-1979 fire burn area database for Russia using AVHRR images. Our goal is to combine historical and current burned area and weather data to develop improved estimates of annual carbon emissions for the boreal zone in Russia.

McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

2009-12-01

302

Methane emission from bogs in the subtaiga of Western Siberia: The development of standard model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The methane emission from typical bog landscapes of the West Siberian subtaiga was studied in the summer-autumn of 2007-2010. The lowest specific fluxes (the median value is 0.08 mg C-CH4/m2 per h) were recorded from ryams (raised bogs with dwarf shrub-sphagnum associations). From the ridges of the ridge-pool complexes, the fluxes were estimated at 0.49 mg C-CH4/m2 per h; from the oligotrophic hollows, eutrophic bogs, floating lake mats, and mesotrophic quaking bogs, they were estimated at 2.68, 3.36, 4.53, and 4.98 mg C-CH4/m2 per h, respectively. The maximal flux was determined from the lakes (the median is 17.98 mg C-CH4/m2 per h). The regional assessment of the methane flux from the bogs of Western Siberia (2.93 Tg C-CH4/yr) was obtained on the basis of the authors' and literature data.

Glagolev, M. V.; Sabrekov, A. F.; Kleptsova, I. E.; Filippov, I. V.; Lapshina, E. D.; Machida, T.; Maksyutov, Sh. Sh.

2012-10-01

303

Europe’s energy dependency and Russia’s commercial assertiveness  

E-print Network

Europe is dependent on Russia for its energy supply and finds itself at odds with designing a policy that addresses its rising number of concerns over Russia (military, political, commercial) while not putting its energy

Fredrik Erixon

304

Effects Of Climate, Permafrost And Fire On Potential Vegetation Change In Siberia In A Warming Climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century, which are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Increased permafrost melt and forest fire directly affected by climate warming are predicted to additionally influence vegetation change. Our goal is to model potential vegetation change across Siberia (within the territory between the Urals and Yakutia

N. M. Tchebakova; E. I. Parfenova; A. J. Soja

2008-01-01

305

PLEISTOCENE PARK: REESTABLISHMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL STEPPE ECOSYSTEM IN NORTHEAST SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We propose to create a grassland ecosystem maintained by large northern herbivores similar to that which existed in Siberia 10,000-100,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Bison, horses, muskoxen, caribou, and moose will be introduced to 'Pleistocene Park', a scientific reserve in northeast Siberia. This region supported large herds of these animals and of mammoths during the Pleistocene. These

Sergei A. Zimov; F. Stuart Chapin; Melissa Chapin

306

Aircraft observations of the atmospheric boundary layer over a heterogeneous surface in eastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper outlines specifications and gives preliminary results of aircraft observations made during the Intensive Observation Period in 2000 (IOP2000) over the Yakutsk area of eastern Siberia. The observations were part of the GAME-Siberia project. Spatial and seasonal variation in the fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide were determined using a Russian aircraft equipped with turbulence sensors.

T. Hiyama; M. A. Strunin; R. Suzuki; J. Asanuma; M. Y. Mezrin; N. A. Bezrukova; T. Ohata

2003-01-01

307

Cholera diffusion in Russia, 1823-1923.  

PubMed

All six cholera pandemics of the 19th and early 20th centuries struck Russia, causing millions of deaths. Cholera entered Russia from the south, with the Volga river system being a common and efficient route into the heart of the country. Diffusion was predominantly linear, along the navigable rivers and later, along the railroads. In contrast to Pyle's findings for the U.S.A., urban hierarchical diffusion was of only local significance in Russia. PMID:8016683

Patterson, K D

1994-05-01

308

Birds of the Indigirka River Delta, Russia: Historical and biogeographic comparisons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We documented the breeding status and relative abundance of all avian species on the coastal portion of the Indigirka River Delta during spring and summer 1993-95. Data on avifaunal composition were then compared to data from adjacent areas from Eastern Siberia to the Chukotka Peninsula to evaluate how species composition changes longitudinally within the arctic and typical tundra zones of northern Russia. We recorded 63 species on the Indigirka River Delta, 37 (58.7 %) of which were confirmed breeders during at least one of the three years. Five new species were recorded breeding (Arenaria interpres, Calidris acuminata, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Stercorarius parasiticus, and Asio flammeus), and 13 previously unrecorded species were observed during this study. We also identified several species of rare or threatened status in Russia and North America, including Branta bernicla, Somateria fischeri, Polysticta stelleri, and Rhodostethia rosea. We used parsimony and distance matrix methods to compare the breeding species richness on the Indigirka River Delta to that of six other Russian Arctic areas. Biogeographic comparisons revealed the presence of two clades in the Russian Arctic: the Lena River Delta east to Chaun Delta and the Chukotka Peninsula.

Pearce, J.M.; Esler, Daniel; Degtyarev, A.G.

1998-01-01

309

The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia  

PubMed Central

Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM. PMID:18254941

2008-01-01

310

U–Pb geochronology of Riphean sandstone and gabbro from southeast Siberia and its bearing on the Laurentia–Siberia connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one detrital zircons from the mid–late Riphean Mayamkan Formation sandstone (Uy Group) of the Sette–Daban fold belt, southeast Siberia yielded SHRIMP 207Pb\\/206Pb ages ranging between 1500 and 1050 Ma. Other grains yielded ages between 2.7 and 1.8 Ga. There is no known source region for the Mesoproterozoic zircons in Siberia; however, this range of ages closely matches those of detrital

Robert H Rainbird; Richard A Stern; Andrei K Khudoley; Anatoly P Kropachev; Larry M Heaman; Vladimir I Sukhorukov

1998-01-01

311

Educational level and adult mortality in Russia: An analysis of routine data 1979 to 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigation of socio-economic differences in mortality in Russia was effectively prohibited in the Soviet period. The extent and nature of any such differences is of considerable interest given the very different principles upon which Russian society has been organised for most of this century compared to the West where socio-economic differences in health have been extensively documented. Using cross-sectional

Vladimir M. Shkolnikov; David A. Leon; Sergey Adamets; Eugeniy Andreev; Alexander Deev

1998-01-01

312

77 FR 51825 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia Determination On the basis...duty order on ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium from Russia would not be likely to lead...entitled Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from Russia: Investigation No....

2012-08-27

313

75 FR 9252 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1071 and 1072 (Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be...

2010-03-01

314

75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-1071 and 1072 (Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be...

2010-06-21

315

75 FR 48360 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade...China and pure and alloy magnesium from Russia...China and pure and alloy magnesium from Russia would be likely to lead to...

2010-08-10

316

[Formation of probioticotherapy in Russia].  

PubMed

Probioticotherapy and probioticoprophylaxis have been applied widely in Russia and the world of late. The article presents the main medical, strain-related, and biotechnological stages of their development in this country, in comparison with the results of the world practice. The authors substantiate appropriateness of creation of probiotics and which would contain either only growth medium components, able to activate normoflora (to increase colonization ability and stimulate production of biologically active substances) upon entering the organism, or only probiotic strain components and/or biologically active substances produced by biologically active strains in mono- or associative cultivation, or combination of the listed components. PMID:16404976

Aleshkin, V A; Afanas'ev, S S; Pospelova, V V; Vorob'ev, A A; Feklisova, L V; Nesvizhski?, Iu V; Amerkhanova, A M; Pozhalostina, L V; Voropaeva, E A; Afanas'ev, M S; Davydkin, V Iu; Lakhtin, V M; Davydkin, I Iu

2005-01-01

317

Aerospace Medical Support in Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

2011-01-01

318

[Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established. PMID:20799643

Kur'ina, I V; Pre?s, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

2010-01-01

319

Estimation of periphytic microalgae gross primary production with DCMU-fluorescence method in Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periphyton (epilithon) gross primary production (GPP) was estimated using the DCMU-fluorescence method in the Yenisei River.\\u000a In the unshaded littoral zone, chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) and GPP value varied from 0.83 to 973.74 mg m?2and 2–304,425 O2 m?2 day?1 (0.64–95 133 mg C m?2 day?1), respectively. Positive significant correlation (r?=?0.8) between daily GPP and periphyton Chl a was found. Average ratio GPP:Chl

V. I. Kolmakov; O. V. Anishchenko; E. A. Ivanova; M. I. Gladyshev; N. N. Sushchik

2008-01-01

320

Fe-U-PGE-Au-Ag-Cu Deposits of the Udokan-Chiney Region (East Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction. Cupriferous sandstones-shales and magmatic copper-nickel deposits mark out the western and southern boundaries of the Siberian Craton accordingly. Of special interest are the Paleoproterozoic deposits of the Udokan-Chiney mining district (Gongalskiy, Krivolutskaya, 2008). Copper reserves and resources of this region are estimated at more than 50 Mt. Half of them is concentrated at the unique Udokan Deposit and the second half is distributed among sedimentary (Unkur, Pravoingamakitskoye, Sakinskoye, Krasnoye, Burpala) and magmatic deposits of the Chiney (Rudnoye, Verkhnechineyskoye, Kontaktovoye), Luktur and Maylav massifs. Results. It was established that the ores are characterized by similarity in chemical composition (main, major and rare elements that are Ag, Au, PGE) and mineral assemblages with varying proportions. It is important to emphasize that Fe role in mineralization was previously ignored. Meanwhile the Udokan deposit contains 10 Mt of magnetite metacrystals so as chalcocite ores may contain up to 50% magnetite too. It has been recently found that the Chiney titanomagnetite ores comprise commercially significant uranium and rare-earth metal concentrations (Makaryev et al., 2011). Thus the Udokan-Chiney region comprises Cu, Fe, Ti, V, U, REE, Ag, Au, PGE. These deposits differ from similar objects, the Olympic Dam in particular, by a much smaller content of fluid-bearing minerals. Copper mineralization at the Udokan is represented by chalcocite-bornite ores. They occur as ore beds conformable with sedimentary structures or as cross-cutting veins. The central zones of the former are often brecciated. They are rimmed by fine magnetite, bornite, and chalcocite dissemination. Bornite-chalcopyrite and chalcopyrite-pyrite veins are known at the lower levels of the Udokan ore bed. Such ore compositions are predominant in other ore deposits in sedimentary rocks (Pravoingamakitskoye, Unkur) and have a hydrothermal origin. Silver grades are up to 370 g/t in grab samples (Gongalskiy et al., 2008a). The long-lived Udokan-Chiney ore-magmatic has small areal extent of explosive rocks and breccias (n*10 m) with massive sulfide veins (chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite) which are similar to Sudbury offset dikes. While the same vertical zones at the Rudnoye deposit have been confirmed over 0.5 km downward from the lower contact of the Chiney massif. Conclusions. Multielement and similar mineralogical composition ores of different deposits in the Udokan-Chiney area reflect long evolution of ore processes in very movable block of the crust. Observed combination of magmatic, sedimentary and partially hydrothermal deposits is a result of the telescoping of a wide range of metals into a limited area.

Gongalskiy, B.; Krivolutskaya, N.; Murashov, K.; Nistratov, S.; Gryazev, S.

2012-04-01

321

A long-living species of the hydrophiloid beetles: Helophorus sibiricus from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo (Siberia, Russia)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The recent hydrophiloid species Helophorus (Gephelophorus) sibiricus (Motschulsky, 1860) is recorded from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo assigned to the Ombinsk Formation. A detailed comparison with recent specimens allowed a confident identification of the fossil specimen, which is therefore the oldest record of a recent species for the Hydrophiloidea. The paleodistribution as well as recent distribution of the species is summarized, and the relevance of the fossil is discussed. In addition, the complex geological settings of the Kartashevo area are briefly summarized. PMID:22259280

Fiká?ek, Martin; Prokin, Alexander; Angus, Robert B.

2011-01-01

322

Russia [Teachers Guide and Student Readings].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching unit, one of a series of curriculum guides on different world areas for use at the secondary level, treats the culture and history of Russia, oftentimes comparing it with that of the United States. Major teaching objectives are to have students compare and contrast basic geographic, cultural, and historical information on Russia and…

Allegheny County Schools, Pittsburgh, PA. Intercultural Understanding Project.

323

Cholera diffusion in Russia, 1823-1923  

Microsoft Academic Search

All six cholera pandemics of the 19th and early 20th centuries struck Russia, causing millions of deaths. Cholera entered Russia from the south, with the Volga river system being a common and efficient route into the heart of the country. Diffusion was predominantly linear, along the navigable rivers and later, along the railroads. In contrast to Pyle's findings for the

K. David Patterson

1994-01-01

324

POLITICS IN RUSSIA (CPO 3633) SPRING 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

This course focuses on politics in the Russian Federation. It briefly introduces the student to the politics of the Soviet Union and addresses the fundamental changes that have occurred in Russia, the largest and most important nation-state to emerge from the breakup of the USSR. As the core of the former Soviet Union, current problems in Russia highlight the various

Anderson Hall

325

The changing nature of murder in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The death rate from homicide in Russia increased rapidly during the 1990s. It is now about 20 times higher than in western Europe and is among the highest recorded anywhere in the world. However, this issue has received little attention so far from public health researchers or policymakers.This paper describes the changing nature of homicide during the 1990s in Russia

Valeriy V. Chervyakov; Vladimir M. Shkolnikov; William Alex Pridemore; Martin McKee

2002-01-01

326

An Economic Perspective on Russia’s Accession to the WTO  

E-print Network

Russia’s application for accession to the WTO is currently in its final phases and may be completed by the end of 2003. In this context, this paper provides some background information on Russia’s recent policy and structural reforms, the composition and geographic distribution of trade, tariff rates by commodity groups, and other aspects of trade and domestic policies at issue in the accession process. The accession procedure and the current status of the accession process are then discussed. Using a computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling analysis of China’s WTO accession as a prototype, the potential use of CGE modeling of Russian accession is considered as well as Russia’s participation in the Doha Development Round and preferential trading arrangements. It is concluded that Russia may realize significant benefits from WTO accession and from the multilateral trade liberalization to be effected in the Doha Round.

M. Stern; William Davidson; Robert M. Stern; Robert M. Stern; Robert M. Stern

2002-01-01

327

Russia  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

... uncertain. It is possible, however, in that such fires can heat the lower atmosphere layers sufficient to create "bubbles" of hot air. As these bubbles rise, they can force stable, nearly saturated air above to move even higher, ...

2013-04-16

328

Russia after the Global Financial Crisis  

E-print Network

Abstract: Two prominent American specialists on the Russian economy present a fundamental analysis of basic economic factors explaining how the global financial crisis has played out in Russia and its implications for the country’s future. More specifically, the authors examine the consequences of Russia’s dependence on and addiction to resource (oil and gas) rents and of the management system put in place under Vladimir Putin to maintain, secure, and distribute these rents. They then investigate how each of these factors has emerged from the crisis and how it might evolve in the years ahead. Focusing on the distinction between rent dependence and addiction, the authors question the conventional wisdom that diversification of Russia’s economy (away from oil and gas) is a desirable objective that will render it less

Clifford G. Gaddy; Barry W. Ickes

329

Thermokarst lake waters across the permafrost zones of western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the hydrochemical composition of thermokarst lake and pond ecosystems, which are observed in various sizes with different degrees of permafrost influence and are located in the northern part of western Siberia within the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. We analysed the elemental chemical composition of the lake waters relative to their surface areas (from 10 to 106 m2) and described the elemental composition of the thermokarst water body ecosystems in detail. We revealed significant correlations between the Fe, Al, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and various chemical elements across a latitude gradient covering approximately 900 km. Several groups of chemical elements that reflect the evolution of the studied water bodies were distinguished. Combining the data for the studied latitude profile with the information available in the current literature demonstrated that the average dissolved elemental concentrations in lakes with different areas depend specifically on the latitudinal position, which is presumably linked to (1) the elements leached from frozen peat, which is the main source of the solutes in thermokarst lakes, (2) marine atmospheric aerosol depositions, particularly near the sea border and (3) short-range industrial pollution by certain metals from the largest Russian Arctic smelter. We discuss the evolution of the chemical compositions observed in thermokarst lakes during their formation and drainage and predict the effect that changing the permafrost regime in western Siberia has on the hydrochemistry of the lakes.

Manasypov, R. M.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Shirokova, L. S.

2014-07-01

330

Contradicting climate versus vegetation history in NE-Siberia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern Siberia may play a key role for the climate on the entire Earth. The classical Milankovitch Theory suggests that changes in summer insolation due to the Earth' orbital parameters caused build-up of snow and ice over the extensive continental masses at high northern latitudes. Various positive feedback mechanisms, like surface albedo and sequestration/release of atmospheric carbon dioxide in/from frozen, organic-rich soils, could then be responsible for the onset of global glaciations. More recently, high northern latitudes have also gained a lot of attention due to the potential of their soils and peats to release large amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. The Siberian ecosystems may turn into significant greenhouse gas sources as global warming continues and causes melting of permafrost and mineralisation of soil organic material that has been built up and stored over thousands of years. Quaternary scientists are therefore searching for long-term and continuous archives in order to reconstruct the Siberian climate and landscape history. A wide range of different analytical tools (e.g. different dating techniques, elemental composition, mineralogy, magnetic properties, grain size distribution, characterisation of organic matter and palynology) is used to infer palaeoclimatically and palaeoecologically relevant information. All of these methods have their advantages and their disadvantages. For instance, pollen analyses allow a high taxonomic differentiation, but variable pollination rates of different plant species, influx of long-distance transported pollen, and variable preservation of different pollen taxa have to be considered. Concerning the interpretation of pollen spectra in NE-Siberia, arboreal pollen, especially larch pollen, are traditionally considered to be ‘warm plant taxa', hence the occurrence of these pollen in archives is interpreted as reflecting warm interglacial or interstadial conditions. We have recently presented a multi-proxy analytical characterisation and palaeoclimatic interpretation of a loess-like permafrost palaeosol sequence (the Tumara Palaeosol Sequence, TPS) in NE-Siberia (Zech et al., 2008, Geoderma 143(3-4), pp. 281-295). Accordingly, the TPS developed on a Middle Pleistocene fluvio-glacial terrace, comprises a sequence of glacial and interglacial/-stadial palaeosols and represents the last ~240,000 years. Palaeosols with higher contents of organic matter (Corg up to 2.5%) are correlated with glacial periods, whereas palaeosols with low contents of organic matter (Corg ~0.5%) are correlated with interglacial periods. This Corg pattern is explained with a thinner active permafrost layer, water logging and reduced organic matter degradation during glacials. However, the reconstructed vegetation history based on unpublished alkane biomarker and pollen analyses seems to be at odds with the climate history based on the pedologic features. Namely in the lower part of the TPS, we found evidence for forest vegetation and abundant Larix pollen in the stratigraphic unit correlated with the Late Saalian glaciation (130-160 ka BP) (Svendsen et al., 2004, Quaternary Science Reviews 23(11-13), pp. 1229-1271) and the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 6. Trees, especially larch, are traditionally regarded as ‘warm plant taxa' in NE-Siberia. Interestingly, similar severe discrepancies between the vegetation history and the geochemically derived chronostratigraphy have also been described for the sediments from Crater Lake El'gygytgyn (Lozhkin et al., 2007, Journal of Paleolimnology 37, pp. 135-153), the latter certainly being the most continuous and long-term archive in the study area. In order to explain these discrepancies, we suggest that various palaeoclimatic parameters, like temperature, precipitation, and seasonality, differently affected (i) glaciations, (ii) pedogenetic conditions and (iii) vegetation history, respectively. (i) Concerning glaciations, NE-Siberia is characterised by an extreme continental climate with very low winter temperatures causing several hundreds of meter

Zech, M.; Zech, R.

2009-04-01

331

Measurements of Ultra-fine and Fine Aerosol Particles over Siberia: Large-scale Airborne Campaigns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we discuss the results of in-situ measurements of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles carried out in the troposphere from 500 to 7000 m in the framework of several International and Russian State Projects. Number concentrations of ultra-fine and fine aerosol particles measured during intensive airborne campaigns are presented. Measurements carried over a great part of Siberia were focused on particles with diameters from 3 to 21 nm to study new particle formation in the free/upper troposphere over middle and high latitudes of Asia, which is the most unexplored region of the Northern Hemisphere. Joint International airborne surveys were performed along the following routes: Novosibirsk-Salekhard-Khatanga-Chokurdakh-Pevek-Yakutsk-Mirny-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB/PLARCAT2008 Project) and Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Lensk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk (YAK-AEROSIB Project). The flights over Lake Baikal was conducted under Russian State contract. Concentrations of ultra-fine and fine particles were measured with automated diffusion battery (ADB, designed by ICKC SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia) modified for airborne applications. The airborne ADB coupled with CPC has an additional aspiration unit to compensate ambient pressure and changing flow rate. It enabled to classify nanoparticles in three size ranges: 3-6 nm, 6-21 nm, and 21-200 nm. To identify new particle formation events we used similar specific criteria as Young et al. (2007): (1) N3-6nm >10 cm-3, (2) R1=N3-6/N621 >1 and R2=N321/N21200 >0.5. So when one of the ratios R1 or R2 tends to decrease to the above limits the new particle formation is weakened. It is very important to notice that space scale where new particle formation was observed is rather large. All the events revealed in the FT occurred under clean air conditions (low CO mixing ratios). Measurements carried out in the atmospheric boundary layer over Baikal Lake did not reveal any event of new particle formation. Concentrations of ultra-fine particles were even lower than ones observed in the polar FT. Summarising the data obtained during two intensive measurement campaigns carried out over the vast territory of Siberia we can draw the conclusion that remote Siberian troposphere is a relatively efficient source of recently formed particles. Measurements carried out in the FT (3-7 km) showed that about 44% of them satisfied criteria of new particle formation. At the same time, more favourable conditions are observed between 5 and 7 km (48%). The present work was funded by ANR grant BLAN06-1_137670, CNRS, CEA, the French Ministry of Research, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (YAK-AEROSIB project) and by RFBR (grants 07-05-00645, 08-05-10033 and 08-05-92499) and by the Norwegian Research Council as part of POLARCAT-Norway. Flights over Baikal Lake were financed by Russian Government (State Contract No 02.515.11.5087). Young, L.H., Benson, D.R., Montanaro, W.M., Lee, S.H., Pan, L.L., Rogers, D.C., Jensen, J., Stith, J.L., Davis, C.A., Campos, T.L., Bowman, K.P., Cooper,W.A., Lait, L.R., 2007. Enhanced new particle formation observed in the northern midlatitude tropopause region. Journal of Geophysical Research 112. doi:10.1029/2006JD008109

Arshinov, Mikhail; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Stohl, Andreas; Belan, Boris; Ciais, Philippe; Nédélec, Philippe

2010-05-01

332

A phytogeographic analysis of birch woodlands in the southern part of West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A minimum variance cluster analysis of 87 species of vascular plants occurring in south Siberian birch woodlands, based on their total distribution ranges, grouped them into 9 phytogeographic elements. The main distribution patterns of each element are illustrated by means of maps obtained by automatic mapping programs, showing the joint occurrence of the species of each element on a world

P. L. Nimis; L. I. Malyshev; G. Bolognini

1994-01-01

333

[Transformation of soil organic matter in microarthropod community from the Northern Taiga of West Siberia].  

PubMed

Recolonization of defaunated soil by springtails as well as by gamasid and oribatid mites and the changes in organic matter content of soil were studied in the northern taiga. After a one-year exposure in gauze bags (1.7 mm mesh), the abundance of microarthropods was higher but the number of species was lower compared to the surrounding soil. Large surface and litter forms did not colonize the samples, while the number of small and/or soil forms was higher. Soil samples inaccessible for microarthropods (0.15 mm mesh) were depleted of organic carbon compared to both surrounding soil and recolonized samples. The content of humic and fulvic acids was higher in the samples inaccessible to microarthropods. Humification processes prevailed in soils in the absence of microarthropods. PMID:16521545

Mordkovich, V G; Berezina, O G; Liubechanski?, I I; Andrievski?, V S; Marchenko, I I

2006-01-01

334

Interception by sphagnum in a bog mire catchment of central West-Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrology of mires (pristine peatland ecosystems) hardly has been analyzed quantitatively. The general idea, that mires can retain precipitation water (`sponge effect') has never been proved by real field data. Missing data for evaluation of these properties are actual evapotranspiration, water conductivity and interception of rainwater by peatland mosses and peat layers below. The newly opened Mukhrino Field Station,

W. Bleuten; I. Filippov

2009-01-01

335

Seed germination of Fragaria vesca L. From atypical ecotopes of West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed formation and seed germination rate were established to be essentially higher in Fragaria vesca L. populations growing in the ecotopes which are atypical for wood strawberry than in the standard ecotopes for the species.\\u000a Having equal capabilities for cross-pollination and self-pollination, the plants exhibit higher level of xenogamy than autogamy\\u000a when growing in atypical ecotopes. Xenogamy predomination promotes the

S. O. Baturin

2009-01-01

336

Relationships between charcoal particles in air and sediments in west-central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and size of charred particles determine transport and deposition in lakes. Lack of such data is a principal obstacle to interpretation of past fire from charcoal profiles. Our two-part analysis includes a calibration study, to assess charred-particle production and transport during fire, and a study of charred particles in sediment. The calibration step establishes the magnitude and size distribution

James S. Clark; Jason Lynch; Brian J. Stocks; Johann G. Goldammer

1998-01-01

337

Phylogeography and sympatric differentiation of the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.) complex in Siberia as revealed by mtDNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

Sequence variation in the mtDNA control region of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma from 56 Siberian and North American populations was analysed to assess their phylogeographic relationships and the origins of sympatric forms. Phylogenetic trees confirm the integrity of phylogroups reported in previous mtDNA studies except that the Siberian group does not separate as a single cluster. Haplotype network analysis indicates the proximity of Siberian and Atlantic haplotypes. These are considered as one Eurasian group represented by the Atlantic, east Siberian (interior Siberia including Transbaikalia, Taimyr) and Eurosiberian (Finland, Spitsbergen, Taimyr) sub-groups. Salvelinus alpinus with presumably introgressed Bering group (malma) haplotypes were found along eastern Siberian coasts up to the Olenek Bay and the Lena Delta region, where they overlap with the Eurasian group and in the easternmost interior region. It is proposed that Siberia was colonized by S. alpinus in two stages: from the west by the Eurasian group and later from the east by the Bering group. The high diversity of Eurasian group haplotypes in Siberia indicates its earlier colonization by S. alpinus as compared with the European Alps. This colonization was rapid, proceeded from a diverse gene pool, and was followed by differential survival of ancestral mtDNA lineages in different basins and regions, and local mutational events in isolated populations. The results presented here support a northern origin of Transbaikalian S. alpinus, the dispersion of S. alpinus to the Lake Baikal Basin from the Lena Basin, segregation of S. alpinus between Lena tributaries and their restricted migration over the divides between sub-basins. These results also support sympatric origin of intralacustrine forms of S. alpinus. PMID:20738544

Alekseyev, S S; Bajno, R; Gordeeva, N V; Reist, J D; Power, M; Kirillov, A F; Samusenok, V P; Matveev, A N

2009-08-01

338

Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

339

Review: mass spectrometry in Russia.  

PubMed

The present review covers the main research in the area of mass spectrometry from the 1990s which was about the same time as the Russian Federation emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union (USSR). It consists of two main parts-application of mass spectrometry to chemistry and related fields and creation and development of mass spectrometric technique. Both traditional and comparatively new mass spectrometric methods were used to solve various problems in organic chemistry (reactivity of gas-phase ions, structure elucidation and problems of identification, quantitative and trace analysis, differentiation of stereoisomers, derivatization approaches etc.), biochemistry (proteomics and peptidomics, lipidomics), medical chemistry (mainly the search of biomarkers, pharmacology, doping control), environmental, petrochemistry, polymer chemistry, inorganic and physical chemistry, determination of natural isotope ratio etc. Although a lot of talented mass spectrometrists left Russia and moved abroad after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the vitality of the mass spectral community proved to be rather high, which allowed the continuation of new developments in the field of mass spectrometric instrumentation. They are devoted to improvements in traditional magnetic sector mass spectrometers and the development of new ion source types, to analysis and modification of quadrupole, time-of-flight (ToF) and ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) analyzers. The most important achievements are due to the creation of multi-reflecting ToF mass analyzers. Special attention was paid to the construction of compact mass spectrometers, particularly for space exploration, of combined instruments, such as ion mobility spectrometer/mass spectrometer and accelerating mass spectrometers. The comparatively young Russian Mass Spectrometry Society is working hard to consolidate the mass spectrometrists from Russia and foreign countries, to train young professionals on new appliances and regularly holds conferences on mass spectrometry. For ten years, a special journal Mass-spektrometria has published papers on all disciplines of mass spectrometry. PMID:24378462

Zaikin, Vladimir G; Sysoev, Alexander A

2013-01-01

340

[Organization of medical genetic service in Russia].  

PubMed

Short history of the development of medical genetic service in Russia from the 1960s till now is described. Analysis of many orders of the Ministry of Health of USSR and Russia was performed which shows how separate components of the service were designed and integrated into the efficacious genetic counseling system. All of them were supported by educational programs. The important contribution made by professor Nikolai Bochkov to the creation of genetic service in Russia especially at the early stages is underlined. PMID:22145367

Ginter, E K; Kozlova, S I

2011-01-01

341

Vegetation modeling in Yakutia, northeastern Siberia: connecting to palaeovegetation simulation and model-data comparison  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vegetation model is a useful tool to understand the impacts of climate change on ecosystems in the present, past and future. Simulation of the palaeovegetation can link the geographical pattern of vegetation in the past to pollen proxy and then test the palaeoclimate modeling. In this study we used an equilibrium vegetation model (BIOME4) and a dynamic vegetation model (LPJ) to predict the present-day vegetation pattern and their dynamic changes from 1901-2002 in Yakutia, an Arctic and sub-Arctic region in eastern Siberia, where is sensitive to climate change. Both the models characterized the basic features of regional vegetation pattern, function and their changes through time. The BIOME4 simulated a reasonable pattern of present biome distribution compared to the regional vegetation maps, the deciduous taiga-montane forests in the southern and central Yakutia, evergreen taiga-montane forests in the southwestern mountainous region and in the eastern coast, shrub tundra and dwarf shrub tundra in the northwest and northeast mixed with temperate xerophytic shrubland. In the NW Yakutia the LPJ demonstrated a dynamic change of local vegetation during the past 102 years responding to the changed climates. Forest and shrub covered the large area from the beginning to the 1950s of the 20th Century. Tundra extended from the west to the east during 1960s to 1970s. The woody plants extended in 1980s and in late 1990s to early 21st Century and grasses extended in 1990s. The performance of global vegetation models in regional study is well, but problems still existed. More plant functional types especially the shrubs and grasses and climatic constraints to them should be taken into account when improving the models. Soil water-related parameters should be redefined. The modules of permafrost, snow, and fire should be added or modified. Regional input data of climates, vegetation and soils at finer resolutions will be obtained from the regional and local studies.

Ni, J.; Herzschuh, U.

2009-04-01

342

A Holocene molluscan succession from floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River (Lake Baikal region), Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Floodplain sediments of the upper Lena River near Basovo in south-central Siberia have yielded the most detailed Holocene molluscan succession yet reported from the entire eastern Palaearctic. Over 72,500 shells from at least 28 species of terrestrial and 23 species of freshwater mollusc have been recovered, an abundance and diversity far higher than previously reported from the region. The molluscan assemblages are dominated by land snails, especially members of the genus Vallonia, represented by five species including Vallonia tenuilabris and two poorly known species Vallonia kamtschatica and Vallonia cf. chinensis. Other noteworthy species recovered include Gastrocopta theeli, Carychium pessimum, Vertigo extima (southernmost record), Vertigo microsphaera and the first Asian records of three other taxa ( Vertigo geyeri, Vertigo genesii and Vertigo parcedentata). Illustrations are provided for the critical species, since opinions differ about the status of various taxa and the correct names that should be used. The molluscan assemblages show clear successional trends during the early to mid-Holocene, reflecting episodes of dryness/wetness on the floodplain. Drier conditions at ca 6350 14C yr BP coincide with major changes in the archaeological record seen at other sites in the region but it remains unclear whether the two are linked. A prominent charcoal-rich horizon dated to ca 2800 14C yr BP marks a burning event in the catchment, which resulted in a two-fold increase in sediment accumulation rate. Remains of small mammals occurred throughout the sequence including a tooth of Microtus cf. maximowiczii, possibly the first occurrence of Ungar vole west of Lake Baikal. The faunal analyses have been integrated with a detailed pedological study of the sedimentary profile and a chronology was obtained by means of 12 AMS radiocarbon dates. This study provides the first detailed palaeoecological information relating to Holocene molluscan assemblages from the Cis-Baikal region and lays the foundation for future work in the eastern Palaearctic.

White, Dustin; Preece, Richard C.; Shchetnikov, Alexander A.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Dlussky, Konstantin G.

2008-05-01

343

Agroclimatic potential across central Siberia in an altered twenty-first century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Humans have traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and are likely to be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed potential climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range

N M Tchebakova; E I Parfenova; G I Lysanova; A J Soja

2011-01-01

344

Main phytostratigraphic boundaries in the Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the large collections of plant remains gained from cores of numerous boreholes drilled in Western Siberia made it possible to determine the taxonomic composition of the Jurassic flora of this region, the stages of its evolution, and the sequence of floral assemblages, which characterize the regional stratigraphic horizons indirectly correlated via series of parallel faunal, microfaunal, spore and pollen zonal scales with a general stratigraphic scale. The compositions of floral assemblages was established in the Hettangian-lower part of the upper Pliensbachian, upper part of the upper Pliensbachian, lower Toarcian, upper Toarcian, Aalenian, Bajocian, Bathonian, and Callovian-Oxfordian sediments. Criteria were elaborated to substantiate the Triassic-Jurassic and Lower-Middle Jurassic boundaries. Lithologically and biostrati-graphically, the Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary is poorly expressed.

Mogutcheva, N. K.

2014-05-01

345

Fire Danger Estimation in Siberia Using SMOS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important tasks of fire monitoring is to forecast the conditions that determine the possibility of occurrence and spread of fire in forests. Weather fire danger assessment is mainly based on the analysis of the meteorological parameters recorded by weather stations. The main drawback of such a method for the fire danger assessment is an absence of regular network of weather stations. This situation takes place, for example, in Siberia. The area of possible interpolation of weather stations data is generally up to 30 km. The analysis of the existing network of weather stations shows that there should be an interpolation in the zone up to 100 - 150 km between weather stations which restricts the correctness of weather fire danger distribution maps for the forest zone of Siberia. The area of research associated with the development of methodologies for the forest fire danger assessment remains urgent today. To solve this problem it is necessary to perform a geospatial analysis of fire distribution and distribution of forest fuel moisture which can only be done with the involvement of satellite monitoring. This can provide the necessary spatial coverage and frequency of data updates. Over the past 30 years the technical means of remote sensing and methods of land cover moisture measurement were developed. In 2009 the SMOS spacecraft was launched by the European Space Agency, equipped with microwave radiometer operating at the frequency of 1.4 GHz. Moisture is restored based on the angular dependence of the brightness of temperatures measured by spacecraft (Level 1C product). Geospatial analysis of the relationship between occurrence of fires, burned areas as well as fire radiative power during the fire season and land cover moisture measured by SMOS was performed. Daily updated database of forest fires detected using MODIS radiometer over the fire seasons of 2010 - 2012 as well as the land cover moisture data obtained from SMOS measurements were used in the analysis. The study area covered the territory of Siberia, including areas where extreme fire behavior was observed. Also the time series of land cover moisture measured by SMOS satellite and weather fire danger indices calculated using ground weather stations were compared. The results showed that in most cases the relationship between moisture and fire danger index values can be found. The increase in soil moisture was accompanied by a reduction of weather fire danger indices values. The highest correlation coefficients between moisture measurements and fire danger indices were obtained for southern regions (-0.5 - -0.6), however for the stations located in the central and northern regions the relationship was weaker. The analyses indicated that it was difficult to obtain a reliable relationship between remote sensed land cover moisture and fire weather indices for the whole territory of Siberia. However such dependencies can be apparent for individual regions.

Shvetsov, Eugene

2013-04-01

346

Hydrogeology of the West Siberian Basin  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fuel cycle activities of the former Soviet Union (FSU) have resulted in extensive radioactive contaminant releases to the environment in western Siberia. We are developing three-dimensional numerical models of the hydrogeology and potential contaminant migration in the West Siberian Basin. We have assumed that ground-water flow in the West Siberian Basin is topographically driven, with recharge to the basin occurring in the highlands on the west, east, and south, and internal discharge localized in numerous river valleys and lakes that ultimately discharge north to the ocean. We are modeling the regional hydrogeology as three-dimensional, steady-state, saturated flow that is recharged from above. We acquired topographic, geologic, hydrostratigraphic, hydrogeologic, and water-balance data for the West Siberian Basin and constructed a regional water table. We correlated and combined 70 different rock types derived from published descriptions of West Siberian Basin rocks into 17 rock types appropriate for assignment of hydrogeologic properties on the basis of spatial heterogeneity and constituent (i.e., sand, silt, and clay) diversity. Examination of resulting three-dimensional assemblages of rock types showed that they were consistent with published and inferred paleogeography and depositional processes. Calibrating the basin`s moisture balance (i.e., recharge and discharge) to the derived water table determined plausible input parameter values for unknowns such as hydraulic conductivities. The general directions of calculated ground-water flow suggest that major rivers act as discharge areas, with upwelling below the rivers extending down into the basement rocks, and that ground-water divides that penetrate the entire thickness of the model are evident between major rivers.

Foley, M.G.; Bradley, D.J.; Cole, C.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [and others

1996-08-01

347

Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

2013-04-01

348

The first record of "spelaeoid" bears in Arctic Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a long time, "spelaeoid" (cave-bear-like) bears, Ursus ( Spelearctos) spp., were believed to be almost purely European animals. Their geographic range has recently been extended to the east, in southern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Kirghizia, Mongolia and Korea. Two unexpected new findings, presented here in detail, significantly change existing views on the distribution of cave bears; both were found in North-Eastern Siberia, far beyond the Arctic Circle, more than 1500 km to the north-east of the previously accepted range. One of the fossils is a mandible, found near the town of Cherskiy at 68.73°N, 161.38°E. The analysis of local geology and accompanying mammal fossils suggests that it comes from the Olyorian Fauna (Early to early Middle Pleistocene). Morphologically, the Cherskiy mandible is closest to Ursus savini, a small middle Pleistocene cave bear from the British Cromer Forest-bed Formation, but differs in having a slightly more advanced dentition, and thus it is described as a new subspecies Ursus savini nordostensis. Another newly recognized fossil of the "spelaeoid" bear is an astragalus found at the Oskhordokh site at 67.54°N, 135.67°E, on a large gravel bar on the right bank of the Adycha River. This specimen is attributed to Ursus cf . deningeri. The paper also presents an interesting example of the interaction between classical and "molecular" palaeontology. The new finds significantly change existing ideas on the ecology and evolution of cave bears, some of the most remarkable members of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna.

Sher, Andrei V.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Davydov, Sergey P.; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Nikolskiy, Pavel A.

2011-08-01

349

Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations). This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia). Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today. PMID:20100333

2010-01-01

350

Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n. sp., Veteronostocale medium n. sp., Filiconstrictosus cephalon n. sp., and Partitiofilum yakschinii n. sp.

Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.

1995-01-01

351

The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

2013-01-01

352

Perspectives for logistics clusters development in Russia  

E-print Network

This thesis is a normative work aimed at identifying locations in Russia with high, medium and unclear potentials for logistics cluster development. As a framework this work uses four different models of logistics clusters: ...

Tantsuyev, Andriy

2012-01-01

353

Political and Economic Crisis in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the tumultuous state of affairs in Russia. The ten resources discussed offer background, news, analysis, and commentary. In recent weeks, political turmoil and economic chaos have severely threatened Russia's stability as an emerging free-market democracy, prompting regional governor and former general Alexander Lebed to say that "the situation in Russia is catastrophic--worse than in 1917." Russia's latest political upheaval began on August 23 when the unpredictable President Boris Yeltsin discharged his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko, and reinstalled the previous prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin (see the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). Chernomyrdin plans to create an "economic dictatorship" in Russia and to print billions of rubles to avoid total economic collapse. Yesterday, in an approval ballot to reinstate Chernomyrdin as prime minister, the Duma rejected his appointment for the second time in two weeks. Analysts predict that next week a subsequent ballot for approval will fail, the Duma will dissolve, and Yeltsin will rule by decree, without a functioning government, until new parliamentary elections are held. Russian political dissension has been induced by the country's severe financial crisis. On September 6, the Russia economy suffered a blow when the European Union decided not to offer money to Russia and spurned a moratorium on debts Russia owes to EU members. Today in another setback, chairman of the central bank, Sergei Dubinin, tendered his resignation. These events, compounded by ruble devaluation, limited tax revenue, and skittish foreign investments, have left the economy in shambles, despite the recent receipt of an enormous loan from the International Monetary Fund (discussed in the July 16, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics).

Osmond, Andrew.

1998-01-01

354

Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2001-01-01

355

A 33,000-Year-Old Incipient Dog from the Altai Mountains of Siberia: Evidence of the Earliest Domestication Disrupted by the Last Glacial Maximum  

PubMed Central

Background Virtually all well-documented remains of early domestic dog (Canis familiaris) come from the late Glacial and early Holocene periods (ca. 14,000–9000 calendar years ago, cal BP), with few putative dogs found prior to the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ca. 26,500–19,000 cal BP). The dearth of pre-LGM dog-like canids and incomplete state of their preservation has until now prevented an understanding of the morphological features of transitional forms between wild wolves and domesticated dogs in temporal perspective. Methodology/Principal Finding We describe the well-preserved remains of a dog-like canid from the Razboinichya Cave (Altai Mountains of southern Siberia). Because of the extraordinary preservation of the material, including skull, mandibles (both sides) and teeth, it was possible to conduct a complete morphological description and comparison with representative examples of pre-LGM wild wolves, modern wolves, prehistoric domesticated dogs, and early dog-like canids, using morphological criteria to distinguish between wolves and dogs. It was found that the Razboinichya Cave individual is most similar to fully domesticated dogs from Greenland (about 1000 years old), and unlike ancient and modern wolves, and putative dogs from Eliseevichi I site in central Russia. Direct AMS radiocarbon dating of the skull and mandible of the Razboinichya canid conducted in three independent laboratories resulted in highly compatible ages, with average value of ca. 33,000 cal BP. Conclusions/Significance The Razboinichya Cave specimen appears to be an incipient dog that did not give rise to late Glacial – early Holocene lineages and probably represents wolf domestication disrupted by the climatic and cultural changes associated with the LGM. The two earliest incipient dogs from Western Europe (Goyet, Belguim) and Siberia (Razboinichya), separated by thousands of kilometers, show that dog domestication was multiregional, and thus had no single place of origin (as some DNA data have suggested) and subsequent spread. PMID:21829526

Ovodov, Nikolai D.; Crockford, Susan J.; Kuzmin, Yaroslav V.; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; van der Plicht, Johannes

2011-01-01

356

Rebranding Russia: Norms, Politics and Power  

E-print Network

This working paper argues that Russia is in the process of re-branding itself internationally, with a variety of normative arguments increasingly creeping into its wider international discourse. By appealing to norms, Russia tries to reformulate the key messages it sends to the world and implant the concept of its power worldwide. Yet given that Russia’s normative messages are often met with scarce enthusiasm in Europe, it is of utmost importance to uncover how the normative segment in Russian foreign policy is perceived, evaluated and debated both inside Russia and elsewhere. Within this framework, this paper focuses on a set of case studies highlighting the normative and non-normative dimensions of Russian foreign policy. These include Russia-EU transborder cooperation, Moscow’s policies towards Estonia, Poland, Ukraine/Georgia and the UK, Russian strategies in the ‘war on terror ’ and energy issues. CEPS Working Documents are intended to give an indication of work being conducted within CEPS research programmes and to stimulate reactions from other experts in the field. Unless otherwise indicated, the views expressed are

Andrey S. Makarychev

357

The Migration Behavior of College Students in Siberia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the conditions of the aging of the population of Russia there has been a steady decline in the size of the population, and starting in 2006 that includes a decline in the size of the working-age population. This is a very serious problem in regard to the social and economic development of the country, and the ways to solve the problem will…

Gorbacheva, E. A.

2008-01-01

358

Colorectal cancer risk factors among the population of South-East Siberia: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Colorectal cancer remains one of the most widespread malignancies in the world. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies considering colorectal cancer risk factors among Russian populations, particularly in Siberia. The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of various lifestyle, dietary, family, and socioeconomical factors on colorectal cancer risk in South-East Siberia. We recruited 185 Russian colorectal cancer cases and 210 gender-, age-, and ethnicity-matched asymptomatic controls with no history of any malignant tumor, using a specially designed questionnaire to obtain relevant information. After the statistical analysis, we defined several significant factors affecting colorectal cancer risk. Among these were smoking (OR=2.13, 95%CI=1.4- 3.24, P=0.0004), being overweight (BMI between 25-30, OR=2.45, 95%CI=1.49-4.03, P=0.0004), alcohol drinking (OR=8.73, 95%CI=5.49-13.87, P<0.0001), beer drinking (OR=9.24, 95%CI=5.14-16.61, P<0.0001), consumption of hard liquor (OR=9.37, 95%CI=5.92-14.82, P<0.0001), excessive red meat consumption (P<0.0001), excessive intake of red meat products (P<0.0001), excessive intake of dairy products (P<0.0001), excessive sour cream and cheese consumption (P<0.0001 and 0.0002, respectively), spicy food consumption (OR=2.87, 95%CI=1.9-4.33, P<0.0001), family history of gastrointestinal malignant tumors (OR=3.99, 95%CI=2.09-7.59, P<0.0001), and income exceeding twice the subsistence minimum (OR=5.34, 95%CI=3.35-8.53, P<0.0001). Certain factors, such as high concentration of salt in the food and precancerous colonic lesions, demonstrated borderline significance (OR=3.45, 95%CI=1.68-7.1, P=0.0008, and OR=5.25, 95%CI=1.94-14.22, P=0.001, respectively). Some factors were established as protective, like consumption of rye bread and both rye and wheat bread (OR=0.32, 95%CI=0.21-0.5, P<0,0001, and OR=0.07, 95%CI=0.02-0.21, P<0.0001, respectively), and also low concentration of salt in the food, although this was of borderline significance (OR=0.43, 95%CI=0.26-0.69, P=0.0006). ABO and Rhesus blood antigens were not associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. These results should be definitely applied for elaboration of programs of colorectal cancer prevention in Russia, particularly in Siberia. PMID:23244132

Zhivotovskiy, Alexey S; Kutikhin, Anton G; Azanov, Artur Z; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Magarill, Yuri A; Brusina, Elena B

2012-01-01

359

Russia and the Information Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a great deal of general talk and commentary about the role of the so-called "information revolution", it is at times difficult to tell exactly what these developments may mean for different regions of the world. This report from the RAND Corporation looks at how Russia is utilizing various forms of information and communication technologies to modernize business and industry, stimulate economic growth, and enhance the quality of life for Russian peoples. With significant funding from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the report (authored by D. J. Peterson) is based on six years of research in this area, and contains chapters on the role of information technology in Russian society, government, and concludes with a brief summary of key findings. Data in the report also receives nice visual representation through a host of charts, tables, and figures. Overall, this is a very interesting document that will be of particular interest to those working in the fields of international public policy and technology development.

2005-01-01

360

Why Russia is not a state  

SciTech Connect

This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

Stern, J.E.

1993-08-16

361

Respiration fluxes in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, tree stems and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56N 33E) during growing seasons of 2002 - 2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere-biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all of the years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability ranging from 0.7 to 10 mkmol m-2s-1. Generally soil respiration depended on soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. Stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September and in October it dramatically decreased. Tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3-5 mkmol•m-2s-1 for dominant trees and about 1-2 mkmol•m-2s-1 for subdominant trees. Respiration of living tree stems was about 10-20% of ER.

Kurbatova, Juliya

2014-05-01

362

Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, tree stems, and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56° N 33° E) during the growing seasons of 2002-2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere-biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of the total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of the ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability, ranging from 0.7 to 10 ?mol m-2 s-1. Generally, the soil respiration depended on the soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions, the soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. The stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September, and in October it dramatically decreased. The tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3-5 ?mol m-2 s-1 for dominant trees and about 1-2 ?mol m-2 s-1 for subdominant trees. The respiration of living tree stems was about 10-20% of the ER.

Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F.; Molchanov, A.; Varlagin, A.; Avilov, V.; Kozlov, D.; Ivanov, D.; Valentini, R.

2013-12-01

363

Climatically induced interannual variability in aboveground production in forest-tundra and northern taiga of central Siberia.  

PubMed

To investigate the variability of primary production of boreal forest ecosystems under the current climatic changes, we compared the dynamics of annual increments and productivity of the main components of plant community (trees, shrubs, mosses) at three sites in the north of Siberia (Russia). Annual radial growth of trees and shrubs was mostly defined by summer temperature regime (positive correlation), but climatic response of woody plants was species specific and depends on local conditions. Dynamics of annual increments of mosses were opposite to tree growth. The difference in climatic response of the different vegetation components of the forest ecosystems indicates that these components seem to be adapted to use climatic conditions during the short and severe northern summer, and decreasing in annual production of one component is usually combined with the increase of other component productivity. Average productivity in the northern forest ecosystems varies from 0.05 to 0.14 t ha(-1) year(-1) for trees, from 0.05 to 0.18 t ha(-1) year(-1) for shrubs and from 0.54 to 0.66 t ha(-1) year(-1) for mosses. Higher values of tree productivity combined with lower annual moss productivity were found in sites in northern taiga in comparison with forest-tundra. Different tendencies in the productivity of the dominant species from each vegetation level (trees, shrubs, mosses) were indicated for the last 10 years studied (1990-1999): while productivity of mosses is increasing, productivity of trees is decreasing, but there is no obvious trend in the productivity of shrubs. Our results show that in the long term, the main contribution to changes in annual biomass productivity in forest-tundra and northern taiga ecosystems under the predicted climatic changes will be determined by living ground cover. PMID:16163553

Knorre, Anastasia A; Kirdyanov, Alexander V; Vaganov, Eugene A

2006-02-01

364

Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe  

PubMed Central

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. PMID:23459685

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

365

Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.  

PubMed

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. PMID:23459685

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

366

Space Biology in Russia Today  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At present space biology research in Russia is making significant progress in several areas of high priority. Gravitational biology. In April-May 2013, a successful 30-day flight of the biological satellite (biosatellite) Bion-M1 was conducted, which carried rodents (mice and gerbils), geckos, fish, mollusks, crustaceans, microorganisms, insects, lower and higher plants, seeds, etc. The investigations were performed by Russian scientists as well as by researchers from NASA, CNES, DLR and South Korea. Foton-M4 carrying various biological specimens is scheduled to launch in 2014. Work has begun to develop science research programs to be implemented onboard Bion-M2 and Bion-M3 as well as on high apogee recoverable spacecraft. Study of the effects of microgravity on the growth and development of higher plants cultivated over several generations on the International Space Station (ISS) has been recently completed. Space radiobiology. Regular experiments aimed at investigating the effects of high-energy galactic cosmic rays on the animal central nervous system and behavior are being carried out using the Particle Accelerator in the town of Dubna. Biological (environmental) life support systems. In recent years, experiments have been performed on the ISS to upgrade technologies of plant cultivation in microgravity. Advanced greenhouse mockups have been built and are currentlyundergoing bioengineering tests. Technologies of waste utilization in space are being developed. Astrobiology experiments in orbital missions. In 2010, the Biorisk experiment on bacterial and fungal spores, seeds and dormant forms of organisms was completed. The payload containing the specimens was installed on the exterior wall of the ISS and was exposed to outer space for 31 months. In addition, Bion-M1 also carried seeds, bacterial spores and microbes that were exposed to outer space effects. The survival rate of bacterial spores incorporated into man-made meteorites, that were attached to the biosatellite outer wall, was examined to determine the effect of high temperatures produced by aerodynamic heating during reentry.

Grigoriev, Anatoly; Sychev, Vladimir; Ilyin, Eugene

367

[Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].  

PubMed

In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization. PMID:25563005

Baranov, A A; Ivanov, D O; Aliamovskaia, G A; Amirova, V R; Antoniuk, I V; Asmolova, G A; Beliaeva, I A; Bokeria, E L; Briukhanova, O A; Vinogradova, I V; Vlasova, E V; Galustian, A N; Gafarova, G V; Gorev, V V; Davydova, I V; Degtiarev, D N; Degtiareva, E A; Dolgikh, V V; Donits, I M; Zakharova, N I; Zernova, L Iu; Zimina, E P; Zuev, V V; Keshishian, E S; Kovalev, I A; Koltunov, I E; Korsunski?, A A; Krivoshchekov, E V; Krsheminskaia, I V; Kuznetsova, S N; Liubimenko, V A; Namazova-Baranova, L S; Nesterenko, É V; Nikolaev, S V; Ovsiannikov, D Iu; Pavlova, T I; Potapova, M V; Rychkova, L V; Safarov, A A; Safina, A I; Skachkova, M A; Soldatova, I G; Turti, T V; Filatova, N A; Shakirova, R M; Ianulevich, O S

2014-01-01

368

Comparison of observed and different reanalysis climatic characteristics over Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today numerous investigations have confirmed that warming over Siberian territory is significant and it inevitably would influence environment in the region. But it is impossible to obtain detailed pattern of climatic changes in the region using only in-situ measurements because there are gaps in observations and station network is sparse. Global climatic modeling archives (different reanalyses) would help solving this problem but they give scattered results leading to climate change assessment uncertainties. Thus, it is urgent to assess accuracy with which global climatic models reconstruct regional climate and to choose an archive which is closest to the observed meteorological parameters. To achieve this goal, we developed a technique for comparison reanalyses and observational data at the weather stations locations. This technique provides: analysis of time series comprehension, selection of homogeneous observational series and removal of series having gaps; choice of a proper interpolation method (bilinear interpolation, third-order polynomial, inverse distance weighted, modified Shepard's interpolation, and basic geostatistical kriging); assessment of differences between reanalyses data reconstructed at weather station locations and data observed at these stations using a set of approved statistical methods (ME, RMSE, chi-square). The technique developed has been applied to compare NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP II, ECMWF ERA-40, ECMWF ERA Interim, and APHRODITE JMA datasets with the data observed at weather stations in Siberia (55°-130°E, 50°-75°N) over period of 1979 - 2007. In particular, to describe air temperature and precipitation amount in Siberia, we selected 59 observational time series which meet the above requirements (less than 5 % gaps in the series). Reanalyses data have been reconstructed at these stations locations using modified Shepard's interpolation which gives the least deviation for different-size grids. Air temperature difference between ECMWF (ERA-40, ERA INTERIM) and NCEP (NCEP/NCAR, NCEP/DOE AMIP II) reanalyses was in average 0.3 °C with increase of data difference with latitude. Comparison of air temperature from the above reanalyses datasets and 59 observational series has shown that the ECMWF ERA INTERIM dataset is in a good agreement with the observations. Analysis of precipitation amount from ERA INTERIM and APHRODITE JMA archives has revealed that they are twice different. Comparison between reanalyses and observational data has shown that APHRODITE JMA dataset is closest to the observations (difference of 30-80 mm) [1]. Now we study dynamics of wind and pressure fields obtained with different reanalyses datasets using the comparison technique described above. The results obtained would provide reliable information for assessment of climate dynamics in the region and basis for validation of existing and new regional climatic models. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 10-07-00547a and 11-05-01190a) and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (contract 07.514.11.4044). [1] Shulgina T.M., Genina E.Yu., Gordov E.P. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia // Environmental Research Letters, 2011. - DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045210. - 7 p.

Shulgina, T.; Genina, E.; Gordov, E.

2012-04-01

369

Total ozone and ozone profile observations by SAOZ, Brewer and ozonesondes in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily total ozone measurements are carried out in Kislovodsk, Obninsk, European Russia, and in Tomsk, Central Siberia, using the Brewer MKII #043, Brewer MKII #044 and Brewer MKIV #049 spectrophotometers. The accuracy of routine total ozone observation at direct sun measurement is 2-3%. Under cloudless conditions at air mass factor less than 4, the accuracy of total ozone direct sun measurements approaches 1%. The SAOZ (Systeme d'Analyse par Observation Zenitale) is UV-visible (300-650 nm) diode array spectrometer developed at the Service d'Aeronomie, CNRS, France for monitoring stratospheric ozone and NO2. Zenith sky measurements of atmospheric gases at twilight (86°< solar zenith angle < 91°) are used. There are 15 SAOZ instruments in the SAOZ network around the world. Two instruments are located at the Arctic Circle in Russia at Zhigansk since 1992 and Salekhard since 1998. The accuracy of total ozone measurement is 6% and 10% for nitrogen dioxide observations. The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station are carried out since 1997. Currently, we use 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring periods. The results of ozonesounding at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In December 2012 and in January 2013 we plan to upgrade this ozonesounding station with the iMet-1 radiosonde and ECC 2Z-V7 ozonesonde. This type of ozonesonde will be used in the winter-spring season of 2013. The resulting total ozone and ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in 2012 and in January-March 2013 by the SAOZ, Brewer and ozonesode instruments will be presented and discussed.

Dorokhov, Valery; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Aleksander; Tereb, Nikolay; Ivlev, Georgii; Savinykh, Vladimir; Shepelev, Dmitry; Goutail, Florence; Pommereau, Jean-Pierre; Pazmino, Andrea; Nakajima, Hideaki

2013-04-01

370

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistant Strains from Russia  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is a growing problem in many countries. The availability of the complete nucleotide sequences of several MTB genomes allows to use the comparative genomics as a tool to study the relationships of strains and differences in their evolutionary history including acquisition of drug-resistance. In our work, we sequenced three genomes of Russian MTB strains of different phenotypes – drug susceptible, MDR and XDR. Of them, MDR and XDR strains were collected in Tomsk (Siberia, Russia) during the local TB outbreak in 1998–1999 and belonged to rare KQ and KY families in accordance with IS6110 typing, which are considered endemic for Russia. Based on phylogenetic analysis, our isolates belonged to different genetic families, Beijing, Ural and LAM, which made the direct comparison of their genomes impossible. For this reason we performed their comparison in the broader context of all M. tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank. The list of unique individual non-synonymous SNPs for each sequenced isolate was formed by comparison with all SNPs detected within the same phylogenetic group. For further functional analysis, all proteins with unique SNPs were ascribed to 20 different functional classes based on Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). We have confirmed drug resistant status of our isolates that harbored almost all known drug-resistance associated mutations. Unique SNPs of an XDR isolate CTRI-4XDR, belonging to a Beijing family were compared in more detail with SNPs of additional 14 Russian XDR strains of the same family. Only type specific mutations in genes of repair, replication and recombination system (COG category L) were found common within this group. Probably the other unique SNPs discovered in CTRI-4XDR may have an important role in adaptation of this microorganism to its surrounding and in escape from antituberculosis drugs treatment. PMID:23437175

Ilina, Elena N.; Shitikov, Egor A.; Ikryannikova, Larisa N.; Alekseev, Dmitry G.; Kamashev, Dmitri E.; Malakhova, Maja V.; Parfenova, Tatjana V.; Afanas’ev, Maxim V.; Ischenko, Dmitry S.; Bazaleev, Nikolai A.; Smirnova, Tatjana G.; Larionova, Elena E.; Chernousova, Larisa N.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Mardanov, Andrei V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Skryabin, Konstantin G.; Govorun, Vadim M.

2013-01-01

371

West Africa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

2002-01-01

372

A multitracer study of peat profiles from Tunguska, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two peat columns from Tunguska (Siberia) were analysed for pollen, spores, charcoal, trace elements and ?-emitters in order to identify the fingerprints of the impact of a still unidentified cosmic body (TCB), which occurred in the summer of 1908, and the level of environmental pollution in a background area of central Siberia. Peat layers were subject to non-destructive ?-ray spectrometry to derive radiochronology by the excess210Pb method. The age-to-depth relationship was crosschecked by using both 1963 horizon of 137Cs associated to maximum global fallout deposition and palynological data profiles. Vertical distributions of trace elements in the peat columns were obtained by PIXE multielemental analysis allowing determination of the levels of environmental contamination in a background region of the Siberian taiga. The association of heavy metals such as Ni, Co and Cu in the profiles suggests the connection of the area with mining and metal smelting activity in the north of the region through atmospheric circulation. As concerns global scale contamination, the inventory of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs (4.6 kBq m - 2 ) shows a value typical of remote slightly contaminated areas resulting from global scale redistribution of radioactive fallout from Cold War nuclear weapon testing. The atmospheric inventory of the natural radionuclide 210Pb, for which a mean annual flux of 200 Bq m - 2 yr - 1 has been calculated, is typical of continental regions. The influence of Tunguska Cosmic Body in the peat is recognizable by a large discontinuity in the palynological profile of the peat monolith at a depth coinciding with the 1908 layer as determined by the 210Pb technique, showing a large peak of total pollen counting attributed to the impact of the shockwave on the area in which huge tree stands were destroyed. Following the event, tree pollen concentration decreases abruptly showing the temporary inception of a mire environment with an increase of Sphagnum spore concentrations. Results of elemental analysis so far available do not show anomalies in the concentration profiles at depths coinciding with the Tunguska event layer indicating the need for pre-concentration technique enabling the detection of element associations typical of extraterrestrial materials.

Tositti, L.; Mingozzi, M.; Sandrini, S.; Forlani, L.; Buoso, M. C.; De Poli, M.; Ceccato, D.; Zafiropoulos, D.

2006-10-01

373

Deriving Landcover Information over Siberia Using MERIS and MODIS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estimating the extent of various land cover types at regional and global scales is an important source of information required by a variety of applications. Although techniques for classifying remotely sensed data have been presented and discussed for many years, it is only recently that classification analysis over such large areas has been possible. The generation of the kilometer resolution IGBP and UMD global land-cover maps (based upon AVHRR data) indicates an early advance in this area. We may now be approaching the next evolutionary step in large-scale land cover mapping. The availability of globally acquired data from satellite-borne medium resolution optical sensors has increased dramatically with the recent launch of the Terra, Aqua, ENVISAT and SPOT5 platforms. However, a critical f ctor is that the spatial, spectral and a radiometric resolution of these 'next generation' sensors are, in many geographic areas, far more suited to identifying certain land cover classes when compared to previous sensors. In particular, this is true over the Siberia region were many land features are sub-kilometer in size with similar spectral properties. Previous land cover results for this area, for example the IGBP and Global Land Cover 2000 maps, have been limited in their accuracy because of this. The main focus of this paper is upon deriving land cover information over the Siberia region using data from the MERIS sensor. Classification of the data at the sensors full resolution (300m) allowed many more land cover features to be identified compared to a classification based upon the reduced resolution mode (1km). However, the limited wavelength range of the MERIS spectral bands hindered the ability to discriminate some of the vegetation classes. The accuracy of the thematic result was reduced in comparison to a classification derived using MODIS data for the same area (spatial resolution of 500m). The implications of these results are discussed further in the paper and suggestions for future use of these data sources are also made.

Skinner, L.; Luckman, A.

2004-05-01

374

Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem sustainability could be decreased by better slash removal in the Angara region, removal of trees killed by fire in the Zabaikal region, and tree planting after fires in drier conditions where natural regeneration is hampered by soil overheating and grass proliferation.

Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

2013-12-01

375

China and Russia: Partners with Tensions  

E-print Network

[The bilateral relations between China and Russia have attracted a significant amount of attention in the last half-century. The unbreakable partnership of Mao and Stalin in the early 1950s that ended in the Sino-Soviet split in late1950s/1960s, seems to have persisted to todayÊs post-Cold War world. Despite improvement during the 1990s, the relationship in the 21st century has been more volatile. With the coming of Putin to power and in the immediate aftermath of September 11, Russia came closer to Washington. This made China increasingly uncertain of RussiaÊs ultimate intention. In the wake of a relatively stablised situation in Afghanistan and WashingtonÊs support to color revolutions in the post-Soviet space, Russia started a shift towards the East, and especially towards China. Since then relations have steadily improved. Still, numerous tensions continue to affect Sino-Russian relations. This article attempts to identify these tensions. It will do so by reviewing the relations between China and Russia since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the tensions, rhetoric, and, to some extent, overlapping interests that exist today, and make an assessment of what to expect from Sino-Russian

Nicklas Norling

376

Moult migration of emperor geese Chen canagica between Alaska and Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied reproductive success and post-breeding movements of 32 adult female emperor geese Chen canagica that were marked with satellite radio transmitters on their nesting area on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska 2000-2004. All 16 females that failed to successfully reproduce departed the YKD and moulted remiges either on the north coast of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia (n=15), or on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska (n=1). Of 16 females that successfully nested, one migrated to Russia following hatch whereas the remainder stayed on the YKD. While moulting on the Chukotka Peninsula, emperor geese with satellite transmitters primarily used coastal lagoons west of Kolyuchin Bay. We observed 21,150 adult-plumaged emperor geese during aerial surveys in Chukotka in 2002. Most (95%) were in the same region used by geese that had been marked with satellite transmitters in Alaska. The number of emperor geese observed in Russia was comparable to our estimate of ???20,000 adults that either do not nest or nest unsuccessfully each year on the YKD, suggesting that most nonproductive adults, or ???28% of the adult population departs the YKD to moult elsewhere. The number of moult migrants may be substantially higher in years of poor reproductive success or if adult-plumaged birds that are not of breeding age also leave the YKD. Moult migration of emperor geese between Alaska and Russia is likely substantially greater than previously believed. Russian moulting habitats are important to the North American population of emperor geese and events that affect survival of geese in Russia could impact population trends on the YKD. Protection of coastal lagoons on the north coast of Chukotka is warranted. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.; Syroechkovskiy, E.E., Jr.; Kondratyev, A.V.; Eldridge, W.D.; Lappo, E.

2007-01-01

377

Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

378

Flooding of the Ob River, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

379

A carbon accumulation maximum during the Medieval Climate Anomaly in the world’s biggest bog, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberia Lowland is the most carbon-rich northern wetland region, holding an important portion of total northern peatland carbon (70 Gt of 270-450 Gt C) mainly in the southern lowland (44 Gt) in very large peatlands. The largest of these, the Great Vasyugan Bog complex, spans 63,252 km2 and alone holds ~11 Gt C. Our previous work has shown that recent-past growth of WSL peat C pool has been greatest in southern WSL in large peatlands close to the southern limit of peatland distribution. In this study, we investigate a Great Vasyugan site to investigate peat carbon sensitivity in two ways: 1) assess past changes in vegetation, species-specific 13C geochemistry, and rate of carbon accumulation relative to recent-past climate variation, and 2) assess the relative lability of this deep peat C through laboratory incubations. Carbon accumulation over the last 2000 years, a period of relatively consistent vegetation and litter inputs but variable local hydrology, reached a maximum between 1150 and 1350 AD during Medieval Climate Anomaly conditions. A carbon accumulation minimum occurred between about 1350 and 1550 AD. Regardless of depth, age, or rate of carbon burial, deep peat from between 30 and 230 cm below the surface showed a similar rate of potential aerobic respiration that changed little over 42 days of incubation. Taken together, these data suggest that in some peatlanlds warmer and hydrologically-variable conditions can promote long-term belowground carbon storage.

Beilman, D.; MacDonald, G. M.

2009-12-01

380

Building Property Rights: Capitalists and the Demand for Law in Post-Soviet Russia  

E-print Network

in Russia: Problems and prospects. OECD Economics Work- ingsoviet russia. Post-Soviet Geography and Economics, 39(7):Russia’s tax crisis: Explaining falling revenues in a transitional econ- omy. Economics &

Gans-Morse, Jordan Luc

2011-01-01

381

Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.  

PubMed

Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. PMID:25201085

Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

2014-12-01

382

Well-logging activities in Russia  

SciTech Connect

The report is a brief survey of the current state of well-logging service in Russia (number and types of crews, structure of well-logging jobs, types of techniques used, well-logging equipment, auxiliary downhole jobs, etc.). Types and peculiarities of well data acquisition and processing hardware and software are discussed (petrophysics included). New well-logging technologies used in Russia (new methods of electric logging data processing, electromagnetic logging, pulse neutron logging, nuclear magnetic resonance logging, acoustic tomography, logging-testing-logging technique, etc.) are surveyed. Comparison of the Tengiz field (Kazakhstan) well data obtained by Schlumberger and Neftegazgeofizika Association crews is given. Several problems and drawbacks in equipment and technology used by well-logging crews in Russia are discussed.

Savostyanov, N.A. (Neftegazgeofizika, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

383

Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 93.0 x 105.7 kilometers ( 57.7 x 65.6 miles) Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 Image courtesy NASA/JPL/NIMA

2002-01-01

384

Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 80 km (50 miles) x 100 km (62 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: View toward the East Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

385

Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

386

Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia  

SciTech Connect

One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

2007-02-10

387

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.11.024 An ordinary chondrite impactor for the Popigai crater, Siberia  

E-print Network

doi:10.1016/j.gca.2004.11.024 An ordinary chondrite impactor for the Popigai crater, Siberia ROALD in Northern Siberia is the largest crater known in the Cenozoic. The concentrations in platinum group elements of the crater to identify the composition of the projectile. The method selected was preconcentration by Ni

Claeys, Philippe

388

EDITORIAL: Siberia Integrated Regional Study: multidisciplinary investigations of the dynamic relationship between the Siberian environment and global climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is an editorial overview of the Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS), which is a large-scale investigation of ongoing and future environmental change in Siberia and its relationship to global processes, approaches, existing challenges and future direction. Introduction The SIRS is a mega-project within the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI), which coordinates interdisciplinary, national and international activities in

E. P. Gordov; E. A. Vaganov

2010-01-01

389

Land Change in Russia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural reform has been an important anthropogenic change process shaping landscapes in European Russia since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most evident side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. While land abandonment as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union is relatively well documented, few studies have investigated the unfolding process of abandonment that results from rural population declines. Russia’s population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050 and population dynamics are predicted to play a significant role structuring rural landscapes across European Russia. While often treated as a unified whole with respect to agricultural reform, significant regional diversity exists in Russia. Official statistics at the rayon (county) level are typically skewed toward large-scale farming and farm data from important household productions are summarized into regional averages. In addition, data at sub-district level can often only be obtained by visiting rural administrators in person. Large scale official data thus need to be interpreted with caution. Here we present data collected during the summer of 2010 from representative settlements and enterprises in selected counties within the oblasts (states) of Kostroma and Samara. These field data will provide an initial overview of the economic and social state in modern rural western Russia. We will combine the field data with established socio-demographic observations as well as satellite observations at multiple scales to understand the effect of global change and to project future developments.

de Beurs, K.; Ioffe, G.; Nefedova, T.

2010-12-01

390

Business Planning: A Key to Energy Efficiency in Russia  

E-print Network

Financing is a significant barrier to energy efficiency in Russia. Many banks and Western companies would like to invest in energy efficiency projects in Russia, but are frustrated by the lack of Western-style business planning and preparation...

Evans, M.

391

Vegetation Structure Changes in the South Part of Western Siberia at the End of XX Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding human impact on changes in vegetation composition and structure can be performed using analysis of space images obtained from high resolution satellite sensors. Natural ecosystems at the South and Sob-Taiga zone of Western Siberia are characterized by development of an early succession stages, given the projected increase in disturbance, or will be converted into human-dominated terrestrial production systems. Disturbances appear to be increasing in some regions, leading to fragmentation of natural ecosystems and to a generally "weedier," structurally simpler biosphere with fewer systems in a more ecologically complex old-growth state. The analysis of structure of vegetation cover at two test sites located at the south-west part of the West-Siberian Plain in the South and Sub-Taiga zone was made using LANDSAT space images and ground data obtained in various seasons and years. The studied area of the first test site (“Bakchar”) is occupied by bogs, paludificated forests and cultivated lands. Test site “Tomsk” covered by cultivated lands and dark coniferous forest complexes. Vegetation classification was made using NELDA project legend (www.fsl.orst.edu/nelda). The main part of Site “Bakchar” is occupied by tree dominated classes (66%). Wetlands occupy about 43% of the area. Part of herbaceous vegetation is rather low (9%). Site “Tomsk” has completely different structure of classes. More than one-half of the area (52%) is covered by cultivated lands. Forests occupy 42% of the area. Wetlands (9%) exist in the Ob’-Tom’ interfluve and left bank of the Ob’ river. During the XX century the vegetation cover was exposed to natural and anthropogenic changes. Comparison of space images from different years (1990, 1999 and 2007) allowed to reveal dynamics in vegetation cover. Decrease of forest area in 1990-1999 at site “Bakchar” are primary occurs due to intense forest cutting for timber industry and local use. A strong wind have damaged forests between 1990 and 1999 in stripes oriented from south-west to north -east in the prevailing wind direction. Tree cutting in 1999-2007 was significantly smaller than in previous time due to depression in economical activity. Mature forests cover only small part of the site “Tomsk”. Tree cutting activity at site “Tomsk” in 1990-1999 is lower than at site “Bakchar”. Strong winds were in 2003, 2005, and 2007. It results to significant forest damages at area of 3100 ha in the northern part of Ob-Tom interfluve. Some invasion of young trees in to abandoned agricultural lands also can be found for both sites at comparison of 1999 and 2007 images. After 1999 many agricultural lands stopped to plug, transformed to unmanaged meadows (grassland) and now occupying by young birch. Small burned areas are exists on the studied territory primary at drainage peatlands but fires does not affect forests significantly. Work was performed under project “Human Impact on Land-cover Changes in the Heart of Asia” supported by Asia-Pacific Network (ARCP2009-02CMY).

Dyukarev, E.; Pologova, N. N.; Golovatskaya, E. A.; Dyukarev, A. G.; Gordov, E. P.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

2010-12-01

392

New Holocene refugia of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia: updated extinction patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained new data on the existence of giant deer (Megaloceros giganteus Blum.) in Siberia during the Holocene. Bones and antler of giant deer from new localities in western (Baraba forest steppe) and eastern (Angara River basin) Siberia are dated by radiocarbon, ranging 7900-10,300 BP (ca 8800-12,200 cal BP). Based on these data, we can extend the 'Siberian' Early Holocene habitat of giant deer at least 2400 km to the east compared to previous works. The final extinction of giant deer turned out to be more complex than it was previously thought, with perhaps relatively large refugium in Western Siberia at 7900-7000 BP (ca 8800-7900 cal BP) which was reduced to the Trans-Urals region at 7000-6800 BP (ca 7900-7600 cal BP).

van der Plicht, J.; Molodin, V. I.; Kuzmin, Y. V.; Vasiliev, S. K.; Postnov, A. V.; Slavinsky, V. S.

2015-04-01

393

A review of "Russia’s Steppe Frontier. The Making of a Colonial Empire." by Michael Khodarkovsky  

E-print Network

efforts is a solid, working foundation. Michael Khodarkovsky. Russia?s Steppe Frontier. The Making of a Colonial Empire, 1500-1800. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2002. Indiana-Michigan Series in Russian and East European Studies. xiv + 290 pp...

Jakub Basista

2004-01-01

394

76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely...Publication 4279 (December 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine:...

2011-12-09

395

76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

2011-03-21

396

75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

2010-12-01

397