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1

Petroleum habitat of east Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

East Siberia comprises three petroleum provinces - Lena-Tunguska, Lena-Vilyuy, and Yenisey-Anabar - that occupy the area of the Siberian craton. Petroleum has been generated and has accumulated in Precambrian rifts beneath the sedimentary basins and, more importantly, within the section of the basin itself. The platformal deposits of the basins extend beneath overthrusts on the east and south and are covered by sedimentary rocks of the West Siberian province on the west. Permafrost and gas hydrate deposits are present throughout most of East Siberia. The hydrocarbon habitat of the three provinces is described. -from Author

Clarke, J.W.

1994-01-01

2

Tickborne Pathogen Detection, Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

Ixodes persulcatus (n = 125) and Dermacentor reticulatus (n = 84) ticks from Western Siberia, Russia, were tested for infection with Borrelia, Anaplasma/Ehrlichia, Bartonella, and Babesia spp. by using nested polymerase chain reaction assays with subsequent sequencing. I. persulcatus ticks were infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (37.6% ± 4.3% [standard deviation]), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (2.4% ± 1.4%), Ehrlichia muris (8.8% ± 2.5%), and Bartonella spp. (37.6% ± 4.3%). D. reticulatus ticks contained DNA of B. burgdorferi sensu lato (3.6% ± 2.0%), Bartonella spp. (21.4% ± 4.5%), and Babesia canis canis (3.6% ± 2.0%). Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and their mixed infections were observed among I. persulcatus, whereas B. garinii NT29 DNA was seen in samples from D. reticulatus. Among the I. persulcatus ticks studied, no Babesia spp. were observed, whereas B. canis canis was the single subspecies found in D. reticulatus. PMID:16318722

Rar, Vera A.; Fomenko, Natalia V.; Dobrotvorsky, Andrey K.; Livanova, Natalya N.; Rudakova, Svetlana A.; Fedorov, Evgeniy G.; Astanin, Vadim B.

2005-01-01

3

Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

2009-04-01

4

Radioactive Elements in Soils of Siberia (Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department in Krasnoyarsk Territory, Krasnoyarsk In the course of long-term research a great deal of information on the content of natural and artificial radionuclides in soils of the Siberian regions has been obtained and summarized (Altai and Krasnoyarsk Territories, Altai Republic, Buryatia, Yakutia, Khakassia, Irkutsk, Novosibirsk, Tomsk Oblasts and a number of other Siberian regions). The content level of U(Ra), Th and K in soil of studied areas is within the range of values obtained for soil of other areas of Russia and the world and defined, first of all, by radioactivity of parent rocks. The authors have studied the total level of specific activity for 137Cs most completely in soils of different Siberian regions. The maximum density of such sites with global fallouts (nuclear air explosions in Novaya Zemlya, Lop Nor, Semipalatinsk etc.) is typical for the areas of Altai Territory and Buryatia Republic. Elevated level of radiocesium (to 1000 and more than Bq/kg) is characteristic for the sites adjacent to the area of NFP (Seversk, Zheleznogorsk). Our data obtained in determination of plutonium in soils of different Siberian regions excess remarkably its background accepted for Siberia. Particularly high accumulation levels of Pu in soil were observed in the zones of NFP operation (Seversk, Tomsk Oblast; Zheleznogorsk, Krasnoyarsk Territory, in the sites of accidents fallouts at underground nuclear explosions in Sakha Republic (Yakutia). Abnormally high ratio of 238Pu/239,240Pu in soils of Sakha republic, Aginsk Buryatia Autonomous District, Krasnoyarsk Territory has engaged our attention.

Baranovskaya, N. V.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. N.; Strakhovenko, V. D.; Malikova, I. N.; Shcherbakov, B. L.; Sukhorukov, F. V.; Aturova, V. P.

2012-04-01

5

Lichens from Baikal region (Siberia) new to Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen lichens new to Russia are reported from the Baikal Region (Siberia). Nine of them (Bryonora pruinosa, Catillaria detractula, Clauzadea metzleri, Heppia adriatica, Hypocenomyce castaneocinerea, Koerberia biformis, Lichinella nigritella, Pannaria ahlneri, Vestergrenopsis isidiata) are new to Asia. Their distributions and ecological requirements are briefly discussed.

Tatiana Makryl

1999-01-01

6

Teaching Soil Science and Ecology in West Siberia: 17 Years of Field Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since 1995, soil-ecological field courses across climatic zones in West Siberia have been organized by scientists from Russia and Germany to meet growing demands for better land use practices. They are focused on virgin landscapes and soils undisturbed by anthropogenic influences to facilitate the learning processes by excluding concealing changes…

Siewert, Christian; Barsukov, Pavel; Demyan, Scott; Babenko, Andrey; Lashchinsky, Nikolay; Smolentseva, Elena

2014-01-01

7

Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects,

S. Wetterich; S. Kuzmina; A. A. Andreev; F. Kienast; H. Meyer; L. Schirrmeister; T. Kuznetsova; M. Sierralta

2009-01-01

8

[Detection of Babesia spp. DNA in small mammals and ixodic ticks on the territory of north Ural, west Siberia and far east of Russia].  

PubMed

Totally, 932 small mammals and 458 questing adult Ixodes persulcatus from Sverdlovsk and Novosibirsk regions and Khabarovsk Territory, as well as 128 Haemaphysalis japonica, 34 H. concinna and 29 Dermacentor silvarum from Khabarovsk Territory were examined for the presence of Babesia by nested PCR based on the 18S rRNA gene. Babesia microti DNA was found in samples of small mammals from all the studied regions--in 36.2% of samples from Sverdlovsk region, 5.3% of samples from Novosibirsk region, and 6.7% of samples from Khabarovsk Territory. The determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Novosibirsk region (6 sequences) and from Khabarovsk Territory (10 sequences) were identical to each other and to the sequences of pathogenic for human B. microti US-type, while the determined B. microti 18S rRNA gene sequences from Sverdlovsk region (12 sequences) were identical to those of B. microti strain Munich. B. microti were found most frequently in samples of Myodes spp., they were found also in Microtus spp., Apodemus spp., Sorer spp., and Sicista betulinav. It was shown that one of 347 analyzed I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region and one of 77 I. persulcatus from Khabarovsk Territory contained B. microti US-type DNA. One I. persulcatus from Novosibirsk region contained B. divergens DNA. In this work B. divergens was for the first time determined in I. persulcatus and B. microti in I. persulcatus in Asian part of Russia. Three different genetic variants of Babesia sensu stricto were found in three H. japonica from Khabarovsk Territory. The first genetic variant was closely related to Babesia sp. revealed in a feral raccoon in Japan (99.9% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). Two others Babesia genetic variants were most similar to the ovine pathogen Babesia crassa (97.1-97.6% similarity on the basis of 18S rRNA gene sequences). PMID:20886686

Rar, V A; Epikhina, T I; Livanova, N N; Panov, V V; Pukhovskaia, N M; Vysochina, N P; Ivanov, L I

2010-01-01

9

A "Mesosiderite" Rock from Northern Siberia, Russia: Not a Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A possible mesosiderite meteorite was found in the area of the Putorana Plateau, Noril'sk district, Siberia, Russia. Although this rock resembles a mesosiderite in its hand-sample aspect and in having Ni-bearing iron metal, it is not a meteorite. This inference is based on the lack of a fusion crust, the lack of cosmogenic nuclides, oxygen with terrestrial isotope ratios, and several mineral chemical criteria. Most likely, the rock is from the iron-metal-bearing basalts of the Siberian Trap basalt sequence, which are mined for their base and platinum-group metals. Mesosiderite imposters like this may be recognized by: (1) the presence of Cu metal in hand sample or as microscopic blebs in the low-Ni metal (kamacite), (2) the absence of high-Ni metal (taenite), and (3) the presence of iron carbide (cohenite) enclosing the kamacite. Even if these macroscopic tests are inconclusive, isotopic and mineral chemical tests will also distinguish rocks like this from mesosiderites.

Treiman, Allan H.; Lindstrom, David J.; Schwandt, Craig S.; Franchi, Ian A.; Morgan, Matthew L.

2002-01-01

10

Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. (Institute of Physics of the Earth, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

11

Siluro-Devonian paleomagnetic results from the Tuva Terrane (southern Siberia, Russia): implications for the paleogeography of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New paleomagnetic data from seven sections of Siluro-Devonian age sedimentary sequences in the Tuva Terrane (south Siberia, Russia) reveal the presence of up to three different components of magnetization. Component A is of recent or Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic origin, and component B, identified unambiguously in 25 samples from one section, yields a sample mean direction (Declination/Inclination) of 300.6/-54.7 (k = 42.2, ?95 = 4.5°) in geographic and 283.9/-63.5 (k = 45.4, ?95 = 4.3°) in stratigraphic coordinates. However, since the results of the fold test are inconclusive, no further attempt has been made to assign an age to this magnetization. Component C, with unblocking temperatures of 500°-680°C, is identified in all seven sections and with dual polarity. After bedding correction, the section mean directions all plot along a common small circle in stereographic projection with a mean inclination of 42.1° (N = 7 sites, k = 184.2, ?95 = 2.9°). It passes the inclination-only fold test, the within-site fold test (both on the 95% significance level) and the reversal test and is thus interpreted as being primary in origin and Siluro-Devonian in age. Adopting the normal polarity option for component C yields a paleolatitude of 24°N (±2°) for the Tuva Terrane. On the basis of geological evidence, the Tuva Terrane was clearly accreted to Siberia by early Silurian times. The results obtained in this study, therefore, indicate lower paleolatitudes for Siberia than those predicted from previously published Apparent Polar Wander Paths for the Siberian Platform and demonstrate that Siberia was positioned between the equator and 30°N during latest Silurian/earliest Devonian times. These new results are also supported by paleoecological and paleoclimatological evidence. The dispersion of declinations along a small circle is indicative of clockwise block rotations within the Tuva Terrane of up to 72° with respect to Siberia.

Bachtadse, V.; Pavlov, V. E.; Kazansky, A. Y.; Tait, J. A.

2000-06-01

12

Giant gas field of northern West Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

1986-06-01

13

Influenza A (H15N4) Virus Isolation in Western Siberia, Russia  

PubMed Central

The rarely identified influenza A viruses of the H15 hemagglutinin subtype have been isolated exclusively in Australia. Here we report the isolation of an H15N4 influenza A virus (A/teal/Chany/7119/2008) in Western Siberia, Russia. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the internal genes of the A/teal/Chany/7119/2008 strain belong to the Eurasian clade and that the H15 and N4 genes were introduced into the gene pool of circulating endemic avian influenza viruses through reassortment events. PMID:23283950

Sivay, Mariya V.; Baranovich, Tatiana; Marchenko, Vasiliy Y.; Sharshov, Kirill A.; Govorkova, Elena A.; Shestopalov, Aleksander M.

2013-01-01

14

Investigations of adaptation mechanisms of different halophytes types in different soil salinity conditions (Southern Central Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

High salt concentration in the soil is one of the limiting factors affecting plant growth and development. However, there are plants that are physiologically adapted to high salts concen-trations -halophytes. Studies of halophytes reveals mechanisms of adaptation to this factor. Investigations were conducted in the steppe zone of Southern Central Siberia (Russia, Khaka-sia), nearest coastal zone of the Lake Kurinka.

Natalia Slyusar; Nickolay Pechurkin

2010-01-01

15

Oil and gas potential of the Triassic in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Permian-Triassic rocks are widely spread within the West Siberian basin, and they include volcanics, volcanoclastics, and clastics. Their thickness varies from tens of meters of 3000 m. Recently, three commercial oil pools have been discovered in Triassic effusive-sedimentary rocks. These discoveries, together with other geological and geochemical data, identify the Triassic complex as a major play. Oil-bearing intervals have been found in three different types of sequences; a fourth also may be prospective. The first type is represented by lacustrine-terrigenous sediments, which comprise oil-saturated sandstones interbedded with basalts (the Turin series). Oil influxes were obtained in the Yakhlinskaya and Triyurtin-skaya structures in the Shaim region. The second type is distinguished from the first by the presence of coal-bearing intervals in the upper part. Oil was produced in the Yerofeyev area of the Chelyabinsk garben. The third type differs from the other two by the presence of potassic rhyolites and dacites. Their age is not precisely dated, and supposedly they are of Permian age. The largest oil influxes have been obtained from fractured and eroded rocks of this type in the Rogozhnikovskaya and other places in the Krasnoleninsk region. Rhyodacites often underlie Turin basalts, but locally they occur in the upper part of the series. Triassic and Permian-Trissic rocks of the three types are overlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks with a large break. The fourth type of section is completely terrigenous (Tampei series). It is developed in the northern part of west Siberia. Here Triassic sediments are overlain by the Jurassic complex without a break. According to well-log data, productive horizons occur at Urengoy and Beregovaya (in the Urengoy region).

Bochkarev, V.S.; Kulakhmetov, N.KH.; Nesterov, I.I. (ZapSibNIGNI, Tyumen (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

16

Comparative analysis of marine paleogene sections and biota from West Siberia and the Arctic Region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of the main biospheric events that took place in West Siberia and the Arctic region during the Early Paleogene revealed the paleogeographic and paleobiogeographic unity of marine sedimentation basins and close biogeographic relations between their separate parts. Most biotic and abiotic events of the first half of the Paleogene in the Arctic region and West Siberia were synchronous, unidirectional, and interrelated. Shelf settings, sedimentation breaks, and microfaunal assemblages characteristic of these basins during the Paleogene are compared. The comparative analysis primarily concerned events of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) and beds with Azolla (aquatic fern). The formation of the Eocene Azolla Beds in the Arctic region and West Siberia was asynchronous, although it proceeded in line with a common scenario related to the development of a system of estuarine-type currents in a sea basin partly isolated from the World Ocean.

Akhmet'ev, M. A.; Zaporozhets, N. I.; Iakovleva, A. I.; Aleksandrova, G. N.; Beniamovsky, V. N.; Oreshkina, T. V.; Gnibidenko, Z. N.; Dolya, Zh. A.

2010-12-01

17

Geochemical characteristics of organic compounds in a permafrost sediment core sample from northeast Siberia, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We studied total organic carbon (TOC), hydrocarbons and fatty acids in a permafrost sediment core sample (well 6-90, length 32.0 m, 1.5-2.5 Ma BP) from northeast Siberia (approximately 70 degrees N, 158 degrees E), Russia, to elucidate their geochemical features in relation to source organisms and paleoenvironmental conditions. Long-chain n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids (>C19) were most predominant hydrocarbons and fatty acids, respectively, so organic matter in the sediment core was derived mainly from vascular plants and, to a much smaller extent, from bacteria. Low concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids revealed that organic matter in the sediment core was considerably degraded during and/or after sedimentation. The predominance of vascular plant components, the major ionic components of nonmarine sources, and geological data strongly implied that the sediment layers were formed in shallow lacustrine environments, such as swamp with large influences of tundra or forest-tundra vegetation. Also, no drastic changes in paleoenvironmental conditions for biological activity or geological events, such as sea transgressions or ice-sheet influences, occurred at the sampling site approximately 100 km from the coast of the East Siberian Sea during the late Pliocene an early Pleistocene periods.

Matsumoto, G. I.; Friedmann, E. I.; Gilichinsky, D. A.

1995-01-01

18

Outbreak of West Nile virus infection, Volgograd Region, Russia, 1999.  

PubMed Central

From July 25 to October 1, 1999, 826 patients were admitted to Volgograd Region, Russia, hospitals with acute aseptic meningoencephalitis, meningitis, or fever consistent with arboviral infection. Of 84 cases of meningoencephalitis, 40 were fatal. Fourteen brain specimens were positive in reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays, confirming the presence of West Nile/Kunjin virus. PMID:11266303

Platonov, A. E.; Shipulin, G. A.; Shipulina, O. Y.; Tyutyunnik, E. N.; Frolochkina, T. I.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Yazyshina, S.; Platonova, O. V.; Obukhov, I. L.; Zhukov, A. N.; Vengerov, Y. Y.; Pokrovskii, V. I.

2001-01-01

19

West Nile encephalitis in Russia 1999-2001: were we ready? Are we ready?  

PubMed

In 1963-1993, several strains of West Nile virus (WNV) were isolated from ticks, birds, and mosquitoes in the southern area of European Russia and western Siberia. In the same regions, anti-WNV antibody was found in 0.4-8% of healthy adult donors. Sporadic human clinical cases were observed in the delta of the Volga River. In spite of this, WNV infection was not considered by the health authorities as a potentially emerging infection, and the large WNV outbreak in southern Russia, started in late July 1999, was not recognized in a timely fashion. First evidence suggesting a WNV etiology of the outbreak was obtained by IgM ELISA on September 9. Two weeks later, the specific WNV RT-PCR was developed and WNV disease was confirmed in all 14 nonsurvivors from whom brain tissue samples were available. Retrospective studies of serum samples by IgM ELISA indicated WNV etiology in 326 of 463 survivors with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis. Moreover, 35 of 56 patients who contracted aseptic meningitis in 1998 had a high titer of WNV IgG antibody, so the WNV infection seems to have been introduced into the Volgograd region before 1999. A complete sequence (AF317203) of WN viral RNA, isolated from the brain of one Volgograd fatality, and partial sequences of an envelope E gene from other nonsurvivors showed that the Volgograd isolate had the greatest homology (99.6%) with WN-Romania-1996 mosquito strain RO97-50. PMID:11797768

Platonov, A E

2001-12-01

20

Oil and gas resources in the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this study is to assess the oil and gas potential of the West Siberian Basin of Russia. The study does not analyze the costs or technology necessary to achieve the estimates of the ultimate recoverable oil and gas. This study uses reservoir data to estimate recoverable oil and gas quantities which were aggregated to the field level. Field totals were summed to a basin total for discovered fields. An estimate of undiscovered oil and gas, from work of the US Geological Survey (USGS), was added to give a total basin resource volume. Recent production decline points out Russia`s need to continue development of its discovered recoverable oil and gas. Continued exploration is required to discover additional oil and gas that remains undiscovered in the basin.

NONE

1997-12-01

21

Middle Jurassic sand reservoirs of Tazovskoe field (West Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perspectives of Tazovskoe field Jurassic strata development are associated with lithological and mineralogical characteristics of reservoirs, which are the main reserve of the region, because of the high rate of depletion of the most prolific Cenomanian gas pools. Tazovskoye field is multibedded and is unique in terms of hydrocarbon reserves. Middle Jurassic strata occur everywhere and are represented by rocks of the Tyumenskaya formation, comprising layers J2 - J5. The producing horizons are composed of sandstones, sandy siltstones, cemented by shaly-carbonate cement mass. According to laboratory data, the Jurassic reservoirs are characterized by a wide range of porosity (up to 22.5%) and mainly low permeability (up to 2 mD), except for a few samples of J3 reservoir with permeability up to 100-150 mD. Test objects were the core samples taken from 7 intervals of the well T-83 and logging data from 4 intervals of wells 73, 93 in the Tazovskoye field. Depth and core recovery from T-83 well of the Tazovskoye field are shown in Table 1. Total linear core recovery from the Jurassic strata was 79.4 m. Late Bajocian-Bathonian alluvial-lacustrine strata compose the first regressive cycle of sedimentation in the Tazovskoye field. They are represented by alternating thin sandy, siltstone-sandy, siltstone, shaly-siltstone, siltstone-shaly, and shaly rocks with coal interbeds. They include three main productive formations: J2, J3 and J4. Above in the vertical section, the Upper Jurassic rocks occur, while lower, basal strata of the Callovian stage overlay them with a distinct unconformity. In the Upper Jurassic time, the main transgression phase of the Jurassic period occurred over the whole territory of the Western Siberia. These strata are built by non-uniform alternating sandstones, siltstones and shales with coal interbeds of the continental genesis (alluvial-lacustrine); The reservoirs contain cyclites that as a rule have binary structure, less often - ternary structure: the lower element of cyclites is represented by sandy and siltstone-sandy strata formed in a channel and in a point-bar, the upper element of cyclites is represented by siltstone, siltstone-shaly, shaly, and carbonaceous-shaly strata formed in the floodplain or in lacustrine-boggy sedimentation environment; The producing strata of J2-J4 formations are characterized in general by moderate porosity (11-17%) and low permeability (1 mD); This genetic type of the Middle Jurassic reservoirs is typical throughout the Pur-Taz petroleum region, as well is possible for the Nadym-Pur petroleum region, except for the most eastern areas of Nadym, where these rocks have flysch nature, and therefore one can predict their presence in adjacent fields, where the Jurassic reservoirs are not discovered yet.Core recoveries from T83 well;

Kurasov, I. A.

2012-12-01

22

Origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale, Yamal Peninsula, Siberia, Russia: contrasting views  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of permafrost and ground ice of the Cape Marre-Sale polar station area, Western Yamal Peninsula, Russia, has been debated for decades. This can be explained by the extremely complex morphology of sedimentary strata and cryofacies exposed along the costal bluffs. Here, we report massive ice observations realized during summer 2012 as well as numerous laboratory and field analysis previously conducted on the massive ice bodies and reported in the literature. Our objective is to present contrasting views currently being proposed to explain the origin of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale. Several types of massive ice bodies can be observed along the exposures. One striking cryofacies observed shows alternating cm-thick ice lenses and cm-to-dm thick bands of sediment-rich ice, which are commonly folded with an amplitude of several meters. This very ice-rich cryofacies is interpreted either as buried basal ice of the Eurasian ice-sheet or alternatively as massive segregated ice formed during epigenetic permafrost aggradation. This cryofacies comprised meters large clasts of stratified sand with organics, with some of these stratifications being folded and faulted and showing boudinage structure. The location of these large sand clasts within the foliated ice-rich massive ice could be explained either by glacio-tectonic activity (glacio-dislocation during ice flow) or alternatively by regional tectonic activity. Large m-thick and meters-long pure ice bodies were also observed within the foliated massive ice. The first type is withish and contains a very large amount of air bubbles without any clear orientation. The second type is made of blueish to clear ice and contains a few air bubbles and rare, randomly distributed, fine-grained sediment inclusions suspended in the ice. Ice crystallography revealed the presence of large (cm) ice crystals in both types of ice. These pure ice bodies cross-cut the massive foliated ice. They could be interpreted as refrozen water trapped in intra-glacial tunnels formed within the basal ice (oxygen-rich water and suspension freezing of fine-grained sediments) of the ice-sheet or alternatively as groundwater injection (and subsequent refreezing) during freezing of taliks following lake drainage. Finally, wedge-shaped massive ice can also be observed near the top of the exposures. The first type is yellowish, vertically foliated, extends downward for several meters in the massive foliated ice and contains a significant amount of fine-grained sediment. This is either interpreted as Pleistocene ice wedge (frost-cracking) or alternatively as hydrolaccolith formed by the upward intrusion/expulsion of water within the foliated massive ice, likely due to the joint action of groundwater, permafrost aggradation and tectonic processes. The second type of wedge ice is withish in color and foliated and has been interpreted unanimously as Holocene ice wedges (frost-cracking). The contrasting views presented here represent new and reasonable working hypothesis to explain the genesis of massive ice at Cape Marre-Sale. These hypotheses have considerable implications for the reconstruction of paleoclimates and paleoenvironments of Western Siberia.

Fortier, D.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Godin, E.; M-Lepage, J.; Stephani, E.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Shur, Y.

2012-12-01

23

Composition of vanadylporphyrins of crude oils from several Surgut petroleum fractions of west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

Study of the composition and distribution of porphyrin components in petroleums of various oil-bearing areas is of definite interest, in relation to its efficient processing and in providing new information concerning the origin of this petroleum. Porphyrin compounds are present in petroleums in the form of metal complexes with nickel vanadium. The quantitative distribution and molecular composition of vanadylporphyrins in the crude oils from the Surgut petroleum deposits of West Siberia were examined. The highest concentration of vanadylporphyrins was observed in a petroleum from the Bazhenov strata in the Pravdin area.

Burkova, V.N.; Mozzhelina, T.K.; Romanenko, T.A.; Serebrennikova, O.V.; Titov, V.I.; Shilonosova, N.I.

1985-01-01

24

The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system contains approximately 85% of the discovered oil in the West Siberian basin. The source is the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation, a 30 meter thick highly bituminous shale covering 2.3 million square kilometers. It has a 10% average total organic carbon content. Approximately 80% is Type II kerogen. Maturation modeling yields time series maps of oil and gas generation. Approximately 40% of Bazhenov organic matter converted to hydrocarbons, with peak generation occurring in the Paleogene Period. Hydrocarbon expulsion from the Bazhenov was high, around 80%. Secondary migration efficiency was low, between 5% to 10% on average across the basin, although higher in the structured Middle Ob region. The reservoirs of the system are vertically stacked sandstones and occasionally siltstones in the Neocomian Megion and Vartov formations (and their equivalents). Reservoir sizes, continuities and quality are highly variable and sealed by locally extensive interbedded shales. There are three principal plays in the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, defined by trapping mechanism: the [open quote]on-structure[close quotes] play, which contains most discovered fields and the [open quotes]off-structure,[close quotes] which consists of combination and stratigraphic traps. Finally, there is the Bazhenov shale play, in which the fractured Bazhenov shale forms a self-sourced reservoir. Mass balance calculations indicate the range of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system. Mapping of generation and migration on palinspastically restored surfaces at the time of peak generation indicates the areas and magnitude of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system.

Grace, J.D.; Walsh, D.B. (Earth Science Associates, Arlington, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

25

The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system contains approximately 85% of the discovered oil in the West Siberian basin. The source is the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation, a 30 meter thick highly bituminous shale covering 2.3 million square kilometers. It has a 10% average total organic carbon content. Approximately 80% is Type II kerogen. Maturation modeling yields time series maps of oil and gas generation. Approximately 40% of Bazhenov organic matter converted to hydrocarbons, with peak generation occurring in the Paleogene Period. Hydrocarbon expulsion from the Bazhenov was high, around 80%. Secondary migration efficiency was low, between 5% to 10% on average across the basin, although higher in the structured Middle Ob region. The reservoirs of the system are vertically stacked sandstones and occasionally siltstones in the Neocomian Megion and Vartov formations (and their equivalents). Reservoir sizes, continuities and quality are highly variable and sealed by locally extensive interbedded shales. There are three principal plays in the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, defined by trapping mechanism: the {open_quote}on-structure{close_quotes} play, which contains most discovered fields and the {open_quotes}off-structure,{close_quotes} which consists of combination and stratigraphic traps. Finally, there is the Bazhenov shale play, in which the fractured Bazhenov shale forms a self-sourced reservoir. Mass balance calculations indicate the range of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system. Mapping of generation and migration on palinspastically restored surfaces at the time of peak generation indicates the areas and magnitude of undiscovered hydrocarbons in the system.

Grace, J.D.; Walsh, D.B. [Earth Science Associates, Arlington, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

26

Problems of phytostratigraphy and the correlation of the Lower Jurassic continental sediments in West Siberia and Kuznetsk and Kansk-Achinsk basins  

SciTech Connect

Paleofloral and palynological records of Lower Jurassic sediments in West Siberia, Kuznetsk (Kuzbass), and Kansk-Achinsk basins and their correlation are discussed. In a number of recent papers dedicated to the Jurassic stratigraphy of Siberia this problem is ambiguously treated. The reference palynological scale has been developed for the Jurassic West Siberian sediments and an uninterrupted succession of floral assemblages associated with it and with regional stratigraphic units has been recognized. On this basis the scheme of the correlation between the Lower Jurassic sediments of the Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk basins and West Siberia permitting a better age estimate of coal-bearing deposits, is proposed.

Mogutcheva, N.K. [Siberian Research Institute of Geology, Geophysics & Mineral Resource, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2009-06-15

27

Biogeochemistry of carbon and related major and trace elements in peat bog soils of the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Russia).  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global climate changes impact the status of wetland ecosystems shifting the balances of the carbon, macro-, and microelements cycles. This study aims to establish the features of accumulation and distribution of major- and trace elements in the organic layer of peat bog soils, belonging to different ecosystems of the oligotrophic bog complex located in the middle taiga of Western Siberia (Khanty-Mansiysk region, Russia). Key areas which are selected for this study include the following bog conjugate elementary ecosystems: higher ryam, lower ryam, ridge-hollow complex, and oligotrophic poor fen as characterized previously [1]. We have sampled various peat types along the entire length of the soil column (every 10 cm down to 3 m). Peat samples were analyzed for a wide range of macro- and microelements using an ICP-MS technique following full acid digestion in a microwave oven. These measurements allowed quantitative estimates of major- and trace elements in the peat deposits within the whole bog complex and individual elementary landscapes. Based on the data obtained, the lateral and radial geochemical structures of the bog landscapes were determined and clarified for the first time for middle taiga of the West Siberian plain. The similar regime of mineral nutrition during the complete bog landscape formation was detected for the peat deposits based on the measurements of some major- and trace elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, etc.). The vertical distribution of some major and some trace elements along the profile of peat column is rather uniform with relatively strong increase in the bottom organic layers. This strongly suggests the similarity of the processes of element accumulation in the peat and relatively weak post depositional redistribution of elements within the peat soil profile. Overall, obtained corroborate the existing view on chemical composition of peats being determined by botanical peat's components (which forms this peat deposit), atmospheric precipitation, position of ecosystems in the landscape (lateral migration) and types of bedrocks [2]. The results allow better understanding of the coupling between biogeochemical cycles of carbon and major and trace elements in peat soils in order to predict the future changes in both concentrations and stocks of chemical elements in the Western Siberia peat bog systems under climate warming.

Stepanova, V. A.; Mironycheva-Tokareva, N. P.; Pokrovsky, O. S.

2012-04-01

28

Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present and discuss a full list of radiocarbon dates for woolly mammoth and other species of the Mammoth fauna available from Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Most of the radiocarbon dates are published here for the first time. Of the124 radiocarbon dates on mammoth bone, 106 fall between 3700 and 9000 yr ago. We believe these dates bracket the period of mammoth isolation on Wrangel Island and their ultimate extinction, which we attribute to natural causes. The absence of dates between 9-12 ka probably indicates a period when mammoths were absent from Wrangel Island. Long bone dimensions of Holocene mammoths from Wrangel Island indicate that these animals were comparable in size to those on the mainland; although they were not large animals, neither can they be classified as dwarfs. Occurrence of mammoth Holocene refugia on the mainland is suggested. Based on other species of the Mammoth fauna that have also been radiocarbon on Wrangel Island, including horse, bison, musk ox and woolly rhinoceros, it appears that the mammoth was the only species of that fauna that inhabited Wrangel Island in the mid-Holocene.

Vartanyan, Sergey L.; Arslanov, Khikmat A.; Karhu, Juha A.; Possnert, Göran; Sulerzhitsky, Leopold D.

2008-07-01

29

Surface Fire Influence on Carbon Balance Components in Scots Pine Forest of Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is one of the most important disturbances in boreal forests, and it can have a profound effect on forest-atmosphere carbon exchange. Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) stands of Siberia are strongly impacted by fires of low to high severity. Biomass distribution in mature lichen/feathermoss Scots pine stands indicates that they are carbon sinks before fire. Fires contribute significantly to the carbon budget resulting in a considerable carbon efflux, initially through direct consumption of forest fuels and later as a result of tree mortality and decomposition of dead material accumulated on the forest floor. In initial postfire years these processes dominate over photosynthetic carbon assimilation, and the ecosystems become a carbon source. Over several postfire years, above-ground carbon in dead biomass tends to increase, with the increase depending significantly on fire severity. High-severity fire enhances dead biomass carbon, while moderate- and low-severity fires have minimal effect on above-ground carbon distribution in Scots pine ecosystems. Dead stand biomass carbon increases, primarily during the first two years following fires, due to tree mortality. This increase can account for up to 12.4% of the total stand biomass after low- and moderate- intensity fires. We found tree dieback following a high-intensity fire is an order of magnitude higher, and thus the dead biomass increases up to 88.1% of total above-ground biomass. Photosynthetic CO2 uptake decreases with increasing tree mortality, and needle foliage and bark are incorporated into the upper layer of the forest floor in the course of years. Ground vegetation and duff carbon were >90, 71-83, and 82% of prefire levels after fires of low, moderate, and high severity, respectively for the first 4 to 5 years after fire. Fires of low and moderate severity caused down woody fuel carbon to increase by 2.1 and 3.6 t ha-1 respectively by four years after burning as compared to the pre-fire values. Climate change and increasing drought length observed in recent decades have increased the probability of high-intensity fire occurrence. Areas burned have increased in extent and severity across Siberia, resulting in increased carbon emissions to the atmosphere from fuel combustion and post fire decomposition.

Kukavskaya, E.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Soja, A. J.

2008-12-01

30

Benthic bioindicators from the lakes of Northern Yakutia (Siberia, Russia) in paleoclimatic research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High latitude regions are particularly affected by global climate change. Aquatic ecosystems are known to respond quickly and sensitively to such changes (Carpenter et al., 1992; Findlay et al. 2001; Smol et al., 2005). This effect is especially dramatic in regions with continental climates such as Northern and Eastern Siberia. In 2008, Russian-German expedition investigated 33 lakes of Kolyma river basin, North-Eastern Yakutia. The region of investigation is located in the mouth of Kolyma river between approximately 68°2' and 69°4' N and between 159°8' and 161°9' E. It's a most north-eastern region of Yakutia, so it's suitable for paleolimnological investigations. The investigated lakes are situated along the 200 km transect crossing 3 vegetation zones: polygonal tundra, forest tundra and northern taiga. The main aims were establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions by using aquatic organisms, investigation of limnological variables and the influence of the environmental conditions on distribution of aquatic organisms in Yakutian lakes. The modern benthic fauna of the lakes is represented by 89 taxa from 14 taxonomic groups. The most abundant group was Mollusca. The most taxonomically diverse group was Chironomidae. A unique for this region species were discovered, such as Cincinna kamchatica, Physa jarochnovitschae, Colymbetes dolabratus, Ilybius wasastjernae, Xestochironomus sp., Agrypnia sp. etc. Cluster analysis of taxonomical composition of the benthic fauna of these lakes showed high dependency to vegetation zones. The highest levels of hydrobiological indexes (Shannon, Evenness, species richness) were registered in forest tundra. CCA analysis showed that the most influential factors in species distribution were climate-dependant factors, such as mean Tair of July, pH and water depth. Data from taxonomical analysis of Chironomidae group were used for establishing a calibration dataset for paleoenvironmental reconstructions.

Tumanov, O. N.; Nazarova, L. B.; Frolova, L. A.; Pestryakova, L. A.

2012-04-01

31

Content and distribution of trace metals in pristine permafrost environments of Northeastern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic regions are one of the most sensitive areas with respect to climatic changes and human impacts. Research is required to discover how the function of permafrost soils as a buffering system for metal pollutants could change in response to the predicted changes. The goal of this work is to determine the background levels of trace metals in the pristine arctic ecosystems of the Lena River Delta in Northeastern Siberia and to evaluate the possible effect of human impacts on this arctic region. The Lena River Delta represents areas with different dominating geomorphologic processes that can generally be divided between accumulation and erosion sites. Frequent changes of the river water level create different periods of sedimentation and result in the formation of stratified soils and sediment layers which are dominated either by mineral substrates with allochthonous organic matter or pure autochthonous peat. The deposited sediments that have formed the delta islands are mostly composed of sand fractions; therefore the buffering effects of clay materials can be neglected. Samoylov Island is representative of the south-central and eastern modern delta surfaces of the Lena River Delta and is selected as a pilot study site. We determined total element contents of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Co and Hg in soil horizons from different polygonal elevated rims, polygonal depressed centers and the middle floodplain. High gravimetric concentrations (related to dry mass of soil material) of Mn and Fe are found within all soil profiles and vary from 0.14 to 1.39 g kg-1 and from 10.7 to 41.2 g kg-1, respectively. While the trace element concentrations do not exceed typical crustal abundances, the maximum values of most of the metals are observed within the soil profile situated at the middle floodplain. This finding suggests that apart from the parent material the second potential source of trace metals is due to allochthonous substance input during annual flooding of the middle floodplain. Correlation analysis between element concentrations, grain-size distribution and carbon content revealed a direct dependence of the element distribution within all soil profiles on its mineralogical composition. Based on the obtained results we suggest that there are negligible atmospheric depositions caused by human activity on the investigation site. Therefore this data can provide a point of comparison against man-made influences on permafrost-affected landscapes and also on similar pristine areas in the Arctic region.

Antcibor, I.; Eschenbach, A.; Kutzbach, L.; Bolshiyanov, D.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

2012-04-01

32

Investigating the Human Dimension of Unprecedented Global Climate Change in northeastern Siberia, Russia: Understandings, Perceptions and Responses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An urgent challenge of the 21st century is to investigate understandings, perceptions and responses of populations confronting the local effects of global climate change. This paper describes the most recent results of one such project working with rural native Viliui Sakha communities, Turkic-speaking horse & cattle breeders in northeastern Siberia, Russia. The research questions are: 1) What local effects of global climate change are Viliui Sakha communities observing, how are Viliui Sakha perceiving these changes and how are the changes affecting both their subsistence survival and their cultural orientations? 2) What local knowledge exists about past climate perturbations and how does that knowledge influence contemporary adaptation to global climate change? 3) How can anecdotal (local) knowledge and regional scientific knowledge about the local effects of global climate change be integrated to enhance both local adaptive responses and policy efforts? The four-village, three-year study is a collaborative effort involving the active participation of the targeted communities, field assistants, native specialists, an in-country research team and an international collaborator. The project is founded on the PI’s 20 years of ongoing research and work with rural Viliui Sakha communities and on her fluency in both the Sakha and Russian languages. A central focus of this project is the integration of local and scientific knowledges. We are documenting local knowledge on the community, elder and archival levels. We are collaborating with scientists in Yakutsk for regional scientific data. Our project team has just returned from the second summer of field work and this presentation will cover the project results to date. Hayfields are inundated with water.

Crate, S.

2009-12-01

33

Chemostratigraphy of early Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the biggest Proterozoic sedimentary basins in Russia is around the Siberian platform. This study about little part of them - Neoproterozoic sedimentary rocks of Yenisei ridge (Southwestern margin of Siberian Platform). Thise geological structure is ancient and very difficult for reaserch. It is a collage of different blocks: volcanic arcks, ophiolite complexes and sedimentary rocks of various ages and degrees of metamorphism. Sedimentary complexes of Siberian platform are outcropping along Angara River and its tributary. Neoproterozoic ones are presented by terrigenous-carbonate rocks of Tungusik and Oslyan groups. Despite the long study history of the area is still controversial question of time of formation of these rocks. As determination of the age of Precambrian sedimentary rocks is very difficult, Sr isotopic chemostratigraphy appears to be the only approach to establish the age of carbonate sequences. All Rb-Sr author's data was investigated by the method of selective dissolution with the preliminary removal of epigenetic carbonate phases. The isotope dilution method with mixed 87Rb + 84Sr spike was used to determine Rb and Sr concentrations in both fractions on the MI 1201AT mass spectrometer. Sr isotope ratios were measured on the Finnigan MAT-262 (BAC CU, Irkutsk, Russia) and Triton Plus (IGG UB RAS, Ekaterinburg, Russia). The C-O isotopic composition in carbon samples was measured on the Finnigan MAT-253 equipment. The main criteria for integrity were correlations of impurity-elements (Mn, Fe, Sr) and stable isotopes (C, O) with each other. The less altered rocks of the Tungusik Group are characterized by 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7055-0.7058, and wide variations in the ?13CPDB values from 0 to +5o [1]. The primary 87Sr/86Sr of Dashka Formation (Oslyan Group) is 0.7057 - 0.7060 and ?13CPDB value varies in interval 3.7-4.3o like in upper part of Tungusik Group. High positive values of ?13CPDB indicate that carbonates had accumulated in warm sea, without a long period of cold weather. Comparison of isotopic (Sr, C) characteristics Dashka Formation carbonates show identity of these indicators with Tungusik Group rocks. In addition can be compared with carbonate sequences of: Minyar Formation (Pb-Pb age of 780 ± 85 dolomites Ma [2]) Karatav Group in Southern Ural (87Sr/86Sr 0.7055-0.7056, ?13CPDB +2.4 + ... 3.0 ), also the Reynolds Point Formation of Shaler Group (about 840 million years; [3]) and the lower part of Little Dal Formation in Canada (more than 780 million years [4]). Such agreement chemostratigraphic characteristics of these formations is the basis for their correlation and allows to consider that carbonate rocks of Oslyan and Tungusik groups had deposited in the first half of Neoproterozoic (1000 - 800 million years ago). The work was supported by the RFBR (projects nos. 12-05-00569, 12-05-33076) and the Presidium of SB RAS (project no. 68). 1. Vishnevskaya et al. 2012, Doklady Earth Sci. 443 (2), 431-435 2. Ovchinnikova et al. 2000 Stratigr. Geol. Cor. 8 (6), 3-19 3. Asmerom et al. 1991 Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 55 (10), 2883-2894 4. Halverson et al., 2007 Paleogeogr. Paleoclimatol. Paleoecol. 256 (3-4), 103-129

Vishnevskaya, Irina; Pisareva, Natalia; Kanygina, Nadejda; Proshenkin, Artem

2014-05-01

34

Review of the millipede genus Sibiriulus Guli?ka, 1972, with descriptions of three new species from Altai, Siberia, Russia (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae).  

PubMed

The genus Sibiriulus Guli?ka, 1963, which has hitherto been known to comprise only four species, is rediagnosed and shown to include seven species from Siberia, Russia. Three species are described here as new to science: S. latisupremus sp. nov., S. baigazanensis sp. nov., S. aktashensis sp. nov. The species Sibiriulus profugus (Stuxberg, 1876) is recorded in the fauna of the Altai Province and the Republic of Altai for the first time. All currently known species of Sibiriulus are keyed and mapped, including the new species.  PMID:25283646

Mikhaljova, Elena V; Nefediev, Pavel S; Nefedieva, Julia S; Sakhnevich, Miroslava B; Dyachkov, Yuri V

2014-01-01

35

Interception by sphagnum in a bog mire catchment of central West-Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrology of mires (pristine peatland ecosystems) hardly has been analyzed quantitatively. The general idea, that mires can retain precipitation water (‘sponge effect') has never been proved by real field data. Missing data for evaluation of these properties are actual evapotranspiration, water conductivity and interception of rainwater by peatland mosses and peat layers below. The newly opened Mukhrino Field Station, located in the centre of West Siberia (60,9oN, 68,7oE) at the margin of a giant mire complex gave the opportunity to start quantitative hydrological research. Water stage dynamics in mires has been recorded with pressure loggers in mires and in lysimeters to analyse the evapotranspiration, interception and the water balance. Air and water temperature and precipitation has been recorded simultaneously. By 1-Dimensional modelling interception appeared to be the most important water loss for mires. As expected, mostly snowmelt determined discharge dynamics of the studied peatland catchment area. Rainfall events resulted in relatively fast response in catchment discharge. The so-called ‘sponge effect' of mire systems could not be verified this time.

Bleuten, W.; Filippov, I.

2009-04-01

36

Observations of wetland methane fluxes in West Siberia with automated chamber system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An automatic sampling and analysis system for measuring methane and CO2 fluxes from soil was developed and applied to the flux measurements at boreal wetland near Plotnikovo, Tomsk region in the southern part of West Siberia in 2012. Measurements were performed on mesotrophic open bog at the bog periphery. Solar powered automated system is used to open and close six static chambers equipped with air actuators. Analysis system uses semiconductor sensor for methane and NDIR for carbon dioxide. Air and soil temperatures, as well as groundwater table are recorded. Seasonal variations of the emissions summarized as weekly mean fluxes correlate well with soil temperature. Season-high fluxes vary from 3.9 to 22 mgCH4/m2/h between chambers. The vegetation map created from high resolution aerial photos and ground survey data was used for analysis of the spatial flux distribution. The methane and CO2 fluxes appear clearly related to the vegetation and soil conditions. Higher emission rates are observed over waterlogged surfaces with presence of sedge and cotton-grass while lowest emission rates correspond to dry hummocks.

Maksyutov, Shamil; Krasnov, Oleg; Shelevoi, Valentin; Nadeev, Alexander; Glagolev, Mikhail

2013-04-01

37

Magnetic fabric variations in Mesozoic black shales, Northern Siberia, Russia: Possible paleomagnetic implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 28-m-long section situated on the coast of the Arctic Ocean, Russia (74°N, 113°E) was extensively sampled primarily for the purpose of magnetostratigraphic investigations across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. The section consists predominantly of marine black shales with abundant siderite concretions and several distinct siderite cemented layers. Low-field magnetic susceptibility ( k) ranges from 8 × 10 - 5 to 2 × 10 - 3 SI and is predominantly controlled by the paramagnetic minerals, i.e. iron-bearing chlorites, micas, and siderite. The siderite-bearing samples possess the highest magnetic susceptibility, usually one order of magnitude higher than the neighboring rock. The intensity of the natural remanent magnetization ( M0) varies between 1 × 10 - 5 and 6 × 10 - 3 A/m. Several samples possessing extremely high values of M0 were found. There is no apparent correlation between the high k and high M0 values; on the contrary, the samples with relatively high M0 values possess average magnetic susceptibility and vice versa. According to the low-field anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), three different groups of samples can be distinguished. In the siderite-bearing samples (i), an inverse magnetic fabric is observed, i.e., the maximum and minimum principal susceptibility directions are interchanged and the magnetic fabric has a distinctly prolate shape. Triaxial-fabric samples (ii), showing an intermediate magnetic fabric, are always characterized by high M0 values. It seems probable that the magnetic fabric is controlled by the preferred orientation of paramagnetic phyllosilicates, e.g., chlorite and mica, and by some ferromagnetic mineral with anomalous orientation in relation to the bedding plane. Oblate-fabric samples (iii) are characterized by a bedding-controlled magnetic fabric, and by moderate magnetic susceptibility and M0 values. The magnetic fabric is controlled by the preferred orientation of phyllosilicate minerals and, to a minor extent, by a ferrimagnetic fraction, most probably detrital magnetite. Considering the magnetic fabric together with paleomagnetic component analyses, the siderite-bearing, and the high-NRM samples (about 15% of samples) were excluded from further magnetostratigraphic research.

Chadima, Martin; Pruner, Petr; Šlechta, Stanislav; Grygar, Tomáš; Hirt, Ann M.

2006-05-01

38

Periglacial deserts of the last glacial epoch in West Siberia and Eastern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed studies of the late glacial sediments on the West Siberian Plain (the Ob' drainage basin, north of 60° N) provided evidence of a stage of active eolian processes preceding that of paludification, the latter not becoming dominant until the early Holocene. Numerous wells drilled within peatlands and wetlands in the region revealed layers of sand immediately under the peat. To elucidate the sand genesis, we applied a morphoscopic analysis of quartz sand grains. Our studies in West Siberia were concentrated within three regions different in their geology and morphology: 1 - northern flatlands formerly flooded by marine transgressions (known as Kazantsevo and Tobolsk); 2 - Siberian Uplands (Uvaly); 3 - Khanty-Mansy fluvial plain. An analysis of quartz grain morphoscopy from sand sampled in all the three regions has shown a stable proportion of grains with matted surface and close to spherical configuration. Such a combination of characteristics strongly suggests eolian transportation in subaerial environments to be the leading factor of the grain modeling. Anyway, there is a certain differentiation between the grains from those three regions. Thus, the northern region, along with typical eolian grains perfectly rounded (up to 80%) and matted (up to 70%), displays a noticeable proportion of grains modeled under conditions of transgressions, with a sizeable influx of glacial-marine and iceberg-rafted material. Quartz sand grains obtained from wells drilled on the Siberian Uplands differ essentially in morphology from those of the northern region as they are absolutely dominated by grains of eolian origin. Degree of grain dullness reaches its peak - 97%, with roundness up to 85%. The southern region displays dominance of eolian grains with admixture of slightly matted ones. Typically, however, both roundness and dullness are rather high - (up to 82% and 72% respectively). Such a morphological diversity may be attributed to the region location within a zone of deep depressions where fluvial and lacustrine processes alternated with arid phases since the middle Paleogene. So, variations in quartz grains morphology reflect difference in sequence of natural events in individual regions. Nevertheless, they cannot mask the general features common to all the three areas and indicative of a phase of potent eolian activities at the final stage of sand formation. 14C dated samples from the base of peatlands permit to place this phase at the end of lateglacial time. In Eastern Europe, melting water of the retreating ice sheet formed a vast lacustrine-alluvial region composed of sand. Drilling on wetlands revealed sandy deposits underlying the bog and limnic series (beginning of the latter formation dates from ~12000 yr BP). Quartz grains from the sands are noted for high degree of roundness (80-87%) and dullness (up to 83%). Practically all the grains show well-pronounced traces of prolonged processing by wind (micro- and larger depressions on the surface). Judging from the grain configuration and surface character, they were repeatedly subjected to eolian transportation. Hence, the morphoscopic data provide reason for suggestion about eolian processes essentially gaining in importance since LGM; as follows from radiocarbon dating, the considered eolisation phase terminated within a cold lateglacial interval (as late as Younger Dryas). Morphologically, the sand grains are similar to those of desert; it is conceivable that landscapes not unlike to cold deserts existed in Eastern Europe and West Siberia during the lateglacial, which agrees well with palynological data. Farther south loess accumulation took place, the desert areas being probably an important source of the dust particles.

Timireva, Svetlana; Velichko, Andrei

2010-05-01

39

Petroleum geology and resources of the Baykit High province, East Siberia, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Baykit High province consists of two principal structural units?the Baykit regional high in the west, which occupies most of the province, and the Katanga structural saddle in the east. The province is on the western margin of the Siberian craton east of theYenisey Ridge foldbelt. The province is an exploration frontier and only a few prospects have been drilled. The oldest sedimentary rocks of the province, Riphean carbonate and clastic strata of Late Proterozoic age (1,650?650 million years old) that were deposited on the passive margin, cover the Archean?Lower Proterozoic basement. Basal Vendian (uppermost Proterozoic, 650?570 million years old) clastic rocks unconformably overlie various units of the Riphean and locally lie directly on the basement. Younger Vendian and lowermost Cambrian rocks are primarily dolomites. The Vendian/Cambrian boundary is con-formable, and its exact stratigraphic position has not been identified with certainty. The Lower Cambrian section is thick, and it consists of alternating beds of dolomite and evaporites (mostly salt). Middle and Upper Cambrian strata are composed of shale and dolomite. Ordovician-Silurian and upper Paleozoic rocks are thin, and they are present only in the northern areas of the province. Structural pattern of Riphean rocks differs substantially from that of Vendian-Cambrian rocks. A single total petroleum system (TPS) was identified in the Baykit High province. Discovered oil of the system is chiefly concentrated in Riphean carbonate reservoirs of the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone that is currently being explored and that has the Abstract 1 potential to become a giant field (or group of fields). The TPS also contains about 5 trillion cubic feet of discovered recover-able gas in clastic reservoir rocks at the base of the Vendian section. Petroleum source rocks are absent in the stratigraphic succession over most of the TPS area. Riphean organic-rich shales and carbonates that crop out in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt west of the Baykit high are probable source rocks. Their areal distribution extends from the foldbelt into the foredeep along the province?s western margin. Potential source rocks also are present in platform depressions in eastern areas of the province. Hydrocarbon generation and migration west of the province started as early as Riphean time, before the beginning of the deformation in the Yenisey Ridge foldbelt that occurred about 820?850 million years ago. However, the presently known oil and gas accumulations were formed after deposition of the Lower Cambrian salt seal. Available data allow identification of only one assessment unit, and it covers the entire TPS area. Undiscovered oil and gas resources are moderate, primarily due to the poor quality of reservoir rocks. However, the reserve growth in the Yurubchen-Tokhom zone may be large and may exceed the volume of undiscovered resources in the rest of the province. Most oil and gas resourcesareexpectedtobeinstructuralandstratigraphictrapsin Riphean carbonate reservoirs. Vendian clastic reservoirs are probably gas-prone.

Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2001-01-01

40

Chineysky Layered Intrusion with unique V and PGE-Cu ores (Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

South of the Siberian platform is an extraordinary metallogenic province. Many giant deposits of different genetic types are concentrated here: Udokan (Cu), Chiney (Ti-Fe-V, Pd-Cu), Katugin (Ta, Nb), Sulumat (Fe) etc. It is his considered this massif is the largest component of the Proterozoic volcanic-plutonic system of the Kodar-Udokan district. Chineisky massif located among Cu-rich sedimentary rocks is represented by interlayering horizons of gabbronorite and titanomagnetite gabbro in its lower zone and gabbro and anorthosite in the upper zone.The intrusive rocks were proved to be genetically interrelated and show certain similar geochemical features: they have elevated TiO2 concentrations and have similar trace element patterns and (La/Sm)N and (Gd/Yb)N ratios (1.5-2.3 and 1.87-2.06, respectively). The Chineisky massif is thought to have been formed by the successive emplacement of genetically similar basic magmas, which produced four rock groups with fine and coarse layering and cyclicity of variable rank (micro-rhythms, rhythms, units, and series). The results of cluster analysis indicate that the rocks can be classified into 13 petrochemical types. The phase and chemical characteristics of the parental melts of these compositions were simulated with the use of the COMAGMAT-3.5 computer model, which was also applied to evaluate the composition of the most primitive initial magma of the whole Chineisky massif. Our results indicate that the primitive magma was heterogeneous (olivine + plagioclase titanomagnetite + melt) at a temperature of approximately 1130 C. The initial melt had a ferrobasaltic composition and was close to saturation with magnetite at ~NNO 0.5 The basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Luktur pluton are supposed to be the Mg-rich fraction of the parental melt. Gravimetric and magnetic geophysical data show that ultrabasic and basic rocks occur at shallow depths at the Chiney pluton and around it. These facts show the existence of huge magmatic system in Late Proterozoic. There are two types of commercial mineralization in the Chiney massif: Fe-Ti-V and Cu with precious metals. Nowadays the Chiney massif comprises the largest V recourses in Russia. The iron ores are concentrated in the central part of the intrusion and are represented by two varieties: disseminated and massive (the early-magmatic type); veins and irregular bodies (the late-magmatic type). Sulfide minerals occur as accessory disseminations in all rocks of the massif, but their higher concentrations are distributed locally. The copper commercial mineralization is confined to the contact zone of gabbroids with the host rocks, so endo-and exocontact ores are determined. The disseminated mineralization predominates sharply. Vein bodies are distributed in the limited region and localized at a small distance from the bottom of the intrusion. The main ore mineral is chalcopyrite, that is very unusual for Cu-Ni deposits (Cu/Ni=10-100, Pd/Pt=3 in ores). The major minerals are pyrrhotite and pentlandite. Many rare minerals of noble metals (Ag, Au, PGE) were found too. In general, the minerals consist of compounds of Pd with Bi, Te, Sb, Sn, As, and Ni; compounds of Pt with As, S, and Fe; a compound of Rh with As-S, as well hessite (Ag2Te) and Au-Ag-(Hg) alloys. It was found froodite; sobolevskite; kotulskite; sudburyite; stibiopalladinite; mertieite II; isomertieite; paolovite; michenerite; arsenopalladinite; merenskiite; majakite et ctr. References 1. Gongalskiy B.I., N.A. Krivolutskaya, A.A. Ariskin, G.S. Nikolaev.// Geochemistry International. 2008. Vol. 46. No. 7. P. 637-665. 2. Gongalskiy B. I., Yu. G. Safonov, N. A. Krivolutskaya, V. Yu. Prokof'ev, and A. A. Yushin. A // Doklady Earth Sciences. 2007.Vol. 415, No. 5. P. 671-674.

Gongalskiy, Bronislav; Krivolutskaya, Nadezda

2010-05-01

41

Holocene kinematics and slip rate of the Sayan fault (Southern Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sayan fault is located at the boundary between the northernmost mountain belt of Central Asia (the Sayan-Baikal ranges) and the Siberian platform. This outstanding ~ 500 km crustal structure defines an obvious and sharp morphotectonics feature easily recognizable on satellite imagery. Inherited from the Palaeozoic orogenes, the Sayan fault has been working as a left-lateral transform fault during the opening of the Baikal Rift in the Cainozoic time. Despite a very low instrumental seismic activity and few historical earthquakes, Holocene morphotectonics features along the fault attests of its activity and its capacity of producing strong earthquakes. The Sayan fault represents therefore a strong hazard for the city of Irkoutsk, which is located 70 km northwards of its south-eastern tip, and where more than one million people are living. In order to quantify the present kinematics of the fault, to estimate its slip rate and the potential magnitude of earthquakes, we carried out a morphotectonics study within its south-eastern part, between the Baikal Lake and the Irkut River (the only part of the fault relatively accessible, while further west the fault stands in a mountainous area covered with dense forest without any easy access). A reconnaissance trip allowed us finding out a small catchment basin cut by the fault and showing a cumulative offset of several tens of meters. We surveyed the site with a total station to produce a Digital Elevation Model, and we collected samples of the offset surface and the trapped sediments for radiocarbon and OSL dating. In progress analyses should allow us to provide a first estimate of the left-lateral slip rate along the Sayan fault.

Ritz, J.-F.; Larroque, C.; Vassallo, R.; Arzhannikova, A.; Arzhannikov, S.; Jolivet, M.

2012-04-01

42

Modeling of regional meteorological fields with high spatial resolution for West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As well known, global climate changes are inhomogeneous that is most clearly pronounced in the northern regions of the Earth. To study these inhomogeneities and trends, it is necessary to analyze climate changes in the ?? century in the specific region. Now data of different reanalyses (USA, Europe, Japan), as well as observational data from weather stations, are used for such an analysis. Modeling data validity is mostly determined by amount of assimilated measurement data and by weather station network density. For example, for the 2nd edition of USA reanalysis, data of only 300 weather stations of Russian Federation have been used, where most stations are located in European part of the country. Comparison of meteorological fields obtained using reanalysis to measurements of Rosgidromet weather stations gives significant discrepancy. Reanalyses spatial resolution does not allow studying local inhomogeneities that inherent to regional climate changes. Therefore to study local climate dynamics in Siberian region, it is necessary to calculate meteorological fields with higher spatial resolution. Modern mesoscale meteorological models that use reanalyses archives and assimilate measurements of weather stations can solve this problem. We calculated fields of climatic characteristics for West Siberia for the period from 1960 to 2000. The regional weather forecast WRF model (http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/modeling/wrf/index.php) and data assimilation system WRF-VAR (WRFDA) have been installed and debugged on the base of multiprocessor computational complex. Vertical boundary conditions, as well as initial conditions are formed using ERA-40 reanalysis data. NCEP data and USGS map with spatial resolution of 9.25 km are used for the lower boundary, measurements of weather stations, located within calculation area, are used for observation nudging. As a result of the model run, we have meteorological fields, which are reanalysis fields' projections with high spatial resolution (10 km) corrected by weather stations' measurements. Primary analysis of the data obtained allows us to depict changes of climatic characteristics in local areas not as smoothed disturbances (as in reanalysis fields), but as local inhomogeneities that have specific geographical reference to specific regional ecosystem. Key parameters characterizing the main local climate dynamics trends will be chosen for further analysis and processing. The work has been partially supported by SB RAS integration projects Nos. 50 and 66.

Bogomolov, Vasiliy; Gordov, Evgeny

2010-05-01

43

Influence of fire events on permafrost, Yubileynoe Gas Field, West Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study area is located in the Subarctic region of Western Siberia at Nadym and Pur Rivers interfluve. The mean monthly air temperature of the coldest month is -25…-27oC and of the warmest month is 8…10oC. The mean annual air temperature is increasing at 0.03…0.06oC per year. The mean annual precipitation is 550…600 mm. The continuous permafrost up to 50-70 m thick have temperature of -1..-3oC. The study site is located 40 km west of Noviy Urengoy City. The study site is dominated by typical forest-tundra, where the cup-mossy larch-birch light forests neighbors with typical tundra, and the boreal fir-larch forest spread across minor river valleys. Ecosystems of the study area experience strong technogenic stress from the large gas-producing enterprise "Yubileinoe" which is situated nearby. A polygonal peatland with 2-2.5 m peat at the southern bank of Nashe-to Lake was disturbed by fire in July, 2005. The fire event lasted for 2 days have burned vegetation dominated by semifrutex, sedges, mosses, and underlaying peat. Following years the succession rates were rather slow. The peatland surface is elevated relative to the surrounding drained lake basin (hasyrey) and free of snow in winter. After the disturbance of the thermo-insulating layers (peat, moss and vegetation cover) the activation of frost-cracking was observed, especially strong at completely burnt areas on sandy loam. The second site of the hasyrey has experienced the fire in the middle of July, 2007. It is located within the plain watershed with drainage hollows. The Arctic birch, semifrutex and cup-mosses were dominating in the vegetation cover of hillocky tundra. The vegetation cover has experienced slow succession after the fire. In August, 2008, we found the semifrutex, sedges and cotton-grass growing sparsely between the burnt bare hillocks. The wetness of the territory increased. As a result of vegetation cover and mosses disturbance, the thermoinsulation have decreased and the frost cracks of 2007/08 winter were 5 m long and 2…5 cm wide. The thermal borehole located at the site reflected in the temperature changes after the fire event. Temperature changes at 10-30 m in 2006-07 were close to those observed in 2007-08. The temperature increase below 10 m depth (at and below the depth of the zero annual amplitudes) was 0.35oC at 10 m depth, 0.15oC at 15 m, and 0.02oC at 30 m depth. The disturbance of vegetation and peat layer and associated moisture increase allowed temperature fluctuations to penetrate deeper. The activation of frost cracking combined with the penetration of summer heat in grounds was evident.

Grebenets, V.; Kurchatova, A. N.; Shmelev, D.; Streletskiy, D. A.

2012-12-01

44

Prospects for use of bimetal pipes in field oil and gas pipelines of West Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possibility of applying bimetal pipes, with cladding layers of X13 and X18H10T steels, in the oil fields of Western Siberia\\u000a is studied. It is shown that the low pitting resistance of the cladding layers of bimetals, which are currently produced by\\u000a the pack rolling method, is the central problem. It can be solved by the use of electroslag cladding,

I. I. Reformatskaya; V. V. Zav’yalov; I. G. Rodionova; A. N. Podobaev; I. I. Ashcheulova

2000-01-01

45

Russia Escalates Chechen War, Risks Reprisals from the West  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Late last week, Russian forces launched a massive bombardment of the Chechen capital, inaugurating a new offensive using more high-powered artillery than had been previously employed in the conflict. Chances for a peaceful resolution diminished earlier this month when Yeltsin rejected appeals from Western leaders to find a political settlement to the strife. Yeltsin and Russian officials insist that they are fighting Muslim terrorists, while Western leaders point to collateral damage of Chechen civilians and the mass exodus of over 200,000 Chechen refugees in recent months. Meanwhile, the situation is sure to be the primary subject of talks begun yesterday between Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov and Knut Vollebaek, chairman of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Recently, the head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) suggested that Russia's actions in Chechnya could affect the release of the IMF's next loan installment of 630 million dollars to Moscow. Russia has reacted with outrage to the proposal of such a linkage. The conflict has also worsened Russia's relations with its neighbor Georgia as officials accuse the Georgian government of allowing the movement of rebel troops and supplies back and forth across their mountainous border with Chechnya. Georgia steadfastly denies any collusion with the rebels.

Charbonneau, David D.

46

Distribution and color variation of gyrfalcons in Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west of the Ural Mountains. Frequencies were as follows: European Russia 4% white, 50% gray (the remainder were intermediates); western Siberia 0% white, 58% gray; central Siberia 15% white, 42% gray; and eastern Siberia 47% white, 33% gray. Remarkably, in the easternmost subregion, white birds predominated even near the southernmost extension. Because the northernmost portions of the species' range in continental Russia are in central Siberia where white variants were rare, we propose that a better predictor of the white variant is longitude, not latitude. White birds were most frequent at the eastern reaches of both the Palearctic and Nearctic. The best environmental correlates of this distribution pattern may be the southward bending thermal isoclines proceeding eastward toward Greenland or Kamchatka, where both land masses are bathed by cold oceanic currents of Arctic origin. By contrast, the western reaches of both land masses are bathed by warm currents. In these western reaches, Gyrfalcon summer distribution is displaced northward and dark variants predominate. The breeding range of the Gyrfalcon, determined by mapping the locations of the specimens we examined, differs little from the range proposed in 1951.

Ellis, D.H.; Ellis, C.H.; Pendleton, G.W.; Panteleyev, A.V.; Rebrova, I.V.; Markin, Y.M.

1992-01-01

47

Lifelong Learning and Adult Education: Russia Meets the West  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article examines the impact of social change and economic transformation on adult education and lifelong learning in post-Soviet Russia. The article begins with a brief economic and historical background to lifelong learning and adult education in terms of its significance as a feature of the Russian cultural heritage. An analysis of Ministerial education policy and curriculum changes reveals that these policies reflect neo-liberal and neo-conservative paradigms in the post-Soviet economy and education. Current issues and trends in adult education are also discussed, with particular attention to the Adult Education Centres, which operate as a vast umbrella framework for a variety of adult education and lifelong learning initiatives. The Centres are designed to promote social justice by means of compensatory education and social rehabilitation for individuals dislocated by economic restructuring. The article comments on their role in helping to develop popular consciousness of democratic rights and active citizenship in a participatory and pluralistic democracy.

Zajda, Joseph

2003-03-01

48

Tree Line Structure and Dynamics at the Northern Limit of the Larch Forest: Anabar Plateau, Siberia, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The goal of the study was to provide an analysis of climate impact before, during, and after the Little Ice Age (LIA) on the larch (Larix gmelinii) tree line at the northern extreme of Siberian forests. Recent decadal climate change impacts on the tree line, regeneration abundance, and age structure were analyzed. The location of the study area was within the forest-tundra ecotone (elevation range 170-450 m) in the Anabar Plateau, northern Siberia. Field studies were conducted along elevational transects. Tree natality/mortality and radial increment were determined based on dendrochronology analyses. Tree morphology, number of living and subfossil trees, regeneration abundance, and age structure were studied. Locations of pre-LIA, LIA, and post-LIA tree lines and refugia boundaries were established. Long-term climate variables and drought index were included in the analysis. It was found that tree mortality from the 16th century through the beginning of the 19th century caused a downward tree line recession. Sparse larch stands experienced deforestation, transforming into tundra with isolated relict trees. The maximum tree mortality and radial growth decrease were observed to have occurred at the beginning of 18th century. Now larch, at its northern boundary in Siberia, is migrating into tundra areas. Upward tree migration was induced by warming in the middle of the 19th century. Refugia played an important role in repopulation of the forest-tundra ecotone by providing a seed source and shelter for recruitment of larch regeneration. Currently this ecotone is being repopulated mainly by tree cohorts that were established after the 1930s. The last two decades of warming did not result in an acceleration of regeneration recruitment because of increased drought conditions. The regeneration line reached (but did not exceed) the pre-LIA tree line location, although contemporary tree heights and stand densities are comparatively lower than in the pre-LIA period. The mean rate of tree line upward migration has been about 0.35 m/yr (with a range of 0.21-0.58), which translates to a tree line response to temperature of about 55 m/deg C.

Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Im, Sergey T.; Oskorbin, Pavel A.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Ovchinnikov, Dmitriy V.

2013-01-01

49

Genetic variability of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in ticks and voles from Ixodes persulcatus/Ixodes trianguliceps sympatric areas from Western Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a causative agent of granulocytic anaplasmosis in different mammals. The presence of A. phagocytophilum was assayed in Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes trianguliceps ticks and Myodes spp. voles from two I. persulcatus/I. trianguliceps sympatric areas in the Omsk region (Western Siberia, Russia). In total, A. phagocytophilum was found in 42/108 (38.9%) of vole blood samples, 13/34 (38.2%) of I. trianguliceps ticks removed from voles, 1/12 (8.3%) of I. persulcatus removed from voles, and 18/279 (7.2%) of questing I. persulcatus. GroESL operon sequence analysis of positive samples revealed three distinct A. phagocytophilum genetic groups previously identified in ticks and mammals in Russia. Genetic group 1 was found in 6/36 (16.7%) of sequenced positive blood samples; this group was previously revealed in I. persulcatus and Myodes spp. voles in different regions of Russia. Genetic group 2 was found in 30/36 (83.3%) of sequenced positive blood samples and all positive I. trianguliceps; this group was previously revealed only in Myodes spp. voles and common shrews (Sorex araneus) in I. persulcatus/I. trianguliceps sympatric areas in the Northern Ural. Genetic group 3 was found in all positive questing I. persulcatus and one blood sample; this group was previously revealed in I. persulcatus and Siberian chipmunks (Tamias sibiricus). We suppose that I. trianguliceps is the most probable vector for A. phagocytophilum of group 2. Analysis of the msp4 gene, intergenic region DOV1, and some other genetic loci has shown that isolates from different genetic groups significantly differ in all studied loci and that A. phagocytophilum of group 2 is closely related to A. phagocytophilum isolates revealed in voles and I. trianguliceps in Europe. A. phagocytophilum of groups 1 and 2 are the most similar to each other, while A. phagocytophilum of group 3 clusters with European A. phagocytophilum isolates from I. ricinus and various mammalian species. PMID:25113979

Rar, Vera A; Epikhina, Tamara I; Yakimenko, Valeriy V; Malkova, Marina G; Tancev, Aleksey K; Bondarenko, Evgeny I; Ivanov, Mikhail K; Tikunova, Nina V

2014-10-01

50

Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms during Neocomian time. The clastic material was transported by a system of rivers dominantly from the eastern provenance. Sandstones within the Neocomian clinoforms contain the principal oil reservoirs. The thick continental Aptian?Cenomanian Pokur Formation above the Neocomian sequence contains giant gas reserves in the northern part of the basin. Three total petroleum systems are identified in the West Siberian basin. Volumes of discovered hydrocarbons in these systems are 144 billion barrels of oil and more than 1,300 trillion cubic feet of gas. The assessed mean undiscovered resources are 55.2 billion barrels of oil, 642.9 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 20.5 billion barrels of natural gas liquids. The largest known oil reserves are in the Bazhenov-Neocomian total petroleum system that includes Upper Jurassic and younger rocks of the central and southern parts of the basin. Oil reservoirs are mainly in Neocomian and Upper Jurassic clastic strata. Source rocks are organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation. Most discovered reserves are in structural traps, but stratigraphic traps in the Neocomian clinoform sequence are pro-ductive and are expected to contain much of the undiscovered resources. Two assessment units are identified in this total petroleum system. The first assessment unit includes all conventional reservoirs in the stratigraphic interval from the Upper Jurassic to the Cenomanian. The second unit includes unconventional (or continuous), self-sourced, fractured reservoirs in the Bazhenov Formation. This unit was not assessed quantitatively. The Togur-Tyumen total petroleum system covers the same geographic area as the Bazhenov-Neocomian system, but it includes older, Lower?Middle Jurassic strata and weathered rocks at the top of the pre-Jurassic sequence. A Callovian regional shale seal of the Abalak and lower Vasyugan Formations separates the two systems. The Togur-Tyumen system is oil-prone; gas reserves are insignificant. The principal o

Ulmishek, Gregory F.

2003-01-01

51

Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there are quite a few cases of the use of woodland valuable in recreational and forestry respects for dacha or country-cottage construction. From fast change the pattern of ownership on ground is necessary urgent inventory of being available ground resources, including with the purposes of creation of new especially protected territories. It is important to emphasise, that to guards should be subject not only sites so-called quot.; untouched quot.; a nature, but also area with different overgrowth succession stages agricultural lands, where biodiversity raises.

Guzel, N.

2012-04-01

52

A reconstruction of the thawing of the permafrost during the last 170 years on the Taimyr Peninsula (East Siberia, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reconstructing the temporal and spatial changes in climate on a seasonal basis during the past few centuries may help us better understand the modern-day interplay between natural and anthropogenic climate variability. The objective of this paper is to reconstruct the thawing of the permafrost at 71°N in Arctic Siberia during the termination of the Little Ice Age and the subsequent Recent Warming period. Sediment samples from two lakes on the Taimyr Peninsula were analysed by high-resolution X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy at a scan resolution of 1 mm, and pollen analyses were conducted. The depth-age models of the cores were constructed using 210Pb and 137Cs activity according to the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The lake sediment cover of these lakes began to form ca. 1840. We defined three periods of increased permafrost thawing during the last 170 years. The first maximum of permafrost melting occurred from 1870 to 1880, the second episode was from 1900 to 1930 and the third began between 1960 and 1965. During these periods, the maxima of permafrost melting occurred with a specific time lag following.

Fedotov, A. P.; Phedorin, M. A.; Enushchenko, I. V.; Vershinin, K. E.; Melgunov, M. S.; Khodzher, T. V.

2012-12-01

53

Neocomian sequence stratigraphy, Yarsomov Trough, west Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The Neocomian was a major regressive event in the Yarsomov Trough that prograded from east to west and downlapped onto the Bazhenov Shale, the major source rock interval. This general Neocomian regression was punctuated and disrupted by a series of type 1 unconformities and the concomitant deposition of lowstand depositional systems. These systems consist of a series of detached fans, unconfined lowstand wedges, and confined incised-valleys. These sand-prone lowstand depositional systems are the primary reservoirs and provided the conduits for the migration of hydrocarbons. Ineffective seals at the upper contacts of the detached fans and lowstand wedges limited trapping of hydrocarbons in the more distal depositional systems. Depositional rates were high, and sediments were dispersed by a variety of mass-movement processes, causing rapid deposition on the subaqueous basin slope and floor. The fans are grouped into two major process types: gravity and slump. The best reservoirs are tentacular, non-channelized basin floor fans deposited as high density sediment gravity flows. Fans deposited by slump processes are characterized tentacular sands with limited reservoir continuity. Both fan types and potential seals can be predicted ahead-of-the-drill by applying seismic and depositional sequence analysis technologies, thus significantly reducing exploration risk.

Vyssotski, V.N.; Barrett, S.F. (Amoco Eurasia Petroleum Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Baum, G.R. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States))

1996-01-01

54

Neocomian sequence stratigraphy, Yarsomov Trough, west Siberian Basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

The Neocomian was a major regressive event in the Yarsomov Trough that prograded from east to west and downlapped onto the Bazhenov Shale, the major source rock interval. This general Neocomian regression was punctuated and disrupted by a series of type 1 unconformities and the concomitant deposition of lowstand depositional systems. These systems consist of a series of detached fans, unconfined lowstand wedges, and confined incised-valleys. These sand-prone lowstand depositional systems are the primary reservoirs and provided the conduits for the migration of hydrocarbons. Ineffective seals at the upper contacts of the detached fans and lowstand wedges limited trapping of hydrocarbons in the more distal depositional systems. Depositional rates were high, and sediments were dispersed by a variety of mass-movement processes, causing rapid deposition on the subaqueous basin slope and floor. The fans are grouped into two major process types: gravity and slump. The best reservoirs are tentacular, non-channelized basin floor fans deposited as high density sediment gravity flows. Fans deposited by slump processes are characterized tentacular sands with limited reservoir continuity. Both fan types and potential seals can be predicted ahead-of-the-drill by applying seismic and depositional sequence analysis technologies, thus significantly reducing exploration risk.

Vyssotski, V.N.; Barrett, S.F. [Amoco Eurasia Petroleum Co., Houston, TX (United States); Baum, G.R. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

1996-12-31

55

Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the West Siberia Basin  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the basin. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, mature source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in {open_quotes}snapshots{close_quotes} by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of West Siberia.

Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D. [Earth Science Associates, Arlington, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

56

Visualizing petroleum systems with a combination of GIS and multimedia technologies: An example from the West Siberia Basin  

SciTech Connect

Petroleum system studies provide an ideal application for the combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and multimedia technologies. GIS technology is used to build and maintain the spatial and tabular data within the study region. Spatial data may comprise the zones of active source rocks and potential reservoir facies. Similarly, tabular data include the attendant source rock parameters (e.g. pyroloysis results, organic carbon content) and field-level exploration and production histories for the basin. Once the spatial and tabular data base has been constructed, GIS technology is useful in finding favorable exploration trends, such as zones of high organic content, mature source rocks in positions adjacent to sealed, high porosity reservoir facies. Multimedia technology provides powerful visualization tools for petroleum system studies. The components of petroleum system development, most importantly generation, migration and trap development typically span periods of tens to hundreds of millions of years. The ability to animate spatial data over time provides an insightful alternative for studying the development of processes which are only captured in [open quotes]snapshots[close quotes] by static maps. New multimedia-authoring software provides this temporal dimension. The ability to record this data on CD-ROMs and allow user- interactivity further leverages the combination of spatial data bases, tabular data bases and time-based animations. The example used for this study was the Bazhenov-Neocomian petroleum system of West Siberia.

Walsh, D.B.; Grace, J.D. (Earth Science Associates, Arlington, TX (United States))

1996-01-01

57

Presence of the 54-chromosome common vole (Mammalia) on Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal, East Siberia, Russia), and the occurrence of an unusual X-chromosome variant  

PubMed Central

Abstract We report a new finding of the 54-chromosome sibling species of the common vole in East Siberia - the first description from Olkhon Island (Lake Baikal). The karyotype of a male specimen revealed by routine staining and C-banding demonstrates the unambiguous presence of Microtus rossiaemeridionalis Ognev, 1924 (recently often regarded as as junior synonym of Microtus levis Miller, 1908). Comparison with conspecific specimens from the European part of the species range (from the left bank of the river Volga) shows that the vole of the island population has a smaller X-chromosome due to a reduced quantity of C-positive heterochromatin. This is just the third example of this type of X-chromosome variant with previous cases on an Arctic island (Svalbard) and the West Siberian lowland (Novosibirsk) and the only one on a lake island. Although Microtus rossiaemeridionalis is largely monomorphic in its karyotype, our data show that one specific type of X-chromosome variant is remarkably widespread, though rare. PMID:24260647

Pavlova, S.V.; Tchabovsky, A.V.

2011-01-01

58

[About the signumanistics of medical units and departments of North-West of Russia].  

PubMed

Armbands, indicating belonging of the military man to the Armed forces, to separate type, alliance or military unit or department, are an integral part of modern military uniform. Author presents some armbands of military-medical units and departments locating on the North-West of Russia. Different variants of the armbands are suggested. Rules of construction and adoption of the armbands are recommended according to heraldic laws and directive documents. The article allows to learn about famous armbands of military-medical service and is of special interest to further development of heraldic theme of units and departments of medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. PMID:23038962

2012-07-01

59

Norilsk, Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Norilsk is a major city in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, and the northernmost city in Siberia. The city was founded in the 1930s as a settlement for the Norilsk mining-metallurgic complex, sitting near the largest nickel-copper-palladium deposits on Earth. Mining and smelting of nickel, copper, cobalt, platinum, palladium are the major industries. The nickel ore is smelted on site at Norilsk. The smelting is directly responsible for severe pollution, generally acid rain and smog. By some estimates, 1 percent of the entire global emissions of sulfur dioxide comes from this one city. Heavy metal pollution near Norilsk is so severe that it is now economically feasible to mine the soil, which has been polluted so severely that it has economic grades of platinum and palladium.

The image was acquired July 21, 2000, covers an area of 36.9 x 37.6 km, and is located at 69.3 degrees north latitude, 88.2 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

60

Seismo-geological models of stratigraphic sequences and their application to oil and gas exploration in west Siberia  

SciTech Connect

In west Siberia, large structural prospects for oil exploration have been exhausted. Further discoveries are expected to be made in small to medium structural traps and in lithostratigraphic traps. Prospecting and exploration for hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps is based on new seismo-geological models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences. In middle Paleozoic rocks, small hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in structural highs; the reservoirs are composed of fractured vuggy carbonates. Seismostratigraphic criteria for prediction of such traps are uncertain. The Lower-Middle Jurassic sequence consists of continental and partially of marine clastic rocks. The sequence is believed to contain considerable hydrocarbon resources in lithostratigraphic traps in basal sandstones and in pinch-out zones of Lower Jurassic sandstones. In the upper part of the sequence, oil pools have been discovered in channel sandstone bodies. Two different areas of oil accumulations are found in the Callovian-Oxfordian sequence. The Bazhenov Formation bituminous shales of Volgian-Berriasian contain sporadically distributed fractured-porous reservoirs. Accumulations in these reservoirs are characterized by irregular oil saturation. The Neocomian sequence consists of rocks deposited on the shallow-water shelf and on the basinal slope. Seismo-geological data indicate that the sequence is prospective for discovery of hydrocarbons in lithostratigraphic traps. The clinoform consists of laterally prograding strata; most prospective are frontal and depocentral parts of the strata which contain sandstone reservoirs of medium to poor quality. Lithostratigraphic traps in the shelf sequence can be found in the marginal parts of the paleoshelf where regional pinch-out zones and sandstones lenses are common. The Aptian-Cenomanian sequence deposited under terrestrial and coastal conditions is dominantly gas prone. New hydrocarbon discoveries in this sequence are expected in structural traps.

Mkrtchyan, O.M. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Combustible Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation))

1993-09-01

61

Jurassic Bazhenov Unit in the Salym oil field, West Siberia - An excellent source rock and fractured shale reservoir  

SciTech Connect

The Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Unit covers approximately 1 million km{sup 2} of West Siberia and is an excellent source rock. This Unit has proved to be a prolific shale reservoir in 14 local highs with the Salym oil field the major discovery. More than 300 wells have been drilled to date in this area, covering approximately 5800 km{sup 2}. The Bazhenov formation is composed of calcerous, organic-rich mudstone and siliceous hale lithofacies. Producing capacities of individual wells range from a few barrels daily to a maximum of 1000 bbl/day, and occasionally reaching 10,000 bbl/day. On average the porosity is 6.1%. The rock matrix is virtually impermeable and oil flow occurs via various types of fractures. All production is water free. The initial formation pressure ranges from normal hydrostatic to abnormally high, reaching 4060 and 6525 psi, respectively, at 2800 m depth. The temperature ranges from 180 to 280{degree} at depths from 2750 to 2950 m. The oil density varies between 30 and 46{degree} API, and the sulfur content ranges from 0.08 to 0.48%. The range of CO{sub 2} content in the associated gas is between 0.2 and 11.5%. Material of marine origin was the precursor organic matter of the kerogen for the Bazhenov Unit. The organic carbon content is high, ranging from 5 to 7% and occasionally reaching 15-20%. These are type II kerogens. The Bazhenov source rocks generate in situ high quality paraffin-base oils.

Petzoukha, Y.; Rovenskaya, A.; Zonn, M.; Kononkov, A. (Institute of Geology and Exploration of Fossil Fuels (Russian Federation))

1991-03-01

62

Structure and composition of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle beneath the Sangilen Plateau (Tuva, southern Siberia, Russia): Evidence from lamprophyre-hosted spinel peridotite xenoliths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new data on spinel peridotite xenoliths hosted in Agardag alkaline lamprophyres from the Sangilen Plateau (Tuva, South Siberia, Russia), sampling at ~ 450 Ma the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the Tuva-Mongolian micro-continent that belongs to the accretionary Central Asian orogenic belt at the southern edge of the Siberian craton. Xenoliths are spinel lherzolites principally showing poikilitic and subordinately coarse granular and coarse equigranular textures. Geothermobarometric calculations for pyroxene yield a narrow range of equilibration temperature (ca. 1000-1100 °C) that corresponds to lithospheric depths from 43 to 53 km (1.3-1.6 GPa) along a hot intracontinental geotherm. Variation of mean Mg# [100*Mg/(Mg + Fe)] of olivine (87.9-90.9) with mean Cr# [100*Cr/(Cr + Al)] of spinel (9.5-45.7) indicates that spinel lherzolites are mostly residues of up to 10% melting of a fertile peridotite source. In terms of normalized REE (Rare Earth Element) and incompatible trace element patterns of clinopyroxene, the Sangilen xenoliths can be classified into three types: Type I characterized by convex-upward REE patterns depleted in LREE (0.10 ? La/YbN ? 0.49), and with relative negative anomalies of Rb, Pb, Hf, Zr and Ti and positive spikes of U and Sr; Type II displaying variable LREE/HREE ratios (0.53 < La/YbN < 2.17) but generally flatter REE patterns) and similar abundances of other trace elements compared to Type I; and Type III showing a LREE enriched pattern [(La/Sm)N = 2.22; (La/Yb)N = 8.42], high REE contents and no relative anomalies of U and Sr. The elevated YbN concentration of one Type II clinopyroxene and the variable fractionation of LREE-MREE relative to HREE in most xenolith types indicate Sangilen xenoliths underwent variable metasomatic enrichment. This enrichment is well accounted by percolation-reaction between depleted peridotite and small-melt fractions of alkaline mafic melts precursor to the Agardag alkaline lamprophyres. The lack of correlation with depth of modal variations, textural types, inferred degrees of melting and trace element patterns in xenoliths indicates the absence of a texturally or compositionally layered lithospheric mantle sampled by Ordovician lamprophyres beneath the Sangilen plateau. The observed compositional variations are better accounted by depleted lithosphere variably metasomatized along a network of percolating alkaline mafic melts heterogeneously distributed throughout the Sangilen lithospheric mantle section.

Konc, Zoltán; Marchesi, Claudio; Hidas, Károly; Garrido, Carlos J.; Szabó, Csaba; Sharygin, Victor V.

2012-08-01

63

Geochemistry of selected oils and rocks from the central portion of the West Siberian basin, Russia  

SciTech Connect

Six analyzed oils, produced from Middle jurassic to Upper Cretaceous strata in the Middle Ob region of the West Siberian basin, show biomarker and stable carbon isotope compositions indicating an origin from the Upper Jurassic Bazhenov Formation. The chemical compositions of these oils are representative of more than 85% of the reserves in West Siberia (Kontorovich et al., 1975). Bazhenov-sourced oil in Cenomanian strata in the Van-Egan field underwent biodegradation in the reservoir, resulting in a low API gravity, an altered homohopane distribution, and the appearance of 25-norhopanes without alteration of the steranes. High API gravity oil from the Salym field has surpassed the peak of the oil window, consistent with abnormally high temperatures and pressures in the Bazhenov source rock from which it is produced. The remaining oils are very similar, including samples from Valanginian and Bathonian-Callovian intervals in a sequence of stacked reservoirs in the Fedorov field. Bazhenov rock samples from the study area contain abundant oil-prone, marine organic matter preserved under anoxic conditions. While the Upper Jurassic Vasyugan Formation shows lower oil-regenerative potential than the Bazhenov Formation, it cannot be excluded as a source rock because insufficient sample was available for biomarker analysis. Core from the Lower to Middle Jurassic Tyumen Formation in the YemYegov 15 well was compared with the oils because it is thermally mature and shows TOC and HI values, indicating slightly more favorable oil-generative characteristics than the average for the formation (2.75 wt. % for 270 samples; 95 mg HC/g TOC for 25 samples). The core contains terrigenous, gas-prone organic matter that shows no relationship with the analyzed oils. 59 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

Peters, K.E.; Huizinga, B.J. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)); Kontorovich, A.Eh.; Andrusevich, V.E. (Inst. of Geology, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)); Moldowan, J.M. (Chevron Petroleum Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)); Demaison, G.J. (Petroscience Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)); Stasova, O.F. (NPO SIBGEO, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation))

1993-05-01

64

[Species composition of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) and possibility of the West Nile virus natural foci formation in the South of Western Siberia].  

PubMed

In 2004 June-July collections of mosquito adults and small mammals were carried out in two areas of Novosibirsk Region (forest-steppe and steppe zones), where the West Nile virus (WNV) was for the first time recorded in birds with different migration status in 2002-2004. Seventeen species of mosquitoes were found; significant changes in their species composition and abundance, as compared with latest faunistic studies made in the sixties-seventies of the last century, are revealed. WNV markers (antigen, RNA) are found in small mammals; highly sensitive to the WNV replication mosquito species are also found. These facts allow supposing a possibility of the formation of stable West Nile virus natural foci in the South of Western Siberia, under conditions of forest-steppe and steppe zones. PMID:18411647

Kononova, Iu V; Mirzaeva, A G; Smirnova, Iu A; Protopopova, E V; Dupal, T A; Ternovo?, V A; Iurchenko, Iu A; Shestopalov, A M; Loktev, V B

2007-01-01

65

Analysis of MODIS imagery for detection of clear cuts in the boreal forest in north-west Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the feasibility of using MODIS images (MOD02 products) for the detection and monitoring of forest clear cuts in the boreal forest in north-west Russia. The proposed approach combines three change detection methods, including Change Vector Analysis, Textural Analysis using the coefficient of variation, and Constrained Energy Minimization analysis. For each individual method a series of thresholds was

TomᚠBucha; Hans-Jürgen Stibig

2008-01-01

66

The Incidence of West Nile Disease in Russia in Relation to Climatic and Environmental Factors  

PubMed Central

Since 1999, human cases of West Nile fever/neuroinvasive disease (WND) have been reported annually in Russia. The highest incidence has been recorded in three provinces of southern European Russia (Volgograd, Astrakhan and Rostov Provinces), yet in 2010–2012 the distribution of human cases expanded northwards considerably. From year to year, the number of WND cases varied widely, with major WND outbreaks in 1999, 2007, 2010, and 2012. The present study was aimed at identifying the most important climatic and environmental factors potentially affecting WND incidence in the three above-mentioned provinces and at building simple prognostic models, using those factors, by the decision trees method. The effects of 96 variables, including mean monthly temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, etc. were taken into account. The findings of this analysis show that an increase of human WND incidence, compared to the previous year, was mostly driven by higher temperatures in May and/or in June, as well as (to a lesser extent) by high August-September temperatures. Declining incidence was associated with cold winters (December and/or January, depending on the region and type of model). WND incidence also tended to decrease during year following major WND outbreaks. Combining this information, the future trend of WND may be, to some extent, predicted, in accordance with the climatic conditions observed before the summer peak of WND incidence. PMID:24464233

Platonov, Alexander E.; Tolpin, Vladimir A.; Gridneva, Kristina A.; Titkov, Anton V.; Platonova, Olga V.; Kolyasnikova, Nadezhda M.; Busani, Luca; Rezza, Giovanni

2014-01-01

67

Radiogenic argon distribution within a mineral grain: implications for dating of hydrothermal mineral-forming event in Sludyanka complex, Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Usually, in age-determination procedures, the experimenter is interested in the mean concentrations of parent and daughter substances. However, the structure of a solution of the Fick's diffusion equation enables one to specify a procedure, allowing, through macroscopic experiments, one to determine the distribution of radiogenic argon (as well as any of other isotopes) within a mineral grain. Argon, influenced in the geological past by a metamorphic event, has a half-sinusoidal distribution, whereas argon preserved in geological time has a rectangular distribution. The ratio of the quantity of argon of the first type to the total argon is called an alpha-factor. It is believed that this coefficient can be of great interest for geochronological studies, being a symptom of virtual Ar losses and the time instant, at which they happened. A laboratory procedure and a mathematical algorithm to determine the alpha-factor are developed. As an example, a determination of the alpha-factor on a vein-phlogopite from the well-studied Sludyanka deposit, Southern Baikal, Siberia, Russia, is described. Rb-Sr isochron age on phlogopite-calcite-apatite paragenetic assemblage yielded 460+/-7 Ma and is constrained by U-Pb zircon ages of 471+/-1 and 447+/-2 Ma, respectively, on an emplacement of early syenites and monzonites and later 'post-phlogopitic' pegmatites [E.B. Salnikova, S.A. Sergeev, A.B. Kotov, S.Z. Yakovleva, R.H. Steiger, L.Z. Reznitskiy, E.P. Vasil'ev. U-Pb zircon dating of granulite metamorphism in the Sludyanskiy complex, Eastern Siberia. Gondwana Res., 1, 195-205 (1998). L.Z. Reznitskii, G.P. Sandimirova, Y.A. Pakhol'chenko, S.V. Kuznetsova. The Rb-Sr age of phlogopite deposits in Sludyanka, southern Baikal region. Dokl. Earth Sci., 367, 711-713 (1999). L.Z. Reznitskii, A.B. Kotov, E.B. Salnikova, E.P. Vasil'ev, S.Z. Yakovleva, V.P. Kovach, A.M. Fedoseenko. The age and time span of the origin of phlogopite and lazurite deposits in the Southwestern Baikal area: U-Pb geochronology. Petrology, 8, 66-76 (2000).]. In this study, the phlogopite gave an apparent K-Ar age of 365.6+/-10.4 Ma which has no geological meaning. The alpha-factor of 0.27 was derived from a laboratory kinetic experiment. The age determined by the rectangularly distributed argon corresponded to alphax0.129 nmm3/g (total radiogenic argon in the sample)=94.17 nmm3/g, and an age of approximately 274 Ma (e.g. a period without any argon losses). Here, at the first sight, we deal with common argon losses not conjugated with any geological event, because after 447 Ma only lower temperature (in a range of 50-300 degrees C) hydrothermal processes were recorded. A paragenetic phlogopite-bearing vein mineral, hyalophane, having a disturbed Rb-Sr isotopic system, however, yielded 40Ar/39Ar subplateau age of 271+/-2 Ma [V.V. Ivanenko, M.I. Karpenko, M.A. Litsarev. Age of the Sludyanka phlogopite deposits (in Russian; data of the 39Ar-40Ar method). In Geological Series 5, pp. 92-98, Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Moskva (1990).], marking similar timing of the K-Ar isotopic system closure. This indicates that K-Ar isotopic system in the phlogopite was not closed (or was partially reset) long after its crystallisation and closing of the Rb-Sr system, in spite of the fact that the crystal was not affected by processes having temperatures above the accepted closure temperatures for micas. There seems to have acted an exchange mechanism of OH-groups between surrounding fluid and hydrocrystal structure. Thus the argon loss did not occur, spontaneously, but argon particles seem to have been captured and carried to the mineral surface by vacancies formed during displacements of OH-groups. PMID:16707319

Brandt, Ivan S; Rasskazov, Sergei V; Ivanov, Alexei V; Reznitskii, Leonid Z; Brandt, Sergei B

2006-06-01

68

[Density-dependent regulation in populations of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) in optimal and suboptimal habitats of south-west Siberia].  

PubMed

In a population of red-backed voles (Myodes rutilus) that live in optimal habitats (mountain taiga of North-Eastern Altai) in the years of peak density we have observed total suppression of sexual maturation of young animals which is known to be the main mechanism of density regulation. Increase of voles' local density is accompanied by the increase of glucocorticoids in blood of mature and immature individuals of both sexes that argues for the important role of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in density dependent regulation. Another population of red-backed voles from south-west Siberia that live in suboptimal habitats (Novosibirsk city vicinity), had significantly lower density. Here, the dynamics of demographic traits and endocrine status of the individuals did not correlate with interannual fluctuations of abundance and density. Even though, the possibility that in suboptimal conditions local density occasionally reaches the values sufficient for the induction of self-regulation cannot be excluded. PMID:22567967

Novikov, E A; Panov, V V; Moshkin, M P

2012-01-01

69

[Telomere length in the population of long-lived persons of North-West region of Russia].  

PubMed

Interdisciplinary study of telomere length, polymorphism of genes of renin-angiotensin (ACE) and serotonin (5HTR2A and 5HTTPR) systems in population of aged and old inhabitants of the North-West of Russia was conducted, in their relations to data from clinical and geriatric anamnesis, and psychological functioning. Regular link between telomere length and respondent's age was demonstrated in subgroups of old respondents and long-livers, by method of factor analysis. PMID:22827042

Smirnova, T Iu; Runov, A L; Vonski?, M S; Spivak, D L; Zakharchuk, A G; Mikhel'son, V M; Spivak, I M

2012-01-01

70

Eimeria Species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Arctic Ground Squirrels (Spermophilus parryii ) and Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%),

Robert S. Seville; Clint E. Oliver; Andrew J. Lynch; Michelle C. Bryant; Donald W. Duszynski

2005-01-01

71

Sub-fossil beetle assemblages associated with the “mammoth fauna” in the Late Pleistocene localities of the Ural Mountains and West Siberia  

PubMed Central

Abstract The distribution of beetles at the end of the Middle Pleninglacial (=terminal Quaternary) was examined based on sub-fossil material from the Ural Mountains and Western Siberia, Russia. All relevant localities of fossil insects have similar radiocarbon dates, ranging between 33,000 and 22,000 C14 years ago. Being situated across the vast territory from the southern Ural Mountains in the South to the middle Yamal Peninsula in the North, they allow latitudinal changes in beetle assemblages of that time to be traced. These beetles lived simultaneously with mammals of the so-called “mammoth fauna” with mammoth, bison, and wooly rhinoceros, the often co-occurring mega-mammalian bones at some of the sites being evidence of this. The beetle assemblages found between 59° and 57°N appear to be the most interesting. Their bulk is referred to as a “mixed” type, one which includes a characteristic combination of arcto-boreal, boreal, steppe and polyzonal species showing no analogues among recent insect complexes. These peculiar faunas seem to have represented a particular zonal type, which disappeared since the end of the Last Glaciation to arrive here with the extinction of the mammoth biota. In contrast, on the sites lying north of 60°N, the beetle communities were similar to modern sub-arctic and arctic faunas, yet with the participation of some sub-boreal steppe components, such as Poecilus ravus Lutshnik and Carabus sibiricus Fischer-Waldheim. This information, when compared with our knowledge of synchronous insect faunas from other regions of northern Eurasia, suggests that the former distribution of beetles in this region could be accounted for both by palaeo-environmental conditions and the impact of grazing by large ruminant mammals across the so-called “mammoth savannas”. PMID:21738409

Zinovyev, Evgeniy

2011-01-01

72

Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) and red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska and in Siberia, Russia.  

PubMed

Fecal samples from arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) collected in Alaska (n = 90) and Russia (n = 46) and from red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in Alaska (n = 35) were examined for the presence of Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Four species were recovered from arctic ground squirrels, including Eimeria callospermophili (prevalence = 18%), Eimeria cynomysis (23.5%), Eimeria lateralis (19%), and Eimeria morainensis (77%). A single species, Eimeria tamiasciuri (91%), was recovered from red squirrels. Eimerians recovered from arctic ground squirrels represent new host records, and the single species from red squirrels is a new geographic record. Alaskan arctic ground squirrel prevalence was higher for E. callospermophili (Alaska = 22% vs. Russia = 9%), E. cynomysis (34% vs. 2%), and E. lateralis (27% vs. 4%), but not E. morainensis (78% vs. 76%). PMID:17089755

Seville, Robert S; Oliver, Clint E; Lynch, Andrew J; Bryant, Michelle C; Duszynski, Donald W

2005-08-01

73

[The genotyping of the West Nile virus in birds in the far eastern region of Russia in 2002-2004].  

PubMed

Samples from 20 species of trapped and dead birds were collected in the Far Eastern Region in 2002-2004 and were analyzed by the anti-WNV MAb-modified immunoenzyme assay for antigen detection and RT-PCR for viral RNA detection. Five positive samples from cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus) and two positive samples from cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) were found in both tests. The sequencing of the 322 bp fragments of protein E gene showed 99-99.67% homology with the strain WNV/LEIV-VlgOO-27924 of the WNV isolated in Volgograd, Russia, 2000. Additionally, five positive samples from birds (Pica pica, Corvus macrorhynchos, Larus crossirostris, Parus minor, Emberiza spodocephala) collected in autumn 2004 were found during screening with anti-WNV MAb-modified ELISA. These results confirm that the WNV is circulating in the Far Eastern Region of Russia and outbreaks of WN fever in humans may be possible. This demonstrates that the genotype 1a of the West Nile virus could spread in the southern regions of the Far East by migrating birds and introduction of the WNV into other southern regions of the Asian part of Russia are probably. PMID:17094656

Ternovo?, V A; Protopopova, E V; Surmach, S G; Gazetdinov, M V; Zolotykh, S I; Shestopalov, A M; Pavlenko, E V; Leonova, G N; Loktev, V B

2006-01-01

74

Enriched Nd-Sr-Pb isotopic signatures in the Dovyren layered intrusion ( eastern Siberia, Russia): Evidence for source contamination by ancient upper-crustal material  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Major- and trace-element concentrations and Nd-, Sr- and Pb-isotopic ratios are reported for the Dovyren layered mafic-ultramafic intrusion in the northern Baikal region, eastern Siberia. Sm-Nd internal isochrons for an olivine gabbro from the layered series and a gabbronorite from a sill at the bottom of the Dovyren intrusion yield ages of 673 ?? 22 and 707 ?? 40 Ma, respectively. Initial isotopic ratios: 87Sr/86Sr (673) from 0.7101 to 0.7135, ??Nd(673 Ma) from - 16.3 to - 14.1, 206Pb/204Pb from 16.80 to 17.14, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.477 to 15.501 and 208Pb/204Pb from 37.17 to 37.59, are similar to those of late Archean-early Proterozoic upper continental crust, but do not appear to be a result of wallrock assimilation in the magma chamber. These isotopic features, as well as high K, Rb and LREE and low Ti concentrations in the calculated composition of the Dovyren parental magma, may be explained by subduction of sediments derived from upper continental crust into depleted mantle and subsequent melting of the metasomatized peridotite.

Amelin, Yu. V.; Neymark, L.A.; Ritsk, E. Yu; Nemchin, A.A.

1996-01-01

75

Detecting crop yield reduction due to irrigation-induced soil salinization in South-West Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The South-European part of the Russian Federation has experienced serious land degradation in the form of soil salinization since the 1960s. This land degradation was caused by intensive, large-scale irrigation on reclaimed land in combination with the salt-rich nature of the substrate. Alkaline soil salinity is believed to be an important factor decreasing crop yield in this area. A large research effort has been directed to the effects of soil salinity on crops, there is a need for simple, easily determinable indicators of crop health and soil salinity in irrigated systems, that can help to detect crop water stress in an early stage. The objectives of this research were to study the effects of soil salinity and vegetation water stress on the performance of alfalfa crop yield and physiological crop properties, and to study the possibility to measure soil salinity and alkalinity and the crop water stress index at plot level using a thermal gun and a regular digital camera. The study area was located in Saratov District, in the South-West part of Russia. Variables on the surface energy balance, crop properties, soil properties and visible reflectance were measured on plots with alfalfa cultures in two fields with and without signs of alkaline soil salinity, and with and without irrigation in July 2009. The research showed no clear adverse effects of soil salinity and soil alkalinity on crop yield and physiological crop properties. Soil salinity, as reflected by the electric conductivity, positively affected the root biomass of alfalfa in the range of 0.15 to 1.52 dS/m . This was a result of EC levels being below the documented threshold to negatively affect Alfalfa, as would be the case in truly saline soils. The soil pH also showed a positive correlation with root biomass within the range of pH 6.2 and 8.5 . From the literature these pH values are generally believed to be too high to exhibit a positive relationship with root biomass. No relationship was found between EC and pH on the one hand , and soil moisture content on the other. However, soil moisture content in the topsoil appeared to have a major influence on the crop water stress index, which on its turn affected the leaf area index, the fresh biomass and the mean plant height. The crop leaf color as detected by a regular digital camera appeared to be correlated with pH and EC properties of the soil. The visible light band ratios red/green and blue/green correlated well with the crop water stress index. More research is necessary to prove if this relation is applicable in different environments, and for different crops. A confirmation of these findings would offer scope to increase the spatial support of this technique using satellite images.

Argaman, E.; Beets, W.; Croes, J.; Keesstra, S.; Verzandvoort, S.; Zeiliguer, A.

2012-04-01

76

Species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in shrews from Alaska, U.S.A., and northeastern Siberia, Russia, with description of two new species.  

PubMed

Fecal samples (n = 636) from 10 species of shrews collected in Alaska (n = 540) and northeastern Siberia (n = 96) were examined for the presence of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Five distinct oocyst morphotypes were observed. Three types were consistent with oocysts of previously recognized coccidia species from other shrew hosts. These were Eimeria inyoni, E. vagrantis, and Isospora brevicauda, originally described from the inyo shrew (Sorex tenellus), dusky shrew (S. monticolus), and northern short-tailed shrew (Blarina brevicauda), respectively. We found 5 new host records for E. inyoni, 3 for E. vagrantis, and 3 for I. brevicauda. The 2 additional oocyst morphotypes, both from the tundra shrew (Sorex tundrensis), are putative new species. Sporulated oocysts of Eimeria beringiacea n. sp. are subspheroidal, 17.7 x 15.6 microm (14-24 x 13-20 microm) with a length (L)/width (W) ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.4); these lack a micropyle (M), an oocyst residuum (OR), and a polar granule (PG). Sporocysts are ellipsoidal, 10.3 x 6.1 microm (7-14 x 4-8 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.7 (1.3-2.3) and have a Stieda body (SB), Substieda body (SSB), and sporocyst residuum (SR). Oocysts of Eimeria tundraensis n. sp. are spheroidal to subspheroidal, 24.8 x 23.5 microm (23-26 x 22-25 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.1 (1.0-1.2); these lack a M and OR, but a single PG is present. Sporocysts are elongate ellipsoidal, 15.4 x 8.3 microm (13-17 x 7-9 microm), with a L/W ratio of 1.9 (1.4-2.1) and have a SB, SSB, and SR. PMID:18576829

Lynch, A J; Duszynski, D W

2008-08-01

77

IMMIGRATION, THE AMERICAN WEST, AND THE TWENTIETH CENTURY: GERMAN FROM RUSSIA, OMAHA INDIAN, AND VIETNAMESE-URBAN VILLAGERS IN LINCOLN, NEBRASKA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North American West is a culturally and geographically diverse region that has long been a beacon for successive waves of human immigration and migration. A case in point, the population of Lincoln, Nebraska -- a capital city on the eastern cusp of the Great Plains -- was augmented during the twentieth century by significant influxes of Germans from Russia,

Kurt Kinbacher

2006-01-01

78

The East Atlantic - West Russia Teleconnection in the North Atlantic: Climate Impact and Relation to Rossby Wave Propagation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Large-scale winter teleconnection of the East Atlantic - West Russia (EA-WR) over the Atlantic and surrounding regions is examined in order to quantify its impacts on temperature and precipitation and identify the physical mechanisms responsible for its existence. A rotated empirical orthogonal function (REOF) analysis of the upper-tropospheric monthly height field captures successfully the EA-WR pattern and its interannual variation, with the North Atlantic Oscillation as the first mode. EA-WRs climate impact extends from eastern North America to Eurasia. The positive (negative) EA-WR produces positive (negative) temperature anomalies over the eastern US, western Europe and Russia east of Caspian Sea, with negative (positive) anomalies over eastern Canada, eastern Europe including Ural Mountains and the Middle East. These anomalies are largely explained by lower-tropospheric temperature advections. Positive (negative) precipitation anomalies are found over the mid-latitude Atlantic and central Russia around 60E, where lower-level cyclonic (anticyclonic) circulation anomaly is dominant. The eastern Canada and the western Europe are characterized by negative (positive) precipitation anomalies.The EA-WR is found to be closely associated with Rossby wave propagation. Wave activity fluxes show that it is strongly tied to large-scale stationary waves. Furthermore, a stationary wave model (SWM) forced with vorticity transients in the mid-latitude Atlantic (approximately 40N) or diabatic heat source over the subtropical Atlantic near the Caribbean Sea produces well-organized EA-WR-like wave patterns, respectively. Sensitivity tests with the SWM indicate improvement in the simulation of the EA-WR when the mean state is modified to have a positive NAO component that enhances upper-level westerlies between 40-60N.

Lim, Young-Kwon

2014-01-01

79

Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen

M. V. Luchitskaya; S. D. Sokolov; G. E. Bondarenko; S. M. Katkov

2009-01-01

80

High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia  

PubMed Central

Objectives The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence) varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (?13910 C/C genotype) among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (?13910 C/C) among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis. PMID:22564469

Khabarova, Yulia; Grigoryeva, Valentina; Tuomisto, Sari; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Mattila, Kari; Isokoski, Mauri

2012-01-01

81

Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic developments make the tour unique and very attractive for BSc and MSc students and soil science professionals. Detailed information about the next tour is under: www.uni-goettingen.de/soilrus

Kuzyakov, Yakov

2013-04-01

82

Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309  

SciTech Connect

Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation protection infrastructure and general preparation of the site for construction of the facilities for the removal of the SNF. This paper describes the development and implementation of the strategy and work to improve the safe and secure management of SNF, preparing it for retrieval and removal from Andreeva Bay. (authors)

Field, D.; McAtamney, N. [Nuvia Limited (United Kingdom)] [Nuvia Limited (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

83

[The role of mutation of gene cyp1A1 and benzapilene in cytogenetic changes of urinary tract epitheliocytes in oil industry workers employed in the oil fields of the North of West Siberia].  

PubMed

The examination of 477 oil industry workers and office personnel (control) employed in the oil fields of the North of Tomsk and Tyumen regions has detected increased number of epithelyocytes with micronuclei and an elevated urine level ofbenzapilene in workers employed in oil production. Especially pronounced changes of the above parameters were observed in men with mutant alleles Val of CYP1A1 gene. An enhanced mutation process in oil production workers may be due to a resultant action of different factors on human genome. Involved may be both mutagens and factors of comutagenic nature. The results obtained in this study suggest a conclusion about urgent need of introduction of new scientifically validated criteria of selection of personnel for oil production in the North of the West Siberia. Health examination of the applicants must include genotyping. PMID:22448487

Il'inskikh, N N; Il'inskikh, E N; Il'inskikh, I N; Iamkovaia, E V

2011-01-01

84

Genesis of the Khaluta alkaline-basic Ba-Sr carbonatite complex (West Transbaikala, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Khaluta carbonatite complex comprizes fenites, alkaline syenites and shonkinites, and calcite and dolomite carbonatites. Textural and compositional criteria, melt inclusions, geochemical and isotopic data, and comparisons with relevant experimental systems show that the complex formed by liquid immiscibility of a carbonate-saturated parental silicate melt. Mineral and stable isotope geothermometers and melt inclusion measurements for the silicate rocks and carbonatite all give temperatures of crystallization of 915-1,000°C and 890-470°C, respectively. Melt inclusions containing sulphate minerals, and sulphate-rich minerals, most notably apatite and monazite, occur in all of the lithologies in the Khaluta complex. All lithologies, from fenites through shonkinites and syenites to calcite and dolomite carbonatites, and to hydrothermal mineralisation are further characterized by high Ba and Sr activity, as well as that of SO3 with formation of the sulphate minerals baryte, celestine and baryte-celestine. Thus, the characteristic features of the Khaluta parental melt were elevated concentrations of SO3, Ba and Sr. In addition to the presence of SO3, calculated fO2 for magnetites indicate a high oxygen fugacity and that Fe+3>Fe+2 in the Khaluta parental melt. Our findings suggest that the mantle source for Khaluta carbonatite and associated rocks, as well as for other carbonatites of the West Transbaikalia carbonatite province, were SO3-rich and characterized by high oxygen fugacity.

Doroshkevich, Anna G.; Ripp, German S.; Moore, Kathryn R.

2010-03-01

85

Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) [11]; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits [11]. Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°? and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits [11]; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons [14]. Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15]. Analyses of cores of some zircons from granodiorites of Lupveem batholith indicate Precambrian age of protolith (717, 1070.4 and 1581.5 m.a.) [15]. 40Ar-39Ar age of synmetamorphic biotite varies from 108 to 103 m.a. [15]. Intrusive rocks of Alarmaut dome are represented by wide spectrum of rocks: diorites, Q diorites, Q monzodiorites, granodiorites, tonalites, granites. Granodiorites and granites contain mafic enclaves of monzonites and Q monzonites. SiO2 contents in rocks of Alarmaut dome varies from 58,55% in diorites to 71,3% in granites; in enclaves - from 54,6% in monzonites to 61.89% in Q monzonites. Granitoids are normal and subalkaline rocks according to SiO2 vs K2O+Na2O and belong to high-K calc-alkaline and shoshonite series according to K2O vs SiO2. They are mainly metaluminous rocks (ASI < 1.0). REE patterns of intermediate rocks are characterized by LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and insignificant negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=8,42-15,69; Eu/Eu*=0,66-0,94). Granodiorites and granites REE patterns are more enriched in LREE, more depleted in HREE and have deeper negative Eu-anomaly (LaN/YbN=11,48-45,6; Eu/Eu*=0,47-0,81). REE patterns of monzonites from enclaves in granites and granodiorites are similar to patterns of host rocks. REE patterns of intermediate rocks and granodiorites are well correlated with those of "mafic root" rocks of K2 Kigluaik pluton from the core part of the same name gneiss dome, Seward Peninsula, Alaska [16], and K1-2 granitoids of Chauna fold zone, West Chukotka [17]. Spidergrams of granitoids and enclaves are similar and characterized by LILE, LREE enrichment and Nb, Sr, P, Ti depletion, typical for supra-subduction magmatites. On F1-F2 diagram [18], separating granitoids by geodynamic settings, granitoids fall in the field of collisional granites; on Rb vs Y+Nb diagram, along the boundary between the fields of syncollisional granites and volcanic arc granites, but within the field of postcollisional [19]. Geochronological and structural data indicate temporal relation between magmatism, metamorphism and d

Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

2009-04-01

86

Return to Siberia: The 2008 Kotuykan River Expedition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the September-October 2007 issue of'The Earth Observer [volume 19, Number 4, pp. 13-21] we presented an article entitled "Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account." In that article we shared excerpts from a blog that chronicled the adventures of a team of scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science as they embarked on a three-week adventure in the wilds of Siberia in hopes of collecting measurements to validate data from satellites flying 700 km overhead. The same team, plus a couple new participants, headed back to Siberia this past sumner and we are now pleased to present the continuation of their story. For more background details on the expedition to Siberia or if you missed the first part of the story, please refer to the previous article.

Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

2009-01-01

87

A new species and new records of the genus Eustigmaeus (Acari: Prostigmata: Stigmaeidae) from Western Siberia.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Eustigmaeus Berlese, 1910 (Acari: Stigmaeidae), E. tjumeniensis sp. nov. is described from mosses of fens in Western Siberia, Russia. Eutigmaeus collarti (Cooreman, 1955), E. ioanninensis Kapaxidi and Papadoulis, 1999, E. jiangxiensis Hu, Chen and Huang, 1996 are recorded from Russia for the first time. Eustigmaeus parvisetus (Chaudhri, 1965) is recorded from Eurasia for the first time. Eustigmaeus collarti and E. parvisetus are redescribed based on material from Western Siberia. A key to Eustigmaeus species of Russia is provided. PMID:25283428

Khaustov, Alexander A; Tolstikov, Andrei V

2014-01-01

88

Expedition to Siberia: A Firsthand Account  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nowhere on Earth is warming faster than the Arctic. In northern Siberia, average temperatures have risen 3-5 deg F over the past 30 years, whereas the worldwide average increase in that time is 1 deg F. Betweeen July 28 and August 12, 2007, a small international team of remote sensing and forest ecosystem scientists from NASA and Russia's Academy of Science set off on a three-week scientific expedition through the heart of the remote, wild forests of Siberia. They traveled southward down the Kochechum River observing the gradual transition from tundra to taiga, taking inventory of plant species along the way, and making ground-truth measurements to validate data being collected by several NASA satellites flying 700 kilometers overhead.

Ranson, Jon; Kharuk, Slava; Howl, Joanne

2007-01-01

89

Ongoing climatic extreme dynamics in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ongoing global climate changes accompanied by the restructuring of global processes in the atmosphere and biosphere are strongly pronounced in the Northern Eurasia regions, especially in Siberia. Recent investigations indicate not only large changes in averaged climatic characteristics (Kabanov and Lykosov, 2006, IPCC, 2007; Groisman and Gutman, 2012), but more frequent occurrence and stronger impacts of climatic extremes are reported as well (Bulygina et al., 2007; IPCC, 2012: Climate Extremes, 2012; Oldenborh et al., 2013). This paper provides the results of daily temperature and precipitation extreme dynamics in Siberia for the last three decades (1979 - 2012). Their seasonal dynamics is assessed using 10th and 90th percentile-based threshold indices that characterize frequency, intensity and duration of climatic extremes. To obtain the geographical pattern of these variations with high spatial resolution, the sub-daily temperature data from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis and daily precipitation amounts from APHRODITE JMA dataset were used. All extreme indices and linear trend coefficients have been calculated using web-GIS information-computational platform Climate (http://climate.scert.ru/) developed to support collaborative multidisciplinary investigations of regional climatic changes and their impacts (Gordov et al., 2012). Obtained results show that seasonal dynamics of daily temperature extremes is asymmetric for tails of cold and warm temperature extreme distributions. Namely, the intensity of warming during cold nights is higher than during warm nights, especially at high latitudes of Siberia. The similar dynamics is observed for cold and warm day-time temperatures. Slight summer cooling was observed in the central part of Siberia. It is associated with decrease in warm temperature extremes. In the southern Siberia in winter, we also observe some cooling mostly due to strengthening of the cold temperature extremes. Changes in daily precipitation extremes are spatially inhomogeneous. The largest increase in frequency and intensity of heavy precipitation is observed in the north of East Siberia. Negative trends related to precipitation amount decrease are found in the central West Siberia and in the south of East Siberia. The authors acknowledge partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research projects (11-05-01190 and 13-05-12034), SB RAS Integration project 131 and project VIII.80.2.1., the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation contract 8345 and grant of the President of Russian Federation (decree 181).

Gordov, E. P.; Shulgina, T. M.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Titov, A. G.

2013-12-01

90

International Permafrost Field Courses in Siberia: the Synthesis of Research and Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During summers of 2007 and 2008 a series of International University Courses on Permafrost (IUCP) were conducted in West Siberia, Russia. Courses were organized as part of the International Permafrost Association (IPA) International Polar Year activities. The North of West Siberia region was selected to represent diverse permafrost, climatic and landscape conditions. The courses were jointly organized by the Moscow State University (MSU) and the Tumen' Oil and Gas University (TOGU) with the help from German and U.S. institutions. The program attracted undergraduate and graduate students with diverse interests and backgrounds from Germany, Russia and the U.S. and involved instructors specializing in different aspects of permafrost research. Courses were designed to address three major topics of permafrost-related research: a) permafrost environments characteristic of the discontinuous and continuous zones; b) field instrumentation and techniques; c) permafrost engineering and problems of development in permafrost regions. Methodologically, courses consisted of systematic permafrost investigations at long-term monitoring sites and survey-type expeditions. Systematic, process-based investigations were conducted at a network of sites which constitute the TEPO established by TOGU in collaboration with the gas company NadymGasProm. The observation complex includes an array of 30-m deep boreholes equipped with automatic data collection systems and representing characteristic permafrost landscapes of West Siberia. Boreholes are complemented by sites for snow cover, vegetation, soil, ground ice, and geomorphologic investigations. As part of student research activities, four new Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) sites were established in proximity to boreholes for monitoring spatial distribution and long-term dynamic of the active layer. New sites represent diverse landscapes characteristic of the West Siberian previously underrepresented in the CALM network. Specific emphasis was made on the study of permafrost soils. Throughout the course students were exposed to a wide range of field techniques, including surveying, coring, geothermal monitoring, thaw-depth measurements, landscape characterization, geomorphologic investigations, soil description and classification according to International, Russian, German, and U.S. classification schemes, and hydrologic and botanical field investigations. Significant portion of the course curriculum was devoted to problems of industrial development in permafrost regions. Pipelines, material sites, operating gas wells, processing plants, pump stations, and permafrost engineering testing facilities associated with three major gas fields (Yamburg, Yubileinoe, and Zapolyarnoe) were visited as part of the field excursions. Several meetings with Russian gas industry executives and workers were arranged to openly discuss economic and political issues associated with GasProm activities in West Siberia. The field work was complemented by daily lectures prepared by instructors and students, covering a wide range of topics. Students also participated in active permafrost research through daily data collection and analysis activities. Analysis of the diverse data sets obtained during the course was conducted at Moscow State University, presented in a series of detailed reports. The data collected by students were contributed to the international IPY permafrost monitoring programmes. Several students have presented results of their research at the Ninth International Conference on Permafrost and other national and international scientific meetings. This presentation describes research and educational activities of the IUCP, provides results of student research, and outlines the plan for the future.

Ablyazina, D.; Boitsov, A.; Grebenets, V.; Kaverin, D.; Klene, A.; Kurchatova, A.; Pfeiffer, E. M.; Zschocke, A.; Shiklomanov, N.; Streletskiy, D.

2009-04-01

91

Aircraft and tower measurements of CO2 concentration in the planetary boundary layer and the lower free troposphere over southern taiga in West Siberia: Long-term records from 2002 to 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

situ measurements of the vertical distribution of carbon dioxide (CO2) carried out with a light aircraft over a tower site (Berezorechka; 56°08'45?N, 84°19'49?E) in the taiga region of West Siberia from October 2001 to March 2012 document the detailed seasonal and vertical variation of CO2 concentrations during daytime. The variation appears to be controlled mainly by the CO2 flux from taiga ecosystems and the height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). We calculated average CO2 concentrations in the PBL and the lower free troposphere (LFT), both of which show clear seasonal cycles and an increasing long-term trend. Seasonal amplitude in the PBL had a larger value (29 ppm) than that in the LFT (14 ppm), demonstrating strong CO2 source-sink forcing by the taiga ecosystems. Mean CO2 concentrations during 13:00-17:00 local standard time observed at the four levels of the tower (5, 20, 40, and 80 m) showed lower CO2 concentrations than that observed in the PBL by aircraft during June-August (growing season). This negative bias decreased with increasing inlet height such that the minimum difference appeared at the 80-m inlet (-2.4 ± 0.8 ppm). No such bias was observed during other months (dormant season). The daytime CO2 flux, based on multiple vertical profiles obtained on a single day, ranged from -36.4 to 3.8 µmol m-2 s-1 during July-September. There was a clear difference in the fluxes between the morning and afternoon, suggesting that these data should be considered examples of fluxes during several daytime hours from the West Siberian taiga.

Sasakawa, M.; Machida, T.; Tsuda, N.; Arshinov, M.; Davydov, D.; Fofonov, A.; Krasnov, O.

2013-08-01

92

Boundaries and clines in the West Eurasian Y-chromosome landscape: insights from the European part of Russia.  

PubMed

Previous studies of Y chromosome variation have revealed that western Europe, the Volga-Ural region, and the Caucasus differ dramatically with respect to Y-SNP haplogroup composition. The European part of Russia is situated in between these three regions; to determine if these differences reflect clines or boundaries in the Y-chromosome landscape, we analyzed 12 Y-SNPs in 545 males from 12 populations from the European part of Russia. The majority of Russian Y chromosomes (from 74% to 94%) belong to three Y chromosomal lineages [I-M170, R1a1-M17, and N3-TAT] that are also frequent in the rest of east Europe, north Europe, and/or in the Volga-Ural region. We find significant but low correlations between haplogroup frequencies and the geographic location of populations, suggesting gradual change in the Y chromosome gene pool across western Eurasia. However, we also find some significant boundaries between populations, suggesting that both isolation and migration have influenced the Y chromosome landscape. PMID:18470899

Fechner, Angela; Quinque, Dominique; Rychkov, Sergey; Morozowa, Irina; Naumova, Oksana; Schneider, Yuriy; Willuweit, Sascha; Zhukova, Olga; Roewer, Lutz; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan

2008-09-01

93

Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Malformations among Newborns in Monchegorsk (North-West Russia): a Register-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular malformations (CVM) are one of the most prevalent groups of birth defects. Knowledge about the prevalence, distribution and survival in Russia has been limited. The aim of our study was to assess the perinatal prevalence, structure and risk factors for CVM among newborns in Monchegorsk (Murmansk Oblast, Russia) and the mortality among the affected newborns in the period 1973-2008. Design and methods A register-based study on data from the Kola and Murmansk County Birth Registers. The study included 28,511 births. Results The registered perinatal prevalence was 3.0 per 1000 new-borns, with septal defects as the most prevalent. CVM was twenty times more prevalent among stillborn than live born, and one-third of the live born with a CVM died during the first week of life. The perinatal mortality rate with CVM was 442 per 1000 newborns. This indicator decreased over time. The mothers of newborns with a CVM were ten times more likely to have stillbirth in their anamnesis. The adjusted odds ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CVM was 4.09 [95% confidence interval: 1.75-9.53]. Conclusions The diagnosed perinatal prevalence was relatively low. A previous stillbirth by the mother was highly associated with being born with a CVM. An adjusted elevated risk was also observed among smoking mothers. Perinatal survival increased over time, but varied to a large extent between the different types of CVM. Significance for public health Cardiovascular malformation is one of the most common groups of birth defects. It is considered an important public health issue, as these malformations are the main cause of infant deaths in developed countries. Precise estimates about the prevalence and perinatal survival are needed to organise and plan health care for such newborns. Our study is the first report from the Russian Federation based on data from population-based birth registers. PMID:25343136

Postoev, Vitaly A.; Talykova, Ljudmila V.; Vaktskjold, Arild

2014-01-01

94

[Results of studies of human dirofilariasis in Russia].  

PubMed

Human dirofilariasis is a pressing health problem in Russia. By 2014, there have been as many as 850 Dirofilaria repens-infested people living in 42 subjects of the Russian Federation. One of the favorable factors for circulation and spread of invasion is a temperature of above +20-24 degrees C; when the latter is maintained during at least 20 days there may be 1.-1.5 circulations of invasion in the carrier and a 2.8-fold increase in transmission intensity. The border ofa dirofilariasis area with a temperate climate is southward to 58 degrees N in European Russia and West Siberia and southward to 50 degrees N in the Far East. The conditions in the human body have been found to be more favorable for the development of Dirofilaria than considered before and allow the helminth to achieve sexual maturity and to propagate. If man has microfilaremia, he may be a source of invasion. It is necessary to examine venous blood by the enrichment method and, if possible, polymerase chain reaction and enzyme immunoassay, which make it possible to establish a diagnosis in occult invasion and to identify a pathogen species. PMID:25286541

Sergiev, V P; Supriaga, V G; Bronshte?n, A M; Ganushkina, L A; Rakova, V M; Morozov, E N; Fedianina, L V; Frolova, A A; Morozova, L F; Ivanova, I B; Darchenkova, N N; Zhukova, L A

2014-01-01

95

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in post-pyrogenic soils of drained peatlands in West Meshchera (Moscow Region, Russia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are priority pollutants and they arrive to the environment from numerous anthropogenic and natural sources, but the data on their natural sources which include wildfires remains insufficient. The level of contamination and the composition of PAHs in soils of the areas affected by wildfires were studied in this work. The study was conducted in Moscow Region (Russia) on the territories occupied with drained peatland and strongly damaged by fires of 2002, 2010 and 2012. The features of PAHs accumulation and profile distribution in histosols and histic podzols after the fires of different time were analyzed. It was shown that new soil horizon form after the fires - Cpir, Hpir and incipient O horizons, and these horizons differ in PAHs accumulation rate. Maximal total concentrations of 14 PAHs were detected in charry peat horizons Hpir (up to 330 ng g-1) and in post-pyrogenic incipient O horizons (up to 180 ng g-1), but the high-molecular weight PAHs (benz(ghi)perylene, benz(a)pyrene, benz(k)fluoranthene) were revealed only in charry peat horizons. The trends to higher PAHs concentrations were found in cases of incomplete burning out of peat horizons while in cases of almost complete pyrogenic destruction of He horizons total PAHs concentration were no more than 50 ng g-1. Also the PAHs accumulation in upper horizons of soils near the sites of latest fires was observed.

Tsibart, A. S.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Koshovskii, T. S.

2014-05-01

96

Aluminium phosphate and phosphate-sulphate minerals in kyanite schists of the Ichetuyskoye area, West Transbaikalia, Russia: crystal chemistry and evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aluminium phosphate and aluminium phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals occur as disseminated crystals and fine-grained aggregates in kyanite schists near Ichetuyskoye, in the Dzhida basin (West Transbaikal region, Russia). Petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data suggest a metamorphic evolution through prograde and retrograde stages. Lazulite-scorzalite and trolleite in association with kyanite, quartz, muscovite, paragonite, topaz, rutile, magnetite and hematite formed during the prograde stage. More than 25 minerals identified in schists are genetically related to the retrograde stage. Some phosphates and all of the APS minerals belong to the alunite, beudantite and plumbogummite groups. Electron-microprobe data reveal the presence of wide compositional variations and complex solid-solution series among the members. The main crystal-chemical variations of the APS solid-solution series in the alunite supergroup concern the relative proportions of svanbergite, woodhouseite, goyazite, crandallite, florencite-(Ce) and natroalunite. Chemical analyses of APS minerals indicate extremely high amounts of LREE, Sr, Ba, Ca and Na. In some cases, APS minerals have compositions of Ba and Ca,Ba phosphates- sulphates.

Izbrodin, Ivan A.; Ripp, German S.; Doroshkevich, Anna G.

2011-01-01

97

Economic change, crime, and mortality crisis in Russia: regional analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective: To identify which aspects of socioeconomic change were associated with the steep decline in life expectancy in Russia between 1990 and 1994. Design: Regression analysis of regional data, with percentage fall in male life expectancy as dependent variable and a range of socioeconomic measures reflecting transition, change in income, inequity, and social cohesion as independent variables. Determination of contribution of deaths from major causes and in each age group to changes in both male and female life expectancy at birth in regions with the smallest and largest declines. Setting: Regions (oblasts) of European Russia (excluding Siberia and those in the Caucasus affected by the Chechen war). Subjects: The population of European Russia. Results: The fall in life expectancy at birth varied widely between regions, with declines for men and women highly correlated. The regions with the largest falls were predominantly urban, with high rates of labour turnover, large increases in recorded crime, and a higher average but unequal distribution of household income. For both men and women increasing rates of death between the ages of 30 and 60 years accounted for most of the fall in life expectancy, with the greatest contributions being from conditions directly or indirectly associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Conclusions: The decline in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s cannot be attributed simply to impoverishment. Instead, the impact of social and economic transition, exacerbated by a lack of social cohesion, seems to have played a major part. The evidence that alcohol is an important proximate cause of premature death in Russia is strengthened. Key messages The fall in life expectancy in Russia in the 1990s has not affected all parts of the country equally The greatest falls have been in some of the wealthiest regions, suggesting that impoverishment is not a sufficient explanation Much of the deterioration can be explained by labour force turnover, crime rates (which can be considered a proxy measure of social cohesion), and income inequality Alcohol is a major factor in many of the additional deaths Understanding changes in mortality in central and eastern Europe during the transition (from a communist to a capitalist system) may shed light on determinants of health in the West PMID:9685275

Walberg, Peder; McKee, Martin; Shkolnikov, Vladimir; Chenet, Laurent; Leon, David A

1998-01-01

98

Flooding in Central Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of snowmelt and ice jams in late May and June of this year caused the Taz River (left) and the Yenisey River (right) in central Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in this image taken on June 11, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Normally, the rivers would resemble thin black lines in MODIS imagery. In the false-color images sage green and rusty orange is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Credit: Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

99

Moscow, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Moscow, the political and economic heart of Russia, sits on the far eastern end of Europe, roughly 1300 kilometers (815 miles) west of the Ural Mountains and the Asian continent. The city boasts a population of nine million and encompasses an area of 1035 square kilometers (405 square miles). The Moscow River runs through the center of the city, and the Kremlin, the seat of the Russian government, lies in the direct center. Moscow is thought to have been founded in the 12th Century by Yury Dolgoruky, Prince of Suzdal, who hosted a big feast on the site. The city was shortly after established as a trading route along the Moscow River. Ivan III, who is largely credited with uniting all of Russia, built the Kremlin's cathedrals and declared Moscow the capital of his new kingdom in the 15th century. In the 17th century, Ivan the Great moved the capital to St. Petersburg, where it remained until the Bolsheviks brought the seat of government back to Moscow in 1918. Over the years the city has been sacked and burnt to the ground by the Tartars, the Poles, and the French. Thanks to the resilient spirit of the Russian people, the city remains as vital as ever. Now it is as capitalist in nature as London or New York, and everything from Big Macs to BMWs can be found on its streets. The blue-gray pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The light green areas surrounding the city are farms and the brown regions are more sparsely vegetated areas. This image of Moscow was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

2002-01-01

100

Russia Profile  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The availability of high-quality news reporting on the Internet continues to improve, though at times finding reputable sources can still be difficult for certain parts of the world. Russia Profile is one such source, as it is produced by the Independent Media group, which is responsible for publishing The Moscow Times along with a number of other magazines across Russia. The goal of this website is to both broaden the scope of news coming out of Russia and "to provide a platform for an informed discussion of issues related to or concerning Russia". From the site's homepage, visitors can read about the latest from Russia Profile, view a calendar of events, and subscribe for free to the print edition of Russia Profile. Visitors can also participate in a number of online forum discussions.

101

THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE STRATEGY OF THE OIL AND GAS PIPELINES OF RUSSIA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian oil and gas industry earns more than half of the Russian tax revenue and foreign currency, and has been playing the role of the backbone of the state economy through the eras of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation. With the elongation of distance to the European market from the oil producing regions, starting from Baku in the era of Imperial Russia to the Second Baku (Volga-Ural) and the third Baku (West Siberia) in turn, the role of the oil pipeline system as the transportation infrastructure became more and more important and the deployment of pipelines has become one of the indispensable pillars of oil strategy. Now, the oil pipeline network is to reach the Pacific Ocean, which will enable Northeast Asia to be added as a destination for Russian oil, with a result of expanding influence for Russia in these regions. On the other hand, gas exports from the Soviet Union to Eastern Europe started in 1967 by constructing a trunk pipeline from Ukraine, which was extended to West Germany in 1973, overcoming the confrontation between the East and the West and becoming a regional stabilizer. The United States considered this pipeline as an energy weapon and criticized this deal by saying that when Soviet gas flows to Western Europe, its political influence must flow like the gas itself. However, the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, while gas transportation continued without any disruption. This is evidence that the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union was purely for a business purpose and was not politicized. Recently, Russia is aiming to export gas to northeastern Asia, which is expected to be a new stabilizer in this region, although different types of diffi culties (especially about the method of determination of the gas price) still need to be resolved.

Motomura, Masumi

102

Vegetation and climate in the Western Sayan Mts according to pollen data from Lugovoe Mire as a background for prehistoric cultural change in southern Middle Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of pollen and spore analyses and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits of Lugovoe Mire in southern Middle Siberia, changes of vegetation and climate of the Western Sayan Mts and the Khakasia Republic (Russia) since 6000 yr 14C BP (5000 cal yr BC) are found to correspond with the development of archaeological cultures and with the pollen-based palaeoclimatic reconstruction of Levina and Orlova (1993) constructed for the forest-steppe zone of the south of West Siberia. Three phases in the development of the regional vegetation (Abies, Betula, and Pinus) are distinguished in the pollen diagram of Lugovoe Mire, which form the environmental background for the archaeological cultures developed in this region. The first penetration of ancient hunting-fishing tribes into this area occurred during the ‘Abies stage' of the vegetation. Bronze Age cultures practiced agriculture and animal husbandry mostly during the ‘Betula stage'. Beginning in the Iron Age, archaeological cultures bloomed in the study area on the background of expanding Pinus sylvestris forests. The origin of all these cultures was connected with migrations of people from the southwest or southeast. An important reason for these migrations was dry climatic phases at millennial intervals, which influenced especially strongly the more southerly homelands of the migrating ancient tribes.

Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Chernova, Natalia A.

2013-09-01

103

Two Virtual Journeys: Siberia Diary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Even though most people have returned to work and school, the opportunity for travel and adventure still exists...via computer. Washington Post correspondents Robert G. Kaiser and Lucian Perkins are in the midst of a month-long expedition through Siberia, sending back dispatches on and photographs off the people and natural resources along the way. A few of the places their journey has taken them are the town of Chita, along the Chinese border, Irkutsk on Lake Baikal, and Siberia's wealthiest city, Surgut. The site is arranged so that readers can choose a featured dispatch and then see oodles of photographs, learn facts, and understand issues about the dispatch location. Interesting examples of the dispatches include "Aids Orphans," "City of Uranium," and "A River Feast." Helpful links to related news and information, and a section where readers can email questions to Kaiser and Perkins round out Siberia Diary.

Kaiser, Robert G., 1943-

2001-01-01

104

Endangered Languages of Indigenous Peoples of Siberia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At least 30 languages of the Siberian region are considered endangered, and UNESCO is hoping to preserve, anchor, and develop them. The "Roundtable" link in the menu near the top of the page, allows visitors to read a few sentences by the contributors to the roundtable, on three thematic blocks. Visitors can click on "text" at the end of the paragraph to read the whole discussion, and view a picture of the contributor. "Thematic Block II" is particularly interesting, and concerns the "Experience and problems of teaching endangered languages in universities in Russia", and offers such contributor discussions as "Languages of numerically small peoples of the North, Siberia, and the Far East in the dynamics of linguistic education environment change". The "Instruments" link gives visitors a glimpse into what a linguist in the field might find useful to do their work. The sections of instruments include "software", "fonts (UNICODE)" and "voice recording". In the "software" section, there are "electronic dictionaries", "programs for managing keyboard layout" and "programs for input and manipulation of linguistic data". [KMG

105

Mapping forest succesion types in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a forest typology system based on dynamic vegetation approach and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), one in Central Siberia and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas covered with analysis of the ground truth and inventory data, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey transects published in literature. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exist for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Image classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills. Additional layers of information seem to be a promising way to complement Landsat data, including SAR-based biomass maps and terrain data

Maksyutov, S. S.; Sedykh, V.; Kleptsova, I.; Frolov, A.; Silaev, A.; Kuzmenko, E.; Farber, S.; Kuzmik, N.; Sokolov, V. A.; Fedorov, A.; Nikolaeva, S.

2013-12-01

106

Kondyor Massif, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is neither an impact crater nor a volcano. It is a perfect circular intrusion, about 10 km in diameter with a topographic ridge up to 600 m high. The Kondyor Massif is located in Eastern Siberia, Russia, north of the city of Khabarovsk. It is a rare form of igneous intrusion called alkaline-ultrabasic massif and it is full of rare minerals. The river flowing out of it forms placer mineral deposits. Last year 4 tons of platinum were mined there. A remarkable and very unusual mineralogical feature of the deposit is the presence of coarse crystals of Pt-Fe alloy, coated with gold. This 3-D perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color ASTER composite over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model.

The image was acquired on June 10, 2006, and is located at 57.6 degrees north latitude, 134.6 degrees east longitude.

The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

2008-01-01

107

Paleomagnetism of the Siberian traps: New data and a new overall 250 Ma pole for Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flood basalt province in Siberia is one of the largest in the world but the number of reliable paleomagnetic data on these volcanics is still limited. We studied lava flows and trap-related intrusions from two areas in the north and west of the Siberian platform. A dual-polarity characteristic component was isolated from most samples with the aid of stepwise

V. E. Pavlov; V. Courtillot; M. L. Bazhenov; R. V. Veselovsky

2007-01-01

108

Seabirds of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT. We conducted seabird surveys along the entire coast of the Chukotka Peninsula (northwestern Siberia, Russia) from 1983 to 1991. We present the first comprehensive descriptions of the distribution and size of Chukotkan seabird colonies. Thirteen species of seabirds were recorded breeding on the peninsula, with an additional 13 migrant or vagrant species. Our estimate that at least 3 300 000 seabirds breed on the Chukotka Peninsula demonstrates the importance of this region to arctic seabird populations. Colony size and species composition may be determined by availability of adequate breeding sites, access to foraging areas, and variable ice conditions.

Nikolai B. Konyukhov; Ludmila S. Bogoslovskaya; Boris M. Zvonov; Thomas I. Van Pelt

1998-01-01

109

Mapping wetland and forest landscapes in Siberia with Landsat data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landsat data availability provides opportunity for improving the knowledge of the Siberian ecosystems necessary for quantifying the response of the regional carbon cycle to the climate change. We developed a new wetland map based on Landsat data for whole West Siberia aiming at scaling up the methane emission observations. Mid-summer Landsat scenes were used in supervised classification method, based on ground truth data obtained during multiple field surveys. The method allows distinguishing following wetland types: pine-dwarf shrubs-sphagnum bogs or ryams, ridge-hollows complexes, shallow-water complexes, sedge-sphagnum poor fens, herbaceous-sphagnum poor fens, sedge-(moss) poor fens and fens, wooded swamps or sogra, palsa complexes. In our estimates wetlands cover 36% of the taiga area. Total methane emission from WS taiga mires is estimated as 3.6 TgC/yr,which is 77% larger as compared to the earlier estimate based on partial Landsat mapping combined with low resolution map due to higher fraction of fen area. We make an attempt to develop a forest typology system useful for a dynamic vegetation modeling and apply it to the analysis of the forest type distribution for several test areas in West and East Siberia, aiming at capability of mapping whole Siberian forests based on Landsat data. Test region locations are: two in West Siberian middle taiga (Laryegan and Nyagan), and one in East Siberia near Yakutsk. The ground truth data are based on analysis of the field survey, forest inventory data from the point of view of the successional forest type classification. Supervised classification was applied to the areas where ample ground truth and inventory data are available, using several limited area maps and vegetation survey. In Laryegan basin the upland forest areas are dominated (as climax forest species) by Scots pine on sandy soils and Siberian pine with presence of fir and spruce on the others. Those types are separable using Landsat spectral data alone. In the permafrost area around Yakutsk the most widespread succession type is birch to larch succession. Three stages of the birch to larch succession are detectable from Landsat image. When Landsat data is used in both West and East Siberia, distinction between deciduous broad-leaved species (birch, aspen, and willow) is difficult due to similarity in spectral signatures. Same problem exists for distinguishing between dark coniferous species (Siberian pine, fir and spruce). Forest classification can be improved by applying landscape type analysis, such as separation into floodplain, terrace, sloping hills.

Maksyutov, Shamil; Kleptsova, Irina; Glagolev, Mikhail; Sedykh, Vladimir; Kuzmenko, Ekaterina; Silaev, Anton; Frolov, Alexander; Nikolaeva, Svetlana; Fedorov, Alexander

2014-05-01

110

A new species of the genus Paravillersia (Acari: Prostigmata: Stigmaeidae) from Western Siberia, with supplementary description of Paravillersia grata Kuznetsov, 1978.  

PubMed

A new species of the genus Paravillersia Kuznetsov, 1978 (Acari: Stigmaeidae), P. jamaliensis Khaustov sp. nov. is described from mosses on fen in Western Siberia, Russia. The supplementary description of Paravillersia grata Kuznetsov, 1978 is provided based on the type material.  PMID:25544206

Khaustov, Alexander A

2014-01-01

111

Flooding on Russia's Lena River  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nearly every year in the late spring, ice blocks the flow of water at the mouth of the Lena River in northeastern Russia and gives rise to floods across the Siberian plains. This year's floods can be seen in this image taken on June 2, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. The river runs down the left side of the image, and its delta is shrouded in ice (red) at the top of the image. Normally, the river would resemble a thin black line in MODIS imagery. The river, which is Russia's longest, flows 2,641 miles (4,250 kilometers) south to north through Siberia and into the Laptev Sea. In the winter, the river becomes nearly frozen. In the spring, however, water upstream thaws earlier than water at the mouth of the river. As the southern end of the river begins to melt, blocks of ice travel downstream to the still frozen delta, pile up, and often obstruct the flow of water. Flooding doesn't always occur on the same parts of the river. The floods hit further south last year. If the flooding grows severe enough, explosive charges are typically used to break up the ice jams. In these false-color images land areas are a dull, light green or tan, and water is black. Clouds appear pink, and ice comes across as bright red. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

112

Fire Impact on Carbon Emissions on Logged and Unlogged Scots pine Forest Sites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fires cover millions ha of boreal forests of Russia annually, mostly in Siberia. Wildfire and forest harvesting are the major disturbances in Siberia's boreal zone. Logged areas appear to be highly susceptible to fire due to a combination of high fuel loads and accessibility for human-caused ignition. Fire spreading from logging sites to surrounding forest is a common situation in this region. Changing patterns of timber harvesting increase landscape complexity and can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildfire on changing climate and on air quality. Fire effects on pine stands and biomass of surface vegetation were estimated on logged and unlogged sites in the Central Siberia region as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). Fires occurring on logged areas were typically of higher severity than those in unlogged forests, but the specific effects of fire and logging varied widely among forest types and as a result of weather patterns during and prior to the fire. Consumption of surface and ground fuels in spring fires was 25% to 50% of that in summer fires. Estimated carbon emissions due to fire were 2-5 times higher on logged areas compared to undisturbed sites. Post-fire soil respiration decreases found for both site types partially offset carbon losses. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions in Siberia.

Ivanova, G.; Kukavskaya, E.; Buryak, L.; Kalenskaya, O.; Bogorodskaya, A.; Conard, S. G.

2012-12-01

113

Close genetic relationships in vast territories: autosomal and X chromosome Alu diversity in Yakuts from Siberia.  

PubMed

Twelve autosomal and 8 X chromosome Alu markers were genotyped for the first time in 161 Central and West Yakuts to test their ability to reconstruct the genetic history of these populations, the northernmost Turkic-speaker ethnic group living in Siberia. Autosomal data revealed that both groups showed extremely close genetic distances to other populations of Siberian origins that occupied areas from Lake Baikal, the ancestral place of origin of Yakuts, to North Siberia, their current territories. Autosomal and X chromosome data revealed some discrepancies on the genetic differentiation and the effective sizes of Central and West Yakuts. Such discrepancies could be related to the patrilineal and occasionally polygamous structure of these populations. Autosomal and X Alu markers are informative markers to reconstruct population past demography and history, but their utility is limited by the available data. This study represents a contribution for further investigations on these populations. PMID:24466640

Rocañín-Arjó, Ares; Rodríguez-Botigué, Laura; Esteban, Esther; Theves, Catherine; Evdokimova, Larissa E; Fedorova, Sardana A; Gibert, Morgane; Crubezy, Eric; Moral, Pedro

2013-01-01

114

Where was the outlet of the ice-dammed Lake Komi, Northern Russia?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When ice-sheets on the continental shelves of the Barents and Kara seas expanded onto the Russian mainland, north-flowing rivers were blocked. The last proglacial lake in European Russia dammed between the ice-sheet in the north and the drainage divide in the south was Lake Komi, which has been dated to the Early Weichselian, 80-100 ka. The lake was about 1400 km long with a water level of about 100 m a.s.l. In the present paper, we discuss four alternative outlets: (1) Across the drainage divide towards the Volga River, leading the water southwards into the Caspian Sea; (2) across the Polar Urals towards West Siberia; (3) between the Barents Ice Sheet and the northern slope of the Kola Peninsula, leading the water northwestwards into the Norwegian Sea; and (4) across the drainage divide between the White Sea and the Baltic Sea catchment areas. Based on present knowledge, we consider the first three options unlikely. Across the divide to the Baltic Sea, a buried channel is mapped where the threshold altitude is lower than the Lake Komi level. We conclude that the outlet of Lake Komi probably followed this valley towards the Baltic Sea. However, the Scandinavian Ice Sheet overran this drainage divide during the Late Weichselian and therefore a younger till and other sediments cover the channel.

Maslenikova, Olga; Mangerud, Jan

2001-11-01

115

Drought displaced movement of North American pintails into Siberia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During the years 1954-70, 230 pintails (Anas acuta) banded in North America were reported from eastern Asia, primarily Siberia. Most of the birds were shot on the breeding grounds in May. The movement into eastern Asia of pintails banded in the interior of North America was directly correlated with the overflight of the southern portion of the breeding range in North America (r = +0.73**); this overflight resulted from drought conditions (Smith 1970). Thus, the magnitude of the pintail movement into eastern Asia is believed to be dependent upon water conditions some 3,000 miles away. A higher percentage of the pintails banded in the west was reported from eastern Asia, although the recovery rate index was not significantly correlated with the percentage of pintails found in northern Canada and Alaska (r = +0.46 NS). Apparently, a portion of the pintails which winter in the western United States annually nest in Siberia, regardless of water conditions on the North American breeding grounds.

Henny, C.J.

1973-01-01

116

First detection of Kemerovo virus in Ixodes pavlovskyi and Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Novosibirsk region, Russia.  

PubMed

Kemerovo group viruses are tick-transmitted members of Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family that can cause infections of the central nervous system of humans. In this work, Kemerovo virus (KEMV) RNA was detected for the first time in Novosibirsk region of Western Siberia, Russia, in Ixodes pavlovskyi and Ixodes persulcatus ticks. PMID:24880473

Tkachev, Sergey; Panov, Victor; Dobler, Gerhard; Tikunova, Nina

2014-09-01

117

Effects Of Climate, Permafrost And Fire On Potential Vegetation Change In Siberia In A Warming Climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century, which are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Increased permafrost melt and forest fire directly affected by climate warming are predicted to additionally influence vegetation change. Our goal is to model potential vegetation change across Siberia (within the territory between the Urals and Yakutia and between the southern border of Russia and the Arctic ocean) using several Hadley Center climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. To predict vegetation change, we use SiBCliM, our Siberian BioClimatic Model, an envelope-type model that predicts a vegetation type from three climatic indices: growing degree days, base 5oC; negative degree days below 0oC; and annual moisture index (a ratio between growing degree days and annual precipitation). All vegetation predictions are corrected for the influence of climate on permafrost active layer depth. Potential fire danger is evaluated using a regression model that relates the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10000) to annual moisture index. Shifts in the climate necessary to support current Siberian vegetation are notable by 2020. Biomes and major tree species are predicted to shift northwards as far as 600-1000 km by 2080. Forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems rather than forests are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of their ability to withstand continuous permafrost. Our model also predicts new temperate broadleaf and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Fire danger is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia, where wildland fires would promote habitats for steppe and forest-steppe. Melting permafrost and fire are the principal mechanisms that facilitate vegetation change, which leads to a new equilibrium between vegetation and climate across Siberia.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E. I.; Soja, A. J.

2008-12-01

118

Wildfires, smoke, and burn scars, near Yakutsk, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lena River in central Siberia is hidden beneath a veil of smoke from multiple wildfires burning around the city of Yakutsk, Russia. Fires have been burning in the region off and on since late May 2002, and may be agricultural in cause. This image was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite on July 23, 2002. In the false=-color image, vegetation is bright green, smoke is blueish-white, and burned areas are reddish-brown. In both images, fire detections are marked with red outlines. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

119

Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

120

Variability of mesopause temperature from the hydroxyl airglow observations over mid-latitudinal sites, Zvenigorod and Tory, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We obtained data on temperature in the mesopause vicinity from ground-based observations of the hydroxyl airglow at mid-latitudinal sites, Zvenigorod (56°N, 37°E), located near Moscow, over 2000-2012, and Tory (52°N, 103°E), Eastern Siberia, over 2008-2012. Seasonal behavior of the temperature and its monthly and nightly mean variances are presented. A comparison of the results obtained at two different regions of Russia shows higher values of the mesopause temperature variability in Eastern Siberia. We perform an analysis of the multi-year changes in the temperature variability characteristics based on the Zvenigorod observational data.

Perminov, V. I.; Semenov, A. I.; Medvedeva, I. V.; Zheleznov, Yu. A.

2014-12-01

121

Extensive Burn Scars in Russia's Amur Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vast areas of southeastern Russia have been scorched by fires over the last few weeks. All across Siberia fires have been raging, and this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 15, 2002, shows extensive, dark burn scars along with actively burning fires (red dots) on the north side of the Amur River, which separates Russia (north) and China (south). The southern Amur region is largely devoted to farming and other agriculture, and these fires may have been set intentionally to prepare the land for the growing season. Fire is often used to clear land of unwanted vegetation, and to return the nutrients stored in vegetation back to the soil. However, fires that are too frequent or severe can devastate the soil, eventually making it unsuitable for farming or grazing. Fires can also escape control and spread into protected areas. In this image, fires are mostly concentrated in a lowland area within the drainage basin of the Zeya River, which drains from the frozen lake at the top of the image. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

2002-01-01

122

Window-to-Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Window-to-Russia is a Moscow-based project by Relcom Corporation, oriented towards the international network community. WWW access to a variety of information resources from and about Russia, including two original Virtual Exhibitions: "Moscow Kremlin" and "Contemporary Russian Fine Arts." Extensive list of pointers to other Russian web-servers.

123

Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: challenges, approaches and first results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program (ESSP) approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in the both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Crucial challenges are formed by accelerated warming occurred in Siberia, scare observational network, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence and caused by this specific lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The approaches used to meet these challenges include development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required to generate high resolution data sets in demand, to manage multidisciplinary environmental data and to support of multidisciplinary and "distributed" teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for exchange and sharing of data, models and knowledge. The Climate site of the Enviro-RISKS web portal (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/), providing an access to interactive web-system for regional climate assessment on the base of available meteorological data archives is a prototype of one of key infrastructure elements optimizing the usage of information-computational resources, services and applications is described in details as well as a concept of its transformation to a web based information-computational system provided with GIS functionality. Another element is the mesoscale meteorological model WRF currently used for downscaling results of Reanalyzes and climatic modeling for the targeted region. Statistical analysis of available data sets reveals some remarkable features of on-going changes of regional climatic characteristics including those, which control vegetation dynamics. In particular,it is shown that fields of long-term temperature trends have inhomogeneous structure. One can separate regions with maximum warming rates, which are located mostly in East Siberia. Spatial distribution of seasonally mean temperature changes is specific for seasons. Winter and spring seasons made the main contribution to climate warming. However, autumn became more cool at the vast territories in the north of West and East Siberia. In general, changes are within range -0.5°? to +0.5°? every 10 years. Currently, efforts of the community involved are concentrated on issues related to regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes. There are three main scientific problems, whose solution is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics and has strong regional socio-economical impact: Permafrost fate, especially its border shift, which seriously threats to infrastructure and might form significant carbon source; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems borders shifts to North, which might change region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime change, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires thus increasing significantly carbon release from the region under study.

Gordov, Evgeny; Vaganov, Evgeny

2010-05-01

124

JERS SAR processing for the boreal forest mapping project SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of the EC Environment and Climate Programme project, SIBERIA, an extensive forest map for a part of Siberia will be produced using state-of-the art satellite data and remote sensing techniques. Among other sensors the JERS SAR will be used. In this contribution important steps in the JERS processing is discussed, including radiometric calibration, geocoding, and fine registration

A. Wiesmann; T. Strozzi; U. Wegmuller

1999-01-01

125

Russia's Demographic "Crisis"  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rand Organization has recently made available via the Web the full text of Russia's Demographic "Crisis." "This volume is an outgrowth of a June 5-6, 1995 conference at which a group of Russian demographers presented the results of their pioneering research on Russia's demographic 'crisis' to American colleagues from the Rand Organization, the University of California-Los Angeles, the University of Southern California, and the International Programs Center of the US Bureau of the Census." The six papers that make up the volume deal with two broad categories: "(1) fertility and family planning; and (2) issues in the area of health and mortality--health status, health care, and population aging." The scope of a Russian demographic crisis is hotly debated, as well as "the interrelations between economic reforms and demographic trends in Russia." Russia's Demographic "Crisis" should shed some light on this topic.

1996-01-01

126

Russia's scientific legacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many insights of Russian scientists are unknown or long-forgotten outside of Russia. Making the Russian literature accessible to the international scientific community could stimulate new lines of research.

2015-01-01

127

Siberia, the wandering northern terrane, and its changing geography through the Palaeozoic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The old terrane of Siberia occupied a very substantial area in the centre of today's political Siberia and also adjacent areas of Mongolia, eastern Kazakhstan, and northwestern China. Siberia's location within the Early Neoproterozoic Rodinia Superterrane is contentious (since few if any reliable palaeomagnetic data exist between about 1.0 Ga and 540 Ma), but Siberia probably became independent during the breakup of Rodinia soon after 800 Ma and continued to be so until very near the end of the Palaeozoic, when it became an integral part of the Pangea Supercontinent. The boundaries of the cratonic core of the Siberian Terrane (including the Patom area) are briefly described, together with summaries of some of the geologically complex surrounding areas, and it is concluded that all of the Palaeozoic underlying the West Siberian Basin (including the Ob-Saisan Surgut area), Tomsk Terrane, Altai-Sayan Terranes (including Salair, Kuznetsk Alatau, Batenov, Kobdin and West Sayan), Ertix Terrane, Barguzin Terrane, Tuva-Mongol Terrane, Central Mongolia Terrane Assemblage, Gobi Altai and Mandalovoo Terranes, Okhotsk Terrane and much of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma region all formed parts of peri-Siberia, and thus rotated with the main Siberian Craton as those areas were progressively accreted to the main Siberian Terrane at various times during the latest Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic. The Ertix Terrane is a new term combining what has been termed the "Altay Terrane" or "NE Xinjiang" area of China, and the Baytag, Baaran and Bidz terranes of Mongolia. The Silurian Tuvaella brachiopod fauna is restricted only to today's southern parts of peri-Siberia. Thus, allowing for subsequent rotation, the fauna occurs only in the N of the Siberian Terrane, and, as well as being a helpful indicator of what marginal terranes made up peri-Siberia, is distinctive as being the only Silurian fauna known from northern higher latitudes globally. In contrast, the other terranes adjacent to peri-Siberia, the North China Terrane, the Manchurides terranes (including the Khingan-Bureya Massif area), the Gurvanshayan Terrane, the Ala Shan Terrane, the Qaidam-Qilian Terrane, the Tarim Terrane, the Junggar Terrane, the Tien Shan terranes and the various Kazakh terranes, did not become part of the Siberian Terrane assemblage until they accreted to it in the Upper Palaeozoic or later during the formation of Pangea. The Farewell Terrane of Alaska includes typical Lower and Middle Palaeozoic Siberian endemic faunas, but its Palaeozoic position is unknown. Cambrian to Early Silurian palaeomagnetic poles from the southern and northern parts of the Siberian Craton differ, but can be matched with an Euler pole of 60°N, 120°E and a rotation angle of 13°. We link this observation with Devonian rifting in the Viljuy Basin near the centre of the craton and also postulate that this rifting rejuvenated an older Precambrian rift zone, since 1-1.1 Ga poles from southern and northern Siberia differ as much as 23° around the same Euler pole. A revised Palaeozoic apparent polar wander (APW) path is presented for the Siberian Craton in which pre-Devonian poles are corrected for Viljuy Basin rifting. There is also much Late Devonian tectonic activity in the Altai-Sayan area, which may be linked. The APW path implies that Siberia was located at low southerly latitudes at the dawn of the Palaeozoic and slowly drifted northward (< 4 cm/yr.). A velocity burst is noted near the Ordovician-Silurian boundary (ca. 13 cm/yr between 450 and 440 Ma), whilst the Mid-Silurian and younger history is characterized by steady clockwise rotation (totalling about 75°) until the Late Permian. The Late Palaeozoic convergence history between Siberia and Baltica (Pangea) is hard to quantify from palaeomagnetic data because there are only two reliable poles (at 360 and 275 Ma) between the Early Silurian and the Permo-Triassic boundary. The Mid and Late Palaeozoic APW path for Siberia is therefore strongly interpolated and we discuss two different APW path alternatives that result

Cocks, L. Robin M.; Torsvik, Trond H.

2007-05-01

128

Wetland classification based on Landsat and its application for methane emission inventory of West Siberian taiga zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantification of the wetland methane emissions is complicated by large heterogeneity of the methane emission rates and wetland landscapes. Wetland mapping is important component for assessing the global methane emissions. West Siberia wetlands are the biggest wetland area in Eurasia, are situated in the high latitudes experiencing enhanced rate of climate change. A number of wetland, vegetation and peat maps of the West Siberia were developed in 1970s, but those are not easily applicable for methane emission mapping due to use of the generalized classifications which do not reflect heterogeneity of the landscapes at scales of less than 100 m. In this study, we developed a new wetland typology map based on Landsat imagery and applied it to scaling up the CH4 fluxes measured by a static chamber method. Taking into account relative abundance of different mire types a classification scheme oriented on methane emission estimates was developed. It is based on earlier classifications and consists of the simplest mire units or microlandscapes as the oligotrophic hollows, waterlogged hollows, forested bogs and ridges, fens (including poor fens and swamps) and wetland lakes. Taiga zone of West Siberia was chosen as a primary target for the land cover classification since its large wetland area. 68 Landsat scenes were classified. Totally, wetland area was estimated at 55.7 Mha that is slightly higher than the earlier estimate of 51.5 Mha (Romanova et al., 1977). Methane emission rates vary strongly among the microlandscapes. While the highest amounts are emitted by waterlogged hollows followed by fens, the lowest rates are emitted by elevated landcover units such as forested bogs and ridges. According to our estimates they account for only 3% of the regional flux despite occupying almost 40% of the total wetland area. The oligotrophic and waterlogged hollows as parts of patterned bogs cover more than quarter of the mire territory accounting for almost half of the total CH4 emission. Lakes are widespread over taiga mire systems occupying 16% of the territory and contributing 15% of CH4 flux to the atmosphere. The rest of the territory is mainly occupied by fens, poor fens and swamps (13%) contributing 33% of the total CH4 flux. Applying the new map resulted in total methane emissions from taiga zone of 3.53 TgC/yr which is 87% higher than the former estimates by Glagolev et al. (2011). This considerable revision is caused by the changes in fractional coverages of methane emitting landscapes. Glagolev M, Kleptsova I, Filippov I, Maksyutov S, Machida T. 2011. Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes. ERL 6 045214. doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045214 Romanova EA, Bybina RT , Golitsyna EF , Ivanova GM , Usova LI, Trushnikova LG. 1977. Wetland typology map of West Siberian lowland scale 1:2500 000 GUGK: Leningrad, Russia

Kleptsova, Irina; Maksyutov, Shamil; Glagolev, Mikhail

2013-04-01

129

Siberia Losing Lakes at an Alarming Rate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A new study finds that more than 1,000 lakes in the Arctic region of Siberia have disappeared or shrunk dramatically over the past 30 years. The region has been getting markedly warmer and human activities are thought to be partly responsible. This radio broadcast reports on a study comparing Earth-observing satellite images over time, which show the Siberian lakes disappearing. The study concludes that as global warming causes the Arctic permafrost to thin, water from the Siberian lakes drains into the ground and vanishes. The clip is 3 minutes and 52 seconds in length.

130

Distribution of ice marginal moraines in NW Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we present results from a mapping project on the distribution of glacial end moraine zones in NW Russia, covering an area from the Baltics in the west (30°E) to Taymyr Peninsula and Byrranga mountains (120°E) in the East. Several previous studies have been made in the area, but none have mapped end moraine zones in a uniform way over

Ola Fredin; Lena Rubensdotter; Aurelien van Welden; Eiliv Larsen; Astrid Lyså

2012-01-01

131

Promoting sustainable energy strategies in Russia  

SciTech Connect

Enormous structural changes are taking place in the economy of Russia. It is important that vital sectors of the economy undergo a smooth transition from a centrally-planned paradigm to a more market-oriented structure. Introducing market-oriented-institutional structures and energy planning approaches to Russian utilities can facilitate the transition to the market and allow them to become vehicles for change rather than mere witnesses. As real electricity prices increase relative to other prices, a significant industrial restructuring can be expected, with an accompanying reduction of energy consumption. By developing programs to help industry become more energy-efficiency, the electricity sector can play a central role in Russia`s economic recovery. A robust energy sector will be in a much better position to lead other sectors of the economy toward market-oriented solutions to the present economic crisis. Because of the magnitude of the task of recreating an economy for one of the world`s superpowers, institutional restructuring should take place incrementally. The transition of US utilities from a {open_quotes}build-and-grow{close_quotes} paradigm to one of Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and subsequently to a hybrid of competition and IRP began and is continuing on the state and regional level. Local success stories on the West Coast and New England persuaded other states to adopt these methods. This strategy could also prove to be very effective in regions of Russia that are served by integrated electricity grids, such as the South Russia Power pool (Yuzhenergo) that serves the North Caucasus region. As the Russian energy system currently undergoes change, simultaneously privatizing and restructuring, these issues will be largely decided within the next two years. One of the greatest challenges involves implementing an environmentally sustainable strategy which ensures that energy efficiency and renewable energy are incorporated into the new structure.

Watson, R.K.

1995-12-31

132

Estimation of nocturnal222Rn soil fluxes over Russia from TROICA measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In TROICA (TRanscontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) campaigns (1999-2008), the simultaneous observations of near surface 222Rn concentrations and atmospheric boundary layer thermal structure were performed along the Trans-Siberian Railway across northern Eurasia from Moscow to Vladivostok, including central, southern and far eastern parts of Russia. The data on 222Rn and temperature vertical distribution are used to estimate 222Rn regional scale soil fluxes based on calculations of nocturnal 222Rn accumulation rates in the surface layer under inversion conditions. An effect of seasonal soil thawing on 2-4 times surface 222Rn concentration increase from summer 1999 to autumn 2005 is observed. The estimated 222Rn regional averaged fluxes vary over Russia from 29 ± 8 mBq m-2 s-1 in its so-called European territory to 95 ± 51 mBq m-2 s-1 in the southern area of Siberia. The highest 222Rn fluxes are derived in the regions of high tectonic activity and orogenic belts of central and eastern Siberia and in far eastern Russia. The observed high 222Rn flux variations in specific events show a strong effect of both soil and atmospheric conditions on 222Rn near-surface abundance and the derived seasonal patterns over the continent.

Berezina, E. V.; Elansky, N. F.; Moiseenko, K. B.; Belikov, I. B.; Shumsky, R. A.; Safronov, A. N.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

2013-12-01

133

Ozone and nitrogen oxides in surface air in Russia: TROICA experiments.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of measurements of surface ozone and nitrogen oxides concentrations over the continental regions of Russia are discussed. The measurements were done during 10 TROICA experiments (Transcontinental Observations Into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere). The TROICA experiment started in 1995. By the present moment ten expeditions along the Trans-Siberian railroad from Moscow to Vladivostok (around 9300 km) are carried out. We separate data sets into unpolluted and polluted areas to study temporal and spatial features. Moreover we analyzed cities (more then 100 cities). About 50% of all data corresponds to unpolluted conditions. The data collected are used in an analysis of the physical and chemical processes occurring over continental Russia. In this work the estimations of seasonal and daily ozone and NOx distribution were made. The seasonal distribution of ozone for TROICA experiments concentration considerably differs from ozone distribution at Mace Head (Ireland) and Hohenpeissenberg (Germany) stations and well agrees with the ozone distribution at Zotino (Russia, East Siberia). The same concerns also a daily variability. The ozone concentration gradient is presented. Ozone concentration gradually increases in the eastward direction. Its result of the air transport from polluted regions of Europe and ozone depletions, oxidations of CH4 in Siberia, forest fires in Siberia and around Baikal Lake, regional transport of burning products from Northern China. Significant factor of ozone increasing is stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. It appears in TROICA-3 experiment. During several hours ozone concentration was more then 60 ppbv. The areas of photochemical ozone generation in polluted air are also detected. We estimate anthropogenic and natural factors, which are responsible for sharp ozone concentration increasing. Acknowledgments. The work was supported by International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) under contract No. 2770 and by Russian Basic Research Foundation (project No. 07-05-00428).

Pankratova, N.; Elansky, N.; Belikov, I.; Shumskiy, R.

2009-04-01

134

Ozone profile observations in Siberia in 2014  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ozonesonde observations of atmospheric ozone profiles at Salekhard aerological station (66.5N, 66.7E) in Western Siberia, Russian Federation are carried out since January 1997. In 1997-2013 we used electrochemical 2Z-ECC ozonesondes for ozone profile observations in the winter-spring period to study the ozone loss in the Arctic regions. The results of ozonesonde observation at Salekhard station are in the NDACC database. In January 2014 we upgraded this ozonesounding station with the new iMet-1 radiosonde and electrochemical 2Z-V7 ozonesonde of Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), USA. The first results of ozonesonde profile measurements recorded in January-March 2014 at Salekhard aerological station will be presented and discussed.

Dorokhov, Valery; Balugin, Nikolay; Yushkov, Vladimir; Makshtas, Alexander; Ivlev, Georgii; Shepelev, Dmitry; Nakajima, Hideaki

2014-05-01

135

Mid-latitude auroras in Eastern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present characteristics of mid-latitude auroras in Eastern Siberia, recorded at the Geophysical Observatory of ISTP SB RAS during optical observations of airglow in 1989-2013. We analyze dependences of intensities of [OI] atomic oxygen (557.7 and 630 nm) emissions on geomagnetic activity level during different phases of geomagnetic storms. Diurnal distribution of registration of mid-latitude auroras and connection with variations of ionospheric parameters are analyzed too. Possible mechanisms of formation and peculiarities of the main types of mid-latitude auroras are discussed. The study was done under RF President Grant of Public Support for RF Leading Scientific Schools (NSh-2942.2014.5) and RFBR Grant No. 12-05-00024 a.

Mikhalev, Alexander

136

White Sea - Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At bottom center of this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from April 13, 2001, the White Sea in western Russia is becoming free of ice in its southern extent. Meanwhile, the blue-green waters along the coast of the peninsula jutting out into the Barents Sea to the northeast could be due to a phytoplankton bloom.

2002-01-01

137

Home Education in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From the eighteenth through the early twentieth centuries, home education (home schooling) by tutors and governesses in Russia was a customary form of schooling for an overwhelming majority of members of the nobility. Social and political transformations of the twentieth century led to substantial changes as the state got actively involved with…

Staroverova, T. I.

2011-01-01

138

LUGOVSKOE, WESTERN SIBERIA: A POSSIBLE EXTRA-ARCTIC MAMMOTH REFUGIUM AT THE END OF THE LATE GLACIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven woolly mammoth bone samples from Lugovskoe (central West Siberian Plain, Russia) were radiocar- bon dated in 3 laboratories: Institute of Geology, Novosibirsk; Oxford University, Oxford; and Christian Albrechts Univer- sity, Kiel. Each laboratory used its own protocol for collagen extraction. Parallel dating was carried out on 3 samples in Novosibirsk and Oxford. Two results are in good agreement. However,

Lyobov A Orlova; Vasily N Zenin; Anthony J Stuart; Thomas F G Higham; Pieter M Grootes; Sergei V Leshchinsky; Yaroslav V Kuzmin; Aleksander F Pavlov; Evgeny N Maschenko

139

Iron oxidation in different types of groundwater of Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, aim, and scope  The groundwaters of Western Siberia contain high concentrations of iron, manganese, silicon, ammonium, and, in several cases,\\u000a hydrogen sulfide, carbonic acids, and dissolved organic substances. Generally, the groundwaters of Western Siberia can be\\u000a divided into two major types: one type with a relatively low concentration of humic substances and high hardness (water of\\u000a A type) and a

Leonid V. Serikov; Elena A. Tropina; Liudmila N. Shiyan; Fritz H. Frimmel; George Metreveli; Markus Delay

2009-01-01

140

Soils of the Tiksi area and their carbon contents; Northeastern Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant differences for the total organic carbon (TOC) contents in the surface horizons were found between all sites of the Tiksi area and the Lena River Delta region (Mann Whitney U, P < 0.05) suggesting higher carbon contents in the hinterland area. Since the soils of the Tiksi area were poorly studied in the past and are significantly different to soils of the well-studied Lena River Delta, this investigation was performed. Here we present preliminary results with interesting insights. All investigated soil profiles of the Tiksi area have developed on eluvial argillaceous shale. Most soil profile depths were relatively shallow (20 - 30 cm). Only several soil profiles, located to the north from Tiksi settlement, reached the depth of 40 cm and deeper. The Tiksi area was characterized by a variety of soil types. According to US Soils Taxonomy most of soils having developed in depressed micro-relief forms were described as Orthels and Histels. Soils of slopes and elevated forms of a micro relief belonged to Turbel suborder. The surface soil horizons were generally enriched by organic matter which likely reflects the inclusion of the vegetation. Minimum carbon content in surface soils amounted to 8 - 12 %. Surface soils of southern sites (remote from Tiksi settlement) were characterized by the lowest carbon content, whereas the surface horizons of eastern and western sites had particularly high in carbon. The median value of total organic carbon for these sites was 28 %. At the northern sites B-horizons were characterized by higher median values of carbon content. Similar results were found for the nitrogen content in the surface and B-horizons. The highest median values of nitrogen were found in surface soils for groups of eastern and western sites amounted to 1.2 % and 1.5 %, respectively. The highest median value of nitrogen in B-horizon was observed for soils of the northern sites group. Generally, the C/N ratio for all groups of investigation sites was higher in surface horizons than in B-horizons suggesting a higher abundance of organic matter and lower rates of its decomposition in the top soils. The highest variability of C/N ratio was found at northern sites, which reflects the cryoturbation processes development.

Antcibor, Iuliia; Zubrzycki, Sebastian

2014-05-01

141

Palaeoenvironmental dynamics inferred from late Quaternary permafrost deposits on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta, Northeast Siberia, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The record mirrors the environmental history of Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island reflects the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

Wetterich, Sebastian; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Andreev, Andrei A.; Kienast, Frank; Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Kuznetsova, Tatyana; Sierralta, Melanie

2008-08-01

142

Genetic Diversity of Freshwater Leeches in Lake Gusinoe (Eastern Siberia, Russia)  

PubMed Central

The study of leeches from Lake Gusinoe and its adjacent area offered us the possibility to determine species diversity. As a result, an updated species list of the Gusinoe Hirudinea fauna (Annelida, Clitellata) has been compiled. There are two orders and three families of leeches in the Gusinoe area: order Rhynchobdellida (families Glossiphoniidae and Piscicolidae) and order Arhynchobdellida (family Erpobdellidae). In total, 6 leech species belonging to 6 genera have been identified. Of these, 3 taxa belonging to the family Glossiphoniidae (Alboglossiphonia heteroclita f. papillosa, Hemiclepsis marginata, and Helobdella stagnalis) and representatives of 3 unidentified species (Glossiphonia sp., Piscicola sp., and Erpobdella sp.) have been recorded. The checklist gives a contemporary overview of the species composition of leeches and information on their hosts or substrates. The validity of morphological identification of each taxon has been verified by phylogenetic approach with a molecular marker adopted for a DNA barcoding of most invertebrates.

Kaygorodova, Irina A.; Mandzyak, Nadezhda; Petryaeva, Ekaterina; Pronin, Nikolay M.

2014-01-01

143

Russia`s atomic tsar: Viktor N. Mikhailov  

SciTech Connect

Minatom (Ministry of Atomic Energy) was created to manage Russia`s nuclear weapons program in the age of disarmament. The ministry is responsible for the development, production, and maintenance of nuclear weapons, warhead dismantlement, the production of nuclear materials for weapons, the disposition of nuclear materials disassembled from warheads, the administration of Russia`s vast nuclear weapons complex, the development of policy for the future role of Russia`s nuclear complex and payment of employees entrusted with such tasks. Thus, Minatom is instrumental in the implementation of arms control, disarmament and nonproliferation agreements. The director of Minatom, Viktor N. Mikhailov, wields a great deal of power and influence over Russia`s nuclear infrastructure. He is an important player amidst efforts to reduce the threats posed by Russia`s decaying nuclear complex. There are certainly other personalities in the Russian government who influence Minatom; however, few affect the ministry as profoundly as Mikhailov. His ability to influence Russia`s nuclear complex has been clearly demonstrated by his policies in relation to the US purchase of Russian highly enriched uranium, the planned fissile material storage facility at Mayak, materials protection, control and accountability programs, and his unwavering determination to sell Iran commercial nuclear technology. Mikhailov has also been a key negotiator when dealing with the US on issues of transparency of weapons dismantlement and fissile material disposition, as well as the use of US threat reduction funds. His policies and concerns in these areas will affect the prospects for the successful negotiation and implementation of future nuclear threat reduction programs and agreements with Russia.

Reams, C.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for International Security Affairs

1996-12-01

144

Identification of the North American plate in east Siberia by means of GPS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1995, the Russia/US collaborative Project RUSEG provided GPS observations over the vast landmass of east Asia including the Arctic region. Project participants are: RDAAC/GSRAS (G. Steblov) on the Russian side; Columbia U. (M. Kogan and C. Scholz), MIT (R. King), and U. of California - Berkeley (R. Burgmann) on the US side. The authors of this talk analyzed convergence of Eurasian, North American, and Pacific plates in east Asia using the GPS solution LDO_030112. It is based on observations collected in 1996-2002 at about 50 stations in east Siberia, the Urals, Kamchatka, and Sakhalin, combined with 74 global IGS stations and 6 stations in the Pacific plate. The 3-plate reference frame is defined independently of geologic plate models. Comparison of velocities in east Asia relative to Eurasia and to North America allows us to conclude that east Siberia to the east of the Cherskiy Range belongs to the North American plate. This was hypothesized since the onset of the plate tectonic concept but it was never proved geodetically. The plate geometry in east Asia compatible with GPS velocities is the simplest possible: the interaction of three major plates. The existence of microplates in this region is not evidenced by GPS. A distributed non-platelike deformation is characteristic of China. Plate-related GPS velocities in stable interiors of Eurasian, North American, and Pacific plates are remarkably uniform and small, 0.6-0.7 mm/yr indicating average strain rates on the order of 1e-10.

Kogan, M.; Steblov, G.; Scholz, C.

2003-04-01

145

Insight Into West Siberian Gas and Wetland Methane Emissions From ? 13C Studies of Ambient Air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ob River region of West Siberia is home to some of the largest known gasfields and wetlands, and a source of around 2.5% of the total global methane emissions. It is also a major source region of CO2 emissions. Carbon isotopes of ambient air and emission sources provide an important tool for understanding these poorly constrained sources. Tank samples of ambient air were collected overnight for ? 13C analysis of methane during the summer (August-September) campaigns of 1999 and 2000, as part of INTAS-funded projects. The main sampling centres were Nadym and Urengoy, with samples collected above the known gas reserves, near pumping stations and by boat on the Nadym River, downstream toward Salekhard. CH4 of up to 900 ppb above background was recorded and ? 13C depletions of up to 3‰ relative to background. West Siberian gas has measured ? 13C values of -51.5 to -49.5‰ based on well samples and supplies in St. Petersburg and Germany. Implications from aircraft flights (Sugawara et al. 1996) and measurements along the Trans-Siberian railroad (Bergamaschi et al., 1998) are that the wetland signature is around -67‰ . The ambient air samples give a range of calculated source inputs from -67.3 to -49.3‰ , the end members corresponding to sampling areas expected to contain only wetland or gas emissions and confirmed by back trajectory analysis for sampling times. Using the end members, the average excess methane from the wetland source was 62 ppb around Nadym and 61 ppb around Urengoy. The average excess from the gasfields was 30 ppb around Nadym but 82 ppb around Urengoy, reflecting the closer proximity to the gasfields. The maximum excess recorded from wetlands was 160 ppb and from gasfields was 710 ppb. Experiments during summer 2004 have focussed on bag sampling on the tower of a super deep well at Korotchaevo, SE of the Urengoy gas field. Samples collected at 20, 30 and 60m heights will be analysed for ? 13C of both CH4 and CO2 and apportioned to gas and wetland sources. Bergamaschi P.et al. Isotope analysis based source identification for atmospheric CH4 and CO sampled across Russia using the Trans-Siberian railroad. J. Geophys. Res., 103 (D), 8227-8235, 1998. Suguwara S. et al. Aircraft measurements of the stable carbon isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane over Siberia. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 10, 223-231, 1996.

Lowry, D.; Fisher, R.; Levin, I.; Privalov, S.; Nisbet, E.

2004-12-01

146

IMF Loan for Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News looks at the International Monetary Fund's recent lending agreement with Russia. The nine resources discussed offer commentary, news, analysis, and background information concerning the IMF's current economic package, and discuss the Russian economic crisis in general. A key player in the New Russian Federation's transition to a market economy, the IMF, agreed to ease Russia's ongoing financial crisis on July 13, 1998 with a loan of 15.1 billion dollars (to be dispersed over two years). According to IMF First Deputy Managing Director Stanley Fischer, this amount is "a very significant draw on our resources," although the IMF has protected its funding carefully via terms outlined in the agreement. Deliberators in Russia's Parliament, however, find the conditions set by the IMF, President Boris Yeltsin, and other international lenders to be too harsh -- particularly a condition to protect the rights of foreign investors. As the debate continues, many fear that future international funding will be withheld, and the ruble will continue its downward spiral set off by the Asian financial crisis in May 1998 (discussed in the January 30, 1998 Scout Report). With 5 billion dollars or more available from the IMF as early as next week, Russian government leaders must agree on a feasible economic plan, before conditions worsen.

Waters, Megan.

1998-01-01

147

Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

2014-01-01

148

Compact storage rings Siberia-AS and Siberia-SM synchrotron radiation sources for lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with two projects of compact superconducting storage rings for industrial production of integrated circuits (IC) using x-ray lithography within the 8- to 20-Å wavelengths range. The azimuthally symmetric superconducting storage ring Siberia-AS at an energy of 600 MeV is a superconducting analog of VEP-1, one of the earliest storage rings in the world intended for the purposes of high-energy physics. Unlike the conventional design, no iron yoke is used in the storage ring under consideration to form the magnetic field at the equilibrium orbit and to close the return magnetic flux—this is performed by some inner and outer superconducting windings. Such a scheme enables the size of the storage ring to be substantially reduced (a cylinder of 2 m in diameter and 2 m long), and as a result, its weight decreases, too (about 10 tons). The eight-magnet storage ring Siberia-SM is of four-order symmetry so that the periodicity element comprises two rectangular magnets and three lenses. Its basic component is a superconducting bending rectangular magnet at a 6-T magnetic field. Two variants of such magnets have been proposed: in the first, the iron yoke is utilized to form the magnetic field and to close the return flux, while the second is an ironless C-shaped magnet manufactured on the basis of original wedgelike coils.

Anashin, V. V.; Arbuzov, V. S.; Blinov, G. A.; Veshcherevich, V. G.; Vobly, P. D.; Gorniker, E. I.; Zinevich, N. I.; Zinin, E. I.; Zubkov, N. I.; Kiselev, V. A.; Kollerov, E. P.; Kulipanov, G. N.; Matveev, Yu. G.; Medvedko, A. S.; Mezentsev, N. A.; Morgunov, L. G.; Perevedentsev, E. A.; Petrov, V. M.; Petrov, S. P.; Repkov, V. V.; Roenko, V. A.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Sukhanov, S. V.; Tokarev, Yu. I.; Trakhtenberg, E. M.

1989-07-01

149

Adult Learners' Week in Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Russia International Adult Learners Week highlights the democratization process the country is undergoing. Government attention to rural development and training and agrarian policy is needed. (SK)

Litvinova, Nina

2002-01-01

150

76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-856; Second Review] Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On...the antidumping duty order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely...4249 (August 2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from Russia:...

2011-08-04

151

76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-856 (Second Review)] Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United...the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia...the suspended investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be...

2011-03-01

152

77 FR 12880 - Uranium From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-539-C (Third Review)] Uranium From Russia Determination On the basis...termination of the suspended investigation on uranium from Russia would be likely to lead to...Publication 4307 (February 2012), entitled Uranium from Russia: Investigation No....

2012-03-02

153

The Face of Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from PBS complements its three-part series of the same name. The series and site interpret the cultural history of Russia from 850 AD to the present. Exploring art, music, cinema, prose, and poetry, the show concentrates on Russian cultural history in three cities: Kiev, Moscow, and St. Petersburg. The site is highlighted by a detailed, partially annotated timeline; RealPlayer excerpts of interviews with Maxim Kantor, Dmitry Likhachev, and Mstislav Rostropovich, among others; artwork (including RealPlayer and QuickTime movies of selections from drama and cinema); and a reference section that includes a glossary, bibliography, lesson plans, and the Cyrillic alphabet.

154

Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

2001-01-01

155

The SIBERIA dedicated synchrotron radiation source: status report on the storage rings complex at the Kurchatov Institute for Atomic Energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the status of the SIBERIA storage rings complex. The parameters of the linac, booster synchrotron and main ring are given. The transfer of the SIBERIA-1 storage ring to its new site is described. The main parameters of the engineering systems for the SIBERIA complex are presented. The assembly of the SIBERIA-2 storage ring is planned to be

A. N. Artemiev; S. M. Akhmedzhanov; A. A. Vasilyev; G. M. Gritsuk; A. V. Dozorov; Yu. V. Doronkin; A. V. Zabelin; M. N. Klimenko; S. A. Kotov; Yu. V. Krylov; V. A. Lebedev; A. V. Lipilin; I. M. Nagornyh; O. N. Nikulin; D. G. Odintsov; S. D. Pashkov; S. G. Pesterev; V. K. Prosvetov; V. N. Rybakov; M. M. Samorukov; V. A. Treshchin; V. L. Ushkov; A. R. Tsup; E. M. Chaikin; Yu. L. Yupinov

1991-01-01

156

Paleomagnetic dating of Phanerozoic kimberlites in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond bearing kimberlite pipes are exposed across the north-central part of the Siberian platform. Three main time intervals are considered to be the age of emplacement: the Devonian-Early Carboniferous, Triassic, and Cretaceous. However, isotopic age data from of the pipes are scattered and provide a very broad age interval for the magmatic activity. New paleomagnetic poles from four kimberlite pipes (Eastern Udachnaya, Western Udachnaya, International and Obnazhennaya) are obtained to estimate their paleomagnetic age. The mean primary magnetization directions for the pipes are as follows: D = 4.3°, I = - 44.5° (k = 29.4, ?95 = 7.4°, N = 14); D = 340.5°, I = - 65.6° (k = 12.9, ?95 = 19.4°, N = 6); D = 291.1°, I = - 78.1° (k = 27.5, ?95 = 14.9°, N = 5); and D = 306.7°, I = - 82.6° (k = 38.4, ?95 = 5.8°, N = 17), respectively. On the basis of a comparison with the Siberian apparent polar wander path (APWP) we estimate the age of kimberlite magmatism, assuming primary magnetizations in these rocks. The paleomagnetic ages are as follows: 428 ± 13 Ma for Eastern Udachnaya; 251 ± 30 Ma for International pipe; and 168 ± 11 Ma for Obnazhennaya pipe. The Western Udachnaya pipe was remagnetized and no clear paleomagnetic age could be determined. The ages of magmatic activity span the Early Silurian to Middle Late Jurassic. Early Silurian magmatism could be associated with the formation of the Viluy rift. Middle to Late Jurassic magmatic activity is most likely related to subduction related to the accretion of surrounding terranes to Siberia.

Blanco, Dunia; Kravchinsky, Vadim A.; Konstantinov, Konstantin M.; Kabin, Konstantin

2013-01-01

157

Artificial radionuclides in Russia due to the Fukushima NPP accident  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radioactive emission into the atmosphere from the damaged reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) started on March 12th, 2011. The network of Federal Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring Service (Rosgydromet) carries out supervision over a radiation situation on the territory of Russia. In Russia, the first radionuclides from Fukushima were detected on March 20th in the Far East by network. From March 20th to April 30th I-131 (particulate form), Cs-137 and Cs-134 were detected in samples of atmospheric aerosols at the 30 stations of networks and the same ones were detected in fallout at the 25 stations of networks. The first detection of I-131 in the European territory of Russia (ETR) occurred on March 23rd; and in the South and the North of Siberia - on March 26th. The volumetric activities of I-131 in the ETR sharply increased from March 28th to 30th. Along with the increasing content of I-131 cesium isotopes appeared in the air. The maximum values of radionuclides volume activity were observed between April 3rd and 4th: for I-131 - 4,0 mBq/m3, for Cs-137 - 1,15 mBq/m3, for Cs-134 - 1,04 mBq/m3. Observed in the Far East, the maximum values for I-131 were 2-4 times lower than in the ETR. The maximum values for I-131 in the Asian territory of Russia (ATR) were 2 - 8 times lower, than in the ETR. The Cs-137/Cs-134 ratio in samples of atmospheric aerosols was about 1. The ratio I-131/Cs-137 in air changed in a wide range. From March 23rd to April 5th the ratio fluctuated within 11 to 34, from April 5th to 20th of the ratio decreased and varied within 1,5 to 7,7, further it became less than 1. The value of cesium isotopes in second quarter of 2011 in fallout was lower than 2 Bq/m2. The addition to the density of soil contamination by Cs-137 by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less than the decrease of the density of contamination with this isotope of the global origin due to radioactive decay. Based on the obtained experimental data we can conclude that the volumetric activities of radionuclides in the near-the-ground atmospheric layer were by 3 to 6 orders of magnitude below the permissible volume activity set by Radiation Safety Standards of Russia Federation.

Polianskaia, Olga; Vakulovsky, Sergey; Kim, Vera; Yahryushin, Valery; Volokitin, Andrey

2013-04-01

158

Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia  

E-print Network

The Age of Dinosaurs in Russia and Mongolia EDITED BY MichaelJ. Bemon University of Bristol Mikhail the CloetaCeous of Russia, Middle Asia, and :rvlongolia, arc equally important. Some of the dinosaurs elsewhere, but these are sorely in need of revision (see Chapter 11). The dinosaurs and other tetrapods from

Benton, Michael

159

Flooding in Southern Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over the past two weeks, heavy rains have inundated southern Russia, giving rise to floods that killed up to 83 people and drove thousands from their homes. This false-color image acquired on June 23, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite shows some of the worst flooding. The Black Sea is the dark patch in the lower left-hand corner. The city of Krasnodor, Russia, which was one of the cities hardest hit, sits on the western edge of the larger lake on the left side of the image, and Stavropol, which lost more lives than any other city, sits just east of the small cluster of lakes on the right-hand side of the image. Normally, the rivers and smaller lakes in this image cannot even be seen clearly on MODIS imagery. In this false-color image, the ground is green and blue and water is black or dark brown. Clouds come across as pink and white. Credit: Image courtesy Jesse Allen, NASA GSFC, based on data provided by the MODIS Rapid Response System.

2002-01-01

160

Syphilis soars in Russia.  

PubMed

The number of adults with syphilis in Russia has increased 15-fold since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The rate in children is 20 times higher than it was 4 years ago. 126,500 cases were registered with the health ministry over the past year, while 7900 were in 1990. The number of cases in children increased from 38 in 1991 to 761 this year; most of these cases were acquired via sexual transmission. Lilia Tikhonova, the health ministry's chief specialist on sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), blamed the increases on "the complete perversion of our society's morals," the rapid growth of child prostitution, the influx of homeless people and refugees into the cities, and miracle cures that are used in place of seeing a specialist. In communist Russia, patients were required to register passport details and previous sexual contacts, and future sexual contact was forbidden for a period; anyone breaking these rules faced 5 years in jail. Current law only punishes those who knowingly infect their sexual partners. Health officials in the Ukraine, where a similar increase in the number of STDs has been noted, blame black market condoms. Over the past 5 years, cheap foreign condoms have flooded the market. PMID:7613399

Ingram, M

1995-07-01

161

BRDF characteristics of tundra vegetation communities in Yamal, Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Satellite data from platforms with pointing capabilities (CHRIS/Proba, RapidEye) or from sensors with wide swath (AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS) is influenced by the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). This effect can cause significant changes in the measured spectral surface reflectance depending on the solar illumination geometry and sensor viewing conditions. The Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP), a German hyperspectral mission with expected launch in 2016, will provide high spectral resolution observations with a ground sampling distance of 30 meters. Since the EnMAP sensor has pointing capabilities, both spectral and directional reflection characteristics need to be taken into account for the algorithms development for vegetation parameters. The 'hyperspectral method development for Arctic VEGetation biomes' (hy-Arc-VEG) project is part of the national preparation program for the EnMAP mission. Within the EnMAP projcect hy-Arc-VEG we developed a portable field spectro-goniometer, named ManTIS (Manual Transportable Instrument for Spherical BRDF observations), for the in-situ measurements of anisotropic effects of tundra surfaces (national and international patent pending - DE 102011117713.6). The goniometer was designed for field use in difficult as well as challenging terrain and climate. It is therefore of low weight, without electrical devices and weatherproof. It can be disassembled and packed into small boxes for transport. The current off-nadir viewing capacity is matched to the EnMAP sensor configuration (up to 30°). We carried out spectral field and goniometer measurements on the joint YAMAL 2011 expedition (RU-US-DE) organized by the Earth-Cryosphere Institute (ECI) in August 2011 on the Yamal Peninsula, northwestern Siberia, Russia. The field goniometer measurements (conducted under varying sun zenith angles) as well as field spectro-radiometrical measurements were carried out at the NASA Yamal Land Cover/Land Use Change (NASA Yamal-LCLUC) transects and réleves at Laboravaya (southern Yamal) and Vaskiny Dachi (central Yamal), and at the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site in Vaskiny Dachi. The LCLUC plots are Greening of the Arctic (GOA) sites established in 2007 by Walker et al. (2009). The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site was established by M. Leibman (ECI) in 1993. BRDF processing for the tundra test sites demonstrate the mirror asymmetry in relative azimuth with respect to the principal plane. It also showed that the maximum scattering appears in the backward direction, but that there is no minimal forward scattering. Instead, the forward scattering is characterized by similar to higher reflectance values compared to the nadir position. Moreover, the analysis of the anisotropic behaviour of moss-dominated tundra types with 10 to 15% vascular plant cover show that the BRDF influence on vegetation indices (VI) of low-growing arctic vegetation communities can be up to 15% of the nadir value. The low sun elevation at the arctic latitudes prevents hotspot-effects, but a BRDF normalization still should be taken into account for the development of tundra-adapted vegetation indices. Walker, D.A. et al. (2009): Data Report of the 2007 and 2008 Yamal Expeditions. AGC Data Report. 133.

Buchhorn, Marcel; Heim, Birgit; Walker, Donald A. Skip; Epstein, Howard; Leibman, Marina

2013-04-01

162

Automatic chamber observations of methane and carbon dioxide fluxes at West Siberian wetland  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automatic sampling and analysis system for measuring methane and carbon dioxide fluxes from soil was developed and applied to the soil flux measurements at boreal wetland near Plotnikovo in the southern part of West Siberia. The observations cover warm season (May-October) from 1998 to 2010. Measurements were performed with two systems on the two types of open wetlands typical

O. Krasnov; S. Maksyutov; K. Shimoyama; H. Suto; A. Nadeev; V. Shelevoi; M. Glagolev; N. Kosykh; T. Machida; G. Inoue

2010-01-01

163

Basalt weathering in Central Siberia under permafrost conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical weathering of basalts in the Putorana Plateau, Central Siberia, has been studied by combining chemical and mineralogical analysis of solids (rocks, soils, river sediments, and suspended matter) and fluid solution chemistry. Altogether, 70 large and small rivers, 30 soil pore waters and groundwaters and over 30 solids were sampled during July to August 2001. Analysis of multiannual data on

O. S. Pokrovsky; J. Schott; D. I. Kudryavtzev; B. Dupré

2005-01-01

164

A Survey of Artemia Resources of Southwest Siberia (Russian Federation)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on a field survey conducted in salt lakes in southwest Siberia in the period 2000–2003. A total of 46 lakes were sampled; the highest sampling effort was made in the Kurgan region. Data were collected on general topography, salinity, ion composition, and temperature regime. Primary production was assessed by measuring water transparency and by determining phytoplankton species

Gilbert Van Stappen; Lyudmila Ilinichna Litvinenko; Aleksandr Ivanovich Litvinenko; Elena Grigorevno Boyko; Brad Marden; Patrick Sorgeloos

2009-01-01

165

Sizing up the sub-Tommotian unconformity in Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sedimentary rocks in the western Anabar region, northwestern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolution and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Carbon isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at 1 to 2 m intervals support correlation of the lower Anabar succession (Staraya Reckha and lower Manykai Formations) with sub-Tommotian carbonates of the Ust'-Yu-doma Formation in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, the upper Manykai and most of the overlying Medvezhya Formation appear to preserve a sedimentary and paleontological record of an evolutionary important time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlation of the Anabar section with other northern Siberian successions that contain well-dated volcanic rocks permits the estimate that the sub-Tommotian unconformity in southeastern Siberia spans approximately 3 to 6 m.y. Diverse small shelly fossils (but not archaeocyathans) previously thought to mark the base of the Tommotian Stage evolved sequentially throughout this earlier interval.

Knoll, A. H.; Kaufman, A. J.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Adams, W.

1995-01-01

166

Methane emission from Western Siberia derived from the integral methane balance in the troposphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although a number of estimates of methane emissions from large Earth regions have been proposed, based on either empirical or inverse transport modeling approaches, these emissions still remain highly uncertain motivating the development of new methods of surface flux assessment. In this study a new mathematical formulation for calculation of surface flux of methane, or any other gaseous component of the atmosphere, is developed. In it, the surface flux is retrieved from the integral balance of methane in bounded atmospheric domain. This balance includes the surface flux, the net advective flux through lateral boundaries of the atmospheric domain, methane sink due to oxidation by hydroxyl radical, and the rate of change of total methane amount in the domain. Western Siberia, being on of the most prominent surface methane sources in Northern hemisphere, is used as a test region for the method. The components of methane balance are calculated using methane concentrations and wind speeds from MACC reanalysis at 1.125 deg. grid (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/EU_projects/MACC), and hydroxyl concentrations provided by (Spivakovsky, 2000). The total methane flux from Western Siberia is thus assessed at 6 h resolution for 2001-2011. The time averaged total flux corresponds well to empirical estimates (M Glagolev, 2011) at diurnal and annual timescales. It may be anticipated that the method will be useful in close future when the satellite-retrieved methane concentration profiles will achieve high accuracy. References: Spivakovsky, C. M., et al. (2000), Three-dimensional climatological distribution of tropospheric OH: Update and evaluation, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 8931- 8980. M Glagolev, I Kleptsova, I Filippov, S Maksyutov and T Machida. Regional methane emission from West Siberia mire landscapes. Environ. Res. Lett. 6 (2011) 045214 (7pp). This work is partially supported by the Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation (contract#8345), SB RAS project VIII.80.2.1, RFBR grant #11-05-01190a, and integrated project SB RAS #131, RFBR grant 11-05-01190-a.

Bogomolov, Vasiliy; Stepanenko, Victor; Okladnikov, Igor

2013-04-01

167

Germans from Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of online digital projects have taken on the challenge of documenting the experiences of immigrants and this particular website deals with this very subject quite nicely. Through the use of primary documents and detailed oral histories, this website illustrates the experiences of Germans from Russia who immigrated to Colorado in the 19th and 20th centuries. Drawing on work done by Professor Heitman at Colorado State University in the 1970s, visitors to the site can examine transcripts and listen to audio excerpts of interviews of these immigrants (and their descendants). They may also wish to view the online photo gallery which contains images of agriculture work, German-inspired architecture, and home life. Finally, visitors can use a search engine offered here to look for specific materials, if they wish to do so.

168

Why Has Russia’s Economic Transformation Been So Arduous?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper examines the problems of Russia’s post-communist economic,transformation. Its main thesis is that the Russian attempt at radical economic reform largely failed, because of extraordinary rent-seeking by old enterprise managers through export rents, subsidized credits, import subsidies and direct government subsidies, while they gained little from privatization. The reason why,the managers,were,so strong was,that the Soviet Union left large

Anders Åslund; Carnegie Endowment

169

Social development of Russia’s Northern Regions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Specific features and trends of interregional differences in the social development of Russia’s Northern Regions are considered,\\u000a using methods of econometrics and mathematical statistics. Statistical characteristics point to the process of convergence\\u000a of the northern regions against the background of their high social differentiation. Based on the methods of principal components,\\u000a factor analysis, and Ward’s hierarchical cluster analysis, we grouped

V. I. Akopov; Yu. A. Gadzhiev

2008-01-01

170

Early Visean paleogeography of northern Siberia: New evidence of rift to drift transition along the eastern margin of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous the eastern part of Siberia was affected by multi-stage rifting, which led to formation of a Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic passive margin. Four sections of the Lower Visean strata were studied in the northern part of the Kharaulakh Ridge, along the Lena River and Bykov Channel (north-east of Siberia). The studied sedimentary succession comprises two lithologically contrasting units: coarse-grained turbidites and hemipelagic cherts. Deposition occurred in a marine basin bounded by steep slopes, which is a key geomorphological feature facilitating deposition of coarse-grained turbidites. Within the studied sandy turbidites, several different zones of submarine sand-rich fans have been recognized. Integrated sedimentological and petrographical analyses allow us to interpret that the nearby uplifts composed of Proterozoic-Middle Paleozoic rocks were the main provenance areas for the Visean clastic rocks. Those uplifts were formed as a result of the latest stages of rifting in the study region that occurred in the earliest Visean, following termination of much of the tectonic activity during the Tournaisian. A similar rock association has been described previously from the central and southern part of the eastern margin of Siberia suggesting that the rift to drift transition occurred approximately at the same time across East Siberia and is of Early Visean age.

Ershova, Victoria B.; Khudoley, Andrey K.; Prokopiev, Andrei V.

2014-09-01

171

Summer Harvest in Saratov, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Russia's Saratov Oblast (province) is located in the southeastern portion of the East-European plain, in the Lower Volga River Valley. Southern Russia produces roughly 40 percent of the country's total agricultural output, and Saratov Oblast is the largest producer of grain in the Volga region. Vegetation changes in the province's agricultural lands between spring and summer are apparent in these images acquired on May 31 and July 18, 2002 (upper and lower image panels, respectively) by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR).

The left-hand panels are natural color views acquired by MISR's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. Less vegetation and more earth tones (indicative of bare soils) are apparent in the summer image (lower left). Farmers in the region utilize staggered sowing to help stabilize yields, and a number of different stages of crop maturity can be observed. The main crop is spring wheat, cultivated under non-irrigated conditions. A short growing season and relatively low and variable rainfall are the major limitations to production. Saratov city is apparent as the light gray pixels on the left (west) bank of the Volga River. Riparian vegetation along the Volga exhibits dark green hues, with some new growth appearing in summer.

The right-hand panels are multi-angle composites created with red band data from MISR's 60-degree backward, nadir and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras displayed as red, green and blue respectively. In these images, color variations serve as a proxy for changes in angular reflectance, and the spring and summer views were processed identically to preserve relative variations in brightness between the two dates. Urban areas and vegetation along the Volga banks look similar in the two seasonal multi-angle composites. The agricultural areas, on the other hand, look strikingly different. This can be attributed to differences in brightness and texture between bare soil and vegetated land. The chestnut-colored soils in this region are brighter in MISR's red band than the vegetation. Because plants have vertical structure, the oblique cameras observe a greater proportion of vegetation relative to the nadir camera, which sees more soil. In spring, therefore, the scene is brightest in the vertical view and thus appears with an overall greenish hue. In summer, the soil characteristics play a greater role in governing the appearance of the scene, and the angular reflectance is now brighter at the oblique view angles (displayed as red and blue), thus imparting a pink color to much of the farmland and a purple color to areas along the banks of several narrow rivers. The unusual appearance of the clouds is due to geometric parallax which splits the imagery into spatially separated components as a consequence of their elevation above the surface.

The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. These images are a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbits 13033 and 13732, and cover an area of about 173 kilometers x 171 kilometers. They utilize data from blocks 49 to 50 within World Reference System-2 path 170.

MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

2002-01-01

172

FIVE SPECIES OF DIDYMODON (POTTIACEAE, BRYOPHYTA) NEW FOR RUSSIA  

E-print Network

during recent floristic investi- gation of southern Siberia, Russian Far East and Caucasus, as well of the Rus- sian Far East, southern Siberia and Caucasus, accomplished by the first three authors, we were

Kucera, Jan

173

Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Indigenous Populations of the Southern Extent of Siberia, and the Origins of Native American Haplogroups  

PubMed Central

Summary In search of the ancestors of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, we analyzed the mtDNA of 531 individuals from nine indigenous populations in Siberia. All mtDNAs were subjected to high-resolution RFLP analysis, sequencing of the control-region hypervariable segment I (HVS-I), and surveyed for additional polymorphic markers in the coding region. Furthermore, the mtDNAs selected according to haplogroup/subhaplogroup status were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting data, combined with those from previously published Siberian arctic and sub-arctic populations, revealed that remnants of the ancient Siberian gene pool are still evident in Siberian populations, suggesting that the founding haplotypes of the Native American A–D branches originated in different parts of Siberia. Thus, lineage A complete sequences revealed in the Mansi of the Lower Ob and the Ket of the Lower Yenisei belong to A1, suggesting that A1 mtDNAs occasionally found in the remnants of hunting-gathering populations of northwestern and northern Siberia belonged to a common gene pool of the Siberian progenitors of Paleoindians. Moreover, lineage B1, which is the most closely related to the American B2, occurred in the Tubalar and Tuvan inhabiting the territory between the upper reaches of the Ob River in the west, to the Upper Yenisei region in the east. Finally, the sequence variants of haplogroups C and D, which are most similar to Native American C1 and D1, were detected in the Ulchi of the Lower Amur. Overall, our data suggest that the immediate ancestors of the Siberian/Beringian migrants who gave rise to ancient (pre-Clovis) Paleoindians have a common origin with aboriginal people of the area now designated the Altai-Sayan Upland, as well as the Lower Amur/Sea of Okhotsk region. PMID:15638829

Starikovskaya, Elena B.; Sukernik, Rem I.; Derbeneva, Olga A.; Volodko, Natalia V.; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo; Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D.; Lott, Marie T.; Hosseini, Seyed H.; Huoponen, Kirsi; Wallace, Douglas C.

2014-01-01

174

Trace metals in sediments of coastal Siberia  

E-print Network

Sea is located in the southeast comer of the Barents Sea. It is defined as the area bounded by the islands of Novaya Zemlya in the east and Kolgujev in the west. The average water depths are between 20-100 m. There is a small trough near the island... of Novaya Zemlya where depths exceed 200 m (Loring et al. , 1995). The mixing zone of the Pechora Sea is covered with ice from November to April. The water column has a two layer structure, a highly variable surface layer associated with varying inputs...

Esnough, Teresa Elizabeth

2012-06-07

175

Perspectives on Fire Research Collaboration in Siberia: What Have We Learned; Why Does It Matter; and Where Do We Go from Here?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

My first experience of the vast taiga forests of Russia, and my first chance to meet and work with Russian fire researchers, was at a 1993 conference and field experiment planned jointly by Johann G. Goldammer from Germany and Valentin V. Furyaev from Russia. This meeting was the beginning of a long and fruitful collaboration among US, Canadian, and Russian fire scientists. We all became increasingly aware of the global signifiance of the circumpolar boreal zone, and of the need for better information on the extent and effects of boreal fires. Wildfires are the dominant disturbance regime in the Russian boreal zone, burning 10 to 20 million hectares per year. These fires are a significant source of CO2 and other greenhouse gases and aerosols. Our research team published some of the first remote-sensing based estimates of the extent of fire in Russia and of the potential variability in emissions that could result from different burning conditions. Through a series of 20 prescribed burns we were able to mimic a wide range of burning conditions and obtain information on the impacts on soils, vegetation, and fuel consumption. Based on these experimental fires, we have modeled the effects of weather and fuels on fuel consumption and other factors, and related fire characteristics to emissions, carbon stocks, and soil and vegetation processes. For the past 10 years, we have focused on the ecosystem effects of fires of varying severity in the Scots pine and mixed larch forests of central Siberia, on improved remote-sensing based estimates of burned area and fire effects, and on relating fire weather indices to fire potential and fuel consumption. Logging is an increasingly important disturbance in Russia’s forests, and logged sites, with their high fuel loads seem particularly susceptible to fire. We are currently studying interactions between logging and fire, with an emphasis on the differences in fuel consumption, emissions, and carbon stocks when fires burn in logged and unlogged areas. Fire activity and emissions are projected to increase substantially in the boreal zone as climate warms. We are currently working to develop a 30-yr fire record for Siberia based on satellite data. We will integrate these data with historic fire weather, emissions, and vegetation data to estimate fuel consumption and emissions from fires in Siberia from 1980 to 2010. We will reconstruct past fire regimes using dendrochronology data for selected sub-regions. The relationships derived through this work will provide a basis for projecting the future effects of changing climate on fire patterns, emissions and carbon cycle in Siberia. This project will provide critical information for input to global change models and for analysis of the regional and global impacts of changing fire regimes in the boreal zone.

Conard, S. G.

2010-12-01

176

Chaos Reigns in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For the third time in the last 14 months, Russian President Boris Yeltsin deposed his Prime Minister and Cabinet, intensifying the political chaos in a country beleaguered by economic insolvency, administrative corruption, and governmental mismanagement. The dismissals handed down on Wednesday, which included the popular PM Yevgeny M. Primakov, occurred the day before impeachment proceedings were to begin against Yeltsin in the lower house of the Russian parliament, the communist-led State Duma. Russia's first democratically elected President faces five impeachment charges, including initiating the collapse of the USSR, ordering an attack on parliament in 1993, destroying the armed forces, punishing the Russian people through harsh economic policies, and waging an illegal war against the secessionist Chechnya in 1994 through 1996. Political analysts forecast that only the last charge has a chance of passing the necessary two-thirds vote, slated for Saturday, in the 450-seat State Duma. Even if charged, it is unlikely that Yeltsin will be removed from office because the charge must also be approved by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the Council of Federation, the parliament's upper house. However, the political imbroglio will paralyze the Russian government for months to come, and has already disrupted Russian diplomatic efforts to mediate a resolution to the crisis in Yugoslavia. The sites listed provide insight into this current Russian political crisis.

Osmond, Andrew.

177

28 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE WI NTE R 2012 "Had I stayed in Russia, in a pro-  

E-print Network

to the West. "They wanted me to gather intel- ligence on genetic engineering, a concept that both baffled28 ENGINEERING & SCIENCE WI NTE R 2012 "Had I stayed in Russia, in a pro- fession called molecular and genetics, most particularly for discovery of the biologi- cal functions of the proteolytic (protein

178

Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent

Anatoly Sukhinin; Douglas McRae; Jin Ji-Zhong; Olga Dubrovskaya; Eugene Ponomarev

2010-01-01

179

Coast of the East Siberian Sea, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sea ice is pulling away from the coastline of northeastern Siberia in the east Siberia Sea. This true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from May 26, 2002, also the thinning of ice in bays and coves, and the blue reflection of the water from beneath causes the ice to appear bright blue. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

180

Studying of biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere over Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation into the atmosphere play an important role in atmospheric chemistry and participate in the formation and growth of aerosol particles that affect the atmospheric radiation balance and the earth’s climate. A number of VOCs, such as isoprene, monoterpene, methylvinylketone, and methacrolein, whose surface concentrations were measured between Moscow and Vladivostok in the course of the Transcontinental Observations into the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (TROICA-12) experiment in July-August 2008, are considered. For the first time in Russia, a PTR-MS proton mass-spectrometer was used to measure the VOC concentrations. The continuous series of VOC concentrations in the atmosphere over the Trans-Siberian Railway were obtained, and the characteristic features of their variations were determined. The spatial distribution of the concentrations of biogenic VOC was compared with a map of Russia’s forests. It was found that the maximum concentrations of isoprene between Moscow and Vladivostok correspond to the zones of broad-leaved forests in the Far East and Primorskii Krai, and the maximum concentrations of monoterpene correspond to coniferous forests in Siberia. The obvious correlation between the concentrations of isoprene and the total concentration of methylvinylketone and methacrolein was revealed.

Timkovsky, I. I.; Elanskii, N. F.; Skorokhod, A. I.; Shumskii, R. A.

2010-06-01

181

Status of forest resources and the environment in Siberia  

SciTech Connect

The Siberian forests are considered to be one of the most important biomes on earth. The forested area of Siberia constitutes about 20 percent of the total world forested area and nearly 50 percent of the total world coniferous forested area. About 605 million hectares are covered with stands, these areas make up about 48 percent of the total area. Nearly 450 million hectares are covered with coniferous species. The total growing stock of stemwood is 61.4 billion m{sup 3} as compared to North America - 50.3 billion m{sup 3} of which 51 billion m{sup 3} is made up of coniferous species. About 38.5 billion m{sup 3} (nearly 63 percent) of the growing stock are classified as mature and overmature forests. Nearly 65 percent of the Siberian forests are growing in areas with permafrost and more than 60 percent of the forested areas are classified as mountain forests. The carbon stock, accumulated in forest ecosystems of Siberia, exceeds 94 billion tons in total, with annual carbon sequestration at more than 170 million tons. This sink could be significantly increased by implementation of rational forestry in Siberia. Average stock per 1 ha of mature and overmature stands is 148 m{sup 3}. Average annual growth per 1 ha of forest-forming species is 1.31 m{sup 3}, among them conifers - 1.17 m{sup 3}. Siberia has roughly 40% of its original forests intact (the United States has less than 5% of its ancient forests).

Danilin, I.; Sokoly, V.

1997-12-31

182

Reconstruction of environmental chanees in Holocen in Siberian Arctic, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of Arctic palaeoenvironmental records enables qualitative and quantitative estimations of past climate changes and provides basis for prediction of future changes in the region. The timing of Holocene climate events in North Atlantic region is relatively good studied. In contrast to it, at present there are very few quantitative palaeoclimatic data for eastern Siberia and proxy records from northern Eurasia mostly document environmental changes at low temporal resolution, and are derived from pollen studies. Due to relatively small magnitude of temperature changes throughout the Holocene, reconstructions based on a single proxy must be interpreted with caution. More reliable estimate of the Holocene climate changes can be obtained only by averaging results inferred from several proxies. The basis, however, of all quantitative reconstruction approaches are regional calibration datasets from which the empirical reconstruction model (i.e. the transfer function) will be established. A 380 cm long sediment core from Lake Temje (Central Yakutia, North-Eastern Russia) was studied to infer Holocene palaeoenvironmental change in the extreme periglacial setting of eastern Siberia during the last 10,000 yrs. Data on sediment composition were used to characterize changes in the depositional environment during the ontogenetic development of the Lake Temje. The analysis of fossil chironomid remains and statistical treatment of chironomid data by the application of a newly developed transfer functions provided inferences of mean July air temperatures (TJuly) and water depths (WD). We obtained a qualitative and quantitative reconstruction of Holocene climate in Central Yakutia and recognized three stages of palaeoenvironmental changes: The early Holocene between 10 and 8 kyr BP was characterized by colder-than-today and moist summer conditions. Cryotextures in the lake sediments document full freezing of the lake water during the winter time. A general warming trend started around 8.0 ka BP in concert with enhanced biological productivity and fluctuating lake level. Reconstructed mean TJuly were equal or up to 1.5 °C higher than today between 6,700 and 5,000 yrs BP. During the entire late Holocene after 4,800 yrs BP, reconstructed mean TJuly remained below modern value, consistent with climate deterioration. Limnological conditions did not change significantly. The inference of a mid-Holocene climate optimum supports conceptional scenarios of Holocene climatic change in the subpolar part of eastern Siberia and gives evidence of climate teleconnections to the North Atlantic realm. Investigation of lakes, located in the interfluve of Korotaiha and Bolshaya Rogovaya rivers in the east side of Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia using modern hydrobiological and palaeoecological methods has shown that the major compositional changes in diatom, cladoceran and chironomid communities are synchronous. The chironomid-inferred summer temperature show an increase during the last 100 years, which can be related to the end of LIA in the region and support previous investigations.

Nazarova, Larisa; Diekmann, Bernhard; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga; Tumanov, Oleg; Nourgaliev, Danis

2013-04-01

183

Spatio-temporal dynamics of climatic extreme indices over Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays numerous investigations are aimed at analysis of regional climatic extremes becoming more pronounced under climate change. In particular, obtained results indicate decrease of number of frost days and increase of growing season length over the most part of Siberian territory, and precipitation intensity increases in the northern part of Siberia [1]. To obtain the complete pattern of ongoing changes in climatic extremes the following indices dynamics should be analyzed: percentage of days when minimum/maximum temperature less than 10th percentile, percentage of days minimum/maximum temperature greater than 90th percentile, maximum length of dry/wet spell. Climatic extreme assessments are obtained based on ECMWF ERA Interim Reanalysis and APHRODITE JMA data for the time period from 1979 to 2007. These datasets reproduce the statistics of observed climate features in Siberia more accurately [1]. Modern techniques of mathematical statistics are used for analysis of the temporal and spatial behavior of above mentioned climatic characteristics. Data analysis has been done using computational-geoinformational web-system for analysis of regional climatic change [2]. Surface temperature and precipitation extreme assessments obtained for Siberian territory can help to get a better understanding of current changes in the biosphere and socio-economic aspects. Partial financial support for this research from the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 11-05-01190a), SB RAS projects VIII.80.2.1 and 131, and the Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science grant # 8345 is acknowledged. 1. Shulgina T.M., Genina E.Yu., Gordov E.P. Dynamics of climatic characteristics influencing vegetation in Siberia // Environmental Research Letters, 2011. - DOI: 10.1088/1748-9326/6/4/045210. - 7 p. 2. Evgeny Gordov et al. Development of Information-Computational Infrastructure for Environmental research in Siberia as a baseline component of the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) Studies / Regional Environmental Changes in Siberia and Their Global Consequences // Series: Springer Environmental Science and Engineering. Ed.: Groisman, Pavel Ya., Gutman, Garik. Vol. XII, 2013. P. 19-55.

Shulgina, Tamara; Gordov, Evgeny; Genina, Elena

2013-04-01

184

Lidar profiling of aerosol optical properties from Paris to Lake Baikal (Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In June 2013, a ground-based mobile lidar performed the 10 000 km ride from Paris to Ulan-Ude, near Lake Baikal, profiling for the first time aerosol optical properties all the way from Western Europe to central Siberia. The instrument was equipped with N2-Raman and depolarization channels that enabled an optical speciation of aerosols in the low and middle troposphere. The backscatter-to-extinction ratio (BER) and particle depolarization ratio (PDR) at 355 nm have been retrieved. The BER in the lower boundary layer (300-700 m) was found to be 0.017 ± 0.009 sr-1 in average during the campaign, with slightly higher values in background conditions near Lake Baikal (0.021 ± 0.010 sr-1 in average) corresponding to dust-like particles. PDR values observed in Russian cities (>1.7%) are higher than the ones measured in European cities (<1.3%) due to the lifting of terrigenous aerosols by traffic on roads with a bad tarmac. Biomass burning layers from grassland or/and forest fires in southern Russia exhibit BER values ranging from 0.010 to 0.015 sr-1 and from 2 to 3% for the PDR. Desert dust aerosols originating from the Caspian and Aral seas regions were characterized for the first time, with a BER (PDR) of 0.022 sr-1 (21%) for pure dust, and 0.011 sr-1 (15%) for a mix between dust and biomass burning. The lidar observations also showed that this dust event extended over 2300 km and lasted for ~6 days. Measurements from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) show that our results are comparable in terms of aerosol optical thickness (between 0.05 and 0.40 at 355 nm) with the mean aerosol load encountered throughout our route.

Dieudonné, E.; Chazette, P.; Marnas, F.; Totems, J.; Shang, X.

2014-11-01

185

Reform of the Railway Sector in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rail industry in Russia is one of the largest in the world. Russia’s vast distances, relatively under-developed road infrastructure, and high reliance on bulk commodities imply that the rail industry has a unique and key role in the transportation infrastructure of Russia. At present the industry is organised as a fully-integrated entity, operated by the Ministry of Railways. At

Darryl Biggar

2002-01-01

186

[Arborviruses of the California encephalitis serogroup 1N Russia and their contribution to infectious pathology].  

PubMed

This review focuses on arborviral infections associated with California serocomplex (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus). Results of relevant eco-epidemiological and clinical studies in Russia are presented suggesting the ubiquitious nature of diseases caused by viruses of the California encephalitis serocomplex (Inko, Tahyna, Snowshoe Hare). The etiologic structure of these diseases in taiga and mixed woods of the European part and Western Siberia is dominated by the Inco virus and in southern regions by Tahina. The diseases have a well apparent seasonal pattern (July-August) in agreement with the peak summer activity of the pathogens. Two clinical forms of pathology are distinguished, influenza-like and generalized, the latter affecting lungs, kidneys, liver, and CNS. The Inco virus plays a key role in pathogenesis of the generalized form affecting CNS. PMID:21786596

Kolobukhina, L V; L'vov, S D

2011-01-01

187

Global Education Comes to Russia in 1991.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the first international conference on the future of education in Russia held in Sochi, Russia, in September of 1991. The focus was on recent efforts that have been made by educators to develop global education in Russian schools. These efforts include a detailed project for the development of global education in Russia and…

Tucker, Jan L.

188

Ice Complex formation in arctic East Siberia during the MIS3 Interstadial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A continuous 15 m long sequence of Ice Complex permafrost (Yedoma) exposed in a thermo-cirque at the southern coast of Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago, Dmitry Laptev Strait) was studied to reconstruct past landscape and environmental dynamics. The sequence accumulated during the Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3) Interstadial between >49 and 29 ka BP in an ice-wedge polygon. The frozen deposits were cryolithologically described and sampled on a vertical bluff between two ice wedges. According to sedimentological and geochronological data, the section is subdivided into three units which correlate with environmental conditions of the early, middle, and late MIS3 period. Palynological data support this stratification. The stable isotope signature of texture ice in the polygon structure reflects fractionation due to local freeze-thaw processes, while the signature of an approximately 5 m wide and more than 17 m high ice wedge fits very well into the regional stable-water isotope record. Regional climate dynamics during the MIS3 Interstadial and local landscape conditions of the polygonal patterned ground controlled the Ice Complex formation. The sequence presented here completes previously published MIS3 permafrost records in Northeast Siberia. Late Quaternary stadial-interstadial climate variability in arctic West Beringia is preserved at millennial resolution in the Ice Complex. A MIS3 climate optimum was revealed between 48 and 38 ka BP from the Ice Complex on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island.

Wetterich, Sebastian; Tumskoy, Vladimir; Rudaya, Natalia; Andreev, Andrei A.; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Schirrmeister, Lutz; Hüls, Matthias

2014-01-01

189

[Basic features of the nemoral curculionid-beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea) from eastern Europe and Western Siberia].  

PubMed

There are 132 curculionids associated with deciduous trees in eastern Europe and western Siberia. The weevils and bark beetles make up the basis of the fauna, forming almost 80%. The fauna of oak is the richest (64 species). The species composition on the ash-tree (50% are monophages) is highly original. Impoverishment of the species composition from the west to the east is revealed. The fauna declines by 18% from 45 to 550 E. The species composition reduces two times beyond the Urals. The faunal boundaries are revealed from west to east and from east to west. The most significant boundary (47% of the fauna do not pass it) for distribution of species to the east is situated between 40 and 45 degrees E. Two significant faunal boundaries are revealed from south to north. The fauna of curculionids of deciduous trees is formed by four groups of species. The southern European species (54%) and western palaearctic species (40%) dominate. The species composition of the studied territory is similar to the fauna of Middle Europe. Formation of the modern fauna of curculionids of deciduous trees in eastern Europe probably occurred in the Holocene. The western Palaearctic and Transpalaearctic species could have occupied the considered territory since the Late Pleistocene. Southern European species appeared in the considered territory after the Valdai glaciation during the warming in the Atlantic period of the Holocene. Penetration of East Palaearctic species began rather recently (last few decades), probably due to climate warming and economic activities. PMID:21870499

Legalov, A A

2011-01-01

190

PLEISTOCENE PARK: REESTABLISHMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL STEPPE ECOSYSTEM IN NORTHEAST SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We propose to create a grassland ecosystem maintained by large northern herbivores similar to that which existed in Siberia 10,000-100,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Bison, horses, muskoxen, caribou, and moose will be introduced to 'Pleistocene Park', a scientific reserve in northeast Siberia. This region supported large herds of these animals and of mammoths during the Pleistocene. These

Sergei A. Zimov; F. Stuart Chapin; Melissa Chapin

191

The use of JERS SAR within the boreal forest mapping project SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the frame of the EC Environment and Climate Program project, SIBERIA, an extensive forest map for a part of Siberia will be produced using state-of-the art satellite data and remote sensing techniques. Among other sensors the JERS SAR will be used. In this contribution important steps in the JERS processing will be discussed, including radiometric calibration, geocoding, and final

A. Wiesmann; U. Wegmuller; T. Strozzi; C. L. Werner

2000-01-01

192

Shannon Lucid Trains in Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Shannon Lucid is seen egressing from a training version of a soyez spacecraft, during a water survival training session in Russia. In March of 1996, Lucid accompanied the STS-76 crew to the Russian space station, Mir, where she stayed for a little over four months before returning to Earth with the STS-79 crew.

1995-01-01

193

Tidal power plants in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the performance of tidal power plants in Russia and the expansion of tidal plant to new sites. The topics of the article include remote construction and transport techniques, pilot plant performance, economics and payback, and a review of global tidal power plant designs that are on hold due to economic problems relating to the global economy.

L. B. Bernshtein

1994-01-01

194

Gender Asymmetries in Today's Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There can be no doubt that gender attitudes and the gender stereotypes formed on their basis have a deep-rooted social character. This stems unequivocally from the parallels of development of social processes and gender models. The ideology of gender began to flourish in Russia along with perestroika, an ideology that in the past quarter-century…

Rimashevskaia, N. M.

2011-01-01

195

Scholars at Risk in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will share my general thoughts on safe haven for scholars at risk, based on my own experience, and will discuss scholars at risk in Russia. At the present time, these are mostly scientists falsely accused of espionage. I will highlight the special issues this fact raises for providing support or safe haven for such scientists.

Orlov, Yuri

2006-04-01

196

U–Pb geochronology of Riphean sandstone and gabbro from southeast Siberia and its bearing on the Laurentia–Siberia connection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-one detrital zircons from the mid–late Riphean Mayamkan Formation sandstone (Uy Group) of the Sette–Daban fold belt, southeast Siberia yielded SHRIMP 207Pb\\/206Pb ages ranging between 1500 and 1050 Ma. Other grains yielded ages between 2.7 and 1.8 Ga. There is no known source region for the Mesoproterozoic zircons in Siberia; however, this range of ages closely matches those of detrital

Robert H Rainbird; Richard A Stern; Andrei K Khudoley; Anatoly P Kropachev; Larry M Heaman; Vladimir I Sukhorukov

1998-01-01

197

Vertical plate motions in the West Siberian Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The West Siberian Basin is a sedimentary basin situated between the Ural Mountains and the Siberian Craton. The Basin has experienced several periods of subsidence and uplift since the arrival of the Siberian Traps c. 250 Ma. Although the Basin is extensively explored and hosts large reserves of Oil and Gas, the forces driving the vertical motions are poorly understood. In this work we attempt to analyse the amount, timing and location of subsidence and uplift in the Basin to shed light on the possible causes of these motions. A detailed description of sedimentary layers is published in a number of Soviet-era books and articles and serves as a basis for our research. This data is first converted into sediment grids through time. Subsequently, the sediments, the sediment load and the compaction are taken into account ('backstripping') to produce the depth of the Basin at respective time steps. With this technique we calculate the tectonic component of subsidence. Uncertainties related to uplift events are estimated by the unconformities in the stratigraphic charts. One of the possible driving forces of vertical motions is a change of force balance arising at plate boundaries. Since active plate tectonics have been absent from West Siberia since the formation of the Urengoy and Khodosey Rifts, c. 250Ma, we study the far-field tectonic effects as a potential driving mechanism. Indeed, some of the significant vertical events in the West Siberian Basin coincide with the major tectonic events around Siberia. An example is the spreading in the Arctic (Eurasian Basin) in the Eocene (56 Ma) which was synchronous with initiation of uplift events in the northern part of West Siberia. In the middle Oligocene (33 Ma), the northern and eastern parts of the basin were subjected to uplift as subsidence migrated southwards and the Basin rose above the sea level. This was coincident with the changes of plate motions in the northern North Atlantic and Indo-European collision.

Vibe, Yulia

2014-05-01

198

[Testate amoebae inhabiting middle taiga bogs in Western Siberia].  

PubMed

The population of testate amoebae from the most typical middle taiga bogs of Western Siberia have been studied. More than one hundred (103) species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been revealed in recent surface samples. The relation between ecological characteristics of habitats and the composition of a Protozoa population has been demonstrated. The ecological preferences of species concerning the index of wetness, ash level, and acidity have been revealed. Using the correspondence analysis, the ecological optimums and the tolerance of species and intraspecific taxons of testate amoebae have been established. PMID:20799643

Kur'ina, I V; Pre?s, Iu I; Bobrov, A A

2010-01-01

199

The evolutionary history of sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok (Brachymystax lenok (Pallas, 1773)) and its implications for the paleo-hydrological history of Siberia  

PubMed Central

Background Broad-scale phylogeographic studies of freshwater organisms provide not only an invaluable framework for understanding the evolutionary history of species, but also a genetic imprint of the paleo-hydrological dynamics stemming from climatic change. Few such studies have been carried out in Siberia, a vast region over which the extent of Pleistocene glaciation is still disputed. Brachymystax lenok is a salmonid fish distributed throughout Siberia, exhibiting two forms hypothesized to have undergone extensive range expansion, genetic exchange, and multiple speciation. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation should clarify these hypotheses as well as provide insights on Siberia's paleo-hydrological stability. Results Molecular-sequence (mtDNA) based phylogenetic and morphological analysis of Brachymystax throughout Siberia support that sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok are independent evolutionary lineages, with the majority of their variation distributed among major river basins. Their evolutionary independence was further supported through the analysis of 11 microsatellite loci in three areas of sympatry, which revealed little to no evidence of introgression. Phylogeographic structure reflects climatic limitations, especially for blunt-snouted lenok above 56° N during one or more glacial maxima. Presumed glacial refugia as well as interbasin exchange were not congruent for the two lineages, perhaps reflecting differing dispersal abilities and response to climatic change. Inferred demographic expansions were dated earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Evidence for repeated trans-basin exchange was especially clear between the Amur and Lena catchments. Divergence of sharp-snouted lenok in the Selenga-Baikal catchment may correspond to the isolation of Lake Baikal in the mid-Pleistocene, while older isolation events are apparent for blunt-snouted lenok in the extreme east and sharp-snouted lenok in the extreme west of their respective distributions. Conclusion Sharp- and blunt-snouted lenok have apparently undergone a long, independent, and demographically dynamic evolutionary history in Siberia, supporting their recognition as two good biological species. Considering the timing and extent of expansions and trans-basin dispersal, it is doubtful that these historical dynamics could have been generated without major rearrangements in the paleo-hydrological network, stemming from the formation and melting of large-scale glacial complexes much older than the LGM. PMID:18254941

2008-01-01

200

Russia’s R&D for Low Energy Buildings: Insights for Cooperation with Russia  

SciTech Connect

Russian buildings, Russian buildings sector energy consumption. Russian government has made R&D investment a priority again. The government and private sector both invest in a range of building energy technologies. In particular, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, district heating, building envelope, and lighting have active technology research projects and programs in Russia.

Schaaf, Rebecca E.; Evans, Meredydd

2010-05-01

201

Total ozone changes and predictions of the abnormal winters in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for the extended-range predictions of extreme cold/warm winters in the distinct regions of Russia using the total ozone data as the stratospheric predictor is proposed. It was shown that cold (warm) Februarys in the western Siberia and southern Russia are strongly associated with increases (decreases) of the total ozone over the western North Atlantic in Jan-uary during 1979-1994 [Jadin, 2004]. This linkage is stable during 1980-2004 with the slight re-routing of the total ozone key point for predictions [Jadin and Zyulyaeva, 2010]. A possible mechanism of the relationship between the total ozone changes over the western North Atlantic in January and the weather changes in the western Siberia in February can be connected with the influence of the downward planetary wave propagation in the lower stratosphere over North Atlantic ("stratospheric bridge") [Zyulyaeva and Jadin, 2009] on the ozone changes in this re-gion in January and its subsequent forcing on the tropospheric circulation in Eurasia especially on the interannaul variability of the Siberian high. Analysis of the daily total ozone (TOMS) and surface temperature (NCEP) data is confirming this strong linkage for the last years, for ex-ample, for the very cold early February in the western Siberia in 2009 and 2010. These findings give evidences that the total ozone can be used as a good stratospheric predictor for the statis-tical extended-range predictions of extreme weather events in the distinct regions of Eurasia. References: Jadin E.A., Ozone and Surface Air Temperature Changes, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, v.10, 64-73, 2004. Jadin, E.A. and Yu.A.Zyulyaeva, Interannual variations of the total ozone, stratospheric dynamics, extra-tropical SST anomalies and predictions of ab-normal winters in Eurasia, International Journal of Remote Sensing, 2010, in press. Zyulyaeva Yu.A., Jadin E.A., Analysis of three -dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes in the lower strato-sphere, Russian Meteorology and Hydrology, v.8, 5-14, 2009. (http://ao.atmos.colostate.edu).

Jadin, Evgeny

202

Volcanism in Kamchatka, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The diverse and robust volcanism of Kamchatka challenges our understanding of subduction zone volcanism on both local volcanic and regional tectonic scales (e.g., AGU Geophysics Monograph 172). One might expect the two North Pacific peninsula/ island arc pairs, Kamchatka Peninsula/ Kuriles and Alaska Peninsula/ Aleutians, to be twins, but there are some important differences as well as similarities. In both cases, the continental margin largely controls the position of the volcanic front on the peninsulas and the associated island arcs are pinned to the peninsula tips. The unusually acute Aleutian-Kamchatka subduction cusp may have formed by jamming and outboard (southeastward) jumping of Bering subduction at about 50 Ma to form the Aleutians, with capture of the Bering microplate by the North American plate. Perhaps the acuteness was augmented by convergence of the Emperor Seamount Chain with the junction. Another outboard (eastward) jump may explain the two lines of volcanoes in Kamchatka, which are partially separated by the rift-like Central Kamchatka Depression. This is thought to have occurred at 7 - 10 Ma when 3 seamounts were accreted as capes to the eastern edge of Kamchatka. But other workers, pointing to east-west chemical trends and persistence of volcanism in the inboard Sredinny Range, prefer to postulate two depths of volatile release from the same intact slab. On the Alaska Peninsula, Quaternary volcanic deposits are discontinuous and even famous Mount Katmai is a volumetric dwarf. The opposite is the case in Kamchatka, where pre-volcanic basement under the young eastern volcanic front is sparsely exposed and Holocene stratovolcanoes rise as high as 4,835 m. Calderas are so numerous they sometimes overlap. Some exhibit repeated andesitic stratovolcano - silicic caldera cycles over remarkably short time frames. Remoteness, international politics, and challenging weather have conspired to make Kamchatka's volcanoes less appreciated by non-Russians than they should be. Among the best natural laboratories for understanding subduction volcanism are: (1) The spectacular edifice collapse/explosive eruption/continuing dome-effusion sequences of Bezymianny (1956) and Shiveluch (1964), which together with Mount St Helens (1980) provide a valuable time series in system evolution; (2) The two-magma, multiple vent eruptions of Tolbachik (1975), Karymsky (1996), and Gorely (1737) interpretable as large dikes interacting with shallow magma pods; (3) Ksudach with 3 caldera-forming eruptions within just the Holocene; (4) Hydrothermally diverse Mutnovsky with strong passive SO2 degassing, fumaroles to 600°C, and flanking 50 MWe geothermal production; and (5) The ever-active Kliuchevskoi Volcano, which may demonstrate the requirement of gas-lift to push basalt to the top of its towering, hastily built cone without rupturing it.

Eichelberger, J. C.; Eichelberger, L. G.

2008-12-01

203

Estimating carbon emissions in Russia using the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal forest zone contains about 28 percent of the global terrestrial carbon. Wildfires in Russia burn an estimated 12-15 million ha annually. In a warming climate, fires in the boreal zone are expected to increase in area and severity, with the potential for increasing global fire emissions and decreasing carbon stored in soils and biomass. Current fire data for these forests generally do not account for the large spatial and temporal variations in fuel loads and consumption for differing forest types and weather patterns. As a result, it has been difficult to obtain good estimates of annual carbon emissions. While methods are being developed to estimate carbon emission remotely, there is an immediate need for more accurate estimates. Our previous work has indicated that the Canadian Forest Fire Danger Rating System (CFFDRS) is suitable for use in Russia. CFFDRS fuel consumption models can be used to estimate carbon emissions. The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Indexes (FWI) System, part of the CFFDRS, estimates the moisture content of various fuel classes and uses these estimates to generate a set of relative fire behavior indicators. As part of the Russian FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project, we conducted 14 experimental surface fires on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forest sites in Siberia under a range of weather and fuel conditions. Detailed measurements of fuel consumption on each fire provided a basis for modeling carbon emissions using the FWI System. Carbon released by these experimental surface fires ranged from 4.8 to 15.4 t C ha-1 depending on burning conditions and fuel conditions. Provided burn areas and burn dates are known, and forest type and antecedent weather data are available, these models can be used to estimate the total annual carbon emissions for forest fires in Russia. Weather data was obtained for all Russian weather stations over a 55-year period (1953-2008) from the National Climate Data Center (NCDC). After correcting for missing data, we calculated FWI System values based on a fire season running from March 15 to October 31. Since the number of stations is small relative to the area of interest, we also used station data for neighboring countries (Mongolia, northern China) to assist interpolation. Seven spatial data layers created using GIS software included daily fuel moisture code and fire behavior indices of the FWI System along with Daily Severity Index across Russia and the adjacent boundary areas (1617 maps/yr). When we compared distribution of FWI values across Russia to daily fire scar data from AVHRR imagery for selected years, distribution of fire activity appeared to be well related to the FWI values. Our goal is to develop a reasonable estimate of seasonal and interannual carbon emissions for fires burning in Siberia based on daily values of the FWI System. In a related project, we are creating a post-1979 fire burn area database for Russia using AVHRR images. Our goal is to combine historical and current burned area and weather data to develop improved estimates of annual carbon emissions for the boreal zone in Russia.

McRae, D. J.; Jin, J.; Yang, Y.; Conard, S. G.; Sukhinin, A.; Stocks, B. J.

2009-12-01

204

Thermokarst lake waters across the permafrost zones of western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work describes the hydrochemical composition of thermokarst lake and pond ecosystems, which are observed in various sizes with different degrees of permafrost influence and are located in the northern part of western Siberia within the continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. We analysed the elemental chemical composition of the lake waters relative to their surface areas (from 10 to 106 m2) and described the elemental composition of the thermokarst water body ecosystems in detail. We revealed significant correlations between the Fe, Al, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and various chemical elements across a latitude gradient covering approximately 900 km. Several groups of chemical elements that reflect the evolution of the studied water bodies were distinguished. Combining the data for the studied latitude profile with the information available in the current literature demonstrated that the average dissolved elemental concentrations in lakes with different areas depend specifically on the latitudinal position, which is presumably linked to (1) the elements leached from frozen peat, which is the main source of the solutes in thermokarst lakes, (2) marine atmospheric aerosol depositions, particularly near the sea border and (3) short-range industrial pollution by certain metals from the largest Russian Arctic smelter. We discuss the evolution of the chemical compositions observed in thermokarst lakes during their formation and drainage and predict the effect that changing the permafrost regime in western Siberia has on the hydrochemistry of the lakes.

Manasypov, R. M.; Pokrovsky, O. S.; Kirpotin, S. N.; Shirokova, L. S.

2014-07-01

205

[Polymorphism of the mtDNA control region in wild reindeer Rangifer tarandus (Mammalia: Artiodactyla) from the European part of Russia].  

PubMed

Genetic diversity ofwild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) inhabiting the European part of Russia, including Komi Republic, Arkhangelsk oblast, Murmansk oblast, and the Republic of Karelia was characterized using sequence polymorphism of the mtDNA control region. Despite of currently low population number of wild reindeer, they were characterized by a high level of genetic diversity (pi = 0.018; H= 0.872 to 0.914). Phylogenetic analysis showed close relationships between European reindeer and wild reindeer of Siberia. In reindeer from Murmansk oblast a haplotype in common with the wild reindeer form Southwestern Norway was described. The reindeer sample examined contained no haplotypes earlier described for the reindeer of Central Norway. It is suggested that in recent past wild reindeer from the European north of Russia formed one population with the reindeer from the north of the Asian part of Eurasia. PMID:23113338

Baranova, A I; Kholodova, M V; Davydov, A V; Rozhkov, Iu I

2012-09-01

206

Europe: East and West Undergraduate Research Symposium 2013  

E-print Network

Europe: East and West Undergraduate Research Symposium 2013 Are you interested in Western Europe or Eastern Europe, including Russia? Then present a paper at the 2013 Undergraduate Research Symposium of Pittsburgh The Symposium is intended to provide advanced research experience to undergraduates and is mod

Sibille, Etienne

207

New Identity of the Kimberlite Melt: Constraints from Unaltered Diamondiferous Udachnaya-East Pipe Kimberlite, Siberia, Russia.  

E-print Network

??This study aims at understanding parental melt compositions and evolutionary history of mantle-derived kimberlitic magmas, using unaltered Udachnaya-East kimberlite as an example. Recent advances in… (more)

Kamenetsky, MB

2005-01-01

208

Estimation of periphytic microalgae gross primary production with DCMU-fluorescence method in Yenisei River (Siberia, Russia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Periphyton (epilithon) gross primary production (GPP) was estimated using the DCMU-fluorescence method in the Yenisei River.\\u000a In the unshaded littoral zone, chlorophyll a concentration (Chl a) and GPP value varied from 0.83 to 973.74 mg m?2and 2–304,425 O2 m?2 day?1 (0.64–95 133 mg C m?2 day?1), respectively. Positive significant correlation (r?=?0.8) between daily GPP and periphyton Chl a was found. Average ratio GPP:Chl

V. I. Kolmakov; O. V. Anishchenko; E. A. Ivanova; M. I. Gladyshev; N. N. Sushchik

2008-01-01

209

Palynostratigraphy of the Lower-Middle Jurassic deposits, borehole section Vostok 4 (Southeast of West Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the results of palynological investigation of the Vostok 4 borehole section situated in the Azharma region of the Ob-Irtysh facies area, where drilling has penetrated through the Urmanskaya, Ilansk, Peshkovskaya, and Tyumen formations. Six palynoassemblages are distinguished in the section based on the analyzed distribution of spores, pollen of terrestrial plants, and microphytoplankton. According to their succession, the section is subdivided into biostratigraphic units ranked as beds with palynomorphs. Comparative analysis and correlation with the Siberian palynostratigraphic standard scale of the Lower-Middle Jurassic, where succession of palynoassemblages is coordinated with ammonite zones, substantiate the Pliensbachian-Bajocian age of the deposits studied. Diverse microphytoplankton (dinoflagellate cysts, acritarchs, prasinophytes, zignematacean and colonial algae) occurs throughout the section. The facies environment of sedimentation is reconstructed based on quantitative proportions of microphytoplankton taxa.

Goryacheva, A. A.

2011-06-01

210

Relationships between charcoal particles in air and sediments in west-central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production and size of charred particles determine transport and deposition in lakes. Lack of such data is a principal obstacle to interpretation of past fire from charcoal profiles. Our two-part analysis includes a calibration study, to assess charred-particle production and transport during fire, and a study of charred particles in sediment. The calibration step establishes the magnitude and size distribution

James S. Clark; Jason Lynch; Brian J. Stocks; Johann G. Goldammer

1998-01-01

211

Interception by sphagnum in a bog mire catchment of central West-Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrology of mires (pristine peatland ecosystems) hardly has been analyzed quantitatively. The general idea, that mires can retain precipitation water (`sponge effect') has never been proved by real field data. Missing data for evaluation of these properties are actual evapotranspiration, water conductivity and interception of rainwater by peatland mosses and peat layers below. The newly opened Mukhrino Field Station,

W. Bleuten; I. Filippov

2009-01-01

212

Birds of the Indigirka River Delta, Russia: Historical and biogeographic comparisons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We documented the breeding status and relative abundance of all avian species on the coastal portion of the Indigirka River Delta during spring and summer 1993-95. Data on avifaunal composition were then compared to data from adjacent areas from Eastern Siberia to the Chukotka Peninsula to evaluate how species composition changes longitudinally within the arctic and typical tundra zones of northern Russia. We recorded 63 species on the Indigirka River Delta, 37 (58.7 %) of which were confirmed breeders during at least one of the three years. Five new species were recorded breeding (Arenaria interpres, Calidris acuminata, Limnodromus scolopaceus, Stercorarius parasiticus, and Asio flammeus), and 13 previously unrecorded species were observed during this study. We also identified several species of rare or threatened status in Russia and North America, including Branta bernicla, Somateria fischeri, Polysticta stelleri, and Rhodostethia rosea. We used parsimony and distance matrix methods to compare the breeding species richness on the Indigirka River Delta to that of six other Russian Arctic areas. Biogeographic comparisons revealed the presence of two clades in the Russian Arctic: the Lena River Delta east to Chaun Delta and the Chukotka Peninsula.

Pearce, J.M.; Esler, D.; Degtyarev, A.G.

1998-01-01

213

Unique Locality of Wooly Rhinoceros in Arctic Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A permafrost goldfield area in northeastern Yakutia, Russia turns out to be the richest locality of extinct woolly rhinoceros in the world. It has yielded fossil horns of about 50 rhino individuals, and recently the most complete mummified body of this extinct giant. The age of fossils is about 40-50 thousand years before present, but permafrost helped to preserve them

S. Davydov; A. Sher; G. Boeskorov; P. Lazarev; J. Binladen; E. Willerslev; A. Tikhonov

2009-01-01

214

Cholera diffusion in Russia, 1823-1923.  

PubMed

All six cholera pandemics of the 19th and early 20th centuries struck Russia, causing millions of deaths. Cholera entered Russia from the south, with the Volga river system being a common and efficient route into the heart of the country. Diffusion was predominantly linear, along the navigable rivers and later, along the railroads. In contrast to Pyle's findings for the U.S.A., urban hierarchical diffusion was of only local significance in Russia. PMID:8016683

Patterson, K D

1994-05-01

215

Estimation of Fire Radiative Energy in Siberia Using MODIS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity of heat release during biomass combustion is an important characteristic of wildfires. Space-borne systems, such as MODIS radiometer, provide observations of fire locations, as well as an estimate of the amount of radiant energy emitted by the fire. Such measures of fire radiative power (FRP) provide information on the fireline heat release intensity and on the rate of biomass combustion in large scale and are important for the analysis of fire impact on vegetation. In this study we analyzed the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of detected wildfires in Siberia considering their radiative power. For the analysis we used database of fire detections made by MODIS instrument located on TERRA and AQUA satellites for 2002- 2013. For the detected fire pixels the frequency of their occurrence was calculated depending on the radiative power. More than 80% of all detected pixels had radiative power less than 100 MW. The distribution of fires according to their radiative power values was obtained for different regions of Siberia characterized by various vegetation and climatic conditions. Geospatial analysis performed using vegetation maps for the territory of Siberia and GIS layers of active fire detections showed that fires in deciduous and pine forests generally had lower intensities than fires in larch and spruce/fir forests. The rate of biomass combustion and the amount of heat emitted are strongly related to fuel moisture and therefore to weather conditions. In this study weather conditions were characterized using Russian and Canadian weather fire danger indices. Using images obtained during day and night satellite passes daily and long-term dynamics of fire radiative power was calculated. The long-term dynamics of fire radiative power measured by MODIS sensor was compared to weather fire danger indices calculated using on-ground weather stations data located in several Siberian regions mostly liable to fires. For most of the weather stations considered the Canadian fire weather index has better correlation with fire radiative power dynamics. However, the relationships between fire danger indices and fire radiative power have region specific parameters which can vary significantly.

Shvetsov, Eugene; Ponomarev, Evgenii

2014-05-01

216

Siberia Integrated Regional Study megaproject: approaches, first results and challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberia Integrated Regional Study (SIRS, http://sirs.scert.ru/en/) is a NEESPI megaproject coordinating national and international activity in the region in line with Earth System Science Program approach whose overall objectives are to understand impact of Global change on on-going regional climate and ecosystems dynamics; to study future potential changes in both, and to estimate possible influence of those processes on the whole Earth System dynamics. Needs for SIRS are caused by accelerated warming occurring in Siberia, complexity of on-going and potential land-surface processes sharpened by inherent hydrology pattern and permafrost presence, and lack of reliable high-resolution meteorological and climatic modeling data. The SIRS approaches include coordination of different scale national and international projects, capacity building targeted to early career researchers thematic education and training, and development of distributed information-computational infrastructure required in support of multidisciplinary teams of specialists performing cooperative work with tools for sharing of data, models and knowledge. Coordination within SIRS projects is devoted to major regional and global risks rising with regional environment changes and currently is concentrated on three interrelated problems, whose solution has strong regional environmental and socio-economical impacts and is very important for understanding potential change of the whole Earth System dynamics: Permafrost border shift, which seriously threatens the oil and gas transporting infrastructure and leads to additional carbon release; Desert - steppe- forest-tundra ecosystems changes, which might vary region input into global carbon cycle as well as provoke serious socio-economical consequences for local population; and Temperature/precipitation/hydrology regime changes, which might increase risks of forest and peat fires, thus causing significant carbon release from the region under study. Some findings of those projects will be presented in the report. The information-computational infrastructure is aimed to manage multidisciplinary environmental data and to generate high resolution data sets on demand. One of its key elements, optimizing the usage of information-computational resources, services and applications is the climatic web portal under development. The prototype (http://climate.risks.scert.ru/) is now providing an access to an interactive web- GIS system for climate change assessment on the base of available meteorological data archives in the selected region. SIRS education and training program is run via annual organization in the region either international multidisciplinary conference with elements of young scientists school ENVIROMIS or young scientists school and collocated international conference CITES (http://www.scert.ru/en/conferences/). All the listed above activities have an international dimension whose enlargement might significantly assist in profound understanding of regional and global consequences in on-going Siberia processes.

Gordov, E. P.; Vaganov, E. A.

2010-12-01

217

78 FR 55096 - Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Preliminary)] Ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela Determination On the basis of the record...by reason of imports from Russia and Venezuela of ferrosilicon, provided for in subheadings...imports of ferrosilicon from Russia and Venezuela. Accordingly, effective July 19,...

2013-09-09

218

77 FR 51825 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review)] Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia Determination On the basis...duty order on ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium from Russia would not be likely to lead...entitled Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium from Russia: Investigation No....

2012-08-27

219

75 FR 35086 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1071 and 1072 (Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia...revocation of the antidumping duty orders on magnesium from China and Russia would be...

2010-06-21

220

Main phytostratigraphic boundaries in the Jurassic deposits of Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The study of the large collections of plant remains gained from cores of numerous boreholes drilled in Western Siberia made it possible to determine the taxonomic composition of the Jurassic flora of this region, the stages of its evolution, and the sequence of floral assemblages, which characterize the regional stratigraphic horizons indirectly correlated via series of parallel faunal, microfaunal, spore and pollen zonal scales with a general stratigraphic scale. The compositions of floral assemblages was established in the Hettangian-lower part of the upper Pliensbachian, upper part of the upper Pliensbachian, lower Toarcian, upper Toarcian, Aalenian, Bajocian, Bathonian, and Callovian-Oxfordian sediments. Criteria were elaborated to substantiate the Triassic-Jurassic and Lower-Middle Jurassic boundaries. Lithologically and biostrati-graphically, the Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary is poorly expressed.

Mogutcheva, N. K.

2014-05-01

221

Fire Danger Estimation in Siberia Using SMOS Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the most important tasks of fire monitoring is to forecast the conditions that determine the possibility of occurrence and spread of fire in forests. Weather fire danger assessment is mainly based on the analysis of the meteorological parameters recorded by weather stations. The main drawback of such a method for the fire danger assessment is an absence of regular network of weather stations. This situation takes place, for example, in Siberia. The area of possible interpolation of weather stations data is generally up to 30 km. The analysis of the existing network of weather stations shows that there should be an interpolation in the zone up to 100 - 150 km between weather stations which restricts the correctness of weather fire danger distribution maps for the forest zone of Siberia. The area of research associated with the development of methodologies for the forest fire danger assessment remains urgent today. To solve this problem it is necessary to perform a geospatial analysis of fire distribution and distribution of forest fuel moisture which can only be done with the involvement of satellite monitoring. This can provide the necessary spatial coverage and frequency of data updates. Over the past 30 years the technical means of remote sensing and methods of land cover moisture measurement were developed. In 2009 the SMOS spacecraft was launched by the European Space Agency, equipped with microwave radiometer operating at the frequency of 1.4 GHz. Moisture is restored based on the angular dependence of the brightness of temperatures measured by spacecraft (Level 1C product). Geospatial analysis of the relationship between occurrence of fires, burned areas as well as fire radiative power during the fire season and land cover moisture measured by SMOS was performed. Daily updated database of forest fires detected using MODIS radiometer over the fire seasons of 2010 - 2012 as well as the land cover moisture data obtained from SMOS measurements were used in the analysis. The study area covered the territory of Siberia, including areas where extreme fire behavior was observed. Also the time series of land cover moisture measured by SMOS satellite and weather fire danger indices calculated using ground weather stations were compared. The results showed that in most cases the relationship between moisture and fire danger index values can be found. The increase in soil moisture was accompanied by a reduction of weather fire danger indices values. The highest correlation coefficients between moisture measurements and fire danger indices were obtained for southern regions (-0.5 - -0.6), however for the stations located in the central and northern regions the relationship was weaker. The analyses indicated that it was difficult to obtain a reliable relationship between remote sensed land cover moisture and fire weather indices for the whole territory of Siberia. However such dependencies can be apparent for individual regions.

Shvetsov, Eugene

2013-04-01

222

The first record of "spelaeoid" bears in Arctic Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For a long time, "spelaeoid" (cave-bear-like) bears, Ursus ( Spelearctos) spp., were believed to be almost purely European animals. Their geographic range has recently been extended to the east, in southern Siberia, Transbaikalia, Kirghizia, Mongolia and Korea. Two unexpected new findings, presented here in detail, significantly change existing views on the distribution of cave bears; both were found in North-Eastern Siberia, far beyond the Arctic Circle, more than 1500 km to the north-east of the previously accepted range. One of the fossils is a mandible, found near the town of Cherskiy at 68.73°N, 161.38°E. The analysis of local geology and accompanying mammal fossils suggests that it comes from the Olyorian Fauna (Early to early Middle Pleistocene). Morphologically, the Cherskiy mandible is closest to Ursus savini, a small middle Pleistocene cave bear from the British Cromer Forest-bed Formation, but differs in having a slightly more advanced dentition, and thus it is described as a new subspecies Ursus savini nordostensis. Another newly recognized fossil of the "spelaeoid" bear is an astragalus found at the Oskhordokh site at 67.54°N, 135.67°E, on a large gravel bar on the right bank of the Adycha River. This specimen is attributed to Ursus cf . deningeri. The paper also presents an interesting example of the interaction between classical and "molecular" palaeontology. The new finds significantly change existing ideas on the ecology and evolution of cave bears, some of the most remarkable members of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna.

Sher, Andrei V.; Weinstock, Jacobo; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Davydov, Sergey P.; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Zazhigin, Vladimir S.; Nikolskiy, Pavel A.

2011-08-01

223

Biomass burning emissions estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wildfire is the main boreal forest disturbance and can burn 10-30 million hectares annually, thus modifying the global carbon budget through direct fire emissions, postfire biogenic emissions, and by maintaining or altering ecosystems through establishing the beginning and end of successional processes. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russian boreal forests vary substantially due to differences in ecosystems types, burned area calculations, and the amount of fuel consumed. There is an urgent need to obtain more accurate and impartial fire carbon loss estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia due to their considerable contribution to the regional and global carbon balance. We examined uncertainties in estimates of carbon emissions. Area burned in the Siberian region was analyzed and compared using distinct methodologies. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Carbon emissions from fires vary annually and interannually and can increase several times in extreme fire years in comparison to normal fire years. Climate change and increasing drought length have increased the probability of high-severity fire occurrences. This would result in greater carbon losses and efflux to the atmosphere. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright Program, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, E. A.; Ivanova, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Conard, S. G.

2012-04-01

224

Influence of Logging on the Effects of Wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Changes in this pool and related changes in land cover have global significance in terms of climate change. Moreover, it is a tremendous and largely untapped reservoir of wood products. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition both legal and illegal logging are increasing in many forest areas of Siberia. From 2009 to 2012, we investigated a number of logged and unlogged sites to evaluate the impact of logging on wildfire characteristics and subsequent effects of wildfires on the ecosystem. The research was conducted in 3 different ecoregions of Siberia: taiga forest (Angara region), forest-steppe (Shushenskoe region), and mountain forest (Chita region). We analyzed fire effects in different forest types as a function of both the presence of logging and harvest methods. Logged areas often had higher fuel loads due to logging debris, and typically experienced higher severity fires than unlogged forests. We found large variations among sites depending on forest types, type of logging activity, and weather conditions prior to and during burning. Illegal logging resulted in much higher fire hazard than legal logging. Fuel consumption was highest on repeatedly burned areas, where ground cover was often burned to the mineral layer. Estimated carbon emissions were up to 5 times higher on logged areas than on unlogged sites. Soil respiration was less on both burned and logged areas than in undisturbed forest. Changing patterns in the harvest of wood products can be expected to increase the emissions and ecosystem damage from wildfires, inhibit recovery of natural ecosystems, and exacerbate impacts of wildland fire on changing climate and air quality. The research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, RFBR grant # 12-04-31258, and Russian Academy of Sciences.

Kukavskaya, Elena; Ivanova, Galina; Buryak, Ludmilla; Kalenskaya, Olga; Bogorodskaya, Anna; Zhila, Sergey; McRae, Douglas; Conard, Susan

2013-04-01

225

Human evolution in Siberia: from frozen bodies to ancient DNA  

PubMed Central

Background The Yakuts contrast strikingly with other populations from Siberia due to their cattle- and horse-breeding economy as well as their Turkic language. On the basis of ethnological and linguistic criteria as well as population genetic studies, it has been assumed that they originated from South Siberian populations. However, many questions regarding the origins of this intriguing population still need to be clarified (e.g. the precise origin of paternal lineages and the admixture rate with indigenous populations). This study attempts to better understand the origins of the Yakuts by performing genetic analyses on 58 mummified frozen bodies dated from the 15th to the 19th century, excavated from Yakutia (Eastern Siberia). Results High quality data were obtained for the autosomal STRs, Y-chromosomal STRs and SNPs and mtDNA due to exceptional sample preservation. A comparison with the same markers on seven museum specimens excavated 3 to 15 years ago showed significant differences in DNA quantity and quality. Direct access to ancient genetic data from these molecular markers combined with the archaeological evidence, demographical studies and comparisons with 166 contemporary individuals from the same location as the frozen bodies helped us to clarify the microevolution of this intriguing population. Conclusion We were able to trace the origins of the male lineages to a small group of horse-riders from the Cis-Baïkal area. Furthermore, mtDNA data showed that intermarriages between the first settlers with Evenks women led to the establishment of genetic characteristics during the 15th century that are still observed today. PMID:20100333

2010-01-01

226

Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n. sp., Veteronostocale medium n. sp., Filiconstrictosus cephalon n. sp., and Partitiofilum yakschinii n. sp.

Sergeev, V. N.; Knoll, A. H.; Grotzinger, J. P.

1995-01-01

227

Paleobiology of the Mesoproterozoic Billyakh Group, Anabar Uplift, northern Siberia.  

PubMed

Silicified peritidal carbonates of the Mesoproterozoic Kotuikan and Yusmastakh Formations, Anabar Uplift, northeastern Siberia, contain exceptionally well-preserved microfossils. The assemblage is dominated by ellipsoidal akinetes of nostocalean cyanobacteria (Archaeoellipsoides) and problematic spheroidal unicells (Myxococcoides); both are allochthonous and presumably planktonic. The assemblage also includes distinctive mat-forming scytonematacean and entophysalidacean cyanobacteria, diverse short trichomes interpreted as cyanobacterial hormogonia or germinated akinetes, rare longer trichomes, and several types of colonial unicells. Although many taxa in the Kotuikan-Yusmastakh assemblage are long-ranging prokaryotes, the overall character of the assemblage is distinctly Mesoproterozoic, with its major features shared by broadly coeval floras from Canada, China, India, and elsewhere in Siberia. Microfossils also occur in middle to inner shelf shales of the Ust'-Il'ya and lower Kotuikan Formations. Leiosphaerid acritarchs (up to several hundred microns in diameter) characterize this facies. As in other Mesoproterozoic acritarch assemblages, acanthomorphic and other complex forms that typify Neoproterozoic assemblages are absent. The combination in Billyakh assemblages of exceptional preservation and low eukaryotic diversity supports the hypothesis that nucleated organisms diversified markedly near the Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic boundary. The assemblages also demonstrate the antiquity of cyanobacteria capable of cell differentiation and suggest the importance of both changing peritidal substrates and evolving eukaryotes in determining stratigraphic patterns of Proterozoic prokaryotes. The permineralized assemblage contains 33 species belonging to 17 genera. Ten new species or new combinations are proposed: Archaeoellipsoides costatus n. sp., A. elongatus n. comb., A. dolichos n. comb., A. minor n. nom., A. crassus n. comb., A. major n. comb., A. bactroformis n. sp., Veteronostocale medium n. sp., Filiconstrictosus cephalon n. sp., and Partitiofilum yakschinii n. sp. PMID:11539491

Sergeev, V N; Knoll, A H; Grotzinger, J P

1995-01-01

228

Aerospace Medical Support in Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the role of the flight surgeon in support of aerospace medical support operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC), also known as Star City, in Russia. The flight surgeon in this role is the medical advocate for non-russian astronauts, and also provides medical care for illness and injury for astronauts, family members, and guests as well as civil servants and contractors. The flight surgeon also provides support for hazardous training. There are various photos of the area, and the office, and some of the equipment that is used.

Castleberry, Tara; Chamberlin, Blake; Cole, Richard; Dowell, Gene; Savage, Scott

2011-01-01

229

Agroclimatic potential in central Siberia in an altered 21st century climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans traditionally cultivated steppe and forest-steppe on fertile soils for agriculture. Forests are predicted to shift northwards in a warmer climate and be replaced by forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems. We analyzed climate change impacts on agriculture in south-central Siberia believing that agriculture in traditionally cold Siberia may benefit from warming. Simple models determining crop range and regression models determining crop yields were constructed and applied to climate change scenarios for various time frames: pre-1960, 1960-1990, 1990-2010 from historical data and for 2020 and 2080 from HadCM3 B1 and A2 projections. From 50 to 85% of central Siberia was predicted to be climatically suitable for agriculture by the end of the century, and only soil potential would limit crop advance and expansion to the north. Crop production could increase twofold. Future climatic resources in Siberia would provide potential growth for a variety of crops that previously did not exist on these lands. Traditional Siberian crops could gradually shift as far as 500 km northwards (about 50-70 km per decade) within suitable soil conditions, and new crops, nonexistent today, may be introduced in the dry south that would necessitate irrigation. Agriculture in central Siberia would likely benefit from climate warming. Adaptation measures would sustain and promote food security in a warmer Siberia.

Soja, A. J.; Tchebakova, N.; PArfenova, E.; Lysanova, G. I.

2011-12-01

230

The effects of climate, permafrost and fire on vegetation change in Siberia in a changing climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations and general circulation model projections suggest significant temperature increases in Siberia this century that are expected to have profound effects on Siberian vegetation. Potential vegetation change across Siberia was modeled, coupling our Siberian BioClimatic Model with several Hadley Centre climate change scenarios for 2020, 2050 and 2080, with explicit consideration of permafrost and fire activity. In the warmer and drier climate projected by these scenarios, Siberian forests are predicted to decrease and shift northwards and forest-steppe and steppe ecosystems are predicted to dominate over half of Siberia due to the dryer climate by 2080. Despite the large predicted increases in warming, permafrost is not predicted to thaw deep enough to sustain dark (Pinus sibirica, Abies sibirica, and Picea obovata) taiga. Over eastern Siberia, larch (Larix dahurica) taiga is predicted to continue to be the dominant zonobiome because of its ability to withstand continuous permafrost. The model also predicts new temperate broadleaf forest and forest-steppe habitats by 2080. Potential fire danger evaluated with the annual number of high fire danger days (Nesterov index is 4000-10 000) is predicted to increase by 2080, especially in southern Siberia and central Yakutia. In a warming climate, fuel load accumulated due to replacement of forest by steppe together with frequent fire weather promotes high risks of large fires in southern Siberia and central Yakutia, where wild fires would create habitats for grasslands because the drier climate would no longer be suitable for forests.

Tchebakova, N. M.; Parfenova, E.; Soja, A. J.

2009-10-01

231

Cholera diffusion in Russia, 1823-1923  

Microsoft Academic Search

All six cholera pandemics of the 19th and early 20th centuries struck Russia, causing millions of deaths. Cholera entered Russia from the south, with the Volga river system being a common and efficient route into the heart of the country. Diffusion was predominantly linear, along the navigable rivers and later, along the railroads. In contrast to Pyle's findings for the

K. David Patterson

1994-01-01

232

Russia  

... converted large portions to agricultural uses. Other notable features in these images are several mountain chains, including the ... Bureiskiy in the lower left. Smoke plumes from several forest fires can be seen. They are especially apparent in the 70-degree view ...

2013-04-16

233

[Detection of West Nile virus in birds in the territories of Baraba and Kulunda lowlands (West Siberian migration way) during summer-autumn of 2002].  

PubMed

West Nile Virus (WNV) was discovered in 3 species of birds collected in summer-autumn, 2002, in the South of Western Siberia. WNV was identified by ELISA and RT-PCR. Three of 5 dead rooks (Corvus frugilegus), which were found in the territory of the Kulunda plain, were WNV-infected. WNV RNA was detected in 2% of samples of internal organs of aquatics birds, i.e. teal (Anas crecca) and garganey (Anas querquedula), caught in the Chany Lake (Baraba plain). Nucleotide sequencing of the 300-472 aa fragment of WNV protein E gene showed the maximum level of homology with strain WNV/LEIV-Vlg99-27889, which was isolated from a patient in Volgograd (1999). A high homology level of nucleotide sequencing denotes the relationship between the WNV circulating in the Northern Caspian Region and in the South of Western Siberia. PMID:15188656

Ternovo?, V A; Shchelkanov, M Iu; Shestopalov, A M; Aristova, V A; Protopopova, E V; Gromashevski?, V L; Druziaka, A V; Slavski?, A A; Zolotykh, S I; Loktev, V B; L'vov, D K

2004-01-01

234

Wind power in Russia Today: Development, resources, and technology transfer  

SciTech Connect

Wind power development in Russia and technology transfer from the West are discussed from an integrated perspective, including institutional and economic conditions, technologies, geography, and technology transfer experience. Commercialization has only begun in the last few years. Domestic technology development programs for 100-kW to 1000-kW turbines and wind farm projects are described. Good wind resources exist in at least 17 regions (out of 89) in the Far East, Far North, Northwest, North Caucasus, and Lower Volga. To Russians, wind power means jobs and autonomy. Joint ventures are an important form of technology transfer because of existing idle industrial capacity with skilled workers. Equipment imports to-date have been minimal. The only example of a production joint venture so far is Windenergo in Ukraine, which has begun to produce 110-kW turbines under a Kenetech Windpower license. Barriers to technology transfer are described and appear formidable. Russia remains a combination of technology transfer perspectives for developed, developing, and former Communist countries

Martinot, E. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Perminov, E.M. [Russian National Electric Utility RAO, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1995-12-31

235

Siberia Integrated Regional Study information-computational and instrumental infrastructure development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reported are several important steps in development of information-computational and instrumental infrastructure of the NEESPI mega-project Siberia Integrated Regional Study, which is devoted to investigation of global change impact on Siberia environment and related feedback. Firstly, development of scientific and technological basis and creation of a reference network for monitoring of climatic changes in Siberia is planned for 2012-2017. The network will include 12 reference monitoring stations equipped with modern instrumentation for monitoring spread across Siberia as well as data center aimed at storage of instrumental and modeling data and providing an access to those. The stations will be created at the following sites: Barnaul (Aktru), Chita (Arakhley), Irkutsk (Mondy), Khaty-Mansiisk (Shapsha), Krasnoyarsk (Zotino), Kyzyl (Dolinnaya), Nadym (Polyarnaya), Novosibirsk (Chany), Tomsk (Vasyuganie), Tomsk (Akademgorodok), Ulan-Ude (Istomino) and Yakutsk (Spasskaya Pad') and supported in operation by relevant SB RAS research Institutes and Siberian Universities. Also a suite of models is under development now, which will comprise global and regional climatic and meteorological models run at the Siberian Supercomputer Center. The CLEARS (CLimate and Environment Analysis and Research System) information-computational web-GIS is planned to be deployed at the data center and used for analysis of recent and future climatic and environmental changes in Siberia. Altogether these components will form a SB RAS megascience facility aimed at detailed monitoring of on-going natural and climatic processes on this territory and prognoses of their dynamics in future. It should create an information basis for decision-making on future socio-economic development of Siberia. It will also improve significantly efficiency of international scientific cooperation in Siberia.

Gordov, E. P.; Kabanov, M. V.; Krutikov, V. A.; Kuzin, V. I.; Lykosov, V. N.; Okladnikov, I.; Titov, A. G.; Vaganov, E. A.

2011-12-01

236

Nuclear weapons and NATO-Russia relations  

SciTech Connect

Despite the development of positive institutional arrangements such as Russian participation in the NATO-led peacekeeping force in Bosnia and the NATO- Russia Permanent Joint Council, the strategic culture of Russia has not changed in any fundamental sense. Russian strategic culture has not evolved in ways that would make Russian policies compatible with those of NATO countries in the necessary economic, social, technological, and military spheres. On the domestic side, Russia has yet to establish a stable democracy and the necessary legal, judicial, and regulatory institutions for a free-market economy. Russia evidently lacks the necessary cultural traditions, including concepts of accountability and transparency, to make these adaptations in the short-term. Owing in part to its institutional shortcomings, severe socioeconomic setbacks have afflicted Russia. Russian conventional military strength has been weakened, and a concomitant reliance by the Russians on nuclear weapons as their ultimate line of defense has increased. The breakdown in the infrastructure that supports Russian early warning and surveillance systems and nuclear weapons stewardship defense, coupled with a tendency towards has exacerbated Russian anxiety and distrust toward NATO. Russia`s reliance on nuclear weapons as the ultimate line of defense, coupled with a tendency toward suspicion and distrust toward NATO, could lead to dangerous strategic miscalculation and nuclear catastrophe.

Cornwell, G.C.

1998-12-01

237

Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

238

Influence of logging on the effects of wildfire in Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal zone supports a huge terrestrial carbon pool. Moreover, it is a tremendous reservoir of wood products concentrated mainly in Siberia. The main natural disturbance in these forests is wildfire, which modifies the carbon budget and has potentially important climate feedbacks. In addition, both legal and illegal logging increase landscape complexity and affect burning conditions and fuel consumption. We investigated 100 individual sites with different histories of logging and fire on a total of 23 study areas in three different regions of Siberia to evaluate the impacts of fire and logging on fuel loads, carbon emissions, and tree regeneration in pine and larch forests. We found large variations of fire and logging effects among regions depending on growing conditions and type of logging activity. Logged areas in the Angara region had the highest surface and ground fuel loads (up to 135 t ha-1), mainly due to logging debris. This resulted in high carbon emissions where fires occurred on logged sites (up to 41 tC ha-1). The Shushenskoe/Minusinsk and Zabaikal regions are characterized by better slash removal and a smaller amount of carbon emitted to the atmosphere during fires. Illegal logging, which is widespread in the Zabaikal region, resulted in an increase in fire hazard and higher carbon emissions than legal logging. The highest fuel loads (on average 108 t ha-1) and carbon emissions (18-28 tC ha-1) in the Zabaikal region are on repeatedly burned unlogged sites where trees fell on the ground following the first fire event. Partial logging in the Shushenskoe/Minusinsk region has insufficient impact on stand density, tree mortality, and other forest conditions to substantially increase fire hazard or affect carbon stocks. Repeated fires on logged sites resulted in insufficient tree regeneration and transformation of forest to grasslands. We conclude that negative impacts of fire and logging on air quality, the carbon cycle, and ecosystem sustainability could be decreased by better slash removal in the Angara region, removal of trees killed by fire in the Zabaikal region, and tree planting after fires in drier conditions where natural regeneration is hampered by soil overheating and grass proliferation.

Kukavskaya, E. A.; Buryak, L. V.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; Kalenskaya, O. P.; Zhila, S. V.; McRae, D. J.

2013-12-01

239

A multitracer study of peat profiles from Tunguska, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two peat columns from Tunguska (Siberia) were analysed for pollen, spores, charcoal, trace elements and ?-emitters in order to identify the fingerprints of the impact of a still unidentified cosmic body (TCB), which occurred in the summer of 1908, and the level of environmental pollution in a background area of central Siberia. Peat layers were subject to non-destructive ?-ray spectrometry to derive radiochronology by the excess210Pb method. The age-to-depth relationship was crosschecked by using both 1963 horizon of 137Cs associated to maximum global fallout deposition and palynological data profiles. Vertical distributions of trace elements in the peat columns were obtained by PIXE multielemental analysis allowing determination of the levels of environmental contamination in a background region of the Siberian taiga. The association of heavy metals such as Ni, Co and Cu in the profiles suggests the connection of the area with mining and metal smelting activity in the north of the region through atmospheric circulation. As concerns global scale contamination, the inventory of the artificial radionuclide 137Cs (4.6 kBq m - 2 ) shows a value typical of remote slightly contaminated areas resulting from global scale redistribution of radioactive fallout from Cold War nuclear weapon testing. The atmospheric inventory of the natural radionuclide 210Pb, for which a mean annual flux of 200 Bq m - 2 yr - 1 has been calculated, is typical of continental regions. The influence of Tunguska Cosmic Body in the peat is recognizable by a large discontinuity in the palynological profile of the peat monolith at a depth coinciding with the 1908 layer as determined by the 210Pb technique, showing a large peak of total pollen counting attributed to the impact of the shockwave on the area in which huge tree stands were destroyed. Following the event, tree pollen concentration decreases abruptly showing the temporary inception of a mire environment with an increase of Sphagnum spore concentrations. Results of elemental analysis so far available do not show anomalies in the concentration profiles at depths coinciding with the Tunguska event layer indicating the need for pre-concentration technique enabling the detection of element associations typical of extraterrestrial materials.

Tositti, L.; Mingozzi, M.; Sandrini, S.; Forlani, L.; Buoso, M. C.; De Poli, M.; Ceccato, D.; Zafiropoulos, D.

2006-10-01

240

Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.  

PubMed

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. PMID:23459685

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

241

Ancient DNA Reveals Prehistoric Gene-Flow from Siberia in the Complex Human Population History of North East Europe  

PubMed Central

North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across Eurasia. It contributes to the description of the spatio-temporal distribution of mitochondrial diversity and will be of significance for future reconstructions of the history of Europeans. PMID:23459685

Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W.; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

242

Glacial Refugium of Pinus pumila (Pall.) Regel in Northeastern Siberia  

SciTech Connect

One of the most glowing representatives of the Kolyma flora [1], ''Pinus pumila'' (Pall.) Regel (Japanese stone pine), is a typical shrub in larch forests of the northern Okhotsk region, basins of the Kolyma and Indigirka rivers, and high-shrub tundra of the Chukchi Peninsula. It also forms a pine belt in mountains above the forest boundary, which gives way to the grass-underbrush mountain tundra and bald mountains. In the southern Chukchi Peninsula, ''Pinus pumila'' along with ''Duschekia fruticosa'' (Rupr.) Pouzar and ''Betula middendorffii'' Trautv. et C. A. Mey form trailing forests transitional between tundra and taiga [2]. Pinus pumila pollen, usually predominating in subfossil spore-and-pollen spectra of northeastern Siberia, is found as single grains or a subordinate component (up 2-3%, rarely 10%) in spectra of lacustrine deposits formed during the last glacial stage (isotope stage 2) in the Preboreal and Boreal times of the Holocene. Sometimes, its content increases to 15-22% in spectra of lacustrine deposits synchronous to the last glacial stage near the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk [3], evidently indicating the proximity of Japanese stone pine thickets.

Shilo, N A; Lozhkin, A V; Anderson, P M; Brown, T A; Pakhomov, A Y; Solomatkina, T B

2007-02-10

243

Early Cambrian palaeogeography and the probable Iberia Siberia connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The end of the Proterozoic-beginning of the Cambrian is marked by some of the most dramatic events in the history of Earth. The fall of the Ediacaran biota, followed by the Cambrian Explosion of skeletonised bilaterians, a pronounced shift in oceanic and atmospheric chemistry and rapid climatic change from 'snowball earth' to 'greenhouse' conditions all happened within a rather geologically short period of time. These events took place against a background of the rearrangement of the prevailing supercontinent; some authors view this as a sequence of individual supercontinents such as Mesoproterozoic Midgardia, Neoproterozoic Rodinia and Early Cambrian Pannotia. Assembled in the Mesoproterozoic, this supercontinent appears to have existed through the Neoproterozoic into the Early Cambrian with periodic changes in configuration. The final rearrangement took place during the Precambrian-Cambrian transition with the Cadomian and related phases of the Pan-African orogeny. The distribution of Early Cambrian molluscs and other small shelly fossils (SSF) across all continents indicates a close geographic proximity of all major cratonic basins that is consistent with the continued existence of the supercontinent at that time. Subsequently, Rodinia experienced breakup that led to the amalgamation of Gondwana, separation of Laurentia, Baltica, Siberia and some small terranes and the emergence of oceanic basins between them. Spreading oceanic basins caused a gradual geographic isolation of the faunal assemblages that were united during the Vendian-Early Cambrian.

Gubanov, Alexander P.

2002-07-01

244

Degradation processes of hydrological resources by human and climate - example of small lakes in Northern Kazakhstan and Southern Siberia.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presentation discusses (on the basis of an actual application in the development of a curriculum for Integrated Water Cycle Management in Kazakhstan; TEMPUS I-WEB project) the diverse scientific approaches to explain the degradation of hydrological resources in West-Siberia and Nord-Kazakhstan by focussing on natural and anthropogenic causes by the example of the dry out of small lakes. Since Pleistocene in the region a diverse mosaic of large and small lakes of at total shrinking surface area was formed. On natural causes it includes (1) climatic cycling, (2) lake developments since the Pleistocene originate by the Northern glaciations by ice dammed lakes (without tectonics). The man made causes are (1) the sediment accumulation in lakes, (2) the (problematic) water management and water usage and (3) the land use changes in the watersheds. Climate change includes finally both natural and climatic causes of the change. The latter is explained using actual reports of (1) IPCC on extreme events and (2) gives a note about radiative forcing components as proxy to integrate.

Meyer, Burghard; Schreiner, Vera

2014-05-01

245

The Social Position of Schoolteachers in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the teaching profession in Russia shows that teachers are characterized by low pay and low prestige. There is an urgent need to change this situation if the modernization and innovative development of Russian society are to be achieved.

Il'in, V. A.; Shabunova, A. A.; Leonidova, G. V.

2013-01-01

246

Perspectives for logistics clusters development in Russia  

E-print Network

This thesis is a normative work aimed at identifying locations in Russia with high, medium and unclear potentials for logistics cluster development. As a framework this work uses four different models of logistics clusters: ...

Tantsuyev, Andriy

2012-01-01

247

The joint Russia-US-Sweden studies in the East-Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) during the last decade (1999-2009): an overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic Ocean is surrounded by permafrost, which is being degraded at an increasing rate under conditions of warming which are most pronounced in Siberia and Alaska . A major constraint on our ability to understand linkages between the Arctic Ocean and the global climate system is the scarcity of observational data in the Siberian Arctic marginal seas where major fresh water input and terrestrial CNP fluxes exist. The East-Siberian Sea has never been investigated by modern techniques despite the progress that has been made in new technologies useful for measuring ocean characteristics of interest. In this multi-year international project which joins scientists from 3 nations (Russia-USA-Sweden), and in cooperation with scientists from other countries (UK, Netherlands) we focus on he ESAS which is poorly explored areas located west from the U.S.-Russia boundary. In this report we overview the main field activities and present some results obtained during the last decade (1999-2009). Siberian freshwater discharge to the Arctic Ocean is expected to increase with increasing temperatures, potentially resulting in greater river export of old terrigenous organic carbon to the ocean. We suggest that rivers integrate variability in the components of the hydrometeorological regime, including soil condition, permafrost seasonal thaw, and thermokarst development, all the variables that determine atmospheric and ground water supply for the rivers and chemical weathering in their watershed.. It has been found that 1) carbon dioxide and methane fluxes are significant (and non-counted) components of the carbon cycling in the Arctic Ocean; 2) transport of eroded terrestrial material plays a major role in the accumulation of carbon in the ESAS (Dudarev et al., Gustafsson et al., Vonk et al., Sanchez-Garcia et al., Charkin et al., Semiletov et al., this session) ; 3) the seabed is a major CH4 source over the ESAS (N.Shakhova et al., this session); 3) eroded carbon is biodegradable (all reports, this session); 4) oxidation of eroded carbon onshore and offshore is a strong source of carbon dioxide (Piko et al. and Semiletov et al., this session). Thus studying carbon cycling in the East Siberian Arctic marginal seas has a high scientific priority in order to establish the carbon budget and evaluate the role of the Arctic region in global carbon cycling, especially in the coastal zone where the redistribution of carbon between terrestrial and marine environments occurs and the characteristics of carbon exchange with atmosphere are unknown. Initial scientific plan for the next decade is discussed. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (since 1994), International (Soros) Scientific Foundation, ISF (1994-1995), Russian Government and ISF (1995), McArthur Foundation (2000-2001), FEBRAS/RAS (since 2003), IARC (since 2001), NSF (since 2003), NOAA (since 2005), SU (since 2007), and Wallenberg Foundation (since 2008).

Sergienko, Valentin; Shakhova, Natalia; Dudarev, Oleg; Gustafsson, Orjan; Anderson, Leif; Semiletov, Igor

2010-05-01

248

Improvements in progress for Russia`s new PSA law  

SciTech Connect

Russian legislation making production sharing agreements (PSAs) fully legal under Russian law passed the upper house of the Russian Parliament (Federal Council) on December 19, 1995, was signed into law by President Boris Yeltsin on December 31, 1995, and took effect on January 11, 1996. While PSA legislation remains the central legal basis for large scale investment in the Russian petroleum sector, company views towards investment in this sector are tied to much more than the extent of legal guarantees. Investor attitudes are also shaped by expectations regarding political stability, behavior of Russian regulatory authorities, and prospects for the Russian economy. Furthermore, Western investors in the petroleum sector have some experience in dealing with the Russian government and existing frameworks for investment, particularly the joint venture (JV) deals with Russian entities and the often changing regulatory and tax treatment of these ventures. It is the view of the authors that attitudes among some Western companies in Russia on the political and economic environment may be too pessimistic and shaped more by press reports than actual conditions. News reports on violence, political instability, and a disastrous economy are not entirely borne out by the facts. Russian, of course, faces serious political and economic problems which must be carefully evaluated, but the overall outlook is much more complex, and some positive developments are underway. This paper reviews the economic, oil production and industry outlook as a result of the PSA law.

Pugliaresi, L.; Hensel, A.C. [LPI Consulting Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1996-03-25

249

Large-scale mapping of boreal forest in SIBERIA using ERS tandem coherence and JERS backscatter data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siberia's boreal forests represent an economically and ecologically precious resource, a significant part of which is not monitored on a regular basis. Synthetic aperture radars (SARs), with their sensitivity to forest biomass, offer mapping capabilities that could provide valuable up-to-date information, for example about fire damage or logging activity. The European Commission SIBERIA project had the aim of mapping an

Wolfgang Wagner; Adrian Luckman; Jan Vietmeier; Kevin Tansey; Heiko Balzter; Christiane Schmullius; Malcolm Davidson; David Gaveau; Michael Gluck; Thuy Le Toan; Shaun Quegan; Anatoly Shvidenko; Andreas Wiesmann; Jiong Jiong Yu

2003-01-01

250

Large-scale mapping of boreal forest in SIBERIA using ERS tandem coherence and JERS backscatter data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Siberia's boreal forests represent an economically and ecologically precious resource, a significant part of which is not monitored on a regular basis. Synthetic aperture radars (SARs), with their sensitivity to forest biomass, offer mapping capabilities that could provide valuable up-to-date information, for example about fire damage or logging activity. The European Commission SIBERIA project had the aim of mapping an

Wolfgang Wagnera; Adrian Luckmanb; Jan Vietmeiera; Kevin Tanseyb; Heiko Balzterc; Malcolm Davidsone; David Gaveauc; Michael Gluckf; Thuy Le Toane; Shaun Quegang; Anatoly Shvidenkof; Andreas Wiesmannh; Jiong Jiong Yug

251

A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE FOR EXTINCTION CHRONOLOGIES FOR FIVE SPECIES OF UPPER PLEISTOCENE MEGAFAUNA IN SIBERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the radiocarbon chronology of some late Upper Pleistocene mammals from Siberia is presented. Previously published data has been supplemented by new 14C dates for 5 species (woolly mammoth, woolly rhinoceros, bison, horse, and muskox) to reconstruct chronological extinction patterns. The final extinction of woolly rhinoceros and bison in Siberia can be dated to approximately 11,000-9700 BP, but

Lyobov A Orlova; Yaroslav V Kuzmin; Vyacheslav N Dementiev

2004-01-01

252

Biometrics of adult Grey Plovers Pluvialis squatarola breeding in the Lena Delta, NE?Siberia (the Sakha republic, Yakutia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola is a circumpolar breeding wader with slight clinal but discontinuous morphometric variations in the Palearctic. Birds breeding in eastern Siberia seem to be larger than birds breeding in western Siberia as well as those breeding in northern Canada and Alaska. Biometric data on 15 Grey Plovers trapped in the Lena Delta 1997 are supplied. In

Olga Stepanova

2001-01-01

253

Political and Economic Crisis in Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News examines the tumultuous state of affairs in Russia. The ten resources discussed offer background, news, analysis, and commentary. In recent weeks, political turmoil and economic chaos have severely threatened Russia's stability as an emerging free-market democracy, prompting regional governor and former general Alexander Lebed to say that "the situation in Russia is catastrophic--worse than in 1917." Russia's latest political upheaval began on August 23 when the unpredictable President Boris Yeltsin discharged his prime minister, Sergei Kiriyenko, and reinstalled the previous prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin (see the April 7, 1998 Scout Report for Social Sciences). Chernomyrdin plans to create an "economic dictatorship" in Russia and to print billions of rubles to avoid total economic collapse. Yesterday, in an approval ballot to reinstate Chernomyrdin as prime minister, the Duma rejected his appointment for the second time in two weeks. Analysts predict that next week a subsequent ballot for approval will fail, the Duma will dissolve, and Yeltsin will rule by decree, without a functioning government, until new parliamentary elections are held. Russian political dissension has been induced by the country's severe financial crisis. On September 6, the Russia economy suffered a blow when the European Union decided not to offer money to Russia and spurned a moratorium on debts Russia owes to EU members. Today in another setback, chairman of the central bank, Sergei Dubinin, tendered his resignation. These events, compounded by ruble devaluation, limited tax revenue, and skittish foreign investments, have left the economy in shambles, despite the recent receipt of an enormous loan from the International Monetary Fund (discussed in the July 16, 1998 Scout Report for Business & Economics).

Osmond, Andrew.

1998-01-01

254

Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the night of June 4, 2001 ASTER captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 8028'. The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25 km ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and the Far East, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and measuring surface heat balance.

2001-01-01

255

Gandhis West, the Wests Gandhi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gandhi had a life-long engagement with “the West.” He was educated in Britain, had close Jewish friends in South Africa, and engaged in discussions with Christian clergymen for much of his life. In the midst of struggles against racism and colonialism, Gandhi never lacked friends and admirers in Britain, Europe, and the U.S. Thoreau, Tolstoy, and Ruskin—the “Holy Trinity”—are widely

Vinay Lal

2009-01-01

256

Russia and the Information Revolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With a great deal of general talk and commentary about the role of the so-called "information revolution", it is at times difficult to tell exactly what these developments may mean for different regions of the world. This report from the RAND Corporation looks at how Russia is utilizing various forms of information and communication technologies to modernize business and industry, stimulate economic growth, and enhance the quality of life for Russian peoples. With significant funding from the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the report (authored by D. J. Peterson) is based on six years of research in this area, and contains chapters on the role of information technology in Russian society, government, and concludes with a brief summary of key findings. Data in the report also receives nice visual representation through a host of charts, tables, and figures. Overall, this is a very interesting document that will be of particular interest to those working in the fields of international public policy and technology development.

2005-01-01

257

Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in Southwestern Siberia: combined effects of plant species and climate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Russian boreal forest, which mainly consists of extensive forests in Siberia, is the largest continuous forest region on Earth and represents 70 % of the world's boreal forest. Siberian forest is a tremendous repository of terrestrial organic carbon (C), which may increase owing to climate change, potential increases in ecosystem productivity and hence C sequestration. Phosphorus (P) availability could limit the C sequestration potential, but tree roots may mine the soil deeper to increase access to mineral P. Improved understanding and quantification of the processes controlling P availability in surface and deep soil layers of forest ecosystems are thus required. Relative contributions of organic and inorganic P and, consequently, P availability in forest ecosystems depend on decomposition processes, which could be strongly affected by vegetation composition, temperature, precipitation, and their changes due to a warming climate. The objectives of the present study were to (1) evaluate P status of surface and deep forest soil horizons from two contrasted biomes in Southwestern Siberia (i.e. forest steppe in the West Siberian plain and blackish ("chernevaya" in Russian) taiga in the low Salair mountains) and (2) assess the effects of vegetation (siberian fir stand, common aspen stand and herbs in a forest gap) and local climate on soil P fractions. Results revealed high contents in total P (645-1042 mg kg-1 in the surface mineral soils) and available inorganic P (diffusive phosphate ions in one week = 83-126 mg kg-1). In addition, there was an accumulation of diffusive phosphate ions in the subsoils resulting from differences between soil horizons in total inorganic P and soil properties. Consequently, deeper root systems may mine substantial amounts of available P for the trees and the potential enhanced growth and C sequestration due to climate change should thus a~priori not be P-limited. High proportions of total organic P (47-56 % of total P in the surface mineral soils) show that decomposition processes potentially play a significant role in P availability. Results show that decomposition processes are affected by vegetation (deciduous broadleaved trees, evergreen coniferous, herbs) and local climate (precipitations; snow cover with its isolating effect on soil). Results on the effects of plant species and local climate improved our understanding of the potential effects of climate change on P availability through warming and vegetation redistribution.

Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Augusto, L.; Derrien, D.; Gallegos, N.; Lashchinskiy, N.; Milin, S.; Nikitich, P.; Raudina, T.; Rusalimova, O.; Zeller, B.; Barsukov, P.

2012-06-01

258

Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ of points into 3 groups of agrolandscapes, which have high, medium and low medium agronatural potential. Thus the typological landscape and agrolandscape medium scale map had been worked out, estimation of agronatural potential, and the map had been worked out on the base of detailed agrolandscape research and study of natural geosystems of Minusinskaya Basin. Consideration of agronatural potential of a territory helps to determine regions of perspective development of its separate types, proceeding from presents of natural and economical preconditions. Successful development of agriculture is mainly connected with the right agrolandscape use. That is why the optimum variant of land use could be and should be found with the definite ratio of transformational organizational-economical and adaptive landscape-ecological measures, which could allow abruptly increase the potential of their self-regulation. REFERENCES: 1. G. I. Lysanova landscape analyses of agronatural potential of geosystems. - Irkutsk, 2001. - 187 p. 2. V. A. Nikolaev Regional agrolandscape research // Natural complexes and agriculture. - Voprosy geografii. - M.: Mysl, 1984. - Coll. 124. - P. 73-83.

Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

2012-12-01

259

Respiration fluxes in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, tree stems and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56N 33E) during growing seasons of 2002 - 2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere-biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all of the years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability ranging from 0.7 to 10 mkmol m-2s-1. Generally soil respiration depended on soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. Stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September and in October it dramatically decreased. Tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3-5 mkmol•m-2s-1 for dominant trees and about 1-2 mkmol•m-2s-1 for subdominant trees. Respiration of living tree stems was about 10-20% of ER.

Kurbatova, Juliya

2014-05-01

260

Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil, tree stems, and ecosystem carbon dioxide fluxes were measured by chambers and eddy covariance methods in a paludified shallow-peat spruce forest in the southern taiga of European Russia (Tver region, 56° N 33° E) during the growing seasons of 2002-2012. The site was established in 1998 as part of the EUROSIBERIAN CARBONFLUX project, an international field experiment examining atmosphere-biosphere interaction in Siberia and European Russia. In all years the observed annual cumulative net ecosystem flux was positive (the forest was a source of carbon to the atmosphere). Soil and tree stem respiration was a significant part of the total ecosystem respiration (ER) in this paludified shallow-peat spruce forest. On average, 49% of the ER came from soil respiration. We found that the soil fluxes exhibited high seasonal variability, ranging from 0.7 to 10 ?mol m-2 s-1. Generally, the soil respiration depended on the soil temperature and ground water level. In drought conditions, the soil respiration was low and did not depend on temperature. The stem respiration of spruces grew intensively in May, had permanently high values from June to the end of September, and in October it dramatically decreased. The tree stem respiration in midsummer was about 3-5 ?mol m-2 s-1 for dominant trees and about 1-2 ?mol m-2 s-1 for subdominant trees. The respiration of living tree stems was about 10-20% of the ER.

Kurbatova, J.; Tatarinov, F.; Molchanov, A.; Varlagin, A.; Avilov, V.; Kozlov, D.; Ivanov, D.; Valentini, R.

2013-12-01

261

Nitrogen dynamics in Turbic Cryosols from Siberia and Greenland.  

PubMed

Turbic Cryosols (permafrost soils characterized by cryoturbation, i.e., by mixing of soil layers due to freezing and thawing) are widespread across the Arctic, and contain large amounts of poorly decomposed organic material buried in the subsoil. This cryoturbated organic matter exhibits retarded decomposition compared to organic material in the topsoil. Since soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is known to be tightly linked to N availability, we investigated N transformation rates in different soil horizons of three tundra sites in north-eastern Siberia and Greenland. We measured gross rates of protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification) and nitrification, as well as microbial uptake of amino acids and NH4 (+) using an array of (15)N pool dilution approaches. We found that all sites and horizons were characterized by low N availability, as indicated by low N mineralization compared to protein depolymerization rates (with gross N mineralization accounting on average for 14% of gross protein depolymerization). The proportion of organic N mineralized was significantly higher at the Greenland than at the Siberian sites, suggesting differences in N limitation. The proportion of organic N mineralized, however, did not differ significantly between soil horizons, pointing to a similar N demand of the microbial community of each horizon. In contrast, absolute N transformation rates were significantly lower in cryoturbated than in organic horizons, with cryoturbated horizons reaching not more than 32% of the transformation rates in organic horizons. Our results thus indicate a deceleration of the entire N cycle in cryoturbated soil horizons, especially strongly reduced rates of protein depolymerization (16% of organic horizons) which is considered the rate-limiting step in soil N cycling. PMID:24302785

Wild, Birgit; Schnecker, Jörg; Bárta, Ji?í; Capek, Petr; Guggenberger, Georg; Hofhansl, Florian; Kaiser, Christina; Lashchinsky, Nikolaj; Mikutta, Robert; Mooshammer, Maria; Santr??ková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Urich, Tim; Zimov, Sergey A; Richter, Andreas

2013-12-01

262

Enzyme activities along a latitudinal transect in Western Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in soils is mediated by the activity of extracellular enzymes. The specific activities of these enzymes and their ratios to each other represent the link between the composition of soil organic matter and the nutrient demand of the microbial community. Depending on the difference between microbial nutrient demand and substrate availability, extracellular enzymes can enhance or slow down different nutrient cycles in the soil. We investigated activities of six extracellular enzymes (cellobiohydrolase, leucine-amino-peptidase, N-acetylglucosaminidase, chitotriosidase, phosphatase and phenoloxidase) in the topsoil organic horizon, topsoil mineral horizon and subsoil horizon in seven ecosystems along a 1,500 km-long North-South transect in Western Siberia. The transect included sites in the southern tundra, northern taiga, middle taiga, southern taiga, forest-steppe (in forested patches as well as in adjacent meadows) and Steppe. We found that enzyme patterns varied stronger with soil depth than between ecosystems. Differences between horizons were mainly based on the increasing ratio of oxidative enzymes to hydrolytic enzymes. Differences between sites were more pronounced in topsoil than in subsoil mineral horizons, but did not reflect the north-south transect and the related gradients in temperature and precipitation. The observed differences between sites in topsoil horizons might therefore result from differences in vegetation rather than climatic factors. The decreasing variability in the enzyme pattern with depth might also indicate that the composition of soil organic matter becomes more similar with soil depth, most likely by an increasing proportion of microbial remains compared to plant derived constituents of SOM. This also indicates, that SOM becomes less divers the more it is processed by soil microorganisms. Our findings highlight the importance of soil depth on enzyme activities. Since microorganisms produce enzyme according to their nutrient demand, enzyme activities can enhance nutrient cycling differently in distinct soil horizons.

Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Eloy Alves, Ricardo J.; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Knoltsch, Anna; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Mikutta, Robert; Takriti, Mounir; Richter, Andreas

2014-05-01

263

Thermokarst Lake Carbon Storage and Transport near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermokarst lakes are prevalent features across the pan-Arctic landscape. As the Arctic climate warms further, thermokarst lakes currently situated in continuous permafrost will likely increase in size and number. Shifting lake distributions may have significant impacts on the land-atmosphere exchange of carbon, as these lakes act as reservoirs and conduits that store and transport carbon and other organic material across the landscape. Using field data collected in the Kolyma River basin in the continuous permafrost region near Cherskiy, Northeast Siberia, we investigate the carbon dynamics of four thermokarst lakes in the Y4 watershed, a small, upland drainage area. Through bathymetric mapping of these four lakes, total lake volume was calculated. Depth profiles of temperature, specific conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen were collected across horizontal transects and subsequently integrated with these total volume measurements to determine physical characteristics of the lakes. Additionally, water samples were collected at various stations and depths for analyses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). With these physical and biogeochemical measurements in concert, we investigated the ability for these lakes to store and transport carbon through the Y4 watershed. Furthermore, detailed knowledge of CDOM concentrations in these lakes provides an understanding of the lability and molecular weight of the organic matter as well as potential light transmittance through the water column. This watershed area provides a representative example of the potential for thermokarst lakes in yedoma regions to process and move carbon across the landscape and ultimately to larger systems such as the Kolyma River basin. This baseline characterization of regional lakes will lead to a better understanding of how further warming and permafrost instability may impact the carbon dynamics of thermokarst lakes and ultimately how they function in the broader biogeochemical and hydrological systems throughout the region.

Berman, S. L.; Frey, K. E.; Griffin, C. G.; Zimov, N.

2013-12-01

264

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Drug Resistant Strains from Russia  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains is a growing problem in many countries. The availability of the complete nucleotide sequences of several MTB genomes allows to use the comparative genomics as a tool to study the relationships of strains and differences in their evolutionary history including acquisition of drug-resistance. In our work, we sequenced three genomes of Russian MTB strains of different phenotypes – drug susceptible, MDR and XDR. Of them, MDR and XDR strains were collected in Tomsk (Siberia, Russia) during the local TB outbreak in 1998–1999 and belonged to rare KQ and KY families in accordance with IS6110 typing, which are considered endemic for Russia. Based on phylogenetic analysis, our isolates belonged to different genetic families, Beijing, Ural and LAM, which made the direct comparison of their genomes impossible. For this reason we performed their comparison in the broader context of all M. tuberculosis genomes available in GenBank. The list of unique individual non-synonymous SNPs for each sequenced isolate was formed by comparison with all SNPs detected within the same phylogenetic group. For further functional analysis, all proteins with unique SNPs were ascribed to 20 different functional classes based on Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG). We have confirmed drug resistant status of our isolates that harbored almost all known drug-resistance associated mutations. Unique SNPs of an XDR isolate CTRI-4XDR, belonging to a Beijing family were compared in more detail with SNPs of additional 14 Russian XDR strains of the same family. Only type specific mutations in genes of repair, replication and recombination system (COG category L) were found common within this group. Probably the other unique SNPs discovered in CTRI-4XDR may have an important role in adaptation of this microorganism to its surrounding and in escape from antituberculosis drugs treatment. PMID:23437175

Ilina, Elena N.; Shitikov, Egor A.; Ikryannikova, Larisa N.; Alekseev, Dmitry G.; Kamashev, Dmitri E.; Malakhova, Maja V.; Parfenova, Tatjana V.; Afanas’ev, Maxim V.; Ischenko, Dmitry S.; Bazaleev, Nikolai A.; Smirnova, Tatjana G.; Larionova, Elena E.; Chernousova, Larisa N.; Beletsky, Alexey V.; Mardanov, Andrei V.; Ravin, Nikolai V.; Skryabin, Konstantin G.; Govorun, Vadim M.

2013-01-01

265

A combined oxygen and silicon diatom isotope record of Late Quaternary change in Lake El'gygytgyn, North East Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the response of sites within the Arctic Circle to long-term climatic change remains an essential pre-requisite for assessing the susceptibility of these regions to future global warming and Arctic amplification. To date, existing records from North East Russia have demonstrated significant spatial variability across the region during the late Quaternary. Here we present diatom ? 18O and ? 30Si data from Lake El'gygytgyn, Russia, and suggest environmental changes that would have impacted across West Beringia from the Last Glacial Maximum to the modern day. In combination with other records, the results raise the potential for climatic teleconnections to exist between the region and sites in the North Atlantic. The presence of a series of 2-3‰ decreases in ? 18O diatom during both the Last Glacial and the Holocene indicates the sensitivity of the region to perturbations in the global climate system. Evidence of an unusually long Holocene thermal maximum from 11.4 ka BP to 7.6 ka BP is followed by a cooling trend through the remainder of the Holocene in response to changes in solar insolation. This is culminated over the last 900 years by a significant decrease in ? 18O diatom of 2.3‰, which may be related to a strengthening and easterly shift of the Aleutian Low in addition to possible changes in precipitation seasonality.

Swann, George E. A.; Leng, Melanie J.; Juschus, Olaf; Melles, Martin; Brigham-Grette, Julie; Sloane, Hilary J.

2010-03-01

266

Why Russia is not a state  

SciTech Connect

This article makes two principal points. First the author argues that the Russian federation has never been a state and is not sustainable as a state. Four centrifugal indicators are presented to support this claim: ethnic divisiveness; uncertainty about the legitimacy of Russia`s current borders; competing claims for legitimacy on the part of federal and regional leaders; and army units` unpredictable allegiances. Second, she argues that Soviet policies intended to facilitate central control of the periphery had the perverse effect of creating ethnic identity and demands for national autonomy where, in many cases, they did not exist prior to the Communist regime. Following the introduction, part one briefly reviews the concepts of state, nation, and nationalism and the roles they play in Russia. Criteria for state-hood are discussed. Part two lists the main ethnic groups in Russia and considers the roots of ethnic nationalism in the Russian Federation. Part three discusses confusion over the legitimacy of the physical, economic, and political boundaries of the Russian Federation. Part four discusses political disarray in the center and the regions and the lack of unity among order-enforcing entities. The Volga-Ural region -- where there is a large concentration of nuclear weapons and facilities, and which is especially volatile politically -- is discussed in somewhat more detail. Part five argues that these factors taken together call into question Russia`s identity as a state. The author concludes that Russia remains a multi-ethnic empire in which the rule of law is still not supreme.

Stern, J.E.

1993-08-16

267

Yana ring structure, North-Eastern Siberia: A possible counterpart of coronae on Venus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An arch of Verkhoyansky Range in NE Siberia, Russia is considered as W and S parts of the rim of the large ring structure, referred hereafter as Yana Ring Structure (YRS). It has general appearance similar to coronae on Venus and could be considered as the terrestrial counter part of coronae. The structure is located between 63 and 70 deg N, 125 and 140 deg E. The outer diameter of YRS (between the rim feet) is 680-700 km. The rim crest diameter is 500-520 km. The inner diameters (between the inner feet of the rim) is 320-350 km. The rim of YRS consist of the following topographic features: W segment is Orulgan Range (N part of Verkhoyansky Range), SW and S segments consist of S part of Verkhoyansky Range, SE segment is Elginskoye Ploskogorye (Tableland), E segment is Chersky Range (its part W of Indigirka River), NE segment is Selennyakhsky Range, and NW segment is Kular Range. Inside this ring of mountains Yanskoye Ploskogorye (Tableland) is located. The circular outlines of YRS are marked with the large river valleys located outside: Lena River (lower of Aldan River mouth) is located W from YRS, Aldan River (lower of Amga River mouth) is from S, Indigirka River (between 64 and 67 deg N lat) is from E, and Selennyakh River (the part running N to S) is from NE. The ring patterns inside the mountaineous rim of YRS are marked with the tributaries of Yana River. The largest ring here, 300 km in diameter, consists of Bytangay (with Bellyakh) River at W, Nelgese and Derbeke Rivers at S/SE, and Tuostakh River at E. The typical altitudes of YRS mountain rim are 1000-2000 m. The maximal ones are: 2400 m in W part of the rim, 2300 m in S, 1600 m in SE, 2200-2500 m in E, and 1300-1500 m in N. The central part of YRS have typical altitudes of 400-600 m. There are lowlands with altitudes 50-200 m to the S, W, N, and NW outside YRS Oymyakonskoye Nagorye (Highland) is located SE of YRS at 500-1500 m altitudes. It should be recognized from this description YRS have a general appearance of circular highland with its central plateau located 1000-2000 m lower than surrounding mountain rim, but 300-400 m higher than plains of lowlands located outside the rim. Such topographic patterns are typical for coronae on Venus. The diameter of YRS is equal to the largest coronae on Venus. There are only 3 or 4 structures of such or larger size on the whole Venus. This calls to compare morphology and geologic evolution of YRS with morphology and models of coronae evolutions especially the largest ones, to search the similarities and/or differences in geologic histories of the structures on the Earth and Venus.

Burba, G. A.

1993-01-01

268

Yana ring structure, North-Eastern Siberia: A possible counterpart of coronae on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An arch of Verkhoyansky Range in NE Siberia, Russia is considered as W and S parts of the rim of the large ring structure, referred hereafter as Yana Ring Structure (YRS). It has general appearance similar to coronae on Venus and could be considered as the terrestrial counter part of coronae. The structure is located between 63 and 70 deg N, 125 and 140 deg E. The outer diameter of YRS (between the rim feet) is 680-700 km. The rim crest diameter is 500-520 km. The inner diameters (between the inner feet of the rim) is 320-350 km. The rim of YRS consist of the following topographic features: W segment is Orulgan Range (N part of Verkhoyansky Range), SW and S segments consist of S part of Verkhoyansky Range, SE segment is Elginskoye Ploskogorye (Tableland), E segment is Chersky Range (its part W of Indigirka River), NE segment is Selennyakhsky Range, and NW segment is Kular Range. Inside this ring of mountains Yanskoye Ploskogorye (Tableland) is located. The circular outlines of YRS are marked with the large river valleys located outside: Lena River (lower of Aldan River mouth) is located W from YRS, Aldan River (lower of Amga River mouth) is from S, Indigirka River (between 64 and 67 deg N lat) is from E, and Selennyakh River (the part running N to S) is from NE. The ring patterns inside the mountaineous rim of YRS are marked with the tributaries of Yana River. The largest ring here, 300 km in diameter, consists of Bytangay (with Bellyakh) River at W, Nelgese and Derbeke Rivers at S/SE, and Tuostakh River at E. The typical altitudes of YRS mountain rim are 1000-2000 m. The maximal ones are: 2400 m in W part of the rim, 2300 m in S, 1600 m in SE, 2200-2500 m in E, and 1300-1500 m in N. The central part of YRS have typical altitudes of 400-600 m. There are lowlands with altitudes 50-200 m to the S, W, N, and NW outside YRS Oymyakonskoye Nagorye (Highland) is located SE of YRS at 500-1500 m altitudes. It should be recognized from this description YRS have a general appearance of circular highland with its central plateau located 1000-2000 m lower than surrounding mountain rim, but 300-400 m higher than plains of lowlands located outside the rim. Such topographic patterns are typical for coronae on Venus. The diameter of YRS is equal to the largest coronae on Venus. There are only 3 or 4 structures of such or larger size on the whole Venus. This calls to compare morphology and geologic evolution of YRS with morphology and models of coronae evolutions especially the largest ones, to search the similarities and/or differences in geologic histories of the structures on the Earth and Venus.

Burba, G. A.

1993-03-01

269

Aircraft measurements of the concentrations of CO2, CH4, N2O, and CO and the carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios of CO2 in the troposphere over Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 370 air samples were collected using aircraft in the troposphere over Russia in the summers of 1992, 1993, and 1994. These were then analyzed for the CO2, CH4, N2O and CO concentrations, as well as for ?13C and ?18O of CO2. Measured vertical profiles of tropospheric CO2 showed that the concentration increased with height over all locations. In the lower troposphere over the wetland and taiga regions, extremely low CO2 concentrations of 335-345 parts per million by volume (ppmv) were often observed. Measured values of ?13C and the CO2 concentration were negatively correlated with each other, the rate of change in ?13C with respect to the CO2 concentration being about -0.05‰/ppmv. This implies that the variations in the CO2 concentration observed over Russia in the summer are primarily caused by terrestrial biospheric activities. In the middle and upper troposphere, the CO2 concentration and ?13C showed systematic differences between each other in 1992, 1993, and 1994, probably due to their secular changes. The ?18O and CO2 observed in the lowest part of the troposphere over east and west Siberia were also negatively correlated with each other, with the rate of change in ?18O with respect to CO2 estimated to be about -0.1 l‰/ppmv. This relation may be caused by isotopic equilibrium of oxygen in CO2 with soil water through respiration of living plants and decomposition of organic matter and with chloroplast water in leaves through photosynthesis of living plants. In contrast to CO2, the CH4 concentration decreased with height. Extremely high CH4 concentrations were observed over the west Siberian lowland, owing to a large amount of CH4 emitted from wetlands. The N2O concentrations were fairly constant through the troposphere over all locations covered by this study, with an average value of about 311 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The CO concentrations also showed vertical profiles, with a small gradient over natural wetlands, taiga, and tundra. High values of the CH4, CO, and CO2 concentrations were observed over Moscow, owing to emissions of the respective gases by human activities in an urban area. It was also found that over natural wetlands and tundra the CO2 and CH4 concentrations were negatively correlated with each other, reflecting a strong biospheric CO2 uptake and CH4 emissions from wetlands. The relationship between the CH4 and CO concentrations was strongly positive over areas with their anthropogenic and natural sources; the relationship was only slightly positive over wetlands, possibly due to CO emissions from wetlands and/or photochemically produced CO.

Nakazawa, Takakiyo; Sugawara, Satoshi; Inoue, Gen; Machida, Toshinobu; Makshyutov, Shamil; Mukai, Hitoshi

1997-02-01

270

Heterotrophic soil respiration in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil respiration (SR) is one of the largest fluxes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. It varies substantially in spatial and temporal resolution depending on climate, soil, vegetation, land use and disturbances. We have built a system which assesses SR based on all available sources of information: Soil map 2.5 Mio scale (Fridland, 1988); Landcover 1 km2 resolution (Schepaschenko et al., 2010); a database of SR in situ measurements (3592 records over the globe from 1109 studies, the substantial part of non-Russian measurements was taken from Bond-Lamberty and Thomson, 2010); climatic parameter reanalysis for 1974-2009 (FOODSEC, 2011). The procedure of SR assessment comprised of 1) build regression models of total SR dependent upon climatic parameters and soil type based on the SR database and climatic variables in the year of SR measurements; 2) regional, vegetation type, current level of NPP, land use and disturbances corrections of the models; and 3) model of root contribution to the total SR dependent upon vegetation type. The system of SR assessment provides estimation for the Russian territory with spatial resolution of 1 km and temporal resolution of 1 year. It can absorb new initial data and provide advanced assessment in the future. The average heterotrophic SR flux for the Russian territory is 3.4 Pg C yr-1 with interannual deviation up to 20%. The average SR flux distribution by region, natural zone and vegetation type is shown in the table. The SR map can be found at http://russia.geo-wiki.org.
Average heterotrophic soil respiration flux, g C m-2 yr-1

Shchepashchenko, D.; Mukhortova, L.; Shvidenko, A.; McCallum, I.

2011-12-01

271

[Palivizumab: four seasons in Russia].  

PubMed

In 2010, the Russian Federation (RF) registered palivizumab--innovative drug, based on monoclonal antibodies for passive immunization of seasonal respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in children of disease severe progress risk group, which include primarily premature infants, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Currently, palivizumab is included in the list of recommended medicines and medical care standards of different countries, including Russia. In the review the results of Russian research on the progress of RSV infection, its epidemiology and immunization experience gained over the 2010-2014 period are summarized in relation to the foreign data. During the four epidemic seasons palivizumab immunization covered more than 3,200 children of severe RSV infection risk group with a progressive annual increase in the number of patients who received the drug. Geography of palivizumab immunization is also greatly expanded in our country during this time. If during the first two seasons measures of immunization were taken mainly in Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the present time, thirty one territorial entities of the Russian Federation have the experience in the drug application. Analysis of the results of RSV infection immunization (made in several regions) confirms the high clinical efficacy and palivizumab safety already demonstrated in international studies. In addition, the analysis presents the potential to improve the efficiency of the integrated RSV infection immunization programs, realizing in the establishment of high-risk child group register, adequate counseling for parents, as well as the development of the routing of patients and coordination of interaction between different health institutions during the immunization. PMID:25563005

2014-01-01

272

Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

2002-01-01

273

Flooding of the Ob River, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of heavy rainfall, snowmelt, and ice jams in late May and early June of this year caused the Ob River and surrounding tributaries in Western Siberia to overflow their banks. The flooding can be seen in thess image taken on June 16, 2002, by the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) instrument aboard the Terra satellite. Last year, the river flooded farther north. Normally, the river resembles a thin black line, but floods have swollen the river considerably. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

274

Integrated Paleomagnetism and U-Pb Geochronology of Mafic Dikes of the Eastern Anabar Shield Region, Siberia: Implications for Mesoproterozoic Paleolatitude of Siberia and Comparison with Laurentia.  

PubMed

This article reports the first joint paleomagnetic and U-Pb geochronologic study of Precambrian diabase dikes in the Anabar Shield and adjacent Riphean cover of Siberia. It was undertaken to allow comparison with similar published studies in Laurentia and to test Proterozoic reconstructions of Siberia and Laurentia. An east-trending Kuonamka dike yielded a provisional U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1503+/-5 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 16 degrees S, 221 degrees E (dm=17&j0;, dp=10&j0;). A paleomagnetic pole at 6 degrees N, 234 degrees E (dm=28&j0;, dp=14&j0;) was obtained from five Kuonamka dikes. An east-southeast-trending Chieress dike yielded a U-Pb baddeleyite emplacement age of 1384+/-2 Ma and a virtual geomagnetic pole at 4 degrees N, 258 degrees E (dm=9&j0;, dp=5&j0;). Kuonamka and Chieress poles are interpreted to be primary but do not average out secular variation. Assuming that the Siberian Plate has remained intact since the Mesoproterozoic, except for mid-Paleozoic opening of the Viljuy Rift, then the above results indicate that the Siberian Plate was in low latitudes at ca. 1503 and 1384 Ma, broadly similar to low latitudes determined for Laurentia from well-dated paleopoles at 1460-1420, 1320-1290, and 1267 Ma. This would allow Laurentia and Siberia to have been attached in the Mesoproterozoic, as suggested in several recent studies based on geological criteria. However, because paleomagnetic results from the Anabar Shield region do not average out secular variation and the ages of poles from Siberia and Laurentia are not well matched, it is not yet possible to distinguish between these reconstructions or to rule out other configurations that also maintain the two cratons at low paleolatitudes. PMID:10856011

Ernst; Buchan; Hamilton; Okrugin; Tomshin

2000-07-01

275

Moult migration of emperor geese Chen canagica between Alaska and Russia  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied reproductive success and post-breeding movements of 32 adult female emperor geese Chen canagica that were marked with satellite radio transmitters on their nesting area on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD), Alaska 2000-2004. All 16 females that failed to successfully reproduce departed the YKD and moulted remiges either on the north coast of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia (n=15), or on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska (n=1). Of 16 females that successfully nested, one migrated to Russia following hatch whereas the remainder stayed on the YKD. While moulting on the Chukotka Peninsula, emperor geese with satellite transmitters primarily used coastal lagoons west of Kolyuchin Bay. We observed 21,150 adult-plumaged emperor geese during aerial surveys in Chukotka in 2002. Most (95%) were in the same region used by geese that had been marked with satellite transmitters in Alaska. The number of emperor geese observed in Russia was comparable to our estimate of ???20,000 adults that either do not nest or nest unsuccessfully each year on the YKD, suggesting that most nonproductive adults, or ???28% of the adult population departs the YKD to moult elsewhere. The number of moult migrants may be substantially higher in years of poor reproductive success or if adult-plumaged birds that are not of breeding age also leave the YKD. Moult migration of emperor geese between Alaska and Russia is likely substantially greater than previously believed. Russian moulting habitats are important to the North American population of emperor geese and events that affect survival of geese in Russia could impact population trends on the YKD. Protection of coastal lagoons on the north coast of Chukotka is warranted. ?? Journal of Avian Biology.

Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.; Syroechkovskiy, E.E., Jr.; Kondratyev, A.V.; Eldridge, W.D.; Lappo, E.

2007-01-01

276

Radioactive contamination of pine (Pinus sylvestris) in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) following fallout from the Fukushima accident.  

PubMed

Following the Fukushima accident in March 2011, samples of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris) were collected from three sites near the city of Krasnoyarsk (Siberia, Russia) during 2011-2012 and analyzed for artificial radionuclides. Concentrations of Fukushima-derived radionuclides in the samples of pine needles in April 2011 reached 5.51 ± 0.52 Bq kg(-1)(131)I, 0.92 ± 0.04 Bq kg(-1)(134)Cs, and 1.51 ± 0.07 Bq kg(-1)(137)Cs. An important finding was the detection of (134)Cs from the Fukushima accident not only in the pine needles and branches but also in the new shoots in 2012, which suggested a transfer of Fukushima cesium isotopes from branches to shoots. In 2011 and 2012, the (137)Cs/(134)Cs ratio for pine needles and branches collected in sampling areas Krasnoyarsk-1 and Krasnoyarsk-2 was greater than 1 (varying within a range of 1.2-2.6), suggesting the presence of "older", pre-Fukushima accident (137)Cs. Calculations showed that for pine samples growing in areas of the Krasnoyarskii Krai unaffected by contamination from the nuclear facility, the activity of the Fukushima-derived cesium isotopes was two-three times higher than the activity of the pre-accident (137)Cs. PMID:25201085

Bolsunovsky, A; Dementyev, D

2014-12-01

277

Vegetation structure in gullies developed by the melting of ice wedges along Kolyma River, northern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetation structure was surveyed in gullies developed by the melting of ice wedges along the Kolyma River, northern Siberia, using 72–50 × 50 cm plots. The mean total plant cover was approximately 50% on gley soils, which were only distributed in the gullies. Based on twinspan cluster analysis, four vegetation types were recognized: (i) Agrostis purpurascens grassland with Ceratodon purpureus

Shiro Tsuyuzaki; Takeshi Ishizaki; Toshiyuki Sato

1999-01-01

278

History of late Pleistocene glaciations in the central Sayan-Tuva Upland (southern Siberia)  

E-print Network

History of late Pleistocene glaciations in the central Sayan-Tuva Upland (southern Siberia) Sergei, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Lermontova 128, 664033 Irkutsk, Russian Federation b CEREGE II, Montpellier, France a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 7 August 2011 Received

279

“Pleospora” aquatica, a new lichenicolous fungus on Aspicilia supertegens from Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lichenicolous fungus “Pleospora” aquatica is described as new. It grows parasitically on thalli of Aspicilia supertegens, and is known only from the type locality, in the Tunkinski ridge (central Siberia). Is is tentatively referred to the genus Pleospora on account of its phaeodictyospores and of the anatomy of pseudothecia.

Mauro Tretiach; Pier Luigi Nimis

1999-01-01

280

Determination of aerodynamic diameters of pollen grains and their agglomerates for Western Siberia plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of determination of aerodynamic characteristics of 17 plants dominating the ecosystem of Western Siberia are reported. Pollen of cereals and woody plants was examined. The sedimentation velocities of single pollen grains and their agglomerates were determined. The data obtained were used to calculate the aerodynamic diameters of pollen grains of all investigated plants.

Istomin, V. L.; Koutsenogii, K. P.; Golovko, V. V.

2012-12-01

281

Discharges and yields of suspended sediment in the Ob' and Yenisey Rivers of Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The northward-flowing rivers of Siberia deliver immense quantities of water but only relatively small quantities of sediment to the Arctic Ocean. The relatively low delivery of sediment to the ocean by these rivers is explained by the large areas of forest and swamp in their basins. In the Ob' River, sediment yields tend to increase between the headwaters and Kamen'

NELLY N. BOBROVITSKAYA; CLAUDIA ZUBKOVA; ROBERT H. MEADE

1996-01-01

282

Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis from cryopreserved shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis were achieved from cryopreserved shoot tips of Lilium Oriental hybrid ‘Siberia’. Shoot tips (1.5-2 mm) were excised from adventitious shoots that were regenerated from basal leaf segments. Precultured shoot tips were then treated with MS containing 0.4 M sucro...

283

Satellite analysis of the severe 1987 forest fires in northern China and southeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Meteorological conditions, extremely conducive to fire development and spread in the spring of 1987, resulted in forest fires burning over extremely large areas in the boreal forest zone in northeastern China and the southeastern region of Siberia. The great China fire, one of the largest and most destructive forest fires in recent history, occurred during this period in the

Donald R. Cahoon Jr; Brian J. Stocks; Joel S. Levine; Wesley R. Cofer III; Joseph M. Pierson

1994-01-01

284

Primary Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 2 Regions, Eastern Siberia, Russian Federation  

PubMed Central

Of 235 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients who had not received tuberculosis treatment in the Irkutsk oblast and the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), eastern Siberia, 61 (26%) were multidrug resistant. A novel strain, S 256, clustered among these isolates and carried eis-related kanamycin resistance, indicating a need for locally informed diagnosis and treatment strategies. PMID:24047678

Zhdanova, Svetlana; Ogarkov, Oleg; Boyarinova, Galina; Alexeeva, Galina; Pholwat, Suporn; Zorkaltseva, Elena; Houpt, Eric R.; Savilov, Eugeniy

2013-01-01

285

Bud-burst modelling in Siberia and its impact on quantifying the carbon budget  

E-print Network

days in bud-burst date, with consequent large errors in carbon flux calculations. ird-00426217,version11 Bud-burst modelling in Siberia and its impact on quantifying the carbon budget Ghislain Picard1 for Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics University of Sheffield Hicks Building S3 7RH Sheffield, UK Email: g

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

286

Holocene peat and carbon accumulation rates in the southern taiga of western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although recent studies have recognized peatlands as a sink for atmospheric CO2, little is known about the role of Siberian peatlands in the global carbon cycle. We have estimated the Holocene peat and carbon accumulation rate in the peatlands of the southern taiga and subtaiga zones of western Siberia. We explain the accumulation rates by calculating the average peat accumulation

Wiebe Borren; Wladimir Bleuten; Elena D. Lapshina

2004-01-01

287

Transformation of ground vegetation under the effect of fires in pine forests of Middle Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Siberia, pine forests are widespread and grow in diverse habitats. Under zonal conditions, pine shows a wide amplitude of ecological flexibility, being an edificator species in areas with different soils, from shallow podzols with a low base exchange capacity to soddy calcareous soils. The expansion of pine forests far beyond the limits of the zone with a true forest

V. D. Perevoznikova; G. A. Ivanova; V. A. Ivanov; N. M. Kovaleva

2007-01-01

288

Mate Guarding by Curlew Sandpipers (Calidris ferruginea) during Spring Migration in North Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is poorly known whether arctic-breeding shorebirds form pairs before or after arrival at the breeding site. We describe the display and mate-guarding behavior of curlew sandpipers Calidrisfermginea at a stopover site in high arctic Siberia, suggesting that in this species pairs may be forrned before the birds reach their final nesting localities.

PETER FRODIN; FREDRIK HAAS; AKE LINDSTROM

289

Subducted oceanic crust as diamond hosts revealed by garnets of mantle xenoliths from Nyurbinskaya, Siberia  

E-print Network

Eclogite Craton Diamond Lithosphere formation The ~380 Ma Nyurbinskaya kimberlite pipe, Yakutia, Siberia of eclogitic and pyroxenitic mantle xenoliths sampled by kimberlites, they offer key constraints interaction with melt or fluids in mantle environments and during kimberlite transport (e.g., Pearson et al

Perfect, Ed

290

Physical characteristics of concentration fields of tropospheric bioaerosols in the South of Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology “Vector” and the Institute of Optics SB RAS are performing systematic study of tropospheric bioaerosols in the South of Western Siberia. The work summarizes the results of analysis of some physical characteristics of the data array on bioaerosol concentration obtained with an airplane laboratory at the altitudes of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2,

Alexander I. Borodulin; Alexander S. Safatov; Alexander N. Shabanov; Andrei A. Yarygin; Olga G. Khutorova; Boris D. Belan; Mikhail V. Panchenko

2005-01-01

291

The North Taymyr ice-marginal zone, Arctic Siberia—a preliminary overview and dating  

Microsoft Academic Search

The North Taymyr ice-marginal zone (NTZ) is a complex of glacial, glaciofluvial and glaciolacustrine deposits, laid down on the northwestern Taymyr Peninsula in northernmost Siberia, along the front of ice sheets primarily originating on the Kara Sea shelf. It was originally recognised from satellite radar images by Russian scientists; however, before the present study, it had not been investigated in

Helena Alexanderson; Christian Hjort; Per Möller; Oleg Antonov; Maksim Pavlov

2001-01-01

292

Natural, geographical, halogeochemical and soil features of Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils, grounds, groundwater and superficial water of the west Siberian flat plain, in its southern part in particular, contain\\u000a a great variety of salts of various compositions, such as chloride, sulphate and carbonate. Many researchers indicate that\\u000a there are favorable natural conditions for contemporary salinization of soils, rocks and water, including geological, climatic,\\u000a hydrological, geomorphological and biological.\\u000a \\u000a Soil salinization phenomena,

T. N. Elizarova; B. M. Klenov

293

East European Craton Margin Source for the Allochthonous Northern Terrane of Taimyr, Arctic Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Taimyr Peninsula, Arctic Siberia, comprises two allochthonous terranes, the Northern and Central terranes. The ultimate origin of these terranes remain controversial. Provenance investigations of detrital zircon populations (U-Th-Pb ion-microprobe analyses) were undertaken in order to determine geologic affinities and, thereby, the source of the Northern terrane. The Northern terrane comprises rhythmically interbedded Neoproterozoic to Cambrian (inferred from acritarchs) sandstones, siltstones, and pelites. These sediments are interpreted to represent turbidites formed on a continental slope. These grade into Ordovician-Devonian and early Carboniferous limestones and dolomites, reflecting the progression to a deeper water depositional environment. In the middle Carboniferous, the deposition of terrigenous sandstones, argillites, and coal indicates the proximity of land subjected to erosion and to lagoonal conditions of sedimentation. In addition, Carboniferous Uralian deformation resulted in regional greenschist and amphibolite facies metamorphism of the Northern terrane under moderate pressure and moderate- to high-temperature conditions. The change in sedimentary environment in conjunction with deformation, both of Carboniferous age, is thought to reflect the onset of Uralian orogenesis and the accretion of the Northern terrane to Siberia. Permian (264 Ma) post-collision granitic intrusions define the end of Uralian orogenesis in the northern regions. In the western Northern terrane these relationships are obscured due to contact metamorphism associated with Permo-Triassic (245 Ma) anorogenic plutonism. Detrital zircons from two greywacke samples of the easternmost Northern terrane indicate that late Neoproterozoic/Cambrian sediments contain rather limited age populations mostly between ca. 550 and 700 Ma, with pronounced cummulative frequency peaks in both samples at ca. 560 Ma. Such ages are not endemic to northern Siberia, confirming the allochthonous nature of the Northern terrane. Furthermore, 560 Ma ages are well known from subduction related granites intruding basement lithologies of the Pechora Basin, suggesting that latest Neoproterozoic/Cambrian sediments of the Northern terrane were derived from the erosion of the eastern margin of the European craton (Baltica). Uralian orogeny, suturing Baltica to Siberia, began to the south in the early Carboniferous and thereafter progressed northwards. Uralian orogenesis had ended in Taimyr by the late Carboniferous. Thus, the Northern terrane was 'accreted' to Siberia by the early Permian. In summary, the Northern terrane likely represents a sliver of Baltica proximal to the Pechora basin in the latest Neoproterozoic/Cambrian when the sediments were deposited; it was then sutured to Siberia during the collision between Baltica and Siberia in the late Carboniferous. This suturing was likely via dextral transpression, consistent with last-motion structural data of pre-Permian age.

Pease, V.

2001-12-01

294

Land Change in Russia since 2000  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agricultural reform has been an important anthropogenic change process shaping landscapes in European Russia since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most evident side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. While land abandonment as a result of the collapse of the Soviet Union is relatively well documented, few studies have investigated the unfolding process of abandonment that results from rural population declines. Russia’s population is projected to shrink by a staggering 29% by 2050 and population dynamics are predicted to play a significant role structuring rural landscapes across European Russia. While often treated as a unified whole with respect to agricultural reform, significant regional diversity exists in Russia. Official statistics at the rayon (county) level are typically skewed toward large-scale farming and farm data from important household productions are summarized into regional averages. In addition, data at sub-district level can often only be obtained by visiting rural administrators in person. Large scale official data thus need to be interpreted with caution. Here we present data collected during the summer of 2010 from representative settlements and enterprises in selected counties within the oblasts (states) of Kostroma and Samara. These field data will provide an initial overview of the economic and social state in modern rural western Russia. We will combine the field data with established socio-demographic observations as well as satellite observations at multiple scales to understand the effect of global change and to project future developments.

de Beurs, K.; Ioffe, G.; Nefedova, T.

2010-12-01

295

Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 158 km (98 miles) x 122 km (77 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: North approximately at top Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

296

Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC.

Size: 80 km (50 miles) x 100 km (62 miles) Location: 57.5 deg. North lat., 158.8 deg. East lon. Orientation: View toward the East Original Data Resolution: 30 meters (99 feet) Date Acquired: February 12, 2000

2000-01-01

297

Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. Size: 93.0 x 105.7 kilometers ( 57.7 x 65.6 miles) Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160.9 deg. East lon. Orientation: North toward the top Image Data: Shaded and colored SRTM elevation model Date Acquired: February 12, 2000 Image courtesy NASA/JPL/NIMA

2002-01-01

298

Integrated chronostratigraphy of Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary beds in the western Anabar region, northern Siberia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Carbonate-rich sedimentary rocks of the western Anabar region, northern Siberia, preserve an exceptional record of evolutionary and biogeochemical events near the Proterozoic/Cambrian boundary. Sedimentologically, the boundary succession can be divided into three sequences representing successive episodes of late transgressive to early highstand deposition; four parasequences are recognized in the sequence corresponding lithostratigraphically to the Manykal Formation. Small shelly fossils are abundant and include many taxa that also occur in standard sections of southeastern Siberia. Despite this coincidence of faunal elements, biostratigraphic correlations between the two regions have been controversial because numerous species that first appear at or immediately above the basal Tommotian boundary in southeastern sections have first appearances scattered through more than thirty metres of section in the western Anabar. Carbon- and Sr-isotopic data on petrographically and geochemically screened samples collected at one- to two-metre intervals in a section along the Kotuikan River, favour correlation of the Staraya Reckha Formation and most of the overlying Manykai Formation with sub-Tommotian carbonates in southeastern Siberia. In contrast, isotopic data suggest that the uppermost Manykai Formation and the basal 26 m of the unconformably overlying Medvezhya Formation may have no equivalent in the southeast; they appear to provide a sedimentary and palaeontological record of an evolutionarily significant time interval represented in southeastern Siberia only by the sub-Tommotian unconformity. Correlations with radiometrically dated horizons in the Olenek and Kharaulakh regions of northern Siberia suggest that this interval lasted approximately three to six million years, during which essentially all 'basal Tommotian' small shelly fossils evolved.

Kaufman, A. J.; Knoll, A. H.; Semikhatov, M. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Jacobsen, S. B.; Adams, W.

1996-01-01

299

Chinese Students in the Higher Educational Institutions of Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been an increase in the number of students from China studying in Russia, but still less than 2 percent of Chinese who study abroad do so in Russia. A third of these students would not encourage others to do so, on the grounds that educational conditions are not good and that they feel unwelcome in Russia. Most of these students…

Aref'ev, A. L.

2012-01-01

300

76 FR 15339 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

2011-03-21

301

76 FR 77015 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine Determination On...of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be likely...4279 (December 2011), entitled Solid Urea from Russia and Ukraine:...

2011-12-09

302

75 FR 74746 - Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-340-E and 340-H (Third Review)] Solid Urea From Russia and Ukraine AGENCY: United...concerning the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine...of the antidumping duty orders on solid urea from Russia and Ukraine would be...

2010-12-01

303

Seasonal variability as a source of uncertainty in the West Siberian regional CH4 flux upscaling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study compares seasonal and spatial variations in methane fluxes as sources of uncertainty in regional CH4 flux upscaling from the wetlands of West Siberia. The study examined variability in summertime CH4 emissions from boreal peatlands, with a focus on two subtaiga fen sites in the southern part of West Siberia (Novosibirskaya oblast). We measured CH4 flux, water table depth, air and peat temperature, pH and electric conductivity of peat water during three field campaigns in summer 2011 (9-12 July, 26-28 July and 20-21 August). Fluxes were measured with static chambers at sites chosen to represent two of the most widespread types of wetlands for this climatic zone: soligenous poor fens and topogenous fens. In both sites the water table level acts as the primary control on fluxes. For the poor fen site with good drainage, water table controls CH4 fluxes on the seasonal scale but not on a local spatial scale; for the fen site with weak drainage and microtopographic relief, the water table controls fluxes on the local spatial scale, but does not drive seasonal variations in the flux magnitude. This difference in hydrology shows the necessity of including detailed wetland type classification schemes into large-scale modeling efforts. From these three measurement periods, we estimated the relative seasonal variation in CH4 emissions as 8% for the fen site and 26% for the poor fen site. These results were compared to estimates of other sources of uncertainty (such as interannual variation and spatial heterogeneity) to show that quantifying seasonal variability is less critical than these other variations for an improved estimate of regional CH4 fluxes. This research demonstrates and ranks the challenges in upscaling measured wetland CH4 fluxes across West Siberia and can guide future field campaigns.

Sabrekov, A. F.; Runkle, B. R. K.; Glagolev, M. V.; Kleptsova, I. E.; Maksyutov, S. S.

2014-04-01

304

Ionospheric effects of sudden stratospheric warmings in eastern Siberia region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionospheric effects observed in Russia's Asia region during sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs) in the winters 2008/2009 and 2012/2013 corresponding to both extreme solar minimum and moderate solar maximum conditions have been examined. To detect the ionospheric effects which must have been induced by the SSWs, we have carried out a joint analysis of total electron content (TEC) global ionospheric maps (GIM), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder, EOS Aura) measurements of vertical temperature profiles, as well as NCEP/NCAR and UKMO Reanalysis data. It has been revealed for the first time that during strong SSWs the amplitude of diurnal variation of TEC decreases nearly by half in the mid-latitude ionosphere. Besides, the intensity of TEC deviations from the background level increases during SSWs. It has also revealed that during SSW peak the midday TEC maximum considerably decreases, and the night/morning TEC increases compared to quiet days. The pattern of TEC response to SSW is shown to be identical for both quiet and disturbed geophysical conditions.

Polyakova, A. S.; Chernigovskaya, M. A.; Perevalova, N. P.

2014-12-01

305

The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia’s Mortality Crisis  

PubMed Central

Political and economic transition is often blamed for Russia’s 40% surge in deaths between 1990 and 1994. Highlighting that increases in mortality occurred primarily among alcohol-related causes and among working-age men (the heaviest drinkers), this paper investigates an alternative explanation: the demise of the 1985–1988 Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign. Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning 1978–2000, we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign’s end explains a large share of the mortality crisis – implying that Russia’s transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. PMID:24224067

Bhattacharya, Jay; Gathmann, Christina

2013-01-01

306

Mapping Russia: Geographic and Cultural Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For people living in the 20th century, Russia has been associated with images of communism, the Bolshevik Revolution, totalitarian regimes and leaders, and the fears and stereotypes of the Cold War era. The dissolution of the Soviet Union, the end of the Cold War, and the liberal revolutions of the 1980s-1990s have provided an opportunity to…

Khachikian, Arthur

307

Lord and Peasant in Russia: From  

E-print Network

Russian history without un- derstanding serfdom--the peasant-lord relationship that shaped Russia and center in the study of Russian history. As a reviewer for the Economist wrote,"Mr. Blum has written of the emancipation of the Russian serfs. As one re- viewer remarked, "No better book on the subject exists; it is in

Landweber, Laura

308

The "Ride for Russia" Tree Lichen Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The prevalence of nine indicator lichens found on trees in Northern Europe and Western Russia was used for monitoring air quality. The 4200 mile route of the survey went through eight countries. Surveys were carried out in cities, towns, countryside and forests, and along motorways. The author has conducted tree lichen surveys with pupils from…

Young, Simon

2013-01-01

309

Child Care in Russia: In Transition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the advent of "perestroika" and "glasnost," Russian childcare and education underwent a transitional period in practice and theory. Contrasting impressions from an earlier visit under the Communist regime, this book describes the experiences of Jean Ispa in her travels to Russia, observing children in six child care centers. Interviews are…

Ispa, Jean

310

Laws for Sale: Evidence from Russia  

E-print Network

adversely affects small business growth and the tax capacity of the state; 4) there is no evidence regulatory capture affect growth? We construct measures of the political power of firms and regional that capture affects aggregate growth. Key words: Regulatory capture, institutional subversion, Russia

311

Development of Constitutionalism and Federalism in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building up a rule of law is one of the objectives of transition. This objective, however, cannot be separated from the other main objectives, namely a market economy and democracy. These have all been developed simultaneously in Russia and the failure of one task affects the others.\\

S. Nysten-Haarla

2000-01-01

312

Environmental Education for Sustainable Development in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The conceptual underpinning and the organizational structure of the existing system of higher environmental education in Russia are analysed. The system, embracing 129 universities, has been created in the last 10 years. At present there is a shift from general environmental education to education for sustainable development. The new system is…

Kasimov, N. S.; Malkhazova, S. M.; Romanova, E. P.

2005-01-01

313

Education and Society in the New Russia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays examines the changes that have occurred in Russia since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. A historical perspective is used to show that many of the changes were underway during perestroika and that post-Soviet developments are an extension of those changes. The book is divided into four sections. Section 1, "The Soviet…

Jones, Anthony, Ed.

314

Translating queer texts in Soviet Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article contributes to recent scholarship on censorship and translation by exploring the phenomenon of productive censorship, or the artful evasion of censorship restrictions by authors and their readers, in the context of Soviet Russia. Specifically, the work of three homosexual-identified literary translators – Mikhail Kuzmin, Ivan Likhachev and Gennadii Shmakov – is examined in order to demonstrate how, under

Brian James Baer

2011-01-01

315

Education in the Fate of Today's Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education in the fate of today's Russia was the topic of a scientific seminar titled "Philosophy, Education, and Society," held in the summer of 2007 in the city of Gagra by the editors of the journals "Voprosy filosofii" and "Pedagogika," the Moscow N.E. Bauman State Technical University, and the Russian Academy of Education. Philosophers,…

Borisenkov, V.P.; Kraevskii, V.V.; Valeev, G.Kh.; Avtonomova, N.S.; Evdokimov, A.K.; Shchedrina, T.G.; Belomestnova, N.V.; Beliaeva, M.A.; Shimina, A.N.; Karmanchikov, A.J.; Korol, A.D.; Varnavskaia, N.Ia.; Berezhnova, E.V.; Daniliuk, A.Ia.; Anua, R.G.; Sidorina, T.Iu.; Tarba, I.D.; Arlamov, A.A.

2008-01-01

316

Russia's role in the Kyoto Protocol  

E-print Network

As a result of the allocation of emissions reductions, and the differential willingness of countries to ratify, it turns out that Russia is a central player in the Kyoto Protocol. With the U.S. out and Japan and the EU ...

Bernard, Alain.

317

The Drug Trade in Contemporary Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russia has had one of the fastest growing drug problems in the world in the past five years. With its limited border controls and large illicit migration, it is now integrated into the global drug market with links to the synthetic drug markets of Western Europe and the Far East, as well as the booming heroin trade from Central Asia.

Louise Shelley

2006-01-01

318

Basalt weathering in Central Siberia under permafrost conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical weathering of basalts in the Putorana Plateau, Central Siberia, has been studied by combining chemical and mineralogical analysis of solids (rocks, soils, river sediments, and suspended matter) and fluid solution chemistry. Altogether, 70 large and small rivers, 30 soil pore waters and groundwaters and over 30 solids were sampled during July to August 2001. Analysis of multiannual data on discharge and chemical composition of several rivers of the region available from the Russian Hydrological Survey allowed rigorous estimation of mean annual major element concentrations, and dissolved and suspended fluxes associated with basalt weathering. For the rivers Tembenchi and Taimura that drain monolithologic basic volcanic rocks, the mean multiannual flux of total dissolved cations (TDS_c = Ca + Mg + Na + K) corrected for atmospheric input is 5.7 ± 0.5 t/km 2/yr. For the largest river Nizhniya Tunguska—draining essentially basic rocks—the TDS_c is 6.1 ± 1.5 t/km 2/yr. The overall CO 2 consumption flux associated with basalt weathering in the studied region (˜700,000 km 2) achieves 0.08 × 10 12 mol/yr, which represents only 2.6% of the total CO 2 consumption associated with basalt weathering at the Earth's surface. The fluxes of suspended matter were estimated as 3.1 ± 0.5, 9.0 ± 0.8, and 6.5 ± 2.0 t/km 2/yr for rivers Taimura, Eratchimo, and Nizhniya Tunguska, respectively. Based on chemical analyses of river solutes and suspended matter, the relative dissolved versus particulate annual transport of major components is C inorg ? C org > Na + K > Ca > Mg > Si > Fe ? Mn ? Ti ? Al which reflects the usual order of element mobility during weathering. According to chemical and mineralogical soil and sediment analyses, alteration of basalt consists of (1) replacement of the original basaltic glass by Si-Al-Fe rich amorphous material, (2) mechanical desegregation and grinding of parent rocks, leading to accumulation of "primary" hydrothermal trioctahedral smectite, and (3) transformation of these trioctahedral (oxy)smectites and mixed-layer chlorite-smectite, into secondary dioctahedral smectite accompanied by removal of Ca, Mg, and Fe, and enrichment in Al. No vertical chemical differentiation of fluid and solid phases within the soil profile was identified. All sampled soil pore waters and groundwaters were found to be close to equilibrium with respect to chalcedony, gibbsite, halloysite, and allophanes, but strongly supersaturated with respect to goethite, nontronite, and montmorillonite. Over the annual cycle, the contribution of atmospheric precipitation, permafrost melting, underground reservoirs, litter degradation, and rock and soil mineral weathering for the overall TDS_c transport in the largest river of the region (Nizhniya Tunguska) is 9.3 ± 3, 10 ± 5, 10.5 ± 5, 25 ± 20, and 45 ± 30%, respectively. In the summertime, direct contribution of rocks and soil mineral weathering via solid/fluid interaction does not exceed 20%. The main unknown factors of element mobilization from basalt to the river is litter degradation in the upper soil horizon and parameters of element turnover in the vegetation.

Pokrovsky, O. S.; Schott, J.; Kudryavtzev, D. I.; Dupré, B.

2005-12-01

319

Greening of the Arctic: Partitioning Warming Versus Reindeer Herbivory for Willow Populations on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice, tundra vegetation and herbivores remain poorly understood. Recently we revealed a 50-year growth response over a >100,000 km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for willow (Salix lanata), one the most abundant shrub genera at and north of the continental treeline and an important source of reindeer forage in spring, summer and autumn. We demonstrated that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate was important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation was especially responsive to temperature in early summer. However, the role of herbivory was not addressed. The present data set explores the relationship between long-term herbivory and growth trends of shrubs experiencing warming in recent decades. Semi-domestic reindeer managed by indigenous Nenets nomads occur at high densities in summer on exposed ridge tops and graze heavily on prostrate and low erect willows. A few meters away in moderately sloped landslides tall willows remain virtually ungrazed as their canopies have grown above the browse line of ca. 180 cm. Here we detail the responses of neighboring shrub populations with and without intensive herbivory yet subject to the same decadal warming trend.

Forbes, B. C.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

2012-12-01

320

Palynofacies in upper cretaceous sediments of northern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different palynomorph groups (spores and pollen of terrestrial plants, dinoflagellate cysts, prasinophytes, acritarchs, Zygnemataceae algae, and others) have been thoroughly studied to define major patterns in their distribution depending on the impact of different environmental factors and to establish their paleoecological characteristics. The comparative analysis of palynomorph assemblages from coeval Cenomanian-Coniacian sediments of the Ust’-Yenisei area, Berezovskaya 23k, Yuzhno-Russkaya 113, Leningradskaya-1 boreholes and Santonian-Campanian sequences of the Ust’-Yenisei, Khatanga and Polar Urals regions reveals transgressive-regressive cycles, which are best evident in coastal sections and smoothed in their marine counterparts. The biofacies and compositions of palynomorphs form the regular succession from the periphery toward central parts of the West Siberian basin. The facies successions in Santonian-Campanian sections of the eastern and western parts of the basin are inconsistent with each other, which may be explained by influence of both the West Siberian and Russian seas on sedimentation in its western areas.

Lebedeva, N. K.

2010-10-01

321

Mesozoic tectonics of the Arctic: New constraints from provenance studies,Taimyr, Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the tectonic development of the Arctic Ocean is important for understanding global tectonics and the framework of petroleum and mineral resources in the Arctic area. The Eurasia and Amerasia basins are the principal physiographic domains of the Arctic Ocean. The Eurasia Basin is known to be the result of slow seafloor spreading; the origin of the Amerasia Basin however remains controversial. Lack of information on the timing, structure, and geochemistry of geological units around the Amerasia Basin limits our ability to understand its development. The Taimyr Peninsula where Mesozoic deformation is well-developed provides a natural laboratory to investigate the tectonic development of the Amerasia Basin. Provenance studies of Taimyr constrain the source areas of Mesozoic sediments in the region and thus identify affinities between them. Detrital zircons from six samples of Triassic and Jurassic sandstone from Southern Taimyr were dated using LA-ICP-MS to test existing models for the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Triassic samples present great similarity in detrital zircon population with Triassic sandstone from the paleo-Taimyr river system, including Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands. These samples all contain Permo-Triassic (236 - 250 Ma), Permo-Carboniferous (260 - 330 Ma), Devonian (340 - 390 Ma) late Precambrian-Silurian (420 - 580 Ma) and Neoproterozoic (620 - 1000 Ma) zircons. These detrital zircon ages suggest Triassic sediments in these locations may have been derived from Siberia Trap, Taimyr and the Ural Mountains of Arctic Russia. It is therefore likely that Taimyr, Chukotka, the Wrangel Island and the New Siberian Islands which are separated at present were close to each other or belonged to the same large drainage system before the opening of the Amerasia Basin. Two Middle Jurassic samples and two Upper Jurassic samples from Taimyr have dominant Permo-Triassic peaks (246 - 260 Ma) suggesting a proximal source from Siberia Trap related-magmatism in Taimyr. The Jurassic samples contain some older grains: Paleoproterozoicages, Neoproterozoic-Cambrian ages, Silurian ages and Carboniferous grains, reflecting input from recycled older strata in Taimyr. Absence of Jurassic ages and no significant Precambrian grains distinguish Taimyr Jurassic sandstone from Jurassic to Cretaceous foreland basin deposits of the Verkhoyansk fold belt on the New Siberian Islands and in Chukotka. This illustrates that there was no volcanism during the deposition of the Middle and Upper Jurassic sandstones in southern Taimyr and these successions were probably deposited on a passive margin. In the Jurassic, detritus shed from Taimyr no longer reached to Chukotka and the New Siberian Islands. This change is likely due to the opening of the Amerasia Basin during Jurassic time.

Zhang, X.; Pease, V.

2013-12-01

322

DISTRIBUTION AND COLOR VARIATION OF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) museum specimens in Moscow (73) and St. Petersburg (132) were divided into four color classes (gray, light gray, white gray, and white) and four longitudinal belts representing major physiographic regions of northern Russia. Gray variants predominated in the west and central regions. White birds were most common in extreme eastern Siberia, but were occasionally found even west

DAVID H. ELLIS; CATHERINE H. ELLIS; GREY W. PENDLETON; ANDREI V. PANTELEYEV; IRENA V. REBROVA; YURI M. MARKIN

1992-01-01

323

Flooding of the Taz, Pur, and Yenisey Rivers, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each spring and summer, rivers across Siberia experience flooding as the waters in the south begin to melt and run before the ice has retreated from the northern limits. The ice causes jams which are sometimes loosened up using explosives. This pair of MODIS images from June 18, 2002, shows flooding on the Pur (left), Taz (center), and Yenisey (right) Rivers in central Siberia. In the false-color image, ice and snow are red, clouds are white, water is black, and vegetation is green. Bare soil is brown. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

324

Methane emissions from lakes in West Siberian wetlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wetland lakes are less studied component in the methane emission inventories. We investigated methane fluxes in lakes situated in wetlands in most eco-regions of West Siberia including taiga (16 sites overall in sub-taiga, southern taiga, middle taiga, northern taiga), forest-steppe (1 site), forested tundra (1 site) and tundra (5 sites). Flux measurements were made during summer and autumn of 2007 and summer of 2008 and 2009. We used static chambers with base size of 40x40 cm and height of 30 cm and 40 cm floated on water surface. Each observation included collecting 4 samples in a 7-10 minute time step. Methane concentrations in samples were determined with the GC-FID. Concentration trend during exposure and fluxes were calculated with linear regression of concentration versus time. Environmental factors (pH, EC and temperature profile) were measured at each site. Mean fluxes by eco-region and corresponding statistics were obtained. In the following list, numbers in parenthesis are in the given order: 1st quartile/median/3rd quartile: forest-steppe - 98.0/125.6/146.0; sub-taiga - 62.0/84.6/170.3; southern taiga - 2.4/3.8/12.5; middle taiga - 0.1/0.4/1.4; northern taiga - 0.01/0.1/1.2; forested tundra - 0.3/0.6/1.4; tundra - 0.3/0.6/1.1 mgC-CH4m-2h-1. Interestingly, tundra fluxes are same as in the forested tundra to the south, and forest-steppe fluxes are much higher than on the other areas. Observed emission rates vary along with a combination of two factors: eco-region and pH. Probably, eco-region type connects with temperature, and pH connects with conditions of mineral supply. Emission rate dependence on pH has maximum around with pH = 5.2-5.4. Fluxes of CH4 from the lakes in the forest-steppe and sub-taiga are higher than in surrounding wetlands, while lake fluxes in other climate regions of West Siberia are comparable with those from the corresponding wetlands. Our data concur with previous report by (Repo et al, 2007), who observed fluxes at two sites in middle taiga and forested tundra. References: Repo M.E., et al, Release of CO2 and CH4 from small wetland lakes in western Siberia, Tellus, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0889.2007.00301, 2007.

Kazantsev, Vladimir; Glagolev, Mihail; Golubyatnikov, Leonid; Maksutov, Shamil

2010-05-01

325

A lacustrine pollen record from near altitudinal forest limit, Upper Kolyma Region, northeastern Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sediment core that spans the last c. 15 000 yr BP was raised from Elgennya Lake (62°05'N 149°00'E, 1040 m) which is located near the altitudinal forest limit in the western Annachag Mountains of the Upper Kolyma region, northeastern Siberia. Palynological data indicate the presence of a relatively unpro ductive herb-Salix tundra during full-glacial times. Although Betula shrubs first

Patricia M. Anderson; Anatoly V. Lozhkin; Berta V. Belaya; Olga Yu. Glushkova; Linda B. Brubaker

1997-01-01

326

Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June 2006. It then lay exposed on a point-bar surface until recovery the following May. AMS dating of

Daniel C. Fisher; Alexei N. Tikhonov; Pavel A. Kosintsev; Adam N. Rountrey; Bernard Buigues; Johannes van der Plicht

2012-01-01

327

An arctic fox rabies virus strain as the cause of human rabies in Russian Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  ?A case of human rabies in the arctic zone of Siberia is described. The victim was bitten by a wolf, but characterization\\u000a of the isolate by monoclonal antibodies showed that it was an arctic fox virus strain. This discovery reaffirmed the value\\u000a of strain typing rabies virus isolates in regions where this has not been done already: such characterization pertains

I. V. Kuzmin

1999-01-01

328

Carbon budget of oligotrophic mire sites in the Southern Taiga of Western Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a long-term (1999–2007) investigation of vegetation productivity and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from the surface of an oligotrophic mire in southern taiga in Western Siberia are presented. The studied ecosystems\\u000a include pine—shrub—sphagnum (PSS) community, a similar community with oppressed (low) tree stand (LPSS), and sedge—sphagnum\\u000a fen (SSF). Net primary production for PSS, LPSS and SSF are equal

Eugenia A. Golovatskaya; Egor A. Dyukarev

2009-01-01

329

Dissolved Organic Carbon in Upland Forested Watersheds Underlain by Continuous Permafrost in Central Siberia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroclimatic variability and plant species ecology cause mosaics in forested watersheds in permafrost zones. Measurements\\u000a of organic matter accumulation, stock of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), DOC concentrations in litter leachates, subsurface\\u000a flow, stream and seasonal and annual export were made in two contrasting slopes and valleys in the northern taiga of Central\\u000a Siberia. Increased organic carbon accumulation in litter was

A. S. Prokushkin; I. V. Gavrilenko; A. P. Abaimov; S. G. Prokushkin; A. V. Samusenko

2006-01-01

330

Seismic Investigation of El'gygytgyn Lake, Chukotka (NE Siberia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lake El'gygytgyn is a 3.6 Mio years old crater lake located in Central Chukotka, NE Russia, with a water depth of 170 m and a diameter of 12 km. Not having been glaciated ever since, it would reveal a paleoclimatic record unique in the Arctic realm. During the last years it has become a major focus of multi-disciplinary international research as a target for deep drilling in the near future. During expeditions in 2000 and 2003, reflection and refraction seismic combined with high resolution 3.5 kHz echosound profiling was carried out. Raytracing of the sonobuoy refraction data reveals a four-layer model of the lake that is interpreted as follows: (a) upper sedimentary unit, consisting of lacustrine muds with velocities of around 1500 m/s and a thickness of about 170 m, (b) lower sedimentary unit, consisting of lacustrine muds with velocities of around 1650 m/s and a thickness between 80 and 200 m, (c) fallback breccia with velocities of about 3000 m/s and a thickness between 50 and 300 m and (d) brecciated bedrock with velocities of > 3600 m/s. The brecciated bedrock forms a central uplift structure which is almost levelled by the overlying fallback breccia. The lower sedimentary unit drapes the smooth topography of the fallback breccia, whereas the upper sedimentary unit is almost flat. Small faults are associated with the central uplift structure and have been active until recently. Reflection seismic data indicate that the upper sedimentary unit is characterized by well stratified sediments, whereas the lower sedimentary unit is more massive. The upper sedimentary unit is locally intercalated with debris flows to a depth of at least 160 m subbottom. Debris flows are more common in the western part of the lake and along the slopes. The 3.5 kHz profiling allows a detailed mapping of the debris flow distribution. At the proposed drillsite near the centre of the lake, the sediments appear to be well stratified and largely unaffected by debris flows and promises a almost undisturbed paleoclimatic record reaching back one million years prior to the first major glaciation of the Northern Hemisphere. A second possible drillsite is located more proximal to the western shoreline and is, therefore, more intercalated with debris flows.

Gebhardt, C.; Niessen, F.; Kopsch, C.; Wagner, B.

2004-12-01

331

Fire Impact on Carbon Storage and Emissions in Ecosystems of the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests contribute considerably to global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate much carbon and are sensible to climatic changes. Fires cover annually millions ha of boreal forests, of which the biggest part is in Siberia. Emissions released from biomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use affect the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state and carbon emission. In the Altai-Sayan ecoregion found in the south of Siberia and more than a thousand of fires occur annually. We calculated carbon emissions from fires for this region using data on burned biomass. The data was determined by estimating pre- and post-fire fuel biomass using our experimental data obtained in the course of large-scale experiments on fire behavior modeling in various types of Siberian forest. Calculations were made taking account of fire type which determines the contribution of different fuel types to the overall carbon emission, and the fire severity. Maximum emissions from surface fires are observed in May that corresponds to the month with the largest area burned. Because fires occur mainly in spring and spread as running fires, the contribution of duff in carbon emissions is from 15 to 23%. Crown fires occurring in protected areas increase carbon emissions by 4-9%. Release of carbon into the atmosphere from the combustion of biomass constitutes 11% of the total stock of above-ground organic matter in the burned area. Keywords: wildfires, boreal forests, carbon emissions, Siberia

Ivanova, Galina; Ivanov, Valery; Kukavskaya, Elena; Ponomarev, Evgeny

2013-04-01

332

Variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field in Siberia during the last 13000 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The thermal magnetization of the samples from the archaeological sites in Siberia is studied. The magnetization of the collected samples was studied using the authors' modification of the Thellier method amended by the magnetic anisotropy and chemical alterations. Resulting from the study of the burned material from the Kazachka site, the time series of the geomagnetic field intensity in Siberia spanning the time interval from 10000 to 1000 B.C. is obtained. These data are unique in terms of the duration and representativeness. For the first time, the main variation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field is traced by studying the magnetization of the samples from a single archeological site. The pattern of the variations in the intensity of the geomagnetic field in Siberia from 11000 B.C. to 2000 A.D., which is reconstructed from the data of the Kazachka, Ust-Karenga, and some other sites of Cis-Baikalia, indicates that the characteristics time of the long-period oscillation in the intensity of the geomagnetic field is about 8000 years. It also suggests the existence of rapid variations superimposed on the main oscillation.

Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.; Pilipenko, O. V.

2015-01-01

333

The Whisperers: Private Life in Stalin's Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Researchers are only now beginning to uncover important family archives that tell of life in Russia during the reign of Joseph Stalin. One team from the Memorial Society in St. Petersburg was able to successfully recover family archives that included letters, personal papers, memoirs, and photographs. Led by Orlando Figes, this team of researchers has created this website to offer the public a selection from these powerful documents. The materials on the site are divided into sections such as "Family Histories", "Interviews", "Sound", and "Photographs". The "Interviews" area contains dozens of interview transcripts, but the majority of them are offered only in Russian. Fortunately, visitors can click on the "English" tab to review extracts from four of the interviews in English. Moving on, the "Photographs" area contains photos culled from the various family histories. Finally, the "Family Histories" area contains brief profiles of each family's history and their experiences in Stalin's Russia.

Figes, Orlando

334

Food legislation and its harmonization in Russia.  

PubMed

Bringing Russian legislation into compliance with international norms and standards is necessary after its accession to the World Trade Organization. Harmonization of food legislation and of sanitary and phytosanitary measures are among the problems that had to be solved first. Many Russian food and trade regulations had been changed or are still in the process of being reformed, largely owing to a policy of integration pursued by the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. However, as a member of the Eurasian Economic Community, Russia is also engaged not only in harmonization throughout the Customs Union but also Kirgizstan and Tajikistan, and Armenia, Moldova and Ukraine as observer countries. Russia also continues to coordinate policy reforms closely with the European Union, its primary trade partner, ultimately bringing Russian food and sanitary norms closer to international standards (e.g. Codex). Today, all participants in the Russian food production chain, processing and sale of foods have to deal with growing numbers of security standards. Many organizations are certified under several schemes, which leads to unnecessary costs. Harmonization of standards has helped promote solutions in the domestic market as well as import-export of foods and raw materials for production. Priorities have included food safety for human health, consumer protection, removal of hazardous and/or adulterated products and increased competition within the domestic food market as well as mutual recognition of certification in bilateral and multilateral (inter)national agreements. PMID:23633268

Shamtsyan, Mark

2014-08-01

335

WEST STREET CASTLE SQUARE  

E-print Network

SHEFFIELD STATION GRANVILLE ROAD COMMERCIAL STREET CITY HALL WEST STREET CATHEDRAL CASTLE SQUARE HARMER LANE PONDSTREET POND HILL PONDSTREET FLATSTREET COMMERCIAL ST HIGHSTREET HIGH STREET WEST STREET GRANVILLE ROAD SHREW SBURYROAD ST. MARY'S ROAD SUFFOLKROAD CROSSTURNERSTREET M ATILDA

Williamson, Mike P.

336

Hydrodaynamic - Statistical Forecast Method To 36-48h Ahead Of Storm Wind And Tornadoes Over The Territory Of Europe And Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Development of successful method of forecast of storm winds, including squalls and tornadoes, that often result in human and material losses, could allow one to take proper measures against destruction of buildings and to protect people. Well-in-advance successful forecast (from 12 hours to 48 hour) makes possible to reduce the losses. Prediction of the phenomena involved is a very difficult problem for synoptic till recently. The existing graphic and calculation methods still depend on subjective decision of an operator. Nowadays in Russia there is no hydrodynamic model for forecast of the maximal wind velocity V> 25m/c, hence the main tools of objective forecast are statistical methods using the dependence of the phenomena involved on a number of atmospheric parameters (predictors). . Statistical decisive rule of the alternative and probability forecast of these events was obtained in accordance with the concept of "perfect prognosis" using the data of objective analysis. For this purpose the different teaching samples of present and absent of this storm wind and rainfalls were automatically arranged that include the values of forty physically substantiated potential predictors. Then the empirical statistical method was used that involved diagonalization of the mean correlation matrix R of the predictors and extraction of diagonal blocks of strongly correlated predictors. Thus for these phenomena the most informative predictors were selected without loosing information. The statistical decisive rules for diagnosis and prognosis of the phenomena involved U(X) were calculated for choosing informative vector-predictor. We used the criterion of distance of Mahalanobis and criterion of minimum of entropy by Vapnik-Chervonenkis for the selection predictors. Successful development of hydrodynamic models for short-term forecast and improvement of 36-48h forecasts of pressure, temperature and others parameters allowed us to use the prognostic fields of those models for calculations of the discriminant functions in the nodes of the grid 75x75km and the values of probabilities P of dangerous wind and thus to get fully automated forecasts. . In order to apply the alternative forecast to European part of Russia and Europe the author proposes the empirical threshold values specified for this phenomenon and advance period 36 hours. According to the Pirsey-Obukhov criterion (T), the success of this hydrometeorological-statistical method of forecast of storm wind and tornadoes to 36 -48 hours ahead in the warm season for the territory of Europe part of Russia and Siberia is T = 1-a-b=0,54-0,78 after independent and author experiments during the period 2004-2009 years. A lot of examples of very successful forecasts are submitted at this report for the territory of Europe and Russia. The same decisive rules were applied to the forecast of these phenomena during cold period in 2009-2010 years too. On the first month of 2010 a lot of cases of storm wind with heavy snowfall were observed and were forecasting over the territory of France, Italy and Germany.

Perekhodtseva, Elvira V.

2010-05-01

337

America's Historic West.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

Beardsley, Donna A.

338

Somatic changes in primary liver cancer in Russia: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Primary liver cancer (PLC) is a major public health concern worldwide, ranking third among the causes of death from cancer. Molecular pathogenesis of PLC is known to be especially sensitive to ethno-environmental variations that modulate mutation spectra in tumours. Despite a high prevalence of chronic liver diseases, the molecular epidemiology of PLC is still poorly known in Russia. To characterize the major genetic features of liver tumours in Russian populations, we conducted a pilot study on 34 PLC cases (28 hepatocellular, two cholangiocellular, and four mixed cases) among patients attending the Radiology and Roentgenology Hospital in Saint Petersburg. Point mutations were searched in 9 genes that are commonly altered in PLC, viz. TP53, CTNNB1, AXIN1, H/K/N-RAS, BRAF, PTEN, and NFE2L2. The genes TP53 and AXIN1 were mutated in 16% and 10% of the cases, respectively, whereas mutations of ?-catenin were present in only 7% of samples, an unusual situation for Europe but common in East Asia. No R249S mutation indicative of exposure to aflatoxin B1 was detected in TP53. A single case harboured an NFE2L2 mutation. The loss of chromosome 18q was associated with early onset of tumours (mean 50 vs 62yrs, p=0.0252) and with the patient's place of birth in Caucasus or Siberia. A lack of any risk factor was noted in 47% of the patients, whereas only 23% of the patients were infected either by hepatitis virus B or C. An extension of the present cohort as well as further molecular studies are now warranted in order to understand the processes governing liver carcinogenesis affecting Russian populations. PMID:23830926

Kalinina, Olga; Marchio, Agnès; Urbanskii, Aleksandr I; Tarkova, Aleksandra B; Rebbani, Khadija; Granov, Dmitri A; Dejean, Anne; Generalov, Mikhail I; Pineau, Pascal

2013-08-15

339

Y-Chromosome distribution within the geo-linguistic landscape of northwestern Russia  

PubMed Central

Populations of northeastern Europe and the Uralic mountain range are found in close geographic proximity, but they have been subject to different demographic histories. The current study attempts to better understand the genetic paternal relationships of ethnic groups residing in these regions. We have performed high-resolution haplotyping of 236 Y-chromosomes from populations in northwestern Russia and the Uralic mountains, and compared them to relevant previously published data. Haplotype variation and age estimation analyses using 15 Y-STR loci were conducted for samples within the N1b, N1c1 and R1a1 single-nucleotide polymorphism backgrounds. Our results suggest that although most genetic relationships throughout Eurasia are dependent on geographic proximity, members of the Uralic and Slavic linguistic families and subfamilies, yield significant correlations at both levels of comparison making it difficult to denote either linguistics or geographic proximity as the basis for their genetic substrata. Expansion times for haplogroup R1a1 date approximately to 18?000 YBP, and age estimates along with Network topology of populations found at opposite poles of its range (Eastern Europe and South Asia) indicate that two separate haplotypic foci exist within this haplogroup. Data based on haplogroup N1b challenge earlier findings and suggest that the mutation may have occurred in the Uralic range rather than in Siberia and much earlier than has been proposed (12.9±4.1 instead of 5.2±2.7 kya). In addition, age and variance estimates for haplogroup N1c1 suggest that populations from the western Urals may have been genetically influenced by a dispersal from northeastern Europe (eg, eastern Slavs) rather than the converse. PMID:19259129

Mirabal, Sheyla; Regueiro, Maria; Cadenas, Alicia M; Cavalli-Sforza, L Luca; Underhill, Peter A; Verbenko, Dmitry A; Limborska, Svetlana A; Herrera, Rene J

2009-01-01

340

The surface energy balance and its drivers in a boreal peatland fen of northwestern Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal peatland energy balances using the eddy covariance technique have previously been made in Alaska, Canada, Scandinavia, and Western Siberia, but not in the European portion of the Russian Federation. European Russia contains approximately 200,000 km2 of peatlands and has a boreal (subarctic), continental climate influencing the region's energy balance. To help fill this research gap, the surface energy balance was determined for a boreal peatland fen in the Komi Republic of Russia for an 11-month period in 2008-2009 using the eddy covariance method. The total measurement period's cumulative energy balance closure rate was 86%, with higher closure during the critical summer growing season. Similar to other boreal peatland sites, the mid-summer shortwave radiation demonstrated albedo between 0.13 and 0.19 as calculated on a cumulative monthly basis, whereas monthly albedo was >0.9 during the months with greatest snow (January, February 2009). Mid-summer Bowen ratios averaged 0.20-0.25 on a cumulative basis, with monthly averaged mid-day values in the range 0.35-0.53 during the growing season. Latent energy (LE) fluxes exceeded 70% of net radiation and 60% of potential evapotranspiration. During the study period, total evapotranspiration (406 mm) was slightly greater than rainfall (389 mm), with later snowfalls creating excess moisture in the atmospheric water budget. These characteristics together point to a peatland whose energy balance behavior is generally consistent with data from other boreal fens. The LE fluxes were dominantly controlled by net radiation, with less canopy resistance than at other northern fens and a lighter role for vapor pressure deficit to play in the energy balance. The aerodynamic and canopy conductance terms were of similar magnitude, both through the season and through any given diurnal cycle. The consequently high decoupling coefficient (0.65 ± 0.16 in the growing season) allows further modeling of fens in this region with reduced effects from the uncertainties of parameterizing surface conductance terms and their responses to water table and vapor pressure deficit changes. The Priestley-Taylor method provides a reasonable approach to modeling evapotranspiration, given some assumptions about the site's energy balance closure. This understanding of the local drivers on the energy and water budgets has important implications for peatland ecology and growth, regional carbon dynamics, and downstream hydrology.

Runkle, B. R. K.; Wille, C.; Gažovi?, M.; Wilmking, M.; Kutzbach, L.

2014-04-01

341

Spatial and temporal changes of chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins (PCDDs\\/PCDFs) and brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Northern Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents for the first time temporal changes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Russian human breast milk samples. Concentrations of OCPs and PCBs in samples from three locations in the North West of Russia in 2000–2002 (n=42), were compared to corresponding levels measured in 1993–1996 (n=58). In addition brominated flame retardants (BFRs), consisting of polybrominated

A. Polder; G. W. Gabrielsen; J. Ø. Odland; T. N. Savinova; K. B. Løken; J. U. Skaare

2008-01-01

342

15 CFR 744.10 - Restrictions on certain entities in Russia.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. 744.10 Section 744.10 Commerce...10 Restrictions on certain entities in Russia. (a) General prohibition. Certain entities in Russia are included in Supplement No. 4...

2010-01-01

343

77 FR 21527 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to Notice of Opportunity To Request Administrative Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [A-821-811] Ammonium Nitrate From Russia: Correction to...orders and inadvertently omitted Ammonium Nitrate from Russia, POR 5/2/2011-3...a correction to include the Ammonium Nitrate from Russia administrative...

2012-04-10

344

Three-dimensional structure of lateral heterogeneities in P velocities in the upper mantle of the southern margin of Siberia and its preliminary geodynamic interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional model of lateral variations in P wave velocities in the upper mantle of the southern margin of Siberia has been obtained using more than 6000 teleseismic arrival times registered at stations in Siberia and Kazakhstan. The method was based on triangular block parameterization and allows a correlation between output information and the density of input information. The inversion

I. Yu. Kulakov; S. A. Tychkov; S. I. Keselman

1995-01-01

345

Abstract Beringia, including Alaska and North-Eastern Siberia, has long been a focal point for biogeographical research in a wide range of plant and animal taxa.  

E-print Network

173 Abstract Beringia, including Alaska and North-Eastern Siberia, has long been a focal point in Beringia during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) is a major but unanswered question in Quaternary science. We. Beringia, including Alaska and North-Eastern Siberia, has long been a focal point for biogeographical

Taylor, Lee

346

A Short Assessment of Select Remediation Issues at the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia  

SciTech Connect

At the invitation of the National Academies, Roy Gephart traveled to Russia with an eight-member U.S. team during June, 2008 to participate in a workshop hosted by the National Academies and the Russian Academy of Sciences on radiation contamination and remediation issues in the former Soviet Union. Cleanup problems were assessed by the American participants for six Russian sites: Kurchatov Institute, Lakes 10 and 11 at Mayak, Andreev Bay, Krasnokamensk Mining Enterprise (Siberia), Almaz Mining Enterprise (North Caucasus), and one site for testing peaceful nuclear explosions. Roy lead the Russian Research Center-Kurchatov Institute review session and wrote an assessment of key cleanup issues. Kurchatov is the leading institute in the Former Soviet Union devoted to military and civilian nuclear programs. Founded in 1943 in the outskirts of Moscow, this 100 hectare site of nearly undeveloped, prime real estate is now surrounded by densely populated urban and business districts. Today there are growing concerns over the public safety and environmental security of the site resulting from increasingly obsolete nuclear facilities and a legacy of inadequate waste management practices that resulted in contaminant releases and challenging remediation problems. In addition, there is growing concern over the presence of nuclear facilities within urban areas creating potential targets for terrorist attacks.

Gephart, Roy E.

2007-06-01

347

Ionosphere effects of tropical cyclones over the Asian region of Russia according to oblique radio-sounding data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of manifestation of tropical cyclones in variations of ionospheric parameters in the zone far removed from the disturbance source region has been studied. The data from frequency analysis by maximal observed frequencies (MOF) for the oblique sounding (OS) signals were used. We revealed 1-5 h time intervals with higher oscillation energetics along the Norilsk-Irkutsk, Magadan-Irkutsk, and Khabarovsk-Irkutsk paths (Eastern Siberia and the Far East of Russia) during equinoctial periods (March, September 2005-2011), in November, 2005 and in summer 2010-2011 for different periods of the solar cycle. These time intervals may be interpreted as a manifestation of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) whose sources are atmospheric internal gravity waves. By jointly analyzing ionospheric, heliomagnetic, atmospheric, and satellite data on tropical cyclones (TCs), we attempted to associate the series of the revealed TIDs with ionospheric responses to TCs over the Western North Pacific Ocean during the above periods. A significant increase in wave disturbances on OS paths was established to be noted during active tropical cyclogenesis periods in autumn months. For spring equinox (March, 2005-2011), we also note TID manifestations in MOF time variations under quiet heliomagnetic conditions and in TC absence, but the intensity of these wave disturbances was significantly lower, than that of autumn seasons for various years. We estimated the wavelike disturbance propagation velocity by the delay time of TID passing the medium points of the spaced OS paths.

Chernigovskaya, Marina A.; Kurkin, Vladimir I.; Oinats, Alexey V.; Poddelsky, Igor N.

2014-11-01

348

News of Education in Russia: [2010--The Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents statements by President Dmitry A. Medvedev at the meeting of the Council on the Implementation of Priority National Projects and Demographic Policy on the development of education, health care, and demography, and at the ceremony on the occasion of the launching of the Year of the Schoolteacher in Russia, held at the Russian…

Russian Education and Society, 2011

2011-01-01

349

Political Shake-up In Russia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This week's In the News discusses the recent political turmoil in Russia. The resources discussed offer background, analysis, and commentary. Russian President Boris Yeltsin recently stunned politicians and political commentators around the world by dismissing his entire cabinet. Rather than turning his back on reform, Yeltsin claims he seeks a new political team that will pursue economic liberalization more vigorously. Some analysts, however, see these maneuverings as yet another example of Yeltsin's quirky and high-handed political style. This sentiment was reinforced when Yeltsin named a relative political-unknown, Sergei Kiriyenko, to be the next Prime Minister.

De Nie, Michael W.

1998-01-01

350

Space Radar Image of Baikal Lake, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an X-band black-and-white image of the forests east of the Baikal Forest in the Jablonowy Mountains of Russia. The image is centered at 52.5 degrees north latitude and 116 degrees east longitude near the mining town of Bukatschatscha. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 4, 1994, during the second flight of the spaceborne radar. This area is part of an international research project known as the Taiga Aerospace Investigation using Geographic Information System Applications.

1994-01-01

351

Natural factors of technological disasters in Russia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 90 percent of disasters occurring in the Russian Federation are technological accidents and catastrophes, which account for nearly 80 percent of all the fatalities and affected people. A total of 1966 technological disasters and 152 natural ones occurred in Russia in 2008. In addition to technical, social, and economic causes of technological disasters, natural factors also play an essential role in triggering or magnifying them. A data base of technological disasters happened in Russia since 1992 has been created. More than 11,000 events are listed in the data base. New information is constantly being added to it. Occurrence time and location, a type of disaster, a number of people killed and affected, economic and ecological losses as well as a probable cause of every disaster are registered; its short description is also included. Using collected data a contribution of various natural hazards and phenomena to occurrence of technological disasters in Russia was assessed. Almost 5 percent of all technological disasters listed in the data base were triggered by natural processes. Natural factors caused the most part of accidents at power supply systems (72 percent), 11 percent of accidents at heat- and 9 percent at water supply systems; more than 10 percent of sudden collapses of buildings and mines as well as water accidents; 4.5 percent of pipeline ruptures, and 2 to 3 percent of air crashes, automobile and railway accidents. The majority of these technological disasters and accidents caused by natural factors were produced by windstorms and hurricanes (37 percent), snowfalls and snowstorms (27 percent), rainfalls (16 percent), hard frost and icy conditions of roads (12 percent), and thunderstorms (nearly 4 percent). Climate changes expected until the end of the century will have important consequences for frequency increasing and change in spatial distribution of technological disasters triggered by hydrometeorological phenomena. Increasing of precipitation (especially in liquid form) in cold seasons and alternation of thaw periods and cold spells may trigger abruption of transmission facilities and other lines of communication, sudden collapses of structures and roofs, increasing in number of transport accidents. Fires and explosions caused by heat may be more frequent in south regions. The area of agricultural accidents may be extending. Permafrost area comes to 63 percent in total area of Russia. Expected permafrost thawing may produce risk of roads, railways, and pipelines disruption, destruction of dangerous waste storages, and sudden collapse of buildings and other structures. The problem of relationships between natural hazards and technological disasters needs further investigation, especially from the point of view of climate change expected.

Petrova, Elena

2010-05-01

352

Composition and age of the crystalline basement in the northwestern part of the west Siberian oil-and-gas megabasin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primary data on material composition of epidote-garnet plagiogneisses from the crystalline basement of the Yangiyugan area (the northwestern part of West Siberia) are presented. It is found that plagiogneisses were formed over the substrate of leucocratic plagiogranites (trondhjemites) under the conditions of the amphibolites facies of metamorphism. The SHRIMP II U-Pb-dating of zircons showed that the igneous intrusion of plagiogranites proceeded during the Late Vendian (566 ± 3 Ma). Their metamorphism with the formation of plagiogneisses took place in the Early Ordovician (486 ± 4 Ma). The shows of powerful fluid-metasomatic processes of the transformation of rocks during the Carboniferous time are revealed.

Ivanov, K. S.; Koroteev, V. A.; Erokhin, Yu. V.; Shokalsky, S. P.; Sergeev, S. A.

2014-12-01

353

Model of erosion-landslide interaction in the context of the reservoir water level variations (East Siberia, Russia): Factors, environment and mechanisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive investigation of landslide-erosion interactions has been carried out in the local shore geosystem of the Bykovo site located on the left shore of the Bratsk reservoir. The landslide process develops in the Mid-Quaternary grounds (aQ of the erosion-accumulative terrace's fragment that comprises sand, sand with pebbles, sandy loams and loams. This study aims to assess the environmental factors of interacting landslide and gully erosion processes, to estimate their temporal dynamics by comparative analysis of cartographic models based on the data of repeated theodolite surveys, and to find out what level regime of the reservoir stimulates the activation of the landslide process. The authors propose two-stage descriptive model of erosion-landslide interaction and development mechanisms in the context of the reservoir water level variations in the Bratsk reservoir. The activation of landslide processes in the reservoir shores follows the periods of high water level stands. Shore slope stability is disturbed by abrasion of slope foot and inundation of the slide zone. The soils subject to landslide, erosion-landslide and erosion processes differ in their microstructure and properties. Largest erosion susceptibility is typical of soils with skeleton-aggregated microstructure, fine- and coarse-silt sandy loams and loams of high porosity, whose interstructural bonds are attributed to water-soluble salts (Sws = 0.4-0.5%) and high carbonate contents (Scr = 34-66%). High dispersion and aggregation of clay fractions is typical of the loams of the slide zone. The structure of soils subject to deformation slide is represented primarily by fine-sand particles and aggregates with smaller cohesion and strength properties.

Mazaeva, Oksana; Khak, Viktoria; Kozyreva, Elena

2013-12-01

354

The Ioko-Dovyren layered massif (Southern Siberia, Russia): 1. Internal structure, magma compositions, and fingerprints of open magma chamber behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Yoko-Dovyren massif (YDM) is located ~60 km to NE of the Baikal Lake, being morphologically a ridge of 26 km long and up to 2114 m high. Geologically, the pluton is a lens-shaped body (up to 3.5 thick) which together with associated peridotite sills, diabase dikes, and overlying volcanics represents a volcanic-plutonic association (728+/-2.4 Ma [1]), formed in the Late Riphean within a huge rifting system (the Olokit trough) at the southern margin of the Siberian craton. A unique feature of the regional geology is the concordance of the igneous rocks with the enclosing carbonate-terrigenous sediments along its strike and dip, which is nearly vertical due to post-intrusive folding. This allows one to sample the intrusive complex across the strike, from the lower to upper contacts. The modal layering of YDM includes a bottom unit of plagioclase lherzolites (100-150 m) followed by a succession of cumulates including: Pl-bearing and adcumulate dunites (Ol+Chr, 800-900 m), troctolite (Ol+Pl+Chr, ~700 m), Ol gabbro (Pl+Ol+Cpx, Pig-gabbro and quartz gabbronorites (Pl+Cpx±Opx±Pig). Despite its Precambrian age, YDM was not metamorphosed significantly, so that most of intrusive rocks are very fresh, preserving both their igneous textures and original mineralogy. Parental magma compositions have been evaluated based on studies of the chilled zones and underlying ultramafic sills. The most primitive rocks of YDM have been discovered at the lower contact composed of chilled diabases and picritic rocks containing variable amounts of Ol, and ophitic textures of their groundmass. The FeO-MgO trend displayed by these high porosity cumulates suggests them to contain originally olivine ~Fo88. The COMAGMAT model calculations indicate the initial temperature of the heterogeneous magma is to be of 1310oC, with the magmatic melt containing ~12% MgO [2]. Using this composition as starting one, we simulated the parent crystallization sequence which corresponds to that observed in the YDM cumulates. Estimates for Ol-gabbronorites and Pl-dunites from ultramafic sills result in more evolved magma containing Ol~Fo85 at T~1190oC. Both geochemical and cumulate structure of YDM is indicative of a significant amount of mafic melts to be extracted from the original cumulate piles, followed by their expulsion from the magma staging chamber. Fingerprints of such an open-system behavior are recorded in (1) strong depletion in incompatible elements of the bulk YDM composition with respect to parental magmas, (2) a complimentary "over-enrichment" with Ol cumulates and sulfides, (3) insignificant variations of Ol composition throughout the Layered Series, and (4) the absence of the Upper Border Series as a marginal compositional reversal. This research was supported by AngloAmerican, BHP Billiton and Votorantim Metais through AMIRA project P962, by the Australian Research Council funding to the CODES, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 08-05-00194a, 11-05-00268a). [1] Ariskin et al. (2013) Geochem. Intern. [2] Ariskin et al. (2012)Abs. 12th Intern. Ni-Cu-(PGE) symp. (China)

Ariskin, Alexey; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Nikolaev, Georgy

2013-04-01

355

The Ioko-Dovyren layered massif (Southern Siberia, Russia): 2. Melt vs sulphide percolation process and modeling sulphide saturation in the parental magmas and original cumulates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important feature of the Dovyren intrusive complex [1] is its fertility due to the presence of massive sulphide ores near the bottom of the Ioko-Dovyren massif (YDM, SW and NE margins), as well as PGE-reefs in anorthosites from the Ol-gabbronorite zone in the centre [2]. These observations argue for the importance of downward percolation of sulphides through the porous space of cumulates and probable link of this process with upward migration of intercumulus melts at a post-cumulus stage. Indirectly, this is supported by the basic conclusion on the open-system behavior of the magma chamber [1]. A key aspect of these speculations is the onset of sulphide immiscibility in YDM parental magmas and the original cumulates. To reconstruct the sulphide saturation history, we applied a newly developed sulphide version of COMAGMAT (ver. 5.2 [3]) to the rocks from the chilled zone of YDM and underlying ultramafic sills, by simulating the course of their crystallization coupled with the SCSS calculations. Modeled crystallization trajectories evidence for under-saturated nature of the most primitive parental magmas (1310oC, Fo88) from which the chilled rocks were crystallized, whereas more evolved rocks from the sills demonstrate sulphide saturation starting from their initial temperature (1190oC, Fo85), see [1]. This correlates with the absence of sulphide ores in the central parts of the pluton and their occurrence in underlying ultramafics and YDM border series containing olivine Fo~85. Another set of calculations was carried out to demonstrate the effect of bulk Ni contents in Ol cumulate piles on the evolution of SCSS during their post-cumulus crystallization [3]. To achieve the goal, two calculations by the COMAGMAT-5.2 model were carried out. The first one involved modelling equilibrium crystallization for an initial mixture of Ol (Fo88) and intercumulus melt (~1320oC), with the starting composition corresponding to that of a bottom Pl-dunite (2315 ppm NiO, 0.030 wt% S). The second modelling was performed for the initial trapped melt only (517 ppm NiO, 0.067 wt% S), estimated for the primitive Ol orthocumulate. The major difference between these calculations is the onset of modelled sulphide saturation. In the case of "Ol cumulus pile", the sulphide liquid appears at 1209oC, slightly earlier than plagioclase and pyroxenes start to crystallize. For the "Ol-free magma", sulphides appear at much lower temperature (~1173oC) where the Ol-Pl-Opx-Cpx assemblage is stable. This indicates that the presence of a large amount of Ni-enriched Ol crystals should be considered as a "Ni-buffer" which does not allow for Ni content in the trapped melt to decrease significantly, giving rise to earlier precipitation of sulphides as it follows from the pronounced effect of Ni on sulphide solubility discussed in [3]. This research was supported by AngloAmerican, BHP Billiton and Votorantim Metais through AMIRA project P962, by the Australian Research Council funding to the CODES, and the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects 08-05-00194a, 11-05-00268a). [1] Ariskin et al. (2013) This volume [2] Kislov E.V. (1998) The Yoko-Dovyren Layered Massif, Ulan-Ude, 264 p. (in Russian) [3] Ariskin et al. (2012). Abs. 12th Intern. Ni-Cu-(PGE) symp. (China)

Ariskin, Alexey; Danyushevsky, Leonid

2013-04-01

356

Factors promoting larch dominance in Eastern Siberia: fire versus growth performance and implications for carbon dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The relative roles of fire and climate in determining canopy species composition and aboveground carbon stocks were investigated. Measurements were made along a transect extending from the dark taiga zone of Central Siberia, where Picea and Abies dominate the canopy, into the Larix zone of Eastern Siberia. We test the hypotheses that the change in canopy species composition is based (1) on climate-driven performance only, (2) on fire only, or (3) on fire-performance interactions. We show that the evergreen conifers Picea obovata and Abies sibirica are the natural late-successional species both in Central and Eastern Siberia, provided there has been no fire for an extended period of time. There are no changes in the climate-driven performance of the observed species. Fire appears to be the main factor explaining the dominance of Larix. Of lesser influence were longitude, hydrology and active-layer thickness. Stand-replacing fires decreased from 300 to 50 yr between the Yenisei Ridge and the upper Tunguska. Repeated non-stand-replacing surface fires eliminated the regeneration of Abies and Picea. With every 100 yr since the last fire, the percentage of Larix decreased by 20 %. Biomass of stems of single trees did not show signs of age-related decline. Relative diameter increment was 0.41 ± 0.20 % at breast height and stem volume increased linearly over time with a rate of about 0.36 t C ha-1 yr-1 independent of age class and species. Stand volumes reached about 130 t C ha-1 (equivalent to about 520 m3 ha-1). Individual trees of Larix were older than 600 yr. The maximum age and biomass seemed to be limited by fungal rot of heart wood. 60 % of old Larix and Picea and 30 % of Pinus sibirica trees were affected by stem rot. Implications for the future role of fire and of plant diseases are discussed.

Schulze, E.-D.; Wirth, C.; Mollicone, D.; von Lüpke, N.; Ziegler, W.; Achard, F.; Mund, M.; Prokushkin, A.; Scherbina, S.

2012-01-01

357

Fire Impact on Phytomass and Carbon Emissions in the Forests of Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Siberian boreal forests contribute considerably to the global carbon budget, since they take up vast areas, accumulate large amount of carbon, and are sensitive to climatic changes. Fire is the main forest disturbance factor, covering up to millions of hectares of boreal forests annually, of which the majority is in Siberia. Carbon emissions released from phytomass burning influence atmospheric chemistry and global carbon cycling. Changing climate and land use influence the number and intensity of wildfires, forest state, and productivity, as well as global carbon balance. Fire effects on forest overstory, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation phytomass were estimated on sites in light-conifer forests of the Central Siberia as a part of the project "The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia" supported by NASA (NEESPI). This study focuses on collecting quantitative data and modeling the influence of fires of varying intensity on fire emissions, carbon budget, and ecosystem processes in coniferous stands. Fires have a profound impact on forest-atmospheric carbon exchange and transform forests from carbon sinks to carbon sources lasting long after the time of burning. Our long-term experiments allowed us to identify vegetation succession patterns in taiga Scots pine stands after fires of known behavior. Estimating fire contributions to the carbon budget requires consideration of many factors, including vegetation type and fire type and intensity. Carbon emissions were found to depend on fire intensity and weather. In the first several years after fire, the above-ground phytomass appeared to be strongly controlled by fire intensity. However, the influence of burning intensity on organic matter accumulation was found to decrease with time.

Ivanova, Galina A.; Zhila, Sergei V.; Ivanov, Valery A.; Kovaleva, Nataly M.; Kukavskaya, Elena A.; Platonova, Irina A.; Conard, Susan G.

2014-05-01

358

Engineering and Technical Education in Russia, in Numbers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An analysis of the main tendencies in the development of engineering and technical education in Russia during the last 100 years shows that earlier strengths have been lost, and that currently technical education in Russia is far behind modern world standards.

Aref'ev, A. L.; Aref'ev, M. A.

2013-01-01

359

How transition paths differ: Enterprise performance in Russia and China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use enterprise survey data to analyse and contrast the determinants of enterprise performance in China and Russia. We find that in China, enterprise growth and efficiency is associated with rapid increases in factor inputs, and with ownership to a lesser extent, but not greatly correlated with industry-specific or institutional factors. However, in Russia, enterprise growth is not associated with

Sumon Kumar Bhaumik; Saul Estrin

2007-01-01

360

Professional Standards in Russia for the Practice of Audiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article compares professional standards in the field of audiology in Russia to standard practices for audiologists in the United States. Information was obtained by analyzing legal documents and statistical reports pertaining to audiology and by completing interviews with professionals who practice in the field of audiology during a visit to Russia in the summer of 2005. Findings revealed a

Natalia Bezriadina; Tena L. McNamara; Susan G. Prendergast

361

Adolescent Drunkenness: Perception of the Problem in Russia and Germany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alcohol abuse in Russia among children is increasing, but programs to address this problem have not been adequately developed. The experience of other countries in equipping children to handle alcohol in a mature and safe way can be used as a basis for creating new programs in Russia.

Rybakova, L. N.

2013-01-01

362

Hydrobiological responses to eutrophicatio n: Volga River reservoirs, Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study describes the current state of eutrophication in eight reservoirs within the Volga River basin, Russia. The main aim of the study was to investigate the structure transformation of phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthic communities. The research was based on information obtained from the State Monitoring System of Russia.

PETER KHAITER

1995-01-01

363

The Effect of Father's Drinking on Children's Hospitalization in Russia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The striking decrease in male life expectancy in Russia during the economic transition has largely been attributed to the increase in alcohol consumption, but its effects on children have not been researched. This paper examines the relationship of fathers' alcohol consumption and chil- dren's hospitalization in Russia using the health production function framework and data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring

Jelena Zurovac

364

Asthma mortality in Russia between 1980 and 1989  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asthma mortality in Russia between 1980 and 1989. R.G. Oganov, G.Ya. Maslennikova. #ERS Journals Ltd 1999. ABSTRACT: There is evidence that mortality due to asthma has increased in a num- ber of nations over the last two decades. This study was conducted to assess asthma mortality rates in Russia from 1980 to 1989. Data obtained were compared with fig- ures

R. g. Oganov; G. ya. Maslennikova

1999-01-01

365

The Universities of Russia: Areas and Prospects of Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The last two decades have seen a significant increase in university students in Russia, the growth of private and state-financed higher education, and the beginnings of a move to a national network of research institutions. The recent economic recession, however, poses a challenge to the continuance of current fee-based higher education in Russia

Berdashkevich, A. P.

2011-01-01

366

76 FR 11813 - Magnesium From China and Russia  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...731-TA-1071-1072 (Review)] Magnesium From China and Russia Determinations...revocation of the antidumping duty order on magnesium from China would be likely to lead to...revocation of the antidumping duty order on magnesium from Russia would not be likely to...

2011-03-03

367

A depositional history of particulate organic carbon in a floodplain lake from the lower Ob' River, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Northern, high latitude soils have stored vast amounts of organic carbon (OC) in permafrost and peats for many millennia, however, climate change may mobilize and release this particulate OC (POC) to arctic rivers. Deltaic and floodplain lakes that receive fluvial sediments, primarily during the spring freshet, may provide records of such changes in riverine POC. Here, we examine properties of OC in a sediment core from a lake in the lower floodplain of the Ob' River, west Siberia, to determine how the properties of OC deposited in this lake varied over many decades and to evaluate use of this sedimentary OC as a recorder of riverine POC load and properties. The core predates the most recent, dramatic changes in arctic climate and hence may serve as a benchmark against which to contrast future variations in fluvial POC discharge. Elemental, stable carbon and radiocarbon isotopic analyses, along with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and molecular-level information (lignin phenol composition), indicate two major sources of OC to most of the sediments in this lake: plant-derived OC and algal-derived OC. However, a mixing model indicates that the nature and 14C content of these two sources change with depth in the sediment, resulting in three distinct layers: surface horizons, a "high-OC" layer and "mixing" horizons found above and below the high-OC layer. The plant-derived component is significantly aged throughout the core ( 14C ages of 1300-3900 years) and appears to derive from primarily local, tundra sources, whereas the algal component is modern. Our analysis suggests that the usual mode of OC deposition, as exemplified by the "mixing" and surface horizons, involved mixing of varying amounts of new algal production (35-65%) with aged permafrost- or peat-derived OC. This deposition was interrupted by an event, such as the collapse of a riverbank, which laid down the compositionally distinct "high-OC" layer in which plant-derived OC mixes with aged mineral-soil-derived OC without clear input from algae. The relative amounts of the plant and algal components in the lake sediments appear to be controlled primarily by local hydrological conditions rather than by river-wide processes, suggesting that comparison of sediment records from multiple lakes within a floodplain will be important to assess changes in POC export by arctic rivers. However, the flux and nature of the higher plant-derived OC may carry important information on the sources and dynamics of OC stored within the drainage basin.

Dickens, Angela F.; Baldock, Jeff; Kenna, Timothy C.; Eglinton, Timothy I.

2011-09-01

368

Recent upper mantle structure beneath Siberia and surrounding areas according to a seismic tomography and numerical thermogravitational convection modeling data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the interaction between the recent lithosphere structure and dynamics of the upper mantle beneath a big segment of Asia. This study is based on the results of seismic tomography using travel times from the ISC catalog (1964-2007) and numerical thermogravitational modeling. The model contains thick lithosphere blocks of the Siberian Craton, the Tarim plate, and remnant parts of the Mongol-Tuva microcontinent. These blocks are alternated with weaker younger lithosphere corresponding to the West-Siberian plate, orogenic belts in southern Siberia and the Arctic shelves to the north. In the tomography part, we have updated a previously published model by Koulakov and Bushenkova (2010) based on a larger dataset including reflected PP and teleseismic P travel times from global catalogues. The lithosphere thickness has been estimated based on seismic anomalies at 250 km depth according to a technique described in (Bushenkova et al., 2008). These estimates were used to define the lithosphere thickness which is then implemented for setting the boundary conditions in numerical modeling and for joint interpretation of the final results. When computing the mantle dynamics, we consider the viscosity which is depends from temperature and pressure. Calculations are performed in the spherical coordinates. To minimize the boundary effects and to take into account the effect of the outside features, we considerably enlarged the calculation area by including the Russian, North- and South China Cratons and the Indian Plate. The modeling results demonstrate formation of steady ascending flows caused by overheating under the cratons (the average temperature of the upper mantle under a craton increases to ~100°) and descending flows on their periphery. The ascending flows spread along the bottom of the cratonic lithosphere and propagate towards its edges which cause smaller-scale convection cells nearly the borders of the cratons. The computed temperature distribution is compared with seismic anomalies derived from the tomographic inversion and with the heat flow measured on the surface. These fields appear to be consistent for most regions. For example, ascending flows beneath Sayan and Mongolia fit to negative seismic anomalies and elevated heat flow. Same features are observed in N-W and central parts of the Siberian craton (Putoran Plateau and Tura region).

Bushenkova, N.; Chervov, V.; Koulakov, I.

2012-04-01

369

Variations of oxygen-18 in West Siberian precipitation during the last 50 years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming is associated with large increases in surface air temperature in Siberia. Here, we apply the isotope-enabled atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM5-wiso to explore the potential of water isotope measurements at a recently opened monitoring station in Kourovka (57.04° N, 59.55° E) in order to successfully trace climate change in western Siberia. Our model is constrained to atmospheric reanalysis fields for the period 1957-2013 to facilitate the comparison with observations of ?D in total column water vapour from the GOSAT satellite, and with precipitation ?18O measurements from 15 Russian stations of the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation. The model captures the observed Russian climate within reasonable error margins, and displays the observed isotopic gradients associated with increasing continentality and decreasing meridional temperatures. The model also reproduces the observed seasonal cycle of ?18O, which parallels the seasonal cycle of temperature and ranges from -25 ‰ in winter to -5 ‰ in summer. Investigating West Siberian climate and precipitation ?18O variability during the last 50 years, we find long-term increasing trends in temperature and ?18O, while precipitation trends are uncertain. During the last 50 years, winter temperatures have increased by 1.7 °C. The simulated long-term increase of precipitation ?18O is at the detection limit (<1 ‰ per 50 years) but significant. West Siberian climate is characterized by strong interannual variability, which in winter is strongly related to the North Atlantic Oscillation. In winter, regional temperature is the predominant factor controlling ?18O variations on interannual to decadal timescales with a slope of about 0.5 ‰ °C-1. In summer, the interannual variability of ?18O can be attributed to short-term, regional-scale processes such as evaporation and convective precipitation. This finding suggests that precipitation ?18O has the potential to reveal hydrometeorological regime shifts in western Siberia which are otherwise difficult to identify. Focusing on Kourovka, the simulated evolution of temperature, ?18O and, to a smaller extent, precipitation during the last 50 years is synchronous with model results averaged over all of western Siberia, suggesting that this site will be representative to monitor future isotopic changes in the entire region.

Butzin, M.; Werner, M.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Risi, C.; Frankenberg, C.; Gribanov, K.; Jouzel, J.; Zakharov, V. I.

2014-06-01

370

Paleomagnetism of Angara-Vitim batholith: relative position of Siberia and Europe in Permian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Late Paleozoic paleomagnetic data of the Siberian platform is a white spot on the general background of the received data. These paleomagnetic data are needed to develop APWP of the Siberian platform, paleogeography and assessment of its place in the global paleoreconstructions for the Late Paleozoic. In particular, to determine the relative motions of Siberia and the Europe during the amalgamation of the supercontinent Pangea. The purpose of this paper is to obtain reliable data for the Late Paleozoic of the Siberian platform. The main object of the present study is the Late Paleozoic Angara-Vitim batholith (AVB). Age AVB is well defined (U-Pb 294 +/- 6 Ma). The study area is located in the northern part of the Baikal-Patom folded region, namely Patom passive margin. Where is superimposed tectonic processes absent. During the detailed thermo-cleaning revealed the presence of high-temperature characteristic components of magnetization. This component is present in the samples as the most stable. The main mineral - a carrier of magnetization is magnetite, hematite content with a subordinate, and maghemite (magnetic iron oxide modification of ?-Fe2O3, the transition from magnetite to hematite). The presence of hematite and maghemite in granites associated with increased activity of the volatile oxygen in the formation of these rocks. The direction of the remanent magnetization vector shows high stability in the entire range of demagnetization (from 120 C to 640 C) and is characterized by northern declinations and steep negative inclinations. In favor of a primary thermoremanent nature magnetization AVB granitoids may indicate two things: 1) the difference between the calculated directions from known areas of Mesozoic-Cenozoic directions Siberia, 2) positive "test firing" (regional remagnetization of older rocks Patom passive margin). The parameters of the pole: Plat=36.9, Plong=124.4, A95=6.4. The obtained data say that in the early Permian time, the Siberian platform was located in the northern hemisphere, at latitudes close to the present (between 48° and 72° N), and was unfolded at ~ 160 ° counterclockwise. Given the data for Europe (Torsvik, 2005) in the early Permian north-eastern margin of Europe and north-western margin of Siberia took its relative position close to the present position. Closing Paleouralian ocean occurred due to a reversal of Siberia in a clockwise direction with a corresponding convergence south-eastern and south-western margins of platforms (like scissors).

Fedyukin, I.; Shatsillo, A.

2012-12-01

371

Glacial Lake Vitim, a 3000-km 3 outburst flood from Siberia to the Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A prominent lake formed when glaciers descending from the Kodar Range blocked the River Vitim in central Transbaikalia, Siberia. Glacial Lake Vitim, evidenced by palaeoshorelines and deltas, covered 23,500 km 2 and held a volume of ~ 3000 km 3. We infer that a large canyon in the area of the postulated ice dam served as a spillway during an outburst flood that drained through the rivers Vitim and Lena into the Arctic Ocean. The inferred outburst flood, of a magnitude comparable to the largest known floods on Earth, possibly explains a freshwater spike at ~ 13 cal ka BP inferred from Arctic Ocean sediments.

Margold, Martin; Jansson, Krister N.; Stroeven, Arjen P.; Jansen, John D.

2011-11-01

372

Family and family therapy in Russia.  

PubMed

This article represents the information about family and family therapy in the context of culture, traditions and contemporary changes of social situations in Russia. The legislation of family rights are mentioned within items about marriage and family in the Constitution, Civil Code and Family Code of the Russian Federation which has changed during recent years. The definition of family and description of family structure are given through the prism of the current demographic situation, dynamics of statistics of marriage and divorce rates, mental disorders, disabilities and such phenomena as social abandonment. The actual curriculum, teaching of family therapy and its disadvantages, system of continuous education, supervision and initiatives of the Institute of Integrative Family Therapy in improvement of preparing of specialists who can provide qualified psychosocial assistance for the family according to the actual needs of society are noted. The directions of state and private practice of family counselling and therapy both for psychiatric patients and medical patients, for adults and children in a family systemic approach are highlighted with an indication of the spectrum of techniques and methods used by Russian professionals. The main obstacles and perspectives of development of family therapy in Russia are summarized. PMID:22515460

Bebtschuk, Marina; Smirnova, Daria; Khayretdinov, Oleg

2012-04-01

373

Changes in Russia's Military and Nuclear Doctrine  

SciTech Connect

In 1993, the Russian Federation set out a new military doctrine that would determine the direction of its armed forces until President Putin set out the next doctrine in 2000. The Russian Federation creating the doctrine was new; the USSR had recently collapsed, Gorbachev - the creator of the predecessor to this doctrine in 1987 - was out of office, and the new Russian military had only been formed in May, 1992.1 The analysis of the 1993 doctrine is as follows: a definition of how doctrine is defined; a short history of Russian military doctrine leading up to the 1993 doctrine (officially the Basic Provisions of the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation); and finally, what the doctrine established. An overview of the 1993 doctrine is: (1) Russia's 1993 doctrine was a return to older, more aggressive doctrine as a result of stability concerns surrounding the recent collapse of the USSR; (2) Russia turned from Gorbachev's 'defensive defense' in the 1987 doctrine to aggressive defense with the option of preempting or striking back against an aggressor; (3) Russia was deeply concerned about how nationalism would affect the former Soviet Republics, particularly in respect to the ethnic Russians still living abroad; and (4) Nuclear doctrine pledged to not be the first to use nuclear weapons but provided for the potential for escalation from a conventional to a nuclear war. The 2000 doctrine (officially the Russian Federation Military Doctrine) was created in a more stable world than the 1993 doctrine was. The Russian Federation had survived independence and the 'threat of direct military aggression against the Russian Federation and its allies' had diminished. It had secured all of the nuclear weapons from its neighbors Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, and had elected a new president, Vladimir Putin, to replace Boris Yeltsin. Yet, even as the doctrine took more defensive tones than the 1993 doctrine, it expanded its nuclear options. Below are a new definition of what doctrine meant in 2000 and an outline of the 2000 doctrine. An overview of the 2000 doctrine is: (1) The 2000 doctrine was a return to a more defensive posture; the threat of nuclear retaliation, rather than that of preemptive force, would be its deterrence; (2) In order to strengthen its nuclear deterrence, Russia extended and redefined the cases in which nuclear weapons could be used to include a wider range of conflict types and a larger spectrum of attackers; and (3) Russia's threats changed to reflect its latest fear of engaging in a limited conflict with no prospect of the use of nuclear deterrence. In 2006, the defense minister and deputy prime minister Sergei Ivanov announced that the government was starting on a draft of a future doctrine. Four years later, in 2010, the Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation was put into effect with the intent of determining Russian doctrine until 2020. The 2010 doctrine, like all previous doctrines, was a product of the times in which it was written. Gone were many of the fears that had followed Russia for the past two decades. Below are an examination of the 2010 definition of doctrine as well as a brief analysis of the 2010 doctrine and its deviations from past doctrines. An overview of the 2010 doctrine is: (1) The new doctrine emphasizes the political centralization of command both in military policy and the use of nuclear weapons; (2) Nuclear doctrine remains the same in many aspects including the retention of first-use; (3) At the same time, doctrine was narrowed to using nuclear weapons only when the Russian state's existence is in danger; to continue strong deterrence, Russia also opted to follow the United States by introducing precision conventional weapons; (4) NATO is defined as Russia's primary external threat because of its increased global presence and its attempt to recruit states that are part of the Russian 'bloc'; and (5) The 2000 doctrine's defensive stance was left out of the doctrine; rumored options for use of nuclear weapons in local wars and in preemptive strikes were also left out.

Wolkov, Benjamin M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Balatsky, Galya I. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-26

374

The resurgence of tuberculosis in Russia.  

PubMed

This paper documents and attempts to explain the epidemic spread of tuberculosis (TB) in Russia during the 1990s. After several decades of decline, the notification rate of all new TB cases among permanent residents increased by 7.5% per year from 1991-1999 and the death rate by 11% per year. Growth was quickest from 1993-1995 but increased again after the economic crisis of August 1998. Approximately 120 000 new cases and 30 000 deaths were reported in 1999. Case detection and cure rates have fallen in Russia since the mid-1980s; the fall has been accompanied by a higher frequency of severe disease among cases, and higher death and case fatality rates. With a mathematical model describing the deterioration in case finding and cure rates we could replicate the average rate of increase in incidence 1991-1999 but not the precise timing of the observed changes. Other factors that probably helped to shape the observed rise in caseload include enhanced transmission due to the mixing of prison and civilian populations, an increase in susceptibility to disease, and changes in the proportion of cases detected by surveillance. Although our explanation for the resurgence of TB is incomplete, we have identified a set of measures that can be implemented now to cut transmission, incidence and deaths. PMID:11516384

Shilova, M V; Dye, C

2001-07-29

375

The resurgence of tuberculosis in Russia.  

PubMed Central

This paper documents and attempts to explain the epidemic spread of tuberculosis (TB) in Russia during the 1990s. After several decades of decline, the notification rate of all new TB cases among permanent residents increased by 7.5% per year from 1991-1999 and the death rate by 11% per year. Growth was quickest from 1993-1995 but increased again after the economic crisis of August 1998. Approximately 120 000 new cases and 30 000 deaths were reported in 1999. Case detection and cure rates have fallen in Russia since the mid-1980s; the fall has been accompanied by a higher frequency of severe disease among cases, and higher death and case fatality rates. With a mathematical model describing the deterioration in case finding and cure rates we could replicate the average rate of increase in incidence 1991-1999 but not the precise timing of the observed changes. Other factors that probably helped to shape the observed rise in caseload include enhanced transmission due to the mixing of prison and civilian populations, an increase in susceptibility to disease, and changes in the proportion of cases detected by surveillance. Although our explanation for the resurgence of TB is incomplete, we have identified a set of measures that can be implemented now to cut transmission, incidence and deaths. PMID:11516384

Shilova, M V; Dye, C

2001-01-01

376

West Texas Rain  

E-print Network

County, Cathy Klein, wants the demonstra- tion to show its viability to residents who currently must haul water or buy bottled water. Mecke said more demonstrations are tentatively planned for the West Texas region including the Alpine Library, Mc...tx H2O | pg. 19 West Texas Rain Story by Danielle Supercinski Rainwater, one of the purest sources of wateravailable, is scarce in West Texas. Residentsin this arid land must use all availablemethods of saving water. Rainwater har- vesting, a...

Supercinski, Danielle

2006-01-01

377

Biomedical journals and databases in Russia and Russian language in the former Soviet Union and beyond  

PubMed Central

In the 20th century, Russian biomedical science experienced a decline from the blossom of the early years to a drastic state. Through the first decades of the USSR, it was transformed to suit the ideological requirements of a totalitarian state and biased directives of communist leaders. Later, depressing economic conditions and isolation from the international research community further impeded its development. Contemporary Russia has inherited a system of medical education quite different from the west as well as counterproductive regulations for the allocation of research funding. The methodology of medical and epidemiological research in Russia is largely outdated. Epidemiology continues to focus on infectious disease and results of the best studies tend to be published in international periodicals. MEDLINE continues to be the best database to search for Russian biomedical publications, despite only a small proportion being indexed. The database of the Moscow Central Medical Library is the largest national database of medical periodicals, but does not provide abstracts and full subject heading codes, and it does not cover even the entire collection of the Library. New databases and catalogs (e.g. Panteleimon) that have appeared recently are incomplete and do not enable effective searching. PMID:18826569

Vlassov, Vasiliy V; Danishevskiy, Kirill D

2008-01-01

378

Mouth of the Ob River, Russia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

These images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite shows the cause and effect of the large-scale seasonal flooding experienced on rivers throughout Siberia each year. Because many Siberian rivers flow from south to north, they flood regularly in the spring as meltwater from southern latitudes backs up against the still-frozen northern reaches of the rivers.These images show the Ob' River on the western edge of the Central Siberian Plateau. The images from June 20, 2002, show the mouth of the Ob' River (large river at left) where it empties into Kara Sea. In the false-color image, Vegetation appears in bright green, water appears dark blue or black, and ice appears bright blue. The ice is still choking the river's outlet to the sea.The effect of this ice block on the more southern stretches of the river can be seen in the images captured on June 17. In the false-color image, water is black, vegetation is in shades of gold and green, and clouds are pale orange. In the northernmost portion of the Ob' visible in this image (the Ob' runs southeast to northwest in the image), what is normally a fine mesh of braided streams and branches of the river channel has become almost a lake in places. The flood waters have engorged the river to 52 kilometers (32 miles) wide in places. Rivers can back up for hundreds of miles, and cause devastating flooding for towns and villages along the banks. Often, explosives are dropped into ice jams in an effort to free the river and give the flood waters a chance to escape. The spring and summer floods of 2002 have proven to be quite severe and perhaps as many as 100,000 people have been affected across the country. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

2002-01-01

379

13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE WEST ANCHORAGE. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

380

Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean  

PubMed

Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes. PMID:10693821

Alerstam; Gudmundsson

1999-12-22

381

Bird orientation at high latitudes: flight routes between Siberia and North America across the Arctic Ocean  

PubMed Central

Bird migration and orientation at high latitudes are of special interest because of the difficulties associated with different compass systems in polar areas and because of the considerable differences between flight routes conforming to loxodromes (rhumblines) or orthodromes (great circle routes). Regular and widespread east-north-east migration of birds from the northern tundra of Siberia towards North America across the Arctic Ocean (without landmark influences) were recorded by ship-based tracking radar studies in July and August. Field observations indicated that waders, including species such as Phalaropusfulicarius and Calidris melanotos, dominated, but also terns and skuas may have been involved. Analysis of flight directions in relation to the wind showed that these movements are not caused by wind drift. Assuming possible orientation principles based on celestial or geomagnetic cues, different flight trajectories across the Arctic Ocean were calculated: geographical loxodromes, sun compass routes, magnetic loxodromes and magnetoclinic routes. The probabilities of these four alternatives are evaluated on the basis of both the availability of required orientation cues and the predicted flight paths. This evaluation supports orientation along sun compass routes. Because of the longitudinal time displacement sun compass routes show gradually changing compass courses in close agreement with orthodromes. It is suggested that an important migration link between Siberia and North American stopover sites 1000-2500km apart across the Arctic Ocean has evolved based on sun compass orientation along orthodrome-like routes. PMID:10693821

Alerstam, T; Gudmundsson, GA

1999-01-01

382

Methane mapping and its seasonal cycle in the atmosphere of Western Siberia as observed by IASI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Western Siberia is wide area covered with pristine peatlands which play important role in global carbon balance. Large areas of arctic and subarctic wetlands are vulnerable to climate change and industrial activity on oil, natural gas mining together with their transportation. These areas can have important feedback mechanisms in global warming, due to their large carbon stocks and the presence of permafrost. This study presents iterative regularization methods, software tool and some results on CH4 content retrieval from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI/MetOp series) spectra measured over Western Siberia. Dense coverage of IASI measurements can be used to map sink and source regions on the territory of target region. Because of pure statistics of direct vertical profile measurements and low signal to noise ratio for northern part of target region, only most stable methods of methane content retrieval are required. We used iteratively regularized Gauss-Newton and Levenberg-Marquardt methods without using a priory covariance matrices for methane vertical profiles. Some examples of interatively calculated averaging kernels for both methods are represented. Spatial distribution methane columnar value maps, seasonal variations for whole target region are represented. Comparison of ground-based FTIR measurements of methane in atmosphere with obtained IASI-CH4 over Kourovka site is presented. Comparison of GOSAT standard products for methane and our retrieval results are presented and discussed.

Khamatnurova, Marina; Gribanov, Konstantin; Zadvornykh, Ilya; Rokotyan, Nikita; Zakharov, Vyacheslav

2014-05-01

383

Early influence of the steppe tribes in the peopling of Siberia.  

PubMed

The Yakuts, Middle Age Turkic speakers (15th-16th centuries), are widely accepted as the first settlers of the Altai-Baikal area in eastern Siberia. They are supposed to have introduced horses and developed metallurgy in this geographic area during the 15th or 16th century A.D. The analysis of the Siberian grave of Pokrovsk, recently discovered near the Lena River (61 degrees 29' N) and dated by accelerator mass spectrometry from 2,400 to 2,200 years B.P., may provide new elements to test this hypothesis. The exceptional combination of various artifacts and the mitochondrial DNA data extracted from the bone remains of the Pokrovsk man might prove the existence of previous contacts between autochthonous hunters of Oriental Siberia and the nomadic horse breeders from the Altai-Baikal area (Mongolia and Buryatia). Indeed, the stone arrowhead and the harpoons relate this Pokrovsk man to the traditional hunters of the Taiga. Some artifacts made of horse bone and the pieces of armor, however, are related to the tribes of Mongolia and Buryatia of the Xiongnu period (3rd century B.C.). This affinity has been confirmed by the match of the mitochondrial haplotype of this subject with a woman of the Egyin Gol necropolis (Mongolia, 2nd/3rd century A.D.) as well as with two modern Buryats. This result allows us to postulate that contacts between southern steppe populations and Siberian tribes occurred before the 15th century. PMID:17506285

Amory, S; Crubézy, E; Keyser, C; Alekseev, A N; Ludes, B

2006-10-01

384

ICESat-Derived Elevation Changes on the Lena Delta and Laptev Sea, Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ elevation data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) to investigate surface changes across the Lena Delta and sea ice of the coastal Laptev Sea, Siberia during winters of 2003 through 2008. We compare ICESat GLAS-derived elevation changes on sea ice and the Bykovskaya and Sardakhskaya Channels with datum-corrected tide gauge height measurements from Danai, Sannikova and Tiksi stations. We find the coastal sea ice and large inland ice covered channels elevation changes are in phase with the tide-height changes on a same-month-year and datum controlled basis. Furthermore, we find elevation change on tundra drained lake basins to be +0.03 +/- 0.02 m, on average. These findings indicate ICESat GLAS is capable of detection of tide fluxes of ice covered coastal rivers and with a small error range is suitable for investigations of active-layer and permafrost dynamics associated with seasonal freezing (heave) and thawing (subsidence) using repeat-location profiles. Ref.: Muskett, R.R., "ICESat-Derived Elevation Changes on the Lena Delta and Laptev Sea, Siberia," Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 4 (1), pp. 1-9, 2014. http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperDownload.aspx?paperID=41709.

Muskett, Reginald

2014-05-01

385

Cryometamorphic gleyzems in the taiga of Western Siberia: Chemical and mineralogical properties, ecology, and genesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earlier studies showed considerable differences in the properties of automorphic loamy soils developing under middle-taiga vegetation in Western Siberia and on the Russian Plain. It was found that the soils without clear features of textural differentiation are common in Western Siberia. In particular, they are represented by cryometamorphic gleyzems. In this study, we analyze the properties of a cryometamorphic gleyzem in the Vakh area (the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug). The distribution pattern of clay minerals in the soil profile is analyzed in relation to the specific features of the soil hydrothermic regime. In the upper mineral horizons, the clay fraction is enriched in minerals of the group of soil chlorites and somewhat depleted of labile phyllosilicates. In the cryometamorphic horizon and in the underlying permafrost, the degree of crystallization of the clay minerals somewhat decreases. An even distribution pattern of aluminum oxide in the soil profile is explained by the increased content of Al in the clay fraction from the upper horizons combined with the loss of Al from the coarse fractions (as judged from data on the bulk elemental composition of clay-free samples). These features can be explained by the specificity of the hydrothermic regime of the cryometamorphic gleyzems with late thawing of the soil profile and frequent phase transitions of soil water in the upper humus and middle-profile cryometamorphic horizons.

Karavaeva, N. A.; Sokolova, T. A.

2014-08-01

386

Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosphorus is one of the most limiting nutrients in many ecosystems and mineral reserves available for fertilizer production are forecasted to last for no more than 100 yrs. Crop requirements for P are often lower in forests than in agriculture and P fertilization to forest ecosystems is not very common on a global scale. In southern Siberia, expected climate change would lead to higher overall precipitation, higher temperatures and subsequently to changes in land use (i.e. agricultural land could increase on detriment of forests). In the present work we evaluated P status in four forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia including 1 site with lowland Populus tremula, and 3 upland sites in the Salair mountains with Populus tremula, Abies siberica or with small forest openings. The upland sites feature twice higher productivity than the lowland sites and it was suggested that thick snow cover on those sites would enable winter activity of microbial communities leading to faster soil degradation processes and higher nutrient availability. We thus wanted to test whether biological processes in the upland sites were of larger impact on P status than in the lowland sites. We combined 32P isotopic dilution techniques (for diffusive P), chemical extractions (for total P, organic P) and fumigation/incubation/respiration methods (for microbial P) to test this hypothesis. Additional soil analyses (C, N and othes) were performed. Results will be interpreted in the light of the exising knowledge on botany, climate, pedology and expected implications for future land use, would this occur to change.

Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Zeller, B.; Derrien, D.; Barsukov, P.; Nikitich, P.

2011-12-01

387

West Nile fever--a reemerging mosquito-borne viral disease in Europe.  

PubMed Central

West Nile virus causes sporadic cases and outbreaks of human and equine disease in Europe (western Mediterranean and southern Russia in 1962-64, Belarus and Ukraine in the 1970s and 1980s, Romania in 1996-97, Czechland in 1997, and Italy in 1998). Environmental factors, including human activities, that enhance population densities of vector mosquitoes (heavy rains followed by floods, irrigation, higher than usual temperature, or formation of ecologic niches that enable mass breeding of mosquitoes) could increase the incidence of West Nile fever. PMID:10511520

Hubálek, Z.; Halouzka, J.

1999-01-01

388

Petroleum and geothermal production technology in Russia: Summary of information obtained during informational meetings with several Russian Institutes  

SciTech Connect

Russian scientists and engineers have drilled the deepest holes in the world. It is recognized that this experience has given them an expertise in drilling superdeep holes, as well as other aspects of drilling, completions, and geophysics. More and more US oil and gas companies are vigorously expanding their exploration and development into Russia. It is important for them to identify and use Russian technology in drilling, completion, logging, and reservoir characterization to the extent possible, in order to both reduce drilling costs and help support the Russian economy. While these US companies are interested in becoming involved in and/or sponsoring research in Russia, they have been unsure as to which scientists and institutes are working on problems of interest. It was also important to determine in which areas Russian technology is farther advanced than in the West. Such technology could then be commercialized as part of the Industrial Partnering Program. In order to develop a clear understanding of these issues, two Sandia engineers with drilling and completions expertise and a geophysicist with expertise in reservoir analysis traveled to Russia to meet with Russian scientists and engineers to discuss their technologies and areas of interest. This report contains a summary of the information obtained during the visit.

Schafer, D.M.; Glowka, D.A.; Teufel, L.W.

1995-04-01

389

India and West Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The strategic importance of West Asia lies in its geography and an essential natural resource, namely petroleum. The importance of petroleum for world’s economy, and hence the importance of West Asia, has received extensive attention at the hands of analysts and scholars. Petroleum is the single most valuable commodity in world commerce, an indispensable item in time of peace and

Chinmaya R. Gharekhan

2009-01-01

390

WEST TEXAS HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION  

E-print Network

WEST TEXAS HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION Public History and Citizen Historians --Guardians of the Hidden Story. 91st Annual Meeting, April 4-5, 2014 Odessa, Texas #12;In Memoriam: Ralph Brock, Lubbock Bob Whitfield, Lubbock. Cover: "Stampede," by Tom Lea, El Paso 1940. #12;West Texas Historical Association 91st

Rock, Chris

391

DATA DIGEST WEST LAFAYETTE  

E-print Network

DATA DIGEST 2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE PreparingTomorrow'sLeaders for a Changing World #12-mail: datadigest@purdue.edu URL: www.purdue.edu/DataDigest DATA DIGEST2009-2010 WEST LAFAYETTE #12;DATA DIGEST2009-2010 This tenth edition of the Purdue University Data Digest provides information on a variety of topics

Petriu, Emil M.

392

WEST VIRGINIA COMMUNITY COLLEGES  

Microsoft Academic Search

West Virginia's public colleges have a rich tradition of making higher education accessible through the delivery of community college programs. Challenged by mountainous terrain that often isolated communities, 4?year colleges in West Virginia offered associate degree programs as early as the 1930s — 40 years before a formal organization of community college education was initiated. Development of the community college

Eldon L. Millet; Constance E. Dziagwa

1997-01-01

393

Fatal attraction: Explaining Russia's sensitive nuclear transfers to Iran  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores Russia's sensitive nuclear assistance to Iran in an effort to determine why a supplier state might proliferate against its own apparent security interests. The goal is to help readers understand the supply-side dynamics of nuclear proliferation. Through careful reconstruction of the historical narrative, using open source data, this study tests the plausibility of a "fatalistic calculus" explanation, identified by Stephen Sestanovich as a possible driver for Russia's behavior. According to the hypothesis, Russia has cooperated with Iran as a way both to stay in the good graces of a neighbor that is suspected of developing nuclear weapons and to win short-term influence and profits. The paper also examines the role of other factors advanced in the existing supply-side literature, such as economic motives identified by physicist and nonproliferation scholar David Albright. The findings show that bureaucratic, economic and fatalistic factors have each played a role in motivating Russia's cooperation with Iran, with their relative importance shifting over time. Fatalism begets a strategy of Russian "minimaxing," in the lexicon of Russia scholar Robert Freedman, wherein Russia attempts to minimize damage to its relationship with the U.S. while maximizing influence in Iran via nuclear cooperation. Fatalism, as actualized by minimaxing, best explains Russia's behavior after former Russian president Vladmir Putin came to power, when the bureaucratic and economic arguments become less cogent.

Kuchinsky, Leah R.

394

5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

395

Russia Engages the World, 1453-1825  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed to coincide with the 300th anniversary of the most cosmopolitan city, St. Petersburg, this is a lovely online exhibit on Russia's emergence as a modern empire that began with the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and continued unabated for three centurie